Science.gov

Sample records for aging area agency

  1. Mental Health Center Services for the Elderly: The Impact of Coordination with Area Agencies on Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebowitz, Barry D.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined coordination between community mental health centers (CMHCs) and Area Agencies on Aging (AAAs) through survey of 281 CMHCs. Found affiliation with AAA associated with more indirect services of all types; more sites where mental health programs were offered to elderly; and more provision of direct services, such as Alzheimer's disease…

  2. Translating the REACH Caregiver Intervention for Use by Area Agency on Aging Personnel: the REACH OUT Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgio, Louis D.; Collins, Irene B.; Schmid, Bettina; Wharton, Tracy; McCallum, Debra; DeCoster, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to translate the evidence-based Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health (REACH) II intervention for use in 4 Area Agencies on Aging (AAAs). A secondary aim was to examine possible moderators of treatment outcome. Design and Methods: We used a quasi-experimental pre-post treatment design with no…

  3. 45 CFR 1321.53 - Mission of the area agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Area Agency Responsibilities § 1321.53 Mission of the area agency. (a) The Older Americans Act intends that the area agency on aging shall be the...

  4. 45 CFR 1321.53 - Mission of the area agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Area Agency Responsibilities § 1321.53 Mission of the area agency. (a) The Older Americans Act intends that the area agency on aging shall be the...

  5. 45 CFR 1321.53 - Mission of the area agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Area Agency Responsibilities § 1321.53 Mission of the area agency. (a) The Older Americans Act intends that the area agency on aging shall be the...

  6. 45 CFR 1321.53 - Mission of the area agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Area Agency Responsibilities § 1321.53 Mission of the area agency. (a) The Older Americans Act intends that the area agency on aging shall be the...

  7. 45 CFR 1321.53 - Mission of the area agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Area Agency Responsibilities § 1321.53 Mission of the area agency. (a) The Older Americans Act intends that the area agency on aging shall be the...

  8. 45 CFR 1321.35 - Withdrawal of area agency designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.35 Withdrawal... established and published by the State agency on aging; or (4) Activities of the area agency are...

  9. 45 CFR 1321.35 - Withdrawal of area agency designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.35 Withdrawal... established and published by the State agency on aging; or (4) Activities of the area agency are...

  10. 45 CFR 1321.35 - Withdrawal of area agency designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.35 Withdrawal... established and published by the State agency on aging; or (4) Activities of the area agency are...

  11. 45 CFR 1321.35 - Withdrawal of area agency designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.35 Withdrawal... established and published by the State agency on aging; or (4) Activities of the area agency are...

  12. 45 CFR 1321.35 - Withdrawal of area agency designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.35 Withdrawal... established and published by the State agency on aging; or (4) Activities of the area agency are...

  13. 45 CFR 1321.57 - Area agency advisory council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Area Agency Responsibilities § 1321.57 Area...

  14. 45 CFR 1321.57 - Area agency advisory council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Area Agency Responsibilities § 1321.57 Area...

  15. 45 CFR 1321.57 - Area agency advisory council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Area Agency Responsibilities § 1321.57 Area...

  16. 45 CFR 1321.57 - Area agency advisory council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Area Agency Responsibilities § 1321.57 Area...

  17. 45 CFR 1321.57 - Area agency advisory council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Area Agency Responsibilities § 1321.57 Area...

  18. 45 CFR 1321.33 - Designation of area agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.33 Designation of... area agency on aging is designated, the State shall give right of first refusal to a unit of...

  19. 45 CFR 1321.33 - Designation of area agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.33 Designation of... area agency on aging is designated, the State shall give right of first refusal to a unit of...

  20. 45 CFR 1321.33 - Designation of area agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.33 Designation of... area agency on aging is designated, the State shall give right of first refusal to a unit of...

  1. 45 CFR 1321.33 - Designation of area agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.33 Designation of... area agency on aging is designated, the State shall give right of first refusal to a unit of...

  2. 45 CFR 1321.33 - Designation of area agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.33 Designation of... area agency on aging is designated, the State shall give right of first refusal to a unit of...

  3. 45 CFR 1321.55 - Organization and staffing of the area agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Area Agency Responsibilities § 1321.55...-purpose agency which functions only for purposes of serving as the area agency on aging. Where the...

  4. 45 CFR 1321.55 - Organization and staffing of the area agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Area Agency Responsibilities § 1321.55...-purpose agency which functions only for purposes of serving as the area agency on aging. Where the...

  5. 45 CFR 1321.55 - Organization and staffing of the area agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Area Agency Responsibilities § 1321.55...-purpose agency which functions only for purposes of serving as the area agency on aging. Where the...

  6. 45 CFR 1321.55 - Organization and staffing of the area agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Area Agency Responsibilities § 1321.55...-purpose agency which functions only for purposes of serving as the area agency on aging. Where the...

  7. 45 CFR 1321.55 - Organization and staffing of the area agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Area Agency Responsibilities § 1321.55...-purpose agency which functions only for purposes of serving as the area agency on aging. Where the...

  8. Research and Evaluation at the Grant Wood Area Education Agency: A Regional Education Service Agency's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrick, Michael J.

    The Grant Wood Area Education Agency (GWAEA) is a regional education service agency centered in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, serving 39 public school districts and 36 private school districts in a seven-county area. Area education agencies (AEA) in Iowa are separate legal entities, not arms of the State Department or the school districts who decide to join…

  9. 45 CFR 1321.61 - Advocacy responsibilities of the area agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Area Agency Responsibilities § 1321.61 Advocacy... aging shall undertake a leadership role in assisting communities throughout the planning and...

  10. 45 CFR 1321.61 - Advocacy responsibilities of the area agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Area Agency Responsibilities § 1321.61 Advocacy... aging shall undertake a leadership role in assisting communities throughout the planning and...

  11. 45 CFR 1321.61 - Advocacy responsibilities of the area agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Area Agency Responsibilities § 1321.61 Advocacy... aging shall undertake a leadership role in assisting communities throughout the planning and...

  12. 45 CFR 1321.61 - Advocacy responsibilities of the area agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Area Agency Responsibilities § 1321.61 Advocacy... aging shall undertake a leadership role in assisting communities throughout the planning and...

  13. 45 CFR 1321.61 - Advocacy responsibilities of the area agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Area Agency Responsibilities § 1321.61 Advocacy... aging shall undertake a leadership role in assisting communities throughout the planning and...

  14. Women's age at first marriage and postmarital agency in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Crandall, AliceAnn; VanderEnde, Kristin; Cheong, Yuk Fai; Dodell, Sylvie; Yount, Kathryn M

    2016-05-01

    Early - or child - marriage (before age 18) may diminish women's ability to exercise agency, or their capacity to act upon their goals. Using a propensity score adjustment approach, we analyzed data from 2394 married women ages 35-49 years who participated in the 2006 Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey (ELMPS). We examined whether women's first marriage at age 18 or older was associated with their post-marital agency, measured in terms of their influence in family decisions, freedom of movement in public spaces, and unfavorable views about intimate partner violence against wives. In bivariate analyses, women's age at first marriage was positively associated with their decision-making and more equitable gender attitudes. However, once we controlled for selection into age-at-first-marriage groups, there were no significant differences between the two age-at-first-marriage groups in any dimension of women's agency. We examined the sensitivity of the non-significant age-at-first-marriage effects to possible violations of the strong ignorability assumption and the results did not alter our conclusions. The assumption that women's age at first marriage is a proxy for their post-marital agency, as defined here, warrants further study.

  15. 76 FR 80966 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested 18 Years of Age and Over; Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested Under 18... the form/collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested 18 Years of Age and Over; Age, Sex,...

  16. 49 CFR Attachment 2 - Areas of Environmental Impact and Federal Agencies and Federal-State Agencies With Jurisdiction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Areas of Environmental Impact and Federal Agencies and Federal-State Agencies With Jurisdiction by Law or Special Expertise To Comment Thereon 2... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURES FOR CONSIDERING ENVIRONMENTAL...

  17. 49 CFR Attachment 2 - Areas of Environmental Impact and Federal Agencies and Federal-State Agencies With Jurisdiction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Areas of Environmental Impact and Federal Agencies and Federal-State Agencies With Jurisdiction by Law or Special Expertise To Comment Thereon 2... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURES FOR CONSIDERING ENVIRONMENTAL...

  18. 78 FR 63869 - Change of Using Agency for Restricted Areas R-2309 and R-2312, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 73 RIN 2120-AA66 Change of Using Agency for Restricted Areas R-2309 and R-2312, AZ AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action updates the name of the using agency for Restricted Areas R-2309 and R-2312 located...

  19. Aging among the Disabled: A Neglected Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Bryan

    The paper addresses issues involved in the aging of persons disabled earlier through spinal dysfunction (post-polio and spinal cord injury) and mental retardation. Biological, psychological, and social aspects of aging are examined separately. In a discussion of longevity and physical health, causes of functional aging are considered.…

  20. 8 Areas of Age-Related Change

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc 1. Brain: Memory and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) As adults age, many ... Researchers from 12 institutions, including the NIH's National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), recently announced the results ...

  1. 41 CFR 102-83.95 - After an agency has identified that its geographic service area and delineated area are in an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... identified that its geographic service area and delineated area are in an urban area, what is the next step... Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.95 After an agency has identified that its geographic service area and delineated area are in an urban area, what is the next step for an agency? After an...

  2. 78 FR 35612 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Targeted Teacher Shortage Areas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Targeted Teacher Shortage Areas Nationwide... to this notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: Targeted Teacher Shortage... Family Education Loan Programs (FFELP) regulations, which address the targeted teacher...

  3. Age Differences in Prefrontal Surface Area and Thickness in Middle Aged to Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dotson, Vonetta M.; Szymkowicz, Sarah M.; Sozda, Christopher N.; Kirton, Joshua W.; Green, Mackenzie L.; O’Shea, Andrew; McLaren, Molly E.; Anton, Stephen D.; Manini, Todd M.; Woods, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    Age is associated with reductions in surface area and cortical thickness, particularly in prefrontal regions. There is also evidence of greater thickness in some regions at older ages. Non-linear age effects in some studies suggest that age may continue to impact brain structure in later decades of life, but relatively few studies have examined the impact of age on brain structure within middle-aged to older adults. We investigated age differences in prefrontal surface area and cortical thickness in healthy adults between the ages of 51 and 81 years. Participants received a structural 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scan. Based on a priori hypotheses, primary analyses focused on surface area and cortical thickness in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. We also performed exploratory vertex-wise analyses of surface area and cortical thickness across the entire cortex. We found that older age was associated with smaller surface area in the dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices but greater cortical thickness in the dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. Vertex-wise analyses revealed smaller surface area in primarily frontal regions at older ages, but no age effects were found for cortical thickness. Results suggest age is associated with reduced surface area but greater cortical thickness in prefrontal regions during later decades of life, and highlight the differential effects age has on regional surface area and cortical thickness. PMID:26834623

  4. Age Differences in Prefrontal Surface Area and Thickness in Middle Aged to Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Dotson, Vonetta M; Szymkowicz, Sarah M; Sozda, Christopher N; Kirton, Joshua W; Green, Mackenzie L; O'Shea, Andrew; McLaren, Molly E; Anton, Stephen D; Manini, Todd M; Woods, Adam J

    2015-01-01

    Age is associated with reductions in surface area and cortical thickness, particularly in prefrontal regions. There is also evidence of greater thickness in some regions at older ages. Non-linear age effects in some studies suggest that age may continue to impact brain structure in later decades of life, but relatively few studies have examined the impact of age on brain structure within middle-aged to older adults. We investigated age differences in prefrontal surface area and cortical thickness in healthy adults between the ages of 51 and 81 years. Participants received a structural 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scan. Based on a priori hypotheses, primary analyses focused on surface area and cortical thickness in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. We also performed exploratory vertex-wise analyses of surface area and cortical thickness across the entire cortex. We found that older age was associated with smaller surface area in the dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices but greater cortical thickness in the dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. Vertex-wise analyses revealed smaller surface area in primarily frontal regions at older ages, but no age effects were found for cortical thickness. Results suggest age is associated with reduced surface area but greater cortical thickness in prefrontal regions during later decades of life, and highlight the differential effects age has on regional surface area and cortical thickness.

  5. Bay Area Transit Agencies Propel Fuel Cell Buses Toward Commercialization (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-07-01

    This fact sheet describes the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration of the next generation of fuel cells buses. Several transit agencies in the San Francisco Bay Area are participating in demonstrating the largest single fleet of fuel cell buses in the United States.

  6. 49 CFR Attachment 2 to Part 520 - Areas of Environmental Impact and Federal Agencies and Federal-State Agencies With Jurisdiction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Areas of Environmental Impact and Federal Agencies and Federal-State Agencies With Jurisdiction by Law or Special Expertise To Comment Thereon 2... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS Pt. 520, Attach. 2, Nt. Attachment 2 to Part 520—Areas of Environmental Impact and...

  7. 49 CFR Attachment 2 to Part 520 - Areas of Environmental Impact and Federal Agencies and Federal-State Agencies With Jurisdiction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Areas of Environmental Impact and Federal Agencies and Federal-State Agencies With Jurisdiction by Law or Special Expertise To Comment Thereon 2... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS Pt. 520, Attach. 2, Nt. Attachment 2 to Part 520—Areas of Environmental Impact and...

  8. 49 CFR Attachment 2 to Part 520 - Areas of Environmental Impact and Federal Agencies and Federal-State Agencies With Jurisdiction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Areas of Environmental Impact and Federal Agencies and Federal-State Agencies With Jurisdiction by Law or Special Expertise To Comment Thereon 2... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS Pt. 520, Attach. 2, Nt. Attachment 2 to Part 520—Areas of Environmental Impact and...

  9. Strengthening field education in aging through university-community agency partnership: the Practicum Partnership Program.

    PubMed

    Lawrance, Frances P; Damron-Rodriguez, Joann; Rosenfeld, Peri; Sisco, Sarah; Volland, Patricia J

    2007-01-01

    The Practicum Partnership Program (PPP), an innovative field education model developed and implemented by six demonstration sites over four years (2000-2004), uses a structured university-community partnership, or consortium, as the foundation for designing, implementing, and evaluating internships for graduate social work students specializing in aging. This paper describes the site consortia and PPP programs, presents evaluation findings, and identifies future directions for the PPP. Student learning outcomes were positive and both students and consortia agencies reported positive PPP experiences. The PPP model underscores the value of the community agencies as equal partners in educating future geriatric social workers.

  10. International funding agencies: potential leaders of impact evaluation in protected areas?

    PubMed

    Craigie, Ian D; Barnes, Megan D; Geldmann, Jonas; Woodley, Stephen

    2015-11-05

    Globally, protected areas are the most commonly used tools to halt biodiversity loss. Yet, some are failing to adequately conserve the biodiversity they contain. There is an urgent need for knowledge on how to make them function more effectively. Impact evaluation methods provide a set of tools that could yield this knowledge. However, rigorous outcome-focused impact evaluation is not yet used as extensively as it could be in protected area management. We examine the role of international protected area funding agencies in facilitating the use of impact evaluation. These agencies are influential stakeholders as they allocate hundreds of millions of dollars annually to support protected areas, creating a unique opportunity to shape how the conservation funds are spent globally. We identify key barriers to the use of impact evaluation, detail how large funders are uniquely placed to overcome many of these, and highlight the potential benefits if impact evaluation is used more extensively.

  11. EPA Administrator and San Francisco Bay Area government agencies celebrate nations largest solar energy partnership

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO - Today, U.S. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy joined Bay Area agencies to celebrate the Regional Renewable Energy Procurement Project (R-REP), the nation's largest solar energy government collaboration and the launch of the Federal Agg

  12. 78 FR 63869 - Change of Using Agency for Restricted Areas R-2916, FL and R-7105, PR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Areas R-2916, FL and R- 7105, PR AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action updates the name of the using agencies for Restricted Areas R-2916, FL and R-7105, PR... restricted areas R-2916 in Florida and R-7105 in Puerto Rico. This is an administrative name change only...

  13. Conflict and Collaboration in Middle-Aged and Older Couples: I: Age Differences in Agency and Communion during Marital Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Timothy W.; Berg, Cynthia A.; Florsheim, Paul; Uchino, Bert N.; Pearce, Gale; Hawkins, Melissa; Henry, Nancy J.M.; Beveridge, Ryan M.; Skinner, Michelle A.; Olsen-Cerny, Chrisanna

    2011-01-01

    Prior theory and research regarding age differences in marital interaction suggest that older couples display and experience more positivity and less negativity than middle-aged couples. However, studies of overt behavior in older couples are relatively rare and have emphasized disagreement, neglecting other important contexts for older couples such as collaboration during everyday problem solving. Further, the affiliation or communion dimension of social interaction (i.e., warmth vs. hostility) is commonly assessed, but not the control or agency dimension (e.g., dominance vs. submissiveness). The present study examined affect, cognitive appraisals, and overt behavior during disagreement (i.e., discussing a current conflict) and collaboration (i.e., planning errands) in 300 middle-aged and older married couples. Older couples reported less negative affect during disagreement and rated spouses as warmer than did middle-aged couples. However, these effects were eliminated when older couples’ greater marital satisfaction was controlled. For observed behavior, older couples displayed little evidence of greater positivity and reduced negativity – especially women. During collaboration, older couples displayed a unique blend of warmth and control, suggesting a greater focus on emotional and social concerns during problem solving. PMID:19485646

  14. Cultural Momentum: The Impact of Agency on Foreign Area Officer Support to the Geographic Combatant Commands

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    CULTURAL MOMENTUM: THE IMPACT OF AGENCY ON FOREIGN AREA OFFICER SUPPORT TO THE GEOGRAPHIC COMBATANT COMMANDS BY ROBERT E. O’KEEFE III...special recognition. My classmate Justin Dahman was my daily sounding board and sanity check. I hope I was as helpful to your culture -general approach...as you were to my cultural -expertise approach. Finally, Ms. Jordan McDuff, U.S. Southern Command, tirelessly edited my drafts with an understanding

  15. 75 FR 70029 - Notice of Temporary Closure of Castle Rocks Inter-Agency Recreation Area in Cassia County, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Temporary Closure of Castle Rocks Inter-Agency Recreation Area in... camping, and the construction of new trails is in effect on public lands within the Castle Rocks Inter... the BLM at Castle Rocks Inter-Agency Recreation Area in Cassia County, Idaho. Lands in the...

  16. 41 CFR 102-74.285 - How must Federal agencies assign priority to parking spaces in controlled areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agencies assign priority to parking spaces in controlled areas? 102-74.285 Section 102-74.285 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Parking Facilities § 102-74.285 How must Federal agencies assign priority to parking spaces in controlled areas? Federal...

  17. Colonization of later life? Laypersons' and users' agency regarding anti-aging medicine in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schweda, Mark; Pfaller, Larissa

    2014-10-01

    Anti-aging medicine is regarded as a significant trend in contemporary Western societies. Foucauldian gerontology provides some of the dominant theoretical perspectives on this trend in social and cultural theory. Proceeding from its interpretation and critique of anti-aging in terms of medicalization and responsibilization of aging, we explore by means of qualitative socio-empirical research how interested laypersons as well as non-professional users in the German context actually perceive of and deal with the medical claims and moral imperatives surrounding anti-aging medicine. The study is based on 12 focus groups and 20 narrative interviews (96 participants all included). They were conducted in Germany between 2011 and 2012, and analyzed by qualitative content analysis as well as comparative sequence analysis. The empirical findings indicate that in everyday life, interested laypersons and non-professional users employ different strategies for dealing with anti-aging products and services, corresponding to different degrees of affirmation and rejection. Four strategies could be identified: (a) medical optimism, (b) preventive maximalism, (c) ritualized well-being, and (d) considerate rejection. Also, each type was problematized and arguments against it were expressed. Overall, these findings show how our participants develop viable strategies to put the relevance of medical knowledge and moral imperatives for their own lives into perspective. This sheds light on laypersons' and users' agency-that is, their active role and deliberative space in the uptake, adaptation, and integration of anti-aging into their personal life. These empirical findings contribute to an enriched picture of the actual practice of anti-aging in concrete national and socio-cultural settings. This can help to differentiate the evaluation and thus make its critique more context sensitive, adequate, and targeted.

  18. 41 CFR 102-83.120 - What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a metropolitan area? 102... is not a central city in a metropolitan area? If an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a metropolitan area, then the agency must give first consideration...

  19. Water-resources of the Antelope Valley-East Kern Water Agency area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bloyd, R.M.

    1967-01-01

    The Antelope Valley-East Kern Water Agency (AVEK) area, most of which is within the Mojave Desert region of southern California, lacks adequate water resources to sustain the existing rate of ground-water pumpage for irrigation, industrial, and domestic use. However, by 1972 the California Aqueduct, a part of the California Water Plan, will be completed and will begin to convey water from northern California into the area. The chief economic pursuits in the area are irrigated agriculture and poultry production. At present, the major industries are related to national defense and mining. In the future, industry will increase and probably become the major economic activity. The Mojave Desert region, part of which lies within the AVEK area, is characterized by fault-block mountains and fault-block basins. The Tehachapi and San Gabriel Mountains are the major bordering fault blocks. The adjacent lowland areas of Antelope and Fremont Valleys have been depressed by movements along major faults. There are two major ground-water basins in the AVEK area: Antelope Valley and Fremont Valley basins. Each large basin is divided by faults or bodies of consolidated rock into several groundwater subunits.

  20. 41 CFR 102-74.340 - Who is responsible for monitoring and controlling areas designated for smoking by an agency head...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... monitoring and controlling areas designated for smoking by an agency head and for identifying those areas... MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.340 Who is responsible for monitoring and controlling areas designated for smoking by an agency head and for identifying those areas with proper signage? Agency...

  1. 41 CFR 102-74.340 - Who is responsible for monitoring and controlling areas designated for smoking by an agency head...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... monitoring and controlling areas designated for smoking by an agency head and for identifying those areas... MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.340 Who is responsible for monitoring and controlling areas designated for smoking by an agency head and for identifying those areas with proper signage? Agency...

  2. 41 CFR 102-74.340 - Who is responsible for monitoring and controlling areas designated for smoking by an agency head...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... monitoring and controlling areas designated for smoking by an agency head and for identifying those areas... MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.340 Who is responsible for monitoring and controlling areas designated for smoking by an agency head and for identifying those areas with proper signage? Agency...

  3. 41 CFR 102-74.340 - Who is responsible for monitoring and controlling areas designated for smoking by an agency head...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... monitoring and controlling areas designated for smoking by an agency head and for identifying those areas... MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.340 Who is responsible for monitoring and controlling areas designated for smoking by an agency head and for identifying those areas with proper signage? Agency...

  4. 41 CFR 102-74.340 - Who is responsible for monitoring and controlling areas designated for smoking by an agency head...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... monitoring and controlling areas designated for smoking by an agency head and for identifying those areas... MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.340 Who is responsible for monitoring and controlling areas designated for smoking by an agency head and for identifying those areas with proper signage? Agency...

  5. 41 CFR 102-74.285 - How must Federal agencies assign priority to parking spaces in controlled areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Article III of the Constitution), which may be parked in those spaces assigned for the use of the Court... metropolitan areas, Federal agencies may determine that allocations by zone would make parking more...

  6. 75 FR 68970 - Amendment of Using Agency for Restricted Areas R-4002, R-4005, R-4006 and R-4007; MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... Restricted Areas R-4002, R-4005, R- 4006 and R-4007; MD AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... restricted areas R-4002, Bloodsworth Island, MD; and R-4005, R-4006 and R-4007, Patuxent River, MD to ``U.S... areas R-4002, R-4005, R-4006 and R-4007 in Maryland, in order to reflect the correct......

  7. 41 CFR 102-83.110 - When an agency's mission and program requirements call for the location in an urban area, are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and program requirements call for the location in an urban area, are Executive agencies required to... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.110 When an agency's mission and program requirements call for the location in an urban area, are Executive agencies...

  8. 41 CFR 102-83.35 - Are Executive agencies required to consider whether the central business area will provide for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... required to consider whether the central business area will provide for adequate competition when acquiring... central business area will provide for adequate competition when acquiring leased space? In accordance with the Competition in Contracting Act of 1984, as amended (41 U.S.C. 253(a)), Executive agencies...

  9. 75 FR 14069 - Amendment of Using Agency for Restricted Areas R-3005A, R-3305B, R-3005C, R-3005D and R-3005E...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 73 RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment of Using Agency for Restricted Areas R-3005A, R-3305B, R-3005C, R-3005D and R-3005E; Fort Stewart, GA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action changes the using agency of restricted areas R- 3005A, R-3005B,...

  10. 78 FR 63867 - Change of Using Agency for Restricted Areas R-5115, NM, and R-6316, R-6317, and R-6318, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 73 RIN 2120-AA66 Change of Using Agency for Restricted Areas R-5115, NM, and R- 6316, R-6317, and R-6318, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action updates the name of the using agencies for Restricted Areas...

  11. Automatic Clock and Time Signal System of the Astronomical Agency in East Asia Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong Sam

    2009-09-01

    We analysed the old automatic clock and time signal system that was used by the national astronomical agency in East Asian Area. Jagyeongnu is a kind of water clock that was operated by the flowing water in Joseon Dynasty. Seowoongwan managed the water clock so as to keep the standard time system in the dynasty from the 16th year (1434) of King Sejong's reign. In 1438 the Okru that was invented in the period. Such kind of clock system already was used in China, which was Shui yun i hsiang t'ai (?) in 1092. During the period Joseon Dynasty, China and Japan had been kept the time system that one day is divided into 12 shin (?2?) or 100 gak (?). However detailed part of the system had a little difference among the three countries. Though the whole system of water clock in Joseon had manufactured on the basis of Chinese, it had been gradually developed by own method and idea. In this study we show the historical records of the standard time keeping system in East Asian history. And then we can inform materials on the structure and functional devises for the purpose of new restoration models about the automatic clock and time system.

  12. Local and regional governments and age-friendly communities: a case study of the San Francisco Bay Area.

    PubMed

    Lehning, Amanda J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which cities, county departments of adult and aging services, county transportation authorities, and public transit agencies in the San Francisco Bay Area have in place age-friendly policies, programs, and infrastructure in the areas of community design, housing, transportation, health care and supportive services, and opportunities for community engagement. The most common age-friendly features include those that target alternative forms of mobility (for example, incentives for mixed-use neighborhoods and changes to improve the accessibility of public transit), while the least common policies and programs are those that aim to help older adults continue driving, such as driver education programs, driver assessment programs, and slow-moving vehicle ordinances. The article concludes with policy and research implications of these findings.

  13. The young, the old, and the economists: rethinking how agencies account for age in cost-benefit analysis.

    PubMed

    Herz-Roiphe, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Federal agencies count all fatalities prevented by regulation as having the same value for the purposes of cost-benefit analysis, making no adjustment for the age of the person saved. This uniform valuation is guided by empirical studies that find that the young are not willing to pay more than the elderly for small risk reductions in private markets. This Note argues for a different approach. It proposes that agencies take account of a previously ignored body of "public choice" research that finds that most individuals think government should adopt lifesaving programs that benefit the young over those that benefit the old. These data illustrate a divergence between people's private and public preferences. While the economic theory that guides current agency practice prioritizes the former over the latter, this Note argues that it should be the other way around. The Note maintains that public choice data reflect a wider range of societal commitments than individual willingness-to-pay metrics, and therefore that the use of public choice data could help agencies satisfy their mandate under Executive Order 13,563 to engage in broader forms of analysis. The Note also posits that public choice data actually provide a better guide to the welfare consequences of prioritizing lifesaving regulations for different age groups than do individual willingness-to-pay data. It accordingly recommends a new system of age adjustment based on public choice results.

  14. Guidelines for External Reviews of Quality Assurance Agencies in the European Higher Education Area. ENQA Occasional Papers 19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ENQA (European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with the ENQA (European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education) membership criteria laid down in the Statutes of ENQA, member agencies are required to undergo external reviews against the membership criteria, and thereby the Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area (ESG) as…

  15. 25 CFR 23.61 - Appeals from decision or action by Agency Superintendent, Area Director or Grants Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Appeals from decision or action by Agency Superintendent, Area Director or Grants Officer. 23.61 Section 23.61 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT Appeals § 23.61 Appeals from decision or...

  16. 25 CFR 23.61 - Appeals from decision or action by Agency Superintendent, Area Director or Grants Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Appeals from decision or action by Agency Superintendent, Area Director or Grants Officer. 23.61 Section 23.61 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT Appeals § 23.61 Appeals from decision or...

  17. 25 CFR 23.61 - Appeals from decision or action by Agency Superintendent, Area Director or Grants Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Appeals from decision or action by Agency Superintendent, Area Director or Grants Officer. 23.61 Section 23.61 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT Appeals § 23.61 Appeals from decision or...

  18. 25 CFR 23.61 - Appeals from decision or action by Agency Superintendent, Area Director or Grants Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Appeals from decision or action by Agency Superintendent, Area Director or Grants Officer. 23.61 Section 23.61 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT Appeals § 23.61 Appeals from decision or...

  19. 25 CFR 23.61 - Appeals from decision or action by Agency Superintendent, Area Director or Grants Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appeals from decision or action by Agency Superintendent, Area Director or Grants Officer. 23.61 Section 23.61 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT Appeals § 23.61 Appeals from decision or...

  20. Epidemiology and Clinical Burden of Malaria in the War-Torn Area, Orakzai Agency in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Asad Mustafa; Hussain, Irfan; Malik, Sumera Kausar; Lee, Jung Hun; Cho, Ill Hwan; Kim, Young Bae; Lee, Sang Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background Military conflict has been a major challenge in the detection and control of emerging infectious diseases such as malaria. It poses issues associated with enhancing emergence and transmission of infectious diseases by destroying infrastructure and collapsing healthcare systems. The Orakzai agency in Pakistan has witnessed a series of intense violence and destruction. Military conflicts and instability in Afghanistan have resulted in the migration of refugees into the area and possible introduction of many infectious disease epidemics. Due to the ongoing violence and Talibanization, it has been a challenge to conduct an epidemiological study. Methodology/Principal Findings All patients were sampled within the transmission season. After a detailed clinical investigation of patients, data were recorded. Baseline venous blood samples were taken for microscopy and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) analysis. Plasmodium species were detected using nested PCR (nPCR) and amplification of the small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (ssrRNA) genes using the primer pairs. We report a clinical assessment of the epidemic situation of malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax (86.5%) and Plasmodium falciparum (11.79%) infections with analysis of complications in patients such as decompensated shock (41%), anemia (8.98%), hypoglycaemia (7.3%), multiple convulsions (6.7%), hyperpyrexia (6.17%), jaundice (5%), and hyperparasitaemia (4.49%). Conclusions/Significance This overlooked distribution of P. vivax should be considered by malaria control strategy makers in the world and by the Government of Pakistan. In our study, children were the most susceptible population to malaria infection while they were the least expected to use satisfactory prevention strategies in such a war-torn deprived region. Local health authorities should initiate malaria awareness programs in schools and malaria-related education should be further promoted at the local level reaching out to both

  1. The Council of Youth Research: Critical Literacy and Civic Agency in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Antero; Mirra, Nicole; Morrell, Ernest; Martinez, Antonio; Scorza, D'Artagnan

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between critical literacy practice, digital media production, and civic agency in the Council of Youth Research, a youth participatory action research program in which Los Angeles high school students conduct research and create dynamic, multimedia presentations as leaders of a growing youth movement for…

  2. National Patient Safety Agency: improving patient safety across all critical care areas.

    PubMed

    Keady, Simon; Thacker, Meera

    2008-04-01

    The National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA) reviews patient safety incidents throughout the National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom and aims to initiate preventative measures. Recent alerts include injectable medication, oral syringes for enternal administration, preventing hyponatraemia in children and anticoagulation. This article gives an insight into the rationale and steps currently being undertaken to respond to these recommendations.

  3. Educating Aging Service Agency Staff About Discussing End-of-Life Wishes.

    PubMed

    Flowers, Kimberlie; Howe, Judith L

    2015-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of Americans support the idea of Advance Directives (ADs) but less than 20% complete one, resulting in increased hospitalization costs, unwanted treatment, and difficult family decisions. Engaging community resources for public education may be effective for increasing understanding and completion of ADs. This project focused on workers in an agency serving older adults. A training program was developed with the goal of increasing their understanding of the process and benefits of Health Care Proxies (HCPs) and ADs through hands-on experience, increasing relevant skills and willingness to discuss with consumers, and to implement an agency protocol increasing documentation of HCPs for consumers. After a small proof-of-concept pilot, all staff members were asked to participate in the educational program. The pilot program delivery found increased staff knowledge as well as motivation to complete HCPs among the staff themselves and their own families. This program resulted in increased staff knowledge of EOL documents, willingness to engage in EOL discussions, and an increase in documented HCPs. This program has relevance for workers in other agencies as they engage older consumers to encourage completion of ADs. This experiential approach to staff education increased their understanding and willingness to initiate EOL discussion with consumers.

  4. Age-Related Differences in the Brain Areas outside the Classical Language Areas among Adults Using Category Decision Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Yong Won; Song, Hui-Jin; Lee, Jae Jun; Lee, Joo Hwa; Lee, Hui Joong; Yi, Sang Doe; Chang, Hyuk Won; Berl, Madison M.; Gaillard, William D.; Chang, Yongmin

    2012-01-01

    Older adults perform much like younger adults on language. This similar level of performance, however, may come about through different underlying brain processes. In the present study, we evaluated age-related differences in the brain areas outside the typical language areas among adults using a category decision task. Our results showed that…

  5. 41 CFR 102-83.25 - Who is responsible for identifying the delineated area within which a Federal agency wishes to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... identifying the delineated area within which a Federal agency wishes to locate specific activities? 102-83.25... wishes to locate specific activities? Each Federal agency is responsible for identifying the delineated area within which it wishes to locate specific activities, consistent with its mission and...

  6. 41 CFR 102-83.25 - Who is responsible for identifying the delineated area within which a Federal agency wishes to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... identifying the delineated area within which a Federal agency wishes to locate specific activities? 102-83.25... wishes to locate specific activities? Each Federal agency is responsible for identifying the delineated area within which it wishes to locate specific activities, consistent with its mission and...

  7. 76 FR 81984 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Local Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ...; Local Area Unemployment Statistics Program ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL) is..., ``Local Area Unemployment Statistics Program,'' to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review... Statistics (BLS). Title of Collection: Local Area Unemployment Statistics Program. OMB Control Number:...

  8. Enhancing Baccalaureate Student Learning in Research and Gerontology through Partnership with an Area Agency on Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Laurie A.; McCaslin, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    Designing an effective research learning experience for undergraduate social work students is challenging. Similarly, although content on elderly adults is a natural fit in many parts of the undergraduate curriculum, doing so in a research course can be a difficult challenge. Described in this article is an undergraduate research course that has…

  9. Age Estimation of African Lions Panthera leo by Ratio of Tooth Areas.

    PubMed

    White, Paula A; Ikanda, Dennis; Ferrante, Luigi; Chardonnet, Philippe; Mesochina, Pascal; Cameriere, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Improved age estimation of African lions Panthera leo is needed to address a number of pressing conservation issues. Here we present a formula for estimating lion age to within six months of known age based on measuring the extent of pulp closure from X-rays, or Ratio Of tooth AReas (ROAR). Derived from measurements taken from lions aged 3-13 years for which exact ages were known, the formula explains 92% of the total variance. The method of calculating the pulp/tooth area ratio, which has been used extensively in forensic science, is novel in the study of lion aging. As a quantifiable measure, ROAR offers improved lion age estimates for population modeling and investigations of age-related mortality, and may assist national and international wildlife authorities in judging compliance with regulatory measures involving age.

  10. 75 FR 68970 - Amendment of Using Agency for Restricted Areas R-5301; R-5302A, B, and C; and R-5313A, B, C and D...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... Areas R-5301; R-5302A, B, and C; and R-5313A, B, C and D; NC AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... agency for restricted areas R-5301 Albemarle Sound, NC; R-5302A, B and C, Harvey Point, NC; and R-5313A... areas R-5301; R-5302A, B and C; and R-5313A, B, C and D, in North Carolina by removing the words...

  11. Determination of arm fat area and arm muscle area norms in children 6-12 years of age in Bursa.

    PubMed

    Günay, U; Sapan, N; Salih, C; Doğruyol, H

    1990-01-01

    Since arm fat area and arm muscle area measurements are said to assess the calorie and protein reserves in the body more accurately than triceps skinfold thickness measurements, we decided to use this system on 1497 girls and 1651 boys who were pupils in elementary schools in Bursa. From the data obtained, percentile norms for the children aged between 6-12 were calculated and percentile curves were drawn. The data that we collected can be used in future nutritional surveys.

  12. Effects of Count Area Size on Model Ages Derived from Random CSFDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Bogert, Carolyn; Michael, Gregory; Kneissl, Thomas; Hiesinger, Harald; Hendrik Pasckert, Jan

    2015-04-01

    As higher resolution imagery becomes available, smaller regions can be studied. These small areas, however, contain fewer craters for crater size-frequency distribution (CSFD) analysis. For example, a study of irregular mare patches (IMPs) on the Moon [1] could only measure craters, at three IMPs, that were large enough for derivation of absolute model ages (AMAs), using the current lunar chronology and production functions (CF/PF, valid for craters 10mages of IMPs have significant implications for lunar evolution, the robustness of the AMAs is important. In addition, young craters used to define the lunar chronology (e.g., North Ray [3] and Cone [4] craters) have small count areas of less than 1 km^2. While, Hiesinger et al. [3] show that ages derived from small areas are consistent with ages of larger areas, they exhibit variability greater than the statistical error bars [3,4]. Pasckert et al. [5] investigated whether 25 4 km2 count areas within a 100 km2 count area on mare basalt in Tsiolkovsky crater reproduce the age of the larger area. While 19 of the ages are within the error bars of the large area, six of the ages are not. However, the disparate ages could reflect local resurfacing events associated with later volcanism or impact cratering [5]. To eliminate the effects of local geologic activity such that we can evaluate the effects of count area size alone on the robustness of AMAs, we generated random crater distributions for theoretical lunar surfaces with ages of 0.1-4 Ga. We then analyzed the effects of decreasing count area size on the resulting AMAs. The precision of AMAs is determined by the Poisson cratering process and the non-linearity of the CF for the crater measurements themselves [6]. Smaller count areas have fewer craters, such that this statistical precision decreases. However, our study also shows that the accuracy of the AMAs is decreased for smaller count areas. For example, 4 km2 areas on 0.1 Ga

  13. Wed. May 13, Hayward, Calif. -- EPA Administrator McCarthy joins San Francisco Bay Area agencies to celebrate nations largest solar energy partnership

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO - On Wednesday, May 13, U.S. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy will join Bay Area agencies to celebrate the nation's largest local government collaborative for solar power and launch the nation's first federal solar partnership. Administ

  14. Effect of Tongue Exercise on Protrusive Force and Muscle Fiber Area in Aging Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Nadine P.; Russell, John A.; Wang, Hao; Jackson, Michelle A.; Mann, Laura; Kluender, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Age-related changes in tongue function may contribute to dysphagia in elderly people. The authors' purpose was to investigate whether aged rats that have undergone tongue exercise would manifest increased protrusive tongue forces and increased genioglossus (GG) muscle fiber cross-sectional areas. Method: Forty-eight young adult,…

  15. Forensic dental age estimation by measuring root dentin translucency area using a new digital technique.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Ashith B

    2014-05-01

    Dentin translucency measurement is an easy yet relatively accurate approach to postmortem age estimation. Translucency area represents a two-dimensional change and may reflect age variations better than length. Manually measuring area is challenging and this paper proposes a new digital method using commercially available computer hardware and software. Area and length were measured on 100 tooth sections (age range, 19-82 years) of 250 μm thickness. Regression analysis revealed lower standard error of estimate and higher correlation with age for length than for area (R = 0.62 vs. 0.60). However, test of regression formulae on a control sample (n = 33, 21-85 years) showed smaller mean absolute difference (8.3 vs. 8.8 years) and greater frequency of smaller errors (73% vs. 67% age estimates ≤ ± 10 years) for area than for length. These suggest that digital area measurements of root translucency may be used as an alternative to length in forensic age estimation.

  16. Urinary perchlorate exposure and risk in women of reproductive age in a fireworks production area of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Qin; Yu, Yun-jiang; Wang, Fei-fei; Chen, Shi-wu; Yin, Yan; Lin, Hai-peng; Che, Fei; Sun, Peng; Qin, Juan; Liu, Jie; Wang, Hong-mei

    2014-07-01

    Perchlorate is used widely in fireworks, and, if ingested, it has the potential to disrupt thyroid function. The concentrations of perchlorate in water and soil samples and in urine samples of women of reproductive age from Liuyang, the largest fireworks production area in China, were investigated. The results showed that the average perchlorate concentrations in groundwater, surface water, farmland soil, and urine samples of women from the fireworks production area were significantly greater than those from the control area. The health risk of perchlorate ingested through drinking water was assessed based on the mode recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The values of hazard quotient of river water and groundwater in the fireworks production area were much greater than the safe level (=1), which indicates that adverse health effects may result from perchlorate when these sources of water are used as drinking water. These results indicated that the environment of the fireworks production area has been polluted by perchlorate and that residents were and are facing greater exposure doses of perchlorate. Fireworks production enterprises may be a major source of perchlorate contamination.

  17. A New Age Dawning? Australia's New Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency Moves towards "Third Stage" Internationalisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Australia's Minister for Education, Employment and Workplace Relations recently launched a new agency whose primary focus is the protection of the country's tertiary education system. The government is developing the new AUD$57 million (approximately US$51 million) agency, the Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency (TEQSA), in response to…

  18. Estimating Small-area Populations by Age and Sex Using Spatial Interpolation and Statistical Inference Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Qai, Qiang; Rushton, Gerald; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Bright, Eddie A; Coleman, Phil R

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research is to compute population estimates by age and sex for small areas whose boundaries are different from those for which the population counts were made. In our approach, population surfaces and age-sex proportion surfaces are separately estimated. Age-sex population estimates for small areas and their confidence intervals are then computed using a binomial model with the two surfaces as inputs. The approach was implemented for Iowa using a 90 m resolution population grid (LandScan USA) and U.S. Census 2000 population. Three spatial interpolation methods, the areal weighting (AW) method, the ordinary kriging (OK) method, and a modification of the pycnophylactic method, were used on Census Tract populations to estimate the age-sex proportion surfaces. To verify the model, age-sex population estimates were computed for paired Block Groups that straddled Census Tracts and therefore were spatially misaligned with them. The pycnophylactic method and the OK method were more accurate than the AW method. The approach is general and can be used to estimate subgroup-count types of variables from information in existing administrative areas for custom-defined areas used as the spatial basis of support in other applications.

  19. Conducting Outreach to Transition-Aged Youth: Strategies for Reaching out to Youth with Disabilities, Their Families, and Agencies that Serve Them. Policy and Practice Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, James R., Jr.; Golden, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this policy and practice brief is to provide readers with a resource for planning outreach to transition-aged youth, their parents, and the service providers who work with them (i.e., the authors' "target group"). The authors will first provide a summary of the laws governing how three key agencies--school districts, state…

  20. Protecting the Elderly: Federal Agencies' Role concerning Questionable Marketing Practices. Fact Sheet for the Chairman, Select Committee on Aging, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    In response to Representative Edward Roybal's concern that aging organizations have used direct mail in a manner that might frighten, threaten, or coerce the elderly into contributing money or buying products from these organizations, the General Accounting Office (GAO) agreed to: (1) identify federal agencies with jurisdiction in reviewing the…

  1. Ageing-Related Experiences of Adults with Learning Disability Resident in Rural Areas: One Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wark, Stuart; Canon-Vanry, Miranda; Ryan, Peta; Hussain, Rafat; Knox, Marie; Edwards, Meaghan; Parmenter, Marie; Parmenter, Trevor; Janicki, Matthew; Leggatt-Cook, Chez

    2015-01-01

    Background: Access to support services in rural areas is known to be problematic both in Australia, and in other countries around the world, but the majority of research on the population of people ageing with learning disability has so far focussed on metropolitan residents. The authors report about select aspects of the lived experience of older…

  2. Influence of anisotropy on velocity and age distribution at Scharffenbergbotnen blue ice area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwinger, T.; Schäfer, M.; Martín, C.; Moore, J. C.

    2013-06-01

    We use a full-Stokes thermo-mechanically coupled ice-flow model to study the dynamics of the glacier inside Scharffenbergbotnen valley, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. The domain encompasses a high accumulation rate region and, downstream a sublimation-dominated bare ice ablation area. The ablation ice area is notable for having old ice at its surface since the vertical velocity is upwards, and horizontal velocities are almost stagnant there. We compare the model simulation with field observations of velocities and the age distribution of the surface ice. A satisfactory match with simulations using an isotropic flow law was not found because of too high horizontal velocities and too slow vertical ones. However, the existence of a pronounced ice fabric may explain the present day surface velocity distribution in the inner Scharffenbergbotnen blue ice area. Near absence of data on the temporal evolution of Scharffenbergbotnen since the Late Glacial Maximum necessitates exploration of the impact of anisotropy using prescribed ice fabrics: isotropic, single maximum, and linear variation with depth, in both two-dimensional and three dimensional flow models. The realistic velocity field simulated with a non-collinear orthotropic flow law, however produced surface ages in significant disagreement with the few reliable age measurements and suggests that the age field is not in a steady state and that the present distribution is a result of a flow reorganization at about 15 000 yr BP. In order to fully understand the surface age distribution a transient simulation starting from the Late Glacial Maximum including the correct initial conditions for geometry, age, fabric and temperature distribution would be needed. It is the first time that the importance of anisotropy has been demonstrated in the ice dynamics of a blue ice area. This is useful to understand ice flow in order to better interpret archives of ancient ice for paleoclimate research.

  3. Influence of anisotropy on velocity and age distribution at Scharffenbergbotnen blue ice area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwinger, T.; Schäfer, M.; Martín, C.; Moore, J. C.

    2014-04-01

    We use a full-Stokes thermo-mechanically coupled ice-flow model to study the dynamics of the glacier inside Scharffenbergbotnen valley, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. The domain encompasses a high accumulation rate region and, downstream, a sublimation-dominated bare ice ablation area. The ablation ice area is notable for having old ice at its surface since the vertical velocity is upwards, and horizontal velocities are almost stagnant there. We compare the model simulation with field observations of velocities and the age distribution of the surface ice. No satisfactory match using an isotropic flow law could be found because of too high vertical velocities and much too high horizontal ones in simulations despite varying enhancement factor, geothermal heat flux and surface temperatures over large ranges. However, the existence of a pronounced ice fabric may explain the observed present-day surface velocity and mass balance distribution in the inner Scharffenbergbotnen blue ice area. Near absence of data on the temporal evolution of Scharffenbergbotnen since the Late Glacial Maximum necessitates exploration of the impact of anisotropy using prescribed ice fabrics: isotropic, single maximum, and linear variation with depth, in both two-dimensional and three-dimensional flow models. The realistic velocity field simulated with a noncollinear orthotropic flow law, however, produced surface ages in significant disagreement with the few reliable age measurements and suggests that the age field is not in a steady state and that the present distribution is a result of a flow reorganization at about 15 000 yr BP. In order to fully understand the surface age distribution, a transient simulation starting from the Late Glacial Maximum including the correct initial conditions for geometry, age, fabric and temperature distribution would be needed. This is the first time that the importance of anisotropy has been demonstrated in the ice dynamics of a blue ice area and

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document, Area 15 Environmental Protection Agency Farm Laboratory Building, Corrective Action Unit No. 95, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-18

    This report is the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Area 15 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Farm, Laboratory Building (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 95), at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The scope of this CADD is to identify and evaluate potential corrective action alternatives for the decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) of the Laboratory Building, which were selected based on the results of investigative activities. Based on this evaluation, a preferred corrective action alternative is recommended. Studies were conducted at the EPA Farm from 1963 to 1981 to determine the animal intake and retention of radionuclides. The main building, the Laboratory Building, has approximately 370 square meters (4,000 square feet) of operational space. Other CAUS at the EPA Farm facility that will be investigated and/or remediated through other environmental restoration subprojects are not included in this CADD, with the exception of housekeeping sites. Associated structures that do not require classification as CAUS are considered in the evaluation of corrective action alternatives for CAU 95.

  5. Dynamic causes of the relation between area and age of the ocean floor.

    PubMed

    Coltice, N; Rolf, T; Tackley, P J; Labrosse, S

    2012-04-20

    The distribution of seafloor ages determines fundamental characteristics of Earth such as sea level, ocean chemistry, tectonic forces, and heat loss from the mantle. The present-day distribution suggests that subduction affects lithosphere of all ages, but this is at odds with the theory of thermal convection that predicts that subduction should happen once a critical age has been reached. We used spherical models of mantle convection to show that plate-like behavior and continents cause the seafloor area-age distribution to be representative of present-day Earth. The distribution varies in time with the creation and destruction of new plate boundaries. Our simulations suggest that the ocean floor production rate previously reached peaks that were twice the present-day value.

  6. Changes in surface area and concentrations of semivolatile organic contaminants in aging snow.

    PubMed

    Burniston, Debbie A; Strachan, William J M; Hoff, John T; Wania, Frank

    2007-07-15

    During the winter of 1999/2000 five snowpacks at Turkey Lake Watershed east of Lake Superior were sampled immediately after falling and again after several days of aging for the analysis of specific snow surface area and the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The snow surface could be determined with a relative coefficient of variation of 6% using frontal chromatography, measuring the retention of ethyl acetate, a substance with known adsorption coefficient on the ice surface. The snow surface area of fresh snow varied from 1000 to 1330 cm2/g and was higher for snow falling during colder days. The aged snow samples had consistently lower surface areas ranging from 520 to 780 cm2/g, corresponding to an average loss of half of the initial surface area during aging. The rate of loss of surface area was faster at higher temperatures. Dieldrin, alpha-HCH, and gamma-HCH were the most abundant OCPs in snowmelt water, but endosulfan, chlordane-related substances, heptachlor epoxide, pp'-DDT, pp'-DDE, and chlorinated benzenes were also consistently present. Three midwinter snowpacks that aged during relatively cold temperatures generally experienced a loss of PCBs and OCPs that was of the same order of magnitude as the observed loss of snow surface area. However, no relationship between the extent of loss and the strength of a contaminants' sorption to snow was apparent. Few significant changes in snowpack concentrations of OCPs and PCBs were observed in a snowpack that fell at relatively high temperatures and aged under colder conditions. Concentrations of OCPs and PCBs increased in a late-winter snowpack that aged while temperatures rapidly increased to above freezing. Concentrations of pp'-DDE and endosulfan-II that increased in snowpacks that saw simultaneous decreases in the levels of pp'-DDT and endosulfan-I hint at the occurrence of sunlight induced conversions in snow. While surface area decreases clearly

  7. Methods for structuring scientific knowledge from many areas related to aging research.

    PubMed

    Zhavoronkov, Alex; Cantor, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Aging and age-related disease represents a substantial quantity of current natural, social and behavioral science research efforts. Presently, no centralized system exists for tracking aging research projects across numerous research disciplines. The multidisciplinary nature of this research complicates the understanding of underlying project categories, the establishment of project relations, and the development of a unified project classification scheme. We have developed a highly visual database, the International Aging Research Portfolio (IARP), available at AgingPortfolio.org to address this issue. The database integrates information on research grants, peer-reviewed publications, and issued patent applications from multiple sources. Additionally, the database uses flexible project classification mechanisms and tools for analyzing project associations and trends. This system enables scientists to search the centralized project database, to classify and categorize aging projects, and to analyze the funding aspects across multiple research disciplines. The IARP is designed to provide improved allocation and prioritization of scarce research funding, to reduce project overlap and improve scientific collaboration thereby accelerating scientific and medical progress in a rapidly growing area of research. Grant applications often precede publications and some grants do not result in publications, thus, this system provides utility to investigate an earlier and broader view on research activity in many research disciplines. This project is a first attempt to provide a centralized database system for research grants and to categorize aging research projects into multiple subcategories utilizing both advanced machine algorithms and a hierarchical environment for scientific collaboration.

  8. Methods for Structuring Scientific Knowledge from Many Areas Related to Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    Zhavoronkov, Alex; Cantor, Charles R.

    2011-01-01

    Aging and age-related disease represents a substantial quantity of current natural, social and behavioral science research efforts. Presently, no centralized system exists for tracking aging research projects across numerous research disciplines. The multidisciplinary nature of this research complicates the understanding of underlying project categories, the establishment of project relations, and the development of a unified project classification scheme. We have developed a highly visual database, the International Aging Research Portfolio (IARP), available at AgingPortfolio.org to address this issue. The database integrates information on research grants, peer-reviewed publications, and issued patent applications from multiple sources. Additionally, the database uses flexible project classification mechanisms and tools for analyzing project associations and trends. This system enables scientists to search the centralized project database, to classify and categorize aging projects, and to analyze the funding aspects across multiple research disciplines. The IARP is designed to provide improved allocation and prioritization of scarce research funding, to reduce project overlap and improve scientific collaboration thereby accelerating scientific and medical progress in a rapidly growing area of research. Grant applications often precede publications and some grants do not result in publications, thus, this system provides utility to investigate an earlier and broader view on research activity in many research disciplines. This project is a first attempt to provide a centralized database system for research grants and to categorize aging research projects into multiple subcategories utilizing both advanced machine algorithms and a hierarchical environment for scientific collaboration. PMID:21799912

  9. Correlation between Corpus Callosum Sub-Segmental Area and Cognitive Processes in School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Martha Beatriz; Concha, Luis; González-Santos, Leopoldo; Ortiz, Juan Jose; Barrios, Fernando Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the relationship between structural characteristics (area) and microstructure (apparent diffusion coefficient; ADC) of the corpus callosum (CC) in 57 healthy children aged 7.0 to 9.1 years, with diverse cognitive and academic abilities as well as executive functions evaluated with a neuropsychological battery for children. The CC was manually delineated and sub-segmented into six regions, and their ADC and area were measured. There were no significant differences between genders in the callosal region area or in ADC. The CC area and ADC, mainly of anterior regions, correlated with different cognitive abilities for each gender. Our results suggest that the relationship between cognitive abilities and CC characteristics is different between girls and boys and between the anterior and posterior regions of the CC. Furthermore, these findings strenghten the idea that regardless of the different interhemispheric connectivity schemes per gender, the results of cognitive tasks are very similar for girls and boys throughout childhood. PMID:25170897

  10. Follow-Up Study of Work Study Graduates in Special Education Programs Located in the Eastern and Central Zones of Heartland Area Education Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lussie, Richard A.; And Others

    The study was undertaken to investigate the post high school status of 76 mildly retarded graduates (1974-78) of the work/study programs of the eastern and central zones of the Heartland Area Education Agency. Interviews of the Ss yielded data which were analyzed in four main categories: social adjustment, community resources, vocational…

  11. Drought, drying and climate change: emerging health issues for ageing Australians in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Horton, Graeme; Hanna, Liz; Kelly, Brian

    2010-03-01

    Older Australians living in rural areas have long faced significant challenges in maintaining health. Their circumstances are shaped by the occupations, lifestyles, environments and remoteness which characterise the diversity of rural communities. Many rural regions face threats to future sustainability and greater proportions of the aged reside in these areas. The emerging changes in Australia's climate over the past decade may be considered indicative of future trends, and herald amplification of these familiar challenges for rural communities. Such climate changes are likely to exacerbate existing health risks and compromise community infrastructure in some instances. This paper discusses climate change-related health risks facing older people in rural areas, with an emphasis on the impact of heat, drought and drying on rural and remote regions. Adaptive health sector responses are identified to promote mitigation of this substantial emerging need as individuals and their communities experience the projected impact of climate change.

  12. Prevalence of cognitive impairment in individuals aged over 65 in an urban area: DERIVA study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Few data are available on the prevalence of cognitive impairment (CI) in Spain, and the existing information shows important variations depending on the geographical setting and the methodology employed. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of CI in individuals aged over 65 in an urban area, and to analyze its associated risk factors. Methods Design: A descriptive, cross-sectional, home questionnaire-based study; Setting: Populational, urban setting. Participants: The reference population comprised over-65s living in the city of Salamanca (Spain) in 2009. Randomized sampling stratified according to health district was carried out, and a total of 480 people were selected. In all, 327 patients were interviewed (68.10%), with a mean age of 76.35 years (SD: 7.33). Women accounted for 64.5% of the total. Measurements: A home health questionnaire was used to obtain the following data: age, sex, educational level, family structure, morbidity and functionality. All participants completed a neuropsychological test battery. The prevalence data were compared with those of the European population, with direct adjustment for age and sex. Diagnoses were divided into three general categories: normal cognitive function, cognitive impairment - no dementia (CIND), and dementia. Results The prevalence of CI among these over-65s was 19% (14.7% CIND and 4.3% dementia). The age-and sex-adjusted global prevalence of CI was 14.9%. CI increased with age (p < 0.001) and decreased with increasing educational level (p < 0.001). Significant risk factors were found with the multivariate analyses: age (OR = 1.08, 95%CI: 1.03-1.12), anxiety-depression (OR = 3.47, 95%CI: 1.61-7.51) and diabetes (OR = 2.07, 95%CI: 1.02-4.18). In turn, years of education was found to be a protective factor (OR = 0.79, 95%CI: 0.70-0.90). Although CI was more frequent among women and in people living without a partner, these characteristics were not significantly associated with CI risk

  13. The Role of the Voluntary Agency as an Instrument of Social Change: Effective Advocacy on Behalf of the Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beekman, Jan F.; Nash, Bernard E.

    The first paper examines the interaction, within a European context, of government and voluntary agencies as actors on a larger societal stage. It attempts to develop basic principles and alternative strategies for their effective interaction in light of different political contexts and government structures. It indicates what sort of factors have…

  14. Size, age, and habitat determine effectiveness of Palau's Marine Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Golbuu, Yimnang; Ballesteros, Enric; Caselle, Jennifer E.; Gouezo, Marine; Olsudong, Dawnette; Sala, Enric

    2017-01-01

    Palau has a rich heritage of conservation that has evolved from the traditional moratoria on fishing, or “bul”, to more western Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), while still retaining elements of customary management and tenure. In 2003, the Palau Protected Areas Network (PAN) was created to conserve Palau’s unique biodiversity and culture, and is the country’s mechanism for achieving the goals of the Micronesia Challenge (MC), an initiative to conserve ≥30% of near-shore marine resources within the region by 2020. The PAN comprises a network of numerous MPAs within Palau that vary in age, size, level of management, and habitat, which provide an excellent opportunity to test hypotheses concerning MPA design and function using multiple discreet sampling units. Our sampling design provided a robust space for time comparison to evaluate the relative influence of potential drivers of MPA efficacy. Our results showed that no-take MPAs had, on average, nearly twice the biomass of resource fishes (i.e. those important commercially, culturally, or for subsistence) compared to nearby unprotected areas. Biomass of non-resource fishes showed no differences between no-take areas and areas open to fishing. The most striking difference between no-take MPAs and unprotected areas was the more than 5-fold greater biomass of piscivorous fishes in the MPAs compared to fished areas. The most important determinates of no-take MPA success in conserving resource fish biomass were MPA size and years of protection. Habitat and distance from shore had little effect on resource fish biomass. The extensive network of MPAs in Palau likely provides important conservation and tourism benefits to the Republic, and may also provide fisheries benefits by protecting spawning aggregation sites, and potentially through adult spillover. PMID:28358910

  15. Size, age, and habitat determine effectiveness of Palau's Marine Protected Areas.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Alan M; Golbuu, Yimnang; Ballesteros, Enric; Caselle, Jennifer E; Gouezo, Marine; Olsudong, Dawnette; Sala, Enric

    2017-01-01

    Palau has a rich heritage of conservation that has evolved from the traditional moratoria on fishing, or "bul", to more western Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), while still retaining elements of customary management and tenure. In 2003, the Palau Protected Areas Network (PAN) was created to conserve Palau's unique biodiversity and culture, and is the country's mechanism for achieving the goals of the Micronesia Challenge (MC), an initiative to conserve ≥30% of near-shore marine resources within the region by 2020. The PAN comprises a network of numerous MPAs within Palau that vary in age, size, level of management, and habitat, which provide an excellent opportunity to test hypotheses concerning MPA design and function using multiple discreet sampling units. Our sampling design provided a robust space for time comparison to evaluate the relative influence of potential drivers of MPA efficacy. Our results showed that no-take MPAs had, on average, nearly twice the biomass of resource fishes (i.e. those important commercially, culturally, or for subsistence) compared to nearby unprotected areas. Biomass of non-resource fishes showed no differences between no-take areas and areas open to fishing. The most striking difference between no-take MPAs and unprotected areas was the more than 5-fold greater biomass of piscivorous fishes in the MPAs compared to fished areas. The most important determinates of no-take MPA success in conserving resource fish biomass were MPA size and years of protection. Habitat and distance from shore had little effect on resource fish biomass. The extensive network of MPAs in Palau likely provides important conservation and tourism benefits to the Republic, and may also provide fisheries benefits by protecting spawning aggregation sites, and potentially through adult spillover.

  16. Plate coupling strength inferred from aftershock area expansion patterns and associated plate age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, F. C.

    2010-12-01

    Fault zone heterogeneity or plate boundary coupling in subduction zones has been debated repeatedly in numerous studies to understand the mechanisms that control characteristics of earthquake occurrence, i.e., typical moment release and degree of complexity of a mainshock rupture, and subsequent aftershock activity. Here we revisit a global survey of aftershock area expansion patterns of shallow large earthquakes (M≥˜7.5) focusing on the plate subduction boundaries (Tajima and Kanamori, 1985a,b), and attempt to relate the plate coupling strength to the sea floor age data compiled recently (Müller et al., 2008). The aftershock area S(t) (km2) was determined applying an objective method to draw contour maps for the seismic energy released from an aftershock sequence (i.e., 1015.6erg/100km2/day for the one-day aftershock area). Then, the expansion patterns are investigated as a function of time t (day) after the first day of aftershock activity, by the ratio of the aftershock area η(t) = S(t)/S(1) as well as the ratio of its length L(t) (km), ηl(t) = L(t)/L(1). The survey determined distinct regional variation that was interpreted in terms of plate coupling strength. In the subduction zones of Mexico, Alaska and parts of the South America the aftershock areas of large to great earthquakes show little expansion, and the coupling of the subducting and overlying plates is considered to be strong. In these regions relatively young (≤Miocene) plates are subducting beneath continents. In the Kuriles the aftershock area expansion of large events is widthwise indicating distinct boundaries lengthwise. The subduction zones are interpreted to be characterized by moderate to strong interplate coupling of two oceanic plates of a similar age (˜Cretaceus). Repeated large earthquakes in the Kuriles may have created “mature faults” of relatively loose mechanical coupling within distinct boundaries of strong coupling (asperities and barriers). In contrast, the aftershock

  17. Premature aging in bone of fish from a highly polluted marine area.

    PubMed

    Scopelliti, Giovanna; Di Leonardo, Rossella; Tramati, Cecilia D; Mazzola, Antonio; Vizzini, Salvatrice

    2015-08-15

    Fish species have attracted considerable interest in studies assessing biological responses to environmental contaminants. In this study, the attention has been focussed on fishbone of selected fish species from a highly polluted marine area, Augusta Bay (Italy, Central Mediterranean) to evaluate if toxicant elements had an effect on the mineralogical structure of bones, although macroscopic deformations were not evident. In particular, an attempt was made to evaluate if bone mineral features, such as crystallinity, mineral maturity and carbonate/phosphate mineral content, determined by XR-Diffraction and FT-IR Spectroscopy, suffered negative effects due to trace element levels in fishbone, detected by ICP-OES. Results confirmed the reliability of the use of diffractometric and spectroscopic techniques to assess the degree of crystallinity and the mineral maturity in fishbone. In addition, in highly polluted areas, Hg and Cr contamination induced a process of premature aging of fishbone, altering its biochemical and mineral contents.

  18. Effects of dietary protein on glomerular mesangial area and basement membrane thickness in aged uninephrectomized dogs.

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, R A; Steffens, W L; Brown, C A; Brown, S A; Ard, M; Finco, D R

    2001-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the effects of diets containing 18% or 34% protein on glomerular mesangial area (GMA) and basement membrane thickness (GBMT) in uninephrectomized aged dogs. A secondary objective was to determine the combined effects of aging and uninephrectomy on GMA and GBMT in dogs. Ten clinically healthy, pure-bred dogs were unilaterally nephrectomized at about 8 y of age. After 2 mo, 5 dogs were fed an 18% protein diet and 5 dogs were fed a 34% protein diet for 48 mo. At month 48, the dogs were euthanized and the remaining kidney was collected. Samples of kidney from both times of collection were used to measure GMA and GBMT using electron microscopy. The effects of diet on GMA and GBMT were analyzed (student's t-test) using necropsy/nephrectomy score ratios. The effects of time-nephrectomy were determined by comparing nephrectomy values for GMA and GBMT with necropsy values (paired t-test). Dogs fed 34% dietary protein did not have a significant increase in GMA and GBM thickness when compared to dogs fed the 18% protein diet. A significant increase in GMA and GBMT occurred with time-nephrectomy (P = 0.011 and 0.018, respectively). Although dietary protein intake was not a significant factor in causing structural changes to glomeruli in uninephrectomized aged dogs, the power to detect a difference was low. However, significant effects of aging and nephrectomy were detected despite the low power of the study. These results suggest that the increases in GMA and GBMT that occur over time are not markedly influenced by dietary protein intake. However, subtle protein effects cannot be eliminated as a possibility based on this study. Images Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:11346257

  19. Shedding light on gray(ing) areas: Connectivity and task switching dynamics in aging.

    PubMed

    Baniqued, Pauline L; Low, Kathy A; Fletcher, Mark A; Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica

    2017-03-21

    Control-demanding tasks rely on communication among regions of the frontoparietal network, areas that undergo significant age-related decline. Here, we integrate data from brain anatomy, electrophysiology (ERPs), and optical imaging (event-related optical signals, EROS) to characterize the spatial and temporal dynamics of preparatory control processes in middle to old age. Older adults participated in an experiment that required switching between a position and a meaning task (spatial Stroop), a paradigm that has been shown to primarily recruit prefrontal cortex in opposite hemispheres and is thought to involve the corpus callosum (CC). In middle-aged participants, switch trials resulted in greater negativity over F3 early in the preparatory period. Across the whole older adult sample, this switch-related frontal negativity was correlated with reaction time (RT) switch costs and EROS switch-related upregulation in the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG). Anterior CC volume was not directly correlated with switch costs, although CC volume predicted task-dependent coupling of left MFG and right MFG. Crucially, left MFG-seeded lagged cross-correlations revealed task-dependent connectivity; in the right-hemisphere-dependent position task, the timing and strength of switch-related coupling between left MFG and right MFG significantly predicted RT switch costs, even after controlling for age, CC volume, and the F3 switch effect. Together, these results suggest that a strong functional connectivity, likely hinged on the integrity of the underlying structural connections, is critical to being able to meet the demands of shifting processing across hemispheres, and that difficulty engaging such control dynamics leads to suboptimal performance.

  20. Internal Jugular Vein Cross-Sectional Area Enlargement Is Associated with Aging in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Magnano, Christopher; Belov, Pavel; Krawiecki, Jacqueline; Hagemeier, Jesper; Beggs, Clive; Zivadinov, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background Internal jugular vein (IJV) narrowing has been implicated in central nervous system pathologies, however normal physiological age- and gender-related IJV variance in healthy individuals (HIs) has not been adequately assessed. Objectives We assessed the relationship between IJV cross-sectional area (CSA) and aging. Materials and Methods This study involved 193 HIs (63 males and 130 females) who received 2-dimensional magnetic resonance venography at 3T. The minimum CSA of the IJVs at cervical levels C2/C3, C4, C5/C6, and C7/T1 was obtained using a semi-automated contouring-thresholding technique. Subjects were grouped by decade. Pearson and partial correlation (controlled for cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, heart disease, smoking and body mass index) and analysis of variance analyses were used, with paired t-tests comparing side differences. Results Mean right IJV CSA ranges were: in males, 41.6 mm2 (C2/C3) to 82.0 mm2 (C7/T1); in females, 38.0 mm2 (C2/C3) to 62.3 mm2 (C7/T1), while the equivalent left side ranges were: in males, 28.0 mm2 (C2/C3) to 52.2 mm2 (C7/T1); in females, 27.2 mm2 (C2/C3) to 47.8 mm2 (C7/T1). The CSA of the right IJVs was significantly larger (p<0.001) than the left at all cervical levels. Controlling for cardiovascular risk factors, the correlation between age and IJV CSA was more robust in males than in the females for all cervical levels. Conclusions In HIs age, gender, hand side and cervical location all affect IJV CSA. These findings suggest that any definition of IJV stenosis needs to account for these factors. PMID:26895434

  1. International Atomic Energy Agency specialists meeting on experience in ageing, maintenance, and modernization of instrumentation and control systems for improving nuclear power plant availability

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This report presents the proceedings of the Specialist`s Meeting on Experience in Aging, Maintenance and Modernization of Instrumentation and Control Systems for Improving Nuclear Power Plant Availability that was held at the Ramada Inn in Rockville, Maryland on May 5--7, 1993. The Meeting was presented in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the International Atomic Energy Agency. There were approximately 65 participants from 13 countries at the Meeting. Individual reports have been cataloged separately.

  2. The apparent groundwater age rejuvenation caused by the human activity in Jakarta area, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagabu, M.; Shimada, J.; Nakamura, T.; Delinom, R.; Taniguchi, M.

    2010-12-01

    The rapid urbanization in Jakarta area has become a serious subsurface environmental issues such as groundwater level decline and land subsidence due to excessive groundwater pumping. These problems began to emerge recently by some hydrological studies. The comparison of 14C activity between 1985 and 2008 shows the apparent groundwater age rejuvenation in the deep aquifer under the DKI Jakarta. We discussed by using a numerical groundwater flow model to evaluate the process of this rejuvenation in the urbanized area. Since the groundwater pumping was not performed intensely, the groundwater discharge flow toward the sea coast was dominant until 1983, however, this outward flux switched to intrusion flux into deeper aquifer after mid-1980s because of over-pumping in the urban area. The most largest flux among six flux directions toward the deep aquifer under the DKI Jakarta became “vertical downward flux” which means the shallower groundwater intrude into the deep one due to the excessive groundwater pumping from mid-1980s and this flux grows about 50% in 2000s. This result is consistent with the detection of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-12, which works as an indicator of young groundwater even in the deep groundwater. As the rejuvenation ratio “R” was determined by using 14C activity in the groundwater, R increase with the CFC-12 concentration and boths have good correlation. Besides, we estimated the “vertical downward flux” at each well's screen depth by the model estimation. The result shows that this flux has larger in the urban groundwater depression area and especially at shallower part of the deep aquifer, and it affects the magnitude of the shallow groundwater intrusion. Relationship between R and CFC-12 concentration. The diameter of cube shows the magnitude of the “vertical downward flux”

  3. The case for human agency, well-being, and community reintegration for people aging in prison: a statewide case analysis.

    PubMed

    Maschi, Tina; Morrisey, Mary Beth; Leigey, Margaret

    2013-07-01

    This study profiled 2,913 adults aged 50 and older sentenced to a statewide correctional system and their parole eligibility status with implications for community reintegration, resettlement, and recovery needs. The research team developed the Correctional Tracking Data Extraction Tool to gather official data and personal and legal characteristics from a state department of corrections website. The majority of older prisoners were men from racial/ethnic minorities between the ages of 50 and 59 with a range of minor to serious offenses. Time served in prison ranged from 1 month to 45 years; more than 40% were eligible for parole within 5 years. These findings underscore the need for an intervention that can address the differing typologies and individual-level and systemic issues that gave rise to the aging prisoner population. Promising practices that address elements of a conceptual model in prison and community reintegration and recovery for older adult prisoners are reviewed.

  4. Ages of Quaternary Rio Grande terrace-fill deposits, Albuquerque area, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, J.C.; Mahan, S.A.; Stone, B.D.; Shroba, R.R.

    2007-01-01

    Results from luminescence dating on 13 samples from the Albuquerque area show that major-drainage fluvial deposits represent significant periods of aggradation that formed paired, correlatable terraces on the east and west margins of the Rio Grande valley. The youngest terrace fills (Primero Alto) formed during late Pleistocene as a result of streamflow variations with climate cooling during Marine Oxygen-Isotope Stage 3; our ages suggest aggradation of the upper part of the fill occurred at about 47-40 ka. Deposits of the second (Segundo Alto) terraces reached maximum height during climate cooling in the early part of Marine Oxygen-Isotope Stage 5 as late as 90-98 ka (based on dated basalt flows). Our luminescence ages show considerable scatter and tend to be younger (range from 63 ka to 162 ka). The third (Tercero Alto) and fourth (Cuarto Alto) terraces are dated on the basis of included volcanic tephra. Tercero Alto terrace-fill deposits contain the Lava Creek B tephra (639 ka), and Cuarto Alto terrace-fill deposits contain tephra of the younger Bandelier Tuff eruption (1.22 Ma), the Cerro Toledo Rhyolite (1.47 Ma), and the older Bandelier Tuff eruption (1.61 Ma). These periods of aggradation culminated in fluvial terraces that are preserved at maximum heights of 360 ft (Cuarto Alto), 300 ft (Tercero Alto), 140 ft (Segundo Alto), and 60 ft (Primero Alto) above the modern flood-plain. Despite lithologic differences related to local source-area contributions, these terracefill deposits can be correlated across the Rio Grande and up- and down-valley for tens of miles based on maximum height of the terrace above the modern floodplain.

  5. Ages of Quaternary Rio Grande terrace-fill deposits, Albuquerque area, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; Mahan, Shannon; Stone, Byron D.; Shroba, Ralph R.

    2007-01-01

    Results from luminescence dating on 13 samples from the Albuquerque area show that major-drainage fluvial deposits represent significant periods of aggradation that formed paired, correlatable terraces on the east and west margins of the Rio Grande valley . The youngest terrace fills (Primero Alto) formed during late Pleistocene as a result of streamflow variations with climate cooling during Marine Oxygen-Isotope Stage 3; our ages suggest aggradation of the upper part of the fill occurred at about 47–40 ka . Deposits of the second (Segundo Alto) terraces reached maximum height during climate cooling in the early part of Marine Oxygen-Isotope Stage 5 as late as 90–98 ka (based on dated basalt flows) . Our luminescence ages show considerable scatter and tend to be younger (range from 63 ka to 162 ka) . The third (Tercero Alto) and fourth (Cuarto Alto) terraces are dated on the basis of included volcanic tephra. Tercero Alto terrace-fill deposits contain the Lava Creek B tephra (639 ka), and Cuarto Alto terrace-fill deposits contain tephra of the younger Bandelier Tuff eruption (1 .22 Ma), the Cerro Toledo Rhyolite (1 .47 Ma), and the older Bandelier Tuff eruption (1 .61 Ma). These periods of aggradation culminated in fluvial terraces that are preserved at maximum heights of 360 ft (Cuarto Alto), 300 ft. (Tercero Alto), 140 ft (Segundo Alto), and 60 ft. (Primero Alto) above the modern floodplain. Despite lithologic differences related to local source-area contributions, these terracefill deposits can be correlated across the Rio Grande and up- and down-valley for tens of miles based on maximum height of the terrace above the modern floodplain.

  6. Children in the archives: epistolary evidence, youth agency, and the social meanings of "coming of age" in interwar Nyasaland.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    This study looks at multiracial boys and girls, often referred to as "half castes," in Nyasaland. It reconstructs the status and agency of these children by assessing the ways in which they maneuvered local African and European communities to explore opportunities that would improve their individual situations. At times they took initiative by writing letters to the Nyasaland administration for financial support. Furthermore, state responses to these letters provide evidence of how the state perceived these children, particularly the moral responsibility felt given that their fathers were often white settlers and at times colonial officials. This article also discusses the general challenges and opportunities that childhood experiences raise, with specific attention to the kind of subaltern social knowledge that such evidence presents--knowledge that challenges conventional visions of what constitutes history and who makes it.

  7. The Aging Network and Managed Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polivka, Larry; Zayac, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, service providers and area agencies on aging, that is, the aging network, have developed a number of strengths as they built a community-based long-term-care system in most states. Many area agencies and providers now have the capacity to assess the needs of older persons, identify appropriate services, and administer…

  8. Factors involved in the development of diaper-area granuloma of the aged.

    PubMed

    Isogai, Rieko; Yamada, Hidekazu

    2013-12-01

    An infant skin disease with clusters of nodules in the diaper contact area was reported as granuloma gluteale infantum. Recently, the number of elderly patients with this condition has increased, and it has been reported as diaper-area granuloma of the aged. These lesions are presumably caused by irritation from feces and urine. We observed similar cutaneous symptoms in six elderly patients, five of whom revealed clusters of nodules arranged in a circular pattern in the gluteal region presenting a peculiar clinical picture. They were all bedridden and wore cloth diapers. We speculate that wearing a cloth diaper seems to be a major factor behind this condition. Another factor was sitting during the day. A subject had lesions with nodules on the scrotum. The distribution of nodules appeared to be related to the body position and vigorous movement of the patient. In all cases, topical steroid therapies were not effective. They were all positive for bacteriuria. Chronic urinary tract infection further irritates the skin. It is necessary to reduce urine contact and keep the lesion clean.

  9. Population aging in local areas and subjective well-being of older adults: Findings from two studies in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tami; Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Harada, Ken; Kai, Ichiro

    2016-05-23

    Subjective well-being (SWB) of older adults could be affected by both individual and community characteristics. However, the effect of community characteristics, such as population aging in local areas, remains unclear. This study examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the area-level population aging and SWB of older individuals from two distinct surveys. Those analyzed were 572 respondents aged 75 years and older for a cross-sectional survey in a metropolitan area in Tokyo, Japan (Study 1) and 1,257 and 859 respondents for a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis, respectively, for a 2-year longitudinal survey project in urban and rural areas of Fukui Prefecture (Study 2). Area-level population aging was assessed by the number of people aged 65 years or older per 100 residents. SWB was assessed with the Life Satisfaction Index-A (LSIA). Multilevel analysis was performed to examine unconditional and conditional associations between the area-level number of older adults per 100 residents and the individual-level LSIA scores. The area-level number of older adults per 100 residents was significantly and positively associated with the LSIA scores in Study 1 (p = 0.042), even after controlling for the area- and individual-level covariates. In Study 2, we also found a significant effect of the area-level number of older adults per 100 residents on LSIA scores in the longitudinal multivariate analysis (p = 0.049). Findings from two survey projects suggested cross-validity in the positive effect of area-level population aging on older adults' SWB. Policymakers should consider older citizens' SWB in the recent urban-to-rural migration governmental policy as well as in urban renovation planning.

  10. Uranium-series dating of mollusks and corals, and age of Pleistocene deposits, Chesapeake Bay area, Virginia and Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mixon, Robert B.; Szabo, B. J.; Owens, James Patrick

    1982-01-01

    Geologic mapping in conjunction with uranium-series dating of fossil mollusks and corals suggests that the low-lying ( < 17 m in altitude) terrace deposits in the central and southern Chesapeake Bay area include two main depositional sequences, each of which represents a high stand of the sea in late Pleistocene time. The older depositional sequence includes the Accomack and Omar beds of the Delmarva area, the fossiliferous deposits along the lower Rappahannock River, and the Norfolk Formation deposits west of the Suffolk scarp. These beds have yielded a single reliable coral age estimate of 184,000?20,000 years B.P., suggesting an early late Pleistocene age. The younger sequence, including the type beds of the Norfolk Formation and equivalent strata east of the Suffolk scarp, has yielded several coral ages ranging from about 62,000 to 86,000 years B.P. (including ages from our samples and previously reported age estimates); thus, it is clearly late Pleistocene in age. Groupings of ages obtained from our quahog analyses also suggest two transgressive sequences; however, the estimated quahog ages are consistently younger than ages based on coral samples from the same and equivalent stratigraphic units. Stratigraphic, paleoclimatic, and geomorphic data suggest that the estimated uranium-series age of 71,000?7,000 years B.P. for the type beds of the Norfolk, obtained by averaging our coral dates, may be too young by as much as several tens of thousands of years. A postulated equivalency of the type Norfolk beds, upper Pleistocene deposits near Charleston, S.C. (apparent uranium-series age = 95,000?5,000 years), and deposits in the Caribbean area thought to represent the highest sea stand during the last interglacial period (apparent age, 125,000?10,000 years) implies diagenetic modification of coralline material possibly in part because of regional differences in depositional and postdepositional environments.

  11. Bullying among school-age children in the greater Beirut area: risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Khamis, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of bullying at schools in the Greater Beirut Area and the extent to which differences in children's sociodemographics, family and school environment, and coping strategies could account for variation in academic achievement, PTSD and emotional and behavioral disorders. Participants were 665 male and female children of mean age 13.8 years. Results indicated that a high proportion of children had been involved in bullying on a regular basis with victims having a higher prevalence ratio than bullies and bully/victims. Verbal bullying including spreading rumors was the most common type of victimization, followed by being rejected from a group. Being bullied about one's religion or sect comprised one of the most common bullying behaviors in schools. Students rarely tried to stop a student from being bullied and teachers were reported to have done relatively little or nothing to counteract bullying. Prevalence of bullying was more among boys than girls. School bullying was not associated with academic achievement or with having difficulties in reading and math. Children who were identified as bully/victim, victim, and bully suffered from PTSD compared to those who were not identified as being involved in bullying The study showed that both bullies and victims are at-risk for short term and long-term adjustment difficulties including hyperactivity, emotional symptoms, conduct problems and peer problems. Child's gender and emotion-focused coping stood out as risk factors for the development of bullying behaviors whereas age, problem-focused coping, family environment, and school environment were significant protective factors.

  12. 45 CFR 1321.65 - Responsibilities of service providers under area plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Service Requirements § 1321.65... area agency on aging shall assure that providers of services shall: (a) Provide the area agency, in...

  13. 45 CFR 1321.65 - Responsibilities of service providers under area plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Service Requirements § 1321.65... area agency on aging shall assure that providers of services shall: (a) Provide the area agency, in...

  14. 45 CFR 1321.65 - Responsibilities of service providers under area plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Service Requirements § 1321.65... area agency on aging shall assure that providers of services shall: (a) Provide the area agency, in...

  15. 45 CFR 1321.65 - Responsibilities of service providers under area plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Service Requirements § 1321.65... area agency on aging shall assure that providers of services shall: (a) Provide the area agency, in...

  16. 45 CFR 1321.65 - Responsibilities of service providers under area plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Service Requirements § 1321.65... area agency on aging shall assure that providers of services shall: (a) Provide the area agency, in...

  17. Age-related effects on leaf area/sapwood area relationships, canopy transpiration and carbon gain of Norway spruce stands (Picea abies) in the Fichtelgebirge, Germany.

    PubMed

    Köstner, B; Falge, E; Tenhunen, J D

    2002-06-01

    Stand age is an important structural determinant of canopy transpiration (E(c)) and carbon gain. Another more functional parameter of forest structure is the leaf area/sapwood area relationship, A(L)/A(S), which changes with site conditions and has been used to estimate leaf area index of forest canopies. The interpretation of age-related changes in A(L)/A(S) and the question of how A(L)/A(S) is related to forest functions are of current interest because they may help to explain forest canopy fluxes and growth. We conducted studies in mature stands of Picea abies (L.) Karst. varying in age from 40 to 140 years, in tree density from 1680 to 320 trees ha(-1), and in tree height from 15 to 30 m. Structural parameters were measured by biomass harvests of individual trees and stand biometry. We estimated E(c) from scaled-up xylem sap flux of trees, and canopy-level fluxes were predicted by a three-dimensional microclimate and gas exchange model (STANDFLUX). In contrast to pine species, A(L)/A(S) of P. abies increased with stand age from 0.26 to 0.48 m(2) cm(-2). Agreement between E(c) derived from scaled-up sap flux and modeled canopy transpiration was obtained with the same parameterization of needle physiology independent of stand age. Reduced light interception per leaf area and, as a consequence, reductions in net canopy photosynthesis (A(c)), canopy conductance (g(c)) and E(c) were predicted by the model in the older stands. Seasonal water-use efficiency (WUE = A(c)/E(c)), derived from scaled-up sap flux and stem growth as well as from model simulation, declined with increasing A(L)/A(S) and stand age. Based on the different behavior of age-related A(L)/A(S) in Norway spruce stands compared with other tree species, we conclude that WUE rather than A(L)/A(S) could represent a common age-related property of all species. We also conclude that, in addition to hydraulic limitations reducing carbon gain in old stands, a functional change in A(L)/A(S) that is related to

  18. Radiocarbon ages of lacustrine deposits in volcanic sequences of the Lomas Coloradas area, Socorro Island, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, J. D.; Farmer, M. C.; Berger, R.

    1993-01-01

    Extensive eruptions of alkalic basalt from low-elevation fissures and vents on the southern flank of the dormant volcano, Cerro Evermann, accompanied the most recent phase of volcanic activity on Socorro Island, and created the Lomas Coloradas, a broad, gently sloping terrain comprising the southern part of the island. We obtained 14C ages of 4690 +/- 270 BP (5000-5700 cal BP) and 5040 +/- 460 BP (5300-6300 cal BP) from lacustrine deposits that occur within volcanic sequences of the lower Lomas Coloradas. Apparently, the sediments accumulated within a topographic depression between two scoria cones shortly after they formed. The lacrustine environment was destroyed when the cones were breached by headward erosion of adjacent stream drainages. This was followed by the eruption of a thin basaltic flow from fissures near the base of the northernmost cone. The flow moved downslope for a short distance and into the drainages that presently bound the study area on the east and west. The flow postdates development of the present drainage system and may be very recent. Our 14C data, along with historical accounts of volcanic activity over the last century, including submarine eruptions that occurred a few km west of Socorro in early 1993, underscore the high risk for explosive volcanism in this region and the need for a detailed volcanic hazards plan and seismic monitoring.

  19. Radiocarbon ages of lacustrine deposits in volcanic sequences of the Lomas Coloradas area, Socorro Island, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.D. ); Farmer, M.C. . Dept. of Geography and Anthropology); Berger, R. . Depts. of Geography and Anthropology and Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences)

    1993-01-01

    Extensive eruptions of alkalic basalt from low-elevation fissures and vents on the southern flank of the dormant volcano, Cerro Evermann, accompanied the most recent phase of volcanic activity on Socorro Island, and created the Lomas Coloradas, a broad, gently sloping terrain comprising the southern part of the island. The authors obtained [sup 14]C ages of 4690 [plus minus] 270 Bp (5000-5700 cal Bp) and 5040 [plus minus] 460 Bp (53090-6300 cal Bp) from lacustrine deposits that occur within volcanic sequences of the lower Lonas Coloradas. Apparently, the sediments accumulated within a topographic depression between two scoria cones shortly after they formed. The lacustrine environment was destroyed when the cones were breached by headward erosion of adjacent stream drainages. This was followed by the eruption of a thin basaltic flow from fissures near the base of the northernmost cone. The flow moved downslope for a short distance and into the drainages that presently bound the study area on the east and west. The flow postdates development of the present drainage system and may be very recent. These [sup 14]C data, along with historical accounts of volcanic activity over the last century, including submarine eruptions that occurred a few km west of Socorro in early 1993, underscore the high risk for explosive volcanism in the region and the need for a detailed volcanic hazards plan and seismic monitoring.

  20. Fine-scale spatial age segregation in the limited foraging area of an inshore seabird species, the little penguin.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Laure; Chiaradia, André; Kato, Akiko; Ropert-Coudert, Yan

    2014-10-01

    Competition for food resources can result in spatial and dietary segregation among individuals from the same species. Few studies have looked at such segregations with the combined effect of sex and age in species with short foraging ranges. In this study we examined the 3D spatial use of the environment in a species with a limited foraging area. We equipped 26 little penguins (Eudyptula minor) of known age, sex, and breeding output with GPS (location) and accelerometer (body acceleration and dive depth) loggers. We obtained dietary niche information from the isotopic analysis of blood tissue. We controlled for confounding factors of foraging trip length and food availability by sampling adults at guard stage when parents usually make one-day trips. We observed a spatial segregation between old (>11 years old) and middle-aged penguins (between 5 and 11 years old) in the foraging area. Old penguins foraged closer to the shore, in shallower water. Despite observing age-specific spatial segregation, we found no differences in the diving effort and foraging efficiency between age classes and sexes. Birds appeared to target similar prey types, but showed age-specific variation in their isotopic niche width. We hypothesize that this age-specific segregation was primarily determined by a "cohort effect" that would lead individuals sharing a common life history (i.e. having fledged and dispersed around the same age) to forage preferentially together or to share similar foraging limitations.

  1. Cross-checking groundwater age by 4He and 14C dating in a granite, Tono area, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Takuma; Nakata, Kotaro; Tomioka, Yuichi; Goto, Kazuyuki; Kashiwaya, Koki; Hama, Katsuhiro; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Kunimaru, Takanori; Takeda, Masaki

    2016-11-01

    Groundwater dating was performed simultaneously by the 4He and 14C methods in granite of the Tono area in central Japan. Groundwater was sampled at 30 packed-off sections of six 1000-m boreholes. 4He concentrations increased and 14C concentrations decreased along a groundwater flow path on a topographic gradient. 4He ages were calculated by using the in situ 4He production rate derived from the porosity, density, and U and Th content of the rock, neglecting external flux. 14C ages were calculated with a noncorrected model in which the initial 14C content was 100 percent of the modern radiocarbon level (Co = 100 pmC), a statistical model using the average 14C content of tritium-bearing samples (Co = 46.4 pmC), and a δ13C model based on the isotopic mass balance. Although the absolute 14C ages calculated by the models were different, the relative 14C ages were almost identical. The relative 14C ages were considered reliable because dissolved inorganic carbon has no significant geochemical reactions in granite. The relation between the 4He ages and the noncorrected 14C ages was [4He age] = 1.15 [14C age] + 7200 (R2 = 0.81), except in the discharge area. The slope of this relation was equivalent to unity, which indicates that the 4He accumulation rate is confirmed by the relative 14C ages. Moreover, the accumulated 3He/4He ratio was equivalent to that derived from the 6Li(α,n)3H reaction in granite. These results show that the accumulated He is of crustal origin, produced in situ without external flux, except in the discharge area. The intercept value of 7200 a implies that the 14C concentrations were diluted due to geochemical reactions. Tritium-bearing samples supported this result. Simultaneous measurements make it feasible to estimate the accumulation rate of 4He and initial dilution of 14C, which cannot be done with a single method. Cross-checking groundwater dating has the potential to provide more reliable groundwater ages. The circulation time of the

  2. Age and origin of Terra Rossa soils in the Coonawarra area of South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mee, Aija C.; Bestland, Erick A.; Spooner, Nigel A.

    2004-03-01

    The famous Terra Rossa soil in the Coonawarra area, South Australia, is dominated by locally derived aeolian detritus, which probably accumulated over the last 120-130 ka. Four soil profiles and associated limestone and lunette deposits were investigated using the following methods: mass balance geochemistry of bulk soil samples (major and trace elements), quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) mineralogy, strontium isotopes (87/86), as well as grain-size analysis and cation exchange capacity. These data show that the Terra Rossa soil from the Coonawarra has a thick, clayey B-horizon which is geochemically homogeneous and dominated by smectite and kaolinite. Mass-balance calculations show unrealistic weathering scenarios when plotted using silicate residuum from the underlying limestone as parent. Realistic weathering scenarios are produced with fine-grained silicate material from local lunette deposits as parent. Strontium isotopes of silicate residuum from Gambier Limestone (0.78) contrast strongly with the clayey B-horizon (0.726). Strontium isotope ratios of silicate material from a local lunette (0.725) are similar to the B-horizon soil values. Strontium isotope ratios from regional geological units indicate that the strontium signature in the lunette and soil B-horizon is dominated by weathering products from the Palaeozoic Kanmantoo shales, extensively exposed upwind to the west on Kangaroo Island and the Fleurieu Peninsula. Optical (optically stimulated luminescence, OSL) dating of 61 individual quartz grains (single aliquot) from three samples in the Coonawarra soil profile (one from the A-horizon and two from the B-horizon) shows that most of the quartz sand grains have been buried for only a few thousand years. Many of the grains, however, have been buried for tens of thousands of years with three grains having exposure ages of between 105 and 109 ka. The large population of young exposure dates represents quartz sands recently exposed in the A-horizon and

  3. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  4. Synaptic Correlates Of Increased Cognitive Vulnerability With Aging: Peripheral Immune Challenge and Aging Interact to Disrupt Theta-Burst L-LTP in Hippocampal Area CA1

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Timothy R.; Barrientos, Ruth M.; Ahrendsen, Jared T.; Maier, Steven F.; Patterson, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    Variability in cognitive functioning increases markedly with age, as does cognitive vulnerability to physiological and psychological challenges. Exploring the basis of this vulnerability may provide important insights into the mechanisms underlying aging-associated cognitive decline. As we have previously reported, the cognitive abilities of aging (24-month-old) F344xBN rats are generally good, but are more vulnerable to the consequences of a peripheral immune challenge (an i.p. injection of live E. coli) than those of their younger (3-month-old) counterparts. Four days after the injection, the aging, but not the young rats show profound memory deficits, specific to the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memory processes. Here, we have extended these observations, using hippocampal slices to examine for the first time the combined effects of aging and a recent infection on several forms of synaptic plasticity. We have found that the specific deficit in long-lasting memory observed in the aged animals following infection is mirrored by a specific deficit in a form of long-lasting synaptic plasticity. The late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) induced in area CA1 using theta burst stimulation is particularly compromised by the combined effects of aging and infection – a deficit that can be ameliorated by intra-cisterna magna administration of the naturally occurring anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra). These data support the idea that the combination of aging and a negative life event such as an infection might produce selective, early-stage failures of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, with corresponding selective deficits in memory. PMID:20519534

  5. Age estimation from pulp/tooth area ratio in maxillary incisors among Egyptians using dental radiographic images.

    PubMed

    Zaher, Jaklin Fekri; Fawzy, Irene Atef; Habib, Sahar Refaat; Ali, Magdy Mohamed

    2011-02-01

    Age estimation from dental radiographs is a non-destructive, simple method to obtain information. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of age estimation from Egyptians' incisors radiographs. 144 periapical radiographs of maxillary (central & lateral) incisors (both sexes) aged 12-60 were used. Digital camera was used to image the radiographs. Images were computed and pulp/tooth area ratios were determined by AutoCAD Program. Data were subjected to correlation and regression analysis which showed statistically significant correlation (r = 0.23 &P = 0.006 for maxillary central incisors and r = -0.2 &P = 0.05 for maxillary lateral incisors) between age and pulp tooth area ratio. Linear regression equations were determined separately for both central and lateral incisors along with the corresponding Standard Error of Estimate, which ranged from 1.2 to 5.08 years. Consequently, it was concluded that pulp/tooth area ratios of incisors are reliable for estimation of age among Egyptians in forensic work.

  6. Validity of the Fine Motor Area of the 12-Month Ages and Stages Questionnaire in Infants Following Major Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cally; Wallen, Margaret; Walker, Karen; Bundy, Anita; Rolinson, Rachel; Badawi, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    The Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) are parent-report screening tools to identify infants at risk of developmental difficulties. The purpose of this study was to examine validity and internal reliability of the fine motor developmental area of the ASQ, 2nd edition (ASQ2-FM) for screening 12-month-old infants following major surgery. The…

  7. The Effect of Residence Area and Mother's Education on Motor Development of Preschool-Aged Children in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Kyparos, Antonios; Fotiadou, Eleni; Angelopoulou, Nickoletta

    2007-01-01

    Development occurs according to the rhythm that is established by the genetic potential and the influence of environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the child's residence area and maternal education on child's motor development. Eight hundred children (384 boys and 416 girls, aged 37-72 months), randomly…

  8. Mammography Prevalence within 2 Two Years (Age 40+) - Small Area Estimates

    Cancer.gov

    For mammography, a woman 40 years of age or older must have reported having at least one mammography in her life. Furthermore, she should have had the most recent one within the last two years by the time of interview.

  9. Aging in the Undergraduate Curriculum: Faculty Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyman, Janna C.; Gutheil, Irene A.; White-Ryan, Linda; Phipps, Colette; Guishard, Dozene

    2008-01-01

    This descriptive study of undergraduate faculty (N = 177) ascertained the extent to which aging content is taught and faculty are interested in aging. The research was the result of a collaboration among an area agency on aging, an alliance of academic and community leaders, and a university-based research center. While approximately 43% of the…

  10. Migration of Retirement-Age Blacks to Nonmetropolitan Areas in the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Calvin L.; Fuguitt, Glenn V.

    2011-01-01

    Older blacks migrated to nonmetropolitan (nonmetro) communities in the 1990s to a degree not true of the past. Some of the nonmetro counties that attracted them are well-known retirement areas also favored by other retirees, mostly whites. Two-thirds of black retirement counties, however, are areas in the Old South that are not attracting other…

  11. Petrography, age, and paleomagnetism of basaltic lava flows in coreholes at Test Area North (TAN), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lanphere, M.A.; Champion, D.E.; Kuntz, M.A.

    1994-12-31

    The petrography, age, and paleomagnetism were determined on basalt from 21 lava flows comprising about 1,700 feet of core from two coreholes (TAN CH No. 1 and TAN CH No. 2) in the Test Area North (TAN) area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Paleomagnetic studies were made on two additional cores from shallow coreholes in the TAN area. K-Ar ages and paleomagnetism also were determined on nearby surface outcrops of Circular Butte. Paleomagnetic measurements were made on 416 samples from four coreholes and on a single site in surface lava flows of Circular Butte. K-Ar ages were measured on 9 basalt samples from TAN CH No. 1 and TAN CH No. 2 and one sample from Circular Butte. K-Ar ages ranged from 1.044 Ma to 2.56 Ma. All of the samples have reversed magnetic polarity and were erupted during the Matuyama Reversed Polarity Epoch. The purpose of investigations was to develop a three-dimensional stratigraphic framework for geologic and hydrologic studies including potential volcanic hazards to facilities at the INEL and movement of radionuclides in the Snake River Plain aquifer.

  12. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell model for aging predictions: Simulated equivalent active surface area loss and comparisons with durability tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, C.; Gérard, M.; Quinaud, M.; d'Arbigny, J.; Bultel, Y.

    2016-09-01

    The prediction of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) lifetime is one of the major challenges to optimize both material properties and dynamic control of the fuel cell system. In this study, by a multiscale modeling approach, a mechanistic catalyst dissolution model is coupled to a dynamic PEMFC cell model to predict the performance loss of the PEMFC. Results are compared to two 2000-h experimental aging tests. More precisely, an original approach is introduced to estimate the loss of an equivalent active surface area during an aging test. Indeed, when the computed Electrochemical Catalyst Surface Area profile is fitted on the experimental measures from Cyclic Voltammetry, the computed performance loss of the PEMFC is underestimated. To be able to predict the performance loss measured by polarization curves during the aging test, an equivalent active surface area is obtained by a model inversion. This methodology enables to successfully find back the experimental cell voltage decay during time. The model parameters are fitted from the polarization curves so that they include the global degradation. Moreover, the model captures the aging heterogeneities along the surface of the cell observed experimentally. Finally, a second 2000-h durability test in dynamic operating conditions validates the approach.

  13. Letter report: Population estimates by age, sex and race for 10-county study area

    SciTech Connect

    Pittenger, D B

    1992-02-01

    The Hanford Environmental Does Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate radiation doses that people could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. To identify groups that may have received doses, population estimates containing age, race, and sex detail for ten counties in Washington and Oregon for the years 1940 to 1980 were prepared by the Demographics Laboratory under a subcontract with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). A data base of population information was developed from census reports and published and unpublished collections from the Washington State Office of Financial Management and Center for Population Research. Three estimation methods were then explored: the cohort-component model, cohort interpolation, and age-group interpolation. The estimates generated through cohort and age-group interpolation are considered adequate for initial use in the HEDR Project. Results are presented in two forms: (1) county populations by sex and single year of age and (2) county populations by sex and race for age groupings. These results are made available to the HEDR Project for further refinement into population estimates by county census divisions.

  14. Aging and environmental factors: an estimation of the health state of the elderly population residing in industrialized vs. rural areas.

    PubMed

    Santangelo, Antonino; Albani, Salvatore; Beretta, Massimiliano; Cappello, Antonella; Mamazza, Grazia; Pavano, Salvatore; Testaì, Manuela; Tomarchio, Marcello; Zuccaro, Carmela; Maugeri, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    The possibilities have already been discussed that the environment of the living beings may influence the aging process, by causing alterations of the homeostatic capacities to such an extent that definitive pathologies will come into being. Therefore, the aim of the present study was at estimating the effective impact of the environmental pollution on the health state of the subjects residing in highly industrialized areas. For this purpose, we compared 2 populations over the age of 56 years, one from the industrialized areas and the other of agricultural character. The health indicator we utilized was the rate of hospitalization calculated for the main geriatric pathologies. It has been observed that among the residents of highly polluted areas, the hospitalizations were more frequent for the screened pathologies. This finding could be an indicator of an interference of the environmental pollution with the physiological process of aging. One can also suspect that for the cardiovascular pathologies also the factor of physical fatigue being more prevalent in the rural population might play an important role in the high occurrence of this type of diseases. On the basis of these findings we intend to emphasize that the sanitary programs of a given territory should consider in the development and application of a sanitary service the intrinsic characteristics of the given area, when designing the possibly most adequate health care service.

  15. Pap Smear Test Prevalence within Three Years (Age 18+) - Small Area Estimates

    Cancer.gov

    For Pap smear test, a woman 18 years of age or older must have reported having at least one Pap smear test in her life. Furthermore, she should have had one within the last three years by the time of interview.

  16. Dense and Non-dense Mammographic Area and Risk of Breast Cancer by Age and Tumor Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Scott, Christopher G.; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Jensen, Matthew R.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Norman, Aaron D.; Visscher, Daniel W.; Couch, Fergus J.; Shepherd, John; Chen, Yunn-Yi; Fan, Bo; Wu, Fang-Fang; Ma, Lin; Beck, Andrew H.; Cummings, Steven R.; Kerlikowske, Karla; Vachon, Celine M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mammographic density (MD) is a strong breast cancer risk factor. We previously reported associations of percent MD with larger and node-positive tumors across all ages, and estrogen receptor (ER)-negative status among women ages <55 years. To provide insight into these associations, we examined the components of percent MD (dense area (DA) and non-dense area (NDA) with breast cancer subtypes. Methods Data were pooled from six studies including 4095 breast cancers and 8558 controls. DA and NDA were assessed from digitized film-screen mammograms and standardized across studies. Breast cancer odds by density phenotypes and age according to histopathological characteristics and receptor status were calculated using polytomous logistic regression. Results DA was associated with increased breast cancer risk [odds ratios (OR) for quartiles: 0.65, 1.00(Ref), 1.22, 1.55; p-trend <0.001] and NDA was associated with decreased risk [ORs for quartiles: 1.39, 1.00(Ref), 0.88, 0.72; p-trend <0.001] across all ages and invasive tumor characteristics. There were significant trends in the magnitude of associations of both DA and NDA with breast cancer by increasing tumor size (p-trend<0.001) but no differences by nodal status. Among women <55 years, DA was more strongly associated with increased risk of ER+ vs. ER− tumors [p-heterogeneity (het) = 0.02] while NDA was more strongly associated with decreased risk of ER− vs. ER+ tumors [p-het = 0.03]. Conclusions DA and NDA have differential associations with ER+ vs. ER− tumors that vary by age. Impact DA and NDA are important to consider when developing age- and subtype-specific risk models. PMID:25716949

  17. 77 FR 20637 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; OAA Title III-C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... the Aging Network--State Unit on Aging (SUA), Area Agency on Aging (AAA), and Local Service Provider... population served and a survey that covers a variety of topics. The AAA process component includes a short... faxable survey that is comparable to the AAA faxable survey and a web-based survey that covers a range...

  18. Age estimation by pulp-to-tooth area ratio using cone-beam computed tomography: A preliminary analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Arpita; Acharya, Ashith B.; Naikmasur, Venkatesh G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Age estimation of living or deceased individuals is an important aspect of forensic sciences. Conventionally, pulp-to-tooth area ratio (PTR) measured from periapical radiographs have been utilized as a nondestructive method of age estimation. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a new method to acquire three-dimensional images of the teeth in living individuals. Aims: The present study investigated age estimation based on PTR of the maxillary canines measured in three planes obtained from CBCT image data. Settings and Design: Sixty subjects aged 20–85 years were included in the study. Materials and Methods: For each tooth, mid-sagittal, mid-coronal, and three axial sections—cementoenamel junction (CEJ), one-fourth root level from CEJ, and mid-root—were assessed. PTR was calculated using AutoCAD software after outlining the pulp and tooth. Statistical Analysis Used: All statistical analyses were performed using an SPSS 17.0 software program. Results and Conclusions: Linear regression analysis showed that only PTR in axial plane at CEJ had significant age correlation (r = 0.32; P < 0.05). This is probably because of clearer demarcation of pulp and tooth outline at this level. PMID:28123269

  19. Effect of thermal aging on the tensile bond strength at reduced areas of seven current adhesives.

    PubMed

    Baracco, Bruno; Fuentes, M Victoria; Garrido, Miguel A; González-López, Santiago; Ceballos, Laura

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the micro-tensile bond strength (MTBS) to dentin of seven adhesive systems (total and self-etch adhesives) after 24 h and 5,000 thermocycles. Dentin surfaces of human third molars were exposed and bonded with two total-etch adhesives (Adper Scotchbond 1 XT and XP Bond), two two-step self-etch adhesives (Adper Scotchbond SE and Filtek Silorane Adhesive System) and three one-step self-etch adhesives (G-Bond, Xeno V and Bond Force). All adhesive systems were applied following manufacturers' instructions. Composite buildups were constructed and the bonded teeth were then stored in water (24 h, 37 °C) or thermocycled (5,000 cycles) before being sectioned and submitted to MTBS test. Two-way ANOVA and subsequent comparison tests were applied at α = 0.05. Characteristic de-bonded specimens were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After 24 h water storage, MTBS values were highest with XP Bond, Adper Scotchbond 1 XT, Filtek Silorane Adhesive System and Adper Scotchbond SE and lowest with the one-step self-etch adhesives Bond Force, Xeno V and G-Bond. After thermocycling, MTBS values were highest with XP Bond, followed by Filtek Silorane Adhesive System, Adper Scotchbond SE and Adper Scotchbond 1 XT and lowest with the one-step self-etch adhesives Bond Force, Xeno V and G-Bond. Thermal aging induced a significant decrease in MTBS values with all adhesives tested. The resistance of resin-dentin bonds to thermal-aging degradation was material dependent. One-step self-etch adhesives obtained the lowest MTBS results after both aging treatments, and their adhesive capacity was significantly reduced after thermocycling.

  20. Nutritional Status and Food Habits of Middle-aged Adults in Selected Areas of Selangor.

    PubMed

    Karim, Norimah A; Mydenkather, Hajamohaideen

    2003-09-01

    A food habits and health status study was carried out among 100 Malay adults aged 40 years and above. The study protocol incorporated anthropometric measurements, evaluation of food habits and determination of blood glucose, cholesterol and blood pressure. Mean body mass index (BMI) for men and women were 27.2 ± 4.2 kg/m2 and 27.0 ± 5.2 kg/m2 respectively, which on average showed that the subjects were overweight. Food habits evaluation indicated that rice, fish and vegetables were the foods consumed almost everyday by the majority of the subjects. Meat, dairy products and fruits were eaten once to three times per week. Food intake score for sugar and salt demonstrated that a majority of men and women consumed moderate amounts of these foods. Most subjects exercised twice to three times a week for 15 min per session. Blood glucose tests revealed a mean of 5.04 ± 1.60 mmol/l in men and 4.86 ± 2.10 mmol/l for women. Mean cholesterol for men was 5.06 ± 1.22 mmol/l while it was 4.90 ± 1.34 mmol/l in women. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure in men was normal of 127.69 ± 13.60 mm Hg dan 85.87 ± 7.97 mm Hg, while in women it was 127.42 ± 17.54 mm Hg, 83.53 ± 9.50 mm Hg. The mean value for glucose, cholesterol and blood pressure increased with age. The food habits of these adults were satisfactory; however blood test for the nutrients of interest exhibited an increasing trend towards blood pressure, blood cholesterol and glucose with age. Middle-aged adults should adapt to a more active lifestyle and be more cautious of their food habits. This is to ensure a healthy well being throughout their life span.

  1. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hee-Won; Jang, Il-Young; Lee, Young Soo; Lee, Chang Ki; Cho, Eun-Il; Kang, Woo Young; Chae, Jeoung Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population.

  2. Successful Aging among Elders Living in the Mani Continental Region vs. Insular Areas of the Mediterranean: the MEDIS Study

    PubMed Central

    Mariolis, Anargiros; Foscolou, Alexandra; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Piscopo, Suzanne; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Tsakountakis, Nikos; Zeimbekis, Akis; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Gotsis, Efthimios; Metallinos, George; Tyrovola, Dimitra; Tur, Josep-Antoni; Matalas, Antonia-Leda; Lionis, Christos; Polychronopoulos, Evangelos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the role of geography i.e., continental vs. insular Mediterranean, on successful aging among older inhabitants. During 2005-2014, 2693 elderly (aged 65 to 100 years) individuals from 21 Mediterranean islands in Greece, Italy and Spain as well as Cyprus, Malta, and the rural region of Mani (southeast continental region of Greece keeping old-time traditions), were voluntarily recruited. Successful aging was evaluated using a validated index composed of 10 health-related socio-lifestyle and clinical characteristics. After accounting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, smoking habits, MedDietScore and access to health care services, the older inhabitants of islands were found to have a higher level of the successful aging index when compared to their counterparts in Mani (Beta=0.174, p<0.001); moreover, islanders exhibited slightly more years of “good” health (68.7 vs 68.4 years for Mani residents (p=0.99)). However, compared to the residents of Mani, islanders had 1.64 times higher odds (95%CI, 1.08-2.48) for having hypertension, 2.4-times higher odds (95%CI, 1.34-4.21) for having diabetes and 1.52 times higher odds (95%CI, 0.97-2.38) for having hypercholesterolemia. Engaging in physical activities and healthy dietary habits were the major determinants of healthy aging, among islanders as compared to their counterparts of continental Mani region. Elder residents of the continental Mani area enjoyed a better health status, whereas elder islanders had a higher level of successful aging; a finding which could be attributed to differences in lifestyle among elders. PMID:27330843

  3. Age of fracturing and mesa development in the Elysium Area, northern Martian plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgill, George E.

    1987-01-01

    One of the fundamental questions of Martian crustal history is the origin of the crustal dichotomy between northern plains and southern highlands. Hypotheses for the origin of the dichotomy may be constrained by global scale, geophysical considerations, or by detailed geological studies of the genesis and relative ages of materials and landforms in the northern plains of Mars and along the boundary between the plains and the highlands. This abstract summarizes progress on one aspect of a long-range geological study intended to constrain hypotheses for the dichotomy by tracing the history of the northern plains from the most recent events backward -- essentially the same approach used to understand old events in Earth history. Both the giant impact and the mantle convection models for the crustal dichotomy imply a major coeval fracturing event. As has been known for some time, the present dichotomy boundary lies well south of its original position, at least in some places. Nevertheless, there is severe fracturing of this present dichotomy boundary in many places. The specific objectives of this study are to determine the ages of fracturing along the present dichotomy boundary.

  4. [EEG of the very premature infant born at 24 to 30 weeks gestational age. Definitions and normal area].

    PubMed

    Vecchierini, M-F; André, M; d'Allest, A-M

    2007-01-01

    This article aims at summarizing normal EEG criteria and their maturational pattern in premature infants of 24 to 30 weeks gestational age. Although very premature infants with a normal outcome are not numerous, their normal EEG patterns must be known, as EEG constitutes a basis for neurological prognosis. Background activity is first discontinuous. Discontinuity decreases thereafter with increasing age, so that some long periods of continuous activity may be observed in active sleep, around 30 weeks of age. Conversely, interburst intervals become shorter and the proportion of time without EEG activity is decreasing. Based on EEG activity and eye movements, a rough sleep-state differentiation was described as soon as 25 weeks of gestational age and is completely achieved at 30 weeks. The main EEG figures are high-voltage delta waves of higher amplitude and slower frequency in younger infants. Temporal delta waves occur in sequences, these are very characteristic of the very premature infant; thereafter, they become smaller, less numerous and eventually disappear around 27-28 weeks. In contrast, occipital delta waves remain numerous and of high voltage, are usually bilateral and superimposed with fast rhythms. The two types of frontal delta waves that are observed in 24-27 weeks prematures disappear with maturation. Bursts of synchronized delta waves are less numerous than localized delta waves and also disappear before 28 weeks of age. Finally, diffuse theta bursts are mainly recorded at 26-27 weeks GA and become more localized in temporal areas with maturation. At 30 weeks, they are observed on temporal areas, mainly during slow-wave sleep.

  5. Sporotrichosis of Maxillary Sinuses in a Middle Aged Female Patient from Rural Area of Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Saumik; Sinha, Ramanuj; Aggarwal, Neeraj; Chakravorty, Sriparna

    2016-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is commonly a chronic infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii, a saprophytic fungus and is usually limited to cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues. Disseminated systemic, osteoarticular or pulmonary sporotrichosis have been reported but nasal sinusitis by this fungus is extremely infrequent. Earlier report from southern India documented a case of maxillary sinusitis by Sporothrix schenckii. Here we report a similar case of bilateral maxillary sinusitis in a middle aged female from a village of Bihar, a state in eastern India. She underwent endoscopic maxillary sinus surgery for nasal symptoms and diagnosed to have sporotrichotic infection of maxillary sinuses. The diagnosis was done by mycological and histopathological examination and patient improved under antifungal chemotherapy. PMID:27134873

  6. Physical and electrochemical analysis of an indoor-outdoor ageing test of large-area dye solar cell devices.

    PubMed

    Mastroianni, Simone; Lanuti, Alessandro; Penna, Stefano; Reale, Andrea; Brown, Thomas M; Di Carlo, Aldo; Decker, Franco

    2012-08-27

    A long-term life test (3200 h) on large-area dye-sensitized cells is performed both under outdoor conditions, in the sunny Mediterranean climate in Rome (Italy), and under continuous light soaking (1 Sun, 85 °C). Different degradation rates are investigated for the outdoor samples with horizontally and vertically oriented cells (azimuth South, tilt angle 25°). Thirty identical photocells (active area=3.6 cm(2), conversion efficiencies=(4.8±0.2)%) are aged using a robust master-plate configuration. After the first 1000 h of testing in open-circuit conditions, some of the test samples are set near the maximum power point (MPP) and the life test continued further until 3200 h. A detailed analysis of the physical parameters obtained by electrochemical impedance is given together with electrolyte transmittance variation with time as a function of the ageing conditions. Faster degradation in devices working at the MPP is observed, due mainly to a progressive decrease of the triiodide concentration in the electrolyte and a likely alteration at the titania/electrolyte interface. Outdoor devices working with vertically oriented cells show clearly that the orientation of long-striped cells can affect the lifetime. The aged cells suffer an increase of recombination rate, change in the chemical capacitance, and positive shift of the titania conduction band level. A strong correlation between the increase of the electrolyte diffusion resistance and degradation phenomena is found.

  7. Early life socioeconomic conditions in rural areas and old-age mortality in twentieth-century Quebec.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Alain; Bohnert, Nora

    2012-10-01

    This study examines the effects of early life socioeconomic and residential conditions on adult mortality. The family and residential details of children living in rural areas of Quebec, Canada, in 1901 were linked to their subsequent ages at death using a database compiling information from the 1901 Canadian Census and Quebec vital statistics registers. Survival analysis results suggest that males raised on a farm and in a household owned by their father had lower mortality after the age of fifty than other males from rural areas. Chances for survival at older ages were not equal, however, among males whose father was a farmer. Most notably, males raised on a larger farmstead, an indicator of a higher socioeconomic status, experienced lower risk of mortality than those raised by farmers owning fewer acres. Results were widely different for females, who did not gain an advantage from being raised on a farm, wealthy or not, regardless of homeownership, but instead from having a literate father. Accounting for selection bias and shared frailty among brothers served to enhance the significance and effect size of acreage wealth and of other early life factors in the prediction of male adult mortality risk. This study provides evidence that early life effects on later life health and mortality could often be underestimated, due to a failure to account for selection and unobserved heterogeneity.

  8. Anti-aging Potential of Extracts Prepared from Fruits and Medicinal Herbs Cultivated in the Gyeongnam Area of Korea.

    PubMed

    Shon, Myung-Soo; Lee, Yunjeong; Song, Ji-Hye; Park, Taehyun; Lee, Jun Kyoung; Kim, Minju; Park, Eunju; Kim, Gyo-Nam

    2014-09-01

    Many recent studies have focused on maintaining a healthy life by preventing and/or postponing the aging process. Numerous studies have reported that continuous exposure to reactive oxygen species can stimulate skin aging and that excessive accumulation of fat can cause an impaired skin barrier and tissue structure alterations. Thus, the maintenance of antioxidant homeostasis and the suppression of adipose accumulation are important strategies for skin anti-aging. Here, we prepared three types of extracts [whole juice, acetone-perchloric acid (PCA), and ethanol] from 20 fruits and medicinal herbs native to the Gyeongnam area of Korea. The total phenolic content of each extract was analyzed, and we observed higher total phenolic contents in the medicinal herbs. Consistent with this, the results of the oxygen radical absorbance activity capacity assay indicated that the in vitro antioxidant activities of the medicinal herb extracts were stronger than those of the fruit extracts. The fruits and medicinal herbs had strong effects on cell-based systems, including H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes and 3T3-L1 lipid accumulation. Nishimura Wase persimmon, Taishu persimmon, wrinkled giant hyssop, sweet wormwood, Chinese cedar, red perilla, tan shen, hiyodori-jogo, and cramp bark may be natural anti-aging materials with effective antioxidant and anti-adipogenic activities. Taken together, our findings may provide scientific evidence supporting the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals from fruits and medicinal herbs.

  9. Anti-aging Potential of Extracts Prepared from Fruits and Medicinal Herbs Cultivated in the Gyeongnam Area of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shon, Myung-Soo; Lee, Yunjeong; Song, Ji-Hye; Park, Taehyun; Lee, Jun Kyoung; Kim, Minju; Park, Eunju; Kim, Gyo-Nam

    2014-01-01

    Many recent studies have focused on maintaining a healthy life by preventing and/or postponing the aging process. Numerous studies have reported that continuous exposure to reactive oxygen species can stimulate skin aging and that excessive accumulation of fat can cause an impaired skin barrier and tissue structure alterations. Thus, the maintenance of antioxidant homeostasis and the suppression of adipose accumulation are important strategies for skin anti-aging. Here, we prepared three types of extracts [whole juice, acetone-perchloric acid (PCA), and ethanol] from 20 fruits and medicinal herbs native to the Gyeongnam area of Korea. The total phenolic content of each extract was analyzed, and we observed higher total phenolic contents in the medicinal herbs. Consistent with this, the results of the oxygen radical absorbance activity capacity assay indicated that the in vitro antioxidant activities of the medicinal herb extracts were stronger than those of the fruit extracts. The fruits and medicinal herbs had strong effects on cell-based systems, including H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes and 3T3-L1 lipid accumulation. Nishimura Wase persimmon, Taishu persimmon, wrinkled giant hyssop, sweet wormwood, Chinese cedar, red perilla, tan shen, hiyodori-jogo, and cramp bark may be natural anti-aging materials with effective antioxidant and anti-adipogenic activities. Taken together, our findings may provide scientific evidence supporting the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals from fruits and medicinal herbs. PMID:25320715

  10. Model for isopaching Jurassic-age Norphlet Formation in Mobile Bay, Alabama area

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, L.F.

    1989-03-01

    Deep gas was discovered in the Norphlet Sandstone of Mobile Bay Alabama in 1979. Sixteen wells, of which Exxon Company, U.S.A. has had an interest in eight, have tested gas from depths greater than 20,000 ft and at an average rate of 19 million ft/sub 3/ of gas per day. The dominant structural features in Mobile Bay are large east-west-trending salt-supported anticlines associated with salt pull-apart listric normal faulting. Throws on these faults measure up to 1000 ft. Individual structures have dimensions as large as 15 mi in an east-west strike direction and 8 mi in a north-south dip direction. The Jurassic age (Callovian) Norphlet of Mobile Bay is characterized by eolian dune sand deposits up to 700 ft thick. An important factor affecting future development drilling is the accurate prediction of reservoir thickness. This presentation shows that an integrated study of seismic and well data has facilitated the development of a geological model for isopaching the Norphlet Formation. The isopach exhibits a strong north-northwest-south-southeast orientation of parallel thicks and thins. These trends are believed to be the result of original eolian deposition of complex linear dunes in the Norphlet Sandstone. The major east-west structural grain of faults and anticlines overprints this preserved depositional trend.

  11. Age of K-feldspar authigenesis in Lower Paleozoic and uppermost Precambrian rocks of the Mississippi Valley area

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, R.L.; Liu, J. . Dept. of Geology); Deino, A. . Geochronology Center); Kyser, T.K. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Published K-Ar dates (n = 12) of authigenic K-feldspar in Cambrian and Ordovician rocks of the Mississippi Valley area range from 448 to 375 Ma (Late Ordovician to Middle Devonian), suggesting a lengthy episode of K-feldspar authigenesis. Here the authors report an age span of 465--400 Ma (Middle Ordovician to Early Devonian) for authigenic K-feldspar of two samples from the alteration profile widely developed over Precambrian rocks at the unconformity with Cambrian deposits. This dating was done on 42 to 48 mesh grains of K-feldspar by the laser incremental-heating Ar-40/Ar-39 method. One sample, from west-central Wisconsin, is from a vein formed along a fracture in kaolinitic altered granite. Three grains nearest the fracture yielded plateau ages with a range of 9 Ma and an average of 430 Ma. Three grains distant from the fracture yielded a similar range of 10 Ma but with an average age of 397 Ma. Thus the grains grew over an extended period from at least 430 to 400 Ma. The other sample, from the St. Francois Mts. of Missouri, is of diabase replaced by K-feldspar. Three grains yielded plateau ages ranging over 20 Ma and apparently recording an extended history of K-feldspar growth. The average age of these grains is 454 Ma, compared to a K-Ar date of 444 [+-] 9 Ma obtained from a split of the same sample. The period(s) of K-feldspar authigenesis does not support its linkage with orogenic activity. Oxygen-isotope values of authigenic K-feldspar from lower Paleozoic and uppermost Precambrian rocks range from +19.8 to +23.0 [per thousand] and average 21.4 [per thousand] (N = 11). These values are compatible with formation of the K-feldspar from similar fluids and comparable temperatures.

  12. Measurement of Women's Agency in Egypt: A National Validation Study.

    PubMed

    Yount, Kathryn M; VanderEnde, Kristin E; Dodell, Sylvie; Cheong, Yuk Fai

    2016-09-01

    Despite widespread assumptions about women's empowerment and agency in the Arab Middle East, psychometric research of these constructs is limited. Using national data from 6214 married women ages 16-49 who took part in the 2006 Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey, we applied factor analysis to explore and then to test the factor structure of women's agency. We then used multiple indicator multiple cause structural equations models to test for differential item functioning (DIF) by women's age at first marriage, a potential resource for women's agency. Our results confirm that women's agency in Egypt is multi-dimensional and comprised of their (1) influence in family decisions, including those reserved for men, (2) freedom of movement in public spaces, and (3) attitudes about gender, specifically violence against wives. These dimensions confirm those explored previously in selected rural areas of Egypt and South Asia. Yet, three items showed significant uniform DIF by women's categorical age at first marriage, with and without a control for women's age in years. Models adjusting for DIF and women's age in years showed that women's older age at first marriage was positively associated with the factor means for family decision-making and gender-violence attitudes, but not freedom of movement. Our findings reveal the value of our analytical strategy for research on the dimensions and determinants of women's agency. Our approach offers a promising model to discern "hierarchies of evidence" for social policies and programs to enhance women's empowerment.

  13. Age of second language acquisition in multilinguals has an impact on gray matter volume in language-associated brain areas.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Anelis; Eppenberger, Leila S; Smieskova, Renata; Borgwardt, Stefan; Kuenzli, Esther; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Nitsch, Cordula; Bendfeldt, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Numerous structural studies have established that experience shapes and reshapes the brain throughout a lifetime. The impact of early development, however, is still a matter of debate. Further clues may come from studying multilinguals who acquired their second language at different ages. We investigated adult multilinguals who spoke three languages fluently, where the third language was learned in classroom settings, not before the age of 9 years. Multilinguals exposed to two languages simultaneously from birth (SiM) were contrasted with multinguals who acquired their first two languages successively (SuM). Whole brain voxel based morphometry revealed that, relative to SuM, SiM have significantly lower gray matter volume in several language-associated cortical areas in both hemispheres: bilaterally in medial and inferior frontal gyrus, in the right medial temporal gyrus and inferior posterior parietal gyrus, as well as in the left inferior temporal gyrus. Thus, as shown by others, successive language learning increases the volume of language-associated cortical areas. In brains exposed early on and simultaneously to more than one language, however, learning of additional languages seems to have less impact. We conclude that - at least with respect to language acquisition - early developmental influences are maintained and have an effect on experience-dependent plasticity well into adulthood.

  14. Age of second language acquisition in multilinguals has an impact on gray matter volume in language-associated brain areas

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Anelis; Eppenberger, Leila S.; Smieskova, Renata; Borgwardt, Stefan; Kuenzli, Esther; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Nitsch, Cordula; Bendfeldt, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Numerous structural studies have established that experience shapes and reshapes the brain throughout a lifetime. The impact of early development, however, is still a matter of debate. Further clues may come from studying multilinguals who acquired their second language at different ages. We investigated adult multilinguals who spoke three languages fluently, where the third language was learned in classroom settings, not before the age of 9 years. Multilinguals exposed to two languages simultaneously from birth (SiM) were contrasted with multinguals who acquired their first two languages successively (SuM). Whole brain voxel based morphometry revealed that, relative to SuM, SiM have significantly lower gray matter volume in several language-associated cortical areas in both hemispheres: bilaterally in medial and inferior frontal gyrus, in the right medial temporal gyrus and inferior posterior parietal gyrus, as well as in the left inferior temporal gyrus. Thus, as shown by others, successive language learning increases the volume of language-associated cortical areas. In brains exposed early on and simultaneously to more than one language, however, learning of additional languages seems to have less impact. We conclude that – at least with respect to language acquisition – early developmental influences are maintained and have an effect on experience-dependent plasticity well into adulthood. PMID:26106338

  15. Are health inequalities between differently deprived areas evident at different ages? A longitudinal study of census records in England and Wales, 1991-2001.

    PubMed

    Norman, Paul; Boyle, Paul

    2014-03-01

    The notion that mortality inequalities between differently deprived areas vary by age is logical since not all causes of death increase in risk with age and not all causes of death are related to the gradient of deprivation. In addition to the cause-age and cause-deprivation relationships, population migration may redistribute the population such that the health-deprivation relationship varies by age. We calculate cross-sectional all cause mortality and self-reported limiting long-term illness (LLTI) rate ratios of most to least deprived areas to demonstrate inequalities at different ages. We use longitudinal data to investigate whether there are changes in the distribution of cohorts between differently deprived areas over time and whether gradients of LLTI with deprivation also change. We find similar deprivation inequalities by age for all cause mortality and self-reported health with less inequality for young adults and the elderly but the greatest inequalities during mid life. Over time there are systematic movements of cohorts between differently deprived areas and associated increases and decreases in the gradient of LLTI across deprivation. It seems likely that population migration does influence inequalities by age. Further work should investigate whether the situation exists for other morbidities and, to better inform public health policy, whether restricting summary measures of area health to ages between 30 and 60 when inequalities are greatest will highlight between area differences.

  16. Age of authigenic K-feldspar in Lower Paleozoic and uppermost Precambrian rocks of the Mississippi Valley area

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, R.L.; Liu, J. . Dept. of Geology); Deino, A. . Geochronology Center); Kyser, T.K. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Published K-Ar dates of authigenic K-feldspar in Cambrian and Ordovician rocks of the Mississippi Valley area range from 448 to 375 Ma (Late Ordovician to Middle Devonian), suggesting a lengthy episode of K-feldspar authigenesis. Here the authors report an age span of [approximately]464--400 Ma (Middle Ordovician to Early Devonian) for authigenic K-feldspar of two samples from the alteration profile widely developed over Precambrian rocks at the unconformity with Cambrian deposits. This dating was done on 42 to 48 mesh grains of K-feldspar by the laser incremental-heating [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar method. One sample, from west-central Wisconsin, is from an 8-mm-thick vein formed along a fracture in kaolinitic altered granite. Three grains nearest the fracture yielded plateau ages with a range of [approximately]9 Ma and an average of 430 Ma. Three grains distant from the fracture yielded a similar range of 10 Ma but with an average age of 397 Ma. Thus the grains grew over an extended period from at least [approximately]430 to 400 Ma. A K-Ar date of 411 Ma was obtained from a sample representing the entire thickness of the vein. The other sample, from the St. Francois Mts. of Missouri, is of diabase replaced by K-feldspar. Three grains yielded plateau ages ranging from [approximately]444 to 464 Ma. Oxygen-isotope values of authigenic K-feldspar from lower Paleozoic and uppermost Precambrian rocks range from +19.8 to +22.2[per thousand] and average 21.4[per thousand] (n = 11). These values are compatible with formation of the K-feldspar from similar fluids and comparable temperatures.

  17. Quality and age of shallow groundwater in the Bakken Formation production area, Williston Basin, Montana and North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, Peter B.; Caldwell, Rodney R.; Galloway, Joel M.; Valder, Joshua F.; Hunt, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    The quality and age of shallow groundwater in the Bakken Formation production area were characterized using data from 30 randomly distributed domestic wells screened in the upper Fort Union Formation. Comparison of inorganic and organic chemical concentrations to health based drinking-water standards, correlation analysis of concentrations with oil and gas well locations, and isotopic data give no indication that energy-development activities affected groundwater quality. It is important, however, to consider these results in the context of groundwater age. Most samples were recharged before the early 1950s and had 14C ages ranging from 30,000 years. Thus, domestic wells may not be as well suited for detecting contamination associated with recent surface spills as shallower wells screened near the water table. Old groundwater could be contaminated directly by recent subsurface leaks from imperfectly cemented oil and gas wells, but horizontal groundwater velocities calculated from 14C ages imply that the contaminants would still be less than 0.5 km from their source. For the wells sampled in this study, the median distance to the nearest oil and gas well was 4.6 km. Because of the slow velocities, a long-term commitment to groundwater monitoring in the upper Fort Union Formation is needed to assess the effects of energy development on groundwater quality. In conjunction with that effort, monitoring could be done closer to energy-development activities to increase the likelihood of early detection of groundwater contamination if it did occur.

  18. Quality and age of shallow groundwater in the Bakken Formation production area, Williston Basin, Montana and North Dakota.

    PubMed

    McMahon, P B; Caldwell, R R; Galloway, J M; Valder, J F; Hunt, A G

    2015-04-01

    The quality and age of shallow groundwater in the Bakken Formation production area were characterized using data from 30 randomly distributed domestic wells screened in the upper Fort Union Formation. Comparison of inorganic and organic chemical concentrations to health based drinking-water standards, correlation analysis of concentrations with oil and gas well locations, and isotopic data give no indication that energy-development activities affected groundwater quality. It is important, however, to consider these results in the context of groundwater age. Most samples were recharged before the early 1950s and had 14C ages ranging from <1000 to >30,000 years. Thus, domestic wells may not be as well suited for detecting contamination associated with recent surface spills as shallower wells screened near the water table. Old groundwater could be contaminated directly by recent subsurface leaks from imperfectly cemented oil and gas wells, but horizontal groundwater velocities calculated from 14C ages imply that the contaminants would still be less than 0.5 km from their source. For the wells sampled in this study, the median distance to the nearest oil and gas well was 4.6 km. Because of the slow velocities, a long-term commitment to groundwater monitoring in the upper Fort Union Formation is needed to assess the effects of energy development on groundwater quality. In conjunction with that effort, monitoring could be done closer to energy-development activities to increase the likelihood of early detection of groundwater contamination if it did occur.

  19. Government Agencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    manufacturers. The Navy has a major in- house design capability for ships; the government does not possess such a capability for aircraft or other weapon systems...the Coast Guard, government agencies acquire a wide variety of ships, ranging from sophisticated submarines and nuclear aircraft carriers to much...the initial phase a review was made of written material relating to government procedures in U.S. Government agencies for acquiring vessels, aircraft

  20. The large area crop inventory experiment: An experiment to demonstrate how space-age technology can contribute to solving critical problems here on earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The large area crop inventory experiment is being developed to predict crop production through satellite photographs. This experiment demonstrates how space age technology can contribute to solving practical problems of agriculture management.

  1. On the Role of Impact Evaluation of Quality Assurance from the Strategic Perspective of Quality Assurance Agencies in the European Higher Education Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damian, Radu; Grifoll, Josep; Rigbers, Anke

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the current national legislations, the quality assurance approaches and the activities of impact analysis of three quality assurance agencies from Romania, Spain and Germany are described from a strategic perspective. The analysis shows that the general methodologies (comprising, for example, self-evaluation reports, peer reviews,…

  2. University Autonomy, Agenda Setting and the Construction of Agency: The Case of the European University Association in the European Higher Education Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nokkala, Terhi; Bacevic, Jana

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the ways in which a policy actor constructs its agency through the production of knowledge. Taking the example of the concept of "autonomy" as constructed in the discourse of the European University Association (EUA), the article draws on the theory of discursive framing and agenda setting, as well as on Meyer and…

  3. Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment and Depression among a Population Aged over 60 Years in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Genaro G.; Arias-Merino, Elva D.; Flores-Saiffe, María E.; Velázquez-Brizuela, Irma E.; Macías-Islas, Miguel A.; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Cognitive impairment is an important clinical issue among elderly patients with depression and has a more complex etiology because of the variable rate of neurodegenerative changes associated with depression. The aim of the present work was to examine the prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression in a representative sample of adults aged ≥60 years. Methods. The presented work was a cross-sectional study on the prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression. Door-to-door interview technique was assigned in condition with multistage probability random sampling to obtain subjects that represent a population of the Guadalajara metropolitan area (GMA), Mexico. Cognitive function and depression were assessed by applying standardized Mini-Mental State Examination of Folstein (MMSE) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), respectively. Results. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was 13.8% (14.5% women, 12.6% men); no significant differences by gender and retired or pensioner were found. Prevalence of depression was 29.1% (33.6% women, 21.1% men); no significant differences by retired or pensioner were found. Cognitive impairment was associated with depression (OR  =  3.26, CI 95%, 2.31–4.60). Prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression is associated with: being woman, only in depression being older than 75 years being married, and a low level of education. Conclusion. Cognitive impairment and depression are highly correlated in adults aged ≥60. PMID:23243421

  4. Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment and Depression among a Population Aged over 60 Years in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Genaro G; Arias-Merino, Elva D; Flores-Saiffe, María E; Velázquez-Brizuela, Irma E; Macías-Islas, Miguel A; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P

    2012-01-01

    Background. Cognitive impairment is an important clinical issue among elderly patients with depression and has a more complex etiology because of the variable rate of neurodegenerative changes associated with depression. The aim of the present work was to examine the prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression in a representative sample of adults aged ≥60 years. Methods. The presented work was a cross-sectional study on the prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression. Door-to-door interview technique was assigned in condition with multistage probability random sampling to obtain subjects that represent a population of the Guadalajara metropolitan area (GMA), Mexico. Cognitive function and depression were assessed by applying standardized Mini-Mental State Examination of Folstein (MMSE) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), respectively. Results. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was 13.8% (14.5% women, 12.6% men); no significant differences by gender and retired or pensioner were found. Prevalence of depression was 29.1% (33.6% women, 21.1% men); no significant differences by retired or pensioner were found. Cognitive impairment was associated with depression (OR  =  3.26, CI 95%, 2.31-4.60). Prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression is associated with: being woman, only in depression being older than 75 years being married, and a low level of education. Conclusion. Cognitive impairment and depression are highly correlated in adults aged ≥60.

  5. The vulnerability of middle-aged and older adults in a multiethnic, low-income area: contributions of age, ethnicity, and health insurance.

    PubMed

    Walker, Kara Odom; Steers, Neil; Liang, Li-Jung; Morales, Leo S; Forge, Nell; Jones, Loretta; Brown, Arleen F

    2010-12-01

    This community-partnered study was developed and fielded in partnership with key community stakeholders and describes age- and race-related variation in delays in care and preventive service utilization between middle-aged and older adults living in South Los Angeles. The survey sample included adults aged 50 and older who self-identified as African American or Latino and lived in ZIP codes of South Los Angeles (N=708). Dependent variables were self-reported delays in care and use of preventive services. Insured participants aged 50 to 64 were more likely to report any delay in care (adjusted predicted percentage (APP)=18%, 95% confidence interval (CI)=14-23) and problems obtaining needed medical care (APP=15%, 95% CI=12-20) than those aged 65 and older. Uninsured participants aged 50 to 64 reported even greater delays in care (APP=45%, 95% CI=33-56) and problems obtaining needed medical (APP=33%, 95% CI=22-45) and specialty care (APP=26%, 95% CI=16-39) than those aged 65 and older. Participants aged 50 to 64 were generally less likely to receive preventive services, including influenza and pneumococcal vaccines and colonoscopy than older participants, but women were more likely to receive mammograms. Participants aged 50 to 64 had more problems obtaining recommended preventive care and faced more delays in care than those aged 65 and older, particularly if they were uninsured. Providing insurance coverage for this group may improve access to preventive care and promote wellness.

  6. 75 FR 43168 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... Service Network which is comprised of State Units on Aging (SUA), Area Agencies on Aging (AAA) and Local... AAA directors and their staff and focus groups with provider organizations was deemed to be the most... range of AAA and service provider network characteristics. A focus group will be conducted with LSPs...

  7. Lithofacies, Age, and Sequence Stratigraphy of the Carboniferous Lisburne Group in the Skimo Creek Area, Central Brooks Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Whalen, Michael T.; Harris, Anita G.

    2008-01-01

    The Lisburne Group, a mainly Carboniferous carbonate succession that is widely distributed across northern Alaska, contains notable amounts of oil and gas at Prudhoe Bay. Detailed studies of the Lisburne in the Skimo Creek area, central Brooks Range, delineate its lithofacies, age, conodont biofacies, depositional environments, and sequence stratigraphy and provide new data on its hydrocarbon source-rock and reservoir potential, as well as its thermal history, in this area. We have studied the Lisburne Group in two thrust sheets of the Endicott Mountains allochthon, herein called the Skimo and Tiglukpuk thrust sheets. The southern, Skimo Creek section, which is >900 m thick, is composed largely of even-bedded to nodular lime mudstone and wackestone intercalated with intervals of thin- to thick-bedded bioclastic packstone and grainstone. Some parts of the section are partially to completely dolomitized and (or) replaced by chert. A distinctive, 30-m-thick zone of black, organic-rich shale, lime mudstone, and phosphorite is exposed 170 m below the top of the Lisburne. The uppermost 40 m of section is also distinctive and made up of dark shale, lime mudstone, spiculite, and glauconitic grainstone. The northern, Tiglukpuk Creek section, which is similar to the Skimo Creek section but only ~760 m thick, includes more packstone and grainstone and less organic-rich shale. Analyses of conodonts and foraminifers indicate that both sections range in age from late Early Mississippian (Osagean) through Early Pennsylvanian (early Morrowan) and document a hiatus of at least 15 m.y. at the contact between the Lisburne and the overlying Siksikpuk Formation. No evidence of subaerial exposure was observed along this contact, which may represent a submarine erosional surface. Lithofacies and biofacies imply that the Lisburne Group in the study area was deposited mainly in midramp to outer-ramp settings. Deepest water strata are mud rich and formed below storm or fair-weather wave

  8. Linking Groundwater Age and Chemistry Data to Determine Redox Reaction Rates and Trends in Nitrate Concentrations in Agricultural Areas. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesoriero, A. J.; Puckett, L.

    2009-12-01

    Use of industrially fixed nitrogen (N) fertilizer for agricultural purposes has increased dramatically, both in the United States (U.S.) and globally, since 1945. As a result, there has been growing concern about the consequences of increases in the amounts of anthropogenic N circulating in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. The U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water-Quality Assessment Program has collected groundwater samples along flow paths in more than 20 agricultural areas covering a range in hydrogeologic settings to evaluate the trends and transformations of agricultural chemicals. Historical trends in nitrogen fluxes to groundwater were evaluated by relating the recharge dates of groundwater samples, estimated using tracer (e.g., chlorofluorocarbon) concentrations, with concentrations of nitrate at the time of recharge, estimated by summing the molar concentrations of the parent compound (nitrate) and its transformation product (excess N2) in the age-dated sample. Results from this analysis indicate that median nitrate (NO3-) concentrations in recharge have increased markedly over the last 50 years: increasing from 4 mg/L (as N) in samples that recharged prior to 1983 to 7.5 mg/L (as N) in samples that recharged since 1983. Trends in nitrate concentrations in recharging groundwater were related to increases in the amount of fertilizer applied. Estimates of the portion of applied N reaching the water table ranged from 4 to 49% among the sites, with a median value of 14%. The fate of NO3- and many other groundwater contaminants is dependent on aquifer redox conditions. The reduction of oxygen is the most energetically favorable reaction that microorganisms use to oxidize organic material or other electron donors (e.g., pyrite). As a result, other reduction reactions (e.g., denitrification) affecting contaminant transport typically do not occur until most dissolved oxygen (DO) has been consumed. To improve assessments of contaminant transformations

  9. Age of air and air exchange efficiency in high-rise urban areas and its link to pollutant dilution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hang, Jian; Li, Yuguo

    2011-10-01

    By means of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations, this paper investigated how rural winds transport relatively clean air into high-rise urban areas to dilute airborne pollutants. Two ventilation concepts for indoor environments were applied: the age of air to quantify the time taken by rural young air to reach a given place after it enters an urban area and the air exchange efficiency to evaluate the efficiency of rural winds flushing the entire urban canopy layer. Several square building arrays with street aspect ratios (building height/street width, H/ W) ranging from 1.5 to 5.3 and building area densities of 0.25 (medium) or 0.4 (compact) were considered as the approaching wind is parallel to the main street whose length varies from street scales to neighborhood scales (330-510 m to 1.03-1.65 km in full-scale). Results show that considerable young rural air enters windward entries but a major fraction of air is vertically driven out as flowing deeper into such high-rise building arrays. So air exchange efficiencies are less than 50% in street-scale arrays, and smaller in longer (neighborhood-scale) or narrower arrays. For the neighborhood-scale medium arrays, considering the power-law velocity profile in the upstream free flow, a taller array gains a larger inflow rate across its windward entry and experiences younger air and greater air exchange efficiency than a lower one. If all buildings are theoretically open-based in a neighborhood-scale compact array, air becomes much younger everywhere and the air exchange efficiency doubles. In arrays of buildings with different heights, the secondary streets in front of taller buildings get younger air due to the downward flows within them. Although further investigations are still required before providing a practical framework, this paper is one of the first attempts to find ways in improving the ventilation performance in high-rise cities like Hong Kong.

  10. Geochemical analyses of ground-water ages, recharge rates, and hydraulic conductivity of the N aquifer, Black Mesa area, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, Thomas J.; Hoffmann, John P.

    1997-01-01

    The Navajo Nation and Hopi Tribe of the Black Mesa area, Arizona, depend on ground water from the N aquifer to meet most tribal and industrial needs. Increasing use of this aquifer is creating concerns about possible adverse effects of increased ground-water withdrawals on the water resources of the region. A thorough understanding of the N aquifer is necessary to assess the aquifer's response to ground-water withdrawals. This study used geochemical techniques as an independent means of improving the conceptual model of ground-water flow in the N aquifer and to estimate recharge rates and hydraulic conductivity. Ground water flows in a south-southeastward direction from the recharge area around Shonto into the confined part of the N aquifer underneath Black Mesa. Ground-water flow paths diverge in the confined part of the aquifer to the northeast and south. The N aquifer thins to extinction south of Black Mesa. This discontinuity could force ground water to diverge along paths of least resistance. Ground water discharges from the confined part of the aquifer into Laguna Creek and Moenkopi Wash and from springs southwest of Kykotsmovi and southeast of Rough Rock after a residence time of about 35,000 years or more. Recent recharge along the periphery of Black Mesa mixes with older ground water that discharges from the confined part of the aquifer and flows away from Black Mesa. Dissolved-ion concentrations, ratios of dissolved ions, dissolved-gas concentrations, tritium, carbon-13, and chlorine-36 data indicate that water in the overlying D aquifer could be leaking into the confined part of the N aquifer in the southeastern part of Black Mesa. The boundary between the leaky and nonleaky zones is defined roughly by a line from Rough Rock to Second Mesa and separates ground waters that have significantly different chemistries. The Dakota Sandstone and Entrada Formation of the D aquifer could be the sources of leakage. Adjusted radiocarbon ground-water ages and data on

  11. Compilation of radiometric age and trace-element geochemical data, Yucca Mountain and surrounding areas of southwestern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, S.I.; Noble, D.C.; Larson, L.T.

    1994-12-31

    This document is a compilation of available radiometric age and trace-element geochemical data for volcanic rocks and episodes of hydrothermal activity in Yucca Mountain and the surrounding region of southwestern Nevada. Only the age determinations considered to be geologically reasonable (consistent with stratigraphic relations) are listed below. A number of the potassium-argon (K-Ar) ages of volcanic rocks given by Kistler, Marvin et al., Noble et al., Weiss et al., and Noble et al. are not included as these ages have been shown to be incorrect or disturbed by hydrothermal alteration based on subsequent stratigraphic and/or petrographic data and the recognition of errors in K-Ar age determinations related to incomplete extraction of argon. In cases where absolute ages are tightly constrained by high precision {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar ages and unequivocal stratigraphic relations, we have omitted the less precise K-Ar age data. Similarly, the more precise single-crystal laser-fusion {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar age determinations of certain units are reported and less precise ages by multi-grain bulk-fusion {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar methods are not included. This compilation does not include age data for basaltic rocks of Pliocene and Quaternary age in the Yucca Mountain region.

  12. Map showing availability of hydrologic data published by the U.S. Environmental Data Service and by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperative agencies, greater Denver area, Front Range Urban Corridor, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hampton, E.R.

    1975-01-01

    What is the rainfall of this region? What areas are prone to periodic flooding? What is the water supply? What is the chemical quality of the ground water and water in the streams? How deep is the water table? Which streams are gaged, and where? These and similar questions are being asked regularly by land and resource developers, urban planners, industrial consultants, and governmental resource managers. This map provides the first step toward answering these questions. It shows by symbols and color the hydrologic data published as of January 1974 for the Greater Denver area by the U.S. Environmental Data Service and by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating agencies, and the points or areas where these data have been collected. The sources of the data are given in both the following discussion and the references.

  13. Low zinc serum levels and high blood lead levels among school-age children in coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramono, Adriyan; Panunggal, Binar; Rahfiludin, M. Zen; Swastawati, Fronthea

    2017-02-01

    The coverage of environmental lead toxicant was quiet wide. Lead exposure recently has been expected to be associated with zinc deficiency and blood indices disturbance. Emphasizing on children, which could absorb more than 50 % of lead that enters the body. Lead became the issue on the coastal area due to it has polluted the environment and waters as the source of fisheries products. This was a cross sectional study to determined nutritional status, blood lead levels, zinc serum levels, blood indices levels, fish intake among school children in coastal region of Semarang. This study was carried out on the school children aged between 8 and 12 years old in coastal region of Semarang. Nutritional status was figured out using anthropometry measurement. Blood lead and zinc serum levels were analyzed using the Atomic Absorbent Spectrophotometry (AAS) at a wavelength of 213.9 nm for zinc serum and 283.3 nm for blood lead. Blood indices was measured using auto blood hematology analyzer. Fish intake was assessed using 3-non consecutive days 24-hours food recall. The children had high lead levels (median 34.86 μg/dl, range 11.46 - 58.86 μg/dl) compared to WHO cut off. Zinc serum levels was low (median 18.10 μg/dl, range 10.25 – 41.39 μg/dl) compared to the Joint WHO/UNICEF/IAEA/IZiNCG cut off. Approximately 26.4% of children were anemic. This study concluded that all school children had high blood lead levels, low zinc serum, and presented microcytic hypochromic anemia. This phenomenon should be considered as public health concern.

  14. [Characteristics of carbon storage and sequestration in different age beech (Castanopsis hystrix) plantations in south subtropical area of China].

    PubMed

    Liu, En; Wang, Hui; Liu, Shi-Rong

    2012-02-01

    To transform large area pure conifer plantations by planting indigenous and valuable broad-leaved tree species has been advocated as an effective close-to-nature forest management in sub-tropical China. Taking the 10-, 20- and 27-year-old Castanopsis hystrix plantations in Guangxi of South China as test objects and by the methods of plot investigation and biomass measurement, this paper studied the carbon content in different plant organs, litter layers, and soil layers and the carbon storage and its allocation in tree layer, litter layer and soil layer. For the test plantations, the carbon content in different C. hystrix organs ranged from 49.7% to 57.9%, and that in litter layer was 40.8%-50.5%, being higher in fresh litter layer than in semi-decomposed litter layer. The carbon storage in the soil profiles (0-60 cm) increased with plantation age but decreased with soil depth. The total carbon storage in the 10-, 20- and 27-year-old plantations was 182. 42, 234.75 and 269. 75 t x hm(-2), respectively, among which, tree layer, litter layer and soil layer occupied 19.8%, 32.0% and 32.8%, 1.5%, 1.6% and 1.3%, and 78.7%, 66.4% and 65.9%, respectively. The annual net carbon sequestration of the 10-, 20- and 27-year-old plantations was 4.70, 5.64 and 5.18 t x hm(-2), respectively. It was considered that C. hystrix had a high capability in carbon sequestration, being able to be an ideal tree species for multi-purpose forest management with large and valuable timber production.

  15. Age- and area-dependent distinct effects of ethanol on Bax and Bcl-2 expression in prenatal rat brain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae Young; Naha, Nibedita; Kim, Jong Hun; Jo, Mi Ja; Min, Kwan Sik; Seong, Hwan Hoo; Shin, Dong Hoon; Kim, Myeong Ok

    2008-09-01

    Cell proliferation and differentiation are critical processes in a developing fetal rat brain, during which programmed cell death (PCD) also plays an important role. One of the decisive factors for PCD is Bcl-2 family proteins, where Bax induces cell death, whereas Bcl-2 acts as an inhibitor of PCD. As maternal drinking is known to cause fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or malformation of the fetal brain during pregnancy, the objective of the present study was to investigate whether maternal ethanol exposure alters the PCD-related Bax and Bcl-2 protein expression during fetal brain development. Pregnant female rats were orally treated with 10% ethanol and the subsequent expressions of the Bax and Bcl-2 proteins examined in the fetal brain, including the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain, from gestational day (GD) 15.5 to GD 19.5, using Western blots, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. With regard to the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax proteins (Bcl-2/Bax), the Bax protein was dominant in the forebrain and midbrain of the control GD 15.5 fetuses, except for the hindbrain, when compared with the respective ethanol-treated groups. Moreover, Bcl-2 became dominant in the midbrain of the control GD 17.5 fetuses when compared with the ethanoltreated group, representing an alternation of the natural PCD process by ethanol. Furthermore, a differential expression of the Bcl-2 and Bax proteins was found in the differentiating and migrating zones of the cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and cerebellum. Thus, when taken together, the present results suggest that ethanol affects PCD in the cell differentiation and migration zones of the prenatal rat brain by modulating Bax and Bcl-2 expression in an age- and area-dependent manner. Therefore, this is the first evidence that ethanol may alter FAS-associated embryonic brain development through the alteration of Bax and Bcl-2 expression.

  16. British Chinese Children: Agency and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Carmen Lau

    2013-01-01

    The assumption that Chinese young people are passive beings with little or no agency is a dominant theme within the academic literature. However PhD research findings demonstrate how British Chinese adolescents (aged 11-14) do exhibit varying degrees of agency in their lives. Here, agency is understood as individuals having the capacity to act, to…

  17. Leaf-age effects on seasonal variability in photosynthetic parameters and its relationships with leaf mass per area and leaf nitrogen concentration within a Pinus densiflora crown.

    PubMed

    Han, Qingmin; Kawasaki, Tatsuro; Nakano, Takashi; Chiba, Yukihiro

    2008-04-01

    In the temperate zone of Japan, Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. bears needles of up to three age classes in the upper crown and up to five age classes in the lower crown. To elucidate the effects of leaf age on photosynthetic parameters and its relationships with leaf mass per unit area (LMA) and leaf nitrogen (N(l)) concentration on an area (N(a)) and mass (N(m)) basis, we measured seasonal variations in LMA, N(l), light-saturated photosynthetic rate (A(max)), stomatal conductance (g(s)), maximum rate of carboxylation (V(cmax)) and maximum rate of electron transport (J(max)) in leaves of all age classes in the upper and lower crown. Leaf mass per unit area increased by 27% with increasing leaf age in the lower crown, but LMA did not depend on age in the upper crown. Leaf age had a significant effect on N(m) but not on N(a) in both crown positions, indicating that decreases in N(m) resulted from dilution. Photosynthetic parameters decreased significantly with leaf age in the lower crown (39% for A(max) and 43% for V(cmax)), but the effect of leaf age was not as great in the upper crown, although these parameters exhibited seasonal variation in both crown positions. Regression analysis indicated a close relationship between LMA and N(a), regardless of age class or when each age class was pooled (r(2) = 0.57-0.86). Relationships between LMA and N(a) and among A(max), V(cmax) and J(max) were weak or not significant when all age classes were examined by regression analysis. However, compared with older leaves, relationships among LMA, N(a) and A(max) were stronger in younger leaves. These results indicate that changes in LMA and N(l) mainly reflect light acclimation during leaf development, but they are only slightly affected by irradiance in mature leaves. In conclusion, LMA and N(l) are useful parameters for estimating photosynthetic capacity, but age-related effects need to be taken into account, especially in evergreen conifers.

  18. [Age-related changes in bone mineral density, mean width and area of the lumbar vertebrae in male African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops)].

    PubMed

    Hiyaoka, A; Yoshida, T; Cho, F; Yoshikawa, Y

    1994-04-01

    We were able to measure bone mineral density (BMD), mean bone width and the area of the lumbar vertebrae in male African green monkeys with a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DPX-alpha, Lunar, USA). For analysis of spinal bone mass, mean width and area of the bone, we scanned lumbar vertebrae L3-L5 using a pediatric analysis program. We used restraining bed made of formed polystyrol to support the animal in a supine position. The precision of the measuring technique was calculated by averaging the coefficients of variance of the 5 scans obtained in 5 animals aged from 5 to 7 years. The precision values for BMD, bone width and area were 1.9%, 0.9% and 2.6%, respectively. Furthermore, age-related changes in bone measurements were demonstrated using laboratory-bred males (n = 45) and, additionally, wild-originated males (n = 7, estimated ages over 15 years old). The values of B M D, bone width and area at 6 months old were about 0.3 g/cm2, 1.2cm and 4.5 cm2 respectively. These values increased with aging to about 0.7 g/cm2, 1.5 cm and 11cm2 at 5 years old, respectively, and were judged to reach plateau. However, animals over 10 years old and wild-originated animals which had been kept over 10 years in our breeding colony showed rather smaller BMD and area values than the animals aged 5 to 10 years. The animals aged between 5 and 10 years seemed to have retained a peak bone mass in this primate species.

  19. Scientific Futures. Selected Areas of Opportunity for the Office of Science and Technology Policy, the National Science Foundation, and Selected Federal Departments and Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    In response to the President's Office of Science and Technology Policy request to identify promising areas for U.S. research investment in science and technology, this report contains briefings by outstanding researchers in several fields of science. This volume is the fifth in a series of briefings which are used to anticipate important new…

  20. National, State, and Selected Local Area Vaccination Coverage Among Children Aged 19-35 Months - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Hill, Holly A; Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Yankey, David; Singleton, James A; Kolasa, Maureen

    2015-08-28

    The reduction in morbidity and mortality associated with vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States has been described as one of the 10 greatest public health achievements of the first decade of the 21st century. A recent analysis concluded that routine childhood vaccination will prevent 322 million cases of disease and about 732,000 early deaths among children born during 1994-2013, for a net societal cost savings of $1.38 trillion. The National Immunization Survey (NIS) has monitored vaccination coverage among U.S. children aged 19-35 months since 1994. This report presents national, regional, state, and selected local area vaccination coverage estimates for children born from January 2011 through May 2013, based on data from the 2014 NIS. For most vaccinations, there was no significant change in coverage between 2013 and 2014. The exception was hepatitis A vaccine (HepA), for which increases were observed in coverage with both ≥1 and ≥2 doses. As in previous years, <1% of children received no vaccinations. National coverage estimates indicate that the Healthy People 2020 target* of 90% was met for ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine (93.3%), ≥1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) (91.5%), ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) (91.6%), and ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine (91.0%). Coverage was below target for ≥4 doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP), the full series of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, hepatitis B (HepB) birth dose,† ≥4 doses pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), ≥2 doses of HepA, the full series of rotavirus vaccine, and the combined vaccine series.§ Examination of coverage by child's race/ethnicity revealed lower estimated coverage among non-Hispanic black children compared with non-Hispanic white children for several vaccinations, including DTaP, the full series of Hib, PCV, rotavirus vaccine, and the combined series. Children from households classified as below the

  1. A comparative study on the effect of high cholesterol diet on the hippocampal CA1 area of adult and aged rats.

    PubMed

    Abo El-Khair, Doaa M; El-Safti, Fatma El-Nabawia A; Nooh, Hanaa Z; El-Mehi, Abeer E

    2014-06-01

    Dementia is one of the most important problems nowadays. Aging is associated with learning and memory impairments. Diet rich in cholesterol has been shown to be detrimental to cognitive performance. This work was carried out to compare the effect of high cholesterol diet on the hippocampus of adult and aged male albino rats. Twenty adult and twenty aged male rats were used in this study. According to age, the rats were randomly subdivided into balanced and high cholesterol diet fed groups. The diet was 15 g/rat/day for adult rats and 20 g/rat/day for aged rats for eight weeks. Serial coronal sections of hippocampus and blood samples were taken from each rat. For diet effect evaluation, Clinical, biochemical, histological, immunohistochemical, and morphometric assessments were done. In compare to a balanced diet fed rat, examination of Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA 1) area in the hippocampus of the high cholesterol diet adult rats showed degeneration, a significant decrease of the pyramidal cells, attenuation and/or thickening of small blood vessels, apparent increase of astrocytes and apparent decrease of Nissl's granules content. Moreover, the high cholesterol diet aged rats showed aggravation of senility changes of the hippocampus together with Alzheimer like pathological changes. In conclusion, the high cholesterol diet has a significant detrimental effect on the hippocampus and aging might pronounce this effect. So, we should direct our attention to limit cholesterol intake in our food to maintain a healthy life style for a successful aging.

  2. Changes in Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates and Disparities for Rural Physician Shortage Areas Staffed by the National Health Service Corps: 1984-1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathman, Donald E.; Fryer, George E.; Green, Larry A.; Phillips, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    This study assesses whether the National Health Service Corps's legislated goals to see health improve and health disparities lessen are being met in rural health professional shortage areas for a key population health indicator: age-adjusted mortality. In a descriptive study using a pre-post design with comparison groups, the authors calculated…

  3. Changes in Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates and Disparities for Rural Physician Shortage Areas Staffed by the National Health Service Corps: 1984-1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathman, Donald E.; Fryer, George E.; Green, Larry A.; Phillips, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study assesses whether the National Health Service Corps's legislated goals to see health improve and health disparities lessen are being met in rural health professional shortage areas for a key population health indicator: age-adjusted mortality. Methods: In a descriptive study using a pre-post design with comparison groups, the…

  4. Baddeleyite and zircon U Pb ages from the Kærven area, Kangerlussuaq: Implications for the timing of Paleogene continental breakup in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, Paul Martin; Heaman, Larry M.; Pedersen, Lise E.

    2006-11-01

    We report U-Pb zircon and baddeleyite age results for two mafic units in the Kangerlussuaq area which are part of the Paleogene East Greenland igneous province; the Kangerlussuaq macrodyke, which represents a feeder to some flood basalts, and the nearby Kærven Gabbro. Baddeleyite from the macrodyke yielded a concordant age of 54.7 ± 0.4 (2 σ) Ma and this is among the most precise age determinations from the province. This age is interpreted to reflect the time of emplacement. The macrodyke belongs to a swarm of dykes emplaced perhaps in a failed arm during continental rifting, and the age predates the completion of continental breakup at the end of emplacement of the Plateau Basalts of the East Greenland eruption sequence. Geochemically the macrodyke is correlated with the Milne Land Formation lavas. The magma experienced slight crustal contamination. Based on the age and geochemistry of the macrodyke, the age of the Skaergaard intrusion and Skrænterne Formation lavas, an age span of 1-2 Ma is confirmed for the extrusion of the entire Plateau Basalts. U-Pb analysis of zircon from the Kærven Gabbro yields an age of 53.0 ± 0.3 (2 σ) Ma. The Kærven Gabbro was intruded after extension had ceased in the area and we suggest that the post plateau basalt magmatism did not take place at a distinct later time, but instead that igneous activity continued for some time at a lower rate. Slightly fractionated HREEs indicate that the Kærven Gabbro magma was extracted at relatively shallow levels in the mantle.

  5. 45 CFR 1321.7 - Mission of the State agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.7 Mission of the State agency. (a) The Older Americans Act intends that the State agency on aging shall be the leader relative to...

  6. 45 CFR 1321.11 - State agency policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.11 State agency policies. (a) The State agency on aging shall develop policies governing all aspects of programs operated under this...

  7. 45 CFR 1321.7 - Mission of the State agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.7 Mission of the State agency. (a) The Older Americans Act intends that the State agency on aging shall be the leader relative to...

  8. 45 CFR 1321.11 - State agency policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.11 State agency policies. (a) The State agency on aging shall develop policies governing all aspects of programs operated under this...

  9. 45 CFR 1321.7 - Mission of the State agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.7 Mission of the State agency. (a) The Older Americans Act intends that the State agency on aging shall be the leader relative to...

  10. 45 CFR 1321.11 - State agency policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.11 State agency policies. (a) The State agency on aging shall develop policies governing all aspects of programs operated under this...

  11. 45 CFR 1321.7 - Mission of the State agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.7 Mission of the State agency. (a) The Older Americans Act intends that the State agency on aging shall be the leader relative to...

  12. 45 CFR 1321.11 - State agency policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.11 State agency policies. (a) The State agency on aging shall develop policies governing all aspects of programs operated under this...

  13. 45 CFR 1321.11 - State agency policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.11 State agency policies. (a) The State agency on aging shall develop policies governing all aspects of programs operated under this...

  14. 45 CFR 1321.7 - Mission of the State agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.7 Mission of the State agency. (a) The Older Americans Act intends that the State agency on aging shall be the leader relative to...

  15. 40Ar 39Ar Ages and tectonic setting of ophiolite from the Neyriz area, southeast Zagros Range, Iran

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanphere, M.A.; Pamic, J.

    1983-01-01

    An ophiolite, considered to be an allochthonous fragment of Tethyan oceanic crust and mantle, crops out near Neyriz in the Zagros Range, Iran. 40Ar 39Ar ages ranging from 76.8 ?? 23.8 Ma to 105 ?? 23.3 Ma were measured on hornblende from five samples of plagiogranite and diabase from the ophiolite. The most precise ages are 85.9 ?? 3.8 Ma for a diabase and 83.6 ?? 8.4 Ma for a plagiogranite. The weighted mean age of hornblende from the five samples is 87.5 ?? 7.2 Ma which indicates that the igneous part of the Neyriz ophiolite formed during the early part of the Late Cretaceous. Pargasite from amphibolite below peridotite of the Neyriz ophiolite has a 40Ar 39Ar age of 94.9 ?? 7.6 Ma. The pargasite age agrees within analytical uncertainty with the ages measured on diabase and plagiogranite. Comparable ages have been measured on igneous rocks from the Samail ophiolite of Oman and on amphibolite below peridotite of the Samail ophiolite. ?? 1983.

  16. Modeling single-vehicle run-off-road crash severity in rural areas: Accounting for unobserved heterogeneity and age difference.

    PubMed

    Gong, Linfeng; Fan, Wei David

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates factors that significantly contribute to the severity of driver injuries resulting from single-vehicle run-off-road (SV ROR) crashes. A mixed logit model approach is employed to explore the potential unobserved heterogeneous effects associated with each age group: young (ages 16-24), middle-aged (ages 25-65), and older drivers (ages over 65). Likelihood ratio tests indicated that the development of separate injury severity models for each age group is statistically superior to estimating a single model using all data. Based on the crash data collected from 2009 to 2013 in North Carolina, a series of driver, vehicle, roadway, and environmental characteristics are examined. Both parameter estimates and their elasticities are developed and used to interpret the models. The estimation results show that contributing factors which significantly affect the injury severity of an SV ROR crash differ across three age groups. Use of restraint device and horizontal curves are found to affect crash injuries and fatalities in all age groups. Reckless driving, speeding, distraction, inexperience, drug or alcohol involvement, presence of passengers, and driving an SUV or a van are found to have a more pronounced influence in young and middle-aged drivers than older drivers. Compared to the passenger cars, older drivers are less likely to experience possible injuries in a large-size vehicle (e.g., truck or bus). The average annual daily traffic volume and lighting conditions are also found to influence the resulting injury severity of an SV ROR crash specific to young drivers.

  17. 45 CFR 90.34 - Agency reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... preceding fiscal year to carry out the Act; and (b) Contains data on the frequency, type, and resolution of...; and (c) Contains data directly relevant to the extent of any pattern or practice of age discrimination... information which the agency determines is useful in analyzing agency progress in reducing age...

  18. Austerity and old-age mortality in England: a longitudinal cross-local area analysis, 2007–2013

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Martin; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Taylor-Robinson, David; Barr, Ben; Stuckler, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective There has been significant concern that austerity measures have negatively impacted health in the UK. We examined whether budgetary reductions in Pension Credit and social care have been associated with recent rises in mortality rates among pensioners aged 85 years and over. Design Cross-local authority longitudinal study. Setting Three hundred and twenty-four lower tier local authorities in England. Main outcome measure Annual percentage changes in mortality rates among pensioners aged 85 years or over. Results Between 2007 and 2013, each 1% decline in Pension Credit spending (support for low income pensioners) per beneficiary was associated with an increase in 0.68% in old-age mortality (95% CI: 0.41 to 0.95). Each reduction in the number of beneficiaries per 1000 pensioners was associated with an increase in 0.20% (95% CI: 0.15 to 0.24). Each 1% decline in social care spending was associated with a significant rise in old-age mortality (0.08%, 95% CI: 0.0006–0.12) but not after adjusting for Pension Credit spending. Similar patterns were seen in both men and women. Weaker associations observed for those aged 75 to 84 years, and none among those 65 to 74 years. Categories of service expenditure not expected to affect old-age mortality, such as transportation, showed no association. Conclusions Rising mortality rates among pensioners aged 85 years and over were linked to reductions in spending on income support for poor pensioners and social care. Findings suggest austerity measures in England have affected vulnerable old-age adults. PMID:26980412

  19. Soil Microbial Community Structure and Metabolic Activity of Pinus elliottii Plantations across Different Stand Ages in a Subtropical Area

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zeyan; Haack, Stacey Elizabeth; Lin, Wenxiong; Li, Bailian; Wu, Linkun; Fang, Changxun; Zhang, Zhixing

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbes play an essential role in the forest ecosystem as an active component. This study examined the hypothesis that soil microbial community structure and metabolic activity would vary with the increasing stand ages in long-term pure plantations of Pinus elliottii. The phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) combined with community level physiological profiles (CLPP) method was used to assess these characteristics in the rhizospheric soils of P. elliottii. We found that the soil microbial communities were significantly different among different stand ages of P. elliottii plantations. The PLFA analysis indicated that the bacterial biomass was higher than the actinomycic and fungal biomass in all stand ages. However, the bacterial biomass decreased with the increasing stand ages, while the fungal biomass increased. The four maximum biomarker concentrations in rhizospheric soils of P. elliottii for all stand ages were 18:1ω9c, 16:1ω7c, 18:3ω6c (6,9,12) and cy19:0, representing measures of fungal and gram negative bacterial biomass. In addition, CLPP analysis revealed that the utilization rate of amino acids, polymers, phenolic acids, and carbohydrates of soil microbial community gradually decreased with increasing stand ages, though this pattern was not observed for carboxylic acids and amines. Microbial community diversity, as determined by the Simpson index, Shannon-Wiener index, Richness index and McIntosh index, significantly decreased as stand age increased. Overall, both the PLFA and CLPP illustrated that the long-term pure plantation pattern exacerbated the microecological imbalance previously described in the rhizospheric soils of P. elliottii, and markedly decreased the soil microbial community diversity and metabolic activity. Based on the correlation analysis, we concluded that the soil nutrient and C/N ratio most significantly contributed to the variation of soil microbial community structure and metabolic activity in different stand ages of P

  20. Age-dependent accumulation of heavy metals in a pod of killer whales (Orcinus orca) stranded in the northern area of Japan.

    PubMed

    Endo, Tetsuya; Kimura, Osamu; Hisamichi, Yohsuke; Minoshima, Yasuhiko; Haraguchi, Koichi

    2007-02-01

    Mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe) manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) concentrations in the liver, kidney and muscle of nine killer whales (including three calves) that stranded together in the northern area of Japan were determined. The Hg and Cd concentrations were found at trace levels in the calf organs, and increased with age. The Fe concentration in the muscle was significantly lower in the calves than in the mature whales and also increased with age. In contrast, Mn and Cu concentrations in the muscle were significantly higher in the calves than in the mature whales, and changes in the Zn concentration relative to age were unclear. These results suggest minimal mother-to-calf transfer of the toxic metals Hg and Cd and accumulation of these metals in the organs with age, while the essential metals Mn and Cu were found at higher concentrations in the muscle of calves than in mature whales.

  1. A population-based study of physical function and risk for elder abuse reported to social service agency: findings from the Chicago health and aging project.

    PubMed

    Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa; Evans, Denis

    2014-10-01

    We examined the association between physical function and the risk for reported elder abuse. In the Chicago Health and Aging Project (N = 8,932), 238 participants had reported elder abuse. The independent variable was objectively assessed physical function using both directly observed physical performance testing and self-reported physical function (Katz activity of daily living scale, Nagi physical activity scale, and Rosow Breslau mobility scales). Outcomes were elder abuse and specific subtypes of elder abuse. After adjusting for confounders, lower levels of physical performance testing (OR, 2.71[1.58-4.64]), Katz impairment (OR, 1.84[1.29-2.59]), Nagi impairment (OR, 1.65[1.15-2.37]) and Rosow Breslau (OR, 1.76[1.26-2.47]) were associated with increased risk for elder abuse. Lowest levels of physical performance testing were associated with increased risk for psychological abuse (OR, 2.69[1.27-5.71]), caregiver neglect (OR, 2.66[1.22-5.79]), and financial exploitation (OR, 2.35 [1.21-4.55]). Our results may have important implications to healthcare professional, social services and other disciplines to prevent and treat elder abuse.

  2. Age estimation from pulp/tooth area ratio (PTR) in an Indian sample: A preliminary comparison of three mandibular teeth used alone and in combination.

    PubMed

    Babshet, Medha; Acharya, Ashith B; Naikmasur, Venkatesh G

    2011-11-01

    Pulp/tooth area ratio (PTR) method of adult dental age estimation has been examined on few tooth types. We assessed the lateral incisor (LI) and first premolar (PM1) in addition to canine (C) - alone and in combination. Periapical radiographs from 61 Indians aged 21-71 years were examined. PTR of LI produced the best age correlation (r = -0.395) followed closely by PM1 (r = -0.362). The canine revealed the lowest correlation (r = -0.206); among tooth combinations, the three teeth taken together had the best R value (-0.438) followed by LI + PM1 (-0.435), LI + C (-0.406) and C + PM1 (-0.37). The standard errors of estimates (S.E.E.) of the regression analyses for the individual teeth and tooth combinations ranged from ±12.13 to 13.08 years, indicating minimal difference in age estimates using solitary or multiple teeth. Errors were higher than in European groups (±2.5-5 years) which may partly owe to moderate age correlation of secondary dentine deposition in Indians. Moreover, facial soft-tissue superimposition in living subjects evaluated herein possibly precluded optimal tooth and pulp canal visualization. These indicate that the PTR method should be used judiciously in age estimation of living Indian adults, although further studies on larger samples with evenly distributed age-groups is necessary for deriving definitive conclusions.

  3. Emission Inventory: A local agency`s approach

    SciTech Connect

    Kestler, S.L.; Bien, D.L.; Gruber, L.R.

    1996-12-31

    The Department of Environmental Services-Air Quality Management (D.O.E.S.-A.Q.M.) in southwestern Ohio has inventoried stationary sources since the mid-1970`s. That inventory has changed over the years from one of unknown data quality to one of high quality and substantial use by the public, agency personnel and industry. Since 1990, the scope of the agency`s inventory has broadened to include the compilation of a local area source inventory every three years. This presentation explores a local agency`s {open_quotes}real life{close_quotes} approach to compiling their emission inventory. We will discuss the improvements made and the pitfalls encountered in the inventory process over the years.

  4. A two-decade comparison of prevalence of dementia in individuals aged 65 years and older from three geographical areas of England: results of the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study I and II

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Fiona E; Arthur, Antony; Barnes, Linda E; Bond, John; Jagger, Carol; Robinson, Louise; Brayne, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background The prevalence of dementia is of interest worldwide. Contemporary estimates are needed to plan for future care provision, but much evidence is decades old. We aimed to investigate whether the prevalence of dementia had changed in the past two decades by repeating the same approach and diagnostic methods as used in the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (MRC CFAS) in three of the original study areas in England. Methods Between 1989 and 1994, MRC CFAS investigators did baseline interviews in populations aged 65 years and older in six geographically defined areas in England and Wales. A two stage process, with screening followed by diagnostic assessment, was used to obtain data for algorithmic diagnoses (geriatric mental state–automated geriatric examination for computer assisted taxonomy), which were then used to estimate dementia prevalence. Data from three of these areas—Cambridgeshire, Newcastle, and Nottingham—were selected for CFAS I. Between 2008 and 2011, new fieldwork was done in the same three areas for the CFAS II study. For both CFAS I and II, each area needed to include 2500 individuals aged 65 years and older to provide power for geographical and generational comparison. Sampling was stratified according to age group (65–74 years vs ≥75 years). CFAS II used identical sampling, approach, and diagnostic methods to CFAS I, except that screening and assessement were combined into one stage. Prevalence estimates were calculated using inverse probability weighting methods to adjust for sampling design and non-response. Full likelihood Bayesian models were used to investigate informative non-response. Findings 7635 people aged 65 years or older were interviewed in CFAS I (9602 approached, 80% response) in Cambridgeshire, Newcastle, and Nottingham, with 1457 being diagnostically assessed. In the same geographical areas, the CFAS II investigators interviewed 7796 individuals (14 242 approached, 242 with

  5. 5 CFR 532.209 - Lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lead agency. 532.209 Section 532.209... Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.209 Lead agency. (a) The Office of Personnel Management shall select a lead agency for each appropriated and nonappropriated fund wage area based on the number of...

  6. 5 CFR 532.209 - Lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lead agency. 532.209 Section 532.209... Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.209 Lead agency. (a) The Office of Personnel Management shall select a lead agency for each appropriated and nonappropriated fund wage area based on the number of...

  7. 5 CFR 532.209 - Lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lead agency. 532.209 Section 532.209... Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.209 Lead agency. (a) The Office of Personnel Management shall select a lead agency for each appropriated and nonappropriated fund wage area based on the number of...

  8. 5 CFR 532.209 - Lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lead agency. 532.209 Section 532.209... Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.209 Lead agency. (a) The Office of Personnel Management shall select a lead agency for each appropriated and nonappropriated fund wage area based on the number of...

  9. 5 CFR 532.209 - Lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lead agency. 532.209 Section 532.209... Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.209 Lead agency. (a) The Office of Personnel Management shall select a lead agency for each appropriated and nonappropriated fund wage area based on the number of...

  10. Directory of State Human Services Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Services Inst. for Children and Families, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Listed in the directory are 54 state and territorial human service agencies classified according to the number of major areas (welfare/social services, health, mental health and/or mental retardation, employment, corrections) included within the agency program and the type of authority delegated to the agency director, Integrated-Comprehensive…

  11. Letter report: Population estimates by age, sex and race for 10-county study area. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pittenger, D.B.

    1992-02-01

    The Hanford Environmental Does Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate radiation doses that people could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. To identify groups that may have received doses, population estimates containing age, race, and sex detail for ten counties in Washington and Oregon for the years 1940 to 1980 were prepared by the Demographics Laboratory under a subcontract with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). A data base of population information was developed from census reports and published and unpublished collections from the Washington State Office of Financial Management and Center for Population Research. Three estimation methods were then explored: the cohort-component model, cohort interpolation, and age-group interpolation. The estimates generated through cohort and age-group interpolation are considered adequate for initial use in the HEDR Project. Results are presented in two forms: (1) county populations by sex and single year of age and (2) county populations by sex and race for age groupings. These results are made available to the HEDR Project for further refinement into population estimates by county census divisions.

  12. The Genus Cecropia: A Biological Clock to Estimate the Age of Recently Disturbed Areas in the Neotropics

    PubMed Central

    Zalamea, Paul-Camilo; Heuret, Patrick; Sarmiento, Carolina; Rodríguez, Manuel; Berthouly, Anne; Guitet, Stéphane; Nicolini, Eric; Delnatte, César; Barthélémy, Daniel; Stevenson, Pablo R.

    2012-01-01

    Forest successional processes following disturbance take decades to play out, even in tropical forests. Nonetheless, records of vegetation change in this ecosystem are scarce, increasing the importance of the chronosequence approach to study forest recovery. However, this approach requires accurate dating of secondary forests, which until now was a difficult and/or expensive task. Cecropia is a widespread and abundant pioneer tree genus of the Neotropics. Here we propose and validate a rapid and straightforward method to estimate the age of secondary forest patches based on morphological observations of Cecropia trees. We found that Cecropia-inferred ages were highly correlated with known ages of the forest. We also demonstrate that Cecropia can be used to accurately date disturbances and propose twenty-one species distributed all over the geographical range of the genus as potential secondary forest chronometer species. Our method is limited in applicability by the maximal longevity of Cecropia individuals. Although the oldest chronosequence used in this study was 20 years old, we argue that at least for the first four decades after disturbance, the method described in this study provides very accurate estimations of secondary forest ages. The age of pioneer trees provides not only information needed to calculate the recovery of carbon stocks that would help to improve forest management, but also provides information needed to characterize the initial floristic composition and the rates of species remigration into secondary forest. Our contribution shows how successional studies can be reliably and inexpensively extended without the need to obtain forest ages based on expensive or potentially inaccurate data across the Neotropics. PMID:22916144

  13. Mental symptoms, psychotropic drug use and alcohol consumption in immigrated middle-aged women. The Women's Health in Lund Area (WHILA) Study.

    PubMed

    Rundberg, Jenny; Lidfeldt, Jonas; Nerbrand, Christina; Samsioe, Göran; Romelsjö, Anders; Ojehagen, Agneta

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to analyse mental symptoms, psychotropic drug use and alcohol consumption, in immigrant women born in Finland, the other Nordic countries, Eastern Europe, Western Europe and countries outside Europe, compared with Swedish-born women, and furthermore, to study if age at immigration may have an influence. All women (n=10,766) aged 50-59 years and living in the Lund area of southern Sweden received a postal invitation to a health survey named the Women's Health in Lund Area; 64.2% (n=6917) participated. The participants answered a questionnaire including prevalence of mental symptoms during the past 3 months, regular use of psychotropic drugs, alcohol consumption during an average week, country of birth and age at immigration. Severe mental symptoms were more common among most immigrant groups compared with native Swedes, but the association to country of birth was not significant after adjustment for possible confounders. Regular use of hypnotics was more common among Nordic immigrants only (odds ration, OR = 4.4). East European and non-European immigrants less often were alcohol consumers (OR = 1.6 and OR = 3.8). Heavy drinking was more common among non-Nordic immigrants who immigrated at a younger age than at an older age. Furthermore, it was found that although East European and non-European immigrants had a higher educational level, they were less often gainfully employed compared with native Swedes. In middle-aged women, country of birth as well as age at immigration are important factors to consider in relation to alcohol consumption, but these factors may be of less importance considering mental health.

  14. Aging and chronic administration of serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor citalopram upregulate Sirt4 gene expression in the preoptic area of male mice.

    PubMed

    Wong, Dutt Way; Soga, Tomoko; Parhar, Ishwar S

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction and cognitive deficits are markers of the aging process. Mammalian sirtuins (SIRT), encoded by sirt 1-7 genes, are known as aging molecules which are sensitive to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). Whether the 5-HT system regulates SIRT in the preoptic area (POA), which could affect reproduction and cognition has not been examined. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the effects of citalopram (CIT, 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks), a potent selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor and aging on SIRT expression in the POA of male mice using real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry. Age-related increases of sirt1, sirt4, sirt5, and sirt7 mRNA levels were observed in the POA of 52 weeks old mice. Furthermore, 4 weeks of chronic CIT treatment started at 8 weeks of age also increased sirt2 and sirt4 mRNA expression in the POA. Moreover, the number of SIRT4 immuno-reactive neurons increased with aging in the medial septum area (12 weeks = 1.00 ± 0.15 vs. 36 weeks = 1.68 ± 0.14 vs. 52 weeks = 1.54 ± 0.11, p < 0.05). In contrast, the number of sirt4-immunopositive cells did not show a statistically significant change with CIT treatment, suggesting that the increase in sirt4 mRNA levels may occur in cells in which sirt4 is already being expressed. Taken together, these studies suggest that CIT treatment and the process of aging utilize the serotonergic system to up-regulate SIRT4 in the POA as a common pathway to deregulate social cognitive and reproductive functions.

  15. Aging and chronic administration of serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor citalopram upregulate Sirt4 gene expression in the preoptic area of male mice

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Dutt Way; Soga, Tomoko; Parhar, Ishwar S.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction and cognitive deficits are markers of the aging process. Mammalian sirtuins (SIRT), encoded by sirt 1-7 genes, are known as aging molecules which are sensitive to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). Whether the 5-HT system regulates SIRT in the preoptic area (POA), which could affect reproduction and cognition has not been examined. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the effects of citalopram (CIT, 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks), a potent selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor and aging on SIRT expression in the POA of male mice using real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry. Age-related increases of sirt1, sirt4, sirt5, and sirt7 mRNA levels were observed in the POA of 52 weeks old mice. Furthermore, 4 weeks of chronic CIT treatment started at 8 weeks of age also increased sirt2 and sirt4 mRNA expression in the POA. Moreover, the number of SIRT4 immuno-reactive neurons increased with aging in the medial septum area (12 weeks = 1.00 ± 0.15 vs. 36 weeks = 1.68 ± 0.14 vs. 52 weeks = 1.54 ± 0.11, p < 0.05). In contrast, the number of sirt4-immunopositive cells did not show a statistically significant change with CIT treatment, suggesting that the increase in sirt4 mRNA levels may occur in cells in which sirt4 is already being expressed. Taken together, these studies suggest that CIT treatment and the process of aging utilize the serotonergic system to up-regulate SIRT4 in the POA as a common pathway to deregulate social cognitive and reproductive functions. PMID:26442099

  16. Age, Psychological Maturity, and the Transition to Motherhood among English-Speaking Australian Women in a Metropolitan Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camberis, Anna-Lisa; McMahon, Catherine A.; Gibson, Frances L.; Boivin, Jacky

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the trend toward delayed parenthood, this study examines whether older maternal age is associated with greater psychological maturity and whether greater psychological maturity provides any adaptive benefit during the transition to motherhood. A sample of 240 predominantly English-speaking Australian women in a metropolitan area…

  17. A new look at age and area: the geographic and environmental expansion of genera during the Ordovician Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, A. I.

    1997-01-01

    Although available paleobiological data indicate that the geographic ranges of marine species are maintained throughout their entire observable durations, other evidence suggests, by contrast, that the ranges of higher taxa expand as they age, perhaps in association with increased species richness. Here, I utilize a database of Ordovician genus occurrences collected from the literature for several paleocontinents to demonstrate that a significant aging of the global biota during the Ordovician Radiation was accompanied by a geographic and environmental expansion of genus ranges. The proportion of genera occurring in two or more paleocontinents in the database, and two or more environmental zones within a six-zone onshore-offshore framework, increased significantly in the Caradocian and Ashgillian. Moreover, widespread genera tended to be significantly older than their endemic counterparts, suggesting a direct link between their ages and their environmental and geographic extents. Expansion in association with aging was corroborated further by demonstrating this pattern directly among genera that ranged from the Tremadocian through the Ashgillian. Taken together, these results are significant not only for what they reveal about the kinetics of a major, global-scale diversification, but also for what they suggest about the interpretation of relationships between diversity trends at the alpha (within-community) and beta (between-community) levels.

  18. An unintended experiment in fisheries science: a marine area protected by war results in Mexican waves in fish numbers-at-age.

    PubMed

    Beare, Doug; Hölker, Franz; Engelhard, Georg H; McKenzie, Eddie; Reid, David G

    2010-09-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are attaining increasing importance in the management of marine ecosystems. They are effective for conservation in tropical and subtropical areas (mainly coral and rocky reefs), but it is debated whether they are useful in the management of migratory fish stocks in open temperate regions. World War II created a large marine area within which commercial fishing was prevented for 6 years. Here we analyse scientific trawl data for three important North Sea gadoids, collected between 1928 and 1958. Using statistical models to summarise the data, we demonstrate the potential of MPAs for expediting the recovery of over-exploited fisheries in open temperate regions. Our age-structured data and population models suggest that wild fish stocks will respond rapidly and positively to reductions in harvesting rates and that the numbers of older fish in a population will react before, and in much greater proportion, than their younger counterparts in a kind of Mexican wave. Our analyses demonstrate both the overall increase in survival due to the lack of harvesting in the War and the form of the age-dependent wave in numbers. We conclude that large closed areas can be very useful in the conservation of migratory species from temperate areas and that older fish benefit fastest and in greater proportion. Importantly, any rise in spawning stock biomass may also not immediately result in better recruitment, which can respond more slowly and hence take longer to contribute to higher future harvestable biomass levels.

  19. An unintended experiment in fisheries science: a marine area protected by war results in Mexican waves in fish numbers-at-age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beare, Doug; Hölker, Franz; Engelhard, Georg H.; McKenzie, Eddie; Reid, David G.

    2010-09-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are attaining increasing importance in the management of marine ecosystems. They are effective for conservation in tropical and subtropical areas (mainly coral and rocky reefs), but it is debated whether they are useful in the management of migratory fish stocks in open temperate regions. World War II created a large marine area within which commercial fishing was prevented for 6 years. Here we analyse scientific trawl data for three important North Sea gadoids, collected between 1928 and 1958. Using statistical models to summarise the data, we demonstrate the potential of MPAs for expediting the recovery of over-exploited fisheries in open temperate regions. Our age-structured data and population models suggest that wild fish stocks will respond rapidly and positively to reductions in harvesting rates and that the numbers of older fish in a population will react before, and in much greater proportion, than their younger counterparts in a kind of Mexican wave. Our analyses demonstrate both the overall increase in survival due to the lack of harvesting in the War and the form of the age-dependent wave in numbers. We conclude that large closed areas can be very useful in the conservation of migratory species from temperate areas and that older fish benefit fastest and in greater proportion. Importantly, any rise in spawning stock biomass may also not immediately result in better recruitment, which can respond more slowly and hence take longer to contribute to higher future harvestable biomass levels.

  20. Up-regulation of serotonin receptor 2B mRNA and protein in the peri-infarcted area of aged rats and stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Bădescu, George Mihai; Bogdan, Catalin; Weston, Ria; Slevin, Mark; Di Napoli, Mario; Popa-Wagner, Aurel

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that a high proportion of elderly stroke patients develop mood disorders, the mechanisms underlying late-onset neuropsychiatric and neurocognitive symptoms have so far received little attention in the field of neurobiology. In rodents, aged animals display depressive symptoms following stroke, whereas young animals recover fairly well. This finding has prompted us to investigate the expression of serotonin receptors 2A and 2B, which are directly linked to depression, in the brains of aged and young rats following stroke. Although the development of the infarct was more rapid in aged rats in the first 3 days after stroke, by day 14 the cortical infarcts were similar in size in both age groups i.e. 45% of total cortical volume in young rats and 55.7% in aged rats. We also found that the expression of serotonin receptor type B mRNA was markedly increased in the perilesional area of aged rats as compared to the younger counterparts. Furthermore, histologically, HTR2B protein expression in degenerating neurons was closely associated with activated microglia both in aged rats and human subjects. Treatment with fluoxetine attenuated the expression of Htr2B mRNA, stimulated post-stroke neurogenesis in the subventricular zone and was associated with an improved anhedonic behavior and an increased activity in the forced swim test in aged animals. We hypothesize that HTR2B expression in the infarcted territory may render degenerating neurons susceptible to attack by activated microglia and thus aggravate the consequences of stroke. PMID:27013593

  1. Age-at-death estimation by pulp/tooth area ratio in canines: study of a 20th-century Mexican sample of prisoners to test Cameriere's method.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Stefano; Bautista, Josefina; Alemán, Inmaculada; Cameriere, Roberto

    2011-09-01

    Accurate age estimation has always been a problem for forensic scientists, and apposition of secondary dentine is often used as an indicator of age. Cameriere et al. studied the pulp/tooth area ratio by peri-apical X-ray images of the canines, to observe the apposition of secondary dentine. The present study examines the application of this technique in a Mexican identified sample coming from the Department of Physical Anthropology of the INAH, at Mexico City. The main aim of this work is to test the reliability of this method in a skeletal sample of a specific population, different from the samples used for its development. The obtained regression model explained 96.2% of total variance (R(2) = 0.962) with a standard error of estimate of 1.909 and a standard deviation of 1.947. These results demonstrate great reliability and that the age/secondary dentine relationship is not variable in this specific population.

  2. Comparative age and growth of common snook Centropomus undecimalis (Pisces: Centropomidae) from coastal and riverine areas in Southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Perera-Garcia, Martha A; Mendoza-Carranza, Manuel; Contreras-Sánchez, Wilfrido; Ferrara, Allyse; Huerta-Ortiz, Maricela; Hernández-Gómez, Raúl E

    2013-06-01

    Common snook Centropomus unidecimalis is an important commercial and fishery species in Southern Mexico, however the high exploitation rates have resulted in a strong reduction of its abundances. Since, the information about its population structure is scarce, the objective of the present research was to determine and compare the age structure in four important fishery sites. For this, age and growth of common snook were determined from specimens collected monthly, from July 2006 to March 2008, from two coastal (Barra Bosque and Barra San Pedro) and two riverine (San Pedro and Tres Brazos) commercial fishery sites in Tabasco, Mexico. Age was determined using sectioned saggitae otoliths and data analyzed by von Bertalanffy and Levenberg-Marquardt among others. Estimated ages ranged from 2 to 17 years. Monthly patterns of marginal increment formation and the percentage of otoliths with opaque rings on the outer edge demonstrated that a single annulus was formed each year. The von Bertalanffy parameters were calculated for males and females using linear adjustment and the non-linear method of Levenberg-Marquardt. The von Bertalanffy growth equations were FLt = 109.21(1-e-0.2(t+0.57)) for Barra Bosque, FLt = 94.56(1-e-027(t+0.485)) for Barra San Pedro, FLt = 97.15(1-e 0.17(t + 1.32)) for San Pedro and FLt = 83.77(1-e-026(t + 0.49)) for Tres Brazos. According to (Hotelling's T2, p < 0.05) test growth was significantly greater for females than for males. Based on the Chen test, von Bertalanffy growth curves were different among the study sites (RSS, p < 0.05). Based on the observed differences in growth parameters among sampling sites (coastal and riverine environments) future research need to be conducted on migration and population genetics, in order to delineate the stock structure of this population and support management programs.

  3. Age of sexual debut and patterns of sexual behaviour in two local government areas in southern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Isiugo-Abanihe, Uche C; Erinosho, Olayiwola; Ushie, Boniface; Aderinto, Adeyinka; Sunmola, Gbenga; Joseph, Richard

    2012-12-01

    The study examines the age of sexual debut and patterns of sexual behavior in Ugep, Cross River State, and Badeku and Olunloyo in Oyo State. A survey of households and individuals was conducted in the three communities; qualitative data were also collected through in-depth interviews and focus group discussion. The median age of first sex among never-married males and females were 17 years and 18 years respectively; more than one in five adolescents have had sex before age 16. Never-married males and females initiated sex earlier than ever-married, older respondents. That 14 percent of married men keep other sexual partners besides their wives is indicative of substantial extramarital relationship; also 12 percent of never-married male respondents with regular sex partners have other sexual partners. Condom use is fairly high, especially in sexual relations involving non-regular partners. The higher likelihood of alcohol use in sexual liaison with non-regular sex partners is suggestive of high prevalence of transactional sex and spontaneous or unplanned sex under the influence of alcohol, with their implications for the spread of HIV and AIDS. The study underscores the need for adolescent sexual and reproductive health education and behaviour change communication among all segments of the population and inculcation of values less favourable for the spread of sexually transmitted infections.

  4. Sleep disturbances and sexual function among men aged 45–75 years in an urban area of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Charandabi, Sakineh Mohammadalizadeh; Rezaei, Nazanin; Hakimi, Sevil; Khatami, Shiva; valizadeh, Reza; Azadi, Arman

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Aging in men is associated with various physical and mental symptoms, including sleep problems and sexual dysfunction. The aim of this study was to determine the status of sleep disorders and sexual dysfunction in men aged 45–75 years in Ilam, Iran. Materials and methods In this population-based cross-sectional study, 390 men aged 45–75 years were selected by cluster randomization in Ilam–Iran. Data were collected using 0–100 brief sexual function inventory and the sleep disorder questionnaires. Results Totally, 34.6% of men complained about sleep disorders: 17.4% about falling asleep, 12.8% about frequent nocturnal awakenings, 12.8% about waking up in the early hours in the morning and problem in falling asleep again, and 24.9% about fatigue and tiredness despite getting enough sleep. There was a significant relationship between all aspects of sexual function and the common problems related to sleep (p<0.001). The older, unemployed, illiterate men, those with inadequate income, those affected by chronic diseases, and/or urinary incontinence had significantly inferior sexual function compared with the others. Conclusion According to the high prevalence of sleep disorders in men as well as its association with sexual dysfunction, adopting health measures in this regard is necessary. PMID:27217906

  5. Residence times and age distributions of spring waters at the Semmering catchment area, Eastern Austria, as inferred from tritium, CFCs and stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Han, Liangfeng; Hacker, Peter; Gröning, Manfred

    2007-03-01

    The groundwater system in the mountainous area of Semmering, Austria, was studied by environmental tracers in several karst springs. The tracers used included stable isotopes ((18)O, (2)H), tritium ((3)H) and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The tracers provided valuable information in regard to (1) the mean altitude of the spring catchment areas; (2) the residence time and age distribution of the spring waters; and (3) the interconnection of the springs to a sinkhole. The combination of the stable isotopic data and the topography/geology provided the estimates of the mean altitudes of the catchment areas. Based on the stable isotopic data the recharge temperature of the spring waters was estimated. The smoothing of precipitation's isotopic signal in spring discharge provided information on the minimum transit time of the spring waters. Due to short observation time, (3)H data alone cannot be used for describing the mean residence time of the karst waters. CFCs, though useful in recognizing the co-existence of young (post-1993) water with old (CFC-free) water, could not be used to resolve age distribution models. It is shown in this article, however, that the combined use of tritium and CFCs can provide a better assessment of models to account for different groundwater age distributions. In Appendix A, a simplified method for collecting groundwater samples for the analysis of CFCs is described. The method provides a real facilitation for fieldwork. Test data are given for this sampling method in regard to potential contamination by atmospheric CFCs.

  6. Combined Administration of Levetiracetam and Valproic Acid Attenuates Age Related Hyperactivity of CA3 Place Cells, Reduces Place Field Area, and Increases Spatial Information Content in Aged Rat Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Robitsek, RJ; Ratner, MH; Stewart, TM; Eichenbaum, H; Farb, DH

    2015-01-01

    Learning and memory deficits associated with age-related mild cognitive impairment have long been attributed to impaired processing within the hippocampus. Hyperactivity within the hippocampal CA3 region that is associated with aging is mediated in part by a loss of inhibitory interneurons and thought to underlie impaired performance in spatial memory tasks, including the abnormal tendency in aged animals to pattern complete spatial representations. Here, we asked whether the spatial firing patterns of simultaneously recorded CA3 and CA1 neurons in young and aged rats could be manipulated pharmacologically to selectively reduce CA3 hyperactivity and thus, according to hypothesis, the associated abnormality in spatial representations. We used chronically implanted high-density tetrodes to record the spatial firing properties of CA3 and CA1 units during animal exploration for food in familiar and novel environments. Aged CA3 place cells have higher firing rates, larger place fields, less spatial information content, and respond less to a change from a familiar to a novel environment than young CA3 cells. We also find that the combination of levetiracetam (LEV) + valproic acid (VPA), previously shown to act as a cognitive enhancer in tests of spatial memory, attenuate CA3 place cell firing rates, reduce place field area, and increase spatial information content in aged but not young adult rats. This is consistent with drug enhancing the specificity of neuronal firing with respect to spatial location. Contrary to expectation, however, LEV + VPA reduces place cell discrimination between novel and familiar environments, i.e., spatial correlations increase, independent of age even though drug enhances performance in cognitive tasks. The results demonstrate that spatial information content, or the number of bits of information encoded per action potential, may be the key correlate for enhancement of spatial memory by LEV + VPA. PMID:25941121

  7. Combined administration of levetiracetam and valproic acid attenuates age-related hyperactivity of CA3 place cells, reduces place field area, and increases spatial information content in aged rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Robitsek, Jonathan; Ratner, Marcia H; Stewart, Tara; Eichenbaum, Howard; Farb, David H

    2015-12-01

    Learning and memory deficits associated with age-related mild cognitive impairment have long been attributed to impaired processing within the hippocampus. Hyperactivity within the hippocampal CA3 region that is associated with aging is mediated in part by a loss of functional inhibitory interneurons and thought to underlie impaired performance in spatial memory tasks, including the abnormal tendency in aged animals to pattern complete spatial representations. Here, we asked whether the spatial firing patterns of simultaneously recorded CA3 and CA1 neurons in young and aged rats could be manipulated pharmacologically to selectively reduce CA3 hyperactivity and thus, according to hypothesis, the associated abnormality in spatial representations. We used chronically implanted high-density tetrodes to record the spatial firing properties of CA3 and CA1 units during animal exploration for food in familiar and novel environments. Aged CA3 place cells have higher firing rates, larger place fields, less spatial information content, and respond less to a change from a familiar to a novel environment than young CA3 cells. We also find that the combination of levetiracetam (LEV) + valproic acid (VPA), previously shown to act as a cognitive enhancer in tests of spatial memory, attenuate CA3 place cell firing rates, reduce place field area, and increase spatial information content in aged but not young adult rats. This is consistent with drug enhancing the specificity of neuronal firing with respect to spatial location. Contrary to expectation, however, LEV + VPA reduces place cell discrimination between novel and familiar environments, i.e., spatial correlations increase, independent of age even though drug enhances performance in cognitive tasks. The results demonstrate that spatial information content, or the number of bits of information encoded per action potential, may be the key correlate for enhancement of spatial memory by LEV + VPA.

  8. [Cause of death of the working-age population of Ufa in relation to the area of residence].

    PubMed

    Sharafutdinova, N Kh

    1997-01-01

    Two districts, one with developed oil-processing and petrochemical industries and administrative one, were selected in Ufa city for 20-year study of mortality among able-bodied population. Both districts demonstrated a decreasing share of able-bodied people in mortality structure. However, mortality of able-bodied population in the industrial district tended to increase, in the administrative one--to decrease. The main death causes were traumatism, cardiovascular diseases, malignancies. Mean age at death among the able-bodied population was lower in the industrial district, among the people engaged into oil-processing and petrochemical industries, transport and building sector.

  9. Debris flows from failures Neoglacial-age moraine dams in the Three Sisters and Mount Jefferson wilderness areas, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, J. E.; Hardison, J.H.; Costa, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    The highest concentration of lakes dammed by Neoglacial moraines in the conterminous United States is in the Mount Jefferson and Three Sisters Wilderness Areas in central Oregon. Between 1930 and 1980, breakouts of these lakes have resulted in 11 debris flows. The settings and sequences of events leading to breaching and the downstream flow behavior of the resulting debris flows provide guidance on the likelihood and magnitude of future lake breakouts and debris flows.

  10. Use of environmental tracers to evaluate ground-water age and water-quality trends in a buried-valley aquifer, Dayton area, southwestern, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowe, Gary L.; Shapiro, Stephanie Dunkle; Schlosser, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC method) and tritium and helium isotopes (3H-3He method) were used as environmental tracers to estimate ground-water age in conjunction with efforts to develop a regional ground-water flow model of the buried-valley aquifer in the Dayton area, southwestern Ohio. This report describes results of CFC and water-quality sampling, summarizes relevant aspects of previously published work, and describes the use of 3H-3He ages to characterize temporal trends in ground-water quality of the buried-valley aquifer near Dayton, Ohio. Results of CFC sampling indicate that approximately 25 percent of the 137 sampled wells were contaminated with excess CFC's that rendered the ground water unsuitable for age dating. Evaluation of CFC ages obtained for the remaining samples indicated that the CFC compounds used for dating were being affected by microbial degradation. The degradation occurred under anoxic conditions that are found in most parts of the buried-valley aquifer. As a result, ground-water ages derived by the CFC method were too old and were inconsistent with measured tritium concentrations and independently derived 3H-3He ages. Limited data indicate that dissolved methane may play an important role in the degradation of the CFC's. In contrast, the 3H-3He technique was found to yield ground-water ages that were chemically and hydrologically reasonable. Ground-water ages derived by the 3H-3He technique were compared to values for selected water- quality characteristics to evaluate temporal trends in ground-water quality in the buried- valley aquifer. Distinct temporal trends were not identified for pH, alkalinity, or calcium and magnesium because of rapid equilibration of ground-water with calcite and dolomite in aquifer sediments. Temporal trends in which the amount of scatter and the number of outlier concentrations increased as ground-water age decreased were noted for sodium, potassium, boron, bromide, chloride, ammonia, nitrate, phosphate

  11. Real-time measurements of secondary organic aerosol formation and aging from ambient air in an oxidation flow reactor in the Los Angeles area

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, Amber M.; Hayes, Patrick L.; Peng, Zhe; Palm, Brett B.; Hu, Weiwei; Day, Douglas A.; Li, Rui; Cubison, Michael J.; Brune, William H.; Graus, Martin; Warneke, Carsten; Gilman, Jessica B.; Kuster, William C.; de Gouw, Joost; Gutierrez-Montes, Candido; Jimenez, Jose L.

    2016-06-15

    Field studies in polluted areas over the last decade have observed large formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) that is often poorly captured by models. The study of SOA formation using ambient data is often confounded by the effects of advection, vertical mixing, emissions, and variable degrees of photochemical aging. An oxidation flow reactor (OFR) was deployed to study SOA formation in real-time during the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) campaign in Pasadena, CA, in 2010. A high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) alternated sampling ambient and reactor-aged air. The reactor produced OH concentrations up to 4 orders of magnitude higher than in ambient air. OH radical concentration was continuously stepped, achieving equivalent atmospheric aging of 0.8 days–6.4 weeks in 3 min of processing every 2 h. Enhancement of organic aerosol (OA) from aging showed a maximum net SOA production between 0.8–6 days of aging with net OA mass loss beyond 2 weeks. Reactor SOA mass peaked at night, in the absence of ambient photochemistry and correlated with trimethylbenzene concentrations. Reactor SOA formation was inversely correlated with ambient SOA and Ox, which along with the short-lived volatile organic compound correlation, indicates the importance of very reactive (τOH ~ 0.3 day) SOA precursors (most likely semivolatile and intermediate volatility species, S/IVOCs) in the Greater Los Angeles Area. Evolution of the elemental composition in the reactor was similar to trends observed in the atmosphere (O : C vs. H : C slope ~ –0.65). Oxidation state of carbon (OSc) in reactor SOA increased steeply with age and remained elevated (OSC ~ 2) at the highest photochemical ages probed. The ratio of OA in the reactor output to excess CO (ΔCO, ambient CO above regional background) vs. photochemical age is similar to

  12. Real-time measurements of secondary organic aerosol formation and aging from ambient air in an oxidation flow reactor in the Los Angeles area

    DOE PAGES

    Ortega, Amber M.; Hayes, Patrick L.; Peng, Zhe; ...

    2016-06-15

    Field studies in polluted areas over the last decade have observed large formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) that is often poorly captured by models. The study of SOA formation using ambient data is often confounded by the effects of advection, vertical mixing, emissions, and variable degrees of photochemical aging. An oxidation flow reactor (OFR) was deployed to study SOA formation in real-time during the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) campaign in Pasadena, CA, in 2010. A high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) alternated sampling ambient andmore » reactor-aged air. The reactor produced OH concentrations up to 4 orders of magnitude higher than in ambient air. OH radical concentration was continuously stepped, achieving equivalent atmospheric aging of 0.8 days–6.4 weeks in 3 min of processing every 2 h. Enhancement of organic aerosol (OA) from aging showed a maximum net SOA production between 0.8–6 days of aging with net OA mass loss beyond 2 weeks. Reactor SOA mass peaked at night, in the absence of ambient photochemistry and correlated with trimethylbenzene concentrations. Reactor SOA formation was inversely correlated with ambient SOA and Ox, which along with the short-lived volatile organic compound correlation, indicates the importance of very reactive (τOH ~ 0.3 day) SOA precursors (most likely semivolatile and intermediate volatility species, S/IVOCs) in the Greater Los Angeles Area. Evolution of the elemental composition in the reactor was similar to trends observed in the atmosphere (O : C vs. H : C slope ~ –0.65). Oxidation state of carbon (OSc) in reactor SOA increased steeply with age and remained elevated (OSC ~ 2) at the highest photochemical ages probed. The ratio of OA in the reactor output to excess CO (ΔCO, ambient CO above regional background) vs. photochemical age is similar to previous studies at low to moderate ages and

  13. Real-time measurements of secondary organic aerosol formation and aging from ambient air in an oxidation flow reactor in the Los Angeles area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Amber M.; Hayes, Patrick L.; Peng, Zhe; Palm, Brett B.; Hu, Weiwei; Day, Douglas A.; Li, Rui; Cubison, Michael J.; Brune, William H.; Graus, Martin; Warneke, Carsten; Gilman, Jessica B.; Kuster, William C.; de Gouw, Joost; Gutiérrez-Montes, Cándido; Jimenez, Jose L.

    2016-06-01

    Field studies in polluted areas over the last decade have observed large formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) that is often poorly captured by models. The study of SOA formation using ambient data is often confounded by the effects of advection, vertical mixing, emissions, and variable degrees of photochemical aging. An oxidation flow reactor (OFR) was deployed to study SOA formation in real-time during the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) campaign in Pasadena, CA, in 2010. A high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) alternated sampling ambient and reactor-aged air. The reactor produced OH concentrations up to 4 orders of magnitude higher than in ambient air. OH radical concentration was continuously stepped, achieving equivalent atmospheric aging of 0.8 days-6.4 weeks in 3 min of processing every 2 h. Enhancement of organic aerosol (OA) from aging showed a maximum net SOA production between 0.8-6 days of aging with net OA mass loss beyond 2 weeks. Reactor SOA mass peaked at night, in the absence of ambient photochemistry and correlated with trimethylbenzene concentrations. Reactor SOA formation was inversely correlated with ambient SOA and Ox, which along with the short-lived volatile organic compound correlation, indicates the importance of very reactive (τOH ˜ 0.3 day) SOA precursors (most likely semivolatile and intermediate volatility species, S/IVOCs) in the Greater Los Angeles Area. Evolution of the elemental composition in the reactor was similar to trends observed in the atmosphere (O : C vs. H : C slope ˜ -0.65). Oxidation state of carbon (OSc) in reactor SOA increased steeply with age and remained elevated (OSC ˜ 2) at the highest photochemical ages probed. The ratio of OA in the reactor output to excess CO (ΔCO, ambient CO above regional background) vs. photochemical age is similar to previous studies at low to moderate ages and also extends to

  14. Orbitofrontal cortex volume in area 11/13 predicts reward devaluation, but not reversal learning performance, in young and aged monkeys.

    PubMed

    Burke, Sara N; Thome, Alex; Plange, Kojo; Engle, James R; Trouard, Theodore P; Gothard, Katalin M; Barnes, Carol A

    2014-07-23

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and amygdala are both necessary for decisions based on expected outcomes. Although behavioral and imaging data suggest that these brain regions are affected by advanced age, the extent to which aging alters appetitive processes coordinated by the OFC and the amygdala is unknown. In the current experiment, young and aged bonnet macaques were trained on OFC- and amygdala-dependent tasks that test the degree to which response selection is guided by reward value and can be adapted when expected outcomes change. To assess whether the structural integrity of these regions varies with levels of performance on reward devaluation and object reversal tasks, volumes of areas 11/13 and 14 of the OFC, central/medial (CM), and basolateral (BL) nuclei of the amygdala were determined from high-resolution anatomical MRIs. With age, there were significant reductions in OFC, but not CM and BL, volume. Moreover, the aged monkeys showed impairments in the ability to associate an object with a higher value reward, and to reverse a previously learned association. Interestingly, greater OFC volume of area 11/13, but not 14, was significantly correlated with an animal's ability to anticipate the reward outcome associated with an object, and smaller BL volume was predictive of an animal's tendency to choose a higher value reward, but volume of neither region correlated with reversal learning. Together, these data indicate that OFC volume has an impact on monkeys' ability to guide choice behavior based on reward value but does not impact ability to reverse a previously learned association.

  15. Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Coverage Among Females Aged 11 to 17 in Texas Counties: An Application of Multilevel, Small Area Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Eberth, Jan M.; Hossain, Md Monir; Tiro, Jasmin A.; Zhang, Xingyou; Holt, James B.; Vernon, Sally W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Local data are often used to plan and evaluate public health interventions and policy. With increasingly fewer public resources to collect sufficient data to support direct estimation of local outcomes, methods for deriving small area estimates are vital. The purpose of this study is to describe the county-level geographic distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage among adolescent females in Texas using multilevel small area estimation. Methods Multilevel (individual, county, public health region) random-intercept logit models were fit to HPV vaccination data (≥1 dose Gardasil) from the 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Using the parameter estimates from the final model, we simulated 10,000 data sets for each regression coefficient from the normal distribution and applied them to the logit model to estimate HPV vaccine coverage in each county. Results County-level coverage estimates ranged from 7% to 29%, compared with the state average of 18% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.59–21.88). Many Southwestern border and metropolitan counties exhibited high coverage estimates. Low coverage estimates were noted in the Panhandle, Southeastern border region, and Northeast. Significant correlations were observed between HPV vaccination and Hispanic ethnicity, county poverty, and public health region poverty. Conclusion Harnessing the flexibility of multilevel small area models to estimate HPV vaccine coverage at the county level, we have provided data that may inform the development of health education programs/policies, the provision of health services, and the planning of new research studies. Additionally, we have provided a framework for modeling other health outcomes at the county level using national survey data. PMID:23481692

  16. Human fascioliasis infection: gender differences within school-age children from endemic areas of the Nile Delta, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Curtale, Filippo; Hassanein, Yehia Abdel Wahab; Barduagni, Paolo; Yousef, Mohamed Mostafa; Wakeel, Aly El; Hallaj, Zuhair; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2007-02-01

    Several studies have reported a higher prevalence of infection for human fascioliasis among girls than among boys. To investigate this aspect further a sufficiently large data set was assembled comprising of 21,477 subjects with 932 positive cases. Subjects were primary school children covered by a control programme implemented by the Egyptian Ministry of Health and Population in the Nile Delta from 1988 to 2002. Stool analyses were performed by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique for a quantitative diagnosis on the intensity of infection. Both prevalence and intensity of infection, indirectly measured as mean number of eggs per gram of faeces, were significantly higher among girls than boys. The higher level of infection in girls was consistent across different years and in different survey areas. Co-infection with Schistosoma mansoni was present and associated with fascioliasis, but schistosomiasis was significantly more prevalent among boys. In Egypt rural girls are often involved in household and farm work and are exposed more than boys to infected foci. The lower school attendance for girls in rural areas appears to be an important factor increasing risk of infection. The precise mode of transmission and behavioural risk factors for human infection need to be investigated further to identify those related to gender.

  17. Productivity of aboveground coarse wood biomass and stand age related to soil hydrology of Amazonian forests in the Purus-Madeira interfluvial area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cintra, B. B. L.; Schietti, J.; Emillio, T.; Martins, D.; Moulatlet, G.; Souza, P.; Levis, C.; Quesada, C. A.; Schöngart, J.

    2013-04-01

    The ongoing demand for information on forest productivity has increased the number of permanent monitoring plots across the Amazon. Those plots, however, do not comprise the whole diversity of forest types in the Amazon. The complex effects of soil, climate and hydrology on the productivity of seasonally waterlogged interfluvial wetland forests are still poorly understood. The presented study is the first field-based estimate for tree ages and wood biomass productivity in the vast interfluvial region between the Purus and Madeira rivers. We estimate stand age and wood biomass productivity by a combination of tree-ring data and allometric equations for biomass stocks of eight plots distributed along 600 km in the Purus-Madeira interfluvial area that is crossed by the BR-319 highway. We relate stand age and wood biomass productivity to hydrological and edaphic conditions. Mean productivity and stand age were 5.6 ± 1.1 Mg ha-1 yr-1 and 102 ± 18 yr, respectively. There is a strong relationship between tree age and diameter, as well as between mean diameter increment and mean wood density within a plot. Regarding the soil hydromorphic properties we find a positive correlation with wood biomass productivity and a negative relationship with stand age. Productivity also shows a positive correlation with the superficial phosphorus concentration. In addition, superficial phosphorus concentration increases with enhanced soil hydromorphic condition. We raise three hypotheses to explain these results: (1) the reduction of iron molecules on the saturated soils with plinthite layers close to the surface releases available phosphorous for the plants; (2) the poor structure of the saturated soils creates an environmental filter selecting tree species of faster growth rates and shorter life spans and (3) plant growth on saturated soil is favored during the dry season, since there should be low restrictions for soil water availability.

  18. Interpretation of stable isotope, denitrification, and groundwater age data for samples collected from Sandia National Laboratories /New Mexico (SNL/NM) Burn Site Groundwater Area of Concern

    SciTech Connect

    Madrid, V.; Singleton, M. J.; Visser, A.; Esser, B.

    2016-06-02

    This report combines and summarizes results for two groundwater-sampling events (October 2012 and October/November 2015) from the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Burn Site Groundwater (BSG) Area of Concern (AOC) located in the Lurance Canyon Arroyo southeast of Albuquerque, NM in the Manzanita Mountains. The first phase of groundwater sampling occurred in October 2012 including samples from 19 wells at three separate sites that were analyzed by the Environmental Radiochemistry Laboratory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory as part of a nitrate Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) evaluation. The three sites (BSG, Technical Area-V, and Tijeras Arroyo) are shown on the regional hydrogeologic map and described in the Sandia Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report. The first phase of groundwater sampling included six monitoring wells at the Burn Site, eight monitoring wells at Technical Area-V, and five monitoring wells at Tijeras Arroyo. Each groundwater sample was analyzed using the two specialized analytical methods, age-dating and denitrification suites. In September 2015, a second phase of groundwater sampling took place at the Burn Site including 10 wells sampled and analyzed by the same two analytical suites. Five of the six wells sampled in 2012 were resampled in 2015. This report summarizes results from two sampling events in order to evaluate evidence for in situ denitrification, the average age of the groundwater, and the extent of recent recharge of the bedrock fracture system beneath the BSG AOC.

  19. Efficacy of permethrin-impregnated bed nets on malaria control in a hyperendemic area in Irian Jaya, Indonesia: differentiation between two age groups.

    PubMed

    Sutanto, I; Pribadi, W; Purnomo; Bandi, R; Rusmiarto, S; Atmosoedjono, S; Freisleben, H J

    1999-09-01

    A malaria intervention trial was conducted for two years to evaluate the efficacy of permethrin-impregnated bed nets in reducing malaria infection and splenomegaly in two different age groups, ie below and over age of ten, in a hyperendemic area in Irian Jaya, Indonesia. Permethrin-impregnated or placebo-treated bed nets were provided to a treated and a control village, respectively. Immediately after periods with moderate rainfall in the first year, treated bed nets decreased P. falciparum and P. vivax density in the blood of children <10 years (group 1) but did not reduce the percentage of infection with either species. Children >10 and adults (group 2) showed significant reduction only in P. falciparum infection rates and density, whereas P. vivax was not influenced. After an excessive rainfall season in the second year, the risk for P. falciparum infections in both age groups using treated nets was less than half of that in the control village. P. vivax infection rates were significantly lower in the treated village at the beginning of and after these heavy rainfalls. In the treated village, spleen enlargement was markedly reduced in the younger age group during the second year.

  20. Scaling up strategies of the chronic respiratory disease programme of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (Action Plan B3: Area 5).

    PubMed

    Bousquet, J; Farrell, J; Crooks, G; Hellings, P; Bel, E H; Bewick, M; Chavannes, N H; de Sousa, J Correia; Cruz, A A; Haahtela, T; Joos, G; Khaltaev, N; Malva, J; Muraro, A; Nogues, M; Palkonen, S; Pedersen, S; Robalo-Cordeiro, C; Samolinski, B; Strandberg, T; Valiulis, A; Yorgancioglu, A; Zuberbier, T; Bedbrook, A; Aberer, W; Adachi, M; Agusti, A; Akdis, C A; Akdis, M; Ankri, J; Alonso, A; Annesi-Maesano, I; Ansotegui, I J; Anto, J M; Arnavielhe, S; Arshad, H; Bai, C; Baiardini, I; Bachert, C; Baigenzhin, A K; Barbara, C; Bateman, E D; Beghé, B; Kheder, A Ben; Bennoor, K S; Benson, M; Bergmann, K C; Bieber, T; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Bjermer, L; Blain, H; Blasi, F; Boner, A L; Bonini, M; Bonini, S; Bosnic-Anticevitch, S; Boulet, L P; Bourret, R; Bousquet, P J; Braido, F; Briggs, A H; Brightling, C E; Brozek, J; Buhl, R; Burney, P G; Bush, A; Caballero-Fonseca, F; Caimmi, D; Calderon, M A; Calverley, P M; Camargos, P A M; Canonica, G W; Camuzat, T; Carlsen, K H; Carr, W; Carriazo, A; Casale, T; Cepeda Sarabia, A M; Chatzi, L; Chen, Y Z; Chiron, R; Chkhartishvili, E; Chuchalin, A G; Chung, K F; Ciprandi, G; Cirule, I; Cox, L; Costa, D J; Custovic, A; Dahl, R; Dahlen, S E; Darsow, U; De Carlo, G; De Blay, F; Dedeu, T; Deleanu, D; De Manuel Keenoy, E; Demoly, P; Denburg, J A; Devillier, P; Didier, A; Dinh-Xuan, A T; Djukanovic, R; Dokic, D; Douagui, H; Dray, G; Dubakiene, R; Durham, S R; Dykewicz, M S; El-Gamal, Y; Emuzyte, R; Fabbri, L M; Fletcher, M; Fiocchi, A; Fink Wagner, A; Fonseca, J; Fokkens, W J; Forastiere, F; Frith, P; Gaga, M; Gamkrelidze, A; Garces, J; Garcia-Aymerich, J; Gemicioğlu, B; Gereda, J E; González Diaz, S; Gotua, M; Grisle, I; Grouse, L; Gutter, Z; Guzmán, M A; Heaney, L G; Hellquist-Dahl, B; Henderson, D; Hendry, A; Heinrich, J; Heve, D; Horak, F; Hourihane, J O' B; Howarth, P; Humbert, M; Hyland, M E; Illario, M; Ivancevich, J C; Jardim, J R; Jares, E J; Jeandel, C; Jenkins, C; Johnston, S L; Jonquet, O; Julge, K; Jung, K S; Just, J; Kaidashev, I; Kaitov, M R; Kalayci, O; Kalyoncu, A F; Keil, T; Keith, P K; Klimek, L; Koffi N'Goran, B; Kolek, V; Koppelman, G H; Kowalski, M L; Kull, I; Kuna, P; Kvedariene, V; Lambrecht, B; Lau, S; Larenas-Linnemann, D; Laune, D; Le, L T T; Lieberman, P; Lipworth, B; Li, J; Lodrup Carlsen, K; Louis, R; MacNee, W; Magard, Y; Magnan, A; Mahboub, B; Mair, A; Majer, I; Makela, M J; Manning, P; Mara, S; Marshall, G D; Masjedi, M R; Matignon, P; Maurer, M; Mavale-Manuel, S; Melén, E; Melo-Gomes, E; Meltzer, E O; Menzies-Gow, A; Merk, H; Michel, J P; Miculinic, N; Mihaltan, F; Milenkovic, B; Mohammad, G M Y; Molimard, M; Momas, I; Montilla-Santana, A; Morais-Almeida, M; Morgan, M; Mösges, R; Mullol, J; Nafti, S; Namazova-Baranova, L; Naclerio, R; Neou, A; Neffen, H; Nekam, K; Niggemann, B; Ninot, G; Nyembue, T D; O'Hehir, R E; Ohta, K; Okamoto, Y; Okubo, K; Ouedraogo, S; Paggiaro, P; Pali-Schöll, I; Panzner, P; Papadopoulos, N; Papi, A; Park, H S; Passalacqua, G; Pavord, I; Pawankar, R; Pengelly, R; Pfaar, O; Picard, R; Pigearias, B; Pin, I; Plavec, D; Poethig, D; Pohl, W; Popov, T A; Portejoie, F; Potter, P; Postma, D; Price, D; Rabe, K F; Raciborski, F; Radier Pontal, F; Repka-Ramirez, S; Reitamo, S; Rennard, S; Rodenas, F; Roberts, J; Roca, J; Rodriguez Mañas, L; Rolland, C; Roman Rodriguez, M; Romano, A; Rosado-Pinto, J; Rosario, N; Rosenwasser, L; Rottem, M; Ryan, D; Sanchez-Borges, M; Scadding, G K; Schunemann, H J; Serrano, E; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Schulz, H; Sheikh, A; Shields, M; Siafakas, N; Sibille, Y; Similowski, T; Simons, F E R; Sisul, J C; Skrindo, I; Smit, H A; Solé, D; Sooronbaev, T; Spranger, O; Stelmach, R; Sterk, P J; Sunyer, J; Thijs, C; To, T; Todo-Bom, A; Triggiani, M; Valenta, R; Valero, A L; Valia, E; Valovirta, E; Van Ganse, E; van Hage, M; Vandenplas, O; Vasankari, T; Vellas, B; Vestbo, J; Vezzani, G; Vichyanond, P; Viegi, G; Vogelmeier, C; Vontetsianos, T; Wagenmann, M; Wallaert, B; Walker, S; Wang, D Y; Wahn, U; Wickman, M; Williams, D M; Williams, S; Wright, J; Yawn, B P; Yiallouros, P K; Yusuf, O M; Zaidi, A; Zar, H J; Zernotti, M E; Zhang, L; Zhong, N; Zidarn, M; Mercier, J

    2016-01-01

    Action Plan B3 of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) focuses on the integrated care of chronic diseases. Area 5 (Care Pathways) was initiated using chronic respiratory diseases as a model. The chronic respiratory disease action plan includes (1) AIRWAYS integrated care pathways (ICPs), (2) the joint initiative between the Reference site MACVIA-LR (Contre les MAladies Chroniques pour un VIeillissement Actif) and ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma), (3) Commitments for Action to the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing and the AIRWAYS ICPs network. It is deployed in collaboration with the World Health Organization Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD). The European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing has proposed a 5-step framework for developing an individual scaling up strategy: (1) what to scale up: (1-a) databases of good practices, (1-b) assessment of viability of the scaling up of good practices, (1-c) classification of good practices for local replication and (2) how to scale up: (2-a) facilitating partnerships for scaling up, (2-b) implementation of key success factors and lessons learnt, including emerging technologies for individualised and predictive medicine. This strategy has already been applied to the chronic respiratory disease action plan of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing.

  1. Provenance, age, and environment of mid-Wisconsinan slackwater lake sediment in the St. Louis Metro East area, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curry, B. Brandon; Grimley, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    Valleys tributary to the Mississippi River contain fossiliferous slackwater lake sediment (Equality Formation) deposited in response to aggradation of the Mississippi River valley during the last glaciation. In the St. Louis Metro East area, the lower part of the Equality Formation is primarily laminated, fossiliferous silt and clay deposited from about 44,150 to 24,310 14C yr B.P. The upper Equality Formation is primarily very fine sand to silt deposited from about 21,200 to 17,000 14C yr B.P. Among the four cores that sample this succession in the St. Louis Metro East area, core MNK-3 (38.64EN, 90.01EW) was selected for detailed study. Three sources are distinguished by the following characteristics: (1) gray smectite-quartz-Se-rich, feldspar-poor material of the Des Moines, Wadena, and James lobes; (2) reddish brown kaolinite-Cu-Fe-rich sediment of the Superior and Rainy lobes; and (3) brown illite-dolomite-Sr-rich sediment of the Lake Michigan and Green Bay lobes. The earliest sediments (44,150 to 41,700 14C yr B.P.) were derived from the central and western provenances and are chronocorrelative with the lower Roxana Silt. A hiatus occurred from about 41,700 to 29,030 14C yr B.P. when much of the middle Roxana Silt (Meadow Member) was deposited on adjacent uplands. The youngest sediment includes evidence of heightened activity of the Superior Lobe at about 29,000 14C yr B.P., the Lake Michigan and Green Bay lobes from about 25,000 to 24,000 14C yr B.P., and the Wadena-Des Moines-James lobes at about 21,000 14C yr B.P. ?? 2005 Society. Published by University of Washington. All rights reserved.

  2. Semiautomatic Segmentation of Rim Area Focal Hyperautofluorescence Predicts Progression of Geographic Atrophy Due to Dry Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Allingham, Michael J.; Nie, Qing; Lad, Eleonora M.; Izatt, Daniel J.; Mettu, Priyatham S.; Cousins, Scott W.; Farsiu, Sina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop image analysis software usable by nonexpert graders to segment geographic atrophy (GA) from dry AMD and to quantify rim area focal hyperautofluorescence (RAFH) surrounding GA on fundus autofluorescence (FAF) images. To compare the GA progression predictions based on RAFH with those of a validated qualitative classification system. Methods Retrospective analysis of serial FAF images from 49 eyes of 30 subjects with GA was performed using MATLAB-based software (MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA). Correlation between RAFH and progression of GA was analyzed using Spearman correlation. Comparisons of lesion growth rate between RAFH tertiles used generalized estimating equations and Kruskal-Wallis testing. Interobserver variability in lesion size, growth rate and RAFH were compared between two expert and one nonexpert grader using Bland-Altman statistics. Results Rim area focal hyperautofluorescence was positively correlated with GA progression rate (ρ = 0.49, P < 0.001). Subjects in the middle or highest RAFH tertile were at greater risk of progression (P = 0.005 and P = 0.001, respectively). Mean difference in RAFH was 0.012 between expert and −0.005 to 0.017 between expert and nonexperts. Mean difference in lesion size (mm2) was 0.11 between expert and −0.29 to 0.41 between expert and nonexperts. Mean difference in lesion growth rate (mm2/mo) was 0.0098 between expert and −0.027 to 0.037 between expert and nonexperts. Risk stratification based on RAFH tertile was 96% identical across all graders. Conclusions Our semiautomated image analysis software facilitates stratification of progression risk based on RAFH and enabled a nonexpert grader with minimal training to obtain results comparable to expert graders. Predictions based on RAFH were similar to those of a validated qualitative classification system. PMID:27127926

  3. Developmental age, physical fitness and Toxocara seroprevalence amongst lower-secondary students living in rural areas contaminated with Toxocara eggs.

    PubMed

    Jarosz, W; Mizgajska-Wiktor, H; Kirwan, P; Konarski, J; Rychlicki, W; Wawrzyniak, G

    2010-01-01

    Scarce and inconclusive information on general biological impact of Toxocara invasion on paratenic hosts, and people in particular, has led us to undertake a comprehensive study of the problem. The study has been conducted in a rural environment, which is considered a toxocarosis risk factor. In total 200 soil samples have been screened for Toxocara eggs by flotation, of which 14.5% were positive. Backyards close to households were most heavily contaminated with infectious eggs--21.7% of positive samples. ELISA serological tests performed on 242 lower-secondary students found 14.5% of the studied population to be definitely positive--16.5% of boys and 12.8% of girls, respectively. The odds of being infected with Toxocara were 2 times (CI: 1.15-3.85) more likely for individuals who owned a cat than those who did not own a cat. Strong significant correlation between seropositivity and the presence of a dog in a household was found with boys. The level of developmental age was significantly higher in seropositive than in seronegative students. No significant correlation has been observed between the motor abilities and seropositivity of students. Seropositive boys had significantly lower end-of-year grades than their seronegative counterparts.

  4. Undernutrition and its correlates among children of 3-9 years of age residing in slum areas of Bhubaneswar, India.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Ansuman; Das, Sai Chandan

    2014-01-01

    Undernutrition among children is a major public health concern worldwide, more prevalent in Asia and Africa. It manifests itself in various forms such as wasting or stunting or underweight and retards physical and mental development, increases susceptibility to infection, and reduces educational attainment and productivity. The present study was undertaken to assess the level of wasting, stunting, and underweight and determine its associates among slum children of 3-9 years of age, residing in Bhubaneswar city, India. After obtaining informed consent, a total of 249 children from 249 households were studied and their parents/guardians were interviewed to collect all relevant information. 23.3%, 57.4%, and 45.4% of children were found to have wasting, stunting, and underweight, respectively. Variables like birth order of child, period of initiation of breastfeeding and mother's education were found to be strong predictors of wasting, whereas toilet facility in household and practice of drinking water storage were significantly associated with stunting among slum children as revealed in multiple regression analysis. Thus, a multipronged approach is needed such as giving priority to improve education for slum community especially for women, creating awareness regarding benefits of early initiation of breastfeeding, small family size, and proper storage of drinking water, and providing toilet facility in slum households which could improve the nutritional status of slum children.

  5. Associations between the perceived environment and physical activity among adults aged 55-65 years: does urban-rural area of residence matter?

    PubMed

    Cleland, Verity; Sodergren, Marita; Otahal, Petr; Timperio, Anna; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; Salmon, Jo; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether associations between the perceived environment and physical activity are moderated by urban-rural status among midolder aged adults. Environmental (safety, aesthetics, physical activity environment) and physical activity (total, leisure, transport) data from 3,888 adults (55 to 65 years) from urban and rural areas of Victoria, Australia, were analyzed. Multinomial logistic regression examined interactions between urban-rural status and environments in associations with physical activity. Significant (P < .05) interactions were evident and indicated positive associations only among older rural adults for both safety and aesthetics with total and transport physical activity (e.g., rural adults reporting higher safety were 91% to 118% more likely to have higher activity than rural adults reporting low safety). In contrast, the physical activity environment was positively associated with leisure activity among only urban adults. Findings suggest that some tailoring of physical activity promotion strategies targeting the environment may be required for urban and rural midolder aged adults.

  6. 45 CFR 630.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States executive department, military department... (including the Executive Office of the President), or any independent regulatory agency....

  7. 41 CFR 105-74.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States executive department... the executive branch (including the Executive Office of the President), or any independent...

  8. Serum CETP and PLTP activity in middle-aged men living in urban or rural area of the Lower Silesia region. PURE Poland sub-study

    PubMed Central

    Wojakowska, Anna; Turczyn, Barbara; Zatońska, Katarzyna; Wołyniec, Maria; Szuba, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The dependence of lipid transfer proteins on significant pro-atherogenic factors is unclear. The aim of the study was to evaluate serum cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) activity in relation to lipid disturbances in men living in an urban or rural area. Material and methods A group of 427 men, volunteers for the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) sub-study – 263 urban inhabitants (aged 51.9 ±6.0) and 164 residents of villages (aged 51.1 ±5.9) – were examined. In the multivariable linear regression model, the following factors were included as potential confounders: age, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption, hs-C-reactive protein reaction (hs-CRP) and co-existence of chronic diseases. Results In multiple linear regression models, site of residence (urban or rural area) was the most important independent and consistent predictor of CETP and PLTP activity; β coefficients (95% CI) for CETP (0.18) and PLTP (–0.29) were significant at levels of p < 0.001. Three-way analysis of variance showed no effect of smoking or moderate alcohol consumption on lipid transfer proteins; however, CETP activity showed an interaction effect between these risk factors. In the group of all men, CETP activity was significantly and positively correlated with total cholesterol (r = 0.24), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = 0.18), and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = 0.21), whereas PLTP activity was correlated with BMI (r = 0.12). Body mass index in rural men was higher than in the urban male population. Conclusions Increased PLTP activity, recognized as a pro-atherogenic factor, and decreased CETP activity, known as a protective factor, both observed in men living in rural areas, are probably conditioned by nutritional and/or genetic factors. PMID:27478449

  9. Retrospective analysis of age-adjusted body mass index among pre-pregnant women in the Lithuanian urban area during three decades

    PubMed Central

    Francaite-Daugeliene, Migle; Petrenko, Vladimiras; Baliutaviciene, Dalia; Velickiene, Dzilda

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of maternal obesity at the beginning of pregnancy is increasing. However, there are some studies reporting the stabilisation of obesity epidemic or even the downward trend in the general population. Objective To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Lithuanian pre-pregnant women during 3 decades. Methods This observational retrospective study included a sample of 2827, women aged 18–44 years who gave birth in 1987–1989, 1996–1997 and 2007–2010: 861 (30.5%), 995 (35.2%) and 971 (34.3%), respectively. All women were divided into groups by body mass index (BMI) calculated from self-reported weight and height, and age reported during the first antenatal visit. Quantitative parametric variables were expressed as mean and SD; qualitative variables, as absolute numbers (n) and percentage (%). For parametric data, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used. Differences were considered statistically significant at p<0.05. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity among women aged 18–24 years decreased from 20.9% in 1987–1989 to 9.5% in 1996–1997 but increased to 15.7% in 2007–2010; among women aged 25–34 years, decreased from 35.5% in 1987–1989 to 23% in 1996–1997 and to 22.4% in 2007–2010; and among women aged 35–44 years decreased from 64.9% in 1987–1989 to 34% in 1996–1997 but increased to 45.3% in 2007–2010. BMI increased with an increasing age (r=0.254, p<0.05). Analysis by separate periods (1987–1989, 1996–1997 and 2007–2010) revealed a positive correlation between BMI and age at the first antenatal visit in all periods (r=0.325, p<0.01; r=0.266, p<0.01; and r=0.210, p<0.01, respectively). Conclusions The prevalence of overweight and obesity among pre-pregnant women tended to decrease in the Lithuanian urban area during 3 decades. A slight increase in overweight and obesity documented in 2007–2010 compared with 1996–1997 most likely was caused by older maternal age. PMID

  10. Morphometric age estimate of the last phase of accelerated uplift in the Kazdag area (Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demoulin, A.; Altin, T. Bayer; Beckers, A.

    2013-11-01

    While the Plio-Quaternary uplift of the Kazdag mountain range (Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey) is generally acknowledged, little is known about its detailed timing. Partly because of this lack of data, the cause of this uplift phase is also debated, being associated either to back-arc extension in the rear of the Hellenic subduction zone, to transpression along the northern edge of the west-moving Anatolian microplate, or to extension driven by gravitational collapse. Here, we perform a morphometric study of the fluvial landscape at the scale of the Biga Peninsula, coupling the recently developed R/SR analysis of the drainage network with concavity and steepness measures of a set of 29 rivers of all sizes. While the dependence of profile concavity on basin size confirms that the landscape of the peninsula is still in a transient state, the spatial distribution of profile steepness values characterized by higher values for streams flowing down from the Kazdag massif shows that the latter undergoes higher uplift rates than the rest of the peninsula. We obtain a SR value of 0.324 ± 0.035 that, according to the relation established by Demoulin (2012), yields an age range of 0.5-1.3 Ma and a most probable value of 0.8 Ma for the time of the last tectonic perturbation in the region. In agreement with the analysis of knickpoint migration in a subset of rivers, this suggests that a pulse of uplift occurred at that time and, corroborated by sparse published observations in the Bayramiç and Çanakkale depressions, that the peninsula was uplifted as a whole from that time. This uplift pulse might have been caused by transient compressive conditions in the Anatolian plate when the Eratosthenes seamount came to subduct beneath the Cyprus arc around the early-to-mid Pleistocene transition (Schattner, 2010).

  11. Age and speciation of iodine in groundwater and mudstones of the Horonobe area, Hokkaido, Japan: Implications for the origin and migration of iodine during basin evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togo, Yoko S.; Takahashi, Yoshio; Amano, Yuki; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Yohey; Terada, Yasuko; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Ito, Kazumasa; Iwatsuki, Teruki

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports the concentration, speciation and isotope ratio (129I/127I) of iodine from both groundwater and host rocks in the Horonobe area, northern Hokkaido, Japan, to clarify the origin and migration of iodine in sedimentary rocks. Cretaceous to Quaternary sedimentary rocks deposited nearly horizontally in Tenpoku Basin and in the Horonobe area were uplifted above sea level during active tectonics to form folds and faults in the Quaternary. Samples were collected from the Pliocene Koetoi and late Miocene Wakkanai formations (Fms), which include diatomaceous and siliceous mudstones. The iodine concentration in groundwater, up to 270 μmol/L, is significantly higher than that of seawater, with the iodine enrichment factor relative to seawater reaching 800-1500. The iodine concentration in the rocks decreases from the Koetoi to Wakkanai Fms, suggesting that iodine was released into the water from the rocks of deeper formations. The iodine concentration in the rocks is sufficiently high for forming iodine-rich groundwater as found in this area. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis shows that iodine exists as organic iodine and iodide (I-) in host rocks, whereas it exists mainly as I- in groundwater. The isotope ratio is nearly constant for iodine in the groundwater, at [0.11-0.23] × 10-12, and it is higher for iodine in rocks, at [0.29-1.1] × 10-12, giving iodine ages of 42-60 Ma and 7-38 Ma, respectively. Some iodine in groundwater must have originated from Paleogene and even late Cretaceous Fms, which are also considered as possible sources of oil and gas, in view of the old iodine ages of the groundwater. The iodine ages of the rocks are older than the depositional ages, implying that the rocks adsorbed some iodine from groundwater, which was sourced from greater depths. The iodine concentration in groundwater decreases with decreasing chlorine concentration due to mixing of iodine-rich connate water and meteoric water. A likely scenario

  12. Diet quality of preschool children aged 2 to 5 years living in the urban area of Pelotas, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Katharine Konrad; Schneider, Bruna Celestino; França, Giovanny Vinicius Araújo; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; dos Santos, Iná; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the dietary quality of preschool children in the urban area of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Methods: Dietary quality was measured according to the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), adapted to Brazil. Food consumption was obtained using the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). The index score was obtained by a score, ranging from 0 to 100, distributed in 13 food groups that characterize different components of a healthy diet. The better the quality of the diet, the closer the score is to 100. Results: Dietary quality was evaluated in 556 preschoolers. The mean HEI score value was 74.4 points, indicating that diets need improvement. The mean scores were significantly higher among girls and in children from families with income between one and less than three minimum wages. Conclusions: The children showed vegetable consumption below the recommended level, while foods of the food group of oils and fats, as well as the group of sugars, candies, chocolates and snacks, were consumed in excess. It is important to reinforce guidelines to promote healthier eating habits, which may persist later in life. PMID:26122208

  13. The age of second language acquisition determines the variability in activation elicited by narration in three languages in Broca's and Wernicke's area.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Constantine; Kaiser, Anelis; Kuenzli, Esther; Zappatore, Daniela; Haller, Sven; Franceschini, Rita; Luedi, Georges; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Nitsch, Cordula

    2009-02-01

    It is generally accepted that the presence of a second language (L2) has an impact on the neuronal substrates build up and used for language processing; the influence of the age of L2 exposure, however, is not established. We tested the hypothesis that the age of L2 acquisition has an effect on the cortical representation of a multilingual repertoire in 44 multilinguals with different age of exposure to a L2 (simultaneous or covert simultaneous exposure to L1 and L2, sequential acquisition of L1 and L2 between 1 and 5 years, late learning of L2 after 9 years of age) and all fluent in a late learned L3. Regional activation in a language production task showed a high in-between-subject variability, which was higher than within-subject variability between L1, L2, and L3. We, therefore, performed a single subject analysis and calculated the within-subject variance in the numbers of activated voxels in Broca's and Wernicke's area. Subjects with early exposure to L2 showed low variability in brain activation in all three languages, in the two early as well as the late learned language. In contrast, late multilinguals exhibited higher variability. Thus, cerebral representation of languages is linked to the age of L2 acquisition: early exposure to more than one language gives rise to a language processing network that is activated homogeneously by early and late learned languages, while the inhomogeneous activation in late multilinguals indicates more independent access to the multilingual repertoire. Early passive exposure to L2 results in the same low variance as active bilingual upbringing. Variability in local brain activity increases progressively from the simultaneous to late L2 exposure, indicating a gradual transition from the mode of early bilingual language representation to that of late ones.

  14. Young and intense: FoxP2 immunoreactivity in Area X varies with age, song stereotypy, and singing in male zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Christopher K; Schwabe, Fabian; Schoof, Alexander; Mendoza, Ezequiel; Gampe, Jutta; Rochefort, Christelle; Scharff, Constance

    2013-01-01

    FOXP2 is a transcription factor functionally relevant for learned vocalizations in humans and songbirds. In songbirds, FoxP2 mRNA expression in the medium spiny neurons of the basal ganglia song nucleus Area X is developmentally regulated and varies with singing conditions in different social contexts. How individual neurons in Area X change FoxP2 expression across development and in social contexts is not known, however. Here we address this critical gap in our understanding of FoxP2 as a link between neuronal networks and behavior. We used a statistically unbiased analysis of FoxP2-immunoreactivity (FoxP2-IR) on a neuron-by-neuron basis and found a bimodal distribution of FoxP2-IR neurons in Area X: weakly-stained and intensely-stained. The density of intensely-stained FoxP2-IR neurons was 10 times higher in juveniles than in adults, exponentially decreased with age, and was negatively correlated with adult song stability. Three-week old neurons labeled with BrdU were more than five times as likely to be intensely-stained than weakly-stained. The density of FoxP2-IR putative migratory neurons with fusiform-shaped nuclei substantially decreased as birds aged. The density of intensely-stained FoxP2-IR neurons was not affected by singing whereas the density of weakly-stained FoxP2-IR neurons was. Together, these data indicate that young Area X medium spiny neurons express FoxP2 at high levels and decrease expression as they become integrated into existing neural circuits. Once integrated, levels of FoxP2 expression correlate with singing behavior. Together, these findings raise the possibility that FoxP2 levels may orchestrate song learning and song stereotypy in adults by a common mechanism.

  15. Mapping the unseen: geoarchaeological prospection to the Stone Age heritage in the early Holocene delta deposits of the Rotterdam harbor area (the Netherlands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vos, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Mapping the unseen: geoarchaeological prospection to the Stone Age heritage in the early Holocene delta deposits of the Rotterdam harbor area (the Netherlands) Peter C. Vos1 & Dimitri Schiltmans2 1) Deltares, PO Box 85467, 3508 AL Utrecht, The Netherlands E-mail: peter.vos@deltares.nl 2) Bureau Oudheidkundig Onderzoek Rotterdam, Ceintuurbaan 213b, 3051 KC Rotterdam, The Netherlands E-mail: dea.schiltmans@Rotterdam.nl The Port of Rotterdam (PoR) is expanding the Rotterdam harbor area into the sea. A new channel, the Yangtze harbor, will be dug out to a depth of 20 m below sea level in order to connect the existing Maasvlakte harbor area with the new harbor area under construction. The upper part of the sediment, which was dredged out in order to create the new channel, consisted mainly of marine offshore sands. In the lower part, at a depth of about 17-22 m below the Dutch Ordnance Datum (NAP), Late Weichselian fluvial and aeolian sands and Early Holocene deltaic deposits of the Rhine - Meuse were present. From earlier dredging activities in the Maasvlakte area it was known that the Late Weichselian / Early Holocene deposits contain Late Paleolithic and Early Mesolithic artefacts. The deepening of the Yangtze harbor would affect the Late-Weichselian / Early Holocene deposits and destroy the archaeologically valuable objects in these layers. The aim of the archaeological Yangtze harbor project was to predict those locations where archaeological heritage from the Stone Age could be found. A geological-geogenetic approach was applied in order to determine the optimal palaeo-environmental locations for man to settle. A 3D palaeolandscape model was constructed of the harbor area; an area which was about 0.5 km wide and 3 km long. Given this palaeolandscape model, the potential archaeological sites were selected. The multidisciplinary prospection research was carried out in several steps. After each research step the strategy of the following research phase was determined

  16. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary school children aged 5 to 14 years in Wannan area, China.

    PubMed

    He, Lianping; Ren, Xiaohua; Chen, Yan; Jin, Yuelong; Pan, Rui; Wei, Ningkai; Qiu, Shenwei; Lu, Wei; Ding, Lingling; Guo, Daoxia; Wang, Linghong; Nie, Zhonghua; Yao, Yingshui

    2014-10-01

    Antecedentes: El sobrepeso y la obesidad son epidemia en todo el mundo. El propósito de esta investigacion es estimar si la prevalencia de la obesidad entre los niños de la escuela primaria es alto, y a identificar sus posibles factores determinantes para optimizar los métodos de prevención para combatir nuevas subidas en sobrepeso infantil. Métodos: Un estudio transversal fue diseñado para recoger los exámenes de salud de rutina datos para la escuela primaria los niños de 5 a 14 años en Wannan Area, China, el sobrepeso y la obesidad se determinaron utilizando la International Obesity Task Force Standard (IOTF) IMC puntos de corte. Resultados: Un total de 67956 sujetos (36664 macho y 31239 hembra) de 5 a 14 años fueron reclutados en este estudio. Dependiendo de las referencias utilizadas (IOTF), la prevalencia de sobrepeso, incluyendo la obesidad de los sujetos fue 17,85%, la prevalencia de sobrepeso, incluyendo la obesidad fue del 22,9% en sujetos masculinos y el 11,9% en mujeres, respectivamente. La prevalencia global de la obesidad was 3,7%, la prevalencia de obesidad fue de 5,2% en sujetos masculinos y 1,8% de mujeres, respectivamente. Una observación interesante es que la prevalencia de sobrepeso fue alta en sujetos masculinos. Conclusiones: El sobrepeso es la prevalencia entre los niños de la escuela primaria, especialmente en los niños varones. escuela y Departamento de Gobierno debería tomar algo de placer para reducir la prevalencia del sobrepeso y la obesidad.

  17. 42 CFR 436.520 - Age requirements for the aged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Age requirements for the aged. 436.520 Section 436... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Age § 436.520 Age requirements for the aged. The agency must not impose an age requirement of more than 65 years....

  18. 42 CFR 435.520 - Age requirements for the aged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Age requirements for the aged. 435.520 Section 435... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Categorical Requirements for Eligibility Age § 435.520 Age requirements for the aged. The agency must not impose an age requirement of more than 65 years....

  19. 42 CFR 435.520 - Age requirements for the aged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Age requirements for the aged. 435.520 Section 435... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Categorical Requirements for Eligibility Age § 435.520 Age requirements for the aged. The agency must not impose an age requirement of more than 65 years....

  20. 42 CFR 436.520 - Age requirements for the aged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Age requirements for the aged. 436.520 Section 436... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Age § 436.520 Age requirements for the aged. The agency must not impose an age requirement of more than 65 years....

  1. 42 CFR 435.520 - Age requirements for the aged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Age requirements for the aged. 435.520 Section 435... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Categorical Requirements for Eligibility Age § 435.520 Age requirements for the aged. The agency must not impose an age requirement of more than 65 years....

  2. 42 CFR 436.520 - Age requirements for the aged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Age requirements for the aged. 436.520 Section 436... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Age § 436.520 Age requirements for the aged. The agency must not impose an age requirement of more than 65 years....

  3. 42 CFR 435.520 - Age requirements for the aged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Age requirements for the aged. 435.520 Section 435... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Categorical Requirements for Eligibility Age § 435.520 Age requirements for the aged. The agency must not impose an age requirement of more than 65 years....

  4. 42 CFR 436.520 - Age requirements for the aged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Age requirements for the aged. 436.520 Section 436... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Age § 436.520 Age requirements for the aged. The agency must not impose an age requirement of more than 65 years....

  5. 42 CFR 436.520 - Age requirements for the aged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Age requirements for the aged. 436.520 Section 436... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Age § 436.520 Age requirements for the aged. The agency must not impose an age requirement of more than 65 years....

  6. 42 CFR 435.520 - Age requirements for the aged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Age requirements for the aged. 435.520 Section 435... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Categorical Requirements for Eligibility Age § 435.520 Age requirements for the aged. The agency must not impose an age requirement of more than 65 years....

  7. Rejuvenation of the Tethyan passive continental margin of northern Sinai: deformation style and age (Gebel Yelleq area)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustafa, Adel R.; Khalil, Samir M.

    1995-01-01

    Detailed field mapping and structural analysis of the northeastern and southeastern parts of Gebel Yelleq (the largest fold among the northern Sinai folds) indicate the presence of two ENE-oriented dextral wrench zones. The northern (Meneidret El Etheili) wrench zone is represented by right-stepped, en échelon doubly plunging folds whereas throughgoing wrench faults characterize the southern (Minsherah) wrench zone. The steep (southeastern) flank of Gebel Yelleq asymmetric fold makes an acute angle with the wrench zones and is orthogonal to the NW-SE-directed shortening direction indicated by mesostructures. Similar structural relations are evident in the other major folds of northern Sinai, Gebels El Maghara and Halal. A structural model is proposed for the deformation of northern Sinai. Late Cretaceous-Tertiary rejuvenation of the early Mesozoic passive continental margin of the Neotethys proceeded via right-lateral wrenching in northern Sinai and is related to the oblique convergence between Africa-Arabia and Eurasia during the closure of the Neotethys. As a result, wrench zones developed above the early rift faults, e.g., Meneidret El Etheili and Minsherah wrench zones. Also, NW-SE-directed shortening related to and parallel to the convergence of Africa-Arabia and Eurasia deformed the blocks lying between the wrench zones through the development of NE-SW-oriented thrust faults, at acute angles to the wrench zones. These thrusts ruptured the Precambrian basement and propagated upward through the overlying sedimentary cover as listric thrust faults forming large fault-propagation folds in Gebels Yelleq, El Maghara and Halal. These thrusts underlie the steep southeastern flanks of these folds and are exposed in Gebels El Maghara and Hamayir. The depth to detachment of these thrusts progressively increases southward to a value, underneath the Gebel Yelleq area, close to the brittle-ductile transition of the crust. The deformation reached its zenith in the early

  8. Age and proximity to local ore-smelters as determinants of tissue metal levels in beaver (Castor canadensis) of the sudbury (Ontario) area.

    PubMed

    Hillis, T L; Parker, G H

    1993-01-01

    An examination of tissue metal levels in Sudbury-area beaver (Castor canadensis) revealed that animals in the vicinity of the local ore-smelters contained elevated burdens of Ni and Pb in the liver and kidneys. Tissue concentrations averaged 1.5- to 2.5-fold higher than background values and are believed to reflect accumulations resulting through food chain contamination. Tissue levels of Cu, Cd and Zn did not vary in relation to distance from source. Tissue Cd levels were uniformly elevated throughout the four populations examined and are believed to reflect an enhanced level of food chain transfer occurring on the poorly buffered, acid-sensitive soils of the area. Burden: body weight correlations indicated that tissue concentrations of Cd increased whereas Cu levels decreased as a function of animal age. Most striking among these age-related trends was the disproportionate uptake of Cd by renal tissues, resulting in 10-fold higher burdens than those present within the liver.

  9. Geologic Reconnaissance of the Antelope-Ashwood Area, North-Central Oregon: With Emphasis on the John Day Formation of Late Oligocene and Early Miocene Age

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, Dallas L.

    1964-01-01

    This report briefly describes the geology of an area of about 750 square miles in Jefferson, Wasco, Crook, and Wheeler Counties, Oregon. About 16,000 feet of strata that range in age from pre-Tertiary to Quaternary are exposed. These include the following units: pre-Tertiary slate, graywacke, conglomerate, and meta-andesite; Clarno Formation of Eocene age - lava flows, volcanic breccia, tuff, and tuffaceous mudstone, chiefly of andesitic composition; John Day Formation of late Oligocene and early Miocene age - pyroclastic rocks, flows, and domes, chiefly of rhyolitic composition; Columbia River Basalt of middle Miocene age - thick, columnar jointed flows of very fine grained dense dark-gray basalt; Dalles Formation of Pliocene age - bedded tuffaceous sandstone, siltstone, and conglomerate; basalt of Pliocene or Pleistocene age - lava flows of porous-textured olivine basalt; and Quaternary loess, landslide debris, and alluvium. Unconformities separate pre-Tertiary rocks and Clarno Formation, Clarno and John Day Formations, John Day Formation and Columbia River Basalt, and Columbia River Basalt and Dalles Formation. The John Day Formation, the only unit studied in detail, consists of about 4,000 feet of tuff, lapilli tuff, strongly to weakly welded rhyolite ash flows, and less abundant trachyandesite flows and rhyolite flows and domes. The formation was divided into nine mappable members in part of the area, primarily on the basis of distinctive ledge-forming welded ash-flow sheets. Most of the sheets are composed of stony rhyolite containing abundant lithophysae and sparse phenocrysts. One sheet contains 10 to 20 percent phenocrysts, mostly cryptoperthitic soda sanidine, but including less abundant quartz, myrmekitic intergrowths of quartz and sanidine, and oligoclase. The rhyolitic ash flows and lava flows were extruded from nearby vents, in contrast to some of the interbedded air-fall tuff and lapilli tuff of dacitic and andesitic composition that may have been

  10. An age-structured population model for horseshoe crabs in the Delaware Bay area to assess harvest and egg availability for shorebirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweka, J.A.; Smith, D.R.; Millard, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this simulation study was to create an age-structured population model for horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphenols) in the Delaware Bay region using best available estimates of age-specific mortality and recent harvest levels. Density dependence was incorporated using a spatial model relating egg mortality with abundance of spawning females. Combinations of annual female harvest (0, 50, 100, and 200 thousand), timing of female harvest (before or after spawning), and three levels of density-dependent egg mortality were simulated. The probability of the population increasing was high (> 80%) with low and medium egg mortality and harvest less than 200 thousand females per year. Under the high egg mortality case, the probability of the population increasing was < 50% regardless of harvest. Harvest occurring after spawning increased the probability of population growth. The number of eggs available to shorebirds was highest when egg mortality was lowest and female abundance was at its highest levels. Although harvest and egg mortality influenced population growth and food availability to shorebirds, sensitivity and elasticity analyses showed that early-life stage mortality, age 0 mortality in particular, was the most important parameter for population growth. Our modeling results indicate areas where further research is needed and suggest effective management will involve a combination of harvest management and actions to increase early juvenile survival. ?? 2007 Estuarine Research Federation.

  11. [Relationships between soil nutrient contents and soil enzyme activities in Pinus massoniana stands with different ages in Three Gorges Reservoir Area].

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiao-Gai; Xiao, Wen-Fa; Zeng, Li-Xiong; Huang, Zhi-Lin; Huang, Ling-Ling; Tan, Ben-Wang

    2012-02-01

    Based on the measurements of soil nutrient contents and enzyme activities and the canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), this paper studied the relationships between soil nutrient contents and soil enzyme activities in different age Pinus massoniana stands in Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Among the test stands, mature stand had the highest contents of organic matter, total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, and available phosphorus in 0-20 cm soil layer, followed by middle-aged stand, and nearly-mature stand. With the increase of the stand age, soil invertase activity increased after an initial decrease, cellulase and polyphenoloxidase activities decreased gradually, while urease and peroxidase activities decreased after an initial increase. CCA analysis showed that the effects of the main soil parameters on the soil enzyme activities in the stands ranked in the sequence of total nitrogen > organic matter > pH > bulk density > ammonium nitrogen > available phosphorus. Soil invertase activity had significant positive correlations with soil organic matter, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus, while soil peroxidase activity significantly negatively correlated with soil organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and bulk density. The soil was rich in main nutrients, invertase activity was relatively high, while peroxidase activity was relatively low. The activities of soil invertase, cellulase and peroxidase could be used as the good biological indicators in evaluating soil quality and fertility.

  12. Stone Age settlement and Holocene water level changes of the Baltic Sea in the Torvajoe Basin area, Narva-Luga Klint Bay, NE Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raig, Hanna; Rosentau, Alar; Muru, Merle; Risberg, Jan

    2014-05-01

    The Tõrvajõe basin is located in NE Estonia in the southern part of the Narva-Luga Klint Bay, that is characterized by slow post-glacial isostatic uplift (about 0-1mm/yr) and slowly undulating low topography. Post-glacial changes of the water-level of the Baltic Sea have at times flooded the area, and at times, it has emerged as terrestrial land. In addition to a complex geological development, the surroundings of the Tõrvajõe basin are interesting from the archaeological point of view because of abundant archaeological findings in the area, of which the oldest (c 8.1 cal ka BP) from the Mesolithic period and the majority, indicating very intense habitation (c 7.1-5.5 cal ka BP), from the Neolithic period. Development of the Tőrvajőe basin area during the period of Stone Age settlement (c 8.1-5.5 cal. ka BP) is studied with multiple geological and archaeological proxies. Sediments are described by lithostratigraphical methods, loss-on-ignition. AMS radiocarbon dates are used to date events and create an age-depth model. Environment is described by pollen analyses and water environment by siliceous microfossil analyses. Palaeogeographical reconstructions for time slices of interest are created to illustrate Stone Age settlement pattern and changes of the coastline and landscape over time. The aim of this interdisciplinary study is to investigate and associate palaeoenvironmental conditions and water-level changes with Stone Age settlement pattern in the Tőrvajőe area. Results show four developmental stages in the post-glacial history of the basin: Ancylus Lake lagoon, mire, lagoon during the Litorina Sea and mire. During the Ancylus Lake transgression at about 10.8-10.2 cal. ka BP a spit started to form north of the basin and a lagoon evolved behind it. Following the Ancylus Lake regression river activity and formation of palaeosoil and fen peat took place. Due to the Litorina Sea transgression, that was initially slower but accelerated around 7.8-7.6 cal ka

  13. Total fluoride intake and excretion in children up to 4 years of age living in fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas.

    PubMed

    Zohoori, F V; Buzalaf, M A R; Cardoso, C A B; Olympio, K P K; Levy, F M; Grizzo, L T; Mangueira, D F B; Sampaio, F C; Maguire, A

    2013-10-01

    Fractional fluoride retention is important during the early years of life when considering the risk of development of dental fluorosis. This study aimed to measure fractional fluoride retention in young children. The objectives were to investigate the relationships between fractional fluoride retention and total daily fluoride intake, age, and body mass index (BMI). Twenty-nine healthy children, up to 4 yr of age, participated; 14 lived in a fluoridated area (0.64 μg ml(-1) of fluoride in drinking water) and 15 lived in a non-fluoridated area (0.04 μg ml(-1) of fluoride in drinking water). The total daily fluoride intake of each child was calculated from the daily dietary fluoride intake and toothpaste ingestion (if fluoride toothpaste was used). Total daily fluoride excretion was measured by collecting voided urine and faeces over a 24-h period, and fractional fluoride retention was calculated by dividing the amount of fluoride retained in the body (total daily fluoride intake minus total daily fluoride excretion) by the total daily fluoride intake. Nine children were excluded from data analysis because of suspected invalid samples. Mean (range) fractional fluoride retention for the remaining 20 children was 0.61 (0.06-0.98). There were no statistically significant correlations between fractional fluoride retention and either age or BMI. However, fractional fluoride retention was correlated with total daily fluoride intake: fractional fluoride retention = 1 - exp (-C × total daily fluoride intake), where C = 28.75 (95% CI = 19.75-37.75). The wide variation in fluoride retention in young children could have important implications when recommendations for fluoride use are being considered.

  14. Re-Os systematics of the lithospheric mantle beneath the Western Ross Sea area, Antarctica: depletion ages and dynamic response during rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, C.; Class, C.; Goldstein, S. L.; Shirey, S. B.; Martin, A. P.; Cooper, A. F.; Berg, J. H.; Gamble, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) is situated between the East Antarctic craton and Marie Byrd Land. Seismic studies on the structure of the lithosphere beneath the WARS reveal thinned lithosphere [1] with crustal thickness ranging from 16 to 22 km in the Ross Sea basin [2,3] that is underlain by a low velocity zone at 80-200 km [4]. However, seismic studies alone provide little information on the age of the lithospheric mantle or its fate during rifting and the formation of the WARS. Geochemical studies on lithosphere surrounding Archean cratons have demonstrated the persistence of off-craton Proterozoic lithosphere and potentially Archean lithosphere (e.g. southeast Australia and southern Africa) [5,6], and suggest that it is possible to constrain the age and structure of the lithosphere in the WARS. Os isotope ratios can be used to date the melt depletion events in the asthenosphere that are considered to be equivalent to the stabilization age of the lithospheric mantle [7]. Here we present the first Re-Os isotope measurements on mantle xenoliths from 5.0 to <1.0 Ma-old volcanic rocks collected in a transection from the rift shoulder and into the rift basin in the Western Ross Sea area of the WARS, and suggest that these data can be used to examine the dynamic response of the lithosphere to rifting. For example, ancient Re-depletion ages across this margin could indicate thinning of the lithospheric mantle during continental extension and dynamic extension of the lithospheric mantle beneath the rift basin. In contrast, younger ages might suggest a more complex history or possibly the replacement by asthenosphere as a result of lithospheric delamination during rifting. Our 187Os/188Os isotope ratios show a large range throughout the rifted margin (0.1051 at Foster Crater to 0.1265 on Ross Island), yet define individual melt depletion trends at 7 locations across the rift. Alumachron model ages derived from 187Os/188Os vs. Al2O3 wt% depletion trends reveal

  15. Rates of litter decomposition and soil respiration in relation to soil temperature and water in different-aged Pinus massoniana forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wenfa; Ge, Xiaogai; Zeng, Lixiong; Huang, Zhilin; Lei, Jingpin; Zhou, Benzhi; Li, Maihe

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the soil carbon dynamics and cycling in terrestrial ecosystems in response to environmental changes, we studied soil respiration, litter decomposition, and their relations to soil temperature and soil water content for 18-months (Aug. 2010-Jan. 2012) in three different-aged Pinus massoniana forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China. Across the experimental period, the mean total soil respiration and litter respiration were 1.94 and 0.81, 2.00 and 0.60, 2.19 and 0.71 µmol CO2 m(-2) s(-1), and the litter dry mass remaining was 57.6%, 56.2% and 61.3% in the 20-, 30-, and 46-year-old forests, respectively. We found that the temporal variations of soil respiration and litter decomposition rates can be well explained by soil temperature at 5 cm depth. Both the total soil respiration and litter respiration were significantly positively correlated with the litter decomposition rates. The mean contribution of the litter respiration to the total soil respiration was 31.0%-45.9% for the three different-aged forests. The present study found that the total soil respiration was not significantly affected by forest age when P. masonniana stands exceed a certain age (e.g. >20 years old), but it increased significantly with increased soil temperature. Hence, forest management strategies need to protect the understory vegetation to limit soil warming, in order to reduce the CO2 emission under the currently rapid global warming. The contribution of litter decomposition to the total soil respiration varies across spatial and temporal scales. This indicates the need for separate consideration of soil and litter respiration when assessing the climate impacts on forest carbon cycling.

  16. Sickle cell trait (HbAS) and stunting in children below two years of age in an area of high malaria transmission

    PubMed Central

    Kreuels, Benno; Ehrhardt, Stephan; Kreuzberg, Christina; Adjei, Samuel; Kobbe, Robin; Burchard, Gerd D; Ehmen, Christa; Ayim, Matilda; Adjei, Ohene; May, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Background While the protective effects of sickle cell trait (HbAS) against severe malaria and the resulting survival advantage are well known, the impact on the physical development in young children remains unclear. This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between HbS carriage and stunting in children below two years of age in a cohort from the Ashanti Region, Ghana. Methods 1,070 children were recruited at three months of age and followed-up for 21 months with anthropometric measurements performed every three months. Incidence rate ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated by Poisson regression to estimate the association of β-globin genotypes with the number of malaria episodes. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated for the association between the occurrence of β-globin genotypes and/or malaria episodes and stunting. The age-dependent between-group and within-group effects for the β-globin genotypes were assessed by population-averaged models estimated by generalized estimation equation with autoregressive correlation structure. Results Analyses showed a significantly lower age-dependent risk of stunting (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.33–0.96) in carriers of the HbAS genotype (n = 102) in comparison to those with HbAA (n = 692). This effect was restricted to children who experienced malaria episodes during the observation period suggesting that the beneficial effect of the β-globin HbS variant on the incidence of stunting is closely linked to its protection from mild malaria episodes. Conclusion The lower risk of chronic malnutrition in early childhood, mediated by protection against mild malaria episodes, may contribute to the survival advantage of HbAS carriers in areas of high malaria transmission. PMID:19149873

  17. Rates of Litter Decomposition and Soil Respiration in Relation to Soil Temperature and Water in Different-Aged Pinus massoniana Forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Lixiong; Huang, Zhilin; Lei, Jingpin; Zhou, Benzhi; Li, Maihe

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the soil carbon dynamics and cycling in terrestrial ecosystems in response to environmental changes, we studied soil respiration, litter decomposition, and their relations to soil temperature and soil water content for 18-months (Aug. 2010–Jan. 2012) in three different-aged Pinus massoniana forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China. Across the experimental period, the mean total soil respiration and litter respiration were 1.94 and 0.81, 2.00 and 0.60, 2.19 and 0.71 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1, and the litter dry mass remaining was 57.6%, 56.2% and 61.3% in the 20-, 30-, and 46-year-old forests, respectively. We found that the temporal variations of soil respiration and litter decomposition rates can be well explained by soil temperature at 5 cm depth. Both the total soil respiration and litter respiration were significantly positively correlated with the litter decomposition rates. The mean contribution of the litter respiration to the total soil respiration was 31.0%–45.9% for the three different-aged forests. The present study found that the total soil respiration was not significantly affected by forest age when P. masonniana stands exceed a certain age (e.g. >20 years old), but it increased significantly with increased soil temperature. Hence, forest management strategies need to protect the understory vegetation to limit soil warming, in order to reduce the CO2 emission under the currently rapid global warming. The contribution of litter decomposition to the total soil respiration varies across spatial and temporal scales. This indicates the need for separate consideration of soil and litter respiration when assessing the climate impacts on forest carbon cycling. PMID:25004164

  18. 40 CFR 36.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States executive department, military... executive branch (including the Executive Office of the President), or any independent regulatory agency....

  19. Distribution, nesting activities, and age-class of territorial pairs of golden eagles at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California, 2014–16

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolar, Patrick S.; Wiens, J. David

    2017-03-22

    The substantial numbers of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) killed by collisions with oldgeneration wind turbines each year at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (APWRA) in California has been well documented from previous studies. Few eagle nests have been documented in the APWRA, however, and adults and subadults 3+ years of age killed by turbines were generally not associated with nearby territories. We searched a subset of randomly selected survey plots for territorial pairs of golden eagles and associated nesting attempts within the APWRA as part of a broader investigation of population dynamics in the surrounding northern Diablo Range. In contrast to limited historical observations from 1988 to 2013, our surveys documented up to 15 territorial pairs within 3.2 kilometers (km) of wind turbines at the APWRA annually, 9 of which were not previously documented or only observed intermittently during historical surveys. We found evidence of nesting activity by adult pairs at least once during our study at six of these territories. We also determined that 23–36 percent of territories identified within 3.2 km of the APWRA had a subadult pair member, but that no pairs with a subadult member attempted to nest. These data will be useful to developers, wildlife managers, and future raptor studies in the area to evaluate and minimize the potential effects of wind energy or other development activities on previously unknown territorial pairs in the area.

  20. 14 CFR 73.85 - Using agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Using agency. 73.85 Section 73.85 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE Prohibited Areas § 73.85 Using agency. For the purpose of this subpart, the...

  1. 14 CFR 73.17 - Controlling agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Controlling agency. 73.17 Section 73.17 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE Restricted Areas § 73.17 Controlling agency. For the purposes of this part,...

  2. 14 CFR 73.15 - Using agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Using agency. 73.15 Section 73.15 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE Restricted Areas § 73.15 Using agency. (a) For the purposes of this subpart,...

  3. 5 CFR 720.303 - Agency programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... complete. (2) CPDF data must be analyzed by participating agencies to identify problem areas and... appropriate data on the employment of disabled veterans to each agency participating in the Central Personnel Data File (CPDF). These data will be taken from CPDF. For DVAAP purposes, CPDF data are considered...

  4. Hydrogeology of the D aquifer and movement and ages of ground water determined from geochemical and isotopic analyses, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truini, Margot; Longsworth, Steve A.

    2003-01-01

    The Navajo Nation and the Hopi Tribe in the Black Mesa area depend on ground water from sandstones of the N aquifer for domestic, agricultural, municipal, and industrial needs. They are concerned that pumping of water from the N aquifer will induce leakage from the overlying D aquifer, resulting in the degradation of water quality in the N aquifer. Water samples from the D aquifer contained higher concentrations of dissolved solids than samples from the N aquifer; however, ground waters in the D and N aquifers evolve similarly along their respective flow paths. The ground-water composition in the D aquifer results from interaction with limestone and sandstone sediments. The ground water evolves from a calcium magnesium bicarbonate type in the recharge area to a sodium bicarbonate type in downgradient areas. 34S data indicate sulfate reduction occurs when ground water comes in contact with lignite seams in the Dakota Sandstone. Adjusted 14C ages for ground water in the D aquifer range from 4,000 to 33,000 years. d18O and d2H data indicate that most of the recharge occurred when the climate was cooler and more humid than at present. 3H data indicate that localized recharge has occurred in some areas in recent time. Leakage between the D and N aquifers has been occurring for thousands of years. The area of highest leakage occurs in the southern areas of Black Mesa, where the N aquifer is thin, the predevelopment hydraulic gradient is small, and the vertical head differences between the D and N aquifers are small. Induced leakage from ground-water development in the last several decades could take centuries to detect geochemically because of the increased vertical difference between the potentiometric surfaces of the D and N aquifers, and possibly because of increases in the hydraulic gradient in the N aquifer that would increase flow rates, causing dilution. 87Sr/86Sr data are consistent with the leakage of ground water from the D aquifer into the N aquifer in the

  5. 76 FR 53714 - Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ... Federal Transit Administration Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of request for comments. SUMMARY: The Federal Transit... and to the Federal Transit Administrator on how grantees are responding to national emphasis areas...

  6. [Status of, and factors associated with, complementary feeding among infants and young children aged 6- 23 months in poor rural areas of Hunan Province, China].

    PubMed

    Zhou, X; Fang, J Q; Luo, J Y; Wang, H; Du, Q Y; Huang, G W; Feng, B B

    2017-01-06

    Objective: To describe the status of, and to identify the factors associated with, complementary feeding among infants and young children aged 6- 23 months in poor rural areas of Hunan Province, China. Methods: A total of 8 735 infants and young children aged 6- 23 months from 30 poor rural counties in the Wuling and Luoxiao Mountains in Hunan Province were selected by township-level probability-proportional-to-size sampling in August 2015. Questionnaires were used to collect information on the feeding status of the infants in the previous 24 hours, along with personal/family information. The qualified rate of minimum dietary diversity (MDD), the minimum meal frequency (MMF) and the minimum acceptable diet (MAD) were calculated according to the WHO indicators for assessing infant and young child feeding practices. Multi non-conditional logistic regression models were used to analyze factors associated with complementary feeding among infants and young children aged 6- 23 months. Results: The findings indicated that 73.9% (6 452/8 735) of infants and young children aged 6-23 months received the minimum dietary diversity, 81.6% (7 124/8 735) of infants and young children aged 6- 23 months received the minimum meal frequency and 49.0% (4 276/8 735) of infants and young children aged 6- 23 months received an acceptable diet. Compared with the boys, the OR for the MMF and MAD for the girls were 1.15 and 1.11, respectively. Compared with the 6-11 month group, the OR for the MDD for the 12-17 month and 18-23 month groups were 0.41 and 0.38, respectively; the OR for the MMF for the 12-17 month and 18-23 month groups were 1.53 and 2.46, respectively; and the OR for the MAD for the 12-17 month and 18-23 month groups were 0.60 and 0.60, respectively. Compared with the Han ethnic group, the OR for the MDD, MMF and MAD for the Miao ethnic group were 1.43, 1.72 and 1.56, respectively; for the Tujia ethnic group were 2.21, 2.02 and 2.11, respectively; and for the Dong ethnic

  7. Influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic position on the transition to type II diabetes in older Mexican Americans: the Sacramento Area Longitudinal Study on Aging

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Lorena; Lee, Anne; Zeki Al Hazzouri, Adina; Neuhaus, John M; Aiello, Allison; Elfassy, Tali; Haan, Mary N

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic position (NSEP) on development of diabetes over time. Design A longitudinal cohort study. Setting The data reported were from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging, a longitudinal study of the health of 1789 older Latinos. Participants Community-dwelling older Mexican Americans residing in the Sacramento Metropolitan Statistical Area. Main outcome Multistate Markov regression were used to model transitions through four possible states over time: 1=normal; 2=pre-diabetic; 3=diabetic; and 4=death without diabetes. Results At baseline, nearly 50% were non-diabetic, 17.5% were pre-diabetic and nearly 33% were diabetic. At the end of follow-up, there were a total of 824 people with type 2 diabetes. In a fully adjusted MSM regression model, among non-diabetics, higher NSEP was not associated with a transition to pre-diabetes. Among non-diabetics, higher NSEP was associated with an increased risk of diabetes (HR=1.66, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.42) and decreased risk of death without diabetes (HR: 0.56, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.96). Among pre-diabetics, higher NSEP was significantly associated with a transition to non-diabetic status (HR: 1.22, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.50). Adjusting for BMI, age, education, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, medical insurance and nativity did not affect this relationship. Conclusions Our findings show that high NSEP poses higher risk of progression from normal to diabetes compared with a lower risk of death without diabetes. This work presents a possibility that these associations are modified by nativity or culture. PMID:27515749

  8. Community Involvement Plan Presentation in Western Agency

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Region 9 will host a Community Involvement Plan presentation in the Western Agency chapter to discuss EPA’s outreach plans with community members in uranium impacted areas and answer questions about mine cleanup progress.

  9. Cosmogenic exposure age evidence for rapid Laurentide deglaciation of the Katahdin area, west-central Maine, USA, 16 to 15 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, P. Thompson; Bierman, Paul R.; Corbett, Lee B.; Finkel, Robert C.

    2015-05-01

    Katahdin, the highest peak in Maine and part of the second highest mountain range in New England, provides an opportunity to assess the timing and style of continental ice sheet surface lowering during deglaciation. We collected 14 samples from boulders on the adjacent Basin Ponds moraine, from bedrock and boulders on the upper part of the mountain, and from boulders in the surrounding area to estimate the age at which they were exposed by deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Measurements of in situ produced 10Be, which are consistent with measurements of 26Al, indicate that the Katahdin edifice became exposed from under ice by 15.3 ± 2.1 ka (n = 6), an age indistinguishable from the adjacent Basin Ponds moraine (16.1 ± 1.2 ka, n = 5). A boulder in the lowlands several km south of the moraine dates to 14.5 ± 0.8 ka, and a boulder deposited at Pineo Ridge, about 170 km SE of Katahdin, dates to 17.5 ± 1.1 ka. These data show that samples collected over an elevation range of 1.6 km and a distance of >170 km all have exposure ages that are indistinguishable within uncertainties. Together these data suggest that the Laurentide Ice Sheet surface dropped rapidly and the ice sheet margin retreated quickly across Maine between about 16 and 15 ka, perhaps influenced by calving of the marine-based ice sheet in the St. Lawrence Lowlands to the north and the Penobscot basin to the south.

  10. Guaranty Agency Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leifman, Steven

    The extent to which guaranty agencies, lenders, and state secondary markets impose restrictions on Guaranteed Student Loan (GSL) borrowing that go beyond federal regulations was assessed through a survey of 53 guaranty agencies. Seventeen of the agencies imposed restrictions on GSLs that go beyond federal regulations, including not loaning to…

  11. EPA Honors 2015 Energy Star Partners of the Year for Leading the Way on Energy Efficiency and Acting on Climate Agency recognizes 128 partners including some in Maryland Area

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON, DC (April 6, 2015) - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) are honoring 128 organizations today for their commitment to saving energy and protecting the environment through superior energy

  12. EPA Honors 2015 Energy Star Partners of the Year for Leading the Way on Energy Efficiency and Acting on Climate Agency recognizes 128 partners including some in Delaware Area

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON, DC (April 6, 2015) - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) are honoring 128 organizations today for their commitment to saving energy and protecting the environment through superior energy

  13. EPA Honors 2015 Energy Star Partners of the Year for Leading the Way on Energy Efficiency and Acting on Climate Agency recognizes 128 partners including some in Greater Philly Area

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON, DC (April 6, 2015) - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) are honoring 128 organizations today for their commitment to saving energy and protecting the environment through superior energy

  14. A Good Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bert Kruger

    The story of the Austin Groups for the Elderly (AGE), a conglomeration of service agencies serving older adults and children, is related in this document. The agencies' decision to coordinate services as much as possible and to share a building to facilitate coordination and lower costs in financially difficult times is explained. The activities…

  15. [IgG responses to candidate malaria vaccine antigens in the urban area of Dakar (Senegal): evolution according to age and parasitemia in patients with mild symptoms].

    PubMed

    Mbengue, B; Sylla Niang, M; Ndiaye Diallo, R; Diop, G; Thiam, A; Ka, O; Touré, A; Tall, A; Perraut, R; Dièye, A

    2015-03-01

    Malaria remains a major problem in African countries despite substantial decreases in morbidity and mortality due to sustained control programs. Studies for the evaluation of qualitative or quantitative Ab responses to key targets of anti-plasmodium immunity were mostly done in rural endemic setting compared to urban area. In a cohort of 200 patients with mild malaria and living in Dakar, we analyze total and subclasses IgG responses to a panel of P. falciparum blood stage antigens: MSP1p19, MSP3, EB200, GST-5 and R23. A mean age of 15 yrs (4 to 56 yrs) and parasitemia between 0.1 to 17% were found. Levels of IgG anti-MSP3 were higher in patients with low parasitemia (≤1%) and appear negatively correlated to parasite densities (Rho =. 0.54; p= 0.021). This correlation is more significant in children (≤ 15 yrs). In addition, an increase of IgG responses against MSP1p19 is highly observed in adults having a parasitemia less than 1%. In those patients, we find that IgG1 subclasses were predominant (p <0.01). Our study shows an association between Ab responses and parasitemia. This association is dependant to IgG anti-MSP3 in children and IgG anti-MSP1p19 in adults living in urban area.

  16. Evaluating the effect of age and area of residence in the metal and metalloid contents in human hair and urban topsoils.

    PubMed

    Peña-Fernández, Antonio; González-Muñoz, M J; Lobo-Bedmar, M C

    2016-11-01

    Monitoring the levels of trace elements in hair can allow estimating the effects of the geographical location and also can provide a notion of the metal body burden. However, the use of human hair is controversial due to the different confounding factors that could affect the presence of trace elements in hair. As a result, a comprehensive monitoring study was performed in Alcalá de Henares, one of the major cities in the Madrid region, Spain. Trace elements have been monitored in urban topsoils and in human hair of two well-defined and healthy groups of population: children (6-9 years) and adolescents (13-16 years). The city was divided into four areas or zones with different characteristics to assess the possible effect of area of residence and age in the presence of Al, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Pb, Sn, Ti, Tl and Zn in soils and hair. There is no current hypothesis that explains the possible effect of the area of monitoring in the distribution of Be, Cr, Ni, Sn and Ti found in these urban soils, maybe because urban soils receive high disturbance, and there are many factors involved. The presence of most of the trace elements monitored was significantly higher in the hair of the children population, except for Sn and Zn. This could be attributed mainly to dietary habits. Other factors influencing metal content in hair such as environmental factors would have had a minimal effect in the population groups here studied. Finally, none of the levels of trace elements studied in hair were significantly correlated with levels measured in the topsoils of public parks in Alcalá de Henares, with the exception of Pb in adolescent participants.

  17. 45 CFR 1321.49 - State agency maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.49...

  18. 45 CFR 1321.49 - State agency maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.49...

  19. 45 CFR 1321.49 - State agency maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.49...

  20. 45 CFR 1321.49 - State agency maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.49...

  1. 45 CFR 1321.49 - State agency maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.49...

  2. 45 CFR 1321.9 - Organization and staffing of the State agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities §...

  3. 45 CFR 1321.9 - Organization and staffing of the State agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities §...

  4. 45 CFR 1321.9 - Organization and staffing of the State agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities §...

  5. 45 CFR 1321.9 - Organization and staffing of the State agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities §...

  6. 45 CFR 1321.9 - Organization and staffing of the State agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities §...

  7. Geochemistry, strontium isotope data, and potassium-argon ages of the andesite-rhyolite association in the Padang area, West Sumatra

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leo, G.W.; Hedge, C.E.; Marvin, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    Quaternary volcanoes in the Padang area on the west coast of Sumatra have produced two-pyroxene, calc-alkaline andesite and volumetrically subordinate rhyolitic and andesitic ash-flow tuffs. A sequence of andesite (pre-caldera), rhyolitic tuff and andesitic tuff, in decreasing order of age, is related to Maninjau caldera. Andesite compositions range from 55.0 to 61.2% SiO2 and from 1.13 to 2.05% K2O. Six K-Ar whole-rock age determinations on andesites show a range of 0.27 ?? 0.12 to 0.83 ?? 0.42 m.y.; a single determination on the rhyolitic ashflow tuff gave 0.28 ?? 0.12 m.y. Eight 57Sr/26Sr ratios on andesites and rhyolite tuff west of the Semangko fault zone are in the range 0.7056 - 0.7066. These ratios are higher than those elsewhere in the Sunda arc but are comparable to the Taupo volcanic zone of New Zealand and calc-alkaline volcanics of continental margins. An 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7048 on G. Sirabungan east of the Semangko fault is similar to an earlier determination on nearby G. Marapi (0.7047), and agrees with 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the rest of the Sunda arc. The reason for this distribution of 87Sr/86Sr ratios is unknown. The high 87Sr/86Sr ratios are tentatively regarded to reflect a crustal source for the andesites, while moderately fractionated REE patterns with pronounced negative Eu anomalies suggest a residue enriched in plagioclase with hornblende and/or pyroxenes. Generation of associated andesite and rhyolite could have been caused by hydrous fractional melting of andesite or volcanogenic sediments under adiabatic decompression. ?? 1980.

  8. Cholecystokinin expression in the β-cell leads to increased β-cell area in aged mice and protects from streptozotocin-induced diabetes and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lavine, Jeremy A; Kibbe, Carly R; Baan, Mieke; Sirinvaravong, Sirinart; Umhoefer, Heidi M; Engler, Kimberly A; Meske, Louise M; Sacotte, Kaitlyn A; Erhardt, Daniel P; Davis, Dawn Belt

    2015-11-15

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a peptide hormone produced in the gut and brain with beneficial effects on digestion, satiety, and insulin secretion. CCK is also expressed in pancreatic β-cells, but only in models of obesity and insulin resistance. Whole body deletion of CCK in obese mice leads to reduced β-cell mass expansion and increased apoptosis. We hypothesized that islet-derived CCK is important in protection from β-cell apoptosis. To determine the specific role of β-cell-derived CCK in β-cell mass dynamics, we generated a transgenic mouse that expresses CCK in the β-cell in the lean state (MIP-CCK). Although this transgene contains the human growth hormone minigene, we saw no expression of human growth hormone protein in transgenic islets. We examined the ability of MIP-CCK mice to maintain β-cell mass when subjected to apoptotic stress, with advanced age, and after streptozotocin treatment. Aged MIP-CCK mice have increased β-cell area. MIP-CCK mice are resistant to streptozotocin-induced diabetes and exhibit reduced β-cell apoptosis. Directed CCK overexpression in cultured β-cells also protects from cytokine-induced apoptosis. We have identified an important new paracrine/autocrine effect of CCK in protection of β-cells from apoptotic stress. Understanding the role of β-cell CCK adds to the emerging knowledge of classic gut peptides in intraislet signaling. CCK receptor agonists are being investigated as therapeutics for obesity and diabetes. While these agonists clearly have beneficial effects on body weight and insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues, they may also directly protect β-cells from apoptosis.

  9. 22 CFR 312.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States... other establishment in the executive branch (including the Executive Office of the President), or...

  10. 29 CFR 94.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Definitions § 94.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States executive... establishment in the executive branch (including the Executive Office of the President), or any...

  11. 29 CFR 94.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 94.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States... other establishment in the executive branch (including the Executive Office of the President), or...

  12. 22 CFR 312.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States... other establishment in the executive branch (including the Executive Office of the President), or...

  13. 36 CFR 1212.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Definitions § 1212.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States executive... establishment in the executive branch (including the Executive Office of the President), or any...

  14. 29 CFR 94.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 94.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States... other establishment in the executive branch (including the Executive Office of the President), or...

  15. Zircon U-Pb age, Hf isotope and geochemistry of Carboniferous intrusions from the Langshan area, Inner Mongolia: Petrogenesis and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Min; Zhang, Da; Xiong, Guangqiang; Zhao, Hongtao; Di, Yongjun; Wang, Zhong; Zhou, Zhiguang

    2016-04-01

    Late Paleozoic was a critical period for the tectonic evolution of the northern margin of the Alxa-North China craton, but the evolutionary history is not well constrained. The Carboniferous intrusions in the Langshan area in the western part of the northern margin of the Alxa-North China craton are mainly composed of tonalite, quartz diorite, olivine gabbro and pyroxene peridotite. Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating indicates that the Langshan Carboniferous intrusions were emplaced at ca. 338-324 Ma. The quartz diorites are characterized by high amounts of compatible trace elements (Cr, Ni and V) and high Mg# values, which may suggest a significant mantle source. The positive Pb and negative Nb-Ta-Ti anomalies, the variable εHf(t) (-6.9 to 2.0) values and the old Hf model ages (1218-1783 Ma) imply some involvement of ancient continental materials in its petrogenesis. The tonalite has relatively high Sr/Y ratios, low Mg#, Yb and Y contents, features of adakite-like rocks, negative εHf(t) values (-9.8 to -0.1) and older Hf model ages (1344-1953 Ma), which suggest significant involvement of ancient crust materials and mantle-derived basaltic component in its petrogenesis. The high Mg# values, high Cr and Ni contents, and low Zr and Hf contents of the mafic-ultramafic rocks show evidence of a mantle source, and the relatively low zircon εHf(t) values (-5.9 to 3.2) might point to an enriched mantle. The trace element characteristics indicate the influence of subducted sediments and slab-derived fluids. In the tectonic discrimination diagrams, all the rocks plot in subduction-related environment, such as volcanic arc and continental arc. Considering the regional geology, we suggest that the Carboniferous intrusions in the Langshan area were likely emplaced during the late stage of the southward subduction of the Paleo-Asian Ocean plate, which formed a continental arc along the northern margin of the Alxa-North China craton.

  16. 78 FR 79444 - Loveland Area Projects-2025 Power Marketing Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... Area Power Administration Loveland Area Projects--2025 Power Marketing Initiative AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Final 2025 Power Marketing Initiative. SUMMARY: Western Area Power Administration (Western), Rocky Mountain Region, a Federal power marketing agency of...

  17. Organochlorines and mercury in livers of great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) wintering in northeastern Mediterranean wetlands in relation to area, bird age, and gender.

    PubMed

    Goutner, V; Becker, P H; Liordos, V

    2011-01-15

    Wild birds are exposed to pollutants in their habitats. Top consumers of aquatic environments such as the fish-eating great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) are especially affected due to the bioaccumulation of toxic substances in their tissues. This study analysed the livers of 80 great cormorants from Greece to estimate the concentration of organochlorines and mercury and to examine their possible toxic effects and origin. The results showed that mercury (geometric mean 8089 ng g⁻¹ dw), p,p'-DDE (2628 ng g⁻¹ dw), ∑HCHs (47 ng g⁻¹ dw) and HCB (116 ng g⁻¹ dw) concentrations can be considered high compared with those found in great cormorant livers elsewhere except in highly polluted areas, whereas ∑PCBs occurred in relatively low concentrations (1091 ng g⁻¹ dw). β-HCH was the dominant HCH isomer. Pollutant levels were generally unrelated to area, age and gender. However, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD showed intersite differences, whilst the proportion of PCBs with 8 chlorine atoms were significantly higher in adult than 1st year great cormorants. Pollution did not reflect local patterns but rather these along the Baltic and Black Seas, whilst differences in p,p'-DDE concentration and ∑DDTs/∑PCBs ratios between Evros, Axios or Amvrakikos, found on common migration route, suggested different bird origins. Most birds had toxic mercury concentrations; 83.7% above 4000 ng g⁻¹ dw and 16% above 17,000 ng g⁻¹ dw. Other pollutant levels were too low to have adverse effects.

  18. Home care of malaria-infected children of less than 5 years of age in a rural area of the Republic of Guinea.

    PubMed Central

    Bailo Diallo, A.; De Serres, G.; Béavogui, A. H.; Lapointe, C.; Viens, P.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the ability of mothers in a rural area of the Republic of Guinea to identify fever in their children, and to estimate the proportion of children who received antimalarial drugs. METHODS: Children under 5 years of age in 41 villages were selected by a two-step cluster sampling technique. During home visits we examined the children and questioned their mothers about the child's symptoms and treatment. FINDINGS: Of 784 children examined, 23% were febrile and more than half of them also had a positive smear result for Plasmodium. Mothers reported 63% of children with a temperature > or = 37.5 degrees C as sick. Among all children reported as feverish by their mother, 55% had a normal temperature (< 37.5 degrees C). In contrast, a temperature > or = 37.5 degrees C was found in 38% of children identified as sick but afebrile by their mother and in 13% of children considered healthy. Among febrile children, 18% were given chloroquine at home or had consulted at the health centre or a dispensary. CONCLUSION: In areas where malaria is endemic, recognition of fever and its presumptive treatment with antimalarial drugs is an essential part of the strategy of the World Health Organization (WHO) to reduce the morbidity due to this disease. This population study shows that mothers often failed to identify fever in their children and to consult or to provide antimalarial treatment. Without great efforts to improve home care, it is unlikely that the morbidity and mortality due to malaria in young children will be greatly reduced. PMID:11217664

  19. Determination of the age of oil palm from crown projection area detected from WorldView-2 multispectral remote sensing data: The case of Ejisu-Juaben district, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemura, Abel; van Duren, Iris; van Leeuwen, Louise M.

    2015-02-01

    Information about age of oil palm is important in sustainability assessments, carbon mapping, yield projections and precision agriculture. The aim of this study was to develop and test an approach to determine the age of oil palm plantations (years after planting) by combining high resolution multispectral remote sensing data and regression techniques using a case study of Ejisu-Juaben district of Ghana. Firstly, we determined the relationship between age and crown projection area of oil palms from sample fields. Secondly, we did hierarchical classification using object based image analysis techniques on WorldView-2 multispectral data to determine the crown projection areas of oil palms from remote sensing data. Finally, the crown projection areas obtained from the hierarchical classification were combined with the field-developed regression model to determine the age of oil palms at field level for a wider area. Field collected data showed a strong linear relationship between age and crown area of oil palm up to 13 years beyond which no relationship was observed. A user's accuracy of 80.6% and a producer's accuracy of 68.4% were obtained for the delineation of oil palm crowns while for delineation of non-crown objects a user's accuracy of 65.6% and a producer's accuracy of 78.6% were obtained, with an overall accuracy of 72.8% for the OBIA delineation. Automatic crown projection area delineation from remote sensing data produced crown projection areas which closely matched the field measured crown areas except for older oil palms (13+ years) where the error was greatest. Combining the remote sensing detected crown projection area and the regression model accurately estimated oil palm ages for 27.9% of the fields and had an estimation error of 1 year or less for 74.6% of the fields and an error of a maximum 2 years for 92.4% of the fields. The results showed that 6 and 11 year old oil palm stands were dominating age categories in the study area. Although the method

  20. 34 CFR 84.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 84.645 Section 84.645... WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 84.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency.... 1082, 1094, 1221e-3 and 3474; and Sec. 2455, Pub. L. 103-355, 108 Stat. 3243 at 3327.)...

  1. 22 CFR 210.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal agency or agency. 210.645 Section 210.645 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...

  2. 22 CFR 210.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal agency or agency. 210.645 Section 210.645 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...

  3. 22 CFR 312.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Federal agency or agency. 312.645 Section 312.645 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United...

  4. 22 CFR 312.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal agency or agency. 312.645 Section 312.645 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United...

  5. 22 CFR 312.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Federal agency or agency. 312.645 Section 312.645 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United...

  6. Agency and intervention

    PubMed Central

    Roskies, Adina L.

    2015-01-01

    Novel ways to intervene on brain function raise questions about agency and responsibility. Here, I discuss whether direct brain interventions, and in particular, deep brain stimulation, pose a threat to agency in individual cases, or to our general conceptualization of what it is to be a responsible agent. While I do not currently see evidence that these interventions constitute a global challenge to our concept of agency, they do have the potential to diminish agency in individuals. I consider whether the lack of evidence for a global challenge ratifies our folk conceptions, or is a necessary consequence of them. In closing, I propose that our theoretical understanding of agency and our therapeutic approaches could be improved with a more nuanced, multidimensional view of agency. PMID:26240430

  7. Important Risk Factors of Mortality Among Children Aged 1-59 Months in Rural Areas of Shahroud, Iran: A Community-based Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Chaman, Reza; Alami, Ali; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Naieni, Kourosh Holakouie; Mirmohammadkhani, Majid; Ahmadnezhad, Elham; Entezarmahdi, Rasool; Shati, Mohsen; Shariati, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate potential risk factors of children mortality between 1-59 months of age. Methods: This nested case-control study was conducted among children born from June 1999 to March 2009 in rural areas of Shahroud, located in the central region of Iran using health care visit reports and follow-up data available in household health records. Results: Mortality was significantly associated with breastfeeding duration (OR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.81-0.93), total health care visits (OR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.83-0.98) and low birth weight (LBW) (OR: 7.38, 95% CI: 1.37-39.67). Conclusion: In our study, a longer breastfeeding period and more frequent health care visits were two important protective factors, while LBW was an important risk factor for 1-59 month child mortality. It seems, that complex and multiple factors may be involved in mortality of under 5-year-old children, so combined efforts would be necessary to improve child health indicators. PMID:23272287

  8. The aging network and managed long-term care.

    PubMed

    Polivka, Larry; Zayac, Helen

    2008-10-01

    Since the early 1980s, service providers and area agencies on aging, that is, the aging network, have developed a number of strengths as they built a community-based long-term-care system in most states. Many area agencies and providers now have the capacity to assess the needs of older persons, identify appropriate services, and administer cost-effective community programs while operating within fixed, capped budgets. They have also been able to identify and maintain roles for informal caregivers, draw on community resources through donations and the use of volunteers, and create substantial political support. In this article we argue that the aging network should draw on these strengths to develop integrated long-term-care systems designed to shift the balance of state long-term-care systems from institutional to home- and community-based services. We also argue that the nonprofit aging network, because it is made up of area agencies on aging and service providers, provides a potentially more effective framework for the integration of long-term-care resources than do proprietary managed care organizations.

  9. Family Service Agencies: Responding to Need in the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alperin, Diane Elias

    1993-01-01

    Surveyed Family Service America member agencies to assess impact of impetus to look to private sector for provision of services. Found that family service agencies experienced tremendous growth in 1980s in both client caseloads and areas of service provision. Family service agency client was likely to be minority person seeking counseling within…

  10. 7 CFR 1940.329 - Commenting on other Agencies' EIS's.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF...) Comments should concentrate on those matters of primary importance to FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 and on areas of Agency expertise, such as rural planning and development....

  11. Seasonal variations of all-cause and cause-specific mortality by age, gender, and socioeconomic condition in urban and rural areas of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mortality exhibits seasonal variations, which to a certain extent can be considered as mid-to long-term influences of meteorological conditions. In addition to atmospheric effects, the seasonal pattern of mortality is shaped by non-atmospheric determinants such as environmental conditions or socioeconomic status. Understanding the influence of season and other factors is essential when seeking to implement effective public health measures. The pressures of climate change make an understanding of the interdependencies between season, climate and health especially important. Methods This study investigated daily death counts collected within the Sample Vital Registration System (VSRS) established by the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS). The sample was stratified by location (urban vs. rural), gender and socioeconomic status. Furthermore, seasonality was analyzed for all-cause mortality, and several cause-specific mortalities. Daily deviation from average mortality was calculated and seasonal fluctuations were elaborated using non parametric spline smoothing. A seasonality index for each year of life was calculated in order to assess the age-dependency of seasonal effects. Results We found distinctive seasonal variations of mortality with generally higher levels during the cold season. To some extent, a rudimentary secondary summer maximum could be observed. The degree and shape of seasonality changed with the cause of death as well as with location, gender, and SES and was strongly age-dependent. Urban areas were seen to be facing an increased summer mortality peak, particularly in terms of cardiovascular mortality. Generally, children and the elderly faced stronger seasonal effects than youths and young adults. Conclusion This study clearly demonstrated the complex and dynamic nature of seasonal impacts on mortality. The modifying effect of spatial and population characteristics were highlighted. While tropical regions have been, and still are

  12. Negotiating with Subscription Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueen, Judy; Basch, N. Bernard

    1991-01-01

    This first in a two-part series on how librarians can negotiate services and prices with subscription agencies focuses on how vendors operate. Factors that influence agency costs, revenues, and service charges are described, including economies of scale, discounts from publishers, and prepayment and cash flow. (seven references) (LRW)

  13. Self in learning: Chinese adolescents' goals and sense of agency.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin

    2006-01-01

    This study examined goals and agency as the 2 core aspects of self in learning among Chinese adolescents. A sample of 259 adolescents aged 12-19 responded to open-ended probes about themselves. Counter to the common view that Chinese selves are predominantly social, adolescents expressed many more individual than social goals and agency. Moreover, older adolescents showed overall more goals and agency than younger adolescents. However, their specific goals did not differ by age. Regarding agency, older adolescents articulated more of the so-called "learning virtues." Yet their social agency did not differ by age. We interpret these findings as in reference to the Confucian learning tradition, the existing research on goals and agency, and self in culture from a domain-specific perspective.

  14. {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar laser fusion and K-Ar ages from Lathrop Wells, Nevada, and Cima, California: The age of the latest volcanic activity in the Yucca Mountain area

    SciTech Connect

    Turrin, B.D. |; Champion, D.E.

    1991-05-01

    K-Ar and {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar ages from the Lathrop Wells volcanic center, Nevada, and from the Cima volcanic field, California, indicate that the recently reported 20-ka age estimate for the Lathrop Wells volcanic center is incorrect. Instead, an age of 119 {plus_minus} 11 to 141 {plus_minus} 10 ka is indicated for the Lathrop Wells volcanic center. This age corrected is concordant with the ages determined by two independent isotopic geochronometric techniques and with the stratigraphy of surficial deposits in the Yucca Mountain region. In addition, paleomagnetic data and radiometric age data indicate only two volcanic events at the Lathrop Wells volcanic center that are probably closely linked in time, not as many as five as recently reported. 32 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. 40Ar/39Ar laser fusion and K-Ar ages from Lathrop Wells, Nevada, and Cima, California. The age of the latest volcanic activity in the Yucca Mountain area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turrin, Brent D.; Champion, Duane E.; ,

    1991-01-01

    K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar ages from the Lathrop Wells volcanic center, Nevada, and from the Cima volcanic field, California, indicate that the recently reported 20-ka age estimate for the Lathrop Wells volcanic center is incorrect. Instead an age of 119??11 to 141??10 ka is indicated for the Lathrop Wells volcanic center. This age corrected is concordant with the ages determined by two independent isotopic geochronometric techniques and with the stratigraphy of surficial deposits in the Yucca Mountain region. In addition, paleomagnetic data and radiometric age data indicate only two volcanic events at the Lathrop Wells volcanic center that are probably closely linked in time, not as many as five as recently reported.

  16. Geochronology and geochemistry of Eocene-aged volcanic rocks around the Bafra (Samsun, N Turkey) area: Constraints for the interaction of lithospheric mantle and crustal melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temizel, İrfan; Arslan, Mehmet; Yücel, Cem; Abdioğlu, Emel; Ruffet, Gilles

    2016-08-01

    40Ar-39Ar age, whole-rock chemical, and Sr-Nd isotope data are presented for the post-collisional, Eocene (51.3-44.1 Ma)-aged volcanic rocks from the Bafra (Samsun) area in the western part of the Eastern Pontides (N Turkey) aiming to unravel their sources and evolutionary history. The studied Eocene volcanic rocks can be divided into two groups: analcime-bearing (tephritic lava flows and dykes) and analcime-free (basaltic to trachytic lava flows and basaltic dykes). The analcime-bearing volcanic rocks have a fine-grained porphyritic texture with clinopyroxene phenocrysts, whereas analcime-free volcanic rocks show a variety of textures including hyalo-microlitic microgranular porphyritic, intersertal, trachytic, fluidal, and glomeroporphyritic. The volcanic rocks also show evidence of mineral-melt disequilibrium textures such as sieved, rounded, and corroded plagioclases, partially melted and dissolved clinopyroxenes and poikilitic texture. Petrochemically, the parental magmas of the volcanic rocks evolved from alkaline to calc-alkaline lava suites and include high-K and shoshonitic compositions. They display enrichments in light rare earth and large ion lithophile elements such as Sr, K, and Rb, as well as depletions in high field strength elements such as Nb, Ta, Zr, and Ti, resembling subduction-related magmas. The analcime-bearing and -free volcanic rocks share similar incompatible element ratios and chondrite-normalised rare rearth element patterns, indicating that they originated from similar sources. They also have relatively low to moderate initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.7042-0.7051), high positive εNd(t) values (+ 0.20 to + 3.32), and depleted mantle Nd model ages (TDM1 = 0.63-0.93 Ga, TDM2 = 0.58-0.84 Ga). The bulk-rock chemical and Sr-Nd isotope features as well as the high Rb/Y and Th/Zr, but low Nb/Zr and Nb/Y ratios, indicate that the volcanic rocks were derived from a lithospheric mantle source that had been metasomatised by slab-derived fluids. Trace element

  17. Geological and 40Ar/39Ar age constraints on late-stage Deccan rhyolitic volcanism, inter-volcanic sedimentation, and the Panvel flexure from the Dongri area, Mumbai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, Hetu C.; Pande, Kanchan

    2014-04-01

    Post-K-Pg Boundary Deccan magmatism is well known from the Mumbai area in the Panvel flexure zone. Represented by the Salsette Subgroup, it shows characters atypical of much of the Deccan Traps, including rhyolite lavas and tuffs, mafic tuffs and breccias, spilitic pillow basalts, and "intertrappean" sedimentary or volcanosedimentary deposits, with mafic intrusions as well as trachyte intrusions containing basaltic enclaves. The intertrappean deposits have been interpreted as formed in shallow marine or lagoonal environments in small fault-bounded basins due to syn-volcanic subsidence. We report a previously unknown sedimentary deposit underlying the Dongri rhyolite flow from the upper part of the Salsette Subgroup, with a westerly tectonic dip due to the Panvel flexure. We have obtained concordant 40Ar/39Ar ages of 62.6 ± 0.6 Ma (2σ) and 62.9 ± 0.2 Ma (2σ) for samples taken from two separate outcrops of this rhyolite. The results are significant in showing that (i) Danian inter-volcanic sedimentary deposits formed throughout Mumbai, (ii) the rock units are consistent with the stratigraphy postulated earlier for Mumbai, (iii) shale fragments known in some Dongri tuffs were likely derived from the sedimentary deposit under the Dongri rhyolite, (iv) the total duration of extrusive and intrusive Deccan magmatism was at least 8-9 million years, and (v) Panvel flexure formed, or continued to form, after 63 Ma, possibly even 62 Ma, and could not have formed by 65-64 Ma as concluded in a recent study.

  18. 22 CFR 1509.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal agency or agency. 1509.645 Section 1509.645 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...

  19. 22 CFR 1509.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Federal agency or agency. 1509.645 Section 1509.645 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...

  20. 22 CFR 1509.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Federal agency or agency. 1509.645 Section 1509.645 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...

  1. 22 CFR 1509.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Federal agency or agency. 1509.645 Section 1509.645 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...

  2. 22 CFR 1509.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Federal agency or agency. 1509.645 Section 1509.645 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...

  3. 28 CFR 83.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 83.645 Section 83.645 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENT-WIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...

  4. Mineralogy, Petrology, Chemistry, and Ar-39 - Ar-40 and Ages of the Caddo County IAB Iron: Evidence for Early Partial Melt Segregation of a Gabbro Area Rich in Plagioclase-Diopside

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Bogard, Donald D.; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Garrison, Daniel H.

    2000-01-01

    We found coarse-grained gabbroic material rich in plagioclase and diopside in the Caddo County IAB iron meteorite. The polished thin sections studied were made from areas rich in Al and Ca detected by a micro-focus X-ray fluorescence (XRF) mapping technique. The gabbro is not a clast within a breccia, but rather this area is located mainly at silicate-metal boundaries only a few cm away from an area with fine-grained, ultramafic silicate similar to winonaites. Medium-grained orthopyroxene and olivine are found in transitional areas showing no disturbance of their crystalline textures. A vein-like region, starting at the area rich in fine-grained mafic silicate, extends towards the gabbroic area with a gradual increase in abundance of plagioclase and diopside. This texture and our accumulated knowledge of the formation mechanism of IAB/winonaltes meteorites, suggest that the gabbroic materials were formed by inhomogeneous segregation of partial melts of chondritic source materials. Compositional data on two mineralogically distinct samples of the gabbro-rich portion of the inclusion were obtained by INAA. Compared to an average of LAB silicate inclusions or winonaites, the Caddo County gabbro is enriched in the incompatible lithophile elements Na, Ca, Sc, REE and Hf, which is consistent with a melt origin for the gabbro. The cosmogenic space exposure age of Caddo County (511 Ma) is significantly younger than exposure ages of some other IAB meteorites, An 39Ar-40Ar age determination of the gabbroic material indicates a series of upward steps in age from 4.516 Ga to 4.523 Ga, with a few high temperature ages up to 4.54 Ga. The older age could approximate the primary recrystallization age of silicates. The stepped Ar age spectrum may indicate differences in Ar closure temperatures during slow cooling of -2-20'C/Myr in the parent body. Alternatively, the younger Ar-Ar ages may date a shock event which occurred while Caddo County was hot and which also created textures

  5. The Age of Second Language Acquisition Determines the Variability in Activation Elicited by Narration in Three Languages in Broca's and Wernicke's Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Constantine; Kaiser, Anelis; Kuenzli, Esther; Zappatore, Daniela; Haller, Sven; Franceschini, Rita; Luedi, Georges; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Nitsch, Cordula

    2009-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the presence of a second language (L2) has an impact on the neuronal substrates build up and used for language processing; the influence of the age of L2 exposure, however, is not established. We tested the hypothesis that the age of L2 acquisition has an effect on the cortical representation of a multilingual…

  6. Federal Emergency Management Agency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Updates Emergency Management Agencies Emergency Management Institute El Niño Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Program Exercise Fact ... Local, State, Tribal and Non-Profit Recovery Resources Region I Region II Region III Region IV Region ...

  7. School Service Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leachen, Sylvia; Lipschitz, Beverly

    1970-01-01

    Describes school employment" agency to secure school jobs for interested students. They filled out applications, had interviews and secured recommendations. Program attempted to relieve hall congestion and improve tone of school. (Author/CJ)

  8. 45 CFR 90.34 - Agency reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE What are the Responsibilities of the Federal... complaints and on any compliance reviews, sufficient to permit analysis of the agency's progress in reducing age discrimination in programs or activities receiving Federal financial assistance from the...

  9. Regulatory beneficiaries and informal agency policymaking.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Nina A

    2007-03-01

    Administrative agencies frequently use guidance documents to set policy broadly and prospectively in areas ranging from Department of Education Title IX enforcement to Food and Drug Administration regulation of direct-to- consumer pharmaceutical advertising. In form, these guidances often closely resemble the policies agencies issue in ordinary notice-and-comment rulemaking. However, guidances are generally developed with little public participation and are often immune from judicial review. Nonetheless, guidances can prompt significant changes in behavior from those the agencies regulate. A number of commentators have guardedly defended the current state of affairs. Though guidances lack some important procedural safeguards, they can help agencies supervise low-level employees and supply valuable information to regulated entities regarding how an agency will implement a program. Thus far, however, the debate has largely ignored the distinct and substantial interests of regulatory beneficiaries--those who expect to benefit from government regulation of others. Regulatory beneficiaries include, among others, pharmaceutical consumers, environmental users, and workers seeking safe workplaces. When agencies make policy informally, regulatory beneficiaries suffer distinctive losses to their ability to participate in the agency's decision and to invoke judicial review. This Article argues that considering the interests of regulatory beneficiaries strengthens the case for procedural reform. The Article then assesses some possible solutions.

  10. 5 CFR 5501.102 - Designation of HHS components as separate agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... remainder of HHS: (1) Administration on Aging; (2) Administration for Children and Families: (3) Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; (4) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry; (5) Centers...

  11. 5 CFR 5501.102 - Designation of HHS components as separate agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... remainder of HHS: (1) Administration on Aging; (2) Administration for Children and Families: (3) Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; (4) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry; (5) Centers...

  12. 38 CFR 48.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 48.645 Section 48.645 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States executive department, military department, government corporation, government controlled corporation, any other establishment in...

  13. Federal Law on Consumer Deception: An Agency by Agency Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweibel, George J.

    A comprehensive analysis of statutes and regulations on consumer deception administered by thirty government agencies is provided in this report. Each agency's chapter includes a brief description of the agency, and a detailed listing of all deceptive trade practices prohibited by that agency's enabling legislation, regulations, or other sources…

  14. 10 CFR 607.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal agency or agency. 607.645 Section 607.645 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 607.645 Federal agency or agency. Department of Energy means the...

  15. Smoking and Alzheimer's disease among Mongolian and Han Chinese aged 55 years and over living in the Inner Mongolia farming area of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunyu; Da, Lin; Zhao, Shigang; Wang, Desheng; Niu, Guangming; Huriletemuer

    2012-07-15

    Residents aged 55 years or older from 27 communities and two settlements in Xilingol League of Inner Mongolia were selected for participation in an Alzheimer's disease epidemiological investigation from June 2008 to June 2009, including 3 259 Mongolians and 5 887 Han Chinese. The Mongolian subjects in the Alzheimer's disease group were at age of 55 years or older (on average), and more of them were male, illiterate and/or had a history of coronary artery disease and/or diabetes compared with the Mongolian subjects in the non-Alzheimer's disease group. The Han Chinese subjects in the Alzheimer's disease group were at age of 55 years or older (on average) and more of them were women, illiterate and/or had a history of coronary artery disease, and less of them had a history of alcohol consumption compared with the non-Alzheimer's disease group. Non-conditional multivariate stepwise logistic regression identified that male gender, increasing age and having a history of diabetes and/or coronary heart disease were associated with higher odds of Alzheimer's disease among Mongolians while having an educational background was associated with lower odds (OR = 0.259, 95%CI 0.174-0.386). Among the Han Chinese subjects, male gender, increasing age and having a history of coronary heart disease and/or hypertension was associated with higher odds of Alzheimer's disease, while having an educational background was associated lower odds (OR = 0.271, 95%CI 0.192-0.381). The results also indicated that extremely heavy smoking may be a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease in Mongolian males aged over 55 years. There was no significant difference in smoking habits between the Mongolian and Han Chinese subjects with Alzheimer's disease.

  16. 32 CFR 1903.6 - Admission on to an Agency installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Admission on to an Agency installation. 1903.6 Section 1903.6 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY... business. Admission on to an Agency installation or into a restricted area on an Agency installation...

  17. 32 CFR 1903.6 - Admission on to an Agency installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Admission on to an Agency installation. 1903.6 Section 1903.6 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY... business. Admission on to an Agency installation or into a restricted area on an Agency installation...

  18. 78 FR 24461 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... economic security of the Nation's people through its administration of the Old Age, Survivors, and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Request The Social Security Administration...

  19. Exploring disparities in acute myocardial infarction events between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians: roles of age, gender, geography and area-level disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Randall, D A; Jorm, L R; Lujic, S; Eades, S J; Churches, T R; O'Loughlin, A J; Leyland, A H

    2014-07-01

    We investigated disparities in rates of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in the 199 Statistical Local Areas (SLAs) in New South Wales, Australia. Using routinely collected and linked hospital and mortality data from 2002 to 2007, we developed multilevel Poisson regression models to estimate the relative rates of first AMI events in the study period accounting for area of residence. Rates of AMI in Aboriginal people were more than two times that in non-Aboriginal people, with the disparity greatest in more disadvantaged and remote areas. AMI rates in Aboriginal people varied significantly by SLA, as did the Aboriginal to non-Aboriginal rate ratio. We identified almost 30 priority areas for universal and targeted preventive interventions that had both high rates of AMI for Aboriginal people and large disparities in rates.

  20. Metacognition of Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe, Janet; Greene, Matthew Jason

    2007-01-01

    The feeling that we are agents, intentionally making things happen by our own actions, is foundational to our understanding of ourselves as humans. People's metacognitions of agency were investigated in 4 experiments. Participants played a game in which they tried to touch downward scrolling Xs and avoid touching Os. Variables that affected…

  1. Youth Media and Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauge, Chelsey

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses how capacity is conceived of and understood in youth media/civic education programming, and how beliefs about agency, development, relationality and youth manifests in the discourses, programmes, and practices of organizations operating youth media programmes. Through attention to a youth media and development programme in…

  2. Cooperation Among State Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wattenbarger, James L.; Hansen, Dean M.

    1975-01-01

    Most states have separate agencies to deal with vocational education, adult education, and community colleges. Because current procedures for interagency cooperation are inadequate and often nonproductive, there is a need for a national or extra-state catalyst to encourage cooperation in a positive way. Five strategies for cooperation are…

  3. Normativity, agency, and life.

    PubMed

    Barham, James

    2012-03-01

    There is an immense philosophical literature dealing with the notions of normativity and agency, as well as a sizeable and rapidly growing scientific literature on the topic of autonomous agents. However, there has been very little cross-fertilization between these two literatures. As a result, the philosophical literature tends to assume a somewhat outdated mechanistic image of living things, resulting in a quasi-dualistic picture in which only human beings, or the higher animals, can be normative agents properly speaking. From this perspective, the project of 'naturalizing normativity' becomes almost a contradiction in terms. At the same time, the scientific literature tends to misuse 'normativity,' 'agency,' and related terms, assuming that it is meaningful to ascribe these concepts to 'autonomous agents' conceived of as physical systems whose behavior is to be explained in terms of ordinary physical law. From this perspective, the true depth of the difficulty involved in understanding what makes living systems distinctive qua physical systems becomes occluded. In this essay, I begin the attempt to remedy this situation. After some preliminary discussion of terminology and situating of my project within the contemporary philosophical landscape, I make a distinction between two different aspects of the project of naturalizing normativity: (1) the 'Scope Problem,' which consists in saying how widely in nature our concept of normative agency may properly be applied; and (2) the 'Ground Problem,' which consists in rationalizing the phenomenon of normative agency in terms of the rest of our knowledge of nature. Then, in the remainder of this paper, I argue that the Scope Problem ought to be resolved in favor of attributing normative agency, in the proper sense of those words, to living things as such. The Ground Problem will be discussed in a companion paper at a later time.

  4. Ages and stable-isotope compositions of secondary calcite and opal in drill cores from Tertiary volcanic rocks of the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, B. J.; Kyser, T.K.

    1990-01-01

    Stable-isotope compositions of fracture- and cavity-filling calcite from the unsaturated zone of three drill cores at Yucca Mountain Tertiary volcanic complex indicate that the water from which the minerals precipitated was probably meteoric in origin. A decrease in 18O in the calcite with depth is interpreted as being due to the increase in temperature in drill holes corresponding to an estimated average geothermal gradient of 34?? per kilometer. A few of the calcite samples and all of the opal samples yielded uranium-series ages older than 400 000 yr, although most of the calcite samples yielded ages between 26 000 and 310 000 yr. The stable-isotope and uranium-series dates from precipitated calcite and opal of this reconnaissance study suggest a complex history of fluid movement through the volcanic pile, and episodes of fracture filling predominantly from meteoric water during at least the past 400 000 yr. -Authors

  5. Linking an agency strategic review to increase knowledge management: San Francisco County Human Service Agency.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    Led by the agency director, the agency engaged in a Strategic Review, based on a comprehensive assessment of agency performance that identified strategies to improve organizational effectiveness through increased data-informed practice and knowledge management. The Strategic Review gathered information on staff perceptions, perceptions of external stakeholders, changing citywide and neighborhood demographics, policy mandates, and budget and workload issues. The need for the review was based upon multiple, substantial changes not addressed in the 2000 Strategic Plan, including the 2004 merger of the Department of Human Services and the Department of Aging and Adult Services, changes among the executive management team, transitions among key political entities, new policy mandates and changing budget allocations. This case study describes the Strategic Review process and content, summarizing key challenges and lessons related to addressing workload demands, fostering positive staff attitudes, balancing internal and external information needs, and integrating data use and planning processes across the agency.

  6. Deaths Associated with Respiratory Syncytial and Influenza Viruses among Persons ≥5 Years of Age in HIV-Prevalent Area, South Africa, 1998–20091

    PubMed Central

    Walaza, Sibongile; Viboud, Cecile; Cohen, Adam L.; Madhi, Shabir A.; Venter, Marietjie; von Mollendorf, Claire; Moyes, Jocelyn; McAnerney, Johanna M.; Cohen, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    We estimated deaths attributable to influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) among persons >5 years of age in South Africa during 1998–2009 by applying regression models to monthly deaths and laboratory surveillance data. Rates were expressed per 100,000 person-years. The mean annual number of seasonal influenza–associated deaths was 9,093 (rate 21.6). Persons >65 years of age and HIV-positive persons accounted for 50% (n = 4,552) and 28% (n = 2,564) of overall seasonal influenza-associated deaths, respectively. In 2009, we estimated 4,113 (rate 9.2) influenza A(H1N1)pdm09–associated deaths. The mean of annual RSV-associated deaths during the study period was 511 (rate 1.2); no RSV-associated deaths were estimated in persons >45 years of age. Our findings support the recommendation for influenza vaccination of older persons and HIV-positive persons. Surveillance for RSV should be strengthened to clarify the public health implications and severity of illness associated with RSV infection in South Africa. PMID:25811455

  7. Deaths associated with respiratory syncytial and influenza viruses among persons ≥5 years of age in HIV-prevalent area, South Africa, 1998-2009(1).

    PubMed

    Tempia, Stefano; Walaza, Sibongile; Viboud, Cecile; Cohen, Adam L; Madhi, Shabir A; Venter, Marietjie; von Mollendorf, Claire; Moyes, Jocelyn; McAnerney, Johanna M; Cohen, Cheryl

    2015-04-01

    We estimated deaths attributable to influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) among persons >5 years of age in South Africa during 1998-2009 by applying regression models to monthly deaths and laboratory surveillance data. Rates were expressed per 100,000 person-years. The mean annual number of seasonal influenza-associated deaths was 9,093 (rate 21.6). Persons >65 years of age and HIV-positive persons accounted for 50% (n = 4,552) and 28% (n = 2,564) of overall seasonal influenza-associated deaths, respectively. In 2009, we estimated 4,113 (rate 9.2) influenza A(H1N1)pdm09-associated deaths. The mean of annual RSV-associated deaths during the study period was 511 (rate 1.2); no RSV-associated deaths were estimated in persons >45 years of age. Our findings support the recommendation for influenza vaccination of older persons and HIV-positive persons. Surveillance for RSV should be strengthened to clarify the public health implications and severity of illness associated with RSV infection in South Africa.

  8. Tectonic evolution of the Irtysh collision belt: New zircon U-Pb ages of deformed and collisional granitoids in the Kalaxiangar area, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Hong; Jun, Gao; Xingwang, Xu; Klemd, Reiner

    2016-04-01

    The CAOB is thought to have formed by multiple accretion and collision of various microcontinents, island arcs, oceanic plateaus and accretionary wedges due to the closure of the Paleo-Asia Ocean [1, 2, 3]. The Irtysh collision belt is located at the middle-western part of the CAOB and generally thought to be the result of the collision of the Sawuer Island arc and the Altay Terrane, subsequent to the consumption of the Early Paleozoic Junggar Ocean, a branch of Paleo-Asia Ocean. Therefore, the exact timing of the Irtysh collision belt is crucial for a better understanding of the tectonic evolution of this collision belt and will provide constraints on the evolution of the CAOB. Recently, we discovered various collisional granitoids in the Kalaxiangar tectonic belt (KTB), which is located in the eastern part of the Irtysh collision belt. In this contribution, we report new geochemical whole-rock, zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data of the arc-related and collisional granitoids. Our new results reveal that 1) the arc-related granodioritic porphyries formed at ca. 374 Ma. Furthermore, recrystallized zircons from the granodioritic mylonite and ultramylonite of the Laoshankou ductile deformation zone have a similar U-Pb age of ca. 360 Ma; 2) the syn-collisional granodioritic porphyries, which distribute along cleavege, were emplaced at ca. 355 Ma; 3) the post-collisional A-type granodioritic porphyry, which cuts the NW-NNW trending schistosity at a low angle, has an age of ca. 323 Ma, ɛHf(t) values from + 7.5 to + 14.4, and young Hf model ages between 387 and 658 Ma; 4) the post-collisional A-type granite dykes, which are exposed along strike-slip faults, have ages between 282.5 and 279.2Ma, ɛHf(t) values from + 4.8 to + 12.6, and Hf model ages between 436 and 729 Ma; 5) the A-type biotite granite dykes that intruded along conjugate tension joints have ages between 273.9 and 271.4 Ma, ɛHf(t) values from + 1.1 to + 12.8, and Hf model ages between 393 and 979 Ma. In

  9. Robotics research at Canadian Space Agency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hui, Raymond

    1994-01-01

    In addition to major crown projects such as the Mobile Servicing System for Space Station, the Canadian Space Agency is also engaged in internal, industrial and academic research and development activities in robotics and other space-related areas of science and technology. These activities support current and future space projects, and lead to technology development which can be spun off to terrestrial applications, thus satisfying the Agency's objective of providing economic benefits to the public at large through its space-related work.

  10. Agency, time, and causality

    PubMed Central

    Widlok, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive Scientists interested in causal cognition increasingly search for evidence from non-Western Educational Industrial Rich Democratic people but find only very few cross-cultural studies that specifically target causal cognition. This article suggests how information about causality can be retrieved from ethnographic monographs, specifically from ethnographies that discuss agency and concepts of time. Many apparent cultural differences with regard to causal cognition dissolve when cultural extensions of agency and personhood to non-humans are taken into account. At the same time considerable variability remains when we include notions of time, linearity and sequence. The article focuses on ethnographic case studies from Africa but provides a more general perspective on the role of ethnography in research on the diversity and universality of causal cognition. PMID:25414683

  11. Agency, time, and causality.

    PubMed

    Widlok, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive Scientists interested in causal cognition increasingly search for evidence from non-Western Educational Industrial Rich Democratic people but find only very few cross-cultural studies that specifically target causal cognition. This article suggests how information about causality can be retrieved from ethnographic monographs, specifically from ethnographies that discuss agency and concepts of time. Many apparent cultural differences with regard to causal cognition dissolve when cultural extensions of agency and personhood to non-humans are taken into account. At the same time considerable variability remains when we include notions of time, linearity and sequence. The article focuses on ethnographic case studies from Africa but provides a more general perspective on the role of ethnography in research on the diversity and universality of causal cognition.

  12. NATO Agency Reform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-30

    and tested to determine its value. We take seriously the pernicious effects of the so-called “ theory – practice” gap, which would separate the...organized around a specific product or service, there are several that fill purely functional roles , such as the Research and Technology Agency...point, strategy development theory had focused on the forces of technology, size of an organization, and structural variation. In reviewing the

  13. Effectiveness of community-based complementary food supplement (Yingyangbao) distribution in children aged 6-23 months in poor areas in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liyun; Yu, Wentao; Zhang, Jian; Man, Qingqing; He, Li; Duan, Yifan; Wang, Hui; Scherpbier, Robert; Yin, Shi-an

    2017-01-01

    Background Poor growth and micronutrient deficiency mainly attack older infants and young children. Some countries have adopted clinically effective measures to combat malnutrition, but the compliance and improvement in efficacy of intervention vehicles in national programs require evaluation. Methods Baseline and follow-up cross-sectional surveys were conducted before and after a nutrition intervention program in 3 national poverty counties in China. Soybean-based complementary food supplements called Yingyangbao (YYB) in Chinese and training materials on child feeding were distributed to households with children aged 6–23 months for 18 months. Representative children were selected by probability proportional to size sampling methods to assess compliance of YYB and the intervention efficacy. A questionnaire was designed to collect data on basic characteristics of children, breastfeeding, 24-hour dietary intake, and consumption and appetite of YYB. Anthropometrics and hemoglobin were measured in the field, and anemia prevalence was evaluated. Venous blood was drawn from children aged 12–35 months to evaluate micronutrient status. Logistic regression was used to identify the risk factors for children’s anemia. Results Of the children involved in the follow-up survey (n = 693), the P50 (P25, P75) intake of YYB was 6.7 (3.5, 7.0) sachets weekly, and 54.7% of the children liked the taste of YYB. Compared with the baseline situation (n = 823), the proportion of children fed a diverse diet and foods rich in iron or vitamin A increased (P < 0.01) in the follow-up study. The prevalence of stunting and underweight decreased (P < 0.05), the prevalence of anemia decreased from 28.0% to 19.9% (P < 0.01), and the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency decreased from 26.8% to 15.4% (P < 0.01). For children aged 12–23 months, those who liked YYB and consumed 6 or more sachets of YYB weekly were at lower risk for anemia (OR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.13–0.90, P < 0.05), but the risk

  14. 7 CFR 210.9 - Agreement with State agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... agreement with the State agency that may be amended as necessary. Nothing in the preceding sentence shall be... year thereafter, provide the State agency with a list of all elementary schools under its jurisdiction... Food Program, information on the boundaries of the attendance areas for the elementary...

  15. Some Emerging Issues in Legal Liability of Children's Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Carol M.

    This book outlines several areas of legal development relating to children's agencies. Past rulings and implications for practice are discussed. Chapters and the topics covered are: (1) Agency-Child Relationship (children's constitutional rights, impact on the "In Loco Parentis" doctrine, children's rights as distinct from parental…

  16. 2 CFR 902.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENERGY Reserved REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 902.645 Federal agency or agency. Department of Energy means the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), including the...

  17. 2 CFR 902.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENERGY Reserved REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 902.645 Federal agency or agency. Department of Energy means the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), including the...

  18. Recharge Area, Base-Flow and Quick-Flow Discharge Rates and Ages, and General Water Quality of Big Spring in Carter County, Missouri, 2000-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Imes, Jeffrey L.; Plummer, L. Niel; Kleeschulte, Michael J.; Schumacher, John G.

    2007-01-01

    Exploration for lead deposits has occurred in a mature karst area of southeast Missouri that is highly valued for its scenic beauty and recreational opportunities. The area contains the two largest springs in Missouri (Big Spring and Greer Spring), both of which flow into federally designated scenic rivers. Concerns about potential mining effects on the area ground water and aquatic biota prompted an investigation of Big Spring. Water-level measurements made during 2000 helped define the recharge area of Big Spring, Greer Spring, Mammoth Spring, and Boze Mill Spring. The data infer two distinct potentiometric surfaces. The shallow potentiometric surface, where the depth-to-water is less than about 250 feet, tends to mimic topographic features and is strongly controlled by streams. The deep potentiometric surface, where the depth-to-water is greater than about 250 feet represents ground-water hydraulic heads within the more mature karst areas. A highly permeable zone extends about 20 mile west of Big Spring toward the upper Hurricane Creek Basin. Deeper flowing water in the Big Spring recharge area is directed toward this permeable zone. The estimated sizes of the spring recharge areas are 426 square miles for Big Spring, 352 square miles for Greer Spring, 290 square miles for Mammoth Spring, and 54 square miles for Boze Mill Spring. A discharge accumulation curve using Big Spring daily mean discharge data shows no substantial change in the discharge pattern of Big Spring during the period of record (water years 1922 through 2004). The extended periods when the spring flow deviated from the trend line can be attributed to prolonged departures from normal precipitation. The maximum possible instantaneous flow from Big Spring has not been adequately defined because of backwater effects from the Current River during high-flow conditions. Physical constraints within the spring conduit system may restrict its maximum flow. The largest discharge measured at Big Spring

  19. Higher education is not associated with greater cortical thickness in brain areas related to literacy or intelligence in normal aging or mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Jagan A; McEvoy, Linda K; Hagler, Donald J; Holland, Dominic; Dale, Anders M; Salmon, David P; Galasko, Douglas; Fennema-Notestine, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Education may reduce risk of dementia through passive reserve, by increasing neural substrate. We tested the hypotheses that education is associated with thicker cortex and reduced rates of atrophy in brain regions related to literacy and intellectual ability. Healthy older adults and those with mild cognitive impairment were categorized into high (≥18 years) and low (≤13 years) education groups. Higher education was associated with thinner cortices in several areas, but one-year atrophy rates in these areas did not differ by education group. These results do not support a passive reserve model in which early-life education protects against dementia by increasing cortical thickness. Connectivity and synaptic efficiency or other lifestyle factors may more directly reflect cognitive reserve.

  20. [Ways of improving the education of specialists from the health care organizations, agencies, and institutions of the Russian Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare, in the area of parasitology].

    PubMed

    Astanina, S Iu; Dovgalev, A S; Avdiukhina, T I

    2014-01-01

    The intensive modern Russian reforms in professional education require that stafftraining in medicine should be also improved. The main directions and ways of improving education in the specialty of Parasitology are as follows:--to update professional education, by applying a competence approach, in terms of which the main focus is on mastering the activity and obtaining the experience in make this activity in different situations;--to apply the modular principle in the design of educational programs and a teaching process;--to improve the fundamental training of staff in the area ofparasitology;--to enhance the integration of special, related, and basic disciplines in stafftraining.

  1. Assessment of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in plasma of bottlenose dolphins from two southeast US estuarine areas: relationship with age, sex and geographic locations.

    PubMed

    Fair, Patricia A; Houde, Magali; Hulsey, Thomas C; Bossart, Gregory D; Adams, Jeff; Balthis, Len; Muir, Derek C G

    2012-01-01

    Plasma PFCs were measured in 157 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) sampled from two US southeast Atlantic sites (Charleston (CHS), SC and Indian River Lagoon (IRL), FL) during 2003-2005. ∑PFCs, perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (∑PFCAs), perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (∑PFSAs) and individual compounds were significantly higher in CHS dolphins for all age/sex categories compared to IRL dolphins. Highest ∑PFCs concentrations occurred in CHS juvenile dolphins (2340 ng/g w.w.); significantly higher than found in adults (1570 ng/g w.w. males; 1330 ng/g w.w. females). ∑PFCAs were much greater in CHS dolphins (≈ 21%) compared to IRL dolphins (≈ 7%); ∑PFSAs were 79% in CHS dolphins versus 93% in IRL dolphins. PFOS, the dominant compound, averaged 72% and 84%, respectively, in CHS and IRL dolphins. Decreasing PFC levels occurred with age on the bioaccumulation of PFCs in both sites. These observations suggest PFC accumulation in these two dolphin populations are influenced by site-specific exposures with significantly higher levels in CHS dolphins.

  2. 5 CFR 591.238 - How do agencies pay COLAs and post differentials?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post Differential-Nonforeign Areas Program Administration § 591.238 How do agencies pay COLAs and post differentials? (a) Agencies pay...

  3. 31 CFR 20.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 20.645 Section 20.645 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.645 Federal agency or...

  4. 31 CFR 20.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 20.645 Section 20.645 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.645 Federal agency or...

  5. 31 CFR 20.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 20.645 Section 20.645 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.645 Federal agency or...

  6. 31 CFR 20.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 20.645 Section 20.645 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.645 Federal agency or...

  7. 31 CFR 20.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 20.645 Section 20.645 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.645 Federal agency or...

  8. NOAA administrator reviews agency progress and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-12-01

    The approach of the new year is a traditional time to tally up successes, failures, and the path ahead. Jane Lubchenco, administrator of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), examined some agency advances and significant challenges during the 7 December Union Agency Lecture at the AGU Fall Meeting, during a press briefing, and in an interview with Eos. Lubchenco focused on several key areas including the concern about monitoring, mitigating, and managing extreme events; budgetary pressures the agency faces in current fiscal year (FY) 2012 and in FY 2013, with President Barack Obama on 18 November having signed into law a bill, HR 2112, following congressional agreement on a budget legislation conference report; and NOAA's newly released scientific integrity policy (see "NOAA issues scientific integrity policy," Eos Trans. AGU, 92(50), 467, doi:10.1029/2011EO500004, 2011).

  9. Significance of new potassium-argon ages from the Goldens Ranch and Moroni Formations, Sanpete-Sevier Valley area, central Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witkind, I.J.; Marvin, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    Exposures of volcanic-sedimentary strata are widely distributed within central Utah. We believe that these volcanic and stratified sedimentary rocks, known by different formational names in different parts of this region, are, in fact, segments of one and the same suite of rocks that formed during the early and middle Tertiary. Potassium-argon ages indicate that both the Goldens Ranch and Moroni Formations formed during the late Eocene to middle Oligocene. The geochronology and stratigraphic relations are stong evidence that the Goldens Ranch and Moroni Formations are correlative, and that they are one and the same depositional unit. We recognize two sequences of repeated deformation: one that occurred prior to deposition and consolidation of the Goldens Ranch and Moroni Formations, and a second that occurred after these formations were emplaced, in essence, after early Oligocene time. In our view, multiple episodes of salt diapirism explain the structural complexity in central Utah. -from Authors

  10. The Prevalence of Infertility and Loneliness among Women Aged 18-49 Years Who Are Living in Semi-Rural Areas in Western Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Gokler, Mehmet Enes; Unsal, Alaettin; Arslantas, Didem

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine the correlates and the prevalence of infertility in a group of women. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out on 570 subjects aged 18-49 years in a town of western Turkey between July and August 2012. Women who have inability to become pregnant despite regular sexual intercourse during the last year were considered to be infertile. UCLA Loneliness Scale was used to assess the severity of loneliness. The data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, Mann Whitney U and Chi-square tests. Results The mean age of the participants was 35.48 ± 8.39 years. The frequency of the infertility in our study was 12.8% (n=73). The prevalence of infertility was higher in those with a history of gynecological disease or gynecologic surgery and in those with menstrual irregularity (p<0.05; for each). The mean score on the UCLA Loneliness Scale was 32.16 ± 9.49 (from 20 to 70). In this study, no difference was found between the level of loneliness and who is responsible for infertility among infertile/fertile women (p≥0.05). Level of loneliness among the women with primary infertility was higher compared to the women with secondary infertility (p<0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of infertility among the women was relatively high. It was concluded that prospective studies are needed in order to expose the relationship between the infertility and the level of loneliness in women. PMID:25083180

  11. Time trends in prevalence of activities of daily living (ADL) disability and survival: comparing two populations (aged 78+ years) living in a rural area in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Sjölund, Britt-Marie; Wimo, Anders; Qiu, Chengxuan; Engström, Maria; von Strauss, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to study time trends in prevalence of disability in ADL and survival among men and women 78 years and older comparing two cohorts. The study was a time trend study based on two population-based community cohorts, the Nordanstig Project (NP), collected 1995-1998 and the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Nordanstig (SNAC-N), collected 2001-2003. The participants were people aged 78 years and older from the NP cohort (N=303) and from the SNAC-N cohort (N=406). All were clinically examined by physicians and nurses using standardized protocols. Disability was defined as a need for assistance in one or more ADL activities. The prevalence of disability and survival were compared using logistic and Cox models. The prevalence of ADL disability was stable for men, while women became more disabled in ADL during the time period, OR 2.36 (1.12-4.94). There was no significant difference in survival time between the cohorts in either ADL disabled persons or non-disabled persons. There was a tendency for increased survival for non-disabled persons in SNAC-N compared with NP, although not significant; this was particularly true for women. In general, women survived longer than men did regardless of whether they were ADL disabled or not. The time trends for ADL disability found in the study show that ADL disability had increased in women but not in men. More studies are needed to identify risk factors for ADL disability with a view to preventing it in time.

  12. Gestational age

    MedlinePlus

    Fetal age - gestational age; Gestation; Neonatal gestational age; Newborn gestational age ... Gestational age can be determined before or after birth. Before birth, your health care provider will use ultrasound to ...

  13. Aging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Wellness Healthy Aging Aging skin More information on aging skin When it ... treated early. Return to top More information on Aging skin Read more from womenshealth.gov Varicose Veins ...

  14. Language and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemper, Susan; Anagnopoulos, Cheryl

    1989-01-01

    Reviews the effects of aging on language usage focusing on three areas of exploration: (1) changes in language in relation to changes in other cognitive abilities, (2) the linguistic consequences of normal aging versus those of dementia and aphasia, and (3) age-group differences in patterns of conversational interaction. (67 references) (GLR)

  15. [Nutrition, aging, old age].

    PubMed

    Iván, L

    1998-12-06

    In humans there is evidence that the restriction of total caloric intake appears to be more important than the restriction of any particular macronutrient. Today the mechanism of the effect of caloric restriction is unknown. With advancing age and the occurrence of concomitant illness there is an increased risk of developing nutritional deficiencies. Altered nutritional status is associated with the pathogenesis of a number of common diseases of the elderly, thus it would appear that nutritional modulation and manipulation represents one possible approach to successful aging and a healthy longevity. The conceptual framework of the paper suggests the need of a newer light of the aging processes namely by a holistic human-gero-ecological model and a personality oriented geriatry. There are accentuated the role of the nutrients and vitamins, the food intake and drug-nutrients interactions and the meanings of the differences between the normal and pathological aging.

  16. Developing Moral Agency through Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasupathi, Monisha; Wainryb, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    This paper poses the following question: When, in spite of knowing that it is wrong, people go on to hurt others, what does this mean for the development of moral agency? We begin by defining moral agency and briefly sketching relations between moral agency and other concepts. We then outline what three extant literatures suggest about this…

  17. Comparative analysis of knowledge on schistosomiasis japonica in the local people in the former endemic area in Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan: comparisons among the background of age and occupation

    PubMed Central

    HATA, Nobuhide; YASUKAWA, Akio; SEI, Eiichi; KAWASUMI, Koh; MIYA, Naoto; YAMAGUCHI, Hironobu; MINAI, Masaru; SHIMOGAWARA, Rieko; OHTA, Nobuo

    2017-01-01

    Eradication of schistosomiasis japonica in Yamanashi Prefecture was officially declared in 1996, and all surveillance and health campaign were finished by the end of 2001. Schistosomiasis control had been carried out by strong collaboration among local Government, local people and academia, thought which knowledge and experiences of the disease control were accumulated among the local people. It is 20th anniversary of the disease eradication in Yamanashi. We planned to analyze the current situation whether the local people still keep the knowledge of schistosomiasis or not. There was no more knowledge kept in the middle school students, to whom the local Government did not educate about schistosomiasis. Among adult individuals, elderly people who have experienced endemic condition still know about it at almost comparable level as in the past. However, younger people who learned it in the primary school but no experience of the disease transmission started losing the knowledge. Those situations of the adult local people were compared with the veterinarian group. It was confirmed that the veterinarian group had correct and proper knowledge of schistosomiasis japonica not only in elderly groups, but also in younger age group. Considering that methods for control and prevention of infectious diseases are common to some extent, their knowledge and experiences would be applicable for other infectious diseases in future. Therefore, the knowledge would be worth keeping in the local people. Taken together, individuals with specialty, such as veterinarians, are expected to play roles in public health for promotion of health and welfare. PMID:28111404

  18. Comparative analysis of knowledge on schistosomiasis japonica in the local people in the former endemic area in Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan: comparisons among the background of age and occupation.

    PubMed

    Hata, Nobuhide; Yasukawa, Akio; Sei, Eiichi; Kawasumi, Koh; Miya, Naoto; Yamaguchi, Hironobu; Minai, Masaru; Shimogawara, Rieko; Ohta, Nobuo

    2017-03-23

    Eradication of schistosomiasis japonica in Yamanashi Prefecture was officially declared in 1996, and all surveillance and health campaign were finished by the end of 2001. Schistosomiasis control had been carried out by strong collaboration among local Government, local people and academia, thought which knowledge and experiences of the disease control were accumulated among the local people. It is 20(th) anniversary of the disease eradication in Yamanashi. We planned to analyze the current situation whether the local people still keep the knowledge of schistosomiasis or not. There was no more knowledge kept in the middle school students, to whom the local Government did not educate about schistosomiasis. Among adult individuals, elderly people who have experienced endemic condition still know about it at almost comparable level as in the past. However, younger people who learned it in the primary school but no experience of the disease transmission started losing the knowledge. Those situations of the adult local people were compared with the veterinarian group. It was confirmed that the veterinarian group had correct and proper knowledge of schistosomiasis japonica not only in elderly groups, but also in younger age group. Considering that methods for control and prevention of infectious diseases are common to some extent, their knowledge and experiences would be applicable for other infectious diseases in future. Therefore, the knowledge would be worth keeping in the local people. Taken together, individuals with specialty, such as veterinarians, are expected to play roles in public health for promotion of health and welfare.

  19. Treatment-seeking behaviour for malaria in children under five years of age: implication for home management in rural areas with high seasonal transmission in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Elfatih Mohamed; Hanafi, Kamal; Ali, Salah Hussein; Ahmed, Eldirdieri Salim; Mohamed, Khalid Awad

    2006-01-01

    Background Effective management of malaria in children under the age of 5 requires mothers to seek, obtain, and use medication appropriately. This is linked to timely decision, accessibility, correct use of the drugs and follow-up. The aim of the study is to identify the basis on which fever was recognized and classified and exploring factors involved in selection of different treatment options. Methods Data was obtained by interviewing 96 mothers who had brought their febrile children to selected health facilities, conduction of 10 focus group discussions with mothers at village level as well as by observation. Results A high score of mothers' knowledge and recognition of fever/malaria was recorded. Mothers usually start care at home and, within an average of three days, they shift to health workers if there was no response. The main health-seeking behaviour is to consult the nearest health facility or health personnel together with using traditional medicine or herbs. There are also health workers who visit patients at home. The majority of mothers with febrile children reported taking drugs before visiting a health facility. The choice between the available options determined by the availability of health facilities, user fees, satisfaction with services, difficulty to reach the facilities and believe in traditional medicine. Conclusion Mothers usually go through different treatment option before consulting health facilities ending with obvious delay in seeking care. As early effective treatment is the main theme of the control programme, implementation of malaria home management strategy is urgently needed to improve the ongoing practice. PMID:16859565

  20. The Development of a Town of Safety, Security and Health Project in an Area with a Very High Population Aging Rate

    PubMed Central

    Hoshino, Akiko; Usui, Kanae; Katsura, Toshiki

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the “Health Care Town in Kyoto” project designed to promote health and safety for health conscious people in a small community. We conducted a survey involving the users of the salon and local residents to examine the effects of the activities in the salon. Methods: We recorded the activities of salon and conducted semi-structured interviews with ten local residents to ask their opinions about the salon. The data from the interviews were analyzed using the Grounded Theory Approach. We distributed a questionnaire and collected 215 valid responses (valid response rate: 67.8%). Results: 1) Purpose of using the salon was categorized into health consultation, conversation with others, rest and other purpose. 2) The significance of the salon for users was categorized into usability, acquisition of useful information, changes in daily habits and their maintenance, diversion, interaction with other people and acceptance by the shopping center. 3) The results of the questionnaire survey showed marked relations between Well-Being Index (WHO-5), age, employment and family budget, self-rated health and ability to perform daily activities (TMIG), whereas use of the salon was not associated with Well-Being Index (WHO-5). On the other hand, there were marked relations between loneliness (LSO), educational background and use of the salon, demonstrating that the facility helped its users reduce loneliness (LSO). Conclusion: In this town, the salon has served as a place providing effective preventive support for the health of individual users. PMID:25648536

  1. Feeding practices of young children aged 12-23 months in different socio-economic settings: a study from an urban area of Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Santika, Otte; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Ariawan, Iwan

    2016-07-01

    Poor feeding practices among young children lead to malnutrition, and the poor are at a greater risk than the better off groups. Child-feeding practices in various socio-economic strata, especially in urban settings, have not yet been well studied in Indonesia. This study aims to explore the feeding practices of 12-23 months old children from different socio-economic status (SES) groups. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, which included low (n 207), medium-high (n 205), medium-low (n 208) and high SES households (n 194) in forty-three villages within thirty-three sub-districts of Bandung city. Two non-consecutive 24 h recall and eight core indicators of child-feeding practices were assessed through interviews. The results showed that children from the high SES group were more likely to be exclusively breast-fed and to continue breast-feeding up to 1 year of age, met minimum dietary diversity and minimum acceptable diet, and also consumed Fe-rich or Fe-fortified foods. In contrast, children from low SES consumed more energy-rich food (grain) but fewer foods from the other food groups. Consumption of major nutrients differed across the SES groups. Inadequate nutrition was higher among children from the lower SES groups. Fortified foods were consumed by a larger proportion of children from the high SES group and contributed considerably to their overall nutrient intake. This study shows that young children's feeding practices were not adequate, most notably among the low SES households. However, after adjusting with potential confounders, there was not enough evidence to conclude SES as a risk factor for feeding practice.

  2. Socioeconomic status during lifetime and cognitive impairment no-dementia in late life: the population-based aging in the Chianti Area (InCHIANTI) Study.

    PubMed

    Marengoni, Alessandra; Fratiglioni, Laura; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Thousand and twelve dementia-free elderly (60–98 years old) enrolled in the InChianti Study (Italy) were evaluated at baseline (1998–2000) and at 3-year follow-up (2001–2003) with the aim of analyzing the association of lifetime socioeconomic status (SES) with prevalent and incident cognitive impairment no-dementia (CIND). SES was defined from information on formal education, longest held occupation, and financial conditions through life. CIND was defined as age-adjusted Mini-Mental State Examination score one standard deviation below the baseline mean score of participants without dementia. Logistic regression and Cox proportional-hazards models were used to estimate the association of SES with CIND. Demographics,occupation characteristics (i.e., job stress and physical demand), cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, apolipoprotein E (APOE)genotype, smoking, alcohol consumption, depressive symptoms, and C-reactive protein were considered potential confounders.Prevalence of CIND was 17.7%. In the fully adjusted model, low education (OR = 2.1; 95% confidence intervals, CI = 1.4 to 3.2)was associated with prevalent CIND. Incidence rate of CIND was 66.0 per 1000 person-years. Low education (HR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.04 to 2.6) and manual occupation (HR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.0 to 3.6) were associated with incident CIND. Among covariates,high job-related physical demand was associated with both prevalent and incident CIND (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1 to 2.4 and HR= 1.5; 95% CI = 1.0 to 2.3). After stratification for education, manual occupation was still associated with CIND among participants with high education (HR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.2 to 4.3 versus HR= 1.4; 95% CI = 0.2 to 10.4 among those with low education). Proxy markers of lifetime SES (low education, manual occupation and high physical demand) are cross-sectional correlates of CIND and predict incident CIND over a three-year follow-up.

  3. Aging in culture.

    PubMed

    Fung, Helene H

    2013-06-01

    This article reviews the empirical studies that test socioemotional aging across cultures. The review focuses on comparisons between Western (mostly North Americans and Germans) and Eastern cultures (mostly Chinese) in areas including age-related personality, social relationships, and cognition. Based on the review, I argue that aging is a meaning-making process. Individuals from each cultural context internalize cultural values with age. These internalized cultural values become goals that guide adult development. When individuals from different cultures each pursue their own goals with age, cultural differences in socioemotional aging occur.

  4. Does area deprivation modify the association between exposure to a nitrate and low-dose atrazine metabolite mixture in drinking water and small for gestational age? A historic cohort study.

    PubMed

    Limousi, F; Albouy-Llaty, M; Carles, C; Dupuis, A; Rabouan, S; Migeot, V

    2014-04-01

    Birth weight may be influenced by environmental and socio-economic factors that could interact. The main objective of our research was to investigate whether area deprivation may modify the association between drinking water exposure to a mixture of atrazine metabolites and nitrates during the second trimester of pregnancy and prevalence of small for gestational age (SGA) neonates. We conducted a historic cohort study in Deux-Sèvres, France between 2005 and 2010, using birth records, population census and regularly performed drinking water withdrawals at community water systems. Exposure to an atrazine metabolite/nitrate mixture in drinking water was divided into six classes according to the presence or absence of atrazine metabolites and to the terciles of nitrate concentrations in each trimester of pregnancy. We used a logistic regression to model the association between SGA and mixture exposure at the second trimester while taking into account the area deprivation measured by the Townsend index as an effect modifier and controlling for the usual confounders. We included 10,784 woman-neonate couples. The risk of SGA when exposed to second tercile of nitrate without atrazine metabolites was significantly greater in women living in less deprived areas (OR = 2.99; 95 % CI (1.14, 7.89)), whereas it was not significant in moderately and more deprived areas. One of the arguments used to explain this result is the presence of competing risk factors in poorer districts.

  5. Federal Agency Satellite Requirements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    detect sizable areas of standing water, and to recognize drought conditions and their onset. In the Sahel , for example, observations from about 50...Regional Environmental Problems d AID believes that far more can be done to estimate agricultural production in threatened regional areas such as the Sahel ...management activities. Remotely sensed data show only the land surface, and the information on the occurrence and salinity of ground water must be

  6. 76 FR 81493 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... Request; NESHAP for Iron and Steel Foundry Area Sources (Renewal) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... . Title: NESHAP for Iron and Steel Foundry Area Sources (Renewal). ICR Numbers: EPA ICR Number 2267.03... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Iron and Steel Foundry Area Sources (40...

  7. U-Pb zircon geochronology and geochemical constraints on the age and origin of late Neoarchean leucosomes in migmatites from the Maevatanana area, Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xi-An; Liu, Shan-Bao; Hou, Ke-Jun

    2016-07-01

    Migmatites represent the dominant lithological facies in the Maevatanana area of Madagascar. The migmatites are composite rocks with hybrid metamorphic and magmatic features, comprising 60% melanosome bands that are interlayered and/or tectonically interleaved with 40% of centimeter-to decimeter-scale quartz-feldspar leucosome veins. The leucosome and granite veins are bordered by a series of gently dipping shear zones in the migmatites. U-Pb zircon dating shows that the leucosome veins formed at 2548.3 ± 5.3 Ma and are coeval with intrusion of the granite veins at 2552.2 ± 6.1 Ma. Furthermore, the leucosome and granite veins have uniform chondrite-normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns which are characterized by light REE enrichment relative to heavy REE, and negative or slightly positive Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.61-1.13). Primitive-mantle-normalized trace element patterns of the leucosome and granite veins are enriched in large-ion lithophile elements (Ba and K) and show pronounced depletions in high-field strength elements (Th, U, Ta, Nb, Zr, Hf, and Ti), suggesting that the leucosome and granite veins in the migmatites are syntectonic and synigneous intrusives. Primitive-mantle-normalized trace element patterns of the leucosome veins and melanosome bands in the migmatites are similar and suggest that the granite veins in the migmatites were generated by partial melting of medium-to high-K metabasalt, whereas the melanosome bands originated through metamorphism of calc-alkaline basalts. As such, the leucosome veins were likely generated by partial melting of melanosome bands in the migmatites. Calculated zircon saturation temperatures (TZr) of the leucosome veins are 599-685 °C, which represents the magma crystallization temperatures, and the pressures of magma formation range from 1.2 to 3.2 GPa. These P-T estimates for magma formation and crystallization are consistent with those of 605-658 °C and 1.22-1.43 GPa for metamorphism of the melanosome bands

  8. 77 FR 35682 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Community Living Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Evaluation of the Aging and Disability Resource Center Program AGENCY... (formerly the Administration on Aging (AoA)) is announcing that the proposed collection of...

  9. Lower insulin sensitivity is related to lower relative muscle cross-sectional area, lower muscle density and lower handgrip force in young and middle aged non-diabetic men

    PubMed Central

    Gysel, T.; Tonoli, C.; Pardaens, S.; Cambier, D.; Kaufman, J-M.; Zmierczak, H-G.; Goemaere, S.; Lapauw, B.; Calders, P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated whether an association between insulin resistance (IR) and muscle parameters is appreciable in young healthy men, independent of obesity. Furthermore, markers of muscle metabolism and hormones/possible determinants, were explored. Methods: 358 healthy young men were divided into a less and more insulin sensitive (LIS [age=33.2±5.4, BMI=23.4±2.3] and MIS [age=35.5±5.3, BMI=28.1±3.7]) group based on upper and lower quartile of HOMA-IR. Muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), -density, handgrip force, serum testosterone, estradiol, SHBG, Vitamin 25(OH)D, creatinine, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and leptin levels were compared between these groups, correcting for differences in age, physical activity and fat mass. Correlations between HOMA-IR and these parameters, and between muscle measures and biochemical parameters, were calculated. Results: LIS is related to lower relative muscle CSA, muscle density, muscle/fat CSA ratio, relative handgrip force and level of physical activity. Furthermore, lower levels in SHBG, testosterone, Vitamin 25(OH)D and higher leptin, IGF-1 & IGFBP-3 levels were observed in LIS. Bio available T, FT, TE2, FE2, bioavailable E2, serum and urinary creatinine levels did not differ between groups. Conclusion: Differences in muscle performance are already present in healthy men with lower insulin sensitivity and could be possibly modifiable risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. PMID:27973382

  10. 20 CFR 411.220 - What if my ticket is no longer assigned to an EN or State VR agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... EN or State VR agency? 411.220 Section 411.220 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE... or State VR agency? (a) If your ticket was once assigned to an EN or State VR agency acting as an EN... § 411.145(a)) or because you relocated to an area not served by your previous EN or State VR agency;...

  11. 5 CFR 330.604 - Requirements for agency CTAP selection priority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Agency Career Transition Assistance Plan (CTAP...) Decisions involving discretionary areas under § 330.607 (such as whether excepted service employees...

  12. 5 CFR 330.604 - Requirements for agency CTAP selection priority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Agency Career Transition Assistance Plan (CTAP...) Decisions involving discretionary areas under § 330.607 (such as whether excepted service employees...

  13. 5 CFR 330.604 - Requirements for agency CTAP selection priority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Agency Career Transition Assistance Plan (CTAP...) Decisions involving discretionary areas under § 330.607 (such as whether excepted service employees...

  14. 76 FR 64083 - Loveland Area Projects-2025 Power Marketing Initiative Proposal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... Area Power Administration Loveland Area Projects--2025 Power Marketing Initiative Proposal AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Proposed 2025 Power Marketing Initiative... marketing agency of the Department of Energy (DOE), is seeking comments on this proposed 2025...

  15. Agreement between 2 pain visual analogue scales, by age and area of complaint in neck and low back pain subjects: the standard pen and paper VAS versus plastic mechanical sliderule VAS

    PubMed Central

    Hagino, Carol; Thompson, Marylee; Advent, Jolayne; Rivet, Lyne

    1996-01-01

    according to the subjects’ ages (≥ 65 years of age (yoa) or < 65 yoa) and their areas of complaint (neck pain or low back pain). Statistical Analysis Strategy: Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) analyses were performed to determine the index of agreement between the mVAS and pVAS for each of the age and complaint categories. 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI) were calculated for each ICC value. A clinically acceptable level of agreement was judged by the investigators to be ICC ≥ 0.85; a 95% CI no wider than ± 0.25 was considered to provide statistical significance. Results: The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) analysis revealed an ICC of 0.86 with a 95% CI of ± 0.25 for the group under 65 yoa with neck pain, and an ICC of 0.87 with a 95% CI of ± 0.13 for the group under 65 yoa with low back pain. ICC’s (± 95 CI) of 0.60 (± 0.64) and 0.93 (± 0.2) were calculated for the ≥ 65 yoa neck pain group and ≥ 65 yoa LBP group, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that for the most part, there is statistically significant and clinically acceptable agreement between the pencil and paper VAS (pVAS) and a mechanical VAS (mVAS). The areas of complaint assessed (neck versus low back), did not appear to affect the level of agreement within each age category; only the older male neck pain and younger female LBP groups, however, yielded clinically unacceptable levels of agreement.

  16. Thyroid function and prevalence of anti-thyroperoxidase (TPO) and anti-thyroglobulin (Tg) antibodies in outpatients hospital setting in an area with sufficient iodine intake: influences of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Legakis, Ioannis; Manousaki, Mina; Detsi, Stela; Nikita, Dimitra

    2013-01-01

    In order to examine the prevalence of thyroid disease in a hospital outpatient setting, in an area of sufficient iodine intake, serum levels of TSH, T4, T3, anti-Tg and anti-TPO antibodies were examined in 909 individuals with an age range of 12.4 to 88.5 years, participating in a checkup outpatient setting. The study was conducted in Henry Dynant Hospital located in the metropolitan area of Athens, Greece, during a 2 year period. Hormonal parameters were determined by chemiluminescence immunoassay. Overt thyrotoxicosis was found in 4.95% of the total population and subclinical thyrotoxicosis in 5.5%. Overt hypothyroidism was found in 1.43% and subclinical hypothyroidism in 4.51%. In male population, overt thyrotoxicosis was found in 4.4 % and subclinical thyrotoxicosis was also found in 4.4%. On the other hand, overt hypothyroidism was found in 1.4% and subclinical hypothyroidism was found in 3.7% in males. In female population, overt thyrotoxicosis was found in 5.2% whereas subclinical thyrotoxicosis was found in 6.0%. Overt hypothyroidism was found in 1.5% and subclinical hypothyroidism was found in 4,9% in females. Positive anti-TPO antibodies were detected more often (30.4%) than anti-Tg (15.4%) in the tested population. The positivity in both anti-TPO and anti-Tg antibodies was correlated with abnormally high TSH concentrations after the age of 50 years, especially in female population. In conclusion distinct profile of thyroid hormonal parameters was observed in inhabitants in the metropolitan area of Athens, with overt thyrotoxicosis strikingly overcome overt hypothyroidism while subclinical forms of each dysfunction also exhibit analogous results.

  17. 41 CFR 102-118.60 - To what extent must my agency use electronic commerce?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agency use electronic commerce? 102-118.60 Section 102-118.60 Public Contracts and Property Management... Services § 102-118.60 To what extent must my agency use electronic commerce? Your agency must use electronic commerce in all areas of your transportation program. This includes the use of electronic...

  18. 41 CFR 102-118.60 - To what extent must my agency use electronic commerce?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... agency use electronic commerce? 102-118.60 Section 102-118.60 Public Contracts and Property Management... Services § 102-118.60 To what extent must my agency use electronic commerce? Your agency must use electronic commerce in all areas of your transportation program. This includes the use of electronic...

  19. 41 CFR 102-118.60 - To what extent must my agency use electronic commerce?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... agency use electronic commerce? 102-118.60 Section 102-118.60 Public Contracts and Property Management... Services § 102-118.60 To what extent must my agency use electronic commerce? Your agency must use electronic commerce in all areas of your transportation program. This includes the use of electronic...

  20. 41 CFR 102-118.60 - To what extent must my agency use electronic commerce?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... agency use electronic commerce? 102-118.60 Section 102-118.60 Public Contracts and Property Management... Services § 102-118.60 To what extent must my agency use electronic commerce? Your agency must use electronic commerce in all areas of your transportation program. This includes the use of electronic...

  1. 41 CFR 102-118.60 - To what extent must my agency use electronic commerce?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agency use electronic commerce? 102-118.60 Section 102-118.60 Public Contracts and Property Management... Services § 102-118.60 To what extent must my agency use electronic commerce? Your agency must use electronic commerce in all areas of your transportation program. This includes the use of electronic...

  2. Role Modeling and Role Playing: A Manual for Vocational Development and Employment Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertcher, Harvey; And Others

    This project investigated two major areas: (1) ways in which social science research and employment agency experience could be melded so as to make practical knowledge available to these agencies, and (2) ways of convincing employment agencies to use this knowledge. The manual resulting from the investigation focuses on role modeling and role…

  3. 34 CFR 84.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... means any United States executive department, military department, government corporation, government... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 84.645 Section 84.645 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR...

  4. 24 CFR 21.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal agency or agency. 21.645 Section 21.645 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 21.645 Federal...

  5. 24 CFR 21.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal agency or agency. 21.645 Section 21.645 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 21.645 Federal...

  6. Spatial-temporal framework for the closure of the Junggar Ocean in central Asia: New SIMS zircon U-Pb ages of the ophiolitic mélange and collisional igneous rocks in the Zhifang area, East Junggar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xing-Wang; Jiang, Neng; Li, Xian-Hua; Wu, Chu; Qu, Xun; Zhou, Gang; Dong, Lian-Hui

    2015-11-01

    The closure time of the Junggar Ocean is one of the hottest topics surrounding the tectonic evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). This paper reports SIMS zircon U-Pb ages of the ophiolitic mélange and collisional igneous rocks in the Zhifang area, East Junggar. Our new results reveal the following evidence: (1) the West Hill ophiolitic mélange in the Zhifang area contains segments of the 371 Ma MORB-type layered rocks and 363 Ma oceanic islands, which were intruded by the 348 Ma syn-collisional quartz diorites; (2) the ophiolitic mélange and 348 Ma syn-collisional quartz diorites are overlain by the 342 Ma andesitic tuffs; and (3) the 342 Ma andesitic tuffs and successive 332 Ma granodiorites-gabbro were formed at late-collisional setting, whereas the 314 Ma granitic porphyry at post-collisional setting. We suggest that the Junggar Ocean in the Zhifang area was opened before 371 Ma and 363 Ma, and possibly closed before 348 Ma. By combining the published U-Pb ages of the Mayile-Tangbale-Darbute-Kalamaili-Zhifang-Daheishan (MTDKZD) ophiolite belt, Early-Carboniferous volcanic rocks unconformably overlying the MTDKZD ophiolite belt, bimodal volcanic rocks and granitoids within and adjacent to the MTDKZD ophiolite belt, it is suggested that the Junggar Ocean was possibly opened scissors-like from the Neoproterozoic-Ordovician Mayile-Tangbale ocean eastwards through the Silurian-Devonian Darbute-Karamay ocean finally to the Devonian-Early-Carboniferous Kalamaili-Zhifang ocean, and closed scissors-like from the Zhifang-Kalamaili area in the eastern segment westwards to the Darbute-Karamay area in the western segment. Tectonic collage between the Yemaquan-Xiemisitai arc and Junggar block occurred at approximately 343-348 Ma. The Junggar orogenic belt went through late-collisional stage at 343-330 Ma, post-collisional period after 330 Ma, and post-collisional extensional regime after 320 Ma with an intensive stage at around 303 Ma.

  7. Age-dependent specific changes in area CA2 of the hippocampus and social memory deficit in a mouse model of the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Piskorowski, Rebecca A.; Nasrallah, Kaoutsar; Diamantopoulou, Anastasia; Mukai, Jun; Hassan, Sami I.; Siegelbaum, Steven A.; Gogos, Joseph A.; Chevaleyre, Vivien

    2015-01-01

    Several neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with cognitive and social dysfunction. Post-mortem studies of patients with schizophrenia have revealed specific changes in area CA2, a long over-looked region of the hippocampus recently found to be critical for social memory formation. To examine how area CA2 is altered in psychiatric illness, we used the Df(16)A+/− mouse model of the 22q11.2 microdeletion, a genetic risk factor for developing several neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. We report several age-dependent CA2 alterations: a decrease in the density of parvalbumin-stained interneurons, a reduction in the amount of feed-forward inhibition and a change in CA2 pyramidal neuron intrinsic properties. Furthermore, we found that area CA2 is less plastic in Df(16)A+/− mice, making it nearly impossible to evoke action potential firing in CA2 pyramidal neurons. Finally, we show that Df(16)A+/− mice display impaired social cognition, providing a potential mechanism and a neural substrate for this impairment in psychiatric disorders. PMID:26748091

  8. A Guide to Ohio Outdoor Education Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melvin, Ruth W.

    More than 700 areas in Ohio, useful as sites for environmental and outdoor studies, are catalogued in this guide. They include national forests; state parks; forest and wildlife areas; historic sites and memorials; metropolitan, country, and city parks; agency and private camps; conservation agency properties; conservancy district lands and…

  9. Overweight among students aged 11–15 years and its relationship with breakfast, area of residence and parents’ education: results from the Italian HBSC 2010 cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The international increase in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents over the past three decades confirms that childhood obesity is a global ‘epidemic’. The World Health Organization considers childhood obesity to be a major public health concern. Childhood obesity is associated with cardiovascular, endocrine, musculoskeletal and gastrointestinal complications, and may have psycho-social consequences. The aim of this paper is to examine overweight (including obesity) prevalence and its association with geographic area of residence, parental education and daily breakfast consumption in Italian students aged 11–15 yrs. Methods A nationally representative sample of 11–15 year old students from 20 Italian Regions (Italian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children 2010-HBSC) was randomly selected (2,504 schools and 77,113 students). Self-reported anonymous questionnaires, prepared by the international HBSC network, were used to collect the data. BMI was calculated using self-reported weight and height and the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to assess the relationship between the risk of overweight and parental education, area of residence and breakfast consumption in each age group and gender. Results Boys were more likely to be overweight or obese than girls (28.1% vs. 18.9% at 11 yrs-old, 24.8% vs. 16.5% at 13 yrs and 25.4 vs. 11.8% at 15 yrs). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was lower among the older girls. Overweight and obesity rates increased from the North of Italy to the South in both boys and girls and in all age groups. Boys 11-15 yrs living in southern Italy had an OR=2.05 (1.77-2.38) and girls 2.04 (95% CI 1.70-2.44) for overweight (including obesity) compared with those living in the North. Parent’s low educational level and no daily breakfast consumption were also associated with overweight including obesity (p<0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of

  10. 78 FR 53386 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Missouri; St. Louis Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Missouri; St. Louis Area Transportation Conformity Requirements AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)....

  11. 45 CFR 1321.29 - Designation of planning and service areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities §...

  12. 45 CFR 1321.29 - Designation of planning and service areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities §...

  13. 45 CFR 1321.29 - Designation of planning and service areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities §...

  14. 45 CFR 1321.29 - Designation of planning and service areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities §...

  15. 45 CFR 1321.29 - Designation of planning and service areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities §...

  16. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  17. [Seroprevalence of helicobacter pylori infection in the republic of Argentina: influence of age, sex, socioeconomic level, geographical area, and health infrastructure. Multicenter study by the Club Argentino del Estomago y Duodeno].

    PubMed

    Pest, P S; Corti, R; Pedrana, R; Varela, A; Glanczpigel, R; Schraier, M

    1999-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection affects almost half of the world population, it is almost a pandemia, and has been associated to poverty in underdeveloped countries. The Club Argentino del Estómago y Duodeno decided to fulfill the lack of information upon this subject in Argentina designing a seroprevalence, multicentric, prospective study performed in voluntary adults donors in blood banks and in children seen during normal growth controls. Seven hundred and nineteen individuals were evaluated, 645 of them were included: 178 children (age 0-18 years) and 467 adults. In all cases a serological IgG Hp test (Flex-Pack Abbott) was performed and an epidemiological questionnaire was completed by a physician. General prevalence of Hp infection was 44.8% of individuals. In the paediatric population prevalence was 15.7% and in adults 55.9%. The highest prevalence was observed in the fifth decade: 64%. In concordance with other similar studies carried out in different countries, we may conclude that the risk of acquisition of Hp infection is directly related to age, area of residence, social-economical status, sanitary facilities, and educational level reached. Even though the prevalence of Hp infection in Argentina is intermediate between highly developed and underdeveloped countries, the number of people infected is very high and the incidence of Hp-associated pathologies in the future represents a formidable task for gastroenterologists and sanitary authorities.

  18. 22 CFR 133.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... means any United States executive department, military department, government corporation, government....645 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE MISCELLANEOUS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE... the President), or any independent regulatory agency....

  19. The Effects of an Oil and Wheat Flour Fortification Program on Pre-School Children and Women of Reproductive Age Living in Côte d’Ivoire, a Malaria-Endemic Area

    PubMed Central

    Rohner, Fabian; Raso, Giovanna; Aké-Tano, Sassor Odile P.; Tschannen, Andreas B.; Mascie-Taylor, Christopher Guy Nicholas; Northrop-Clewes, Christine A.

    2016-01-01

    Anemia and micronutrient deficiencies are widespread in sub-Saharan Africa, but the impact of food fortification is still debated. The objective of this study was to estimate the iron and vitamin A status of preschool children (PSC) and women of reproductive age (WRA) in households consuming fortified oil and wheat flour. The survey was cross-sectional in a rural and an urban area. Data on demographics, socioeconomic status, and fortified foods were collected at households. Hemoglobin (Hb), retinol binding protein (RBP), ferritin, soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), subclinical inflammation, and Plasmodium spp. infection data were collected. In PSC, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) was prevalent, but for each 1 mg retinol equivalents (RE)/kg of oil consumed, RBP increased by 0.37 μmol/L (p = 0.03). In WRA, there was no significant VAD in the population (0.7%). Anemia was found in 92.2% of rural and 56.3% of urban PSC (p < 0.001). PSC with access to adequately fortified flour had Hb concentrations 15.7 g/L higher than those who did not (p < 0.001). Hb levels increased by +0.238 g/L per mg/kg increase in iron fortification levels (p < 0.001). The national program fortifying vegetable oil with vitamin A and wheat flour with iron and folic acid may have contributed to improved micronutrient status of PSC from two areas in Côte d’Ivoire. PMID:26959060

  20. The Effects of an Oil and Wheat Flour Fortification Program on Pre-School Children and Women of Reproductive Age Living in Côte d'Ivoire, a Malaria-Endemic Area.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Fabian; Raso, Giovanna; Aké-Tano, Sassor Odile P; Tschannen, Andreas B; Mascie-Taylor, Christopher Guy Nicholas; Northrop-Clewes, Christine A

    2016-03-07

    Anemia and micronutrient deficiencies are widespread in sub-Saharan Africa, but the impact of food fortification is still debated. The objective of this study was to estimate the iron and vitamin A status of preschool children (PSC) and women of reproductive age (WRA) in households consuming fortified oil and wheat flour. The survey was cross-sectional in a rural and an urban area. Data on demographics, socioeconomic status, and fortified foods were collected at households. Hemoglobin (Hb), retinol binding protein (RBP), ferritin, soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), subclinical inflammation, and Plasmodium spp. infection data were collected. In PSC, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) was prevalent, but for each 1 mg retinol equivalents (RE)/kg of oil consumed, RBP increased by 0.37 μmol/L (p = 0.03). In WRA, there was no significant VAD in the population (0.7%). Anemia was found in 92.2% of rural and 56.3% of urban PSC (p < 0.001). PSC with access to adequately fortified flour had Hb concentrations 15.7 g/L higher than those who did not (p < 0.001). Hb levels increased by +0.238 g/L per mg/kg increase in iron fortification levels (p < 0.001). The national program fortifying vegetable oil with vitamin A and wheat flour with iron and folic acid may have contributed to improved micronutrient status of PSC from two areas in Côte d'Ivoire.

  1. Intellectual Property in the Connected Age.

    PubMed

    Skiba, Diane J

    2015-07-01

    Concerns about intellectual property for nursing are becoming increasingly acute as information becomes highly accessible in the digital age. Nurse faculty members need to check policies of the agencies that they work for to evaluate explicit written policies for their protection and full understanding of the agency's rights.

  2. Assessment of water contribution on total fluoride intake of various age groups of people in fluoride endemic and non-endemic areas of Dindigul District, Tamil Nadu, South India.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Gopalan; Gopalakrishnan, S; Siva Ilango, S

    2010-12-01

    The prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the intake of large quantities of fluoride through water. It is necessary to determine the contribution of water used for drinking and food processing and other diet sources on daily fluoride intake for finding the ways to reduce the excess fluoride intake than the minimum safe level intake of 0.05 mg/kg/day. The main objectives of this study are to determine the quantitative impact of water through drinking and cooking of food and beverages on total fluoride intake as well as to estimate the contribution of commonly consumed diet sources on total fluoride intake. Contribution of water on daily fluoride intake and estimation of total fluoride intake through the diet sources were accomplished through analysis of fluoride in drinking water, solid and liquid food items, Infant formulae, tea and coffee infusions using fluoride ion selective electrode. Determination of incidence of fluorosis in different fluoride endemic areas in Dindigul District of Tamil Nadu, South India is achieved through clinical survey. The percentage of daily fluoride intake through water is significantly higher for infants than children, adults and old age groups of people. The percentile scores of fluoride intake through water from drinking and cooking increases with increase of water fluoride level. The rate of prevalence of fluorosis is higher in adolescent girls and females than adolescent boys and males residing in high fluoride endemic areas. More than 60% of the total fluoride intake per day derived from water used for drinking and food processing. Hence the people residing in the fluoride endemic areas in Dindigul District of Tamil Nadu, South India are advised to take serious concern about the fluoride level of water used for drinking and cooking to avoid further fluorosis risks.

  3. 42 CFR 436.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of age. 436.522 Section 436.522... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Age § 436.522 Determination of age. (a) In determining age, the agency must use the common law method (under which an age is reached the day before the anniversary of...

  4. 42 CFR 436.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Determination of age. 436.522 Section 436.522... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Age § 436.522 Determination of age. (a) In determining age, the agency must use the common law method (under which an age is reached the day before the anniversary of...

  5. 42 CFR 436.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Determination of age. 436.522 Section 436.522... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Age § 436.522 Determination of age. (a) In determining age, the agency must use the common law method (under which an age is reached the day before the anniversary of...

  6. 42 CFR 436.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Determination of age. 436.522 Section 436.522... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Age § 436.522 Determination of age. (a) In determining age, the agency must use the common law method (under which an age is reached the day before the anniversary of...

  7. 42 CFR 436.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Determination of age. 436.522 Section 436.522... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Age § 436.522 Determination of age. (a) In determining age, the agency must use the common law method (under which an age is reached the day before the anniversary of...

  8. 40 CFR 1508.16 - Lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lead agency. 1508.16 Section 1508.16 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.16 Lead agency. Lead agency means the agency or agencies preparing or having taken primary responsibility for preparing...

  9. 40 CFR 1508.5 - Cooperating agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperating agency. 1508.5 Section 1508.5 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.5 Cooperating agency. Cooperating agency means any Federal agency other than a lead agency which...

  10. 76 FR 1523 - New Agency Logos

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ... logo. This logo is for use on agency letterhead, all agency social media sites, and other agency... agency logo is used: (1) On agency letterhead and business cards; (2) On all NARA web and social media... and publicity media. The other three logos are for new offices within NARA--the Office of...

  11. 31 CFR 800.218 - Lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lead agency. 800.218 Section 800.218... FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.218 Lead agency. The term lead agency means an agency designated by the... activity for which the Chairperson designates it as a lead agency, including all or a portion of a...

  12. 31 CFR 800.218 - Lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lead agency. 800.218 Section 800.218... FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.218 Lead agency. The term lead agency means an agency designated by the... activity for which the Chairperson designates it as a lead agency, including all or a portion of a...

  13. 40 CFR 1508.16 - Lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lead agency. 1508.16 Section 1508.16 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.16 Lead agency. Lead agency means the agency or agencies preparing or having taken primary responsibility for preparing...

  14. 31 CFR 800.218 - Lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lead agency. 800.218 Section 800.218... FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.218 Lead agency. The term lead agency means an agency designated by the... activity for which the Chairperson designates it as a lead agency, including all or a portion of a...

  15. 31 CFR 800.218 - Lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lead agency. 800.218 Section 800.218... FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.218 Lead agency. The term lead agency means an agency designated by the... activity for which the Chairperson designates it as a lead agency, including all or a portion of a...

  16. 40 CFR 1508.16 - Lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lead agency. 1508.16 Section 1508.16 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.16 Lead agency. Lead agency means the agency or agencies preparing or having taken primary responsibility for preparing...

  17. 40 CFR 1508.16 - Lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lead agency. 1508.16 Section 1508.16 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.16 Lead agency. Lead agency means the agency or agencies preparing or having taken primary responsibility for preparing...

  18. 40 CFR 1508.16 - Lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lead agency. 1508.16 Section 1508.16 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.16 Lead agency. Lead agency means the agency or agencies preparing or having taken primary responsibility for preparing...

  19. Radiation Information from Other Agencies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA does not license nuclear power plants or regulate the non-ionizing radiation from cell phones, smart meters or power lines. This page provides links to the state and Federal agencies that regulate these matters.

  20. Administering Our State Library Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuFrane, Gerard

    1970-01-01

    A satire on the application of scientific management principles to a state library agency. Covers relationships of the state librarian to staff, the profession, and state and federal governments. (Author/JS)

  1. Genetic engineering and autonomous agency.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Linda

    2003-01-01

    In this paper I argue that the genetic manipulation of sexual orientation at the embryo stage could have a detrimental effect on the subsequent person's later capacity for autonomous agency. By focussing on an example of sexist oppression I show that the norms and expectations expressed with this type of genetic manipulation can threaten the development of autonomous agency and the kind of social environment that makes its exercise likely.

  2. Child Geopolitical Agency: A Mixed Methods Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habashi, Janette; Worley, Jody

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the geopolitical agency of Palestinian children. Mixed methodology was used to identify the etiologies contributing to processes of political socialization. Both qualitative and qualitative methods are equally distributed throughout this research. Focus groups and interviews with 12 Palestinian children, aged 10 to 13 years,…

  3. Children's Sense of Agency in Preschool: A Sociocultural Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilppö, Jaakko; Lipponen, Lasse; Kumpulainen, Kristiina; Rainio, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This socioculturally informed study investigated children's sense of agency in relation to their everyday life in preschool. The empirical data comprised focus groups reflection situations wherein Finnish preschool children (n. 19, aged 6-7) reflected on their everyday life with the help of photographs and drawings they made. Building on a…

  4. 20 CFR 603.21 - What is a requesting agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... XIX of the SSA. (c) Food Stamp Agency—Any State or local agency charged with the responsibility of administering the provisions of the Food Stamp Program under the Food Stamp Act of 1977. (d) Other SSA Programs... plan approved under Title I, X, XIV, or XVI (Supplemental Security Income for the Aged, Blind,...

  5. 7 CFR 253.5 - State agency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... discrimination in the certification of applicant households or in the distribution of commodities because of sex, race, color, age, political beliefs, religion, handicap or national origin. (v) Households shall not be... other sources. (g) Nutrition education. The State agency shall publicize how commodities may be used...

  6. 7 CFR 253.5 - State agency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... discrimination in the certification of applicant households or in the distribution of commodities because of sex, race, color, age, political beliefs, religion, handicap or national origin. (v) Households shall not be... other sources. (g) Nutrition education. The State agency shall publicize how commodities may be used...

  7. 7 CFR 253.5 - State agency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... discrimination in the certification of applicant households or in the distribution of commodities because of sex, race, color, age, political beliefs, religion, handicap or national origin. (v) Households shall not be... other sources. (g) Nutrition education. The State agency shall publicize how commodities may be used...

  8. 7 CFR 253.5 - State agency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... discrimination in the certification of applicant households or in the distribution of commodities because of sex, race, color, age, political beliefs, religion, handicap or national origin. (v) Households shall not be... other sources. (g) Nutrition education. The State agency shall publicize how commodities may be used...

  9. "We Be Burnin'!" Agency, Identity, and Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Angela Calabrese; Tan, Edna

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the development of agency in science among low-income urban youth aged 10 to 14 as they participated in a voluntary year-round program on green energy technologies conducted at a local community club in a midwestern city. Focusing on how youth engaged a summer unit on understanding and modeling the relationship between…

  10. 20 CFR 404.1630 - Coordination with other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coordination with other agencies. 404.1630 Section 404.1630 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determinations of Disability Administrative Responsibilities and...

  11. 20 CFR 416.1030 - Coordination with other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coordination with other agencies. 416.1030 Section 416.1030 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determinations of Disability Administrative Responsibilities and...

  12. 77 FR 33745 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... administrative data on LTC providers (i.e. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) data on nursing home, home health, and hospice care); (3) update data more frequently on LTC providers for which nationally... Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; provider associations, such as LeadingAge (formerly...

  13. [The French Biomedicine Agency and medically assisted reproduction].

    PubMed

    Camby, Carine

    2008-01-01

    The French Biomedicine Agency was created in May 2005 by the August 2004 revision of the Bioethics Law. The Agency replaced the French Transplant Establishment, itself created by the first bioethics law in 1994. The Biomedicine Agency took over responsibility for organ, tissue and cell harvest and transplantation, but its remit now also covers medically assisted reproduction, antenatal diagnosis, human genetics, and embryo research, which it is required to "monitor, evaluate and control ". More generally, the Biomedicine Agency contributes to establishing regulations and to improving the quality and safety of healthcare practices and patient management. It is also responsible for promoting transparency in these fields, by preparing and distributing data on medically assisted reproduction and its results, and by keeping the public informed Finally, the Agency licenses and inspects healthcare professionals working in the fields of medically assisted reproduction, antenatal diagnosis and genetics. The Agency has bolstered its internal and external expertise in these new areas by calling on healthcare professionals and their scientific societies. It has thus created several task forces of healthcare professionals, who contribute their experience and their knowledge of day-to-day issues, with the aim of improving both regulations and practices. Finally, in order to constitute a solid framework for its development, the Agency has signed a performance contract with the ministry of health. This contract, covering the period 2007 to 2010, precisely defines the Agency's strategic objectives and actions, indicators for follow-up, and assessments of the means the Agency needs to carry out its missions. The Biomedicine Agency also actively seeks input from patients and user associations, especially with respect to the information it provides to the public.

  14. Effectiveness of complementary food supplements and dietary counselling on anaemia and stunting in children aged 6–23 months in poor areas of Qinghai Province, China: a controlled interventional study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Wu, Qiong; Wang, Wei; van Velthoven, Michelle Helena; Chang, Suying; Han, Huijun; Xing, Min; Chen, Li; Scherpbier, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of dietary counselling and complementary food supplements on anaemia and stunting prevalence in children aged 6–23 months. Design A controlled intervention study with measurements of height and haemoglobin levels, and cross-sectional surveys in August 2012 (baseline), 2013 (mid-term) and 2014 (end-line). Setting One intervention county and one control county in rural Qinghai Province, China. Intervention Complementary food supplements (containing protein, fat, carbohydrate, vitamin A, B1, B2, B12, D3, folic acid, iron, zinc and calcium) and complementary feeding counselling were given in the intervention county. Participants Caregivers and their children aged 6–23 months. Primary and secondary outcome measures Effect of the interventions on the prevalence of anaemia (haemoglobin <110 g/L) and stunting (z-score of height-for-age <−2.0) (controlled for differences between the counties), and on infant feeding practices. Results The surveys were conducted on 1804, 2187 and 2186 children aged 6–23 months in the intervention county in August 2012, 2013 and 2014, respectively, and 804, 680 and 790 children in the control county, respectively. Between the baseline and end-line surveys, anaemia prevalence decreased more in the intervention county than in the control county (71.1% to 47.8% vs 86.3% to 75.3%, respectively; p<0.0001). There was no difference in the decrease in stunting prevalence between the counties (9.7% to 7.1% vs 17.0% to 15.0%; p=0.7954). The proportions of children given iron-rich or iron-fortified food, introduced to (semi-) solid food at 6–8 months, and given food with minimum dietary diversity increased from 43.2% to 88.8% (p<0.0001), 81.4% to 96% (p=0.0470) and 53.0% to 59.8% (p<0.0001), respectively in the intervention county. Conclusions We found much higher anaemia prevalence in poor rural areas of Qinghai Province compared with the national data. Community-based complementary food supplements

  15. 5 CFR 351.402 - Competitive area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Competition § 351.402 Competitive area. (a) Each agency shall establish competitive areas in which employees compete for retention under this part. (b) A competitive area must be defined solely in terms of the... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competitive area. 351.402 Section...

  16. 49 CFR Attachment 3 - Offices Within Federal Agencies and Federal-State Agencies for Information Regarding the Agencies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Attachment 3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC.... Attachment 3—Offices Within Federal Agencies and Federal-State Agencies for Information Regarding...

  17. 78 FR 13333 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. DATES: Comments.... Energy Information Administration Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Agency Information Collection Activities:...

  18. Role of methylmercury exposure (from fish consumption) on growth and neurodevelopment of children under 5 years of age living in a transitioning (tin-mining) area of the western Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, Rejane C; Dórea, José G; Leão, Renata S; Dos Santos, Verusca G; Bueno, Lucélia; Marques, Rayson C; Brandão, Katiane G; Palermo, Elisabete F A; Guimarães, Jean Remy D

    2012-02-01

    Human occupation of the Amazon region has recently increased, bringing deforestation for agriculture and open-cast mining, activities that cause environmental degradation and pollution. Families of new settlers in mining areas might have a diet less dependent on abundant fish and their children might also be impacted by exposures to mining environments. Therefore, there is compounded interest in assessing young children's nutritional status and neurobehavioral development with regard to family fish consumption. Anthropometric (z-scores, WHO standards) and neurologic [Gesell developmental scores (GDS)] development in 688 preschool children (1-59 months of age) was studied. Overall, the prevalence of malnutrition [i.e., moderate stunting (≤2 H/A-Z), underweight (≤2 W/A-Z), and wasting (≤2 W/H-Z) were respectively 0.3% (n = 2), 1.6% (n = 11), and 2.5% (n = 17). Children's mean hair Hg (HHg) concentration was 2.56 μg/g (SD = 1.67); only 14% of children had HHg concentrations lower than 1 μg/g and 1.7% had ≥5 μg/g. The biomarker of fish consumption was weakly but positively correlated with GDS (Spearman r = 0.080; p = 0.035). In the bivariate model, attained W/H-Z scores were not significantly correlated with GDS. A moderate level of GDS deficits (70-84%) was seen in 20% of children. There was significant correlation between family fish consumption and children's hair Hg (HHg) (Spearman r = 0.1756; p < 0.0001) but no significant correlation between children's HHg and W/H-Z scores. However, the multivariate model showed that breastfeeding, a fish consumption biomarker (HHg), maternal education, and child's age were statistically significant associated with specific domains (language and personal-social) of the Gesell scale. In this mining environment, family fish-eating did not affect children's linear growth, but it showed a positive influence (along with maternal variables) on neurodevelopment. Health hazards attendant on a high prevalence of moderate

  19. 77 FR 66834 - Pesticide Emergency Exemptions; Agency Decisions and State and Federal Agency Crisis Declarations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... and Federal agencies. The emergency exemptions may take the following form: Crisis, public health... AGENCY Pesticide Emergency Exemptions; Agency Decisions and State and Federal Agency Crisis Declarations.... ``Quarantine'' and ``public health'' exemptions are emergency exemptions issued for quarantine or public...

  20. The role and value of conservation agency research.

    PubMed

    Roux, Dirk J; Kingsford, Richard T; McCool, Stephen F; McGeoch, Melodie A; Foxcroft, Llewellyn C

    2015-06-01

    Governments charge their conservation agencies to safeguard biodiversity through protected areas and threat mitigation. Increasingly, conservation management and policy need to be supported by rigorous evidence provided by science. As such, institutional arrangements should consider and enable effective scientific research and information dissemination. What role can in-house agency research play in responding to this challenge? We examined the research capabilities of three conservation agencies from Australia, South Africa, and United States. Seven indicators were used to characterize the reliability and relevance of agency research. We found similarities among agencies in their patterns of peer-reviewed publication, cultures of research collaboration, and tendencies to align research with organizational objectives. Among the many and diverse activities that constitute the role of a contemporary agency researcher, we emphasize two key research dimensions: reliability, achieved through peer-reviewed research output, and relevance, achieved through active stakeholder engagement. Amid increasingly challenging realities for conservation of ecosystems, agency science functions are vital to providing the evidence base required for effective management and policy development.