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Sample records for aging brain care

  1. Response to depression treatment in the Aging Brain Care Medical Home model

    PubMed Central

    LaMantia, Michael A; Perkins, Anthony J; Gao, Sujuan; Austrom, Mary G; Alder, Cathy A; French, Dustin D; Litzelman, Debra K; Cottingham, Ann H; Boustani, Malaz A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of the Aging Brain Care (ABC) Medical Home program’s depression module on patients’ depression severity measurement over time. Design Retrospective chart review. Setting Public hospital system. Participants Patients enrolled in the ABC Medical Home program between October 1, 2012 and March 31, 2014. Methods The response of 773 enrolled patients who had multiple patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scores recorded in the ABC Medical Home program’s depression care protocol was evaluated. Repeatedly measured PHQ-9 change scores were the dependent variables in the mixed effects models, and demographic and comorbid medical conditions were tested as potential independent variables while including random effects for time and intercept. Results Among those patients with baseline PHQ-9 scores >10, there was a significant decrease in PHQ-9 scores over time (P<0.001); however, the effect differed by gender (P=0.015). On average, women’s scores (4.5 point drop at 1 month) improved faster than men’s scores (1 point drop at 1 month). Moreover, both men and women had a predicted drop of 7 points (>50% decline from baseline) on the PHQ-9 at 6 months. Conclusion These analyses demonstrate evidence for the sustained effectiveness of the ABC Medical Home program at inducing depression remission outcomes while employing clinical staff who required less formal training than earlier clinical trials. PMID:27826188

  2. Skin Care and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Skin Care and Aging How Aging Affects Skin Your skin changes with age. It becomes thinner, ... to make it feel and look better. Dry Skin and Itching Click for more information Many older ...

  3. Putting the 'care' back into aged care.

    PubMed

    Beadnell, Cathy

    2006-04-01

    Aged care is well and truly back on the political agenda in Australia. While the mainstream media has recently exposed a number of horrific cases of alleged abuse in aged care facilities it has done little to highlight the failings of social policy over time or to foster debate on how to improve the care of older Australians. What are the barriers to providing safe and quality aged care to a growing number of our citizens and how do we overcome them? If you relied on the recent media coverage for your impression of aged care you could be forgiven for thinking it is all bad news. But there are facilities providing high quality care and stories of nurses working wonders in the face of adversity. Cathy Beadnell considers some of the broader cultural and workforce issues in aged care.

  4. Nutrients, Microglia Aging, and Brain Aging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhou; Yu, Janchun; Zhu, Aiqin; Nakanishi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    As the life expectancy continues to increase, the cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) becomes a big major issue in the world. After cellular activation upon systemic inflammation, microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, start to release proinflammatory mediators to trigger neuroinflammation. We have found that chronic systemic inflammatory challenges induce differential age-dependent microglial responses, which are in line with the impairment of learning and memory, even in middle-aged animals. We thus raise the concept of "microglia aging." This concept is based on the fact that microglia are the key contributor to the acceleration of cognitive decline, which is the major sign of brain aging. On the other hand, inflammation induces oxidative stress and DNA damage, which leads to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species by the numerous types of cells, including macrophages and microglia. Oxidative stress-damaged cells successively produce larger amounts of inflammatory mediators to promote microglia aging. Nutrients are necessary for maintaining general health, including the health of brain. The intake of antioxidant nutrients reduces both systemic inflammation and neuroinflammation and thus reduces cognitive decline during aging. We herein review our microglia aging concept and discuss systemic inflammation and microglia aging. We propose that a nutritional approach to controlling microglia aging will open a new window for healthy brain aging.

  5. Nutrients, Microglia Aging, and Brain Aging

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhou; Yu, Janchun; Zhu, Aiqin; Nakanishi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    As the life expectancy continues to increase, the cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) becomes a big major issue in the world. After cellular activation upon systemic inflammation, microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, start to release proinflammatory mediators to trigger neuroinflammation. We have found that chronic systemic inflammatory challenges induce differential age-dependent microglial responses, which are in line with the impairment of learning and memory, even in middle-aged animals. We thus raise the concept of “microglia aging.” This concept is based on the fact that microglia are the key contributor to the acceleration of cognitive decline, which is the major sign of brain aging. On the other hand, inflammation induces oxidative stress and DNA damage, which leads to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species by the numerous types of cells, including macrophages and microglia. Oxidative stress-damaged cells successively produce larger amounts of inflammatory mediators to promote microglia aging. Nutrients are necessary for maintaining general health, including the health of brain. The intake of antioxidant nutrients reduces both systemic inflammation and neuroinflammation and thus reduces cognitive decline during aging. We herein review our microglia aging concept and discuss systemic inflammation and microglia aging. We propose that a nutritional approach to controlling microglia aging will open a new window for healthy brain aging. PMID:26941889

  6. Ageing, neurodegeneration and brain rejuvenation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Although systemic diseases take the biggest toll on human health and well-being, increasingly, a failing brain is the arbiter of a death preceded by a gradual loss of the essence of being. Ageing, which is fundamental to neurodegeneration and dementia, affects every organ in the body and seems to be encoded partly in a blood-based signature. Indeed, factors in the circulation have been shown to modulate ageing and to rejuvenate numerous organs, including the brain. The discovery of such factors, the identification of their origins and a deeper understanding of their functions is ushering in a new era in ageing and dementia research. PMID:27830812

  7. Brain trace elements and aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebbrecht, Geert; Maenhaut, Willy; Reuck, Jacques De

    1999-04-01

    Degenerative mechanisms involved in the aging process of the brain are to a certain extent counteracted by repair mechanisms. In both degenerative and recovery processes, trace elements are involved. The present study focused on the role of two minor (i.e., K and Ca) and six trace elements (i.e., Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se and Rb) in the aging process. The elements were determined by PIXE in cerebral cortex and white matter, basal ganglia, brainstem and cerebellar cortex of 18 postmortem human brains, from persons without a history of neurologic or psychiatric disease who deceased between the age of 7 and 79. This age range allowed us to study the relationship between elemental concentrations and age. The most prominent findings were a concentration decrease for K and Rb and a concentration increase for the elements Ca, Fe, Zn and Se. The study supports recent findings that Ca and Fe are involved in brain degenerative processes initiated by oxygen free radicals, whereas Zn and Se are involved in immunological reactions counteracting the aging process.

  8. Aging and functional brain networks

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasi D.; Tomasi, D.; Volkow, N.D.

    2011-07-11

    Aging is associated with changes in human brain anatomy and function and cognitive decline. Recent studies suggest the aging decline of major functional connectivity hubs in the 'default-mode' network (DMN). Aging effects on other networks, however, are largely unknown. We hypothesized that aging would be associated with a decline of short- and long-range functional connectivity density (FCD) hubs in the DMN. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated resting-state data sets corresponding to 913 healthy subjects from a public magnetic resonance imaging database using functional connectivity density mapping (FCDM), a voxelwise and data-driven approach, together with parallel computing. Aging was associated with pronounced long-range FCD decreases in DMN and dorsal attention network (DAN) and with increases in somatosensory and subcortical networks. Aging effects in these networks were stronger for long-range than for short-range FCD and were also detected at the level of the main functional hubs. Females had higher short- and long-range FCD in DMN and lower FCD in the somatosensory network than males, but the gender by age interaction effects were not significant for any of the networks or hubs. These findings suggest that long-range connections may be more vulnerable to aging effects than short-range connections and that, in addition to the DMN, the DAN is also sensitive to aging effects, which could underlie the deterioration of attention processes that occurs with aging.

  9. Space age health care delivery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    Space age health care delivery is being delivered to both NASA astronauts and employees with primary emphasis on preventive medicine. The program relies heavily on comprehensive health physical exams, health education, screening programs and physical fitness programs. Medical data from the program is stored in a computer bank so epidemiological significance can be established and better procedures can be obtained. Besides health care delivery to the NASA population, NASA is working with HEW on a telemedicine project STARPAHC, applying space technology to provide health care delivery to remotely located populations.

  10. Staying Socially Active Nourishes the Aging Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_163679.html Staying Socially Active Nourishes the Aging Brain Researchers suggest making friends of all ages ... and Human Services. More Health News on: Healthy Aging Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Healthy ...

  11. Healthy Aging: Paying for Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... This information in Spanish ( en español ) Paying for health care More information on paying for health care Better ... Coping without insurance More information on paying for health care Explore other publications and websites Age Page: Choosing ...

  12. Brain Tissue Oxygen Monitoring in Neurocritical Care.

    PubMed

    De Georgia, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    Brain injury results from ischemia, tissue hypoxia, and a cascade of secondary events. The cornerstone of neurocritical care management is optimization and maintenance of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygen and substrate delivery to prevent or attenuate this secondary damage. New techniques for monitoring brain tissue oxygen tension (PtiO2) are now available. Brain PtiO2 reflects both oxygen delivery and consumption. Brain hypoxia (low brain PtiO2) has been associated with poor outcomes in patients with brain injury. Strategies to improve brain PtiO2 have focused mainly on increasing oxygen delivery either by increasing CBF or by increasing arterial oxygen content. The results of nonrandomized studies comparing brain PtiO2-guided therapy with intracranial pressure/cerebral perfusion pressure-guided therapy, while promising, have been mixed. More studies are needed including prospective, randomized controlled trials to assess the true value of this approach. The following is a review of the physiology of brain tissue oxygenation, the effect of brain hypoxia on outcome, strategies to increase oxygen delivery, and outcome studies of brain PtiO2-guided therapy in neurocritical care.

  13. NIH Conference. Brain imaging: aging and dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, N.R.; Duara, R.; Creasey, H.; Grady, C.L.; Haxby, J.V.; Schapiro, M.B.; Rapoport, S.I.

    1984-09-01

    The brain imaging techniques of positron emission tomography using (18F)-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose, and computed tomography, together with neuropsychological tests, were used to examine overall brain function and anatomy in three study populations: healthy men at different ages, patients with presumptive Alzheimer's disease, and adults with Down's syndrome. Brain glucose use did not differ with age, whereas an age-related decrement in gray matter volume was found on computed tomographic assessment in healthy subjects. Memory deficits were found to precede significant reductions in brain glucose utilization in mild to moderate Alzheimer's dementia. Furthermore, differences between language and visuoconstructive impairments in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease were related to hemispheric asymmetry of brain metabolism. Brain glucose utilization was found to be significantly elevated in young adults with Down's syndrome, compared with controls. The importance of establishing strict criteria for selecting control subjects and patients is explained in relation to the findings.

  14. Cellular senescence and the aging brain

    PubMed Central

    Chinta, Shankar J.; Woods, Georgia; Rane, Anand; Demaria, Marco; Campisi, Judith; Andersen, Julie K

    2014-01-01

    Cellular senescence is a potent anti-cancer mechanism that arrests the proliferation of mitotically competent cells to prevent malignant transformation. Senescent cells accumulate with age in a variety of human and mouse tissues where they express a complex ‘senescence-associated secretory phenotype’ (SASP). The SASP includes many pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and proteases that have the potential to cause or exacerbate age-related pathology, both degenerative and hyperplastic. While cellular senescence in peripheral tissues has recently been linked to a number of age-related pathologies, its involvement in brain aging is just beginning to be explored. Recent data generated by several laboratories suggest both aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases are accompanied by an increase in SASP-expressing senescent cells of non-neuronal origin in the brain. Moreover, this increase correlates with neurodegeneration. Senescent cells in the brain could therefore constitute novel therapeutic targets for treating age-related neuropathologies. PMID:25281806

  15. Structural Imaging Measures of Brain Aging

    PubMed Central

    Lockhart, Samuel N.

    2014-01-01

    During the course of normal aging, biological changes occur in the brain that are associated with changes in cognitive ability. This review presents data from neuroimaging studies of primarily “normal” or healthy brain aging. As such, we focus on research in unimpaired or nondemented older adults, but also include findings from lifespan studies that include younger and middle aged individuals as well as from populations with prodromal or clinically symptomatic disease such as cerebrovascular or Alzheimer’s disease. This review predominantly addresses structural MRI biomarkers, such as volumetric or thickness measures from anatomical images, and measures of white matter injury and integrity respectively from FLAIR or DTI, and includes complementary data from PET and cognitive or clinical testing as appropriate. The findings reveal highly consistent age-related differences in brain structure, particularly frontal lobe and medial temporal regions that are also accompanied by age-related differences in frontal and medial temporal lobe mediated cognitive abilities. Newer findings also suggest that degeneration of specific white matter tracts such as those passing through the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum may also be related to age-related differences in cognitive performance. Interpretation of these findings, however, must be tempered by the fact that comorbid diseases such as cerebrovascular and Alzheimer’s disease also increase in prevalence with advancing age. As such, this review discusses challenges related to interpretation of current theories of cognitive aging in light of the common occurrence of these later-life diseases. Understanding the differences between “Normal” and “Healthy” brain aging and identifying potential modifiable risk factors for brain aging is critical to inform potential treatments to stall or reverse the effects of brain aging and possibly extend cognitive health for our aging society. PMID:25146995

  16. Aging-associated changes in human brain.

    PubMed

    Mrak, R E; Griffin, S T; Graham, D I

    1997-12-01

    A wide variety of anatomic and histological alterations are common in brains of aged individuals. However, identification of intrinsic aging changes--as distinct from changes resulting from cumulative environmental insult--is problematic. Some degree of neuronal and volume loss would appear to be inevitable, but recent studies have suggested that the magnitudes of such changes are much less than previously thought, and studies of dendritic complexity in cognitively intact individuals suggest continuing neuronal plasticity into the eighth decade. A number of vascular changes become more frequent with age, many attributable to systemic conditions such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. Age-associated vascular changes not clearly linked to such conditions include hyaline arteriosclerotic changes with formation of arterial tortuosities in small intracranial vessels and the radiographic changes in deep cerebral white matter known as "leukoaraiosis." Aging is accompanied by increases in glial cell activation, in oxidative damage to proteins and lipids, in irreversible protein glycation, and in damage to DNA, and such changes may underlie in part the age-associated increasing incidence of "degenerative" conditions such as Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease. A small number of histological changes appear to be universal in aged human brains. These include increasing numbers of corpora amylacea within astrocytic processes near blood-brain or cerebrospinal fluid-brain interfaces, accumulation of the "aging" pigment lipofuscin in all brain regions, and appearance of Alzheimer-type neurofibrillary tangles (but not necessarily amyloid plaques) in mesial temporal structures.

  17. Providing and financing aged care in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Ergas, Henry; Paolucci, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the provision and financing of aged care in Australia. Demand for aged care will increase substantially as a result of population aging, with the number of Australians aged 85 and over projected to increase from 400,000 in 2010 to over 1.8 million in 2051. Meeting this demand will greatly strain the current system, and makes it important to exploit opportunities for increased efficiency. A move to greater beneficiary co-payments is also likely, though its extent may depend on whether aged care insurance and other forms of pre-payment can develop. PMID:22312229

  18. Apoptosis in the aged dog brain.

    PubMed

    Kiatipattanasakul, W; Nakamura, S; Hossain, M M; Nakayama, H; Uchino, T; Shumiya, S; Goto, N; Doi, K

    1996-09-01

    Apoptosis similar to that seen in Alzheimer's disease patients was found in the brain of aged dogs by the TUNEL method of detecting in situ DNA fragmentation. Apoptosis was observed in both neurons and glial cells, and was morphologically characterized by round and swollen cytoplasm and aggregated nuclear chromatin, although these changes were slight. Neurons and astrocytes in the gray matter and oligodendrocytes in the white matter were affected. The number of ApopTag-positive brain cells increased slightly with age, but was not correlated to the number of senile plaques. A good correlation between the number of ApopTag-positive cells and the dementia index was clearly found. The present study indicates that brain cell apoptosis could account for dementia in aged dogs and suggested that aged dogs may be useful as a simplified animal model for Alzheimer's disease in man.

  19. Health care of youth aging out of foster care.

    PubMed

    2012-12-01

    Youth transitioning out of foster care face significant medical and mental health care needs. Unfortunately, these youth rarely receive the services they need because of lack of health insurance. Through many policies and programs, the federal government has taken steps to support older youth in foster care and those aging out. The Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act of 2008 (Pub L No. 110-354) requires states to work with youth to develop a transition plan that addresses issues such as health insurance. In addition, beginning in 2014, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (Pub L No. 111-148) makes youth aging out of foster care eligible for Medicaid coverage until age 26 years, regardless of income. Pediatricians can support youth aging out of foster care by working collaboratively with the child welfare agency in their state to ensure that the ongoing health needs of transitioning youth are met.

  20. Metabolic drift in the aging brain

    PubMed Central

    Ivanisevic, Julijana; Stauch, Kelly L.; Petrascheck, Michael; Benton, H. Paul; Epstein, Adrian A.; Fang, Mingliang; Gorantla, Santhi; Tran, Minerva; Hoang, Linh; Kurczy, Michael E.; Boska, Michael D.; Gendelman, Howard E.; Fox, Howard S.; Siuzdak, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Brain function is highly dependent upon controlled energy metabolism whose loss heralds cognitive impairments. This is particularly notable in the aged individuals and in age-related neurodegenerative diseases. However, how metabolic homeostasis is disrupted in the aging brain is still poorly understood. Here we performed global, metabolomic and proteomic analyses across different anatomical regions of mouse brain at different stages of its adult lifespan. Interestingly, while severe proteomic imbalance was absent, global-untargeted metabolomics revealed an energy metabolic drift or significant imbalance in core metabolite levels in aged mouse brains. Metabolic imbalance was characterized by compromised cellular energy status (NAD decline, increased AMP/ATP, purine/pyrimidine accumulation) and significantly altered oxidative phosphorylation and nucleotide biosynthesis and degradation. The central energy metabolic drift suggests a failure of the cellular machinery to restore metabostasis (metabolite homeostasis) in the aged brain and therefore an inability to respond properly to external stimuli, likely driving the alterations in signaling activity and thus in neuronal function and communication. PMID:27182841

  1. Day Care for School-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diffendal, Elizabeth

    This booklet examines four aspects of day care services for school-age children: (1) national availability and trends, (2) parents' views, (3) program planning, and (4) recommended program models. A nationwide survey of 58 day care programs enrolling school-age children was conducted, and the general findings are presented. Information on parents'…

  2. [Glial activation and brain aging].

    PubMed

    Sugaya, K

    2001-10-01

    While basal forebrain cholinergic neurons degenerate in aging and Alzheimer's disease, the cholinergic groups of the upper brainstem are preserved. Since the brainstem reticular-like cholinergic neurons differ from the rostral cholinergic phenotype by their high expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) mRNA, we hypothesized that they contain biochemical mechanisms to protect themselves against self-induced damage by nitric oxide (NO). Our initial question was a source of the NO during the aging process. We found a significant correlation between cognitive function and markers for glial activation and oxidative stress using aged rats. This result indicates that oxidative stress accompanied by glial activation may be occurred in the cognitively impaired animals. We also found mitochondrial DNA (mDNA) was significantly damaged in these animals, while accumulation of oxidative damage was not evident in other molecules. Therefore, oxidative damage to the mDNA by glial activation may occur in the cells having poor protection against oxidative stress during aging. Then the dysfunction of mitochondria, induced by the mDNA damage, may induce cell death as well as produce another oxidative stress to cause neuronal damage. The damaged neurons induce further glial activation and such self-accelerated immune-like response results in progressive neurodegeneration.

  3. Light-sensitive brain pathways and aging.

    PubMed

    Daneault, V; Dumont, M; Massé, É; Vandewalle, G; Carrier, J

    2016-03-15

    Notwithstanding its effects on the classical visual system allowing image formation, light acts upon several non-image-forming (NIF) functions including body temperature, hormonal secretions, sleep-wake cycle, alertness, and cognitive performance. Studies have shown that NIF functions are maximally sensitive to blue wavelengths (460-480 nm), in comparison to longer light wavelengths. Higher blue light sensitivity has been reported for melatonin suppression, pupillary constriction, vigilance, and performance improvement but also for modulation of cognitive brain functions. Studies investigating acute stimulating effects of light on brain activity during the execution of cognitive tasks have suggested that brain activations progress from subcortical regions involved in alertness, such as the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the brainstem, before reaching cortical regions associated with the ongoing task. In the course of aging, lower blue light sensitivity of some NIF functions has been reported. Here, we first describe neural pathways underlying effects of light on NIF functions and we discuss eye and cerebral mechanisms associated with aging which may affect NIF light sensitivity. Thereafter, we report results of investigations on pupillary constriction and cognitive brain sensitivity to light in the course of aging. Whereas the impact of light on cognitive brain responses appears to decrease substantially, pupillary constriction seems to remain more intact over the lifespan. Altogether, these results demonstrate that aging research should take into account the diversity of the pathways underlying the effects of light on specific NIF functions which may explain their differences in light sensitivity.

  4. Primary Care Clinician Expectations Regarding Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Melinda M.; Bond, Lynne A.; Howard, Alan; Sarkisian, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Expectations regarding aging (ERA) in community-dwelling older adults are associated with personal health behaviors and health resource usage. Clinicians' age expectations likely influence patients' expectations and care delivery patterns; yet, limited research has explored clinicians' age expectations. The Expectations Regarding Aging…

  5. Genomic integrity and the ageing brain.

    PubMed

    Chow, Hei-man; Herrup, Karl

    2015-11-01

    DNA damage is correlated with and may drive the ageing process. Neurons in the brain are postmitotic and are excluded from many forms of DNA repair; therefore, neurons are vulnerable to various neurodegenerative diseases. The challenges facing the field are to understand how and when neuronal DNA damage accumulates, how this loss of genomic integrity might serve as a 'time keeper' of nerve cell ageing and why this process manifests itself as different diseases in different individuals.

  6. Two hands, one brain, and aging.

    PubMed

    Maes, Celine; Gooijers, Jolien; Orban de Xivry, Jean-Jacques; Swinnen, Stephan P; Boisgontier, Matthieu P

    2017-02-08

    Many activities of daily living require moving both hands in an organized manner in space and time. Therefore, understanding the impact of aging on bimanual coordination is essential for prolonging functional independence and well-being in older adults. Here we investigated the behavioral and neural determinants of bimanual coordination in aging. The studies surveyed in this review reveal that aging is associated with cortical hyper-activity (but also subcortical hypo-activity) during performance of bimanual tasks. In addition to changes in activation in local areas, the interaction between distributed brain areas also exhibits age-related effects, i.e., functional connectivity is increased in the resting brain as well as during task performance. The mechanisms and triggers underlying these functional activation and connectivity changes remain to be investigated. This requires further research investment into the detailed study of interactions between brain structure, function and connectivity. This will also provide the foundation for interventional research programs towards preservation of brain health and behavioral performance by maximizing neuroplasticity potential in older adults.

  7. Literacy in the World of the Aged Care Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Linda; Casarotto, Nadia

    Australia's Aged Care Act of 1997 mandates a number of key reforms aimed at ensuring consistency in the quality of care and well-being for all residents of aged care facilities. The law required residential aged care facilities to provide high-quality care within a framework of continuous improvement which requires aged care workers to perform the…

  8. Critical care management of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Menon, D K; Ercole, A

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a growing global problem, which is responsible for a substantial burden of disability and death, and which generates substantial healthcare costs. High-quality intensive care can save lives and improve the quality of outcome. TBI is extremely heterogeneous in terms of clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and outcome. Current approaches to the critical care management of TBI are not underpinned by high-quality evidence, and many of the current therapies in use have not shown benefit in randomized control trials. However, observational studies have informed the development of authoritative international guidelines, and the use of multimodality monitoring may facilitate rational approaches to optimizing acute physiology, allowing clinicians to optimize the balance between benefit and risk from these interventions in individual patients. Such approaches, along with the emerging impact of advanced neuroimaging, genomics, and protein biomarkers, could lead to the development of precision medicine approaches to the intensive care management of TBI.

  9. Brain metabolism and blood flow during aging.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, B

    1987-01-01

    Recent studies of cerebral metabolism have suggested that although cerebral blood flow is reduced during rest in the healthy aged brain, there is little or no decline in resting glucose consumption. Intercorrelations between resting regional cerebral rates for glucose (rCMRglc), as determined by positron emission tomography using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose, were shown to provide a measure of the functional associativity of brain regions. Partial correlation coefficients, controlling for whole brain glucose metabolism, were used in the analysis. Dividing the brain into 59 regions, we found, for 40 healthy males (21-83 years in age) in a state of reduced sensory input, that the strongest correlations generally were between bilaterally symmetric brain regions, and that there were many statistically significant correlations (P less than 0.01) among frontal and parietal lobe regions and also among temporal and occipital lobe areas, but few significant correlations between these two domains. The correlation analysis then was applied to two groups (15 healthy males each) of young (20-32 years old) and elderly (64-83 years old) subjects in the same resting state. Compared with the young group, we found that the elderly subjects have fewer statistically significant (P less than 0.01) correlations, with the most noteworthy reductions being between parietal and frontal lobe regions, and among parietal lobe areas. These findings indicated that cerebral functional interactions were reduced in the healthy elderly. The same analysis, applied to 21 mainly mildly-to-moderately impaired presumed Alzheimer subjects (and 21 age-matched controls), revealed fewer significant correlations between homologous brain regions which correspond to metabolic asymmetries linked to neuropsychological deficiencies.

  10. Brain pathologies in extreme old age

    PubMed Central

    Neltner, Janna H.; Abner, Erin L.; Jicha, Gregory A.; Schmitt, Frederick A.; Patel, Ela; Poon, Leonard W.; Gearing, Marla; Green, Robert C.; Davey, Adam; Johnson, Mary Ann; Jazwinski, S. Michal; Kim, Sangkyu; Davis, Daron; Woodard, John L.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Van Eldik, Linda J.; Nelson, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    With an emphasis on evolving concepts in the field, we evaluated neuropathologic data from very old research volunteers whose brain autopsies were performed at University of Kentucky (UK-ADC), incorporating data from the Georgia Centenarian Study (N=49 cases included), the Nun Study (N=17), and UK-ADC (N=11) cohorts. Average age of death was 102.0 years (range: 98–107) overall. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology was not universal (62% with “moderate” or “frequent” neuritic amyloid plaque densities) whereas frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) was absent. By contrast, some hippocampal neurofibrillary tangles (including primary age-related tauopathy [PART]) were observed in every case. Lewy body pathology was seen in 16.9% of subjects, hippocampal sclerosis of aging (HS-Aging) in 20.8%. We describe anatomical distributions of pigment-laden macrophages, expanded Virchow-Robin spaces, and arteriolosclerosis among Georgia Centenarians. Moderate or severe arteriolosclerosis pathology, throughout the brain, was associated with both HS-Aging pathology and an ABCC9 gene variant. These results provide fresh insights into the complex cerebral multimorbidity, and a novel genetic risk factor, at the far end of the human aging spectrum. PMID:26597697

  11. The economics of caring for the aged.

    PubMed

    Schapera, R

    1977-03-26

    Certain aspects of the economics of caring for the aged in South Africa are considered. The few years before an accelerated growth rate of the population in South Africa takes place should be used to prepare the economic and other resources of the country. The increasing per capita income of the non-White population should supply the resources to meet the needs of its aged. The use of various accommodations facilities is reviewed. Guidance of medical and paramedical experts, who are specially trained to care for the aged, is needed.

  12. [Health care expenditures and the aging population].

    PubMed

    Felder, S

    2012-05-01

    The impact of a longer life on future health care expenditures will be quite moderate because of the high costs of dying and the compression of mortality in old age. If not age per se but proximity to death determines the bulk of expenditures, a shift in the mortality risk to higher ages will not significantly affect lifetime health care expenditures, as death occurs only once in every life. A calculation of the demographic effect on health care expenditures in Germany up until 2050 that explicitly accounts for costs in the last years of life leads to a significantly lower demographic impact on per-capita expenditures than a calculation based on crude age-specific health expenditures.

  13. Berry fruit supplementation and the aging brain.

    PubMed

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Lau, Francis C; Joseph, James A

    2008-02-13

    The onset of age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease, superimposed on a declining nervous system, could exacerbate the motor and cognitive behavioral deficits that normally occur in senescence. In cases of severe deficits in memory or motor function, hospitalization and/or custodial care would be a likely outcome. This means that unless some way is found to reduce these age-related decrements in neuronal function, health-care costs will continue to rise exponentially. Thus, it is extremely important to explore methods to retard or reverse age-related neuronal deficits, as well as their subsequent behavioral manifestations, to increase healthy aging. In this regard, consumption of diets rich in antioxidants and anti-inflammatory polyphenolics, such as those found in fruits and vegetables, may lower the risk of developing age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Research suggests that the polyphenolic compounds found in berry fruits, such as blueberries and strawberries, may exert their beneficial effects either through their ability to lower oxidative stress and inflammation or directly by altering the signaling involved in neuronal communication, calcium buffering ability, neuroprotective stress shock proteins, plasticity, and stress signaling pathways. These interventions, in turn, may exert protection against age-related deficits in cognitive and motor function. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the benefits of these interventions in rodent models and to describe the putative molecular mechanisms involved in their benefits.

  14. The emotion paradox in the aging brain

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Mara

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews age differences in emotion processing and how they may relate to age-related changes in the brain. Compared with younger adults, older adults react less to negative situations, ignore irrelevant negative stimuli better, and remember relatively more positive than negative information. Older adults’ ability to insulate their thoughts and emotional reactions from negative situations is likely due to a number of factors, such as being less influenced by interoceptive cues, selecting different emotion regulation strategies, having less age-related decline in prefrontal regions associated with emotional control than in other prefrontal regions, and engaging in emotion regulation strategies as a default mode in their everyday lives. Healthy older adults’ avoidance of processing negative stimuli may contribute to their well-maintained emotional well-being. However, when cardiovascular disease leads to additional prefrontal white matter damage, older adults have fewer cognitive control mechanisms available to regulate their emotions, making them more vulnerable to depression. In general, while age-related changes in the brain help shape emotional experience, shifts in preferred strategies and goal priorities are also important influences. PMID:22409159

  15. Increased brain-predicted aging in treated HIV disease

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Jonathan; Caan, Matthan W.A.; De Francesco, Davide; van Zoest, Rosan A.; Leech, Robert; Wit, Ferdinand W.N.M.; Portegies, Peter; Geurtsen, Gert J.; Schmand, Ben A.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Franceschi, Claudio; Sabin, Caroline A.; Majoie, Charles B.L.M.; Winston, Alan; Reiss, Peter; Sharp, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To establish whether HIV disease is associated with abnormal levels of age-related brain atrophy, by estimating apparent brain age using neuroimaging and exploring whether these estimates related to HIV status, age, cognitive performance, and HIV-related clinical parameters. Methods: A large sample of virologically suppressed HIV-positive adults (n = 162, age 45–82 years) and highly comparable HIV-negative controls (n = 105) were recruited as part of the Comorbidity in Relation to AIDS (COBRA) collaboration. Using T1-weighted MRI scans, a machine-learning model of healthy brain aging was defined in an independent cohort (n = 2,001, aged 18–90 years). Neuroimaging data from HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals were then used to estimate brain-predicted age; then brain-predicted age difference (brain-PAD = brain-predicted brain age − chronological age) scores were calculated. Neuropsychological and clinical assessments were also carried out. Results: HIV-positive individuals had greater brain-PAD score (mean ± SD 2.15 ± 7.79 years) compared to HIV-negative individuals (−0.87 ± 8.40 years; b = 3.48, p < 0.01). Increased brain-PAD score was associated with decreased performance in multiple cognitive domains (information processing speed, executive function, memory) and general cognitive performance across all participants. Brain-PAD score was not associated with age, duration of HIV infection, or other HIV-related measures. Conclusion: Increased apparent brain aging, predicted using neuroimaging, was observed in HIV-positive adults, despite effective viral suppression. Furthermore, the magnitude of increased apparent brain aging related to cognitive deficits. However, predicted brain age difference did not correlate with chronological age or duration of HIV infection, suggesting that HIV disease may accentuate rather than accelerate brain aging. PMID:28258081

  16. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How do health care providers diagnose traumatic brain injury (TBI)? Skip sharing ... links Share this: Page Content To diagnose TBI, health care providers may use one or more tests that ...

  17. Harvard Aging Brain Study: Dataset and accessibility.

    PubMed

    Dagley, Alexander; LaPoint, Molly; Huijbers, Willem; Hedden, Trey; McLaren, Donald G; Chatwal, Jasmeer P; Papp, Kathryn V; Amariglio, Rebecca E; Blacker, Deborah; Rentz, Dorene M; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A; Schultz, Aaron P

    2017-01-01

    The Harvard Aging Brain Study is sharing its data with the global research community. The longitudinal dataset consists of a 284-subject cohort with the following modalities acquired: demographics, clinical assessment, comprehensive neuropsychological testing, clinical biomarkers, and neuroimaging. To promote more extensive analyses, imaging data was designed to be compatible with other publicly available datasets. A cloud-based system enables access to interested researchers with blinded data available contingent upon completion of a data usage agreement and administrative approval. Data collection is ongoing and currently in its fifth year.

  18. Supporting Children's Transition to School Age Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockett, Sue; Perry, Bob

    2016-01-01

    While a great deal of research has focused on children's experiences as they start school, less attention has been directed to their experiences--and those of their families and educators--as they start school age care. This paper draws from a recent research project investigating practices that promote positive transitions to school and school…

  19. Montefiore-Einstein Center for the Aging Brain: Preliminary Data.

    PubMed

    Verghese, Joe; Malik, Rubina; Zwerling, Jessica

    2016-11-01

    Given the multifaceted nature of dementia care management, an interdisciplinary comprehensive clinical approach is necessary. We describe our one-year experience with outpatient based dementia care at the Montefiore-Einstein Center for the Aging Brain (CAB) involving an multispecialty team of geriatricians, neurologists, and neuropsychologists, supported by geriatric psychiatrists, physiatrists, and social services. The goals of the CAB is to maximize dementia outcomes, including regular monitoring of patient's health and cognition, education and support to patients, their families and caregivers; initiation of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments as appropriate, and the facilitation of access to clinical trials. The CAB follows a consultative model where patients referred to the center receive a comprehensive three step evaluation and management plan from Geriatric, Neuropsychology and Neurology specialists that is shared with patient, caregivers and primary care physicians. Of the 366 patients seen for cognitive complaints in our first year, 71% were women with a mean age of 74 years. Self-identified ethnicity of patients included Caucasian (26%), African-American (25%), Hispanic (18%) and multiracial (5%). Common final diagnoses assigned at the CAB included mild cognitive impairment syndromes (31%), Alzheimer's disease (20%), mixed dementia (11%), vascular dementia (9%), Frontotemporal dementia (4%) and dementia with Lewy bodies (4%). Our one-year progress report indicates that an interdisciplinary clinical dementia care model is feasible in the outpatient setting as well as highly accepted by patients, caregivers and referring physicians.

  20. [Aging problem in the home hospice care].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Go; Yamagiwa, Tetsuya; Nakayama, Shinya; Ito, Satoko; Fukuda, Akiko; Shiotani, Tomohiro; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2012-12-01

    Home hospice care is not merely an extension of hospital-based medical care administered at the hospital, but refers to hospice care for patients with life-threatening diseases that can only be given at their homes. The rapid growth of the elderly population in Japan has led to not only the need for home hospice care, but also social problems such as living alone, living with only one elderly family member, and problems that are particularly acute in cancer patients with dementia. We analyzed data for 262 patients for whom home hospice care was provided by our clinic. Overall, elderly persons with dementia tended to request admission before death, but most elderly persons living alone preferred home hospice care. We found that 58% of the patients living with only one elderly family member requested admission before death, which was lower than the rate of the study group as a whole. We further performed an in-depth analysis of the current situation in order to improve home hospice care of terminally ill patients in Japan, focusing on problems related to the aging population.

  1. Social support, stress and the aging brain.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Stephanie M; Cheng, Yen-Pi; Fingerman, Karen L; Schnyer, David M

    2016-07-01

    Social support benefits health and well-being in older individuals, however the mechanism remains poorly understood. One proposal, the stress-buffering hypothesis states social support 'buffers' the effects of stress on health. Alternatively, the main effect hypothesis suggests social support independently promotes health. We examined the combined association of social support and stress on the aging brain. Forty healthy older adults completed stress questionnaires, a social network interview and structural MRI to investigate the amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex circuitry, which is implicated in social and emotional processing and negatively affected by stress. Social support was positively correlated with right medial prefrontal cortical thickness while amygdala volume was negatively associated with social support and positively related to stress. We examined whether the association between social support and amygdala volume varied across stress level. Stress and social support uniquely contribute to amygdala volume, which is consistent with the health benefits of social support being independent of stress.

  2. The Influence of the Brain on Overpopulation, Ageing and Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cape, Ronald D. T.

    1989-01-01

    With time, an increasing number in the world population is becoming old, and changes in the aging brain mean that a significant proportion of the aged are likely to be dependent on others. The devotion of resources to research into the aging brain could bring benefits far outweighing the investment. (Author/CW)

  3. Neuroethics in the Age of Brain Projects.

    PubMed

    Greely, Henry T; Ramos, Khara M; Grady, Christine

    2016-11-02

    Neuroscience advances have brought important ethical questions. The recent launch of two large brain projects, the United States BRAIN Initiative and the European Union Human Brain Project, should accelerate progress in understanding the brain. This article examines neuroethics in those two projects, as well as its exploration by other efforts.

  4. Acute care alternate-level-of-care days due to delayed discharge for traumatic and non-traumatic brain injuries.

    PubMed

    Amy, Chen; Zagorski, Brandon; Chan, Vincy; Parsons, Daria; Vander Laan, Rika; Colantonio, Angela

    2012-05-01

    Alternate-level-of-care (ALC) days represent hospital beds that are taken up by patients who would more appropriately be cared for in other settings. ALC days have been found to be costly and may result in worse functional outcomes, reduced motor skills and longer lengths of stay in rehabilitation. This study examines the factors that are associated with acute care ALC days among patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). We used the Discharge Abstract Database to identify patients with ABI using International Classification of Disease-10 codes. From fiscal years 2007/08 to 2009/10, 17.5% of patients with traumatic and 14% of patients with non-traumatic brain injury had at least one ALC day. Significant predictors include having a psychiatric co-morbidity, increasing age and length of stay in acute care. These findings can inform planning for care of people with ABI in a publicly funded healthcare system.

  5. Female brain size and parental care in carnivores.

    PubMed Central

    Gittleman, J L

    1994-01-01

    Comparative studies indicate that species differences in mammalian brain size relate to body size, ecology, and life-history traits. Previous analyses failed to show intrasexual or behavioral patterns of brain size in mammals. Across the terrestrial Carnivora, I find to the contrary. Differences in female, but not male, brain size associate with a fundamental ecological and evolutionary characteristic of female behavior. Other factors equal, females that provide the sole parental care have larger brains than those of biparental or communal species. For females, more parental investment accompanies larger brains. Future comparative studies of mammalian brain size must recognize that some patterns arise independently in the two sexes. PMID:8202515

  6. Creating Better School-Age Care Jobs: Model Work Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haack, Peggy

    Built on the premise that good school-age care jobs are the cornerstone of high-quality services for school-age youth and their families, this guide presents model work standards for school-age care providers. The guide begins with a description of the strengths and challenges of the school-age care profession. The model work standards are…

  7. A residential aged care end-of-life care pathway (RAC EoLCP) for Australian aged care facilities.

    PubMed

    Reymond, Liz; Israel, Fiona J; Charles, Margaret A

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to develop, implement and evaluate an end-of-life (terminal) care pathway and associated infrastructure suitable for Australian residential aged care facilities that improves resident and health system outcomes. The residential aged care end-of-life care pathway was developed by a multidisciplinary collaboration of government and non-government professionals and incorporated best clinical management for dying residents to guide care and increase palliative care capacity of generalist staff. Implementation included identifying and up-skilling Link Nurses to champion the pathway, networking facilities with specialist palliative care services, delivering education to generalists and commencing a Palliative Care Medication Imprest System in each facility. The primary outcome measure for evaluation was transfer to hospital; secondary measures included staff perceived changes in quality of palliative care provided and family satisfaction with care. Results indicated that the pathway, delivered within a care framework that guides provision of palliative care, resulted in improved resident outcomes and decreased inappropriate transfers to acute care settings.

  8. Aging. Aging-induced type I interferon response at the choroid plexus negatively affects brain function.

    PubMed

    Baruch, Kuti; Deczkowska, Aleksandra; David, Eyal; Castellano, Joseph M; Miller, Omer; Kertser, Alexander; Berkutzki, Tamara; Barnett-Itzhaki, Zohar; Bezalel, Dana; Wyss-Coray, Tony; Amit, Ido; Schwartz, Michal

    2014-10-03

    Aging-associated cognitive decline is affected by factors produced inside and outside the brain. By using multiorgan genome-wide analysis of aged mice, we found that the choroid plexus, an interface between the brain and the circulation, shows a type I interferon (IFN-I)-dependent gene expression profile that was also found in aged human brains. In aged mice, this response was induced by brain-derived signals, present in the cerebrospinal fluid. Blocking IFN-I signaling within the aged brain partially restored cognitive function and hippocampal neurogenesis and reestablished IFN-II-dependent choroid plexus activity, which is lost in aging. Our data identify a chronic aging-induced IFN-I signature, often associated with antiviral response, at the brain's choroid plexus and demonstrate its negative influence on brain function, thereby suggesting a target for ameliorating cognitive decline in aging.

  9. Age-and Brain Region-Specific Differences in Mitochondrial ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Mitochondria are central regulators of energy homeostasis and play a pivotal role in mechanisms of cellular senescence. The objective of the present study was to evaluate mitochondrial bio­-energetic parameters in five brain regions [brainstem (BS), frontal cortex (FC), cerebellum (CER), striatum (STR), hippocampus (HIP)] of four diverse age groups [1 Month (young), 4 Month (adult), 12 Month (middle-aged), 24 Month (old age)] to understand age-related differences in selected brain regions and their contribution to age-related chemical sensitivity. Mitochondrial bioenergetics parameters and enzyme activity were measured under identical conditions across multiple age groups and brain regions in Brown Norway rats (n = 5). The results indicate age- and brain region-specific patterns in mitochondrial functional endpoints. For example, an age-specific decline in ATP synthesis (State 111 respiration) was observed in BS and HIP. Similarly, the maximal respiratory capacities (State V1 and V2) showed age-specific declines in all brain regions examined (young > adult > middle-aged > old age). Amongst all regions, HIP had the greatest change in mitochondrial bioenergetics, showing declines in the 4, 12 and 24 Month age groups. Activities of mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) and electron transport chain (ETC) complexes I, II, and IV enzymes were also age- and brain-region specific. In general changes associated with age were more pronounced, with

  10. Want a Sharper Brain as You Age? Volunteer!

    MedlinePlus

    ... 162899.html Want a Sharper Brain as You Age? Volunteer! Study finds slight improvement in thinking and ... may have slightly sharper mental skills at the age of 50, a new study suggests. British researchers ...

  11. Day Care for School-Age Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unco, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This report provides some perspectives on existing school-age child care and proposes some alternative school-age care program models which maximize the use of community resources and, thus, reduce potentially high costs. Chapters One and Two examine the current school-age "child care" services both nationally and in Region X (Oregon, Washington…

  12. Regional brain monitoring in the neurocritical care unit.

    PubMed

    Frontera, Jennifer; Ziai, Wendy; O'Phelan, Kristine; Leroux, Peter D; Kirkpatrick, Peter J; Diringer, Michael N; Suarez, Jose I

    2015-06-01

    Regional multimodality monitoring has evolved over the last several years as a tool to understand the mechanisms of brain injury and brain function at the cellular level. Multimodality monitoring offers an important augmentation to the clinical exam and is especially useful in comatose neurocritical care patients. Cerebral microdialysis, brain tissue oxygen monitoring, and cerebral blood flow monitoring all offer insight into permutations in brain chemistry and function that occur in the context of brain injury. These tools may allow for development of individual therapeutic strategies that are mechanistically driven and goal-directed. We present a summary of the discussions that took place during the Second Neurocritical Care Research Conference regarding regional brain monitoring.

  13. Nursing care of the aging foot.

    PubMed

    Mitty, Ethel

    2009-01-01

    Feet are not necessarily the most attractive part of the body as it ages, and given the choice, most older adults would rather ignore them. In fact, many older adults cannot even see them, reach them, or care for them properly. And when they ache or look misshapen and oddly colored; well, that's just part of growing old, isn't it? The feet are important for weight bearing, balance, and mobility. Over an average life span, the feet are subject to considerable stress and trauma. Age-related changes of the foot predispose the older adult to discomfort if not pain, fungal infection, reduced range of motion, and itchy dry skin. More than three fourths of older adults (i.e., those age over 65 years) complain of foot pain that is associated with a significant foot problem and have evidence of arthritic changes on x-ray. Impaired ambulation can make the difference between independence versus dependency on others, engagement versus isolation. Assisted living is about choices. Being unable to get where one wants to go or do what one wants to do because of foot problems is a barrier to full enjoyment of the opportunities in assisted living communities. This article describes foot problems associated with aging, diabetes, nursing assessment of the feet, and nursing interventions in the service of accessing and optimizing choices for quality of life.

  14. The Potential for Bio-Mediators and Biomarkers in Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury and Neurocritical Care

    PubMed Central

    Kochanek, Patrick M.; Berger, Rachel P.; Fink, Ericka L.; Au, Alicia K.; Bayır, Hülya; Bell, Michael J.; Dixon, C. Edward; Clark, Robert S. B.

    2013-01-01

    The use of biomarkers of brain injury in pediatric neurocritical care has been explored for at least 15 years. Two general lines of research on biomarkers in pediatric brain injury have been pursued: (1) studies of “bio-mediators” in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of children after traumatic brain injury (TBI) to explore the components of the secondary injury cascades in an attempt to identify potential therapeutic targets and (2) studies of the release of structural proteins into the CSF, serum, or urine in order to diagnose, monitor, and/or prognosticate in patients with TBI or other pediatric neurocritical care conditions. Unique age-related differences in brain biology, disease processes, and clinical applications mandate the development and testing of brain injury bio-mediators and biomarkers specifically in pediatric neurocritical care applications. Finally, although much of the early work on biomarkers of brain injury in pediatrics has focused on TBI, new applications are emerging across a wide range of conditions specifically for pediatric neurocritical care including abusive head trauma, cardiopulmonary arrest, septic shock, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, hydrocephalus, and cardiac surgery. The potential scope of the utility of biomarkers in pediatric neurocritical care is thus also discussed. PMID:23637695

  15. The aging brain: the cognitive reserve hypothesis and hominid evolution.

    PubMed

    Allen, John S; Bruss, Joel; Damasio, Hanna

    2005-01-01

    Compared to other primates, humans live a long time and have large brains. Recent theories of the evolution of human life history stages (grandmother hypothesis, intergenerational transfer of information) lend credence to the notion that selection for increased life span and menopause has occurred in hominid evolution, despite the reduction in the force of natural selection operating on older, especially post-reproductive, individuals. Theories that posit the importance (in an inclusive fitness sense) of the survival of older individuals require them to maintain a reasonably high level of cognitive function (e.g., memory, communication). Patterns of brain aging and factors associated with healthy brain aging should be relevant to this issue. Recent neuroimaging research suggests that, in healthy aging, human brain volume (gray and white matter) is well-maintained until at least 60 years of age; cognitive function also shows only nonsignificant declines at this age. The maintenance of brain volume and cognitive performance is consistent with the idea of a significant post- or late-reproductive life history stage. A clinical model, "the cognitive reserve hypothesis," proposes that both increased brain volume and enhanced cognitive ability may contribute to healthy brain aging, reducing the likelihood of developing dementia. Selection for increased brain size and increased cognitive ability in hominid evolution may therefore have been important in selection for increased lifespan in the context of intergenerational social support networks.

  16. Plasticity of the aging brain: new directions in cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Gutchess, Angela

    2014-10-31

    Cognitive neuroscience has revealed aging of the human brain to be rich in reorganization and change. Neuroimaging results have recast our framework around cognitive aging from one of decline to one emphasizing plasticity. Current methods use neurostimulation approaches to manipulate brain function, providing a direct test of the ways that the brain differently contributes to task performance for younger and older adults. Emerging research into emotional, social, and motivational domains provides some evidence for preservation with age, suggesting potential avenues of plasticity, alongside additional evidence for reorganization. Thus, we begin to see that aging of the brain, amidst interrelated behavioral and biological changes, is as complex and idiosyncratic as the brain itself, qualitatively changing over the life span.

  17. Do glutathione levels decline in aging human brain?

    PubMed

    Tong, Junchao; Fitzmaurice, Paul S; Moszczynska, Anna; Mattina, Katie; Ang, Lee-Cyn; Boileau, Isabelle; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Sailasuta, Napapon; Kish, Stephen J

    2016-04-01

    For the past 60 years a major theory of "aging" is that age-related damage is largely caused by excessive uncompensated oxidative stress. The ubiquitous tripeptide glutathione is a major antioxidant defense mechanism against reactive free radicals and has also served as a marker of changes in oxidative stress. Some (albeit conflicting) animal data suggest a loss of glutathione in brain senescence, which might compromise the ability of the aging brain to meet the demands of oxidative stress. Our objective was to establish whether advancing age is associated with glutathione deficiency in human brain. We measured reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in multiple regions of autopsied brain of normal subjects (n=74) aged one day to 99 years. Brain GSH levels during the infancy/teenage years were generally similar to those in the oldest examined adult group (76-99 years). During adulthood (23-99 years) GSH levels remained either stable (occipital cortex) or increased (caudate nucleus, frontal and cerebellar cortices). To the extent that GSH levels represent glutathione antioxidant capacity, our postmortem data suggest that human brain aging is not associated with declining glutathione status. We suggest that aged healthy human brains can maintain antioxidant capacity related to glutathione and that an age-related increase in GSH levels in some brain regions might possibly be a compensatory response to increased oxidative stress. Since our findings, although suggestive, suffer from the generic limitations of all postmortem brain studies, we also suggest the need for "replication" investigations employing the new (1)H MRS imaging procedures in living human brain.

  18. Molecular aging of the brain, neuroplasticity, and vulnerability to depression and other brain-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Sibille, Etienne

    2013-03-01

    The increased risk for neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders associated with extended lifespan has long suggested mechanistic links between chronological age and brain-related disorders, including depression, Recent characterizations of age-dependent gene expression changes now show that aging of the human brain engages a specific set of biological pathways along a continuous lifelong trajectory, and that the same genes that are associated with normal brain aging are also frequently and similarly implicated in depression and other brain-related disorders. These correlative observations suggest a model of age-by-disease molecular interactions, in which brain aging promotes biological changes associated with diseases, and additional environmental factors and genetic variability contribute to defining disease risk or resiliency trajectories. Here we review the characteristic features of brain aging in terms of changes in gene function over time, and then focus on evidence supporting accelerated molecular aging in depression. This proposed age-by-disease biological interaction model addresses the current gap in research between "normal" brain aging and its connection to late-life diseases. The implications of this model are profound, as it provides an investigational framework for identifying critical moderating factors, outlines opportunities for early interventions or preventions, and may form the basis for a dimensional definition of diseases that goes beyond the current categorical system.

  19. Intentions to Quit Work among Care Staff Working in the Aged Care Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karantzas, Gery C.; Mellor, David; McCabe, Marita P.; Davison, Tanya E.; Beaton, Paul; Mrkic, Dejan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The aged care industry experiences high rates of staff turnover. Staff turnover has significant implications for the quality of care provided to care recipients and the financial costs to care agencies. In this study, we applied a model of intention to quit to identify the contextual and personal factors that shape aged care…

  20. Spectral Variability in the Aged Brain during Fine Motor Control

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Fanny; Bönstrup, Marlene; Schulz, Robert; Timmermann, Jan E.; Zimerman, Maximo; Nolte, Guido; Hummel, Friedhelm C.

    2016-01-01

    Physiological aging is paralleled by a decline of fine motor skills accompanied by structural and functional alterations of the underlying brain network. Here, we aim to investigate age-related changes in the spectral distribution of neuronal oscillations during fine skilled motor function. We employ the concept of spectral entropy in order to describe the flatness and peaked-ness of a frequency spectrum to quantify changes in the spectral distribution of the oscillatory motor response in the aged brain. Electroencephalogram was recorded in elderly (n = 32) and young (n = 34) participants who performed either a cued finger movement or a pinch or a whole hand grip task with their dominant right hand. Whereas young participant showed distinct, well-defined movement-related power decreases in the alpha and upper beta band, elderly participants exhibited a flat broadband, frequency-unspecific power desynchronization. This broadband response was reflected by an increase of spectral entropy over sensorimotor and frontal areas in the aged brain. Neuronal activation patterns differed between motor tasks in the young brain, while the aged brain showed a similar activation pattern in all tasks. Moreover, we found a wider recruitment of the cortical motor network in the aged brain. The present study adds to the understanding of age-related changes of neural coding during skilled motor behavior, revealing a less predictable signal with great variability across frequencies in a wide cortical motor network in the aged brain. The increase in entropy in the aged brain could be a reflection of random noise-like activity or could represent a compensatory mechanism that serves a functional role. PMID:28066231

  1. Spectral Variability in the Aged Brain during Fine Motor Control.

    PubMed

    Quandt, Fanny; Bönstrup, Marlene; Schulz, Robert; Timmermann, Jan E; Zimerman, Maximo; Nolte, Guido; Hummel, Friedhelm C

    2016-01-01

    Physiological aging is paralleled by a decline of fine motor skills accompanied by structural and functional alterations of the underlying brain network. Here, we aim to investigate age-related changes in the spectral distribution of neuronal oscillations during fine skilled motor function. We employ the concept of spectral entropy in order to describe the flatness and peaked-ness of a frequency spectrum to quantify changes in the spectral distribution of the oscillatory motor response in the aged brain. Electroencephalogram was recorded in elderly (n = 32) and young (n = 34) participants who performed either a cued finger movement or a pinch or a whole hand grip task with their dominant right hand. Whereas young participant showed distinct, well-defined movement-related power decreases in the alpha and upper beta band, elderly participants exhibited a flat broadband, frequency-unspecific power desynchronization. This broadband response was reflected by an increase of spectral entropy over sensorimotor and frontal areas in the aged brain. Neuronal activation patterns differed between motor tasks in the young brain, while the aged brain showed a similar activation pattern in all tasks. Moreover, we found a wider recruitment of the cortical motor network in the aged brain. The present study adds to the understanding of age-related changes of neural coding during skilled motor behavior, revealing a less predictable signal with great variability across frequencies in a wide cortical motor network in the aged brain. The increase in entropy in the aged brain could be a reflection of random noise-like activity or could represent a compensatory mechanism that serves a functional role.

  2. Severe Brain Injury in Massachusetts: Assessing the Continuum of Care.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Laura; Katz, Gabrielle

    2015-12-10

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) is a major public health problem in Massachusetts (Hackman et al, 2014) and includes traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke, ABI-related infectious diseases, metabolic disorders affecting the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), and brain tumor. Advances in emergency medical care and neurosurgery mean that more people are surviving severe traumatic brain injury (Trexler et al, 2014). Yet many patients with severe TBI in particular, are not receiving inpatient services after initial treatment (Hackman et al, 2014; CDC, 2014) or later that are known to be effective (Malec & Kean, 2015; Lewis & Horn, 2015; BI Commission, 2011; Kolakowsky-Hayner et al, 2000; Interviews). These services include post-acute rehabilitation, case management, and brain injury-specific community programming (CDC, 2014; BI Commission, 2011; Interviews). Governance and data for decision-making are also major gaps in the continuum of care for severe brain injury in MA (Interviews; NASHIA, 2005). The last two decades saw a surge in interest in the brain, with advances in neuroscience, diagnosis and measurement of brain injury, rehabilitation services, and brain theory (Boyle, 2001). Severe brain injury however is the new "hidden epidemic" in our society. For many, an injury to the brain is not a short-term event that can be "cured" but the beginning of a life-long disability (CDC, 2014; Langlois et al, 2006). Fortunately, even after a severe brain injury, when the right rehabilitation is provided at the right time, the "rest of life" journey can be a positive one for many (Marquez de la Plata, 2015; Langlois et al, 2006). Severe brain injury can lead to a "new normal" as patients regain skills, find new meaning and in life, and take on new family, volunteer, and work roles. Throughout this brief, the term "severe brain injury" refers to "severe acquired brain injury," or any injury to the brain that occurs after birth. This definition does not include

  3. How to Select Anti-Aging Skin Care Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin care products Dermatologists share their insider tips Shopping for an anti-aging skin care product can ... every day can make a noticeable difference. When shopping for sunscreen, select one that offers all of ...

  4. Exploring age-related brain degeneration in meditation practitioners.

    PubMed

    Luders, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that meditation practices are associated with substantial psychological as well as physiological benefits. In searching for the biological mechanisms underlying the beneficial impact of meditation, studies have revealed practice-induced alterations of neurotransmitters, brain activity, and cognitive abilities, just to name a few. These findings not only imply a close link between meditation and brain structure, but also suggest possible modulating effects of meditation on age-related brain atrophy. Given that normal aging is associated with significant loss of brain tissue, meditation-induced growth and/or preservation might manifest as a seemingly reduced brain age in meditators (i.e., cerebral measures characteristic of younger brains). Surprisingly, there are only three published studies that have addressed the question of whether meditation diminishes age-related brain degeneration. This paper reviews these three studies with respect to the brain attributes studied, the analytical strategies applied, and the findings revealed. The review concludes with an elaborate discussion on the significance of existing studies, implications and directions for future studies, as well as the overall relevance of this field of research.

  5. Successful brain aging: plasticity, environmental enrichment, and lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Mora, Francisco

    2013-03-01

    Aging is a physiological process that can develop without the appearance of concurrent diseases. However, very frequently, older people suffer from memory loss and an accelerated cognitive decline. Studies of the neurobiology of aging are beginning to decipher the mechanisms underlying not only the physiology of aging of the brain but also the mechanisms that make people more vulnerable to cognitive dysfunction and neurodegenerative diseases. Today we know that the aging brain retains a considerable functional plasticity, and that this plasticity is positively promoted by genes activated by different lifestyle factors. In this article some of these lifestyle factors and their mechanisms of action are reviewed, including environmental enrichment and the importance of food intake and some nutrients. Aerobic physical exercise and reduction of chronic stress are also briefly reviewed. It is proposed that lifestyle factors are powerful instruments to promote healthy and successful aging of the brain and delay the appearance of age-related cognitive deficits in elderly people.

  6. Modeling the brain morphology distribution in the general aging population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huizinga, W.; Poot, D. H. J.; Roshchupkin, G.; Bron, E. E.; Ikram, M. A.; Vernooij, M. W.; Rueckert, D.; Niessen, W. J.; Klein, S.

    2016-03-01

    Both normal aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease cause morphological changes of the brain. To better distinguish between normal and abnormal cases, it is necessary to model changes in brain morphology owing to normal aging. To this end, we developed a method for analyzing and visualizing these changes for the entire brain morphology distribution in the general aging population. The method is applied to 1000 subjects from a large population imaging study in the elderly, from which 900 were used to train the model and 100 were used for testing. The results of the 100 test subjects show that the model generalizes to subjects outside the model population. Smooth percentile curves showing the brain morphology changes as a function of age and spatiotemporal atlases derived from the model population are publicly available via an interactive web application at agingbrain.bigr.nl.

  7. Lipidomics of human brain aging and Alzheimer's disease pathology.

    PubMed

    Naudí, Alba; Cabré, Rosanna; Jové, Mariona; Ayala, Victoria; Gonzalo, Hugo; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Ferrer, Isidre; Pamplona, Reinald

    2015-01-01

    Lipids stimulated and favored the evolution of the brain. Adult human brain contains a large amount of lipids, and the largest diversity of lipid classes and lipid molecular species. Lipidomics is defined as "the full characterization of lipid molecular species and of their biological roles with respect to expression of proteins involved in lipid metabolism and function, including gene regulation." Therefore, the study of brain lipidomics can help to unravel the diversity and to disclose the specificity of these lipid traits and its alterations in neural (neurons and glial) cells, groups of neural cells, brain, and fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid and plasma, thus helping to uncover potential biomarkers of human brain aging and Alzheimer disease. This review will discuss the lipid composition of the adult human brain. We first consider a brief approach to lipid definition, classification, and tools for analysis from the new point of view that has emerged with lipidomics, and then turn to the lipid profiles in human brain and how lipids affect brain function. Finally, we focus on the current status of lipidomics findings in human brain aging and Alzheimer's disease pathology. Neurolipidomics will increase knowledge about physiological and pathological functions of brain cells and will place the concept of selective neuronal vulnerability in a lipid context.

  8. Wicking teaching aged care facilities program: innovative practice.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Andrew; See, Catherine; Lea, Emma; Bramble, Marguerite; Andrews, Sharon; Marlow, Annette; Radford, Jan; McCall, Michael; Eccleston, Claire; Horner, Barbara; McInerney, Fran

    2015-09-08

    This paper reports on the design of a program that aims to prototype teaching aged care facilities in Australia. Beginning in two Tasmanian residential aged care facilities, the intent of the program is to support large-scale inter-professional student clinical placements, positively influence students' attitudes toward working in aged care and drive development of a high-performance culture capable of supporting evidence-based aged care practice. This is important in the context of aged care being perceived as an unattractive career choice for health professionals, reinforced by negative clinical placement experiences. The Teaching Aged Care Facilities Program features six stages configured around an action research/action learning method, with dementia being a key clinical focus.

  9. Brain Damage in School Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haywood, H. Carl, Ed.

    The product of a professional workshop, 10 papers discuss brain damage. An introduction to clinical neuropsychology is presented by H. Carl Haywood. A section on neurological foundations includes papers on the organization of the central nervous system by Jack T. Tapp and Lance L. Simpson, on epilepsy by Angela T. Folsom, and on organic language…

  10. Age-related epigenetic regulation in the brain and its role in neuronal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kim-Ha, Jeongsil; Kim, Young-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates many brain functions are mediated by epigenetic regulation of neural genes, and their dysregulations result in neuronal disorders. Experiences such as learning and recall, as well as physical exercise, induce neuronal activation through epigenetic modifications and by changing the noncoding RNA profiles. Animal models, brain samples from patients, and the development of diverse analytical methods have broadened our understanding of epigenetic regulation in the brain. Diverse and specific epigenetic changes are suggested to correlate with neuronal development, learning and memory, aging and age-related neuronal diseases. Although the results show some discrepancies, a careful comparison of the data (including methods, regions and conditions examined) would clarify the problems confronted in understanding epigenetic regulation in the brain. PMID:27866512

  11. Statistical Approaches for the Study of Cognitive and Brain Aging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huaihou; Zhao, Bingxin; Cao, Guanqun; Proges, Eric C.; O'Shea, Andrew; Woods, Adam J.; Cohen, Ronald A.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of cognitive and brain aging often yield massive datasets that create many analytic and statistical challenges. In this paper, we discuss and address several limitations in the existing work. (1) Linear models are often used to model the age effects on neuroimaging markers, which may be inadequate in capturing the potential nonlinear age effects. (2) Marginal correlations are often used in brain network analysis, which are not efficient in characterizing a complex brain network. (3) Due to the challenge of high-dimensionality, only a small subset of the regional neuroimaging markers is considered in a prediction model, which could miss important regional markers. To overcome those obstacles, we introduce several advanced statistical methods for analyzing data from cognitive and brain aging studies. Specifically, we introduce semiparametric models for modeling age effects, graphical models for brain network analysis, and penalized regression methods for selecting the most important markers in predicting cognitive outcomes. We illustrate these methods using the healthy aging data from the Active Brain Study. PMID:27486400

  12. Plastic neuroscience: studying what the brain cares about

    PubMed Central

    Dumit, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on Allan Newell's “You can't play 20 questions with nature and win,” this article proposes that neuroscience needs to go beyond binary hypothesis testing and design experiments that follow what neurons care about. Examples from Lettvin et. al. are used to demonstrate that one can experimentally play with neurons and generate surprising results. In this manner, brains are not confused with persons, rather, persons are understood to do things with their brains. PMID:24795589

  13. Iranian nurses’ experiences of brain dead donors care in intensive care units: A phenomenological study

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Shayesteh; Kanani, Tahereh; Abedi, Heidarali

    2013-01-01

    Background: Care of brain dead donors is complex, critical, and sensitive and has a direct and positive impact on the end result of organ and tissue transplantation process. This study describes the nurses’ experiences of care of brain dead donors in intensive care units (ICU). Materials and Methods: This research was performed by phenomenological method that is a qualitative approach. Purposive sampling was used to gather the data. The researcher reached to data saturation by deep interviews conducted with eight participants from ICU nurses in Isfahan hospitals who cooperated in care of brain dead donors. Data analysis was performed according to Colaizzi analysis method. Results: Interviews were analyzed and the results of analysis led to “Excruciating tasks” as the main theme formed by psychological effects of facing the situation, heavy and stressful care, defect of scientific knowledge, conflict between feeling and duty, outcome of attitude change in behavior, emotional responses to perceived psychological afflictions, doubt to medical diagnosis, spiritual perceptions, and biological responses when faced with the situation. Conclusion: Caring of brain dead organ donors is difficult and stressful for intensive care nurses and can be a threat for nurses’ health and quality of nursing care. So, providing suitable physical, mental, and working conditions is necessary to make suitable background to maintain and increase nurses’ health and quality of care and effective cooperation of this group of health professionals in organ procurement process. PMID:24554946

  14. Nutritional Cognitive Neuroscience: Innovations for Healthy Brain Aging.

    PubMed

    Zamroziewicz, Marta K; Barbey, Aron K

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional cognitive neuroscience is an emerging interdisciplinary field of research that seeks to understand nutrition's impact on cognition and brain health across the life span. Research in this burgeoning field demonstrates that many aspects of nutrition-from entire diets to specific nutrients-affect brain structure and function, and therefore have profound implications for understanding the nature of healthy brain aging. The aim of this Focused Review is to examine recent advances in nutritional cognitive neuroscience, with an emphasis on methods that enable discovery of nutrient biomarkers that predict healthy brain aging. We propose an integrative framework that calls for the synthesis of research in nutritional epidemiology and cognitive neuroscience, incorporating: (i) methods for the precise characterization of nutritional health based on the analysis of nutrient biomarker patterns (NBPs), along with (ii) modern indices of brain health derived from high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). By integrating cutting-edge techniques from nutritional epidemiology and cognitive neuroscience, nutritional cognitive neuroscience will continue to advance our understanding of the beneficial effects of nutrition on the aging brain and establish effective nutritional interventions to promote healthy brain aging.

  15. Nutritional Cognitive Neuroscience: Innovations for Healthy Brain Aging

    PubMed Central

    Zamroziewicz, Marta K.; Barbey, Aron K.

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional cognitive neuroscience is an emerging interdisciplinary field of research that seeks to understand nutrition's impact on cognition and brain health across the life span. Research in this burgeoning field demonstrates that many aspects of nutrition—from entire diets to specific nutrients—affect brain structure and function, and therefore have profound implications for understanding the nature of healthy brain aging. The aim of this Focused Review is to examine recent advances in nutritional cognitive neuroscience, with an emphasis on methods that enable discovery of nutrient biomarkers that predict healthy brain aging. We propose an integrative framework that calls for the synthesis of research in nutritional epidemiology and cognitive neuroscience, incorporating: (i) methods for the precise characterization of nutritional health based on the analysis of nutrient biomarker patterns (NBPs), along with (ii) modern indices of brain health derived from high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). By integrating cutting-edge techniques from nutritional epidemiology and cognitive neuroscience, nutritional cognitive neuroscience will continue to advance our understanding of the beneficial effects of nutrition on the aging brain and establish effective nutritional interventions to promote healthy brain aging. PMID:27375409

  16. Emotion and aging: evidence from brain and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ebner, Natalie C.; Fischer, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    Emotions play a central role in every human life from the moment we are born until we die. They prepare the body for action, highlight what should be noticed and remembered, and guide decisions and actions. As emotions are central to daily functioning, it is important to understand how aging affects perception, memory, experience, as well as regulation of emotions. The Frontiers research topic Emotion and Aging: Evidence from Brain and Behavior takes a step into uncovering emotional aging considering both brain and behavioral processes. The contributions featured in this issue adopt innovative theoretical perspectives and use novel methodological approaches to target a variety of topics that can be categorized into three overarching questions: How do cognition and emotion interact in aging in brain and behavior? What are behavioral and brain-related moderators of emotional aging? Does emotion-regulatory success as reflected in brain and behavior change with age? In this perspective paper we discuss theoretical innovation, methodological approach, and scientific advancement of the 13 papers in the context of the broader literature on emotional aging. We conclude by reflecting on topics untouched and future directions to take. PMID:25250002

  17. BRAIN FUEL METABOLISM, AGING AND ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Cunnane, SC; Nugent, S; Roy, M; Courchesne-Loyer, A; Croteau, E; Tremblay, S; Castellano, A; Pifferi, F; Bocti, C; Paquet, N; Begdouri, H; Bentourkia, M; Turcotte, E; Allard, M; Barberger-Gateau, P; Fulop, T; Rapoport, S

    2012-01-01

    Lower brain glucose metabolism is present before the onset of clinically-measurable cognitive decline in two groups of people at risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) - carriers of apoE4, and in those with a maternal family history of AD. Supported by emerging evidence from in vitro and animal studies, these reports suggest that brain hypometabolism may precede and contribute to the neuropathological cascade leading cognitive decline in AD. The reason for brain hypometabolism is unclear but may include defects in glucose transport at the blood-brain barrier, glycolysis, and/or mitochondrial function. Methodological issues presently preclude knowing with certainty whether or not aging in the absence of cognitive impairment is necessarily associated with lower brain glucose metabolism. Nevertheless, aging appears to increase the risk of deteriorating systemic control of glucose utilization which, in turn, may increase the risk of declining brain glucose uptake, at least in some regions. A contributing role of deteriorating glucose availability to or metabolism by the brain in AD does not exclude the opposite effect, i.e. that neurodegenerative processes in AD further decrease brain glucose metabolism because of reduced synaptic functionality and, hence, reduced energy needs, thereby completing a vicious cycle. Strategies to reduce the risk of AD by breaking this cycle should aim to – (i) improve insulin sensitivity by improving systemic glucose utilization, or (ii) bypass deteriorating brain glucose metabolism using approaches that safely induce mild, sustainable ketonemia. PMID:21035308

  18. Intensive Care Treatment in Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Dilmen, Özlem Korkmaz; Akçıl, Eren Fatma; Tunalı, Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    Head injury remains a serious public problem, especially in the young population. The understanding of the mechanism of secondary injury and the development of appropriate monitoring and critical care treatment strategies reduced the mortality of head injury. The pathophysiology, monitoring and treatment principles of head injury are summarised in this article. PMID:27366456

  19. Influence of age on brain edema formation, secondary brain damage and inflammatory response after brain trauma in mice.

    PubMed

    Timaru-Kast, Ralph; Luh, Clara; Gotthardt, Philipp; Huang, Changsheng; Schäfer, Michael K; Engelhard, Kristin; Thal, Serge C

    2012-01-01

    After traumatic brain injury (TBI) elderly patients suffer from higher mortality rate and worse functional outcome compared to young patients. However, experimental TBI research is primarily performed in young animals. Aim of the present study was to clarify whether age affects functional outcome, neuroinflammation and secondary brain damage after brain trauma in mice. Young (2 months) and old (21 months) male C57Bl6N mice were anesthetized and subjected to a controlled cortical impact injury (CCI) on the right parietal cortex. Animals of both ages were randomly assigned to 15 min, 24 h, and 72 h survival. At the end of the observation periods, contusion volume, brain water content, neurologic function, cerebral and systemic inflammation (CD3+ T cell migration, inflammatory cytokine expression in brain and lung, blood differential cell count) were determined. Old animals showed worse neurological function 72 h after CCI and a high mortality rate (19.2%) compared to young (0%). This did not correlate with histopathological damage, as contusion volumes were equal in both age groups. Although a more pronounced brain edema formation was detected in old mice 24 hours after TBI, lack of correlation between brain water content and neurological deficit indicated that brain edema formation is not solely responsible for age-dependent differences in neurological outcome. Brains of old naïve mice were about 8% smaller compared to young naïve brains, suggesting age-related brain atrophy with possible decline in plasticity. Onset of cerebral inflammation started earlier and primarily ipsilateral to damage in old mice, whereas in young mice inflammation was delayed and present in both hemispheres with a characteristic T cell migration pattern. Pulmonary interleukin 1β expression was up-regulated after cerebral injury only in young, not aged mice. The results therefore indicate that old animals are prone to functional deficits and strong ipsilateral cerebral inflammation

  20. Normal brain ageing: models and mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Toescu, Emil C

    2005-01-01

    Normal ageing is associated with a degree of decline in a number of cognitive functions. Apart from the issues raised by the current attempts to expand the lifespan, understanding the mechanisms and the detailed metabolic interactions involved in the process of normal neuronal ageing continues to be a challenge. One model, supported by a significant amount of experimental evidence, views the cellular ageing as a metabolic state characterized by an altered function of the metabolic triad: mitochondria–reactive oxygen species (ROS)–intracellular Ca2+. The perturbation in the relationship between the members of this metabolic triad generate a state of decreased homeostatic reserve, in which the aged neurons could maintain adequate function during normal activity, as demonstrated by the fact that normal ageing is not associated with widespread neuronal loss, but become increasingly vulnerable to the effects of excessive metabolic loads, usually associated with trauma, ischaemia or neurodegenerative processes. This review will concentrate on some of the evidence showing altered mitochondrial function with ageing and also discuss some of the functional consequences that would result from such events, such as alterations in mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis, ATP production and generation of ROS. PMID:16321805

  1. Circadian clock and pathology of the ageing brain

    PubMed Central

    Kondratova, A.A.; Kondratov, R.V.

    2013-01-01

    Ageing leads to functional deterioration of many brain systems, including the circadian clock - an internal time-keeping system that generates 24 hr rhythms in physiology and behaviour. Numerous clinical studies have established a direct correlation between the severity of neurodegenerative disorders, sleep disturbances and weakening of circadian clock functions. The latest data from model organisms, gene expression studies and clinical trials imply that the dysfunction of the circadian clock may contribute to the progression of ageing and age-associated pathologies, suggesting a functional link between the circadian clock, and age-associated decline of brain functions. Potential molecular mechanisms underlying this link include the circadian control of brain metabolism, reactive oxygen species homeostasis, hormone secretion, autophagy and stem cell proliferation. PMID:22395806

  2. Hearing Impairment Is Associated with Smaller Brain Volume in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Rigters, Stephanie C.; Bos, Daniel; Metselaar, Mick; Roshchupkin, Gennady V.; Baatenburg de Jong, Robert J.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Vernooij, Meike W.; Goedegebure, André

    2017-01-01

    Although recent studies show that age-related hearing impairment is associated with cerebral changes, data from a population perspective are still lacking. Therefore, we studied the relation between hearing impairment and brain volume in a large elderly cohort. From the population-based Rotterdam Study, 2,908 participants (mean age 65 years, 56% female) underwent a pure-tone audiogram to quantify hearing impairment. By performing MR imaging of the brain we quantified global and regional brain tissue volumes (total brain volume, gray matter volume, white matter (WM) volume, and lobe-specific volumes). We used multiple linear regression models, adjusting for age, sex, head size, time between hearing test and MR imaging, and relevant cognitive and cardiovascular covariates. Furthermore, we performed voxel-based morphometry to explore sub-regional differences. We found that a higher pure-tone threshold was associated with a smaller total brain volume [difference in standardized brain volume per decibel increase in hearing threshold in the age-sex adjusted model: -0.003 (95% confidence interval -0.004; -0.001)]. Specifically, WM volume was associated. Both associations were more pronounced in the lower frequencies. All associations were consistently present in all brain lobes in the lower frequencies and in most lobes in the higher frequencies, and were independent of cognitive function and cardiovascular risk factors. In voxel-based analyses we found associations of hearing impairment with smaller white volumes and some smaller and larger gray volumes, yet these were statistically non-significant. Our findings demonstrate that hearing impairment in elderly is related to smaller total brain volume, independent of cognition and cardiovascular risk factors. This mainly seems to be driven by smaller WM volume, throughout the brain. PMID:28163683

  3. Nutritional intervention in brain aging: reducing the effects of inflammation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Lau, Francis C; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Joseph, James A

    2007-01-01

    It is estimated that by the year 2050 the elderly (aged 65 or older) population will double the population of children (aged 0-14) for the first time in history. The expansion of the elderly population has already taken a toll on health care systems. In order to alleviate the health care costs and increase the quality of living in the aging population, it is crucial to explore methods that may retard or reverse the deleterious effects of aging. Inflammation and oxidative stress play important roles in brain aging. Inflammatory markers, as well as cellular and molecular oxidative damage, increase during normal brain aging. This increase is accompanied by the concomitant decline in cognitive and motor performance in the elderly population, even in the absence of neurodegenerative diseases. Epidemiological studies have shown that consumption of diets rich in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents, such as those found in fruits and vegetables, may lower the risk of developing age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Research from our laboratory suggests that dietary supplementation with fruit or vegetable extracts can decrease the age-enhanced vulnerability to oxidative stress and inflammation. Additional research suggests that the polyphenolic compounds found in fruits such as blueberries may exert their beneficial effects through signal transduction and neuronal communication. Thus, nutritional intervention may exert therapeutic protection against age-related deficits and neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. School's Out! Group Day Care for the School Age Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Elizabeth; Milich, Cynthia

    This report on group day care is designed to: (1) examine the kinds of group programs for school-age children which exist in Los Angeles County, (2) describe the conditions necessary for program operation, and (3) consider the issue of quality as it relates to community expansion of day care services for children of school age. The report is…

  5. Age, Plasticity, and Homeostasis In Childhood Brain Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Maureen; Spiegler, Brenda J.; Juranek, Jenifer J.; Bigler, Erin D.; Snead, O. Carter; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2013-01-01

    It has been widely accepted that the younger the age and/or immaturity of the organism, the greater the brain plasticity, the young age plasticity privilege. This paper examines the relation of a young age to plasticity, reviewing human pediatric brain disorders, as well as selected animal models, human developmental and adult brain disorder studies. As well, we review developmental and childhood acquired disorders that involve a failure of regulatory homeostasis. Our core arguments are: Plasticity is neutral with respect to outcome. Although the effects of plasticity are often beneficial, the outcome of plasticity may be adaptive or maladaptive.The young age plasticity privilege has been overstated.Plastic change operates in concert with homeostatic mechanisms regulating change at every point in the lifespan.The same mechanisms that propel developmental change expose the immature brain to adverse events, making it more difficult for the immature than for the mature brain to sustain equilibrium between plasticity and homeostasis.Poor outcome in many neurodevelopmental disorders and childhood acquired brain insults is related to disequilibrium between plasticity and homeostasis. PMID:24096190

  6. Understanding How Exercise Promotes Cognitive Integrity in the Aging Brain.

    PubMed

    Laitman, Benjamin M; John, Gareth R

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in the structure and organization of the aging central nervous system (CNS), and associated functional deficits, result in cognitive decline and increase susceptibility to neurodegeneration. Age-related changes to the neurovascular unit (NVU), and their consequences for cerebrovascular function, are implicated as driving cognitive impairment during aging as well as in neurodegenerative disease. The molecular events underlying these effects are incompletely characterized. Similarly, the mechanisms underlying effects of factors that reduce the impact of aging on the brain, such as physical exercise, are also opaque. A study in this issue of PLOS Biology links the NVU to cognitive decline in the aging brain and suggests a potential underlying molecular mechanism. Notably, the study further links the protective effects of chronic exercise on cognition to neurovascular integrity during aging.

  7. Barriers to Care for Depressed Older People: Perceptions of Aged Care among Medical Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Marita P.; Davison, Tanya; Mellor, David; George, Kuruvilla

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated barriers to detection of depression among older people. Focus groups were conducted with 21 professional carers, 4 nurses, 10 general practitioners, and 7 aged care managers. The results demonstrated that care for older people is primarily focused on physical care. Further, staff resources, a lack of continuity of care,…

  8. Brain death and care of the organ donor

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Brain death has specific implications for organ donation with the potential for saving several lives. Awareness on maintenance of the brain dead has increased over the last decade with the progress in the field of transplant. The diagnosis of brain death is clinical and can be confirmed by apnea testing. Ancillary tests can be considered when the apnea test cannot be completed or is inconclusive. Reflexes of spinal origin may be present and should not be confused against the diagnosis of brain death. Adequate care for the donor targeting hemodynamic indices and lung protective ventilator strategies can improve graft quality for donation. Hormone supplementation using thyroxine, antidiuretic hormone, corticosteroid and insulin has shown to improve outcomes following transplant. India still ranks low compared to the rest of the world in deceased donation. The formation of organ sharing networks supported by state governments has shown a substantial increase in the numbers of deceased donors primarily by creating awareness and ensuring protocols in caring for the donor. This review describes the steps in the establishment of brain death and the management of the organ donor. Material for the review was collected through a Medline search, and the search terms included were brain death and organ donation. PMID:27275040

  9. Patient care in a technological age.

    PubMed

    Dragon, Natalie

    2006-07-01

    In this electronically wired world of the 21 st century, the health care system has tapped into technology available at the touch of a button. Scientific discoveries, high-tech equipment, electronic medical records, Smarticards, and long distance diagnosis using telehealth technology have all been embraced. But Natalie Dragon asks, what are the implications for nurses and the outcomes on patient care?

  10. The endocannabinoid system in normal and pathological brain ageing.

    PubMed

    Bilkei-Gorzo, Andras

    2012-12-05

    The role of endocannabinoids as inhibitory retrograde transmitters is now widely known and intensively studied. However, endocannabinoids also influence neuronal activity by exerting neuroprotective effects and regulating glial responses. This review centres around this less-studied area, focusing on the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effect of the cannabinoid system in brain ageing. The progression of ageing is largely determined by the balance between detrimental, pro-ageing, largely stochastic processes, and the activity of the homeostatic defence system. Experimental evidence suggests that the cannabinoid system is part of the latter system. Cannabinoids as regulators of mitochondrial activity, as anti-oxidants and as modulators of clearance processes protect neurons on the molecular level. On the cellular level, the cannabinoid system regulates the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurogenesis. Neuroinflammatory processes contributing to the progression of normal brain ageing and to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases are suppressed by cannabinoids, suggesting that they may also influence the ageing process on the system level. In good agreement with the hypothesized beneficial role of cannabinoid system activity against brain ageing, it was shown that animals lacking CB1 receptors show early onset of learning deficits associated with age-related histological and molecular changes. In preclinical models of neurodegenerative disorders, cannabinoids show beneficial effects, but the clinical evidence regarding their efficacy as therapeutic tools is either inconclusive or still missing.

  11. Differential expression of sirtuins in the aging rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Braidy, Nady; Poljak, Anne; Grant, Ross; Jayasena, Tharusha; Mansour, Hussein; Chan-Ling, Tailoi; Smythe, George; Sachdev, Perminder; Guillemin, Gilles J.

    2015-01-01

    Although there are seven mammalian sirtuins (SIRT1-7), little is known about their expression in the aging brain. To characterize the change(s) in mRNA and protein expression of SIRT1-7 and their associated proteins in the brain of “physiologically” aged Wistar rats. We tested mRNA and protein expression levels of rat SIRT1-7, and the levels of associated proteins in the brain using RT-PCR and western blotting. Our data shows that SIRT1 expression increases with age, concurrently with increased acetylated p53 levels in all brain regions investigated. SIRT2 and FOXO3a protein levels increased only in the occipital lobe. SIRT3-5 expression declined significantly in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, associated with increases in superoxide and fatty acid oxidation levels, and acetylated CPS-1 protein expression, and a reduction in MnSOD level. While SIRT6 expression declines significantly with age acetylated H3K9 protein expression is increased throughout the brain. SIRT7 and Pol I protein expression increased in the frontal lobe. This study identifies previously unknown roles for sirtuins in regulating cellular homeostasis and healthy aging. PMID:26005404

  12. Comparing Aging and Fitness Effects on Brain Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Mark A; Low, Kathy A; Boyd, Rachel; Zimmerman, Benjamin; Gordon, Brian A; Tan, Chin H; Schneider-Garces, Nils; Sutton, Bradley P; Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) mitigates the brain's atrophy typically associated with aging, via a variety of beneficial mechanisms. One could argue that if CRF is generally counteracting the negative effects of aging, the same regions that display the greatest age-related volumetric loss should also show the largest beneficial effects of fitness. To test this hypothesis we examined structural MRI data from 54 healthy older adults (ages 55-87), to determine the overlap, across brain regions, of the profiles of age and fitness effects. Results showed that lower fitness and older age are associated with atrophy in several brain regions, replicating past studies. However, when the profiles of age and fitness effects were compared using a number of statistical approaches, the effects were not entirely overlapping. Interestingly, some of the regions that were most influenced by age were among those not influenced by fitness. Presumably, the age-related atrophy occurring in these regions is due to factors that are more impervious to the beneficial effects of fitness. Possible mechanisms supporting regional heterogeneity may include differential involvement in motor function, the presence of adult neurogenesis, and differential sensitivity to cerebrovascular, neurotrophic and metabolic factors.

  13. Berry Fruit Supplementation in the Aging Brain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The onset of age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s Disease, superimposed on a declining nervous system, could exacerbate the motor and cognitive behavioral deficits that normally occur in senescence. In cases of severe deficits in memory or motor function, hospit...

  14. Benefits from dietary polyphenols for brain aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Rossi, L; Mazzitelli, S; Arciello, M; Capo, C R; Rotilio, G

    2008-12-01

    Brain aging and the most diffused neurodegenerative diseases of the elderly are characterized by oxidative damage, redox metals homeostasis impairment and inflammation. Food polyphenols can counteract these alterations in vitro and are therefore suggested to have potential anti-aging and brain-protective activities, as also indicated by the results of some epidemiological studies. Despite the huge and increasing amount of the in vitro studies trying to unravel the mechanisms of action of dietary polyphenols, the research in this field is still incomplete, and questions about bioavailability, biotransformation, synergism with other dietary factors, mechanisms of the antioxidant activity, risks inherent to their possible pro-oxidant activities are still unanswered. Most of all, the capacity of the majority of these compounds to cross the blood-brain barrier and reach brain is still unknown. This commentary discusses recent data on these aspects, particularly focusing on effects of curcumin, resveratrol and catechins on Alzheimer's disease.

  15. Associations between education and brain structure at age 73 years, adjusted for age 11 IQ

    PubMed Central

    Dickie, David Alexander; Ritchie, Stuart J.; Karama, Sherif; Pattie, Alison; Royle, Natalie A.; Corley, Janie; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Valdés Hernández, Maria; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Starr, John M.; Bastin, Mark E.; Evans, Alan C.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate how associations between education and brain structure in older age were affected by adjusting for IQ measured at age 11. Methods: We analyzed years of full-time education and measures from an MRI brain scan at age 73 in 617 community-dwelling adults born in 1936. In addition to average and vertex-wise cortical thickness, we measured total brain atrophy and white matter tract fractional anisotropy. Associations between brain structure and education were tested, covarying for sex and vascular health; a second model also covaried for age 11 IQ. Results: The significant relationship between education and average cortical thickness (β = 0.124, p = 0.004) was reduced by 23% when age 11 IQ was included (β = 0.096, p = 0.041). Initial associations between longer education and greater vertex-wise cortical thickness were significant in bilateral temporal, medial-frontal, parietal, sensory, and motor cortices. Accounting for childhood intelligence reduced the number of significant vertices by >90%; only bilateral anterior temporal associations remained. Neither education nor age 11 IQ was significantly associated with total brain atrophy or tract-averaged fractional anisotropy. Conclusions: The association between years of education and brain structure ≈60 years later was restricted to cortical thickness in this sample; however, the previously reported associations between longer education and a thicker cortex are likely to be overestimates in terms of both magnitude and distribution. This finding has implications for understanding, and possibly ameliorating, life-course brain health. PMID:27664981

  16. Intensive care practices in brain death diagnosis and organ donation.

    PubMed

    Escudero, D; Valentín, M O; Escalante, J L; Sanmartín, A; Perez-Basterrechea, M; de Gea, J; Martín, M; Velasco, J; Pont, T; Masnou, N; de la Calle, B; Marcelo, B; Lebrón, M; Pérez, J M; Burgos, M; Gimeno, R; Kot, P; Yus, S; Sancho, I; Zabalegui, A; Arroyo, M; Miñambres, E; Elizalde, J; Montejo, J C; Domínguez-Gil, B; Matesanz, R

    2015-10-01

    We conducted a multicentre study of 1844 patients from 42 Spanish intensive care units, and analysed the clinical characteristics of brain death, the use of ancillary testing, and the clinical decisions taken after the diagnosis of brain death. The main cause of brain death was intracerebral haemorrhage (769/1844, 42%), followed by traumatic brain injury (343/1844, 19%) and subarachnoid haemorrhage (257/1844, 14%). The diagnosis of brain death was made rapidly (50% in the first 24 h). Of those patients who went on to die, the Glasgow Coma Scale on admission was ≤ 8/15 in 1146/1261 (91%) of patients with intracerebral haemorrhage, traumatic brain injury or anoxic encephalopathy; the Hunt and Hess Scale was 4-5 in 207/251 (83%) of patients following subarachnoid haemorrhage; and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was ≥ 15 in 114/129 (89%) of patients with strokes. Brain death was diagnosed exclusively by clinical examination in 92/1844 (5%) of cases. Electroencephalography was the most frequently used ancillary test (1303/1752, 70.7%), followed by transcranial Doppler (652/1752, 37%). Organ donation took place in 70% of patients (1291/1844), with medical unsuitability (267/553, 48%) and family refusal (244/553, 13%) the main reasons for loss of potential donors. All life-sustaining measures were withdrawn in 413/553 of non-donors (75%).

  17. The Dopaminergic System in the Aging Brain of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    White, Katherine E.; Humphrey, Dickon M.; Hirth, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Drosophila models of Parkinson's disease are characterized by two principal phenotypes: the specific loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the aging brain and defects in motor behavior. However, an age-related analysis of these baseline parameters in wildtype Drosophila is lacking. Here we analyzed the DA system and motor behavior in aging Drosophila. DA neurons in the adult brain can be grouped into bilateral symmetric clusters, each comprising a stereotypical number of cells. Analysis of TH > mCD8::GFP and cell type-specific MARCM clones revealed that DA neurons show cluster-specific, stereotypical projection patterns with terminal arborization in target regions that represent distinct functional areas of the adult brain. Target areas include the mushroom bodies, involved in memory formation and motivation, and the central complex, involved in the control of motor behavior, indicating that similar to the mammalian brain, DA neurons in the fly brain are involved in the regulation of specific behaviors. Behavioral analysis revealed that Drosophila show an age-related decline in startle-induced locomotion and negative geotaxis. Motion tracking however, revealed that walking activity, and exploration behavior, but not centrophobism increase at late stages of life. Analysis of TH > Dcr2, mCD8::GFP revealed a specific effect of Dcr2 expression on walking activity but not on exploratory or centrophobic behavior, indicating that the siRNA pathway may modulate distinct DA behaviors in Drosophila. Moreover, DA neurons were maintained between early- and late life, as quantified by TH > mCD8::GFP and anti-TH labeling, indicating that adult onset, age-related degeneration of DA neurons does not occur in the aging brain of Drosophila. Taken together, our data establish baseline parameters in Drosophila for the study of Parkinson's disease as well as other disorders affecting DA neurons and movement control. PMID:21165178

  18. Critical Care Management of Cerebral Edema in Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Esquenazi, Yoshua; Lo, Victor P; Lee, Kiwon

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral edema associated with brain tumors is extremely common and can occur in both primary and metastatic tumors. The edema surrounding brain tumors results from leakage of plasma across the vessel wall into the parenchyma secondary to disruption of the blood-brain barrier. The clinical signs of brain tumor edema depend on the location of the tumor as well as the extent of the edema, which often exceeds the mass effect induced by the tumor itself. Uncontrolled cerebral edema may result in increased intracranial pressure and acute herniation syndromes that can result in permanent neurological dysfunction and potentially fatal herniation. Treatment strategies for elevated intracranial pressure consist of general measures, medical interventions, and surgery. Alhough the definitive treatment for the edema may ultimately be surgical resection of the tumor, the impact of the critical care management cannot be underestimated and thus patients must be vigilantly monitored in the intensive care unit. In this review, we discuss the pathology, pathophysiology, and clinical features of patients presenting with cerebral edema. Imaging findings and treatment modalities used in the intensive care unit are also discussed.

  19. Pericytes control key neurovascular functions and neuronal phenotype in the adult brain and during brain aging

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Robert D.; Winkler, Ethan A.; Sagare, Abhay P.; Singh, Itender; LaRue, Barb; Deane, Rashid; Zlokovic, Berislav V.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Pericytes play a key role in the development of cerebral microcirculation. The exact role of pericytes in the neurovascular unit in the adult brain and during brain aging remains, however, elusive. Using adult viable pericyte-deficient mice, we show that pericyte loss leads to brain vascular damage by two parallel pathways: (1) reduction in brain microcirculation causing diminished brain capillary perfusion, cerebral blood flow and cerebral blood flow responses to brain activation which ultimately mediates chronic perfusion stress and hypoxia, and (2) blood-brain barrier breakdown associated with brain accumulation of serum proteins and several vasculotoxic and/or neurotoxic macromolecules ultimately leading to secondary neuronal degenerative changes. We show that age-dependent vascular damage in pericyte-deficient mice precedes neuronal degenerative changes, learning and memory impairment and the neuroinflammatory response. Thus, pericytes control key neurovascular functions that are necessary for proper neuronal structure and function, and pericytes loss results in a progressive age-dependent vascular-mediated neurodegeneration. PMID:21040844

  20. Principles for communicating with aging health-care consumers.

    PubMed

    Schewe, C D; Spotts, H E

    1990-01-01

    The health-care marketplace is aging by leaps and bounds and bringing with it new and different medical needs. As costs soar and public assistance programs dwindle in impact, health-care providers will need better marketing strategies to bring treatments to patients/consumers. This article looks at the research findings of behavioral scientists and offers guidelines for effective communication with aging audiences. Health-care providers can use these findings to design more effective advertising, promotional brochures, newsletters, and a host of other communication tools targeted at an older market. Health-care managers and other professionals should find the guidelines useful in their daily interactions with patients and colleagues.

  1. A Brain Network Processing the Age of Faces

    PubMed Central

    Homola, György A.; Jbabdi, Saad; Beckmann, Christian F.; Bartsch, Andreas J.

    2012-01-01

    Age is one of the most salient aspects in faces and of fundamental cognitive and social relevance. Although face processing has been studied extensively, brain regions responsive to age have yet to be localized. Using evocative face morphs and fMRI, we segregate two areas extending beyond the previously established face-sensitive core network, centered on the inferior temporal sulci and angular gyri bilaterally, both of which process changes of facial age. By means of probabilistic tractography, we compare their patterns of functional activation and structural connectivity. The ventral portion of Wernicke's understudied perpendicular association fasciculus is shown to interconnect the two areas, and activation within these clusters is related to the probability of fiber connectivity between them. In addition, post-hoc age-rating competence is found to be associated with high response magnitudes in the left angular gyrus. Our results provide the first evidence that facial age has a distinct representation pattern in the posterior human brain. We propose that particular face-sensitive nodes interact with additional object-unselective quantification modules to obtain individual estimates of facial age. This brain network processing the age of faces differs from the cortical areas that have previously been linked to less developmental but instantly changeable face aspects. Our probabilistic method of associating activations with connectivity patterns reveals an exemplary link that can be used to further study, assess and quantify structure-function relationships. PMID:23185334

  2. Life and death of neurons in the aging brain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, J. H.; Hof, P. R.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by extensive neuron death that leads to functional decline, but the neurobiological correlates of functional decline in normal aging are less well defined. For decades, it has been a commonly held notion that widespread neuron death in the neocortex and hippocampus is an inevitable concomitant of brain aging, but recent quantitative studies suggest that neuron death is restricted in normal aging and unlikely to account for age-related impairment of neocortical and hippocampal functions. In this article, the qualitative and quantitative differences between aging and Alzheimer's disease with respect to neuron loss are discussed, and age-related changes in functional and biochemical attributes of hippocampal circuits that might mediate functional decline in the absence of neuron death are explored. When these data are viewed comprehensively, it appears that the primary neurobiological substrates for functional impairment in aging differ in important ways from those in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease.

  3. Genetic mouse models of brain ageing and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Bilkei-Gorzo, Andras

    2014-05-01

    Progression of brain ageing is influenced by a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Analysis of genetically modified animals with uniform genetic backgrounds in a standardised, controlled environment enables the dissection of critical determinants of brain ageing on a molecular level. Human and animal studies suggest that increased load of damaged macromolecules, efficacy of DNA maintenance, mitochondrial activity, and cellular stress defences are critical determinants of brain ageing. Surprisingly, mouse lines with genetic impairment of anti-oxidative capacity generally did not show enhanced cognitive ageing but rather an increased sensitivity to oxidative challenge. Mouse lines with impaired mitochondrial activity had critically short life spans or severe and rapidly progressing neurodegeneration. Strains with impaired clearance in damaged macromolecules or defects in the regulation of cellular stress defences showed alterations in the onset and progression of cognitive decline. Importantly, reduced insulin/insulin-like growth factor signalling generally increased life span but impaired cognitive functions revealing a complex interaction between ageing of the brain and of the body. Brain ageing is accompanied by an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. Transgenic mouse models expressing high levels of mutant human amyloid precursor protein showed a number of symptoms and pathophysiological processes typical for early phase of Alzheimer's disease. Generally, therapeutic strategies effective against Alzheimer's disease in humans were also active in the Tg2576, APP23, APP/PS1 and 5xFAD lines, but a large number of false positive findings were also reported. The 3xtg AD model likely has the highest face and construct validity but further studies are needed.

  4. Comparing Aging and Fitness Effects on Brain Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Mark A.; Low, Kathy A.; Boyd, Rachel; Zimmerman, Benjamin; Gordon, Brian A.; Tan, Chin H.; Schneider-Garces, Nils; Sutton, Bradley P.; Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) mitigates the brain’s atrophy typically associated with aging, via a variety of beneficial mechanisms. One could argue that if CRF is generally counteracting the negative effects of aging, the same regions that display the greatest age-related volumetric loss should also show the largest beneficial effects of fitness. To test this hypothesis we examined structural MRI data from 54 healthy older adults (ages 55–87), to determine the overlap, across brain regions, of the profiles of age and fitness effects. Results showed that lower fitness and older age are associated with atrophy in several brain regions, replicating past studies. However, when the profiles of age and fitness effects were compared using a number of statistical approaches, the effects were not entirely overlapping. Interestingly, some of the regions that were most influenced by age were among those not influenced by fitness. Presumably, the age-related atrophy occurring in these regions is due to factors that are more impervious to the beneficial effects of fitness. Possible mechanisms supporting regional heterogeneity may include differential involvement in motor function, the presence of adult neurogenesis, and differential sensitivity to cerebrovascular, neurotrophic and metabolic factors. PMID:27445740

  5. Evolution of the Aging Brain Transcriptome and Synaptic Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Dakin, Kelly A.; Vann, James M.; Isaacs, Adrian; Geula, Chengiz; Wang, Jianbin; Pan, Ying; Gabuzda, Dana H.; Li, Cheng; Prolla, Tomas A.; Yankner, Bruce A.

    2008-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders of aging are characterized by clinical and pathological features that are relatively specific to humans. To obtain greater insight into how brain aging has evolved, we compared age-related gene expression changes in the cortex of humans, rhesus macaques, and mice on a genome-wide scale. A small subset of gene expression changes are conserved in all three species, including robust age-dependent upregulation of the neuroprotective gene apolipoprotein D (APOD) and downregulation of the synaptic cAMP signaling gene calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CAMK4). However, analysis of gene ontology and cell type localization shows that humans and rhesus macaques have diverged from mice due to a dramatic increase in age-dependent repression of neuronal genes. Many of these age-regulated neuronal genes are associated with synaptic function. Notably, genes associated with GABA-ergic inhibitory function are robustly age-downregulated in humans but not in mice at the level of both mRNA and protein. Gene downregulation was not associated with overall neuronal or synaptic loss. Thus, repression of neuronal gene expression is a prominent and recently evolved feature of brain aging in humans and rhesus macaques that may alter neural networks and contribute to age-related cognitive changes. PMID:18830410

  6. Manifold learning on brain functional networks in aging.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Anqi; Lee, Annie; Tan, Mingzhen; Chung, Moo K

    2015-02-01

    We propose a new analysis framework to utilize the full information of brain functional networks for computing the mean of a set of brain functional networks and embedding brain functional networks into a low-dimensional space in which traditional regression and classification analyses can be easily employed. For this, we first represent the brain functional network by a symmetric positive matrix computed using sparse inverse covariance estimation. We then impose a Log-Euclidean Riemannian manifold structure on brain functional networks whose norm gives a convenient and practical way to define a mean. Finally, based on the fact that the computation of linear operations can be done in the tangent space of this Riemannian manifold, we adopt Locally Linear Embedding (LLE) to the Log-Euclidean Riemannian manifold space in order to embed the brain functional networks into a low-dimensional space. We show that the integration of the Log-Euclidean manifold with LLE provides more efficient and succinct representation of the functional network and facilitates regression analysis, such as ridge regression, on the brain functional network to more accurately predict age when compared to that of the Euclidean space of functional networks with LLE. Interestingly, using the Log-Euclidean analysis framework, we demonstrate the integration and segregation of cortical-subcortical networks as well as among the salience, executive, and emotional networks across lifespan.

  7. Acetyl-L-carnitine improves aged brain function.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Satoru; Iwamoto, Machiko; Kon, Kazuo; Waki, Hatsue; Ando, Susumu; Tanaka, Yasukazu

    2010-07-01

    The effects of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR), an acetyl derivative of L-carnitine, on memory and learning capacity and on brain synaptic functions of aged rats were examined. Male Fischer 344 rats were given ALCAR (100 mg/kg bodyweight) per os for 3 months and were subjected to the Hebb-Williams tasks and AKON-1 task to assess their learning capacity. Cholinergic activities were determined with synaptosomes isolated from brain cortices of the rats. Choline parameters, the high-affinity choline uptake, acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis and depolarization-evoked ACh release were all enhanced in the ALCAR group. An increment of depolarization-induced calcium ion influx into synaptosomes was also evident in rats given ALCAR. Electrophysiological studies using hippocampus slices indicated that the excitatory postsynaptic potential slope and population spike size were both increased in ALCAR-treated rats. These results indicate that ALCAR increases synaptic neurotransmission in the brain and consequently improves learning capacity in aging rats.

  8. DNA Strand Breaks, Neurodegeneration and Aging in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Katyal, Sachin; McKinnon, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Defective responses to DNA single- or double-strand breaks can result in neurological disease, underscoring the critical importance of DNA repair for neural homeostasis. Human DNA repair-deficient syndromes are generally congenital, in which brain pathology reflects the consequences of developmentally incurred DNA damage. Although, it is unclear to what degree DNA strand-break repair defects in mature neural cells contributes to disease pathology. However, DNA single-strand breaks are a relatively common lesion which if not repaired can impact cells via interference with transcription. Thus, this lesion, and probably to a lesser extent DNA double strand breaks, may be particularly relevant to aging in the neural cell population. In this review we will examine the consequences of defective DNA strand break repair towards homeostasis in the brain. Further, we also consider the utility of mouse models as reagents to understand the connection between DNA strand breaks and aging in the brain. PMID:18455751

  9. Brain surgery breathes new life into aging plants

    SciTech Connect

    Makansi, J.

    2006-04-15

    Unlike managing the human aging process, extending the life of a power plant often includes brain surgery, modernizing its control and automation system. Lately, such retrofits range from wholesale replacing of existing controls to the addition of specific control elements that help optimize performance. Pending revisions to safety codes and cybersecurity issues also need to be considered. 4 figs.

  10. Neuroimaging of Cerebrovascular Disease in the Aging Brain

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ajay; Nair, Sreejit; Schweitzer, Andrew D.; Kishore, Sirish; Johnson, Carl E.; Comunale, Joseph P.; Tsiouris, Apostolos J.; Sanelli, Pina C.

    2012-01-01

    Cerebrovascular disease remains a significant public health burden with its greatest impact on the elderly population. Advances in neuroimaging techniques allow detailed and sophisticated evaluation of many manifestations of cerebrovascular disease in the brain parenchyma as well as in the intracranial and extracranial vasculature. These tools continue to contribute to our understanding of the multifactorial processes that occur in the age-dependent development of cerebrovascular disease. Structural abnormalities related to vascular disease in the brain and vessels have been well characterized with CT and MRI based techniques. We review some of the pathophysiologic mechanisms in the aging brain and cerebral vasculature and the related structural abnormalities detectable on neuroimaging, including evaluation of age-related white matter changes, atherosclerosis of the cerebral vasculature, and cerebral infarction. In addition, newer neuroimaging techniques, such as diffusion tensor imaging, perfusion techniques, and assessment of cerebrovascular reserve, are also reviewed, as these techniques can detect physiologic alterations which complement the morphologic changes that cause cerebrovascular disease in the aging brain.Further investigation of these advanced imaging techniques has potential application to the understanding and diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease in the elderly. PMID:23185721

  11. Brain-Based Teaching in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprenger, Marilee

    2010-01-01

    In the digital age, your students have the ways, means, and speed to gather any information they want. But they need your guidance more than ever. Discover how digital technology is actually changing your students' brains. Learn why this creates new obstacles for teachers, but also opens up potential new pathways for learning. You will understand…

  12. Alpha oscillatory correlates of motor inhibition in the aged brain

    PubMed Central

    Bönstrup, Marlene; Hagemann, Julian; Gerloff, Christian; Sauseng, Paul; Hummel, Friedhelm C.

    2015-01-01

    Exerting inhibitory control is a cognitive ability mediated by functions known to decline with age. The goal of this study is to add to the mechanistic understanding of cortical inhibition during motor control in aged brains. Based on behavioral findings of impaired inhibitory control with age we hypothesized that elderly will show a reduced or a lack of EEG alpha-power increase during tasks that require motor inhibition. Since inhibitory control over movements has been shown to rely on prior motor memory formation, we investigated cortical inhibitory processes at two points in time—early after learning and after an overnight consolidation phase and hypothesized an overnight increase of inhibitory capacities. Young and elderly participants acquired a complex finger movement sequence and in each experimental session brain activity during execution and inhibition of the sequence was recorded with multi-channel EEG. We assessed cortical processes of sustained inhibition by means of task-induced changes of alpha oscillatory power. During inhibition of the learned movement, young participants showed a significant alpha power increase at the sensorimotor cortices whereas elderly did not. Interestingly, for both groups, the overnight consolidation phase improved up-regulation of alpha power during sustained inhibition. This points to deficits in the generation and enhancement of local inhibitory mechanisms at the sensorimotor cortices in aged brains. However, the alpha power increase in both groups implies neuroplastic changes that strengthen the network of alpha power generation over time in young as well as elderly brains. PMID:26528179

  13. Determinants of alternate-level-of-care delayed discharge among acute care survivors of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Stock, David; Cowie, Cassandra; Chan, Vincy; Colantonio, Angela; Wodchis, Walter P.; Alter, David; Cullen, Nora

    2016-01-01

    Background: Delayed discharge, captured as alternate-level-of-care days, represents inefficient use of high-demand acute care resources and results in potentially poorer patient outcomes. We performed a study to determine the extent of alternate-level-of-care days among patients who survived hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in inpatient hospital care in Ontario and to identify predictors of alternate-level-of-care use in this population. Methods: A population-based cohort of acute care survivors of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury aged 20 years or more from 2002/03 through 2011/12 was identified. We used 2 case definitions, the more specific identifying patients with a most responsible diagnosis of "anoxic brain damage," and the more sensitive capturing additional likely causative conditions as the most responsible diagnosis. Multivariable zero-inflated negative binomial regression was used to estimate independent effects on the relative incidence of alternate-level-of-care days. Results: We identified 491 patients using the specific case definition and 669 patients using the extended case definition. After deaths were excluded, 232 patients (47.2%) and 278 patients (41.6%), respectively, had at least 1 alternate-level-of-care day (median 20 and 19 d, respectively). In both cohorts, decreasing age, no special care unit hours and acute care episode earlier in the study period were predictive of increased alternate-level-of-care days relative to length of stay. Discharge disposition and psychiatric/behavioural comorbidity were most predictive of having any alternate-level-of-care days. Interpretation: Patients with hypoxic-ischemic brain injury had a greater proportion of alternate-level-of-care days than has been reported for patients with other types of acquired brain injury. This finding suggests that substantial barriers to appropriate discharge exist for this population. Predictors of increased alternate-level-of-care days were also shown to be unique. Further study

  14. Influences on Case-Managed Community Aged Care Practice.

    PubMed

    You, Emily Chuanmei; Dunt, David; Doyle, Colleen

    2016-10-01

    Case management has been widely implemented in the community aged care setting. In this study, we aimed to explore influences on case-managed community aged care practice from the perspectives of community aged care case managers. We conducted 33 semistructured interviews with 47 participants. We drew these participants from a list of all case managers working in aged care organizations that provided publicly funded case management program(s)/packages in Victoria, Australia. We used a multilevel framework that included such broad categories of factors as structural, organizational, case manager, client, and practice factors to guide the data analysis. Through thematic analysis, we found that policy change, organizational culture and policies, case managers' professional backgrounds, clients with culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, and case management models stood out as key influences on case managers' practice. In the future, researchers can use the multilevel framework to undertake implementation research in similar health contexts.

  15. Surviving the Silver Tsunami: Training a Health Care Workforce to Care for North Carolina's Aging Population.

    PubMed

    Heflin, Mitchell T

    2016-01-01

    North Carolina's aging population will require a health care workforce prepared to meet patients' complex care needs. The keys to training this workforce include continuing to mobilize the state's educational infrastructure to provide interprofessional, community-based experiences and maximizing exposure to new models of care.

  16. Aging Effects on Regional Brain Structural Changes in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Nenadić, Igor; Sauer, Heinrich; Smesny, Stefan; Gaser, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although mostly conceptualized as a neurodevelopmental disorder, there is an increasing interest in progressive changes of cognitive deficits and brain structure and function in schizophrenia across the life span. Methods: In this study, we investigated age-related changes in regional gray matter using voxel-based morphometry in a sample of 99 patients (age range 18–65 years) with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV schizophrenia and 113 healthy controls (age range 19–59 years) using a cross-sectional design. Results: We found steeper age-related decline in gray matter in patients in a cluster comprising the left superior temporal cortex and adjacent inferior parietal lobule. We then divided the schizophrenia sample in 3 subgroups based on a 3-factor model of psychopathology ratings. Age-related changes were markedly different in each of the 3 subgroups (compared with healthy controls). While patients with predominantly paranoid symptoms showed stronger age-related progression in the left superior temporal cortex and right inferior frontal gyrus, those of the disorganized subgroup had stronger gray matter loss in the left lateral cerebellum, while the predominantly negative subgroup showed minor effects in the left superior temporal gyrus. Conclusions: Our findings show that differences in brain structural changes associated with aging diverge between schizophrenia patients and healthy subjects and that different subgroups within a patient sample might be at higher risk of age-related regional gray matter loss. PMID:21296908

  17. Aging and Gene Expression in the Primate Brain

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, Hunter B.; Khaitovich, Philipp; Plotkin, Joshua B.; Paabo, Svante; Eisen, Michael B.

    2005-02-18

    It is well established that gene expression levels in many organisms change during the aging process, and the advent of DNA microarrays has allowed genome-wide patterns of transcriptional changes associated with aging to be studied in both model organisms and various human tissues. Understanding the effects of aging on gene expression in the human brain is of particular interest, because of its relation to both normal and pathological neurodegeneration. Here we show that human cerebral cortex, human cerebellum, and chimpanzee cortex each undergo different patterns of age-related gene expression alterations. In humans, many more genes undergo consistent expression changes in the cortex than in the cerebellum; in chimpanzees, many genes change expression with age in cortex, but the pattern of changes in expression bears almost no resemblance to that of human cortex. These results demonstrate the diversity of aging patterns present within the human brain, as well as how rapidly genome-wide patterns of aging can evolve between species; they may also have implications for the oxidative free radical theory of aging, and help to improve our understanding of human neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. Brain development and aging: Overlapping and unique patterns of change

    PubMed Central

    Tamnes, Christian K.; Walhovd, Kristine B.; Dale, Anders M.; Østby, Ylva; Grydeland, Håkon; Richardson, George; Westlye, Lars T.; Roddey, J. Cooper; Hagler, Donald J.; Due-Tønnessen, Paulina; Holland, Dominic; Fjell, Anders M.

    2017-01-01

    Early-life development is characterized by dramatic changes, impacting lifespan function more than changes inany other period. Developmental origins of neurocognitive late-life functions are acknowledged, but detailed longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging studies of brain maturation and direct comparisons with aging are lacking. To these aims, a novel method was used to measure longitudinal volume changes in development (n = 85, 8–22 years) and aging (n = 142, 60–91 years). Developmental reductions exceeded 1% annually in much of cortex, more than double that seen in aging, with a posterior-to-anterior gradient. Cortical reductions were greater than subcortical during development, while the opposite held in aging. The pattern of lateral cortical changes was similar across development and aging, but the pronounced medial temporal reduction in aging was not precast in development. Converging patterns of change in adolescents and elderly, particularly in medial prefrontal areas, suggest that late developed cortices are especially vulnerable to atrophy in aging. A key question in future research will be to disentangle the neurobiological underpinnings for the differences and the similarities between brain changes in development and aging. PMID:23246860

  19. The 2030 Problem: Caring for Aging Baby Boomers

    PubMed Central

    Knickman, James R; Snell, Emily K

    2002-01-01

    Objective To assess the coming challenges of caring for large numbers of frail elderly as the Baby Boom generation ages. Study Setting A review of economic and demographic data as well as simulations of projected socioeconomic and demographic patterns in the year 2030 form the basis of a review of the challenges related to caring for seniors that need to be faced by society. Study Design A series of analyses are used to consider the challenges related to caring for elders in the year 2030: (1) measures of macroeconomic burden are developed and analyzed, (2) the literatures on trends in disability, payment approaches for long-term care, healthy aging, and cultural views of aging are analyzed and synthesized, and(3)simulations of future income and assets patterns of the Baby Boom generation are developed. Principal Findings The economic burden of aging in 2030 should be no greater than the economic burden associated with raising large numbers of baby boom children in the 1960s. The real challenges of caring for the elderly in 2030 will involve: (1) making sure society develops payment and insurance systems for long-term care that work better than existing ones, (2) taking advantage of advances in medicine and behavioral health to keep the elderly as healthy and active as possible, (3) changing the way society organizes community services so that care is more accessible, and (4) altering the cultural view of aging to make sure all ages are integrated into the fabric of community life. Conclusions To meet the long-term care needs of Baby Boomers, social and public policy changes must begin soon. Meeting the financial and social service burdens of growing numbers of elders will not be a daunting task if necessary changes are made now rather than when Baby Boomers actually need long-term care. PMID:12236388

  20. Age prediction on the basis of brain anatomical measures.

    PubMed

    Valizadeh, S A; Hänggi, J; Mérillat, S; Jäncke, L

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we examined whether age can be predicted on the basis of different anatomical features obtained from a large sample of healthy subjects (n = 3,144). From this sample we obtained different anatomical feature sets: (1) 11 larger brain regions (including cortical volume, thickness, area, subcortical volume, cerebellar volume, etc.), (2) 148 cortical compartmental thickness measures, (3) 148 cortical compartmental area measures, (4) 148 cortical compartmental volume measures, and (5) a combination of the above-mentioned measures. With these anatomical feature sets, we predicted age using 6 statistical techniques (multiple linear regression, ridge regression, neural network, k-nearest neighbourhood, support vector machine, and random forest). We obtained very good age prediction accuracies, with the highest accuracy being R(2)  = 0.84 (prediction on the basis of a neural network and support vector machine approaches for the entire data set) and the lowest being R(2)  = 0.40 (prediction on the basis of a k-nearest neighborhood for cortical surface measures). Interestingly, the easy-to-calculate multiple linear regression approach with the 11 large brain compartments resulted in a very good prediction accuracy (R(2)  = 0.73), whereas the application of the neural network approach for this data set revealed very good age prediction accuracy (R(2)  = 0.83). Taken together, these results demonstrate that age can be predicted well on the basis of anatomical measures. The neural network approach turned out to be the approach with the best results. In addition, it was evident that good prediction accuracies can be achieved using a small but nevertheless age-representative dataset of brain features. Hum Brain Mapp 38:997-1008, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Brain-drain and health care delivery in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Misau, Yusuf Abdu; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Gerei, Adamu Bakari

    2010-01-01

    Migration of health workers ‘Brain drain’ is defined as the movement of health personnel in search of a better standard of living and life quality, higher salaries, access to advanced technology and more stable political conditions in different places worldwide. The debate about migration of health workers from the developing to the developed world has remained pertinent for decades now. Regardless of the push and pull factors, migration of health care workers from developing countries to developed ones, have done more harm than good on the health care deliveries in the developing countries. This article reviews the literature on the effects of cross-border migration of health care professionals. PMID:28299040

  2. Transcriptomics of Post-Stroke Angiogenesis in the Aged Brain

    PubMed Central

    Buga, Ana Maria; Margaritescu, Claudiu; Scholz, Claus Juergen; Radu, Eugen; Zelenak, Christine; Popa-Wagner, Aurel

    2014-01-01

    Despite the obvious clinical significance of post-stroke angiogenesis in aged subjects, a detailed transcriptomic analysis of post-stroke angiogenesis has not yet been undertaken in an aged experimental model. In this study, by combining stroke transcriptomics with immunohistochemistry in aged rats and post-stroke patients, we sought to identify an age-specific gene expression pattern that may characterize the angiogenic process after stroke. We found that both young and old infarcted rats initiated vigorous angiogenesis. However, the young rats had a higher vascular density by day 14 post-stroke. “New-for-stroke” genes that were linked to the increased vasculature density in young animals included Angpt2, Angptl2, Angptl4, Cib1, Ccr2, Col4a2, Cxcl1, Lef1, Hhex, Lamc1, Nid2, Pcam1, Plod2, Runx3, Scpep1, S100a4, Tgfbi, and Wnt4, which are required for sprouting angiogenesis, reconstruction of the basal lamina (BL), and the resolution phase. The vast majority of genes involved in sprouting angiogenesis (Angpt2, Angptl4, Cib1, Col8a1, Nrp1, Pcam1, Pttg1ip, Rac2, Runx1, Tnp4, Wnt4); reconstruction of a new BL (Col4a2, Lamc1, Plod2); or tube formation and maturation (Angpt1, Gpc3, Igfbp7, Sparc, Tie2, Tnfsf10), had however, a delayed upregulation in the aged rats. The angiogenic response in aged rats was further diminished by the persistent upregulation of “inflammatory” genes (Cxcl12, Mmp8, Mmp12, Mmp14, Mpeg1, Tnfrsf1a, Tnfrsf1b) and vigorous expression of genes required for the buildup of the fibrotic scar (Cthrc1, Il6ra, Il13ar1, Il18, Mmp2, Rassf4, Tgfb1, Tgfbr2, Timp1). Beyond this barrier, angiogenesis in the aged brains was similar to that in young brains. We also found that the aged human brain is capable of mounting a vigorous angiogenic response after stroke, which most likely reflects the remaining brain plasticity of the aged brain. PMID:24672479

  3. Epigenetic Determinants of Healthy and Diseased Brain Aging and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    S., Akbarian; S., Beeri M.; V., Haroutunian

    2014-01-01

    A better understanding of normal and diseased brain aging and cognition will have a significant public health impact, given that the oldest-old persons over 85 years of age represent the fastest growing segment in the population in developed countries, with over 30 million new cases of dementia predicted to occur world-wide each year by 2040. Dysregulation of gene expression, and more generally, genome organization and function, is thought to contribute to age-related declines in cognition. Remarkably, nearly all neuronal nuclei that reside in an aged brain had permanently exited from the cell cycle during prenatal development, and DNA methylation and histone modifications and other molecular constituents of the epigenome are likely to play a critical role in the maintenance of neuronal health and function throughout the entire lifespan. Here, we provide an overview on age-related changes in the brain’s chromatin structures, highlight potential epigenetic drug targets for cognitive decline and age-related neurodegenerative disease and discuss opportunities and challenges when studying ‘epigenetic biomarkers’ in aging research. PMID:23571692

  4. The Aging Network and Managed Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polivka, Larry; Zayac, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, service providers and area agencies on aging, that is, the aging network, have developed a number of strengths as they built a community-based long-term-care system in most states. Many area agencies and providers now have the capacity to assess the needs of older persons, identify appropriate services, and administer…

  5. Mixed-Age Interactions in Family Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Loraine; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined how preschoolers' experiences with mixed-age peers in family child care homes affect development. Found that interaction with younger and same-age peers was associated with less complex social and cognitive play and lower receptive language scores. Interaction with older peers was related to more complex cognitive play. The setting…

  6. Middle-Aged and Older Adult Health Care Selection.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Scott R; Erickson, Lance D; Call, Vaughn R A; McKnight, Matthew L

    2017-04-01

    This study assesses the prevalence of primary-care physician (PCP) bypass among rural middle-aged and older adults. Bypass is a behavior where people travel beyond local providers to obtain health care. This article applies a precise Geographic Information System (GIS)-based measure of bypass and examines the role of community and non-health-care-related characteristics on bypass. Our results indicate that bypass behavior among rural middle-aged and older adults is multifaceted. In addition to the perceived quality of local primary care, dissatisfaction with local services, such as shopping, creates an effect that increases the likelihood of bypass, whereas strong community ties decrease the likelihood of bypass. The results suggest that the "outshopping theory," where respondents select services in larger regional economic centers rather than local "mom and pop" providers, now extends to older adult health care selection.

  7. Advance care planning for older people in Australia presenting to the emergency department from the community or residential aged care facilities.

    PubMed

    Street, Maryann; Ottmann, Goetz; Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Considine, Julie; Livingston, Patricia M

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this retrospective, cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of advance care planning (ACP) among older people presenting to an Emergency Department (ED) from the community or a residential aged care facility. The study sample comprised 300 older people (aged 65+ years) presenting to three Victorian EDs in 2011. A total of 150 patients transferred from residential aged care to ED were randomly selected and then matched to 150 people who lived in the community and attended the ED by age, gender, reason for ED attendance and triage category on arrival. Overall prevalence of ACP was 13.3% (n = 40/300); over one-quarter (26.6%, n = 40/150) of those presenting to the ED from residential aged care had a documented Advance Care Plan, compared to none (0%, n = 0/150) of the people from the community. There were no significant differences in the median ED length of stay, number of investigations and interventions undertaken in ED, time seen by a doctor or rate of hospital admission for those with an Advance Care Plan compared to those without. Those with a comorbidity of cerebrovascular disease or dementia and those assessed with impaired brain function were more likely to have a documented Advance Care Plan on arrival at ED. Length of hospital stay was shorter for those with an Advance Care Plan [median (IQR) = 3 days (2-6) vs. 6 days (2-10), P = 0.027] and readmission lower (0% vs. 13.7%). In conclusion, older people from the community transferred to ED were unlikely to have a documented Advance Care Plan. Those from residential aged care who were cognitively impaired more frequently had an Advance Care Plan. In the ED, decisions of care did not appear to be influenced by the presence or absence of Advance Care Plans, but length of hospital admission was shorter for those with an Advance Care Plan.

  8. Indestructible plastic: the neuroscience of the new aging brain.

    PubMed

    Holman, Constance; de Villers-Sidani, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, research on experience-dependent plasticity has provided valuable insight on adaptation to environmental input across the lifespan, and advances in understanding the minute cellular changes underlying the brain's capacity for self-reorganization have opened exciting new possibilities for treating illness and injury. Ongoing work in this line of inquiry has also come to deeply influence another field: cognitive neuroscience of the normal aging. This complex process, once considered inevitable or beyond the reach of treatment, has been transformed into an arena of intense investigation and strategic intervention. However, important questions remain about this characterization of the aging brain, and the assumptions it makes about the social, cultural, and biological space occupied by cognition in the older individual and body. The following paper will provide a critical examination of the move from basic experiments on the neurophysiology of experience-dependent plasticity to the growing market for (and public conception of) cognitive aging as a medicalized space for intervention by neuroscience-backed technologies. Entangled with changing concepts of normality, pathology, and self-preservation, we will argue that this new understanding, led by personalized cognitive training strategies, is approaching a point where interdisciplinary research is crucial to provide a holistic and nuanced understanding of the aging process. This new outlook will allow us to move forward in a space where our knowledge, like our new conception of the brain, is never static.

  9. Phenomenological perspectives on self-care in aging

    PubMed Central

    Söderhamn, Olle

    2013-01-01

    Self-care is a central concept in health care and may be considered as a means to maintain, restore, and improve one’s health and well-being. When performed effectively, self-care contributes not only to human functioning but also to human structural integrity and human development (ie, to a dynamic and holistic state of health). Self-care as a clinical concept is relevant for health care professionals, and it should be meaningful to investigate it at a philosophical level and to further elaborate upon this concept. The aim of this article is to discuss and elaborate upon a phenomenological perspective on self-care in aging that is relevant for the health sciences. Self-care may be preliminarily regarded as a fundamental perspective for the conscious older individual, and as a way of being in the world with both the objective body and with the lived body. The lived body is the personal center of perception and the field of action, and it is also the center of self-care. The potentiality or ability for self-care activity and self-care activity itself are structures given to perception, with self-care ability as an integral part of the lived body. The actualization of self-care ability comes about through a certain meaning, which can be regarded as an important driving force. It is constituted by communication, a healthy lifestyle, and by building meaning and socializing. Successful self-care involves having contacts with the health care system, being conscious of a sound lifestyle, being physically and mentally active, being engaged, having social contacts with family and others, as well as being satisfied, positive, and being able to look forward. One fundamental cornerstone is serenity on behalf of the individual. Self-care can facilitate transitions, and it may also be an outcome of transitions. PMID:23807842

  10. Spiritual care and ageing in a secular society.

    PubMed

    MacKinlay, Elizabeth B; Trevitt, Corinne

    2007-05-21

    Providing spiritual care is about tapping into the concept of spirituality: core meaning, deepest life meaning, hope and connectedness. The search for meaning, connectedness and hope becomes more significant as older people are faced with the possibilities of frailty, disability and dementia. Spirituality, ageing and meaning in life can be discussed in the context of an alternative view of "successful ageing". A model of spiritual tasks in older age can help explain the spiritual dimension and provide a starting point for spiritual assessment.

  11. New cellular and molecular approaches to ageing brain.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Anurag

    2012-10-01

    The last decade has witnessed a mammoth progress in the area of brain ageing. Recent gene profiling and brain imaging techniques have made it possible to explore the dark areas of ageing neurons in a new molecular perspective. Many conserved pathways and cellular and molecular mechanisms particularly nuclear mitochondrial molecular interactions are known now. Disruptions in mitochondrial function and reduction in cellular antioxidative and immunoproteins contribute to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which leads to deteriorated adult neurogenesis, reduced white matter and compromised neural plasticity. The overall deteriorated structure and function of neurons is manifested in form of cognitive decline and prolonged neurodegenerative disorders. Dietary restrictions (DR), physical and mental activities however have been shown to counter these ailments. However more precise molecular dynamics at protein levels is still debatable which is the future task for neuroscientists.

  12. The aging network and managed long-term care.

    PubMed

    Polivka, Larry; Zayac, Helen

    2008-10-01

    Since the early 1980s, service providers and area agencies on aging, that is, the aging network, have developed a number of strengths as they built a community-based long-term-care system in most states. Many area agencies and providers now have the capacity to assess the needs of older persons, identify appropriate services, and administer cost-effective community programs while operating within fixed, capped budgets. They have also been able to identify and maintain roles for informal caregivers, draw on community resources through donations and the use of volunteers, and create substantial political support. In this article we argue that the aging network should draw on these strengths to develop integrated long-term-care systems designed to shift the balance of state long-term-care systems from institutional to home- and community-based services. We also argue that the nonprofit aging network, because it is made up of area agencies on aging and service providers, provides a potentially more effective framework for the integration of long-term-care resources than do proprietary managed care organizations.

  13. Lucid dreaming: an age-dependent brain dissociation.

    PubMed

    Voss, Ursula; Frenzel, Clemens; Koppehele-Gossel, Judith; Hobson, Allan

    2012-12-01

    The current study focused on the distribution of lucid dreams in school children and young adults. The survey was conducted on a large sample of students aged 6-19 years. Questions distinguished between past and current experience with lucid dreams. Results suggest that lucid dreaming is quite pronounced in young children, its incidence rate drops at about age 16 years. Increased lucidity was found in those attending higher level compared with lower level schools. Taking methodological issues into account, we feel confident to propose a link between the natural occurrence of lucid dreaming and brain maturation.

  14. Primate aging in the mammalian scheme: the puzzle of extreme variation in brain aging.

    PubMed

    Finch, Caleb E; Austad, Steven N

    2012-10-01

    At later ages, humans have high risk of developing Alzheimer disease (AD) which may afflict up to 50% by 90 years. While prosimians and monkeys show more substantial changes, the great apes brains examined show mild neurodegenerative changes. Compared with rodents, primates develop and reproduce slowly and are long lived. The New World primates contain some of the shortest as well as some of the longest-lived monkey species, while the prosimians develop the most rapidly and are the shortest lived. Great apes have the largest brains, slowest development, and longest lives among the primates. All primates share some level of slowly progressive, age-related neurodegenerative changes. However, no species besides humans has yet shown regular drastic neuron loss or cognitive decline approaching clinical grade AD. Several primates accumulate extensive deposits of diffuse amyloid-beta protein (Aβ) but only a prosimian-the gray mouse lemur-regularly develops a tauopathy approaching the neurofibrillary tangles of AD. Compared with monkeys, nonhuman great apes display even milder brain-aging changes, a deeply puzzling observation. The genetic basis for these major species differences in brain aging remains obscure but does not involve the Aβ coding sequence which is identical in nonhuman primates and humans. While chimpanzees merit more study, we note the value of smaller, shorter-lived species such as marmosets and small lemurs for aging studies. A continuing concern for all aging studies employing primates is that relative to laboratory rodents, primate husbandry is in a relatively primitive state, and better husbandry to control infections and obesity is needed for brain aging research.

  15. Brain plasticity and motor practice in cognitive aging.

    PubMed

    Cai, Liuyang; Chan, John S Y; Yan, Jin H; Peng, Kaiping

    2014-01-01

    For more than two decades, there have been extensive studies of experience-based neural plasticity exploring effective applications of brain plasticity for cognitive and motor development. Research suggests that human brains continuously undergo structural reorganization and functional changes in response to stimulations or training. From a developmental point of view, the assumption of lifespan brain plasticity has been extended to older adults in terms of the benefits of cognitive training and physical therapy. To summarize recent developments, first, we introduce the concept of neural plasticity from a developmental perspective. Secondly, we note that motor learning often refers to deliberate practice and the resulting performance enhancement and adaptability. We discuss the close interplay between neural plasticity, motor learning and cognitive aging. Thirdly, we review research on motor skill acquisition in older adults with, and without, impairments relative to aging-related cognitive decline. Finally, to enhance future research and application, we highlight the implications of neural plasticity in skills learning and cognitive rehabilitation for the aging population.

  16. Intranasal Insulin Improves Age-Related Cognitive Deficits and Reverses Electrophysiological Correlates of Brain Aging

    PubMed Central

    Maimaiti, Shaniya; Anderson, Katie L.; DeMoll, Chris; Brewer, Lawrence D.; Rauh, Benjamin A.; Gant, John C.; Blalock, Eric M.; Porter, Nada M.

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral insulin resistance is a key component of metabolic syndrome associated with obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. While the impact of insulin resistance is well recognized in the periphery, it is also becoming apparent in the brain. Recent studies suggest that insulin resistance may be a factor in brain aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) whereby intranasal insulin therapy, which delivers insulin to the brain, improves cognition and memory in AD patients. Here, we tested a clinically relevant delivery method to determine the impact of two forms of insulin, short-acting insulin lispro (Humalog) or long-acting insulin detemir (Levemir), on cognitive functions in aged F344 rats. We also explored insulin effects on the Ca2+-dependent hippocampal afterhyperpolarization (AHP), a well-characterized neurophysiological marker of aging which is increased in the aged, memory impaired animal. Low-dose intranasal insulin improved memory recall in aged animals such that their performance was similar to that seen in younger animals. Further, because ex vivo insulin also reduced the AHP, our results suggest that the AHP may be a novel cellular target of insulin in the brain, and improved cognitive performance following intranasal insulin therapy may be the result of insulin actions on the AHP. PMID:25659889

  17. A Healthy Middle-Aged Heart May Protect Your Brain Later

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Healthy Middle-Aged Heart May Protect Your Brain Later Dementia expert says take up heart-healthy ... 11, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Healthy aging of the brain relies on the health of your heart and ...

  18. Influence of Patient Age on Angioarchitecture of Brain Arteriovenous Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Hetts, Steven W.; Cooke, Daniel L.; Nelson, Jeffrey; Gupta, Nalin; Fullerton, Heather; Amans, Matthew R.; Narvid, Jared A.; Moftakhar, Parham; McSwain, Hugh; Dowd, Christopher F.; Higashida, Randall T.; Halbach, Van V.; Lawton, Michael T.; Kim, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose To determine if clinical and angioarchitectural features of brain AVMs differ between children and adults. Materials and Methods A prospectively collected institutional database of all patients diagnosed with brain AVMs since 2001 was queried. Demographic, clinical, and angioarchitecture information was summarized and analyzed with univariable and multivariable models. Results Results often differed when age was treated as a continuous variable as opposed to dividing subjects into children (≤18 years; n=203) versus adults (>18 years; n=630). Children were more likely to present with AVM hemorrhage than adults (59% vs. 41%, p<0.001). Although AVMs with a larger nidus presented at younger ages (mean of 26.8 years for >6 cm compared to 37.1 years for <3 cm), this was not significantly different between children and adults (p=0.069). Exclusively deep venous drainage was more common in younger subjects both when age was treated continuously (p=0.04), or dichotomized (p<0.001). Venous ectasia was more common with increasing age (mean, 39.4 years with ectasia compared to 31.1 years without ectasia) and when adults were compared to children (52% vs. 35%, p<0.001). Patients with feeding artery aneurysms presented at later average age (44.1 years) than those without such aneurysms (31.6 years); this observation persisted when comparing children to adults (13% vs. 29%, p<0.001). Conclusion Although children with brain AVMs were more likely to come to clinical attention due to hemorrhage than adults, venous ectasia and feeding artery aneurysms were underrepresented in children, suggesting that these particular high risk features take time to develop. PMID:24627452

  19. Regional age-related effects in the monkey brain measured with 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ronen, Itamar; Fan, Xiaoying; Schettler, Steve; Jain, Sahil; Murray, Donna; Kim, Dae-Shik; Killiany, Ronald; Rosene, Douglas

    2011-06-01

    The rhesus monkey is a useful model for examining age-related effects on the brain, because of the extensive neuroanatomical homology between the monkey and the human brain, the tight control for neurological diseases as well as the possibility of obtaining relevant behavioral data and post-mortem tissue for histological analyses. Here, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) was used together with high-resolution anatomical MRI images to carefully assess regional concentrations of brain metabolites in a group of 20 rhesus monkeys. In an anterior volume of interest (VOI) that covered frontal and prefrontal areas, significant positive correlations of myo-inositol and of total creatine concentrations with age were detected, whereas N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and choline compounds (Cho) were not significantly correlated with age. In an occipito-parietal VOI, all metabolites showed no statistically significant age-dependent trend. Strong correlations were found between NAA concentration and gray matter fraction in the VOIs as well as between choline compounds and white matter fraction.

  20. Indestructible plastic: the neuroscience of the new aging brain

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Constance; de Villers-Sidani, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, research on experience-dependent plasticity has provided valuable insight on adaptation to environmental input across the lifespan, and advances in understanding the minute cellular changes underlying the brain’s capacity for self-reorganization have opened exciting new possibilities for treating illness and injury. Ongoing work in this line of inquiry has also come to deeply influence another field: cognitive neuroscience of the normal aging. This complex process, once considered inevitable or beyond the reach of treatment, has been transformed into an arena of intense investigation and strategic intervention. However, important questions remain about this characterization of the aging brain, and the assumptions it makes about the social, cultural, and biological space occupied by cognition in the older individual and body. The following paper will provide a critical examination of the move from basic experiments on the neurophysiology of experience-dependent plasticity to the growing market for (and public conception of) cognitive aging as a medicalized space for intervention by neuroscience-backed technologies. Entangled with changing concepts of normality, pathology, and self-preservation, we will argue that this new understanding, led by personalized cognitive training strategies, is approaching a point where interdisciplinary research is crucial to provide a holistic and nuanced understanding of the aging process. This new outlook will allow us to move forward in a space where our knowledge, like our new conception of the brain, is never static. PMID:24782746

  1. CircRNA accumulation in the aging mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Gruner, Hannah; Cortés-López, Mariela; Cooper, Daphne A.; Bauer, Matthew; Miura, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a newly appreciated class of RNAs expressed across diverse phyla. These enigmatic transcripts are most commonly generated by back-splicing events from exons of protein-coding genes. This results in highly stable RNAs due to the lack of free 5′ and 3′ ends. CircRNAs are enriched in neural tissues, suggesting that they might have neural functions. Here, we sought to determine whether circRNA accumulation occurs during aging in mice. Total RNA-seq profiling of young (1 month old) and aged (22 month old) cortex, hippocampus and heart samples was performed. This led to the confident detection of 6,791 distinct circRNAs across these samples, including 675 novel circRNAs. Analysis uncovered a strong bias for circRNA upregulation during aging in neural tissues. These age-accumulation trends were verified for individual circRNAs by RT-qPCR and Northern analysis. In contrast, comparison of aged versus young hearts failed to reveal a global trend for circRNA upregulation. Age-accumulation of circRNAs in brain tissues was found to be largely independent from linear RNA expression of host genes. These findings suggest that circRNAs might play biological roles relevant to the aging nervous system. PMID:27958329

  2. [Supportive care, cognition and quality of life in brain metastases].

    PubMed

    Le Rhun, É; Taillibert, S; Blonski, M; Jouniaux Delbez, N; Delgadillo, D; Taillia, H; Auquier, P; Belin, C; Bonnetain, F; Varin, D; Tallet, A; Taillandier, L

    2015-02-01

    Brain metastases impact on the survival of the patients, but on their quality of life as well. The objective of the management of these patients is then double. Currently, due to medical advances, survivals tend to improve, especially for some tumor subtypes. During the course of the disease, different neurological signs and symptoms can be observed according to the location, the number and the volume of the metastase(s). Patients and caregivers are especially worried about the loss of autonomy and cognitive impairments. A permanent dialogue, during the course of the disease, is mandatory, in order to adapt the management to the objectives determined by the patients and the medical team. These objectives may vary according to the objective response rates of the disease to anticancer therapies, according to the impact of the disease and its management in daily living. Anticancer therapies and supportive care must be appreciated according to their impact on the survival, on the preservation of the functional independence and the quality of life of the patient, on their abilities to preserve the neurological status and delay the apparition of new neurological signs and symptoms, and their adverse events. Supportive care, cognition and quality of life should be regularly evaluated and adapted according to the objectives of the management of brain metastases patients. Different approaches are described in this paper.

  3. How age of acquisition influences brain architecture in bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Miao; Joshi, Anand A.; Zhang, Mingxia; Mei, Leilei; Manis, Franklin R.; He, Qinghua; Beattie, Rachel L.; Xue, Gui; Shattuck, David W.; Leahy, Richard M.; Xue, Feng; Houston, Suzanne M.; Chen, Chuansheng; Dong, Qi; Lu, Zhong-Lin

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we explored how Age of Acquisition (AoA) of L2 affected brain structures in bilingual individuals. Thirty-six native English speakers who were bilingual were scanned with high resolution MRI. After MRI signal intensity inhomogeneity correction, we applied both voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and surface-based morphometry (SBM) approaches to the data. VBM analysis was performed using FSL’s standard VBM processing pipeline. For the SBM analysis, we utilized a semi-automated sulci delineation procedure, registered the brains to an atlas, and extracted measures of twenty four pre-selected regions of interest. We addressed three questions: (1) Which areas are more susceptible to differences in AoA? (2) How do AoA, proficiency and current level of exposure work together in predicting structural differences in the brain? And (3) What is the direction of the effect of AoA on regional volumetric and surface measures? Both VBM and SBM results suggested that earlier second language exposure was associated with larger volumes in the right parietal cortex. Consistently, SBM showed that the cortical area of the right superior parietal lobule increased as AoA decreased. In contrast, in the right pars orbitalis of the inferior frontal gyrus, AoA, proficiency, and current level of exposure are equally important in accounting for the structural differences. We interpret our results in terms of current theory and research on the effects of L2 learning on brain structures and functions. PMID:27695193

  4. Age differences in the brain mechanisms of good taste.

    PubMed

    Rolls, Edmund T; Kellerhals, Michele B; Nichols, Thomas E

    2015-06-01

    There is strong evidence demonstrating age-related differences in the acceptability of foods and beverages. To examine the neural foundations underlying these age-related differences in the acceptability of different flavors and foods, we performed an fMRI study to investigate brain and hedonic responses to orange juice, orange soda, and vegetable juice in three different age groups: Young (22), Middle (40) and Elderly (60 years). Orange juice and orange soda were found to be liked by all age groups, while vegetable juice was disliked by the Young, but liked by the Elderly. In the insular primary taste cortex, the activations to these stimuli were similar in the 3 age groups, indicating that the differences in liking for these stimuli between the 3 groups were not represented in this first stage of cortical taste processing. In the agranular insula (anterior to the insular primary taste cortex) where flavor is represented, the activations to the stimuli were similar in the Elderly, but in the Young the activations were larger to the vegetable juice than to the orange drinks; and the activations here were correlated with the unpleasantness of the stimuli. In the anterior midcingulate cortex, investigated as a site where the activations were correlated with the unpleasantness of the stimuli, there was again a greater activation to the vegetable than to the orange stimuli in the Young but not in the Elderly. In the amygdala (and orbitofrontal cortex), investigated as sites where the activations were correlated with the pleasantness of the stimuli, there was a smaller activation to the vegetable than to the orange stimuli in the Young but not in the Elderly. The Middle group was intermediate with respect to the separation of their activations to the stimuli in the brain areas that represent the pleasantness or unpleasantness of flavors. Thus age differences in the activations to different flavors can in some brain areas be related to, and probably cause, the

  5. Evaluating medication-related quality of care in residential aged care: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hillen, Jodie B; Vitry, Agnes; Caughey, Gillian E

    2015-01-01

    Given the growing aged care population, the complexity of their medication-related needs and increased risk of adverse drug events, there is a necessity to systematically monitor and manage medication-related quality of care. The aim of this systematic review was to identify and synthesise medication-related quality of care indicators with respect to application to residential aged care. MEDLINE (Ovid), Psychinfo, CINAHL, Embase and Google® were searched from 2001 to 2013 for studies that were in English, focused on older people aged 65+ years and discussed the development, application or validation of original medication-related quality of care indicators. The quality of selected articles was appraised using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program and psychometric qualities extracted and synthesised using content analysis. Indicators were mapped to six medication-related quality of care attributes and a minimum indicator set derived. Thirty three articles describing 25 indicator sets met the inclusion criteria. Thirteen (52%) contained prescribing quality indicators only. Eight (32%) were developed specifically for aged care. Twenty three (92%) were validated and seven (28%) assessed for reliability. The most common attribute addressed was medication appropriateness (n = 24). There were no indicators for evaluating medication use in those with limited life expectancy, which resulted in only five of the six attributes being addressed. The developed minimum indicator set contains 28 indicators representing 22 of 25 identified indicator sets. Whilst a wide variety of validated indicator sets exist, none addressed all aspects of medication-related quality of care pertinent to residential aged care. The minimum indicator set is intended as a foundation for comprehensively evaluating medication-related quality of care in this setting. Future work should focus on bridging identified gaps.

  6. Reversal of glial and neurovascular markers of unhealthy brain aging by exercise in middle-aged female mice.

    PubMed

    Latimer, Caitlin S; Searcy, James L; Bridges, Michael T; Brewer, Lawrence D; Popović, Jelena; Blalock, Eric M; Landfield, Philip W; Thibault, Olivier; Porter, Nada M

    2011-01-01

    Healthy brain aging and cognitive function are promoted by exercise. The benefits of exercise are attributed to several mechanisms, many which highlight its neuroprotective role via actions that enhance neurogenesis, neuronal morphology and/or neurotrophin release. However, the brain is also composed of glial and vascular elements, and comparatively less is known regarding the effects of exercise on these components in the aging brain. Here, we show that aerobic exercise at mid-age decreased markers of unhealthy brain aging including astrocyte hypertrophy, a hallmark of brain aging. Middle-aged female mice were assigned to a sedentary group or provided a running wheel for six weeks. Exercise decreased hippocampal astrocyte and myelin markers of aging but increased VEGF, a marker of angiogenesis. Brain vascular casts revealed exercise-induced structural modifications associated with improved endothelial function in the periphery. Our results suggest that age-related astrocyte hypertrophy/reactivity and myelin dysregulation are aggravated by a sedentary lifestyle and accompanying reductions in vascular function. However, these effects appear reversible with exercise initiated at mid-age. As this period of the lifespan coincides with the appearance of multiple markers of brain aging, including initial signs of cognitive decline, it may represent a window of opportunity for intervention as the brain appears to still possess significant vascular plasticity. These results may also have particular implications for aging females who are more susceptible than males to certain risk factors which contribute to vascular aging.

  7. Can Endocrine Disruptors Influence Neuroplasticity In The Aging Brain?

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    Only within the last two decades has the adult mammalian brain been recognized for its ability to generate new nerve cells and other neural structures and in essence to rewire itself. Although hippocampal structures have received the greatest scrutiny, other sites, including the cerebral cortex, also display this potential. Such processes remain active in the aging brain, although to a lesser degree. Two of the factors known to induce neurogenesis are environmental enrichment and physical activity. Gonadal hormones, however, also play crucial roles. Androgens and estrogens are both required for the preservation of cognitive function during aging and apparently help counteract the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. One overlooked threat to hormonal adequacy that requires close examination is the abundance of environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals that interfere with gonadal function. They come in the form of estrogenic mimics, androgen mimics, anti-estrogens, anti-androgens, and in a variety of other guises. Because our brains are in continuous transition throughout the lifespan, responding both to environmental circumstances and to changing levels of gonadal steroids, endocrine-disrupting chemicals possess the potential to impair neurogenesis, and represent a hazard for the preservation of cognitive function during the later stages of the life cycle. PMID:17350099

  8. Effects of Prenatal Care on Child Health at Age 5

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Kelly; Corman, Hope; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The broad goal of contemporary prenatal care is to promote the health of the mother, child, and family through the pregnancy, delivery, and the child’s development. Although the vast majority of mothers giving birth in developed countries receive prenatal care, past research has not found compelling evidence that early or adequate prenatal care has favorable effects on birth outcomes. It is possible that prenatal care confers health benefits to the child that do not become apparent until after the perinatal period. Methods Using data from a national urban birth cohort study in the U.S., we estimate the effects of prenatal care on four markers of child health at age 5—maternal-reported health status, asthma diagnosis, overweight, and height. We implement a number of different strategies to address the issue of potential omitted variables bias as well as a large number of specification checks to validate the findings. Results and Conclusions Prenatal care, defined a number of different ways, does not appear to have any effect on the outcomes examined. The findings are robust and suggest that routine health care encounters during the prenatal period could potentially be used more effectively to enhance children’s health trajectories. However, future research is needed to explore the effects of prenatal care on additional child health and developmental outcomes as well as the effects of preconceptional and maternal lifetime helathcare on child health. PMID:22374319

  9. Effects of prenatal care on child health at age 5.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Kelly; Corman, Hope; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira; Reichman, Nancy E

    2013-02-01

    The broad goal of contemporary prenatal care is to promote the health of the mother, child, and family through the pregnancy, delivery, and the child's development. Although the vast majority of mothers giving birth in developed countries receive prenatal care, past research has not found compelling evidence that early or adequate prenatal care has favorable effects on birth outcomes. It is possible that prenatal care confers health benefits to the child that do not become apparent until after the perinatal period. Using data from a national urban birth cohort study in the US, we estimate the effects of prenatal care on four markers of child health at age 5-maternal-reported health status, asthma diagnosis, overweight, and height. Prenatal care, defined a number of different ways, does not appear to have any effect on the outcomes examined. The findings are robust and suggest that routine health care encounters during the prenatal period could potentially be used more effectively to enhance children's health trajectories. However, future research is needed to explore the effects of prenatal care on additional child health and developmental outcomes as well as the effects of preconceptional and maternal lifetime healthcare on child health.

  10. Impact of technology-based care and management systems on aged care outcomes in Australia.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Tracey; Russell, Frances

    2012-03-01

    This study determined the impact of a computerized care documentation system on client outcomes, regulatory compliance, and staff workloads after 3 years of use. The survey was conducted at an 800-bed aged care facility, and staff using the computerized care system were invited to participate (n = 112). The survey was an adapted version of the Nurses Computer Attitudes to Technology Inventory, which was refined to make it relevant to the aged care workplace. Four multiple regression models were produced, assessing the impact of the computerized care management system on staff and workload; time; accuracy, and regulatory data; and resident care. The analysis showed that the perceived benefits of the computerized system were influenced by personal attitudes towards computer use and feelings of empowerment related to the computer system. Even those with poor computer skills and feelings of insecurity about using computers believed that there were significant benefits to be gained by using the system. This result has implications with regards to the training and recruitment of staff in the aged care sector, as facilities introduce computerized care systems.

  11. Advanced BrainAGE in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Katja; Gaser, Christian; Manor, Brad; Novak, Vera

    2013-01-01

    Aging alters brain structure and function and diabetes mellitus (DM) may accelerate this process. This study investigated the effects of type 2 DM on individual brain aging as well as the relationships between individual brain aging, risk factors, and functional measures. To differentiate a pattern of brain atrophy that deviates from normal brain aging, we used the novel BrainAGE approach, which determines the complex multidimensional aging pattern within the whole brain by applying established kernel regression methods to anatomical brain magnetic resonance images (MRI). The “Brain Age Gap Estimation” (BrainAGE) score was then calculated as the difference between chronological age and estimated brain age. 185 subjects (98 with type 2 DM) completed an MRI at 3Tesla, laboratory and clinical assessments. Twenty-five subjects (12 with type 2 DM) also completed a follow-up visit after 3.8 ± 1.5 years. The estimated brain age of DM subjects was 4.6 ± 7.2 years greater than their chronological age (p = 0.0001), whereas within the control group, estimated brain age was similar to chronological age. As compared to baseline, the average BrainAGE scores of DM subjects increased by 0.2 years per follow-up year (p = 0.034), whereas the BrainAGE scores of controls did not change between baseline and follow-up. At baseline, across all subjects, higher BrainAGE scores were associated with greater smoking and alcohol consumption, higher tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) levels, lower verbal fluency scores and more severe deprepession. Within the DM group, higher BrainAGE scores were associated with longer diabetes duration (r = 0.31, p = 0.019) and increased fasting blood glucose levels (r = 0.34, p = 0.025). In conclusion, type 2 DM is independently associated with structural changes in the brain that reflect advanced aging. The BrainAGE approach may thus serve as a clinically relevant biomarker for the detection of abnormal patterns of brain aging associated with type 2

  12. The role of the brain in female reproductive aging.

    PubMed

    Downs, Jodi L; Wise, Phyllis M

    2009-02-05

    In middle-aged women, follicular depletion is a critical factor mediating the menopausal transition; however, all levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis contribute to the age-related decline in reproductive function. To help elucidate the complex interactions between the ovary and brain during middle-age that lead to the onset of the menopause, we utilize animal models which share striking similarities in reproductive physiology. Our results show that during middle-age, prior to any overt irregularities in estrous cyclicity, the ability of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) to modulate the cascade of neurochemical events required for preovulatory gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release and a luteinizing hormone (LH) surge is diminished. Middle-aged female rats experience a delay in and an attenuation of LH release in response to E(2). Additionally, although we do not observe a decrease in GnRH neuron number until a very advanced age, E(2)-mediated GnRH neuronal activation declines during the earliest stages of age-related reproductive decline. Numerous hypothalamic neuropeptides and neurochemical stimulatory inputs (i.e., glutamate, norepinephrine (NE), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)) that drive the E(2)-mediated GnRH/LH surge appear to dampen with age or lack the precise temporal coordination required for a specific pattern of GnRH secretion, while inhibitory signals such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and opioid peptides remain unchanged or elevated during the afternoon of proestrus. These changes, occurring at the level of the hypothalamus, lead to irregular estrous cycles and, ultimately, the cessation of reproductive function. Taken together, our studies indicate that the hypothalamus is an important contributor to age-related female reproductive decline.

  13. Baby Boom Caregivers: Care in the Age of Individualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guberman, Nancy; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre; Blein, Laure; Olazabal, Ignace

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many Baby Boomers are faced with the care of aging parents, as well as that of disabled or ill spouses or children. This study examines how Baby Boomers in Quebec, Canada, perceive and play their role as caregivers and how this might differ from their parents' generation. Design and methods: This was a qualitative and empirical study…

  14. School-Age Child Care: Innovative Public School Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERS Spectrum, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Innovative school-age day care programs include Tennessee's Extended School Program; Hawaii's After-School Plus program; San Antonio's Kid's Involvement Network (offering middle school supervision); Aurora, Colorado's state-licensed Year-Round School Recreation Plan; and Pomona, California's Child Development Program. These public school programs…

  15. Factors Influencing Residents' Satisfaction in Residential Aged Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Shu-Chiung; Boldy, Duncan P.; Lee, Andy H.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify the important factors influencing residents' satisfaction in residential aged care and to provide a better understanding of their interrelationships. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional survey design was used to collect the required information, including resident satisfaction, resident dependency…

  16. Docosahexaenoic Acid and the Aging Brain1–3

    PubMed Central

    Lukiw, Walter J.; Bazan, Nicolas G.

    2008-01-01

    The dietary essential PUFA docosahexaenoic acid [DHA; 22:6(n-3)] is a critical contributor to cell structure and function in the nervous system, and deficits in DHA abundance are associated with cognitive decline during aging and in neurodegenerative disease. Recent studies underscore the importance of DHA-derived neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1) in the homeostatic regulation of brain cell survival and repair involving neurotrophic, antiapoptotic and antiinflammatory signaling. Emerging evidence suggests that NPD1 synthesis is activated by growth factors and neurotrophins. Evolving research indicates that NPD1 has important determinant and regulatory interactions with the molecular-genetic mechanisms affecting β-amyloid precursor protein (βAPP) and amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide neurobiology. Deficits in DHA or its peroxidation appear to contribute to inflammatory signaling, apoptosis, and neuronal dysfunction in Alzheimer disease (AD), a common and progressive age-related neurological disorder unique to structures and processes of the human brain. This article briefly reviews our current understanding of the interactions of DHA and NPD1 on βAPP processing and Aβ peptide signaling and how this contributes to oxidative and pathogenic processes characteristic of aging and AD pathology. PMID:19022980

  17. Neural Plastic Effects of Cognitive Training on Aging Brain.

    PubMed

    Leung, Natalie T Y; Tam, Helena M K; Chu, Leung W; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Chan, Felix; Lam, Linda C W; Woo, Jean; Lee, Tatia M C

    2015-01-01

    Increasing research has evidenced that our brain retains a capacity to change in response to experience until late adulthood. This implies that cognitive training can possibly ameliorate age-associated cognitive decline by inducing training-specific neural plastic changes at both neural and behavioral levels. This longitudinal study examined the behavioral effects of a systematic thirteen-week cognitive training program on attention and working memory of older adults who were at risk of cognitive decline. These older adults were randomly assigned to the Cognitive Training Group (n = 109) and the Active Control Group (n = 100). Findings clearly indicated that training induced improvement in auditory and visual-spatial attention and working memory. The training effect was specific to the experience provided because no significant difference in verbal and visual-spatial memory between the two groups was observed. This pattern of findings is consistent with the prediction and the principle of experience-dependent neuroplasticity. Findings of our study provided further support to the notion that the neural plastic potential continues until older age. The baseline cognitive status did not correlate with pre- versus posttraining changes to any cognitive variables studied, suggesting that the initial cognitive status may not limit the neuroplastic potential of the brain at an old age.

  18. Rapamycin suppresses brain aging in senescence-accelerated OXYS rats.

    PubMed

    Kolosova, Nataliya G; Vitovtov, Anton O; Muraleva, Natalia A; Akulov, Andrey E; Stefanova, Natalia A; Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2013-06-01

    Cellular and organismal aging are driven in part by the MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) pathway and rapamycin extends life span inC elegans, Drosophila and mice. Herein, we investigated effects of rapamycin on brain aging in OXYS rats. Previously we found, in OXYS rats, an early development of age-associated pathological phenotypes similar to several geriatric disorders in humans, including cerebral dysfunctions. Behavioral alterations as well as learning and memory deficits develop by 3 months. Here we show that rapamycin treatment (0.1 or 0.5 mg/kg as a food mixture daily from the age of 1.5 to 3.5 months) decreased anxiety and improved locomotor and exploratory behavior in OXYS rats. In untreated OXYS rats, MRI revealed an increase of the area of hippocampus, substantial hydrocephalus and 2-fold increased area of the lateral ventricles. Rapamycin treatment prevented these abnormalities, erasing the difference between OXYS and Wister rats (used as control). All untreated OXYS rats showed signs of neurodegeneration, manifested by loci of demyelination. Rapamycin decreased the percentage of animals with demyelination and the number of loci. Levels of Tau and phospho-Tau (T181) were increased in OXYS rats (compared with Wistar). Rapamycin significantly decreased Tau and inhibited its phosphorylation in the hippocampus of OXYS and Wistar rats. Importantly, rapamycin treatment caused a compensatory increase in levels of S6 and correspondingly levels of phospo-S6 in the frontal cortex, indicating that some downstream events were compensatory preserved, explaining the lack of toxicity. We conclude that rapamycin in low chronic doses can suppress brain aging.

  19. Valuable human capital: the aging health care worker.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sandra K; Collins, Kevin S

    2006-01-01

    With the workforce growing older and the supply of younger workers diminishing, it is critical for health care managers to understand the factors necessary to capitalize on their vintage employees. Retaining this segment of the workforce has a multitude of benefits including the preservation of valuable intellectual capital, which is necessary to ensure that health care organizations maintain their competitive advantage in the consumer-driven market. Retaining the aging employee is possible if health care managers learn the motivators and training differences associated with this category of the workforce. These employees should be considered a valuable resource of human capital because without their extensive expertise, intense loyalty and work ethic, and superior customer service skills, health care organizations could suffer severe economic repercussions in the near future.

  20. Ageing with telecare: care or coercion in austerity?

    PubMed

    Mort, Maggie; Roberts, Celia; Callén, Blanca

    2013-07-01

    In recent years images of independence, active ageing and staying at home have come to characterise a successful old age in western societies. 'Telecare' technologies are heavily promoted to assist ageing-in-place and a nexus of demographic ageing, shrinking healthcare and social care budgets and technological ambition has come to promote the 'telehome' as the solution to the problem of the 'age dependency ratio'. Through the adoption of a range of monitoring and telecare devices, it seems that the normative vision of independence will also be achieved. But with falling incomes and pressure for economies of scale, what kind of independence is experienced in the telehome? In this article we engage with the concepts of 'technogenarians' and 'shared work' to illuminate our analysis of telecare in use. Drawing on European-funded research we argue that home-monitoring based telecare has the potential to coerce older people unless we are able to recognise and respect a range of responses including non-use and 'misuse' in daily practice. We propose that re-imagining the aims of telecare and redesigning systems to allow for creative engagement with technologies and the co-production of care relations would help to avoid the application of coercive forms of care technology in times of austerity.

  1. Using autopsy brain tissue to study alcohol-related brain damage in the genomic age.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Greg T; Sheedy, Donna; Kril, Jillian J

    2014-01-01

    The New South Wales Tissue Resource Centre at the University of Sydney, Australia, is one of the few human brain banks dedicated to the study of the effects of chronic alcoholism. The bank was affiliated in 1994 as a member of the National Network of Brain Banks and also focuses on schizophrenia and healthy control tissue. Alcohol abuse is a major problem worldwide, manifesting in such conditions as fetal alcohol syndrome, adolescent binge drinking, alcohol dependency, and alcoholic neurodegeneration. The latter is also referred to as alcohol-related brain damage (ARBD). The study of postmortem brain tissue is ideally suited to determining the effects of long-term alcohol abuse, but it also makes an important contribution to understanding pathogenesis across the spectrum of alcohol misuse disorders and potentially other neurodegenerative diseases. Tissue from the bank has contributed to 330 peer-reviewed journal articles including 120 related to alcohol research. Using the results of these articles, this review chronicles advances in alcohol-related brain research since 2003, the so-called genomic age. In particular, it concentrates on transcriptomic approaches to the pathogenesis of ARBD and builds on earlier reviews of structural changes (Harper et al. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2003;27:951) and proteomics (Matsumoto et al. Expert Rev Proteomics 2007;4:539).

  2. Microglial cell dysregulation in brain aging and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    von Bernhardi, Rommy; Eugenín-von Bernhardi, Laura; Eugenín, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Aging is the main risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases. In aging, microglia undergoes phenotypic changes compatible with their activation. Glial activation can lead to neuroinflammation, which is increasingly accepted as part of the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). We hypothesize that in aging, aberrant microglia activation leads to a deleterious environment and neurodegeneration. In aged mice, microglia exhibit an increased expression of cytokines and an exacerbated inflammatory response to pathological changes. Whereas LPS increases nitric oxide (NO) secretion in microglia from young mice, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) predominates in older mice. Furthermore, there is accumulation of DNA oxidative damage in mitochondria of microglia during aging, and also an increased intracellular ROS production. Increased ROS activates the redox-sensitive nuclear factor kappa B, which promotes more neuroinflammation, and can be translated in functional deficits, such as cognitive impairment. Mitochondria-derived ROS and cathepsin B, are also necessary for the microglial cell production of interleukin-1β, a key inflammatory cytokine. Interestingly, whereas the regulatory cytokine TGFβ1 is also increased in the aged brain, neuroinflammation persists. Assessing this apparent contradiction, we have reported that TGFβ1 induction and activation of Smad3 signaling after inflammatory stimulation are reduced in adult mice. Other protective functions, such as phagocytosis, although observed in aged animals, become not inducible by inflammatory stimuli and TGFβ1. Here, we discuss data suggesting that mitochondrial and endolysosomal dysfunction could at least partially mediate age-associated microglial cell changes, and, together with the impairment of the TGFβ1-Smad3 pathway, could result in the reduction of protective activation and the facilitation of cytotoxic activation of microglia, resulting in the promotion of

  3. Microglial cell dysregulation in brain aging and neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    von Bernhardi, Rommy; Eugenín-von Bernhardi, Laura; Eugenín, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Aging is the main risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases. In aging, microglia undergoes phenotypic changes compatible with their activation. Glial activation can lead to neuroinflammation, which is increasingly accepted as part of the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We hypothesize that in aging, aberrant microglia activation leads to a deleterious environment and neurodegeneration. In aged mice, microglia exhibit an increased expression of cytokines and an exacerbated inflammatory response to pathological changes. Whereas LPS increases nitric oxide (NO) secretion in microglia from young mice, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) predominates in older mice. Furthermore, there is accumulation of DNA oxidative damage in mitochondria of microglia during aging, and also an increased intracellular ROS production. Increased ROS activates the redox-sensitive nuclear factor kappa B, which promotes more neuroinflammation, and can be translated in functional deficits, such as cognitive impairment. Mitochondria-derived ROS and cathepsin B, are also necessary for the microglial cell production of interleukin-1β, a key inflammatory cytokine. Interestingly, whereas the regulatory cytokine TGFβ1 is also increased in the aged brain, neuroinflammation persists. Assessing this apparent contradiction, we have reported that TGFβ1 induction and activation of Smad3 signaling after inflammatory stimulation are reduced in adult mice. Other protective functions, such as phagocytosis, although observed in aged animals, become not inducible by inflammatory stimuli and TGFβ1. Here, we discuss data suggesting that mitochondrial and endolysosomal dysfunction could at least partially mediate age-associated microglial cell changes, and, together with the impairment of the TGFβ1-Smad3 pathway, could result in the reduction of protective activation and the facilitation of cytotoxic activation of microglia, resulting in the promotion of

  4. Aging elevates metabolic gene expression in brain cholinergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Baskerville, Karen A; Kent, Caroline; Personett, David; Lai, Weil R; Park, Peter J; Coleman, Paul; McKinney, Michael

    2008-12-01

    The basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic system is selectively vulnerable in human brain diseases, while the cholinergic groups in the upper pons of the brainstem (BS) resist neurodegeneration. Cholinergic neurons (200 per region per animal) were laser-microdissected from five young (8 months) and five aged (24 months) F344 rats from the BF and the BS pontine lateral dorsal tegmental/pedunculopontine nuclei (LDTN/PPN) and their expression profiles were obtained. The bioinformatics program SigPathway was used to identify gene groups and pathways that were selectively affected by aging. In the BF cholinergic system, aging most significantly altered genes involved with a variety of metabolic functions. In contrast, BS cholinergic neuronal age effects included gene groupings related to neuronal plasticity and a broad range of normal cellular functions. Transcription factor GA-binding protein alpha (GABPalpha), which controls expression of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins, was more strongly upregulated in the BF cholinergic neurons (+107%) than in the BS cholinergic population (+40%). The results suggest that aging elicits elevates metabolic activity in cholinergic populations and that this occurs to a much greater degree in the BF group than in the BS group.

  5. Advancing aged care: a systematic review of economic evaluations of workforce structures and care processes in a residential care setting.

    PubMed

    Easton, Tiffany; Milte, Rachel; Crotty, Maria; Ratcliffe, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Long-term care for older people is provided in both residential and non-residential settings, with residential settings tending to cater for individuals with higher care needs. Evidence relating to the costs and effectiveness of different workforce structures and care processes is important to facilitate the future planning of residential aged care services to promote high quality care and to enhance the quality of life of individuals living in residential care. A systematic review conducted up to December 2015 identified 19 studies containing an economic component; seven included a complete economic evaluation and 12 contained a cost analysis only. Key findings include the potential to create cost savings from a societal perspective through enhanced staffing levels and quality improvement interventions within residential aged care facilities, while integrated care models, including the integration of health disciplines and the integration between residents and care staff, were shown to have limited cost-saving potential. Six of the 19 identified studies examined dementia-specific structures and processes, in which person-centred interventions demonstrated the potential to reduce agitation and improve residents' quality of life. Importantly, this review highlights methodological limitations in the existing evidence and an urgent need for future research to identify appropriate and meaningful outcome measures that can be used at a service planning level.

  6. Age Sensitivity of Behavioral Tests and Brain Substrates of Normal Aging in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kennard, John A.; Woodruff-Pak, Diana S.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of age sensitivity, the capacity of a behavioral test to reliably detect age-related changes, has utility in the design of experiments to elucidate processes of normal aging. We review the application of these tests in studies of normal aging and compare and contrast the age sensitivity of the Barnes maze, eyeblink classical conditioning, fear conditioning, Morris water maze, and rotorod. These tests have all been implemented to assess normal age-related changes in learning and memory in rodents, which generalize in many cases to age-related changes in learning and memory in all mammals, including humans. Behavioral assessments are a valuable means to measure functional outcomes of neuroscientific studies of aging. Highlighted in this review are the attributes and limitations of these measures in mice in the context of age sensitivity and processes of brain aging. Attributes of these tests include reliability and validity as assessments of learning and memory, well-defined neural substrates, and sensitivity to neural and pharmacological manipulations and disruptions. These tests engage the hippocampus and/or the cerebellum, two structures centrally involved in learning and memory that undergo functional and anatomical changes in normal aging. A test that is less well represented in studies of normal aging, the context pre-exposure facilitation effect (CPFE) in fear conditioning, is described as a method to increase sensitivity of contextual fear conditioning to changes in the hippocampus. Recommendations for increasing the age sensitivity of all measures of normal aging in mice are included, as well as a discussion of the potential of the under-studied CPFE to advance understanding of subtle hippocampus-mediated phenomena. PMID:21647305

  7. The impact of an aging population on palliative care.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Tony

    2013-12-01

    By 2050, it is predicted that 26% of the population will be aged 80 and over. Although older people have much to contribute, one challenging aspect of an aging population is the increasing rate of dementia. Palliative care is now included as part of the care pathway of a wide variety of nonmalignant diseases. The European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC) and the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS) have jointly called for every older citizen with chronic disease to be offered the best possible palliative care approach wherever they are cared for. This report is adapted from paineurope 2013; Issue 2, ©Haymarket Medical Publications Ltd., and is presented with permission. paineurope is provided as a service to pain management by Mundipharma International LTD. and is distributed free of charge to healthcare professionals in Europe. Archival issues can be accessed via the website: http://www.paineurope.com at which European health professionals can register online to receive copies of the quarterly publication.

  8. Role of walnuts in maintaining brain health with age.

    PubMed

    Poulose, Shibu M; Miller, Marshall G; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    Because of the combination of population growth and population aging, increases in the incidence of chronic neurodegenerative disorders have become a societal concern, both in terms of decreased quality of life and increased financial burden. Clinical manifestation of many of these disorders takes years, with the initiation of mild cognitive symptoms leading to behavioral problems, dementia and loss of motor functions, the need for assisted living, and eventual death. Lifestyle factors greatly affect the progression of cognitive decline, with high-risk behaviors including unhealthy diet, lack of exercise, smoking, and exposure to environmental toxins leading to enhanced oxidative stress and inflammation. Although there exists an urgent need to develop effective treatments for age-related cognitive decline and neurodegenerative disease, prevention strategies have been underdeveloped. Primary prevention in many of these neurodegenerative diseases could be achieved earlier in life by consuming a healthy diet, rich in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory phytochemicals, which offers one of the most effective and least expensive ways to address the crisis. English walnuts (Juglans regia L.) are rich in numerous phytochemicals, including high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids, and offer potential benefits to brain health. Polyphenolic compounds found in walnuts not only reduce the oxidant and inflammatory load on brain cells but also improve interneuronal signaling, increase neurogenesis, and enhance sequestration of insoluble toxic protein aggregates. Evidence for the beneficial effects of consuming a walnut-rich diet is reviewed in this article.

  9. Intelligence and brain size in 100 postmortem brains: sex, lateralization and age factors.

    PubMed

    Witelson, S F; Beresh, H; Kigar, D L

    2006-02-01

    The neural basis of variation in human intelligence is not well delineated. Numerous studies relating measures of brain size such as brain weight, head circumference, CT or MRI brain volume to different intelligence test measures, with variously defined samples of subjects have yielded inconsistent findings with correlations from approximately 0 to 0.6, with most correlations approximately 0.3 or 0.4. The study of intelligence in relation to postmortem cerebral volume is not available to date. We report the results of such a study on 100 cases (58 women and 42 men) having prospectively obtained Full Scale Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale scores. Ability correlated with cerebral volume, but the relationship depended on the realm of intelligence studied, as well as the sex and hemispheric functional lateralization of the subject. General verbal ability was positively correlated with cerebral volume and each hemisphere's volume in women and in right-handed men accounting for 36% of the variation in verbal intelligence. There was no evidence of such a relationship in non-right-handed men, indicating that at least for verbal intelligence, functional asymmetry may be a relevant factor in structure-function relationships in men, but not in women. In women, general visuospatial ability was also positively correlated with cerebral volume, but less strongly, accounting for approximately 10% of the variance. In men, there was a non-significant trend of a negative correlation between visuospatial ability and cerebral volume, suggesting that the neural substrate of visuospatial ability may differ between the sexes. Analyses of additional research subjects used as test cases provided support for our regression models. In men, visuospatial ability and cerebral volume were strongly linked via the factor of chronological age, suggesting that the well-documented decline in visuospatial intelligence with age is related, at least in right-handed men, to the decrease in cerebral

  10. The Insiders as Outsiders: Professionals Caring for an Aging Parent.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Robert M; Kaiser, Susan L

    2017-02-01

    As professionals in geriatric medicine and social work, we are caregivers for our widowed mother of 90 years, a woman with neurocognitive disorder and multiple medical conditions. She has had repeated, problematic encounters with the health care system over the past 4 years. Caring successfully for an aging parent requires a comprehensive understanding of her unique medical, psychological, and functional status; need for social support; and overall goals of care. Poor communication between and among clinical teams-and with patients and families-is ubiquitous. The patient and family are not consistently listened to, or integrated, into the clinical team. We recount our experiences of one hospitalization and how we addressed the recurring obstacles we faced. Our training and experience gave us a firm understanding of the hazards of hospitalizing an elderly person and the need to be present, engaged, attentive, active, and vigilant. We caught and corrected major mistakes: failure to follow-up abnormal test results, multiple medication errors, undertreatment of pain, poor fall prevention, and inappropriate assessment and placement for rehabilitation. In a dysfunctional health care system, the family is, and must be, the ultimate fail-safe mechanism. We identify potentially effective solutions for the problems we encountered: adoption of dementia-sensitive and patient- and family-centered care, improved communication, better management of information (including better systems for monitoring lab results and for dispensing and reconciling medications), expediting care, changing reimbursement and regulation, and improving discharge planning and placement.

  11. Predicting Homelessness among Emerging Adults Aging Out of Foster Care.

    PubMed

    Shah, Melissa Ford; Liu, Qinghua; Mark Eddy, J; Barkan, Susan; Marshall, David; Mancuso, David; Lucenko, Barbara; Huber, Alice

    2016-11-10

    This study examines risk and protective factors associated with experiencing homelessness in the year after "aging out" of foster care. Using a state-level integrated administrative database, we identified 1,202 emerging adults in Washington State who exited foster care between July 2010 and June 2012. Initial bivariate analyses were conducted to assess the association between candidate predictive factors and an indicator of homelessness in a 12-month follow-up period. After deploying a stepwise regression process, the final logistic regression model included 15 predictive factors. Youth who were parents, who had recently experienced housing instability, or who were African American had approximately twice the odds of experiencing homelessness in the year after exiting foster care. In addition, youth who had experienced disrupted adoptions, had multiple foster care placements (especially in congregate care settings), or had been involved with the juvenile justice system were more likely to become homeless. In contrast, youth were less likely to experience homelessness if they had ever been placed with a relative while in foster care or had a high cumulative grade point average relative to their peers.

  12. Old-age homes and services: old and new approaches to aged care.

    PubMed

    Liebig, Phoebe S

    2003-01-01

    Although generational co-residence continues to be the dominant form of housing and care for Indian elders and only 1% live in old-age homes, the numbers and types of these homes are growing. This article describes a recent study of 48 old-age homes in different parts of India, approximately 12%-15% of all homes. They included the more traditional free homes for the aged poor who have no family to care for them and the more recent for-pay homes for the middle-class. A small number of day-care centers, also a new phenomenon, were investigated. Two- to three-hour structured interviews were conducted with managers, supervisors, and trustees, augmented by a checklist of environmental and neighborhood features. Most homes house small numbers of residents, have common spaces for dining, TV and prayer, have access to medical care and transportation, provide meals and some assistance with activities of daily living, and are open to all castes. All are run by non-governmental organizations (NGOs), only one-third with any government assistance. Free homes tend to be bigger and older, serve nonaged clients, have less privacy and emphasize occupational therapy and income-generating activities, and are more like board-and-care homes. For-pay homes have more privacy and western-style amenities, focus on local community outreach and provide fewer meals. The gradual increase of all old-age homes has given rise to debates about their appropriate roles in Indian society and about their quality. Government grants to NGOs for homes and day-care centers (often considered more appropriate support for elders) are limited. With the National Policy on Older Persons looking to NGOs and village councils to be the primary sources of non-familial aged care, several ways to build their capacity are suggested.

  13. [Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of severe traumatic brain injury. Part 2. Intensive care and neuromonitoring].

    PubMed

    Potapov, A A; Krylov, V V; Gavrilov, A G; Kravchuk, A D; Likhterman, L B; Petrikov, S S; Talypov, A E; Zakharova, N E; Oshorov, A V; Sychev, A A; Aleksandrova, E V; Solodov, A A

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the major causes of death and disability in young and middle-aged people. The most problematic group is comprised of patients with severe TBI who are in a coma. The adequate diagnosis of primary brain injuries and timely prevention and treatment of the secondary injury mechanisms largely define the possibility of reducing mortality and severe disabling consequences. When developing these guidelines, we used our experience in the development of international and national recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of mild traumatic brain injury, penetrating gunshot wounds to the skull and brain, severe traumatic brain injury, and severe consequences of brain injuries, including a vegetative state. In addition, we used international and national guidelines for the diagnosis, intensive care, and surgical treatment of severe traumatic brain injury, which had been published in recent years. The proposed guidelines concern intensive care of severe TBI in adults and are particularly intended for neurosurgeons, neurologists, neuroradiologists, anesthesiologists, and intensivists who are routinely involved in the treatment of these patients.

  14. Brain network changes and memory decline in aging.

    PubMed

    Beason-Held, Lori L; Hohman, Timothy J; Venkatraman, Vijay; An, Yang; Resnick, Susan M

    2016-06-18

    One theory of age-related cognitive decline proposes that changes within the default mode network (DMN) of the brain impact the ability to successfully perform cognitive operations. To investigate this theory, we examined functional covariance within brain networks using regional cerebral blood flow data, measured by (15)O-water PET, from 99 participants (mean baseline age 68.6 ± 7.5) in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging collected over a 7.4 year period. The sample was divided in tertiles based on longitudinal performance on a verbal recognition memory task administered during scanning, and functional covariance was compared between the upper (improvers) and lower (decliners) tertile groups. The DMN and verbal memory networks (VMN) were then examined during the verbal memory scan condition. For each network, group differences in node-to-network coherence and individual node-to-node covariance relationships were assessed at baseline and in change over time. Compared with improvers, decliners showed differences in node-to-network coherence and in node-to-node relationships in the DMN but not the VMN during verbal memory. These DMN differences reflected greater covariance with better task performance at baseline and both increasing and declining covariance with declining task performance over time for decliners. When examined during the resting state alone, the direction of change in DMN covariance was similar to that seen during task performance, but node-to-node relationships differed from those observed during the task condition. These results suggest that disengagement of DMN components during task performance is not essential for successful cognitive performance as previously proposed. Instead, a proper balance in network processes may be needed to support optimal task performance.

  15. Influence of aging on membrane permeability transition in brain mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Toman, Julia; Fiskum, Gary

    2011-02-01

    The mitochondrial inner membrane permeability transition (MPT) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of acute disorders of the central nervous systems, including ischemic and traumatic brain injury, and possibly in neurodegenerative diseases. Opening of the permeability transition pore (PTP) by a combination of abnormally elevated intramitochondrial Ca2+ and oxidative stress induces the collapse of transmembrane ion gradients, resulting in membrane depolarization and uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. This loss of ATP synthesis eventually results in cellular metabolic failure and necrotic cell death. Drugs, e.g., cyclosporin A, can inhibit the permeability transition through their interaction with the mitochondria-specific protein, cyclophilin D, and demonstrate neuroprotection in several animal models. These characteristics of the MPT were developed almost exclusively from experiments performed with young, mature rodents whereas the neuropathologies associated with the MPT are most prevalent in the elderly population. Some evidence indicates that the sensitivity of mitochondria to Ca2+-induced PTP opening is greater in the aged compared to the young mature brain; however, the basis for this difference is unknown. Based on knowledge of factors that regulate the MPT and on other comparisons between cells and mitochondria from young and old animals, several features may be important. These aging-related features include impaired neuronal Ca2+ homeostasis, increased oxidative stress, increased cyclophilin D protein levels, oxidative modification of the adenine nucleotide translocase and of cardiolipin, and changes in the levels of anti-death mitochondrial proteins, e.g., Bcl-2. The influence of aging on both the contribution of the MPT to neuropathology and the neuroprotective efficacy of MPT inhibitors is a substantial knowledge gap that requires extensive research at the subcellular, cellular, and animal model levels.

  16. Redox changes in the brains of reproductive female rats during aging.

    PubMed

    Heemann, Fernanda Maciel; da Silva, Ana Carolina Almeida; Salomon, Tiago Boeira; Putti, Jordana Salete; Engers, Vanessa Krüger; Hackenhaar, Fernanda Schäfer; Benfato, Mara Silveira

    2017-01-01

    Reproduction is a critical and demanding phase of an animal's life. In mammals, females usually invest much more in parental care than males, and lactation is the most energetically demanding period of a female's life. Here, we tested whether oxidative stress is a consequence of reproduction in the brains of female Wistar rats. We evaluated the activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, and superoxide dismutase; H2O2 consumption; protein carbonylation; NO2 & NO3 levels; and total glutathione, as well as sex hormone levels in brain tissue of animals at 3, 6, 12, and 24months of age. Animals were grouped according to reproductive experience: breeders or non-breeders. Most of the studied parameters showed a difference between non-breeders and breeders at 12 and 24months. At 24months of age, breeders showed higher superoxide dismutase activity, H2O2 consumption, glutathione peroxidase activity, and carbonyl levels than non-breeders. In 12-month-old non-breeders, we observed a higher level of H2O2 consumption and higher superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities than breeders. By evaluating the correlation network, we found that there were a larger number of influential nodes and positive links in breeder animals than in non-breeders, indicating a greater number of redox changes in breeder animals. Here, we also demonstrated that the aging process caused higher oxidative damage and higher antioxidant defenses in the brains of breeder female rats at 24months, suggesting that the reproduction process is costly, at least for the female brain. This study shows that there is a strong potential for a link between the cost of reproduction and oxidative stress.

  17. Prion protein accumulation in lipid rafts of mouse aging brain.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Federica; Dotti, Carlos G; Pérez-Cañamás, Azucena; Ledesma, Maria Dolores; Benetti, Federico; Legname, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The cellular form of the prion protein (PrP(C)) is a normal constituent of neuronal cell membranes. The protein misfolding causes rare neurodegenerative disorders known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies or prion diseases. These maladies can be sporadic, genetic or infectious. Sporadic prion diseases are the most common form mainly affecting aging people. In this work, we investigate the biochemical environment in which sporadic prion diseases may develop, focusing our attention on the cell membrane of neurons in the aging brain. It is well established that with aging the ratio between the most abundant lipid components of rafts undergoes a major change: while cholesterol decreases, sphingomyelin content rises. Our results indicate that the aging process modifies the compartmentalization of PrP(C). In old mice, this change favors PrP(C) accumulation in detergent-resistant membranes, particularly in hippocampi. To confirm the relationship between lipid content changes and PrP(C) translocation into detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs), we looked at PrP(C) compartmentalization in hippocampi from acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) knockout (KO) mice and synaptosomes enriched in sphingomyelin. In the presence of high sphingomyelin content, we observed a significant increase of PrP(C) in DRMS. This process is not due to higher levels of total protein and it could, in turn, favor the onset of sporadic prion diseases during aging as it increases the PrP intermolecular contacts into lipid rafts. We observed that lowering sphingomyelin in scrapie-infected cells by using fumonisin B1 led to a 50% decrease in protease-resistant PrP formation. This may suggest an involvement of PrP lipid environment in prion formation and consequently it may play a role in the onset or development of sporadic forms of prion diseases.

  18. Prion Protein Accumulation in Lipid Rafts of Mouse Aging Brain

    PubMed Central

    Agostini, Federica; Dotti, Carlos G.; Pérez-Cañamás, Azucena; Ledesma, Maria Dolores; Benetti, Federico; Legname, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The cellular form of the prion protein (PrPC) is a normal constituent of neuronal cell membranes. The protein misfolding causes rare neurodegenerative disorders known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies or prion diseases. These maladies can be sporadic, genetic or infectious. Sporadic prion diseases are the most common form mainly affecting aging people. In this work, we investigate the biochemical environment in which sporadic prion diseases may develop, focusing our attention on the cell membrane of neurons in the aging brain. It is well established that with aging the ratio between the most abundant lipid components of rafts undergoes a major change: while cholesterol decreases, sphingomyelin content rises. Our results indicate that the aging process modifies the compartmentalization of PrPC. In old mice, this change favors PrPC accumulation in detergent-resistant membranes, particularly in hippocampi. To confirm the relationship between lipid content changes and PrPC translocation into detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs), we looked at PrPC compartmentalization in hippocampi from acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) knockout (KO) mice and synaptosomes enriched in sphingomyelin. In the presence of high sphingomyelin content, we observed a significant increase of PrPC in DRMS. This process is not due to higher levels of total protein and it could, in turn, favor the onset of sporadic prion diseases during aging as it increases the PrP intermolecular contacts into lipid rafts. We observed that lowering sphingomyelin in scrapie-infected cells by using fumonisin B1 led to a 50% decrease in protease-resistant PrP formation. This may suggest an involvement of PrP lipid environment in prion formation and consequently it may play a role in the onset or development of sporadic forms of prion diseases. PMID:24040215

  19. BrainAGE in Mild Cognitive Impaired Patients: Predicting the Conversion to Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Gaser, Christian; Franke, Katja; Klöppel, Stefan; Koutsouleris, Nikolaos; Sauer, Heinrich

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, shares many aspects of abnormal brain aging. We present a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based biomarker that predicts the individual progression of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to AD on the basis of pathological brain aging patterns. By employing kernel regression methods, the expression of normal brain-aging patterns forms the basis to estimate the brain age of a given new subject. If the estimated age is higher than the chronological age, a positive brain age gap estimation (BrainAGE) score indicates accelerated atrophy and is considered a risk factor for conversion to AD. Here, the BrainAGE framework was applied to predict the individual brain ages of 195 subjects with MCI at baseline, of which a total of 133 developed AD during 36 months of follow-up (corresponding to a pre-test probability of 68%). The ability of the BrainAGE framework to correctly identify MCI-converters was compared with the performance of commonly used cognitive scales, hippocampus volume, and state-of-the-art biomarkers derived from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). With accuracy rates of up to 81%, BrainAGE outperformed all cognitive scales and CSF biomarkers in predicting conversion of MCI to AD within 3 years of follow-up. Each additional year in the BrainAGE score was associated with a 10% greater risk of developing AD (hazard rate: 1.10 [CI: 1.07-1.13]). Furthermore, the post-test probability was increased to 90% when using baseline BrainAGE scores to predict conversion to AD. The presented framework allows an accurate prediction even with multicenter data. Its fast and fully automated nature facilitates the integration into the clinical workflow. It can be exploited as a tool for screening as well as for monitoring treatment options.

  20. BrainAGE in Mild Cognitive Impaired Patients: Predicting the Conversion to Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Klöppel, Stefan; Koutsouleris, Nikolaos; Sauer, Heinrich

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, shares many aspects of abnormal brain aging. We present a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based biomarker that predicts the individual progression of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to AD on the basis of pathological brain aging patterns. By employing kernel regression methods, the expression of normal brain-aging patterns forms the basis to estimate the brain age of a given new subject. If the estimated age is higher than the chronological age, a positive brain age gap estimation (BrainAGE) score indicates accelerated atrophy and is considered a risk factor for conversion to AD. Here, the BrainAGE framework was applied to predict the individual brain ages of 195 subjects with MCI at baseline, of which a total of 133 developed AD during 36 months of follow-up (corresponding to a pre-test probability of 68%). The ability of the BrainAGE framework to correctly identify MCI-converters was compared with the performance of commonly used cognitive scales, hippocampus volume, and state-of-the-art biomarkers derived from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). With accuracy rates of up to 81%, BrainAGE outperformed all cognitive scales and CSF biomarkers in predicting conversion of MCI to AD within 3 years of follow-up. Each additional year in the BrainAGE score was associated with a 10% greater risk of developing AD (hazard rate: 1.10 [CI: 1.07–1.13]). Furthermore, the post-test probability was increased to 90% when using baseline BrainAGE scores to predict conversion to AD. The presented framework allows an accurate prediction even with multicenter data. Its fast and fully automated nature facilitates the integration into the clinical workflow. It can be exploited as a tool for screening as well as for monitoring treatment options. PMID:23826273

  1. Predicting brain-age from multimodal imaging data captures cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Liem, Franziskus; Varoquaux, Gaël; Kynast, Jana; Beyer, Frauke; Kharabian Masouleh, Shahrzad; Huntenburg, Julia M; Lampe, Leonie; Rahim, Mehdi; Abraham, Alexandre; Craddock, R Cameron; Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Luck, Tobias; Loeffler, Markus; Schroeter, Matthias L; Witte, Anja Veronica; Villringer, Arno; Margulies, Daniel S

    2017-03-01

    The disparity between the chronological age of an individual and their brain-age measured based on biological information has the potential to offer clinically relevant biomarkers of neurological syndromes that emerge late in the lifespan. While prior brain-age prediction studies have relied exclusively on either structural or functional brain data, here we investigate how multimodal brain-imaging data improves age prediction. Using cortical anatomy and whole-brain functional connectivity on a large adult lifespan sample (N=2354, age 19-82), we found that multimodal data improves brain-based age prediction, resulting in a mean absolute prediction error of 4.29 years. Furthermore, we found that the discrepancy between predicted age and chronological age captures cognitive impairment. Importantly, the brain-age measure was robust to confounding effects: head motion did not drive brain-based age prediction and our models generalized reasonably to an independent dataset acquired at a different site (N=475). Generalization performance was increased by training models on a larger and more heterogeneous dataset. The robustness of multimodal brain-age prediction to confounds, generalizability across sites, and sensitivity to clinically-relevant impairments, suggests promising future application to the early prediction of neurocognitive disorders.

  2. Reversed brain size sexual dimorphism accompanies loss of parental care in white sticklebacks

    PubMed Central

    Samuk, Kieran; Iritani, Davis; Schluter, Dolph

    2014-01-01

    Uncovering factors that shape variation in brain morphology remains a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Recently, it has been shown that brain size is positively associated with level of parental care behavior in various taxa. One explanation for this pattern is that the cognitive demands of performing complex parental care may require increased brain size. This idea is known as the parental brain hypothesis (PBH). We set out to test the predictions of this hypothesis in wild populations of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). These fish are commonly known to exhibit (1) uniparental male care and (2) sexual dimorphism in brain size (males>females). To test the PBH, we took advantage of the existence of closely related populations of stickleback that display variation in parental care behavior: common marine threespine sticklebacks (uniparental male care) and white threespine sticklebacks (no care). To begin, we quantified genetic differentiation among two common populations and three white populations from Nova Scotia. We found overall low differentiation among populations, although FST was increased in between-type comparisons. We then measured the brain weights of males and females from all five populations along with two additional common populations from British Columbia. We found that sexual dimorphism in brain size is reversed in white stickleback populations: males have smaller brains than females. Thus, while several alternatives need to be ruled out, the PBH appears to be a reasonable explanation for sexual dimorphism in brain size in threespine sticklebacks. PMID:25473476

  3. Predicting healthy older adult's brain age based on structural connectivity networks using artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lan; Jin, Cong; Fu, Zhenrong; Zhang, Baiwen; Bin, Guangyu; Wu, Shuicai

    2016-03-01

    Brain ageing is followed by changes of the connectivity of white matter (WM) and changes of the grey matter (GM) concentration. Neurodegenerative disease is more vulnerable to an accelerated brain ageing, which is associated with prospective cognitive decline and disease severity. Accurate detection of accelerated ageing based on brain network analysis has a great potential for early interventions designed to hinder atypical brain changes. To capture the brain ageing, we proposed a novel computational approach for modeling the 112 normal older subjects (aged 50-79 years) brain age by connectivity analyses of networks of the brain. Our proposed method applied principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce the redundancy in network topological parameters. Back propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) improved by hybrid genetic algorithm (GA) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm is established to model the relation among principal components (PCs) and brain age. The predicted brain age is strongly correlated with chronological age (r=0.8). The model has mean absolute error (MAE) of 4.29 years. Therefore, we believe the method can provide a possible way to quantitatively describe the typical and atypical network organization of human brain and serve as a biomarker for presymptomatic detection of neurodegenerative diseases in the future.

  4. Neuronutrient impact of Ayurvedic Rasayana therapy in brain aging.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ram Harsh; Narsimhamurthy, K; Singh, Girish

    2008-12-01

    Ayurveda is the oldest system of Medicine in the world, its antiquity going back to the Vedas. It adapts a unique holistic approach to the entire science of life, health and cure. The areas of special consideration in Ayurveda are geriatrics, rejuvenation, nutrition, immunology, genetics and higher consciousness. The Ayurvedic texts describe a set of rejuvenative measures to impart biological sustenance to the bodily tissues. These remedies are called Rasayana which are claimed to act as micronutrients. Some of these Rasayanas are organ and tissue specific. Those specific to brain tissue are called Medhya Rasayana. Such Rasayanas retard brain aging and help in regeneration of neural tissues besides producing antistress, adaptogenic and memory enhancing effect. In addition to the long tradition of textual and experience-based evidence for their efficacy, certain recent studies conducted on these traditional remedies on scientific parameters have shown promising results which have been reviewed in this paper for providing lead for further studies. The popular Medhya Rasayanas are Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Dunal), Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri Linn), Mandukaparni (Centella asiatica Linn) and Sankhapuspi (Convolvulus pluricaulis Chois).

  5. Alzheimer risk variant CLU and brain function during aging

    PubMed Central

    Thambisetty, Madhav; Beason-Held, Lori L.; An, Yang; Kraut, Michael; Nalls, Michael; Hernandez, Dena G.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Lovestone, Simon; Resnick, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Background We examined the effect of the novel Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk variant rs11136000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the clusterin gene (CLU) on longitudinal changes in resting state regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during normal aging and investigated its influence on cognitive decline in pre-symptomatic stages of disease progression. Methods Subjects were participants in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. A subset of 88 cognitively normal older individuals had longitudinal 15O-water PET measurements of rCBF at baseline and up to 8 annual follow-up visits. We also analyzed trajectories of cognitive decline among CLU risk carriers and non-carriers both in individuals who remained cognitively normal (N=599) as well as in those who subsequently converted to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or AD (N=95). Results Cognitively normal carriers of the CLU risk allele show significant and dose-dependent longitudinal increases in resting state rCBF in brain regions intrinsic to memory processes. There were no differences in trajectories of memory performance between CLU risk carriers and non-carriers who remained cognitively normal. However, in cognitively normal individuals who eventually convert to MCI or AD, CLU risk carriers show faster rates of decline in memory performance relative to non-carriers in the pre-symptomatic stages of disease progression. Conclusions The AD risk variant CLU influences longitudinal changes in brain function in asymptomatic individuals and is associated with faster cognitive decline in pre-symptomatic stages of disease progression. These results suggest mechanisms underlying the role of CLU in AD and may be important in monitoring disease progression in at-risk elderly. PMID:22795969

  6. High-field proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals metabolic effects of normal brain aging.

    PubMed

    Harris, Janna L; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Swerdlow, Russell H; Choi, In-Young; Lee, Phil; Brooks, William M

    2014-07-01

    Altered brain metabolism is likely to be an important contributor to normal cognitive decline and brain pathology in elderly individuals. To characterize the metabolic changes associated with normal brain aging, we used high-field proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vivo to quantify 20 neurochemicals in the hippocampus and sensorimotor cortex of young adult and aged rats. We found significant differences in the neurochemical profile of the aged brain when compared with younger adults, including lower aspartate, ascorbate, glutamate, and macromolecules, and higher glucose, myo-inositol, N-acetylaspartylglutamate, total choline, and glutamine. These neurochemical biomarkers point to specific cellular mechanisms that are altered in brain aging, such as bioenergetics, oxidative stress, inflammation, cell membrane turnover, and endogenous neuroprotection. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy may be a valuable translational approach for studying mechanisms of brain aging and pathology, and for investigating treatments to preserve or enhance cognitive function in aging.

  7. Trajectories of brain aging in middle-aged and older adults: regional and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Raz, Naftali; Ghisletta, Paolo; Rodrigue, Karen M; Kennedy, Kristen M; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2010-06-01

    The human brain changes with age. However, the rate and the trajectories of change vary among the brain regions and among individuals, and the reasons for these differences are unclear. In a sample of healthy middle-aged and older adults, we examined mean volume change and individual differences in the rate of change in 12 regional brain volumes over approximately 30 months. In addition to the baseline assessment, there were two follow-ups, 15 months apart. We observed significant average shrinkage of the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, orbital-frontal cortex, and cerebellum in each of the intervals. Shrinkage of the hippocampus accelerated with time, whereas shrinkage of the caudate nucleus, prefrontal subcortical white matter, and corpus callosum emerged only at the second follow-up. Throughout both assessment intervals, the mean volumes of the lateral prefrontal and primary visual cortices, putamen, and pons did not change. Significant individual differences in shrinkage rates were observed in the lateral prefrontal cortex, the cerebellum, and all the white matter regions throughout the study, whereas additional regions (medial-temporal structures, the insula, and the basal ganglia) showed significant individual variation in change during the second follow-up. No individual variability was noted in the change of orbital frontal and visual cortices. In two white matter regions, we were able to identify factors associated with individual differences in brain shrinkage. In corpus callosum, shrinkage rate was greater in persons with hypertension, and in the pons, women and carriers of the ApoEepsilon4 allele exhibited declines not noted in the whole sample.

  8. Trajectories of brain aging in middle-aged and older adults: Regional and individual differences

    PubMed Central

    Raz, Naftali; Ghisletta, Paolo; Rodrigue, Karen M.; Kennedy, Kristen M.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2010-01-01

    The human brain changes with age. However, the rate and the trajectories of change vary among the brain regions and among individuals, and the reasons for these differences are unclear. In a sample of healthy middle-aged and older adults, we examined mean volume change and individual differences in the rate of change in 12 regional brain volumes over approximately 30 months. In addition to the baseline assessment, there were two follow-ups, 15 months apart. We observed significant average shrinkage of the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, orbital–frontal cortex, and cerebellum in each of the intervals. Shrinkage of the hippocampus accelerated with time, whereas shrinkage of the caudate nucleus, prefrontal subcortical white matter, and corpus callosum emerged only at the second follow-up. Throughout both assessment intervals, the mean volumes of the lateral prefrontal and primary visual cortices, putamen, and pons did not change. Significant individual differences in shrinkage rates were observed in the lateral prefrontal cortex, the cerebellum, and all the white matter regions throughout the study, whereas additional regions (medial–temporal structures, the insula, and the basal ganglia) showed significant individual variation in change during the second follow-up. No individual variability was noted in the change of orbital frontal and visual cortices. In two white matter regions, we were able to identify factors associated with individual differences in brain shrinkage. In corpus callosum, shrinkage rate was greater in persons with hypertension, and in the pons, women and carriers of the ApoEε4 allele exhibited declines not noted in the whole sample. PMID:20298790

  9. Questioning the need for ICU level of care in pediatric patients following elective uncomplicated craniotomy for brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Gabel, Brandon C; Martin, Joel; Crawford, John R; Levy, Michael

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE The object of this study is to address what factors may necessitate the need for intensive care monitoring after elective uncomplicated craniotomy in pediatric patients who are initially managed in a non-intensive care unit setting postoperatively. METHODS A retrospective chart review was undertaken for all patients who underwent elective craniotomy for brain tumor between April of 2007 and April of 2012 and who were directly admitted to the floor postoperatively. Factors such as age, tumor type, craniotomy location, neurological comorbidities, reason for transfer to intensive care unit (ICU) level of care (if applicable), time between admittance to floor and transfer to ICU level of care, and reason for transfer to ICU level of care were assessed. RESULTS Adjusted logistic regression found 2 significant positive predictors of postoperative transfer to the ICU after initial admission to the floor: primitive neuroectodermal tumor pathology (OR 44.10, 95% CI 1.24-1572.16, p = 0.04), and repeat craniotomy during the same hospitalization (OR 13.97, 95% CI 1.21-160.66, p = 0.03). Conversely, 1 negative factor was found: low-grade glioma pathology (OR 0.05, 95% CI 0.00-0.87, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS Select pediatric patients may not require ICU level of care after elective uncomplicated pediatric craniotomy. Additional studies are needed to adequately address which patients would benefit from initial ICU admittance following elective craniotomies for brain tumors.

  10. Accelerated brain aging in schizophrenia and beyond: a neuroanatomical marker of psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Koutsouleris, Nikolaos; Davatzikos, Christos; Borgwardt, Stefan; Gaser, Christian; Bottlender, Ronald; Frodl, Thomas; Falkai, Peter; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Reiser, Maximilian; Pantelis, Christos; Meisenzahl, Eva

    2014-09-01

    Structural brain abnormalities are central to schizophrenia (SZ), but it remains unknown whether they are linked to dysmaturational processes crossing diagnostic boundaries, aggravating across disease stages, and driving the neurodiagnostic signature of the illness. Therefore, we investigated whether patients with SZ (N = 141), major depression (MD; N = 104), borderline personality disorder (BPD; N = 57), and individuals in at-risk mental states for psychosis (ARMS; N = 89) deviated from the trajectory of normal brain maturation. This deviation was measured as difference between chronological and the neuroanatomical age (brain age gap estimation [BrainAGE]). Neuroanatomical age was determined by a machine learning system trained to individually estimate age from the structural magnetic resonance imagings of 800 healthy controls. Group-level analyses showed that BrainAGE was highest in SZ (+5.5 y) group, followed by MD (+4.0), BPD (+3.1), and the ARMS (+1.7) groups. Earlier disease onset in MD and BPD groups correlated with more pronounced BrainAGE, reaching effect sizes of the SZ group. Second, BrainAGE increased across at-risk, recent onset, and recurrent states of SZ. Finally, BrainAGE predicted both patient status as well as negative and disorganized symptoms. These findings suggest that an individually quantifiable "accelerated aging" effect may particularly impact on the neuroanatomical signature of SZ but may extend also to other mental disorders.

  11. Continuum of Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Options Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care Hospice Care Brain Tumor Treatments Brain Tumor Treatment Locations ... Options Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care Hospice Care Brain Tumor Treatments Brain Tumor Treatment Locations ...

  12. Personal care satisfaction among aged and physically disabled Medicaid beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Khatutsky, Galina; Anderson, Wayne L; Wiener, Joshua M

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed survey data from 2,325 Medicaid home and community-based services (HCBS) beneficiaries in six States to estimate satisfaction with personal care services. We constructed an eight-item scale rating various aspects of paid assistance and estimated satisfaction for the total sample and for older and younger persons with disabilities. Younger persons with significant health problems and those residing in group settings were less satisfied. Higher unmet need for assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs), and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) was associated with decreased satisfaction, and matching race between a client and paid caregiver was associated with significantly increased satisfaction in all age groups.

  13. The relevance of aging-related changes in brain function to rehabilitation in aging-related disease

    PubMed Central

    Crosson, Bruce; McGregor, Keith M.; Nocera, Joe R.; Drucker, Jonathan H.; Tran, Stella M.; Butler, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of aging on rehabilitation of aging-related diseases are rarely a design consideration in rehabilitation research. In this brief review we present strong coincidental evidence from these two fields suggesting that deficits in aging-related disease or injury are compounded by the interaction between aging-related brain changes and disease-related brain changes. Specifically, we hypothesize that some aphasia, motor, and neglect treatments using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in stroke patients may address the aging side of this interaction. The importance of testing this hypothesis and addressing the larger aging by aging-related disease interaction is discussed. Underlying mechanisms in aging that most likely are relevant to rehabilitation of aging-related diseases also are covered. PMID:26074807

  14. Planning Manual for School-Age Child Care in New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainhart, Dolly

    This manual was designed to assist concerned individuals and organizations within communities in New Mexico to develop and plan effective school-age child care programs. Emphasized are the first steps in initiating and implementing school-age child care in a community. Chapter I discusses the need for school-age child care programs and the…

  15. A Systematic Approach to Curricula Development for Aged-Care Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aberdeen, Sue; Angus, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    The concept of leadership is frequently used in aged-care service provision. Yet, it is a concept that is not well understood or defined. This paper reports on a systematic review of national and international multi- disciplinary aged-care literature (1999 to 2004) to identify the attributes and functions of leaders in aged-care delivery systems.…

  16. Multiple Brain Markers are Linked to Age-Related Variation in Cognition.

    PubMed

    Hedden, Trey; Schultz, Aaron P; Rieckmann, Anna; Mormino, Elizabeth C; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A; Buckner, Randy L

    2016-04-01

    Age-related alterations in brain structure and function have been challenging to link to cognition due to potential overlapping influences of multiple neurobiological cascades. We examined multiple brain markers associated with age-related variation in cognition. Clinically normal older humans aged 65-90 from the Harvard Aging Brain Study (N = 186) were characterized on a priori magnetic resonance imaging markers of gray matter thickness and volume, white matter hyperintensities, fractional anisotropy (FA), resting-state functional connectivity, positron emission tomography markers of glucose metabolism and amyloid burden, and cognitive factors of processing speed, executive function, and episodic memory. Partial correlation and mediation analyses estimated age-related variance in cognition shared with individual brain markers and unique to each marker. The largest relationships linked FA and striatum volume to processing speed and executive function, and hippocampal volume to episodic memory. Of the age-related variance in cognition, 70-80% was accounted for by combining all brain markers (but only ∼20% of total variance). Age had significant indirect effects on cognition via brain markers, with significant markers varying across cognitive domains. These results suggest that most age-related variation in cognition is shared among multiple brain markers, but potential specificity between some brain markers and cognitive domains motivates additional study of age-related markers of neural health.

  17. Homeostatic Disinhibition in the Aging Brain and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gleichmann, Marc; Chow, Vivian W.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    In this article we propose that impaired efficiency of glutamatergic synaptic transmission and a compensatory reduction in inhibitory neurotransmission, a process called homeostatic dishinhibition, occurs in the aging brain and more dramatically in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Homeostatic disinhibition may help understand certain features of the aging brain and AD including: 1) the increased risk for epileptic seizures, especially in the early phase of the disease; 2) the reduced ability to generate γ-oscillations and 3) the increase in neuronal activity as measured by functional MRI. Homeostatic disinhibition may be the major mechanism that activates cognitive reserve. Modulating neuronal activity may therefore be a viable therapeutic strategy in AD that can complement existing anti-amyloid strategies. Specifically, enhancing endogenous glutamatergic synaptic transmission through increased co-agonist signaling or through positive allosteric modulation of metabotropic glutamatergic receptors appears as an attractive strategy. Alternatively, further reduction of GABAergic signaling may work as well, although care has to be taken to prevent epileptic seizures. PMID:21187584

  18. [The shrinking brain: result of normal aging or of selection bias in research?].

    PubMed

    Burgmans, S; van Boxtel, M P J

    2012-02-01

    The volume of our brain decreases as we age. This has been demonstrated by several large studies on normal aging. A recent study indicates, however, that the extent of this decline in normal aging probably has been overestimated because these studies have included subjects with preclinical disorders. In this article, an example from science is used to describe what effect selection bias may have on our model of the aging brain.

  19. Extracellular vesicles and their synthetic analogues in aging and age-associated brain diseases

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J. A.; Leonardi, T.; Huang, B.; Iraci, N.; Vega, B.; Pluchino, S.

    2015-01-01

    Multicellular organisms rely upon diverse and complex intercellular communications networks for a myriad of physiological processes. Disruption of these processes is implicated in the onset and propagation of disease and disorder, including the mechanisms of senescence at both cellular and organismal levels. In recent years, secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been identified as a particularly novel vector by which cell-to-cell communications are enacted. EVs actively and specifically traffic bioactive proteins, nucleic acids, and metabolites between cells at local and systemic levels, modulating cellular responses in a bidirectional manner under both homeostatic and pathological conditions. EVs are being implicated not only in the generic aging process, but also as vehicles of pathology in a number of age-related diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative and disease. Thus, circulating EVs—or specific EV cargoes—are being utilised as putative biomarkers of disease. On the other hand, EVs, as targeted intercellular shuttles of multipotent bioactive payloads, have demonstrated promising therapeutic properties, which can potentially be modulated and enhanced through cellular engineering. Furthermore, there is considerable interest in employing nanomedicinal approaches to mimic the putative therapeutic properties of EVs by employing synthetic analogues for targeted drug delivery. Herein we describe what is known about the origin and nature of EVs and subsequently review their putative roles in biology and medicine (including the use of synthetic EV analogues), with a particular focus on their role in aging and age-related brain diseases. PMID:24973266

  20. Dabigatran etixilate and traumatic brain injury: Evolving anticoagulants require evolving care plans

    PubMed Central

    Pakraftar, Sam; Atencio, Daniela; English, John; Corcos, Alain; Altschuler, Eric M; Stahlfeld, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the outcomes of trauma patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) on Dabigatran Etexilate (DE). METHODS: Following IRB approval, all patients taking DE who were admitted to our level 1 trauma service were enrolled in the study. Injury complexity, length of stay (LOS), intensive care length of stay, operative intervention, therapeutic interventions and outcomes were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: Twenty-eight of 4310 admissions were taking DE. Eleven patients were excluded on concurrent antiplatelet therapy. Average age was 77.14 years (64-94 years), and average LOS was 4.7 d (1-35 d). Thirty-two percent were admitted with intracranial hemorrhage. Eighteen percent received factor VII, and 22% received dialysis in attempts to correct coagulopathy. Mortality was 21%. CONCLUSION: The low incidence, absence of reversal agents, and lack of practice guidelines makes managing patients with TBI taking DE frustrating and provider specific. Local practice guidelines may be helpful in managing such patients. PMID:25133148

  1. Brain death and management of a potential organ donor in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Youn, Teddy S; Greer, David M

    2014-10-01

    The concept of brain death developed with the advent of mechanical ventilation, and guidelines for determining brain death have been refined over time. Organ donation after brain death is a common source of transplant organs in Western countries. Early identification and notification of organ procurement organizations are essential. Management of potential organ donors must take into consideration specific pathophysiologic changes for medical optimization. Future aims in intensive and neurocritical care medicine must include reducing practice variability in the operational guidelines for brain death determination, as well as improving communication with families about the process of determining brain death.

  2. Positron emission tomography and computed tomography assessments of the aging human brain

    SciTech Connect

    de Leon, M.J.; George, A.E.; Ferris, S.H.; Christman, D.R.; Fowler, J.S.; Gentes, C.I.; Brodie, J.; Reisberg, B.; Wolf, A.P.

    1984-02-01

    The relationship between alterations in brain structure and brain function was studied in vivo in both young and elderly human subjects. Computed tomography revealed significant age-related ventricular and cortical sulcal dilatation. The cortical changes were most closely related to age. Positron emission tomography failed to show regional changes in brain glucose metabolic rate. The results suggest that the normal aging brain undergoes structural atrophic changes without incurring regional metabolic changes. Examination of the correlations between the structural and the metabolic measures revealed no significant relationships. These data are discussed with respect to the significant structure-function relationships that have been reported in Alzheimer disease. 27 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  3. Huntington's disease accelerates epigenetic aging of human brain and disrupts DNA methylation levels

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Steve; Langfelder, Peter; Kwak, Seung; Aaronson, Jeff; Rosinski, Jim; Vogt, Thomas F.; Eszes, Marika; Faull, Richard L.M.; Curtis, Maurice A.; Waldvogel, Henry J.; Choi, Oi-Wa; Tung, Spencer; Vinters, Harry V.; Coppola, Giovanni; Yang, X. William

    2016-01-01

    Age of Huntington's disease (HD) motoric onset is strongly related to the number of CAG trinucleotide repeats in the huntingtin gene, suggesting that biological tissue age plays an important role in disease etiology. Recently, a DNA methylation based biomarker of tissue age has been advanced as an epigenetic aging clock. We sought to inquire if HD is associated with an accelerated epigenetic age. DNA methylation data was generated for 475 brain samples from various brain regions of 26 HD cases and 39 controls. Overall, brain regions from HD cases exhibit a significant epigenetic age acceleration effect (p=0.0012). A multivariate model analysis suggests that HD status increases biological age by 3.2 years. Accelerated epigenetic age can be observed in specific brain regions (frontal lobe, parietal lobe, and cingulate gyrus). After excluding controls, we observe a negative correlation (r=−0.41, p=5.5×10−8) between HD gene CAG repeat length and the epigenetic age of HD brain samples. Using correlation network analysis, we identify 11 co-methylation modules with a significant association with HD status across 3 broad cortical regions. In conclusion, HD is associated with an accelerated epigenetic age of specific brain regions and more broadly with substantial changes in brain methylation levels. PMID:27479945

  4. Differences between chronological and brain age are related to education and self-reported physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Steffener, Jason; Habeck, Christian; O'Shea, Deirdre; Razlighi, Qolamreza; Bherer, Louis; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between education and physical activity and the difference between a physiological prediction of age and chronological age. Cortical and subcortical grey matter regional volumes were calculated from 331 healthy adults (range: 19-79 years). Multivariate analyses identified a covariance pattern of brain volumes best predicting chronological age (CA)(R2 = 47%). Individual expression of this brain pattern served as a physiologic measure of brain age (BA). The difference between CA and BA was predicted by education and self-report measures of physical activity. Education and the daily number of flights of stairs climbed were the only two significant predictors of decreased brain age. Effect sizes demonstrated that brain age decreased by 0.95 years for each year of education and by 0.58 years for one additional daily FOSC. Effects of education and FOSC on regional brain volume were largely driven by temporal and subcortical volumes. These results demonstrate that higher levels of education and daily FOSC are related to larger brain volume than predicted by chronological age which supports the utility of regional grey matter volume as a biomarker of healthy brain aging. PMID:26973113

  5. Traumatic brain injury and palliative care: a retrospective analysis of 49 patients receiving palliative care during 2013–2016 in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kahveci, Kadriye; Dinçer, Metin; Doger, Cihan; Yaricı, Ayse Karhan

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI), which is seen more in young adults, affects both patients and their families. The need for palliative care in TBI and the limits of the care requirement are not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the length of stay in the palliative care center (PCC), Turkey, the status of patients at discharge, and the need for palliative care in patients with TBI. The medical records of 49 patients with TBI receiving palliative care in PCC during 2013–2016 were retrospectively collected, including age and gender of patients, the length of stay in PCC, the cause of TBI, diagnosis, Glasgow Coma Scale score, Glasgow Outcome Scale score, Karnofsky Performance Status score, mobilization status, nutrition route (oral, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy), pressure ulcers, and discharge status. These patients were aged 45.4 ± 20.2 years. The median length of stay in the PCC was 34.0 days. These included TBI patients had a Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 8, were not mobilized, received tracheostomy and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy nutrition, and had pressure ulcers. No difference was found between those who were discharged to their home or other places (rehabilitation centre, intensive care unit and death) in respect of mobilization, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, tracheostomy and pressure ulcers. TBI patients who were followed up in PCC were determined to be relatively young patients (45.4 ± 20.2 years) with mobilization and nutrition problems and pressure ulcer formation. As TBI patients have complex health conditions that require palliative care from the time of admittance to intensive care unit, provision of palliative care services should be integrated with clinical applications. PMID:28250751

  6. Assessing knowledge, motivation and perceptions about falls prevention among care staff in a residential aged care setting.

    PubMed

    Hang, Jo-Aine; Francis-Coad, Jacqueline; Burro, Bianca; Nobre, Debbie; Hill, Anne-Marie

    Falls are a serious problem in residential aged care settings. The aims of the study were to determine the feasibility of surveying care staff regarding falls prevention, and describe care staff levels of knowledge and awareness of residents' risk of falls, knowledge about falls prevention, motivation and confidence to implement falls prevention strategies. A custom designed questionnaire was administered to care staff at one site of a large residential aged care organization in Australia. The survey response was 58.8%. Feedback from staff was used to inform the administration of the survey to the wider organization. Seven (29.2%) care staff reported they were unsure or thought residents were at low risk of falls. Only five (20.8%) care staff were able to suggest more than three preventive strategies. These preliminary findings suggest that education to change care staff behavior regarding falls prevention should target improving care staff knowledge and awareness of falls.

  7. Effects of the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) at Age 8 Years: Preliminary Data

    PubMed Central

    McAnulty, Gloria B.; Duffy, Frank H.; Butler, Samantha C.; Bernstein, Jane H.; Zurakowski, David; Als, Heidelise

    2014-01-01

    The current study reports the effects of NIDCAP (Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program) at 8 years of age for a randomized controlled trial of 38 very early born (≤29 weeks postmenstrual age), high-risk preterm infants. It was hypothesized that the experimental group at school age in comparison with the control group would perform significantly better neuropsychologically and neuroelectrophysiologically. Twenty-two (11 control, 11 experimental) children of the original 38 (18 control, 20 experimental) participants were studied at school age with a detailed neuropsychological battery and with EEG spectral coherence measures. Results indicated significantly better right hemisphere and frontal lobe function in the experimental group than the control group, both neuropsychologically and neurophysiologically. Neurobehavioral and physiological results in the newborn period successfully predicted the beneficial brain function effects at age 8 years. Results support the conclusion that the NIDCAP intervention has lasting effects into school age. PMID:19448128

  8. Histone modifications change with age, dietary restriction and rapamycin treatment in mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Huan; Qian, Hong; Ertl, Robin; Astle, Clinton M.; Wang, Gang G.; Harrison, David E.; Xu, Xiangru

    2015-01-01

    The risk of developing neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) increases dramatically with age. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of brain aging is crucial for developing preventative and/or therapeutic approaches for age-associated neurological diseases. Recently, it has been suggested that epigenetic factors, such as histone modifications, maybe be involved in brain aging and age-related neurodegenerations. In this study, we investigated 14 histone modifications in brains of a cohort of young (3 months), old (22 months), and old age-matched dietary restricted (DR) and rapamycin treated BALB/c mice. Results showed that 7 out of all measured histone markers were changed drastically with age. Intriguingly, histone methylations in brain tissues, including H3K27me3, H3R2me2, H3K79me3 and H4K20me2 tend to disappear with age but can be partially restored by both DR and rapamycin treatment. However, both DR and rapamycin treatment also have a significant impact on several other histone modifications such as H3K27ac, H4K16ac, H4R3me2, and H3K56ac, which do not change as animal ages. This study provides the first evidence that a broad spectrum of histone modifications may be involved in brain aging. Besides, this study suggests that both DR and rapamycin may slow aging process in mouse brain via these underlying epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:26021816

  9. Mitochondrial dysfunction in rat brain with aging Involvement of complex I, reactive oxygen species and cardiolipin.

    PubMed

    Petrosillo, G; Matera, M; Casanova, G; Ruggiero, F M; Paradies, G

    2008-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered a key factor in brain aging process. Mitochondrial respiration is an important site of ROS production and hence a potential contributor to brain functional changes with aging. In this study we examined the effect of aging on complex I activity, oxygen consumption, ROS production and phospholipid composition in rat brain mitochondria. The activity of complex I was reduced by 30% in brain mitochondria from 24 months aged rats relative to young animals. These changes in complex I activity were associated with parallel changes in state 3 respiration. H(2)O(2) generation was significantly increased in mitochondria isolated from aged rats. The mitochondrial content of cardiolipin, a phospholipid required for optimal activity of complex I, decreased by 31% as function of aging, while there was a significant increase in the level of peroxidized cardiolipin. The age-related decrease in complex I activity in brain mitochondria could be reversed by exogenously added cardiolipin. This effect of cardiolipin could not be replaced by other phospholipids. It is proposed that aging causes brain mitochondrial complex I dysfunction which can be attributed to ROS-induced cardiolipin oxidation. These findings may prove useful in elucidating the mechanism underlying mitochondrial dysfunction associated with brain aging.

  10. Brain Na+, K+-ATPase Activity In Aging and Disease

    PubMed Central

    de Lores Arnaiz, Georgina Rodríguez; Ordieres, María Graciela López

    2014-01-01

    , enzyme changes in diverse neurological diseases as well as during aging, have been summarized. Issues refer mainly to Na+, K+-ATPase studies in ischemia, brain injury, depression and mood disorders, mania, stress, Alzheimer´s disease, learning and memory, and neuronal hyperexcitability and epilepsy. PMID:25018677

  11. A critique of using age to ration health care.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, R W

    1993-01-01

    Daniel Callahan has argued that economic and social benefits would result from a policy of withholding medical treatments which prolong life in persons over a certain age. He claims 'the real goal of medicine' is to conquer death and prolong life with the use of technology, regardless of the age and quality of life of the patient, and this has been responsible for the escalation of health care expenditure. Callahan's proposal is based on economic rationalism but there is little evidence to suggest that substantial economic savings could be achieved. Moreover, his argument raises serious moral objections. A policy of withholding treatments from members of a social group involves elements of compulsion and discrimination, both of which would intrude on the doctor-patient relationship, undermine the autonomy of elderly patients, and invoke the slippery slope towards involuntary forms of euthanasia. Life-death decisions should be based on more than the one criterion of age, and take account of more relevant factors such as the patient's usual state of well-being, her/his expressed wishes, informed consent and the type of illness. Any move to the implementation and enforcement of the policy Callahan recommends would be rejected by health professionals and the public. PMID:8459434

  12. Primary care supply moderates the impact of diseases on self-perceptions of aging.

    PubMed

    Wurm, Susanne; Wolff, Julia K; Schüz, Benjamin

    2014-06-01

    Self-perceptions of aging, important indicators of successful aging, are closely linked to health. Previous research has mainly examined the role of individual factors on self-perceptions of aging, but health is partly dependent on contextual factors such as primary care supply. This study therefore examined whether the impact of diseases on self-perceptions of aging is buffered by primary care supply in the district, as it ensures sustained health care continuity. Nationally representative German survey data on health and self-perceptions of aging (N = 4,442, 40-85 years) were linked to primary care supply (general practitioner density in regional districts). Multilevel modeling shows that the impact of disease burden (multiple illnesses) was buffered by primary care supply: Disease burden was less strongly associated with negative self-perceptions of aging in districts with good primary health care supply. This underlines the importance of health care resources for successful aging.

  13. Metabolomics of human brain aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Jové, Mariona; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Naudí, Alba; Ferrer, Isidre; Pamplona, Reinald

    2014-07-01

    Neurons in the mature human central nervous system (CNS) perform a wide range of motor, sensory, regulatory, behavioral, and cognitive functions. Such diverse functional output requires a great diversity of CNS neuronal and non-neuronal populations. Metabolomics encompasses the study of the complete set of metabolites/low-molecular-weight intermediates (metabolome), which are context-dependent and vary according to the physiology, developmental state, or pathologic state of the cell, tissue, organ, or organism. Therefore, the use of metabolomics can help to unravel the diversity-and to disclose the specificity-of metabolic traits and their alterations in the brain and in fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid and plasma, thus helping to uncover potential biomarkers of aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we review the current applications of metabolomics in studies of CNS aging and certain age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neurometabolomics will increase knowledge of the physiologic and pathologic functions of neural cells and will place the concept of selective neuronal vulnerability in a metabolic context.

  14. Age-dependent changes in task-based modular organization of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, Kimberly J; Turner, Benjamin O; Lopez, Brian A; Miller, Michael B; Carlson, Jean M

    2017-02-01

    As humans age, cognition and behavior change significantly, along with associated brain function and organization. Aging has been shown to decrease variability in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals, and to affect the modular organization of human brain function. In this work, we use complex network analysis to investigate the dynamic community structure of large-scale brain function, asking how evolving communities interact with known brain systems, and how the dynamics of communities and brain systems are affected by age. We analyze dynamic networks derived from fMRI scans of 104 human subjects performing a word memory task, and determine the time-evolving modular structure of these networks by maximizing the multislice modularity, thereby identifying distinct communities, or sets of brain regions with strong intra-set functional coherence. To understand how community structure changes over time, we examine the number of communities as well as the flexibility, or the likelihood that brain regions will switch between communities. We find a significant positive correlation between age and both these measures: younger subjects tend to have less fragmented and more coherent communities, and their brain regions tend to change communities less often during the memory task. We characterize the relationship of community structure to known brain systems by the recruitment coefficient, or the probability of a brain region being grouped in the same community as other regions in the same system. We find that regions associated with cingulo-opercular, somatosensory, ventral attention, and subcortical circuits have a significantly higher recruitment coefficient in younger subjects. This indicates that the within-system functional coherence of these specific systems during the memory task declines with age. Such a correspondence does not exist for other systems (e.g. visual and default mode), whose recruitment coefficients remain relatively uniform across ages

  15. The Evaluation of Existing Federal Interagency Day Care Requirements: Day Care for the School-Age Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergstrom, Joan M.; Dreher, Donna L.

    As part of an evaluation of the existing Federal Interagency Day Care Requirements (FIDCR), this paper reviews the current regulations and presents recommendations for modifications in the requirements as they relate to group or family day care services for school age children from 5 to 14 years of age. The paper is divided into five major…

  16. A common brain network links development, aging, and vulnerability to disease.

    PubMed

    Douaud, Gwenaëlle; Groves, Adrian R; Tamnes, Christian K; Westlye, Lars Tjelta; Duff, Eugene P; Engvig, Andreas; Walhovd, Kristine B; James, Anthony; Gass, Achim; Monsch, Andreas U; Matthews, Paul M; Fjell, Anders M; Smith, Stephen M; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2014-12-09

    Several theories link processes of development and aging in humans. In neuroscience, one model posits for instance that healthy age-related brain degeneration mirrors development, with the areas of the brain thought to develop later also degenerating earlier. However, intrinsic evidence for such a link between healthy aging and development in brain structure remains elusive. Here, we show that a data-driven analysis of brain structural variation across 484 healthy participants (8-85 y) reveals a largely--but not only--transmodal network whose lifespan pattern of age-related change intrinsically supports this model of mirroring development and aging. We further demonstrate that this network of brain regions, which develops relatively late during adolescence and shows accelerated degeneration in old age compared with the rest of the brain, characterizes areas of heightened vulnerability to unhealthy developmental and aging processes, as exemplified by schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease, respectively. Specifically, this network, while derived solely from healthy subjects, spatially recapitulates the pattern of brain abnormalities observed in both schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. This network is further associated in our large-scale healthy population with intellectual ability and episodic memory, whose impairment contributes to key symptoms of schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Taken together, our results suggest that the common spatial pattern of abnormalities observed in these two disorders, which emerge at opposite ends of the life spectrum, might be influenced by the timing of their separate and distinct pathological processes in disrupting healthy cerebral development and aging, respectively.

  17. HRT and its effect on normal ageing of the brain and dementia

    PubMed Central

    Compton, Jacqueline; van Amelsvoort, Therese; Murphy, Declan

    2001-01-01

    There are significant gender differences in human brain disease. For example, females are significantly more likely to suffer from Alzheimer's disease (AD) than men (even after correcting for differences in life expectancy), and females on hormone replacement therapy (HRT) are significantly less likely to suffer from Alzheimer's disease than women who do not take HRT. However the neurobiological basis to these differences in clinical brain disease were unknown until relatively recently. In this review we will discuss results of studies that show; (i) gender differences in human brain disease are most likely to be explained by gender differences in brain development and ageing; (ii) sex steroids have a significant effect on the brain; (iii) sex steroids are crucial to the development and ageing of brain regions affected in age-related brain diseases (for example AD); (iv) sex steroids interact with neuronal networks and chemical systems at many different levels; (v) sex steroids affect cognitive function in elderly women. Thus, the current literature supports the hypothesis that sex steroids can modulate brain ageing, and this provides a neurobiological explanation for the significantly higher prevalence of AD in females who do not take HRT, and may lead to new treatment approaches for age-related brain disease including AD. PMID:11736875

  18. Brain amyloid-β oligomers in ageing and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lesné, Sylvain E; Sherman, Mathew A; Grant, Marianne; Kuskowski, Michael; Schneider, Julie A; Bennett, David A; Ashe, Karen H

    2013-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease begins about two decades before the onset of symptoms or neuron death, and is believed to be caused by pathogenic amyloid-β aggregates that initiate a cascade of molecular events culminating in widespread neurodegeneration. The microtubule binding protein tau may mediate the effects of amyloid-β in this cascade. Amyloid plaques comprised of insoluble, fibrillar amyloid-β aggregates are the most characteristic feature of Alzheimer's disease. However, the correspondence between the distribution of plaques and the pattern of neurodegeneration is tenuous. This discrepancy has stimulated the investigation of other amyloid-β aggregates, including soluble amyloid-β oligomers. Different soluble amyloid-β oligomers have been studied in several mouse models, but not systematically in humans. Here, we measured three amyloid-β oligomers previously described in mouse models-amyloid-β trimers, Aβ*56 and amyloid-β dimers-in brain tissue from 75 cognitively intact individuals, ranging from young children to the elderly, and 58 impaired subjects with mild cognitive impairment or probable Alzheimer's disease. As in mouse models, where amyloid-β trimers appear to be the fundamental amyloid-β assembly unit of Aβ*56 and are present in young mice prior to memory decline, amyloid-β trimers in humans were present in children and adolescents; their levels rose gradually with age and were significantly above baseline in subjects in their 70s. Aβ*56 levels were negligible in children and young adults, rose significantly above baseline in subjects in their 40s and increased steadily thereafter. Amyloid-β dimers were undetectable until subjects were in their 60s; their levels then increased sharply and correlated with plaque load. Remarkably, in cognitively intact individuals we found strong positive correlations between Aβ*56 and two pathological forms of soluble tau (tau-CP13 and tau-Alz50), and negative correlations between Aβ*56 and two postsynaptic

  19. Expression of fatty acid binding proteins is altered in aged mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Pu, L; Igbavboa, U; Wood, W G; Roths, J B; Kier, A B; Spener, F; Schroeder, F

    1999-08-01

    Brain membrane lipid fatty acid composition and consequently membrane fluidity change with increasing age. Intracellular fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) such as heart H-FABP and the brain specific B-FABP, detected by immunoblotting of brain tissue, are thought to be involved in fatty acid uptake, metabolism, and differentiation in brain. Yet, almost nothing is known regarding the effect of age on the expression of the cytosolic fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) or their content in brain subfractions. Electrophoresis and quantitative immunoblotting were used to examine the content of these FABPs in synaptosomes in brains from 4, 15, and 25 month old C57BL/6NNia male mice. Brain H-FABP and B-FABP were differentially expressed in mouse brain subcellular fractions. Brain H-FABP was highly concentrated in synaptosomal cytosol. The level of brain H-FABP in synaptosomes, synaptosomal cytosol, and intrasynaptosomal membranes was decreased 33, 35, and 43%, respectively, in 25 month old mice. B-FABP was detected in lower quantity than H-FABP. More important, B-FABP decreased in synaptosomes, synaptic plasma membranes, and synaptosomal cytosol from brains of 25 month old mice. In contrast to H-FABP, B-FABP was not detectable in the intrasynaptosomal membranes in any of the three age groups of mice. In conclusion, expression of both H-FABP and B-FABP was markedly reduced in aged mouse brain. Age differences in brain H-FABP and B-FABP levels in synaptosomal plasma membranes and synaptosomal cytosol may be important factors modulating neuronal differentiation and function.

  20. Age- and Brain Region-Specific Differences in Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Brown Norway Rats

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Differences in various mitochondrial bioenergetics parameters in different brain regions in different age groups.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Pandya, J.D., J. Royland , R.C. McPhail, P.G. Sullivan, and P. Kodavanti. Age-and Brain Region-Specific Differences in Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Brown Norway Rats. NEUROBIOLOGY OF AGING. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, USA, 42: 25-34, (2016).

  1. Complementary Self-Care Strategies for Healthy Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Sondra

    1993-01-01

    Focuses on alternative self-care practices in terms of collaboration with the primary care physician and individual exploration of self-care practices such as acupuncture, meditation, and nutrition counseling. (JOW)

  2. Readmission to Acute Care Hospital during Inpatient Rehabilitation for Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Flora M.; Horn, Susan D.; Smout, Randall J.; Beaulieu, Cynthia L.; Barrett, Ryan S.; Ryser, David K.; Sommerfeld, Teri

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate frequency, reasons, and factors associated with readmission to acute care (RTAC) during inpatient rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury (TBI). Design Prospective observational cohort. Setting Inpatient rehabilitation. Participants 2,130 consecutive admissions for TBI rehabilitation. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure(s) RTAC incidence, RTAC causes, rehabilitation length of stay (RLOS), and rehabilitation discharge location. Results 183 participants (9%) experienced RTAC for a total 210 episodes. 161 patients experienced 1 RTAC episode, 17 had 2, and 5 had 3. Mean days from rehabilitation admission to first RTAC was 22 days (SD 22). Mean duration in acute care during RTAC was 7 days (SD 8). 84 participants (46%) had >1 RTAC episode for medical reasons, 102 (56%) had >1 RTAC for surgical reasons, and RTAC reason was unknown for 6 (3%) participants. Most common surgical RTAC reasons were: neurosurgical (65%), pulmonary (9%), infection (5%), and orthopedic (5%); most common medical reasons were infection (26%), neurologic (23%), and cardiac (12%). Older age, history of coronary artery disease, history of congestive heart failure, acute care diagnosis of depression, craniotomy or craniectomy during acute care, and presence of dysphagia at rehabilitation admission predicted patients with RTAC. RTAC was less likely for patients with higher admission Functional Independence Measure Motor scores and education less than high school diploma. RTAC occurrence during rehabilitation was significantly associated with longer RLOS and smaller likelihood of discharge home. Conclusion(s) Approximately 9% of patients with TBI experience RTAC during inpatient rehabilitation for various medical and surgical reasons. This information may help inform interventions aimed at reducing interruptions in rehabilitation due to RTAC. RTACs were associated with longer RLOS and discharge to an institutional setting. PMID:26212405

  3. Medication management policy, practice and research in Australian residential aged care: Current and future directions.

    PubMed

    Sluggett, Janet K; Ilomäki, Jenni; Seaman, Karla L; Corlis, Megan; Bell, J Simon

    2017-02-01

    Eight percent of Australians aged 65 years and over receive residential aged care each year. Residents are increasingly older, frailer and have complex care needs on entry to residential aged care. Up to 63% of Australian residents of aged care facilities take nine or more medications regularly. Together, these factors place residents at high risk of adverse drug events. This paper reviews medication-related policies, practices and research in Australian residential aged care. Complex processes underpin prescribing, supply and administration of medications in aged care facilities. A broad range of policies and resources are available to assist health professionals, aged care facilities and residents to optimise medication management. These include national guiding principles, a standardised national medication chart, clinical medication reviews and facility accreditation standards. Recent Australian interventions have improved medication use in residential aged care facilities. Generating evidence for prescribing and deprescribing that is specific to residential aged care, health workforce reform, medication-related quality indicators and inter-professional education in aged care are important steps toward optimising medication use in this setting.

  4. Aging brain microenvironment decreases hippocampal neurogenesis through Wnt-mediated survivin signaling.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Carlos J; Braun, Lyndsey; Jiang, Yuying; Hester, Mark E; Zhang, Ling; Riolo, Matthew; Wang, Haijuan; Rao, Meghan; Altura, Rachel A; Kaspar, Brian K

    2012-06-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that adult hippocampal neurogenesis relies on the controlled and continued proliferation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs). With age, neurogenesis decreases through mechanisms that remain unclear but are believed to involve changes in the NPC microenvironment. Here, we provide evidence that NPC proliferation in the adult brain is in part regulated by astrocytes via Wnt signaling and that this cellular cross-talk is modified in the aging brain, leading to decreased proliferation of NPCs. Furthermore, we show that astrocytes regulate the NPC cell cycle by acting on the expression levels of survivin, a known mitotic regulator. Among cell cycle genes found down-regulated in aged NPCs, survivin was the only one that restored NPC proliferation in the aged brain. Our results provide a mechanism for the gradual loss of neurogenesis in the brain associated with aging and suggest that targeted modulation of survivin expression directly or through Wnt signaling could be used to stimulate adult neurogenesis.

  5. Bryan Jennett and the field of traumatic brain injury. His intellectual and ethical heritage in neuro-intensive care.

    PubMed

    Stocchetti, Nino; Citerio, Giuseppe; Maas, Andrew; Andrews, Peter; Teasdale, Graham

    2008-10-01

    William Bryan Jennett, one of the leading figures in neurosurgery of the twentieth century, has died on 26 January 2008, at the age of 81. He made fundamental contributions to the field of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that still shape diagnosis, management and prognosis worldwide, in the second part of the last century. This paper is meant to gratefully acknowledge his contributions and to reflect on the implications that his work has for neurointensive care today. Starting from his early steps, we tried to highlight his fundamental work on diagnosis of severity in TBI, on rescue, treatment and prognosis of severe TBI. Moreover, his contribution in the definition of vegetative state, minimally conscious state and brain death has been emphasized. The contribution of Professor Bryan Jennett was in fact seminal in many aspects: the application of a common language in brain damage evaluation, where GCS and GOS are now universally employed; a critical approach to TBI diagnosis and treatment, in the search of proven better therapies; a quantitative approach to TBI prognosis, based on large clinical series and appropriate statistics; a strong commitment to the ethical implication of survival after severe injury, including the vegetative status; social responsibility in the diagnosis of brain death and in organ donors procurement. For these reasons, he can be considered one of the leading figures in neurosurgery and neurology of the twentieth century. This paper is meant to gratefully acknowledge his contributions and to reflect on the implications that his work has for neuro-intensive care today.

  6. AgedCare+GP: description and evaluation of an in-house model of general practice in a residential aged-care facility.

    PubMed

    Pain, Tilley; Stainkey, Lesley; Chapman, Sue

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a medical model to provide in-house GP services to residents of aged-care facilities. Access to GP services for aged-care residents is decreasing, partially due to the changing demographic of the Australian GP workforce. The model we have developed is an in-house GP (AgedCare+GP) trialled in a publicly funded residential aged-care facility (RACF). The service model was based on the GP cooperative used in our after-hours general practice (AfterHours+GP). Briefly, the service model involves rostering a core group of GPs to provide weekly sessional clinics at the RACF. Financial contributions from appropriate Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) items for aged-care planning (including chronic conditions) provided adequate funds to operate the clinic for RACF residents. Evaluation of the service model used the number of resident transfers to the local emergency department as the primary outcome measure. There were 37 transfers of residents in the 3 months before the commencement of the AgedCare+GP and 11 transfers over a 3-month period at the end of the first year of operation; a reduction of almost 70%. This project demonstrates that AgedCare+GP is a successful model for GP service provision to RACF residents, and it also reduces the number of emergency department transfers.

  7. Aging Shapes the Population-Mean and -Dispersion of Gene Expression in Human Brains

    PubMed Central

    Brinkmeyer-Langford, Candice L.; Guan, Jinting; Ji, Guoli; Cai, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Human aging is associated with cognitive decline and an increased risk of neurodegenerative disease. Our objective for this study was to evaluate potential relationships between age and variation in gene expression across different regions of the brain. We analyzed the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) data from 54 to 101 tissue samples across 13 brain regions in post-mortem donors of European descent aged between 20 and 70 years at death. After accounting for the effects of covariates and hidden confounding factors, we identified 1446 protein-coding genes whose expression in one or more brain regions is correlated with chronological age at a false discovery rate of 5%. These genes are involved in various biological processes including apoptosis, mRNA splicing, amino acid biosynthesis, and neurotransmitter transport. The distribution of these genes among brain regions is uneven, suggesting variable regional responses to aging. We also found that the aging response of many genes, e.g., TP37 and C1QA, depends on individuals' genotypic backgrounds. Finally, using dispersion-specific analysis, we identified genes such as IL7R, MS4A4E, and TERF1/TERF2 whose expressions are differentially dispersed by aging, i.e., variances differ between age groups. Our results demonstrate that age-related gene expression is brain region-specific, genotype-dependent, and associated with both mean and dispersion changes. Our findings provide a foundation for more sophisticated gene expression modeling in the studies of age-related neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27536236

  8. Axioms and Assumptions: A Short Philosophy Regarding the Professionalization of School-Age Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollhoff, Jim; Ollhoff, Laurie

    This document presents 17 philosophical statements regarding school-age care programs, staff, and challenges. The essence of school-age care is to understand childhood and to facilitate positive development. Because these programs provide a place where children have significant contact with adults within a multi-age peer group, they can teach…

  9. Profiling of methylation and demethylation pathways during brain development and ageing.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Theo F J; Kilinc, Selma; Steinmaurer, Martina; Stieglitz, Marc; Guibourt, Virginie; Kretzschmar, Hans A

    2016-03-01

    Numerous signal pathways are epigenetically controlled during brain development and ageing. Thereby, both 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and the newly described 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) are highly exhibited in the brain. As there is an uneven distribution of 5hmC in the brain depending on age and region, there is the need to investigate the underlying mechanisms being responsible for 5hmC generation and decline. The aim of this study was to quantify expression levels of genes that are associated with DNA methylation/demethylation in different brain regions and at different ages. Therefore, we investigated frontal cortex and cerebellum of 40 mice (strain C57BL/6), each eight mice sacrificed at day 0, 7, 15, 30 and 120 after birth. We performed expression profiling of methylation/demethylation genes depending on age and brain region. Interestingly, we see significant expression differences of genes being responsible for methylation/demethylation with a significant reduction of expression levels during ageing. Validating selected expression data on protein level using immunohistochemistry verified the expression data. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the regulation of methylation/demethylation pathways is highly controlled depending on brain region and age. Thus our data will help to better understand the complexity and plasticity of the brain epigenome.

  10. Characteristics and Use of Home Health Care by Men and Women Aged 65 and Over

    MedlinePlus

    ... April 18, 2012 Characteristics and Use of Home Health Care by Men and Women Aged 65 and Over ... and Roberto Valverde, M.P.H., Division of Health Care Statistics Abstract Objective —This report presents national estimates ...

  11. Gender-specific impact of personal health parameters on individual brain aging in cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Katja; Ristow, Michael; Gaser, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Aging alters brain structure and function. Personal health markers and modifiable lifestyle factors are related to individual brain aging as well as to the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study used a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based biomarker to assess the effects of 17 health markers on individual brain aging in cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects. By employing kernel regression methods, the expression of normal brain-aging patterns forms the basis to estimate the brain age of a given new subject. If the estimated age is higher than the chronological age, a positive brain age gap estimation (BrainAGE) score indicates accelerated atrophy and is considered a risk factor for developing AD. Within this cross-sectional, multi-center study 228 cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects (118 males) completed an MRI at 1.5Tesla, physiological and blood parameter assessments. The multivariate regression model combining all measured parameters was capable of explaining 39% of BrainAGE variance in males (p < 0.001) and 32% in females (p < 0.01). Furthermore, markers of the metabolic syndrome as well as markers of liver and kidney functions were profoundly related to BrainAGE scores in males (p < 0.05). In females, markers of liver and kidney functions as well as supply of vitamin B12 were significantly related to BrainAGE (p < 0.05). In conclusion, in cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects several clinical markers of poor health were associated with subtle structural changes in the brain that reflect accelerated aging, whereas protective effects on brain aging were observed for markers of good health. Additionally, the relations between individual brain aging and miscellaneous health markers show gender-specific patterns. The BrainAGE approach may thus serve as a clinically relevant biomarker for the detection of subtly abnormal patterns of brain aging probably preceding cognitive decline and development of AD. PMID:24904408

  12. Effects of early intervention and the moderating effects of brain activity on institutionalized children's social skills at age 8

    PubMed Central

    Almas, Alisa N.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Radulescu, Anca; Nelson, Charles A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the social skills of previously institutionalized, 8-y-old Romanian children from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project and the influence of attachment security and brain electrical activity (alpha power) on these skills. Participants included children randomized to an intervention involving foster care [Foster Care Group (FCG)], children randomized to remain in institutions [Care As Usual Group (CAUG)], and never-institutionalized children living with their families in the Bucharest community [Never-Institutionalized Group (NIG)]. A continuous rating of children’s attachment security to their primary caregiver was assessed at 42 mo of age. When children were 8 y old, teachers rated their social skills, and the children’s resting electroencephalogram alpha power was recorded. Teachers rated social skills of FCG children who were placed into foster care before 20 mo of age as no different from NIG children, and both of these groups were higher than CAUG children and FCG children placed after 20 mo. Electroencephalogram alpha power at age 8 significantly moderated the relations between attachment security and social skills. These findings characterize institutionalized children’s social skills in middle childhood within the context of a randomized intervention while highlighting the roles of both relational and biological factors in these developmental trajectories. PMID:23045660

  13. Association of structural global brain network properties with intelligence in normal aging.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Florian U; Wolf, Dominik; Scheurich, Armin; Fellgiebel, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Higher general intelligence attenuates age-associated cognitive decline and the risk of dementia. Thus, intelligence has been associated with cognitive reserve or resilience in normal aging. Neurophysiologically, intelligence is considered as a complex capacity that is dependent on a global cognitive network rather than isolated brain areas. An association of structural as well as functional brain network characteristics with intelligence has already been reported in young adults. We investigated the relationship between global structural brain network properties, general intelligence and age in a group of 43 cognitively healthy elderly, age 60-85 years. Individuals were assessed cross-sectionally using Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and diffusion-tensor imaging. Structural brain networks were reconstructed individually using deterministic tractography, global network properties (global efficiency, mean shortest path length, and clustering coefficient) were determined by graph theory and correlated to intelligence scores within both age groups. Network properties were significantly correlated to age, whereas no significant correlation to WAIS-R was observed. However, in a subgroup of 15 individuals aged 75 and above, the network properties were significantly correlated to WAIS-R. Our findings suggest that general intelligence and global properties of structural brain networks may not be generally associated in cognitively healthy elderly. However, we provide first evidence of an association between global structural brain network properties and general intelligence in advanced elderly. Intelligence might be affected by age-associated network deterioration only if a certain threshold of structural degeneration is exceeded. Thus, age-associated brain structural changes seem to be partially compensated by the network and the range of this compensation might be a surrogate of cognitive reserve or brain resilience.

  14. Age-dependent effect of static magnetic field on brain tissue hydration.

    PubMed

    Deghoyan, Anush; Nikoghosyan, Anna; Heqimyan, Armenuhi; Ayrapetyan, Sinerik

    2014-01-01

    Age-dependent effect of Static Magnetic Field (SMF) on rats in a condition of active and inactive Na(+)/K(+) pump was studied for comparison of brain tissues hydration state changes and magnetic sensitivity. Influence of 15 min 0, 2 Tesla (T) SMF on brain tissue hydration of three aged groups of male albino rats was studied. Tyrode's physiological solution and 10(-4) M ouabain was used for intraperitoneal injections. For animal immobilization, the liquid nitrogen was used and the definition of tissue water content was performed by tissue drying method. Initial water content in brain tissues of young animals is significantly higher than in those of adult and aged ones. SMF exposure leads to decrease of water content in brain tissues of young animals and increase in brain tissues of adult and aged ones. In case of ouabain-poisoned animals, SMF gives reversal effects on brain tissue's hydration both in young and aged animals, while no significant effect on adults is observed. It is suggested that initial state of tissue hydration could play a crucial role in animal age-dependent magnetic sensitivity and the main reason for this could be age-dependent dysfunction of Na(+)/K(+) pump.

  15. Senescence-accelerated Mice (SAMs) as a Model for Brain Aging and Immunosenescence

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Atsuyoshi; Hasegawa-Ishii, Sanae

    2011-01-01

    The Senescence-Accelerated Mouse (SAM) represents a group of inbred mouse strains developed as a model for the study of human aging and age-related diseases. Senescence-prone (SAMP) strains exhibit an early onset of age-related decline in the peripheral immunity such as thymic involution, loss of CD4+ T cells, impaired helper T cell function, decreased antibody-forming capacity, dysfunction of antigen-presenting cells, decreased natural killer activity, increased auto-antibodies, and susceptibility to virus infection. Senescence-prone SAMP10 mice undergo age-related changes in the brain such as brain atrophy, shrinkage and loss of cortical neurons, retraction of cortical neuronal dendrites, loss of dendritic spines, loss of synapses, impaired learning and memory, depressive behavior, accumulation of neuronal DNA damage, neuronal ubiquitinated inclusions, reduced hippocampal cholinergic receptors, decreased neurotrophic factors, decreased hippocampal zinc and zinc transporters, increased sphyngomyelinase, and elevated oxidative-nitrative stress. Recent data indicating increased pro-inflammatory cytokines in the brain of SAMP10 mice are directing investigators toward an integration of immune and neural abnormalities to enhance understanding of the principles of brain aging. We highlight how mouse brain cells adopt cytokine-mediated responses and how SAMP10 mice are defective in these responses. SAMP10 model would be useful to study how age-related disturbances in peripheral immunity have an impact on dysregulation of brain tissue homeostasis, resulting in age-related neurodegeneration. PMID:22396891

  16. Brain volumetric changes and cognitive ageing during the eighth decade of life

    PubMed Central

    Dickie, David Alexander; Cox, Simon R.; Valdes Hernandez, Maria del C.; Corley, Janie; Royle, Natalie A.; Pattie, Alison; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Redmond, Paul; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Taylor, Adele M.; Sibbett, Ruth; Gow, Alan J.; Starr, John M.; Bastin, Mark E.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Later‐life changes in brain tissue volumes—decreases in the volume of healthy grey and white matter and increases in the volume of white matter hyperintensities (WMH)—are strong candidates to explain some of the variation in ageing‐related cognitive decline. We assessed fluid intelligence, memory, processing speed, and brain volumes (from structural MRI) at mean age 73 years, and at mean age 76 in a narrow‐age sample of older individuals (n = 657 with brain volumetric data at the initial wave, n = 465 at follow‐up). We used latent variable modeling to extract error‐free cognitive levels and slopes. Initial levels of cognitive ability were predictive of subsequent brain tissue volume changes. Initial brain volumes were not predictive of subsequent cognitive changes. Brain volume changes, especially increases in WMH, were associated with declines in each of the cognitive abilities. All statistically significant results were modest in size (absolute r‐values ranged from 0.114 to 0.334). These results build a comprehensive picture of macrostructural brain volume changes and declines in important cognitive faculties during the eighth decade of life. Hum Brain Mapp 36:4910–4925, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc PMID:26769551

  17. Continuing in Foster Care Beyond Age 18: How Courts Can Help. Issue Brief 116

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Clark; Bell, Katie S. Claussen; Zinn, Andrew; Goerge, Robert M.; Courtney, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    Research has found that foster youth who remain in care beyond age 18 are more likely to participate in services and tend to have better outcomes than those who do not. However, not all youth eligible to remain in care beyond age 18 do so. This study examines Illinois, one of the few states that extends care up to age 21, to identify the major…

  18. Dietary resistant starch improves selected brain and behavioral functions in adult and aged rodents.

    PubMed

    Zhou, June; Keenan, Michael J; Fernandez-Kim, Sun Ok; Pistell, Paul J; Ingram, Donald K; Li, Bing; Raggio, Anne M; Shen, Li; Zhang, Hanjie; McCutcheon, Kathleen L; Tulley, Richard T; Blackman, Marc R; Keller, Jeffrey N; Martin, Roy J

    2013-11-01

    Resistant starch (RS) is a dietary fiber that exerts multiple beneficial effects. The current study explored the effects of dietary RS on selected brain and behavioral functions in adult and aged rodents. Because glucokinase (GK) expression in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and area postrema of the brainstem is important for brain glucose sensing, GK mRNA was measured by brain nuclei microdissection and PCR. Adult RS-fed rats had a higher GK mRNA than controls in both brain nuclei, an indicator of improved brain glucose sensing. Next, we tested whether dietary RS improve selected behaviors in aged mice. RS-fed aged mice exhibited (i) an increased eating responses to fasting, a behavioral indicator of improvement in aged brain glucose sensing; (ii) a longer latency to fall from an accelerating rotarod, a behavioral indicator of improved motor coordination; and (iii) a higher serum active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Then, GLP-1 receptor null (GLP-1RKO) mice were used to test the role of GLP-1 in brain glucose sensing, and they exhibited impaired eating responses to fasting. We conclude that in rodents (i) dietary RS improves two important indicators of brain function: glucose sensing and motor coordination, and (ii) GLP-1 is important in the optimal feeding response to a fast.

  19. The glia doctrine: addressing the role of glial cells in healthy brain ageing.

    PubMed

    Nagelhus, Erlend A; Amiry-Moghaddam, Mahmood; Bergersen, Linda H; Bjaalie, Jan G; Eriksson, Jens; Gundersen, Vidar; Leergaard, Trygve B; Morth, J Preben; Storm-Mathisen, Jon; Torp, Reidun; Walhovd, Kristine B; Tønjum, Tone

    2013-10-01

    Glial cells in their plurality pervade the human brain and impact on brain structure and function. A principal component of the emerging glial doctrine is the hypothesis that astrocytes, the most abundant type of glial cells, trigger major molecular processes leading to brain ageing. Astrocyte biology has been examined using molecular, biochemical and structural methods, as well as 3D brain imaging in live animals and humans. Exosomes are extracelluar membrane vesicles that facilitate communication between glia, and have significant potential for biomarker discovery and drug delivery. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes may indirectly influence the structure and function of membrane proteins expressed in glial cells and predispose specific cell subgroups to degeneration. Physical exercise may reduce or retard age-related brain deterioration by a mechanism involving neuro-glial processes. It is most likely that additional information about the distribution, structure and function of glial cells will yield novel insight into human brain ageing. Systematic studies of glia and their functions are expected to eventually lead to earlier detection of ageing-related brain dysfunction and to interventions that could delay, reduce or prevent brain dysfunction.

  20. Intraneuronal protein aggregation as a trigger for inflammation and neurodegeneration in the aging brain.

    PubMed

    Currais, Antonio; Fischer, Wolfgang; Maher, Pamela; Schubert, David

    2017-01-01

    Age is, by far, the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), yet few AD drug candidates have been generated that target pathways specifically associated with the aging process itself. Two ubiquitous features of the aging brain are the intracellular accumulation of aggregated proteins and inflammation. As intraneuronal amyloid protein is detected before markers of inflammation, we argue that old, age-associated, aggregated proteins in neurons can induce inflammation, resulting in multiple forms of brain toxicities. The consequence is the increased risk of old, age-associated, neurodegenerative diseases. As most of these diseases are associated with the accumulation of aggregated proteins, it is possible that any therapeutic that reduces intracellular protein aggregation will benefit all.-Currais, A., Fischer, W., Maher, P., Schubert, D. Intraneuronal protein aggregation as a trigger for inflammation and neurodegeneration in the aging brain.

  1. Age-associated losses of brain volume predict longitudinal cognitive declines over 8 to 20 years.

    PubMed

    Rabbitt, Patrick; Ibrahim, Said; Lunn, Mary; Scott, Marietta; Thacker, Neil; Hutchinson, Charles; Horan, Michael; Pendleton, Neil; Jackson, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Absolute differences in global brain volume predict differences in cognitive ability among healthy older adults. However, absolute differences confound lifelong differences in brain size with amounts of age-related shrinkage. Measurements of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume were made to estimate age-related shrinkage in 93 healthy volunteers aged 63 to 86 years. Their current levels of brain shrinkage predicted their amounts of decline over the previous 8 to 20 years on repeated assessments during a longitudinal study on the Cattell "Culture Fair" Intelligence Test, on two tests of information processing speed, and marginally on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (D. Wechsler, 1981), but not on three memory tests. Loss of brain volume is an effective marker both for current cognitive status and for amounts and rates of previous age-related cognitive losses.

  2. Neuro-immune Dysfunction During Brain Aging: New Insights in Microglial Cell Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Matt, Stephanie M.; Johnson, Rodney W.

    2015-01-01

    Microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, are at the center of communication between the central nervous system and immune system. While these brain-immune interactions are balanced in healthy adulthood, the ability to maintain homeostasis during aging is impaired. Microglia develop a loss of integrated regulatory networks including aberrant signaling from other brain cells, immune sensors, and epigenetic modifiers. The low-grade chronic neuroinflammation associated with this dysfunctional activity likely contributes to cognitive deficits and susceptibility to age-related pathologies. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms responsible for neuro-immune dysregulation with age is crucial for providing targeted therapeutic strategies to support brain repair and healthy aging. PMID:26595306

  3. Astrocytes in the aging brain express characteristics of senescence-associated secretory phenotype.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Antero; Ojala, Johanna; Kaarniranta, Kai; Haapasalo, Annakaisa; Hiltunen, Mikko; Soininen, Hilkka

    2011-07-01

    Cellular stress increases progressively with aging in mammalian tissues. Chronic stress triggers several signaling cascades that can induce a condition called cellular senescence. Recent studies have demonstrated that senescent cells express a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Emerging evidence indicates that the number of cells expressing biomarkers of cellular senescence increases in tissues with aging, which implies that cellular senescence is an important player in organismal aging. In the brain, the aging process is associated with degenerative changes, e.g. synaptic loss and white matter atrophy, which lead to progressive cognitive impairment. There is substantial evidence for the presence of oxidative, proteotoxic and metabolic stresses in aging brain. A low-level, chronic inflammatory process is also present in brain during aging. Astrocytes demonstrate age-related changes that resemble those of the SASP: (i) increased level of intermediate glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin filaments, (ii) increased expression of several cytokines and (iii) increased accumulation of proteotoxic aggregates. In addition, in vitro stress evokes a typical senescent phenotype in cultured astrocytes and, moreover, isolated astrocytes from aged brain display the proinflammatory phenotype. All of these observations indicate that astrocytes are capable of triggering the SASP and the astrocytes in aging brain display typical characteristics of cellular senescence. Bearing in mind the many functions of astrocytes, it is evident that the age-related senescence of astrocytes enhances the decline in functional capacity of the brain. We will review the astroglial changes occurring during aging and emphasize that senescent astrocytes can have an important role in age-related neuroinflammation and neuronal degeneration.

  4. Taking care of one's brain: how manipulating the brain changes people's selves.

    PubMed

    Brenninkmeijer, Jonna

    2010-01-01

    The increasing attention to the brain in science and the media, and people's continuing quest for a better life, have resulted in a successful self-help industry for brain enhancement. Apart from brain books, foods and games, there are several devices on the market that people can use to stimulate their brains and become happier, healthier or more successful. People can, for example, switch their brain state into relaxation or concentration with a light-and-sound machine, they can train their brain waves to cure their Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or solve their sleeping problems with a neurofeedback device, or they can influence the firing of their neurons with electric or magnetic stimulation to overcome their depression and anxieties. Working on your self with a brain device can be seen as a contemporary form of Michel Foucault's "technologies of the self." Foucault described how since antiquity people had used techniques such as reading manuscripts, listening to teachers, or saying prayers to "act on their selves" and control their own thoughts and behaviours. Different techniques, Foucault stated, are based on different precepts and constitute different selves. I follow Foucault by stating that using a brain device for self-improvement indeed constitutes a new self. Drawing on interviews with users of brain devices and observations of the practices in brain clinics, I analyse how a new self takes shape in the use of brain devices; not a monistic (neuroscientific) self, but a "layered" self of all kinds of entities that exchange and control each other continuously.

  5. Gestational Age and Neonatal Brain Microstructure in Term Born Infants: A Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Broekman, Birit F. P.; Wang, Changqing; Li, Yue; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Saw, Seang Mei; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Gluckman, Peter D.; Fortier, Marielle V.; Meaney, Michael J.; Qiu, Anqi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Understanding healthy brain development in utero is crucial in order to detect abnormal developmental trajectories due to developmental disorders. However, in most studies neuroimaging was done after a significant postnatal period, and in those studies that performed neuroimaging on fetuses, the quality of data has been affected due to complications of scanning during pregnancy. To understand healthy brain development between 37–41 weeks of gestational age, our study assessed the in utero growth of the brain in healthy term born babies with DTI scanning soon after birth. Methods A cohort of 93 infants recruited from maternity hospitals in Singapore underwent diffusion tensor imaging between 5 to 17 days after birth. We did a cross-sectional examination of white matter microstructure of the brain among healthy term infants as a function of gestational age via voxel-based analysis on fractional anisotropy. Results Greater gestational age at birth in term infants was associated with larger fractional anisotropy values in early developing brain regions, when corrected for age at scan. Specifically, it was associated with a cluster located at the corpus callosum (corrected p<0.001), as well as another cluster spanning areas of the anterior corona radiata, anterior limb of internal capsule, and external capsule (corrected p<0.001). Conclusions Our findings show variation in brain maturation associated with gestational age amongst ‘term’ infants, with increased brain maturation when born with a relatively higher gestational age in comparison to those infants born with a relatively younger gestational age. Future studies should explore if these differences in brain maturation between 37 and 41 weeks of gestational age will persist over time due to development outside the womb. PMID:25535959

  6. Mutant alpha-synuclein causes age-dependent neuropathology in monkey brain.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weili; Wang, Guohao; Wang, Chuan-En; Guo, Xiangyu; Yin, Peng; Gao, Jinquan; Tu, Zhuchi; Wang, Zhengbo; Wu, Jing; Hu, Xintian; Li, Shihua; Li, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-05-27

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-dependent neurodegenerative disease that often occurs in those over age 60. Although rodents and small animals have been used widely to model PD and investigate its pathology, their short life span makes it difficult to assess the aging-related pathology that is likely to occur in PD patient brains. Here, we used brain tissues from rhesus monkeys at 2-3, 7-8, and >15 years of age to examine the expression of Parkin, PINK1, and α-synuclein, which are known to cause PD via loss- or gain-of-function mechanisms. We found that α-synuclein is increased in the older monkey brains, whereas Parkin and PINK1 are decreased or remain unchanged. Because of the gain of toxicity of α-synuclein, we performed stereotaxic injection of lentiviral vectors expressing mutant α-synuclein (A53T) into the substantia nigra of monkeys and found that aging also increases the accumulation of A53T in neurites and its associated neuropathology. A53T also causes more extensive reactive astrocytes and axonal degeneration in monkey brain than in mouse brain. Using monkey brain tissues, we found that A53T interacts with neurofascin, an adhesion molecule involved in axon subcellular targeting and neurite outgrowth. Aged monkey brain tissues show an increased interaction of neurofascin with A53T. Overexpression of A53T causes neuritic toxicity in cultured neuronal cells, which can be attenuated by transfected neurofascin. These findings from nonhuman primate brains reveal age-dependent pathological and molecular changes that could contribute to the age-dependent neuropathology in PD.

  7. Effect of aging and damage on the brain modelled by a phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazima, Sasuke; Sakakibara, Mitsuharu

    1992-03-01

    Aging and the effects of damage on the brain are considered on the basis of the Hopfield model. As the damage to the brain or the debility of neurons is increased by aging, a sudden change similar to critical phenomena is observed in the ability to retrieve information or in recognition. This type of critical behavior is very similar to the percolation phenomenon in physics. Furthermore the relearning effect, which corresponds to so-called rehabilitation, is discussed.

  8. Gene expression changes with age in skin, adipose tissue, blood and brain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have demonstrated that gene expression levels change with age. These changes are hypothesized to influence the aging rate of an individual. We analyzed gene expression changes with age in abdominal skin, subcutaneous adipose tissue and lymphoblastoid cell lines in 856 female twins in the age range of 39-85 years. Additionally, we investigated genotypic variants involved in genotype-by-age interactions to understand how the genomic regulation of gene expression alters with age. Results Using a linear mixed model, differential expression with age was identified in 1,672 genes in skin and 188 genes in adipose tissue. Only two genes expressed in lymphoblastoid cell lines showed significant changes with age. Genes significantly regulated by age were compared with expression profiles in 10 brain regions from 100 postmortem brains aged 16 to 83 years. We identified only one age-related gene common to the three tissues. There were 12 genes that showed differential expression with age in both skin and brain tissue and three common to adipose and brain tissues. Conclusions Skin showed the most age-related gene expression changes of all the tissues investigated, with many of the genes being previously implicated in fatty acid metabolism, mitochondrial activity, cancer and splicing. A significant proportion of age-related changes in gene expression appear to be tissue-specific with only a few genes sharing an age effect in expression across tissues. More research is needed to improve our understanding of the genetic influences on aging and the relationship with age-related diseases. PMID:23889843

  9. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of degenerating brain: a comparison of normal aging, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Ljubisavljevic, M R; Ismail, F Y; Filipovic, S

    2013-07-01

    Although the brain's ability to change constantly in response to external and internal inputs is now well recognized the mechanisms behind it in normal aging and neurodegeneration are less well understood. To gain a better understanding, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used extensively to characterize non-invasively the cortical neurophysiology of the aging and degenerating brain. Furthermore, there has been a surge of studies examining whether repetitive TMS (rTMS) can be used to improve functional deficits in various conditions including normal aging, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. The results of these studies in normal aging and neurodegeneration have emerged reasonably coherent in delineating the main pathology in spite of considerable technical limitations, omnipresent methodological variability, and extraordinary patient heterogeneity. Nevertheless, comparing and integrating what is known about TMS measurements of cortical excitability and plasticity in disorders that predominantly affect cortical brain structures with disorders that predominantly affect subcortical brain structures may provide better understanding of normal and abnormal brain aging fostering new. The present review provides a TMS perspective of changes in cortical neurophysiology and neurochemistry in normal aging and neurodegeneration by integrating what is revealed in individual TMS measurements of cortical excitability and plasticity in physiological aging, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's, disease. The paper also reflects on current developments in utilizing TMS as a physiologic biomarker to discriminate physiologic aging from neurodegeneration and its potential as a method of therapeutic intervention.

  10. Changes in topological organization of functional PET brain network with normal aging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiliang; Ke, Lining; Liu, Huafeng; Huang, Wenhua; Hu, Zhenghui

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies about brain network have suggested that normal aging is associated with alterations in coordinated patterns of the large-scale brain functional and structural systems. However, age-related changes in functional networks constructed via positron emission tomography (PET) data are still barely understood. Here, we constructed functional brain networks composed of 90 regions in younger (mean age 36.5 years) and older (mean age 56.3 years) age groups with PET data. 113 younger and 110 older healthy individuals were separately selected for two age groups, from a physical examination database. Corresponding brain functional networks of the two groups were constructed by thresholding average cerebral glucose metabolism correlation matrices of 90 regions and analysed using graph theoretical approaches. Although both groups showed normal small-world architecture in the PET networks, increased clustering and decreased efficiency were found in older subjects, implying a degeneration process that brain system shifts from a small-world network to regular one along with normal aging. Moreover, normal senescence was related to changed nodal centralities predominantly in association and paralimbic cortex regions, e.g. increasing in orbitofrontal cortex (middle) and decreasing in left hippocampus. Additionally, the older networks were about equally as robust to random failures as younger counterpart, but more vulnerable against targeted attacks. Finally, methods in the construction of the PET networks revealed reasonable robustness. Our findings enhanced the understanding about the topological principles of PET networks and changes related to normal aging.

  11. Changes in Topological Organization of Functional PET Brain Network with Normal Aging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huafeng; Huang, Wenhua; Hu, Zhenghui

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies about brain network have suggested that normal aging is associated with alterations in coordinated patterns of the large-scale brain functional and structural systems. However, age-related changes in functional networks constructed via positron emission tomography (PET) data are still barely understood. Here, we constructed functional brain networks composed of regions in younger (mean age years) and older (mean age years) age groups with PET data. younger and older healthy individuals were separately selected for two age groups, from a physical examination database. Corresponding brain functional networks of the two groups were constructed by thresholding average cerebral glucose metabolism correlation matrices of regions and analysed using graph theoretical approaches. Although both groups showed normal small-world architecture in the PET networks, increased clustering and decreased efficiency were found in older subjects, implying a degeneration process that brain system shifts from a small-world network to regular one along with normal aging. Moreover, normal senescence was related to changed nodal centralities predominantly in association and paralimbic cortex regions, e.g. increasing in orbitofrontal cortex (middle) and decreasing in left hippocampus. Additionally, the older networks were about equally as robust to random failures as younger counterpart, but more vulnerable against targeted attacks. Finally, methods in the construction of the PET networks revealed reasonable robustness. Our findings enhanced the understanding about the topological principles of PET networks and changes related to normal aging. PMID:24586370

  12. Studying variability in human brain aging in a population-based German cohort—rationale and design of 1000BRAINS

    PubMed Central

    Caspers, Svenja; Moebus, Susanne; Lux, Silke; Pundt, Noreen; Schütz, Holger; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Gras, Vincent; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Romanzetti, Sandro; Stöcker, Tony; Stirnberg, Rüdiger; Kirlangic, Mehmet E.; Minnerop, Martina; Pieperhoff, Peter; Mödder, Ulrich; Das, Samir; Evans, Alan C.; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Erbel, Raimund; Cichon, Sven; Nöthen, Markus M.; Sturma, Dieter; Bauer, Andreas; Jon Shah, N.; Zilles, Karl; Amunts, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing 1000 brains study (1000BRAINS) is an epidemiological and neuroscientific investigation of structural and functional variability in the human brain during aging. The two recruitment sources are the 10-year follow-up cohort of the German Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR) Study, and the HNR MultiGeneration Study cohort, which comprises spouses and offspring of HNR subjects. The HNR is a longitudinal epidemiological investigation of cardiovascular risk factors, with a comprehensive collection of clinical, laboratory, socioeconomic, and environmental data from population-based subjects aged 45–75 years on inclusion. HNR subjects underwent detailed assessments in 2000, 2006, and 2011, and completed annual postal questionnaires on health status. 1000BRAINS accesses these HNR data and applies a separate protocol comprising: neuropsychological tests of attention, memory, executive functions and language; examination of motor skills; ratings of personality, life quality, mood and daily activities; analysis of laboratory and genetic data; and state-of-the-art magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 3 Tesla) of the brain. The latter includes (i) 3D-T1- and 3D-T2-weighted scans for structural analyses and myelin mapping; (ii) three diffusion imaging sequences optimized for diffusion tensor imaging, high-angular resolution diffusion imaging for detailed fiber tracking and for diffusion kurtosis imaging; (iii) resting-state and task-based functional MRI; and (iv) fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and MR angiography for the detection of vascular lesions and the mapping of white matter lesions. The unique design of 1000BRAINS allows: (i) comprehensive investigation of various influences including genetics, environment and health status on variability in brain structure and function during aging; and (ii) identification of the impact of selected influencing factors on specific cognitive subsystems and their anatomical correlates. PMID:25071558

  13. The needs, current knowledge, and attitudes of care staff toward the implementation of palliative care in old age homes.

    PubMed

    Lo, Raymond S K; Kwan, Bonnie H F; Lau, Kay P K; Kwan, Cecilia W M; Lam, L M; Woo, Jean

    2010-06-01

    This study aims to explore in depth the needs, current knowledge, and attitudes of all ranks of old age home staff. A large-scale qualitative study with 13 semistructured focus groups was conducted in Hong Kong. Key themes were extracted by framework analysis. Three major themes were extracted, including role as a service provider, current knowledge, and attitude toward palliative care. There was a marked difference in familiarity with the concept of ''palliative care'' between different groups of staff, yet both shared the motivation for enhancement. The biggest concerns for the staff were elderly residents' readiness to accept palliative care, manpower, and resources. Care staff, regardless of rank, seemed to welcome and be ready to adopt a palliative care approach in caring for old age home residents, though not without worries and concerns.

  14. The effects of physical activity, education, and body mass index on the aging brain.

    PubMed

    Ho, April J; Raji, Cyrus A; Becker, James T; Lopez, Oscar L; Kuller, Lewis H; Hua, Xue; Dinov, Ivo D; Stein, Jason L; Rosano, Caterina; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M

    2011-09-01

    Normal human aging is accompanied by progressive brain tissue loss and cognitive decline; however, several factors are thought to influence brain aging. We applied tensor-based morphometry to high-resolution brain MRI scans to determine whether educational level or physical activity was associated with brain tissue volumes in the elderly, particularly in regions susceptible to age-related atrophy. We mapped the 3D profile of brain volume differences in 226 healthy elderly subjects (130F/96M; 77.9 ± 3.6 SD years) from the Cardiovascular Health Study-Cognition Study. Statistical maps revealed the 3D profile of brain regions whose volumes were associated with educational level and physical activity (based on leisure-time energy expenditure). After controlling for age, sex, and physical activity, higher educational levels were associated with ~2-3% greater tissue volumes, on average, in the temporal lobe gray matter. After controlling for age, sex, and education, greater physical activity was associated with ~2-2.5% greater average tissue volumes in the white matter of the corona radiata extending into the parietal-occipital junction. Body mass index (BMI) was highly correlated with both education and physical activity, so we examined BMI as a contributing factor by including physical activity, education, and BMI in the same model; only BMI effects remained significant. This is one of the largest MRI studies of factors influencing structural brain aging, and BMI may be a key factor explaining the observed relationship between education, physical activity, and brain structure. Independent contributions to brain structure could not be teased apart as all these factors were highly correlated with one another.

  15. Dermatological disease in the older age group: a cross-sectional study in aged care facilities

    PubMed Central

    Deo, Maneka S; Vandal, Alain C; Jarrett, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of dermatological disease in aged care facilities, and the relationship between cognitive or physical disability and significant disease. Setting 2 large aged care facilities in Auckland, New Zealand, each providing low and high level care. Participants All 161 residents of the facilities were invited to participate. The only exclusion criterion was inability to obtain consent from the individual or designated guardian. 88 participants were recruited—66 females (75%), 22 males (25%) with average age 87.1 years (SD 5.5 years). Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary—presence of significant skin disease (defined as that which in the opinion of the investigators needed treatment or was identified as a patient concern) diagnosed clinically on full dermatological examination by a dermatologist or dermatology trainee. Secondary—functional and cognitive status (Rehabilitation Complexity Scale and Abbreviated Mental Test Score). Results 81.8% were found to have at least one significant condition. The most common disorders were onychomycosis 42 (47.7%), basal cell carcinoma 13 (14.8%), asteototic eczema 11 (12.5%) and squamous cell carcinoma in situ 9 (10.2%). Other findings were invasive squamous cell carcinoma 7 (8%), bullous pemphigoid 2 (2.3%), melanoma 2 (2.3%), lichen sclerosus 2 (2.3%) and carcinoma of the breast 1 (1.1%). Inflammatory disease was more common in those with little physical disability compared with those with serious physical disability (OR 3.69; 95% CI 1.1 to 12.6, p=0.04). No significant association was found between skin disease and cognitive impairment. Conclusions A high rate of dermatological disease was found. Findings ranged from frequent but not life-threatening conditions (eg, onychomycosis), to those associated with a significant morbidity (eg, eczema, lichen sclerosus and bullous pemphigoid), to potentially life-threatening (eg, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma and breast cancer

  16. PET Imaging of Tau Deposition in the Aging Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Schonhaut, Daniel R.; O’Neil, James P.; Janabi, Mustafa; Ossenkoppele, Rik; Baker, Suzanne L.; Vogel, Jacob W.; Faria, Jamie; Schwimmer, Henry D.; Rabinovici, Gil D.; Jagust, William J.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Tau pathology is a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) but also occurs in normal cognitive aging. Using the tau PET agent 18F-AV-1451, we examined retention patterns in cognitively normal older people in relation to young controls and AD patients. Age and β-amyloid (measured using PiB PET) were differentially associated with tau tracer retention in healthy aging. Older age was related to increased tracer retention in regions of the medial temporal lobe, which predicted worse episodic memory performance. PET detection of tau in other isocortical regions required the presence of cortical β-amyloid, and was associated with decline in global cognition. Furthermore, patterns of tracer retention corresponded well with Braak staging of neurofibrillary tau pathology. The present study defined patterns of tau tracer retention in normal aging in relation to age, cognition, and β-amyloid deposition. PMID:26938442

  17. Microglia-aging: roles of microglial lysosome- and mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species in brain aging.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Hiroshi; Wu, Zhou

    2009-07-19

    The accumulation of lysosome- and mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the most important causative factors for aging. Autophagic dysfunction and mitochondrial DNA damage in the central nervous system (CNS) are prominently found in microglia, the resident mononuclear phagocyte population within the CNS. The autophagic dysfunction may induce the defective turnover of mitochondria, which results in the accumulation of ROS-hypergenerating older mitochondria in microglia. ROS activate redox-dependent transduction cascades and transcription factors, including nuclear factor-kappaB, which induce the expression of inflammatory genes. Therefore, "microglia-aging" could function as a major driver for brain aging. Furthermore, the prevention of lysosomal autophagic dysfunction and mitochondrial DNA damage in microglia may therefore be a potentially effective new pharmaceutical intervention against brain aging.

  18. Succeeding Through Service Innovation: Consumer Directed Care in the Aged Care Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Linda; Laragy, Carmel; Zadeh, Hossein S.

    The growing challenge and diversity of ageing populations is a key global issue for struggling health systems. Consumer Directed Care (CDC), an innovative service delivery system, opens up possibilities for re-defining consumer expectations, prompting change in how health service providers operate. As a service delivery model, CDC offers improved responsiveness to individual requirements; and increased transparency in the use of allocated funding. Where implemented, CDC has established new relationships and interactions between key stakeholders, co-creating value for older citizens. This chapter reviews some drivers for the development of service innovation, surveys various in-country approaches, highlights current trends in CDC delivery and describes an EU policy impact assessment instrument to aid funding bodies. The chapter concludes by speculating on organizational outcomes from CDC and the likelihood that the introduction of this innovative service delivery model will require closer collaborative relationships between service providers and information technology specialists.

  19. Are primary care residents adequately prepared to care for women of reproductive age?

    PubMed

    Conway, T; Hu, T C; Mason, E; Mueller, C

    1995-01-01

    A 1991 study of 115 internal medicine and 28 family practice residents at a large inner-city public hospital finds that both groups would perform poorly in providing preconception counseling to women of reproductive age. More than 40% of residents failed to indicate that they would provide a healthy woman with information on rubella immunization and family planning or counseling on sexually transmitted diseases and safer sex. When counseling a diabetic woman seeking pregnancy, 74% would not have discussed congenital anomalies with her and 45% would not have considered discontinuing oral hypoglycemics if she became pregnant. Furthermore, 58% would have neglected to review or change hypertension medications in a newly diagnosed pregnant woman. Although both internal medicine and family practice residents had positive attitudes toward offering preconception care, family practice residents had significantly higher attitude scores. No clear improvement was found in patient management, attitude or knowledge scores as residents progressed from their first to their third year of training.

  20. R2* mapping for brain iron: associations with cognition in normal aging.

    PubMed

    Ghadery, Christine; Pirpamer, Lukas; Hofer, Edith; Langkammer, Christian; Petrovic, Katja; Loitfelder, Marisa; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Seiler, Stephan; Duering, Marco; Jouvent, Eric; Schmidt, Helena; Fazekas, Franz; Mangin, Jean-Francois; Chabriat, Hugues; Dichgans, Martin; Ropele, Stefan; Schmidt, Reinhold

    2015-02-01

    Brain iron accumulates during aging and has been associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Magnetic resonance (MR)-based R2* mapping enables the in vivo detection of iron content in brain tissue. We investigated if during normal brain aging iron load relates to cognitive impairment in region-specific patterns in a community-dwelling cohort of 336 healthy, middle aged, and older adults from the Austrian Stroke Prevention Family Study. MR imaging and R2* mapping in the basal ganglia and neocortex were done at 3T. Comprehensive neuropsychological testing assessed memory, executive function, and psychomotor speed. We found the highest iron concentration in the globus pallidus, and pallidal and putaminal iron was significantly and inversely associated with cognitive performance in all cognitive domains, except memory. These associations were iron load dependent. Vascular brain lesions and brain volume did not mediate the relationship between iron and cognitive performance. We conclude that higher R2*-determined iron in the basal ganglia correlates with cognitive impairment during brain aging independent of concomitant brain abnormalities. The prognostic significance of this finding needs to be determined.

  1. Brain volumetric changes and cognitive ageing during the eighth decade of life.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Stuart J; Dickie, David Alexander; Cox, Simon R; Valdes Hernandez, Maria Del C; Corley, Janie; Royle, Natalie A; Pattie, Alison; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Redmond, Paul; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Taylor, Adele M; Sibbett, Ruth; Gow, Alan J; Starr, John M; Bastin, Mark E; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Deary, Ian J

    2015-12-01

    Later-life changes in brain tissue volumes--decreases in the volume of healthy grey and white matter and increases in the volume of white matter hyperintensities (WMH)--are strong candidates to explain some of the variation in ageing-related cognitive decline. We assessed fluid intelligence, memory, processing speed, and brain volumes (from structural MRI) at mean age 73 years, and at mean age 76 in a narrow-age sample of older individuals (n = 657 with brain volumetric data at the initial wave, n = 465 at follow-up). We used latent variable modeling to extract error-free cognitive levels and slopes. Initial levels of cognitive ability were predictive of subsequent brain tissue volume changes. Initial brain volumes were not predictive of subsequent cognitive changes. Brain volume changes, especially increases in WMH, were associated with declines in each of the cognitive abilities. All statistically significant results were modest in size (absolute r-values ranged from 0.114 to 0.334). These results build a comprehensive picture of macrostructural brain volume changes and declines in important cognitive faculties during the eighth decade of life.

  2. Probing astrocyte metabolism in vivo: proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the injured and aging brain

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Janna L.; Choi, In-Young; Brooks, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Following a brain injury, the mobilization of reactive astrocytes is part of a complex neuroinflammatory response that may have both harmful and beneficial effects. There is also evidence that astrocytes progressively accumulate in the normal aging brain, increasing in both number and size. These astrocyte changes in normal brain aging may, in the event of an injury, contribute to the exacerbated injury response and poorer outcomes observed in older traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors. Here we present our view that proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), a neuroimaging approach that probes brain metabolism within a defined region of interest, is a promising technique that may provide insight into astrocyte metabolic changes in the injured and aging brain in vivo. Although 1H-MRS does not specifically differentiate between cell types, it quantifies certain metabolites that are highly enriched in astrocytes (e.g., Myo-inositol, mlns), or that are involved in metabolic shuttling between astrocytes and neurons (e.g., glutamate and glutamine). Here we focus on metabolites detectable by 1H-MRS that may serve as markers of astrocyte metabolic status. We review the physiological roles of these metabolites, discuss recent 1H-MRS findings in the injured and aging brain, and describe how an astrocyte metabolite profile approach might be useful in clinical medicine and clinical trials. PMID:26578948

  3. Exercise reduces activation of microglia isolated from hippocampus and brain of aged mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aging is associated with low-grade neuroinflammation that includes basal increases in proinflammatory cytokines and expression of inflammatory markers on microglia. Exercise can reduce neuroinflammation following infection in aged animals, but whether exercise modulates basal changes in microglia activation is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated changes in basal microglia activation in cells isolated from the hippocampus and remaining brain following running-wheel access. Methods Adult (4 months) and aged (22 months) male and female BALB/c mice were housed with or without running wheels for 10 weeks. Microglia were isolated from the hippocampus or remaining brain. Flow cytometry was used to determine microglia (CD11b+ and CD45low) that co-labeled with CD86, CD206, and MHC II. Results Aged mice showed a greater proportion of CD86 and MHC II positive microglia. In aged females, access to a running wheel decreased proportion of CD86+ and MHC II+ microglia in the hippocampus whereas aged males in the running group showed a decrease in the proportion of CD86+ microglia in the brain and an increase in the proportion of MHC II+ microglia in hippocampus and brain. Conclusion Overall, these data indicate that running-wheel access modulates microglia activation, but these effects vary by age, sex, and brain region. PMID:24044641

  4. Gender differences in age effect on brain atrophy measured by magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Gur, R.C.; Mozley, P.D.; Resnick.S.M.; Gottlieb, G.L.; Kohn, M.; Zimmerman, R.; Herman, G.; Atlas, S.; Grossman, R.; Berretta, D.; Erwin, R.; Gur, R.E. )

    1991-04-01

    A prospective sample of 69 healthy adults, age range 18-80 years, was studied with magnetic resonance imaging scans of the entire cranium. Volumes were obtained by a segmentation algorithm that uses proton density and T{sub 2} pixel values to correct field inhomogeneities (shading). Average ({plus minus}SD) brain volume, excluding cerebellum, was 1090.91 ml and cerebrospinal fluid (DSF) volume was 127.91 ml. Brain volume was higher (by 5 ml) in the right hemisphere. Men had 91 ml higher brain and 20 ml higher CSF volume than women. Age was negatively correlated with brain volume and positively correlated with CSF volume. The slope fo the regression line with age for CSF was steeper for men than women. This difference in slopes was significant for sulca but not ventricular, CSF. The greatest amount of atrophy in elderly men was in the left hemisphere, whereas is women age effects were symmetric. The findings may point to neuroanatomic substrates of hemispheric specialization and gender differences in age-related changes in brain function. They suggest that women are less vulnerable to age-related changes in mental abilities, whereas men are particularly susceptible to aging effects on left hemispheric functions.

  5. Recent Developments in Understanding Brain Aging: Implications for Alzheimer’s Disease and Vascular Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Deak, Ferenc; Freeman, Willard M.; Ungvari, Zoltan; Csiszar, Anna

    2016-01-01

    As the population of the Western world is aging, there is increasing awareness of age-related impairments in cognitive function and a rising interest in finding novel approaches to preserve cerebral health. A special collection of articles in The Journals of Gerontology: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences brings together information of different aspects of brain aging, from latest developments in the field of neurodegenerative disorders to cerebral microvascular mechanisms of cognitive decline. It is emphasized that although the cellular changes that occur within aging neurons have been widely studied, more research is required as new signaling pathways are discovered that can potentially protect cells. New avenues for research targeting cellular senescence, epigenetics, and endocrine mechanisms of brain aging are also discussed. Based on the current literature it is clear that understanding brain aging and reducing risk for neurological disease with age requires searching for mechanisms and treatment options beyond the age-related changes in neuronal function. Thus, comprehensive approaches need to be developed that address the multiple, interrelated mechanisms of brain aging. Attention is brought to the importance of maintenance of cerebromicrovascular health, restoring neuroendocrine balance, and the pressing need for funding more innovative research into the interactions of neuronal, neuroendocrine, inflammatory and microvascular mechanisms of cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26590911

  6. Recent Developments in Understanding Brain Aging: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Deak, Ferenc; Freeman, Willard M; Ungvari, Zoltan; Csiszar, Anna; Sonntag, William E

    2016-01-01

    As the population of the Western world is aging, there is increasing awareness of age-related impairments in cognitive function and a rising interest in finding novel approaches to preserve cerebral health. A special collection of articles in The Journals of Gerontology: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences brings together information of different aspects of brain aging, from latest developments in the field of neurodegenerative disorders to cerebral microvascular mechanisms of cognitive decline. It is emphasized that although the cellular changes that occur within aging neurons have been widely studied, more research is required as new signaling pathways are discovered that can potentially protect cells. New avenues for research targeting cellular senescence, epigenetics, and endocrine mechanisms of brain aging are also discussed. Based on the current literature it is clear that understanding brain aging and reducing risk for neurological disease with age requires searching for mechanisms and treatment options beyond the age-related changes in neuronal function. Thus, comprehensive approaches need to be developed that address the multiple, interrelated mechanisms of brain aging. Attention is brought to the importance of maintenance of cerebromicrovascular health, restoring neuroendocrine balance, and the pressing need for funding more innovative research into the interactions of neuronal, neuroendocrine, inflammatory and microvascular mechanisms of cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Ageing and brain white matter structure in 3,513 UK Biobank participants

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Simon R.; Ritchie, Stuart J.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Liewald, David C.; Hagenaars, Saskia P.; Davies, Gail; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Gale, Catharine R.; Bastin, Mark E.; Deary, Ian J.

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying the microstructural properties of the human brain's connections is necessary for understanding normal ageing and disease. Here we examine brain white matter magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data in 3,513 generally healthy people aged 44.64–77.12 years from the UK Biobank. Using conventional water diffusion measures and newer, rarely studied indices from neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging, we document large age associations with white matter microstructure. Mean diffusivity is the most age-sensitive measure, with negative age associations strongest in the thalamic radiation and association fibres. White matter microstructure across brain tracts becomes increasingly correlated in older age. This may reflect an age-related aggregation of systemic detrimental effects. We report several other novel results, including age associations with hemisphere and sex, and comparative volumetric MRI analyses. Results from this unusually large, single-scanner sample provide one of the most extensive characterizations of age associations with major white matter tracts in the human brain. PMID:27976682

  8. Aging, neurodegenerative disease, and traumatic brain injury: the role of neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Esopenko, Carrie; Levine, Brian

    2015-02-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a highly prevalent condition with significant effects on cognition and behavior. While the acute and sub-acute effects of TBI recover over time, relatively little is known about the long-term effects of TBI in relation to neurodegenerative disease. This issue has recently garnered a great deal of attention due to publicity surrounding chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in professional athletes, although CTE is but one of several neurodegenerative disorders associated with a history of TBI. Here, we review the literative on neurodegenerative disorders linked to remote TBI. We also review the evidence for neuroimaging changes associated with unhealthy brain aging in the context of remote TBI. We conclude that neuroimaging biomarkers have significant potential to increase understanding of the mechanisms of unhealthy brain aging and neurodegeneration following TBI, with potential for identifying those at risk for unhealthy brain aging prior to the clinical manifestation of neurodegenerative disease.

  9. Implementation of Neurocritical Care Is Associated With Improved Outcomes in Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Sekhon, Mypinder S; Gooderham, Peter; Toyota, Brian; Kherzi, Navid; Hu, Vivien; Dhingra, Vinay K; Hameed, Morad S; Chittock, Dean R; Griesdale, Donald E

    2017-03-27

    Background Traditionally, the delivery of dedicated neurocritical care (NCC) occurs in distinct NCC units and is associated with improved outcomes. Institution-specific logistical challenges pose barriers to the development of distinct NCC units; therefore, we developed a consultancy NCC service coupled with the implementation of invasive multimodal neuromonitoring, within a medical-surgical intensive care unit. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of a consultancy NCC program on neurologic outcomes in severe traumatic brain injury patients.

  10. Brain Scam? Why Educators Should Be Careful about Embracing "Brain Research."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgenson, Olaf

    2003-01-01

    Suggests that findings of brain research have been adopted uncritically by educators; points out misconceptions about such studies. Cautions educators to ensure that practices are based on well-designed and validated studies. (Contains 16 references.) (SK)

  11. Age-dependent differential expression profile of a novel intergenic long noncoding RNA in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Kour, Sukhleen; Rath, Pramod C

    2015-11-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are ≥200 nt long, abundant class of non-protein coding RNAs that are transcribed in complex, sense- and antisense patterns from the intergenic and intronic regions of mammalian genome. Mammalian central nervous system constitutes the largest repertoire of noncoding transcripts that are known to be expressed in developmentally regulated and cell-type specific manners. Although many lncRNAs, functioning in the brain development and diseases are known, none involved in brain aging has been reported so far. Here, we report involvement of a novel, repeat sequence (simple repeats and SINES)-containing, trans-spliced, long intergenic non-protein coding RNA (lincRNA), named as LINC-RBE (rat brain expressed transcript) involved in maturation and aging of mammalian brain. The LINC-RBE is strongly expressed in the rat brain and the upstream/downstream sequences of its DNA in the chromosome 5 contain binding sites for many cell growth, survival and development-specific transcriptional factors. Through RT-PCR and RNA in situ hybridization, LINC-RBE was found to be expressed in an age-dependent manner with significantly higher level of expression in the brain of adult (16 weeks) compared to both immature (4 weeks) and old (70 weeks) rats. Moreover, the expression pattern of the LINC-RBE showed distinct association with the specific neuro-anatomical regions, cell types and sub-cellular compartments of the rat brain in an age-related manner. Thus, its expression increased from immature stage to adulthood and declined further in old age. This is a first-time report of involvement of an intergenic repeat sequence-containing lncRNA in different regions of the rat brain in an age-dependent manner.

  12. Age-dependent differential expression profile of a novel intergenic long noncoding RNA in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Kour, Sukhleen; Rath, Pramod C

    2015-12-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are ≥ 200 nt long, abundant class of non-protein coding RNAs that are transcribed in complex, sense- and antisense patterns from the intergenic and intronic regions of mammalian genome. Mammalian central nervous system constitutes the largest repertoire of noncoding transcripts that are known to be expressed in developmentally regulated and cell-type specific manners. Although many lncRNAs, functioning in the brain development and diseases are known, none involved in brain aging has been reported so far. Here, we report involvement of a novel, repeat sequence (simple repeats and SINES)-containing, trans-spliced, long intergenic non-protein coding RNA (lincRNA), named as LINC-RBE (rat brain expressed transcript) involved in maturation and aging of mammalian brain. The LINC-RBE is strongly expressed in the rat brain and the upstream/downstream sequences of its DNA in the chromosome 5 contain binding sites for many cell growth, survival and development-specific transcriptional factors. Through RT-PCR and RNA in situ hybridization, LINC-RBE was found to be expressed in an age-dependent manner with significantly higher level of expression in the brain of adult (16 week) compared to both immature (4 week) and old (70 week) rats. Moreover, the expression pattern of the LINC-RBE showed distinct association with the specific neuro-anatomical regions, cell types and sub-cellular compartments of the rat brain in an age-related manner. Thus, its expression increased from immature stage to adulthood and declined further in old age. This is a first-time report of involvement of an intergenic repeat sequence-containing lncRNA in different regions of the rat brain in an age-dependent manner.

  13. Barriers to care for sexual assault survivors of childbearing age: An integrative review

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that only a small fraction of sexual assault survivors seek comprehensive care afterward, including physical and mental health care, forensic evidence collection, victim services, and legal support. This integrative review was conducted to identify barriers that may be keeping sexual assault survivors of childbearing age from receiving such comprehensive care. PMID:25664329

  14. Family Care of the Aged in the United States: Policy Issues from an International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosberg, Jordan I.

    This paper addresses issues related to the care of the aged by informal caregivers, government support of such care, and policy changes that might result in improved care of the elderly population. In its treatment of family responsibility for the elderly, it calls attention to several trends: (1) family members will be increasingly unavailable to…

  15. Addressing the Need for School Age Child Care: A Guide for Philadelphia Elementary School Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintzer, Janet L.

    The Delaware Valley Child Care Council (DVCCC) developed this booklet to help Philadelphia school principals plan and develop privately run after-school centers in their schools. First, an executive summary documents the need for school-age day care nationwide and in the Philadelphia area. Section I offers guidance on planning a school-age child…

  16. School-Age Child Care: Technical Assistance Papers, Numbers 1-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellesley Coll., MA. Center for Research on Women.

    Collected are seven technical assistance papers concerning the development and implementation of community school age day care programs. The first paper provides a step-by-step guide to organizing a school-age child care program and the second paper focuses on developing a high quality program. Paper 3 explores administrative, policy, and legal…

  17. What Is the Need for School-Age Care? Lessons from Two Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Ami

    In 2001, Arizona's Children's Action Alliance (CCA) developed a resource for community groups interested in exploring the need for care for school-age children. Titled "School-Age Care Tool Kit: A Guide for Measuring Needs in Your Community," the resource provided step-by-step advice to community organizations on how to identify the need…

  18. Youth Who "Age Out" of Foster Care: Troubled Lives, Troubling Prospects. Child Trends Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertheimer, Richard

    Noting that the population of foster children who "age out" of the foster care system may be even more at risk than other foster children, this research brief summarizes a longer report examining trends in foster care in the United States, the number and needs of those aging out of the system, and public policy implications. The brief indicates…

  19. Brain SERT Expression of Male Rats Is Reduced by Aging and Increased by Testosterone Restitution

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Pérez, José Jaime; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso; Martínez-Mota, Lucía

    2013-01-01

    In preclinical and clinical studies aging has been associated with a deteriorated response to antidepressant treatment. We hypothesize that such impairment is explained by an age-related decrease in brain serotonin transporter (SERT) expression associated with low testosterone (T) levels. The objectives of this study were to establish (1) if brain SERT expression is reduced by aging and (2) if the SERT expression in middle-aged rats is increased by T-restitution. Intact young rats (3–5 months) and gonad-intact middle-aged rats with or without T-restitution were used. The identification of the brain SERT expression was done by immunofluorescence in prefrontal cortex, lateral septum, hippocampus, and raphe nuclei. An age-dependent reduction of SERT expression was observed in all brain regions examined, while T-restitution recovered the SERT expression only in the dorsal raphe of middle-aged rats. This last action seems relevant since dorsal raphe plays an important role in the antidepressant action of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. All data suggest that this mechanism accounts for the T-replacement usefulness to improve the response to antidepressants in the aged population. PMID:26317087

  20. The Ageing Brain: Effects on DNA Repair and DNA Methylation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Langie, Sabine A. S.; Cameron, Kerry M.; Ficz, Gabriella; Oxley, David; Tomaszewski, Bartłomiej; Gorniak, Joanna P.; Maas, Lou M.; Godschalk, Roger W. L.; van Schooten, Frederik J.; Reik, Wolf; von Zglinicki, Thomas; Mathers, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Base excision repair (BER) may become less effective with ageing resulting in accumulation of DNA lesions, genome instability and altered gene expression that contribute to age-related degenerative diseases. The brain is particularly vulnerable to the accumulation of DNA lesions; hence, proper functioning of DNA repair mechanisms is important for neuronal survival. Although the mechanism of age-related decline in DNA repair capacity is unknown, growing evidence suggests that epigenetic events (e.g., DNA methylation) contribute to the ageing process and may be functionally important through the regulation of the expression of DNA repair genes. We hypothesize that epigenetic mechanisms are involved in mediating the age-related decline in BER in the brain. Brains from male mice were isolated at 3–32 months of age. Pyrosequencing analyses revealed significantly increased Ogg1 methylation with ageing, which correlated inversely with Ogg1 expression. The reduced Ogg1 expression correlated with enhanced expression of methyl-CpG binding protein 2 and ten-eleven translocation enzyme 2. A significant inverse correlation between Neil1 methylation at CpG-site2 and expression was also observed. BER activity was significantly reduced and associated with increased 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine levels. These data indicate that Ogg1 and Neil1 expression can be epigenetically regulated, which may mediate the effects of ageing on DNA repair in the brain. PMID:28218666

  1. A University Program to Improve Nursing Care to the Aged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marten, Marie Lucille

    1978-01-01

    Proposes a series of university nursing education programs developed to increase knowledge and skills relevant to nursing care of elderly and chronically ill persons who reside in nursing homes. Briefly describes five programs intended for persons engaged in long-term care or in preparation for such roles. (EM)

  2. GeneMining: identification, visualization, and interpretation of brain ageing signatures.

    PubMed

    Salle, Paola; Bringay, Sandra; Teisseire, Maguelonne; Chakkour, Feirouz; Roche, Mathieu; Rassoul, Ronza Abdel; Verdier, Jean-Michel; Devau, Gina

    2009-01-01

    Transcriptomic technologies are promising tools for identifying new genes involved in cerebral ageing or in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. These technologies produce massive biological data, which so far are extremely difficult to exploit. In this context, we propose GeneMining, a multidisciplinary methodology, which aims at developing new strategies to analyse such data, and to design interactive tools to help biologists to identify, visualize and interpret brain ageing signatures. In order to address the specific problem of brain ageing signatures discovery, we combine and apply existing tools with emphasis to a new efficient data mining method based on sequential patterns.

  3. Language in the aging brain: the network dynamics of cognitive decline and preservation.

    PubMed

    Shafto, Meredith A; Tyler, Lorraine K

    2014-10-31

    Language is a crucial and complex lifelong faculty, underpinned by dynamic interactions within and between specialized brain networks. Whereas normal aging impairs specific aspects of language production, most core language processes are robust to brain aging. We review recent behavioral and neuroimaging evidence showing that language systems remain largely stable across the life span and that both younger and older adults depend on dynamic neural responses to linguistic demands. Although some aspects of network dynamics change with age, there is no consistent evidence that core language processes are underpinned by different neural networks in younger and older adults.

  4. Medical innovation and age-specific trends in health care utilization: findings and implications.

    PubMed

    Wong, Albert; Wouterse, Bram; Slobbe, Laurentius C J; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Polder, Johan J

    2012-01-01

    Health care utilization is expected to rise in the coming decades. Not only will the aggregate need for health care grow by changing demographics, so too will per capita utilization. It has been suggested that trends in health care utilization may be age-specific. In this paper, age-specific trends in health care utilization are presented for different health care sectors in the Netherlands, for the period 1981-2009. For the hospital sector we also explore the link between these trends and the state of medical technology. Using aggregated data from a Dutch health survey and a nationwide hospital register, regression analysis was used to examine age-specific trends in the probability of utilizing health care. To determine the influence of medical technology, the growth in age-specific probabilities of hospital care was regressed on the number of medical patents while adjusting for confounders related to demographics, health status, supply and institutional factors. The findings suggest that for most health care sectors, the trend in the probability of health care utilization is highest for ages 65 and up. Larger advances in medical technology are found to be significantly associated with a higher growth of hospitalization probability, particularly for the higher ages. Age-specific trends will raise questions on the sustainability of intergenerational solidarity in health care, as solidarity will not only be strained by the ageing population, but also might find itself under additional pressure as the gap in health care utilization between elderly and non-elderly grows over time. For hospital care utilization, this process might well be accelerated by advances in medical technology.

  5. Brain-Skin Connection: Stress, Inflammation and Skin Aging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Lyga, John

    2014-01-01

    The intricate relationship between stress and skin conditions has been documented since ancient times. Recent clinical observations also link psychological stress to the onset or aggravation of multiple skin diseases. However, the exact underlying mechanisms have only been studied and partially revealed in the past 20 years or so. In this review, the authors will discuss the recent discoveries in the field of “Brain-Skin Connection”, summarizing findings from the overlapping fields of psychology, endocrinology, skin neurobiology, skin inflammation, immunology, and pharmacology. PMID:24853682

  6. [On the issue of improving health care organisation for retirement age population (the Nizhny Novgorod experience)].

    PubMed

    Vvedenskaia, E S; Kobzeva, L F; Vvedenskaia, I I

    2012-01-01

    The article presents a detailed analysis of health care provision to both general and retirement age population (RAP) in the Nizhny Novgorod region. For the past 10 years, the organization and use of different types of health care for RAP have not changed. The availability of inpatient health care for RAP is high whereas the availability of nursing and outpatient health care is low and palliative care service is not available. In order to enhance availability and ensure quality of medical services it is necessary to implement restructuring of health care for RAP at the municipal level herewith a key attention will be paid to out-patient types of health care expansion and palliative care development. The authors formulate some proposals aimed at improving the organization of medical and social care for RAP which should be included in the health care restructuring program at the municipal level.

  7. Graph theoretical analysis of sedation's effect on whole brain functional system in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhen; Alcauter, Sarael; Jin, Ke; Peng, Zi-Wen; Gao, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The neurophysiological mechanism underlying sedation, especially in school-aged children, remains largely unknown. The recently emerged resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) technique, capable of delineating brain's functional interaction pattern among distributed brain areas, proves to be a unique and powerful tool to study sedation-induced brain reorganization. Based on a relatively large school-aged children population (n=28, 10.3±2.6 years, range 7-15 years) and leveraging rsfMRI and graph theoretical analysis, this study aims to delineate sedation-induced changes in brain's information transferring property from a whole brain system perspective. Our results show a global deterioration in brain's efficiency properties (p=0.0085 and 0.0018, for global and local efficiency, respectively) with a locally graded distribution featuring significant disruptions of key consciousness-related regions. Moreover, our results also indicate a redistribution of brain's information-processing hubs characterized by a right and posterior shift as consistent with the reduced level of consciousness during sedation. Overall, our findings inform a sedation-induced functional reorganization pattern in school-aged children that greatly improve our understanding of sedation's effect in children and may potentially serve as reference for future sedation-related experimental studies and clinical applications.

  8. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in older adults: aging with a TBI versus incident TBI in the aged.

    PubMed

    Peters, Matthew E

    2016-12-01

    Approximately 39 million older adults (age >65) were evaluated for traumatic brain injury (TBI) in United States emergency departments during the 2-year period from 2009 to 2010, representing a 61% increase in estimates from prior years (Albrecht et al., 2015a). Across the lifespan, an estimated 5.3 million Americans are living with a TBI-related disability (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2003). With improved recognition and management, more individuals experiencing TBI are surviving to die of other causes later in life (Flanagan et al., 2005). Taken together, these statistics highlight two important populations: those who are "aging with a TBI" and "incident TBI in the aged."

  9. Correlations among brain gray matter volumes, age, gender, and hemisphere in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Thyreau, Benjamin; Kinomura, Shigeo; Sato, Kazunori; Goto, Ryoi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    To determine the relationship between age and gray matter structure and how interactions between gender and hemisphere impact this relationship, we examined correlations between global or regional gray matter volume and age, including interactions of gender and hemisphere, using a general linear model with voxel-based and region-of-interest analyses. Brain magnetic resonance images were collected from 1460 healthy individuals aged 20-69 years; the images were linearly normalized and segmented and restored to native space for analysis of global gray matter volume. Linearly normalized images were then non-linearly normalized and smoothed for analysis of regional gray matter volume. Analysis of global gray matter volume revealed a significant negative correlation between gray matter ratio (gray matter volume divided by intracranial volume) and age in both genders, and a significant interaction effect of age × gender on the gray matter ratio. In analyzing regional gray matter volume, the gray matter volume of all regions showed significant main effects of age, and most regions, with the exception of several including the inferior parietal lobule, showed a significant age × gender interaction. Additionally, the inferior temporal gyrus showed a significant age × gender × hemisphere interaction. No regional volumes showed significant age × hemisphere interactions. Our study may contribute to clarifying the mechanism(s) of normal brain aging in each brain region.

  10. Differences between chronological and brain age are related to education and self-reported physical activity.

    PubMed

    Steffener, Jason; Habeck, Christian; O'Shea, Deirdre; Razlighi, Qolamreza; Bherer, Louis; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the relationship between education and physical activity and the difference between a physiological prediction of age and chronological age (CA). Cortical and subcortical gray matter regional volumes were calculated from 331 healthy adults (range: 19-79 years). Multivariate analyses identified a covariance pattern of brain volumes best predicting CA (R(2) = 47%). Individual expression of this brain pattern served as a physiologic measure of brain age (BA). The difference between CA and BA was predicted by education and self-report measures of physical activity. Education and the daily number of flights of stairs climbed (FOSC) were the only 2 significant predictors of decreased BA. Effect sizes demonstrated that BA decreased by 0.95 years for each year of education and by 0.58 years for 1 additional FOSC daily. Effects of education and FOSC on regional brain volume were largely driven by temporal and subcortical volumes. These results demonstrate that higher levels of education and daily FOSC are related to larger brain volume than predicted by CA which supports the utility of regional gray matter volume as a biomarker of healthy brain aging.

  11. Neurodevelopmental Versus Neurodegenerative Model of Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder: Comparison with Physiological Brain Development and Aging.

    PubMed

    Buoli, Massimiliano; Serati, Marta; Caldiroli, Alice; Cremaschi, Laura; Altamura, Alfredo Carlo

    2017-03-01

    Available data support a contribution of both neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative factors in the etiology of schizophrenia (SCH) and bipolar disorder (BD). Of note, one of the most important issue of the current psychiatric research is to identify the specific factors that contribute to impaired brain development and neurodegeneration in SCH and BD, and especially how these factors alter normal brain development and physiological aging process. Our hypothesis is that only specific damages, taking place in precise brain development stages, are associated with future SCH /BD onset and that neurodegeneration consists of an acceleration of brain aging after SCH /BD onset. In support of our hypothesis, the results of the present narrative mini-review shows as neurodevelopmental damages generally contribute to neuropsychiatric syndromes (e.g. hypothyroidism or treponema pallidum), but only some of them are specifically associated with adult SCH and BD (e.g. toxoplasma or substance abuse), particularly if they happen in specific stages of brain development. On the other hand, cognitive impairment and brain changes, associated with long duration of SCH /BD, look like what happens during aging: memory, executive domains and prefrontal cortex are implicated both in aging and in SCH /BD progression. Future research will explore possible validity of this etiological model for SCH and BD.

  12. Perceived Quality of Maternal Care in Childhood and Structure and Function of Mothers' Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Pilyoung; Leckman, James F.; Mayes, Linda C.; Newman, Michal-Ann; Feldman, Ruth; Swain, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Animal studies indicate that early maternal care has long-term effects on brain areas related to social attachment and parenting, whereas neglectful mothering is linked with heightened stress reactivity in the hippocampus across the lifespan. The present study explores the possibility, using magnetic resonance imaging, that perceived quality of…

  13. Age at First Episode Modulates Diagnosis-Related Structural Brain Abnormalities in Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Pina-Camacho, Laura; Del Rey-Mejías, Ángel; Janssen, Joost; Bioque, Miquel; González-Pinto, Ana; Arango, Celso; Lobo, Antonio; Sarró, Salvador; Desco, Manuel; Sanjuan, Julio; Lacalle-Aurioles, Maria; Cuesta, Manuel J.; Saiz-Ruiz, Jerónimo; Bernardo, Miguel; Parellada, Mara

    2016-01-01

    Brain volume and thickness abnormalities have been reported in first-episode psychosis (FEP). However, it is unclear if and how they are modulated by brain developmental stage (and, therefore, by age at FEP as a proxy). This is a multicenter cross-sectional case-control brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. Patients with FEP (n = 196), 65.3% males, with a wide age at FEP span (12–35 y), and healthy controls (HC) (n = 157), matched for age, sex, and handedness, were scanned at 6 sites. Gray matter volume and thickness measurements were generated for several brain regions using FreeSurfer software. The nonlinear relationship between age at scan (a proxy for age at FEP in patients) and volume and thickness measurements was explored in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD), affective psychoses (AFP), and HC. Earlier SSD cases (ie, FEP before 15–20 y) showed significant volume and thickness deficits in frontal lobe, volume deficits in temporal lobe, and volume enlargements in ventricular system and basal ganglia. First-episode AFP patients had smaller cingulate cortex volume and thicker temporal cortex only at early age at FEP (before 18–20 y). The AFP group also had age-constant (12–35-y age span) volume enlargements in the frontal and parietal lobe. Our study suggests that age at first episode modulates the structural brain abnormalities found in FEP patients in a nonlinear and diagnosis-dependent manner. Future MRI studies should take these results into account when interpreting samples with different ages at onset and diagnosis. PMID:26371339

  14. Upregulation of Aβ42 in the Brain and Bodily Fluids of Rhesus Monkeys with Aging.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiao; Lu, Jing; Yao, Zitong; Wang, Shubo; Zhu, Liming; Wang, Ju; Chen, Baian

    2017-01-01

    The cerebral accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) is one of the key pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ is also found in bodily fluids such as the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma. However, the significance of Aβ accumulation in the brain and different bodily pools, as well as its correlation with aging and cerebral amyloid pathology, is not completely understood. To better understand this question, we selected the rhesus monkey, which is phylogenetically and physiologically highly similar to the human, as a model to study. We quantified the levels of the two main Aβ isoforms (Aβ42 and Aβ40) in different sections of the brain (frontal cortex, temporal cortex, and hippocampus) and bodily fluids (CSF and plasma) of rhesus monkeys at different developmental phases (young, 5-9 years of age; mature, 10-19 years of age; and old, 21-24 years of age). We found that the levels of neuronal and insoluble Aβ42 increased significantly in the brain with aging, suggesting that this specific isoform might be directly involved in aging and AD-like pathophysiology. There was no significant change in the Aβ40 level in the brain with aging. In addition, the Aβ42 level, but not the Aβ40 level, in both the CSF and plasma increased with aging. We also identified a positive correlation between Aβ42 in the CSF and plasma and Aβ42 in the brain. Taken collectively, our results indicate that there is an association between Aβ accumulation and age. These results support the increased incidence of AD with aging.

  15. Stochastic fluctuations in gene expression in aging hippocampal neurons could be exacerbated by traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Joseph; Boone, Deborah; Weisz, Harris; Jennings, Kristofer; Uchida, Tatsuo; Parsley, Margaret; DeWitt, Douglas; Prough, Donald; Hellmich, Helen

    2016-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a risk factor for age-related dementia and development of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease that are associated with cognitive decline. The exact mechanism for this risk is unknown but we hypothesized that TBI is exacerbating age-related changes in gene expression. Here, we present evidence in an animal model that experimental TBI increases age-related stochastic gene expression. We compared the variability in expression of several genes associated with cell survival or death, among three groups of laser capture microdissected hippocampal neurons from aging rat brains. TBI increased stochastic fluctuations in gene expression in both dying and surviving neurons compared to the naïve neurons. Increases in random, stochastic fluctuations in prosurvival or prodeath gene expression could potentially alter cell survival or cell death pathways in aging neurons after TBI which may lead to age-related cognitive decline.

  16. Exercise enhances memory consolidation in the aging brain.

    PubMed

    Snigdha, Shikha; de Rivera, Christina; Milgram, Norton W; Cotman, Carl W

    2014-01-01

    Exercise has been shown to reduce age-related losses in cognitive function including learning and memory, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain poorly understood. Memory formation occurs in stages that include an initial acquisition phase, an intermediate labile phase, and then a process of consolidation which leads to long-term memory formation. An effective way to examine the mechanism by which exercise improves memory is to introduce the intervention (exercise), post-acquisition, making it possible to selectively examine memory storage and consolidation. Accordingly we evaluated the effects of post-trial exercise (10 min on a treadmill) on memory consolidation in aged canines both right after, an hour after, and 24 h after acute exercise training in concurrent discrimination, object location memory (OLM), and novel object recognition tasks. Our study shows that post-trial exercise facilitates memory function by improving memory consolidation in aged animals in a time-dependent manner. The improvements were significant at 24 h post-exercise and not right after or 1 h after exercise. Aged animals were also tested following chronic exercise (10 min/day for 14 consecutive days) on OLM or till criterion were reached (for reversal learning task). We found improvements from a chronic exercise design in both the object location and reversal learning tasks. Our studies suggest that mechanisms to improve overall consolidation and cognitive function remain accessible even with progressing age and can be re-engaged by both acute and chronic exercise.

  17. Altered prion protein glycosylation in the aging mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Goh, Angeline Xi-Hua; Li, Chaoyang; Sy, Man-Sun; Wong, Boon-Seng

    2007-02-01

    The normal cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is a glycoprotein with two highly conserved potential N-linked glycosylation sites. All prion diseases, whether inherited, infectious or sporadic, are believed to share the same pathogenic mechanism that is based on the conversion of the normal cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) to the pathogenic scrapie prion protein (PrP(Sc)). However, the clinical and histopathological presentations of prion diseases are heterogeneous, depending not only on the strains of PrP(Sc) but also on the mechanism of diseases, such as age-related sporadic vs. infectious prion diseases. Accumulated evidence suggests that N-linked glycans on PrP(C) are important in disease phenotype. A better understanding of the nature of the N-linked glycans on PrP(C) during the normal aging process may provide new insights into the roles that N-linked glycans play in the pathogenesis of prion diseases. By using a panel of 19 lectins in an antibody-lectin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we found that the lectin binding profiles of PrP(C) alter significantly during aging. There is an increasing prevalence of complex oligosaccharides on the aging PrP(C), which are features of PrP(Sc). Taken together, this study suggests a link between the glycosylation patterns on PrP(C) during aging and PrP(Sc).

  18. Arteriolosclerosis that affects multiple brain regions is linked to hippocampal sclerosis of ageing.

    PubMed

    Neltner, Janna H; Abner, Erin L; Baker, Steven; Schmitt, Frederick A; Kryscio, Richard J; Jicha, Gregory A; Smith, Charles D; Hammack, Eleanor; Kukull, Walter A; Brenowitz, Willa D; Van Eldik, Linda J; Nelson, Peter T

    2014-01-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis of ageing is a prevalent brain disease that afflicts older persons and has been linked with cerebrovascular pathology. Arteriolosclerosis is a subtype of cerebrovascular pathology characterized by concentrically thickened arterioles. Here we report data from multiple large autopsy series (University of Kentucky Alzheimer's Disease Centre, Nun Study, and National Alzheimer's Coordinating Centre) showing a specific association between hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology and arteriolosclerosis. The present analyses incorporate 226 cases of autopsy-proven hippocampal sclerosis of ageing and 1792 controls. Case-control comparisons were performed including digital pathological assessments for detailed analyses of blood vessel morphology. We found no evidence of associations between hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology and lacunar infarcts, large infarcts, Circle of Willis atherosclerosis, or cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Individuals with hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology did not show increased rates of clinically documented hypertension, diabetes, or other cardiac risk factors. The correlation between arteriolosclerosis and hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology was strong in multiple brain regions outside of the hippocampus. For example, the presence of arteriolosclerosis in the frontal cortex (Brodmann area 9) was strongly associated with hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology (P < 0.001). This enables informative evaluation of anatomical regions outside of the hippocampus. To assess the morphology of brain microvasculature far more rigorously than what is possible using semi-quantitative pathological scoring, we applied digital pathological (Aperio ScanScope) methods on a subsample of frontal cortex sections from hippocampal sclerosis of ageing (n = 15) and control (n = 42) cases. Following technical studies to optimize immunostaining methods for small blood vessel visualization, our analyses focused on sections

  19. Hippocampal Astrocyte Cultures from Adult and Aged Rats Reproduce Changes in Glial Functionality Observed in the Aging Brain.

    PubMed

    Bellaver, Bruna; Souza, Débora Guerini; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Quincozes-Santos, André

    2016-03-30

    Astrocytes are dynamic cells that maintain brain homeostasis, regulate neurotransmitter systems, and process synaptic information, energy metabolism, antioxidant defenses, and inflammatory response. Aging is a biological process that is closely associated with hippocampal astrocyte dysfunction. In this sense, we demonstrated that hippocampal astrocytes from adult and aged Wistar rats reproduce the glial functionality alterations observed in aging by evaluating several senescence, glutamatergic, oxidative and inflammatory parameters commonly associated with the aging process. Here, we show that the p21 senescence-associated gene and classical astrocyte markers, such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vimentin, and actin, changed their expressions in adult and aged astrocytes. Age-dependent changes were also observed in glutamate transporters (glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) and glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1)) and glutamine synthetase immunolabeling and activity. Additionally, according to in vivo aging, astrocytes from adult and aged rats showed an increase in oxidative/nitrosative stress with mitochondrial dysfunction, an increase in RNA oxidation, NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity, superoxide levels, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression levels. Changes in antioxidant defenses were also observed. Hippocampal astrocytes also displayed age-dependent inflammatory response with augmentation of proinflammatory cytokine levels, such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18, and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2). Furthermore, these cells secrete neurotrophic factors, including glia-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) protein, and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), which changed in an age-dependent manner. Classical signaling pathways associated with aging, such as nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2), nuclear factor kappa B (NFκ

  20. Brain plasticity and functional losses in the aged: scientific bases for a novel intervention.

    PubMed

    Mahncke, Henry W; Bronstone, Amy; Merzenich, Michael M

    2006-01-01

    Aging is associated with progressive losses in function across multiple systems, including sensation, cognition, memory, motor control, and affect. The traditional view has been that functional decline in aging is unavoidable because it is a direct consequence of brain machinery wearing down over time. In recent years, an alternative perspective has emerged, which elaborates on this traditional view of age-related functional decline. This new viewpoint--based upon decades of research in neuroscience, experimental psychology, and other related fields--argues that as people age, brain plasticity processes with negative consequences begin to dominate brain functioning. Four core factors--reduced schedules of brain activity, noisy processing, weakened neuromodulatory control, and negative learning--interact to create a self-reinforcing downward spiral of degraded brain function in older adults. This downward spiral might begin from reduced brain activity due to behavioral change, from a loss in brain function driven by aging brain machinery, or more likely from both. In aggregate, these interrelated factors promote plastic changes in the brain that result in age-related functional decline. This new viewpoint on the root causes of functional decline immediately suggests a remedial approach. Studies of adult brain plasticity have shown that substantial improvement in function and/or recovery from losses in sensation, cognition, memory, motor control, and affect should be possible, using appropriately designed behavioral training paradigms. Driving brain plasticity with positive outcomes requires engaging older adults in demanding sensory, cognitive, and motor activities on an intensive basis, in a behavioral context designed to re-engage and strengthen the neuromodulatory systems that control learning in adults, with the goal of increasing the fidelity, reliability, and power of cortical representations. Such a training program would serve a substantial unmet need in

  1. Dissecting mechanisms of brain aging by studying the intrinsic excitability of neurons

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Valerio; Richman, Jeffrey; Puthanveettil, Sathyanarayanan V.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies using vertebrate and invertebrate animal models have shown aging associated changes in brain function. Importantly, changes in soma size, loss or regression of dendrites and dendritic spines and alterations in the expression of neurotransmitter receptors in specific neurons were described. Despite this understanding, how aging impacts intrinsic properties of individual neurons or circuits that govern a defined behavior is yet to be determined. Here we discuss current understanding of specific electrophysiological changes in individual neurons and circuits during aging. PMID:25610394

  2. Effect of aging on brain respiration and carbohydrate metabolism of Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Fox, J H; Parmacek, M S; Patel-Mandlik, K

    1975-01-01

    Syrian hamsters were used to study the effect of aging on brain slice respiration and metabolism. Young animals (average age 8 months) and old animals (average age 18 months) were incubated under standard conditions with the following parameters being measured: oxygen uptake, 14CO2 production, glucose utilization, lactate and pyruvate formation. No differences were found in the two groups. It is still very likely that subtle differences exist but can only be documented under conditions of metabolic stress.

  3. Fitness, but not physical activity, is related to functional integrity of brain networks associated with aging.

    PubMed

    Voss, Michelle W; Weng, Timothy B; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Wong, Chelsea N; Cooke, Gillian E; Clark, Rachel; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Gothe, Neha P; Olson, Erin A; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2016-05-01

    Greater physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with reduced age-related cognitive decline and lower risk for dementia. However, significant gaps remain in the understanding of how physical activity and fitness protect the brain from adverse effects of brain aging. The primary goal of the current study was to empirically evaluate the independent relationships between physical activity and fitness with functional brain health among healthy older adults, as measured by the functional connectivity of cognitively and clinically relevant resting state networks. To build context for fitness and physical activity associations in older adults, we first demonstrate that young adults have greater within-network functional connectivity across a broad range of cortical association networks. Based on these results and previous research, we predicted that individual differences in fitness and physical activity would be most strongly associated with functional integrity of the networks most sensitive to aging. Consistent with this prediction, and extending on previous research, we showed that cardiorespiratory fitness has a positive relationship with functional connectivity of several cortical networks associated with age-related decline, and effects were strongest in the default mode network (DMN). Furthermore, our results suggest that the positive association of fitness with brain function can occur independent of habitual physical activity. Overall, our findings provide further support that cardiorespiratory fitness is an important factor in moderating the adverse effects of aging on cognitively and clinically relevant functional brain networks.

  4. Exceptional Brain Aging in a Rural Population-Based Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Jeffrey; Michael, Yvonne; Calvert, James; Leahy, Marjorie; Crawford, Debbie; Kramer, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Context: The 2000 US Census identified 50,454 Americans over the age of 100. Increased longevity is only of benefit if accompanied by maintenance of independence and quality of life. Little is known about the prevalence of dementia and other disabling conditions among rural centenarians although this information is important to clinicians caring…

  5. Grape juice, berries and walnuts affect brain aging and behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous studies have indicated that individuals consuming a diet containing high amounts of fruits and vegetables exhibit fewer age-related diseases such as Alzheimer Disease (AD). A recent report has indicated that individuals who consumed a diet containing 2.5 servings of fruit and vegetables/day...

  6. Improving brain signaling in aging: could berries be the answer?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the lifespan of humans is increasing, the quest for “healthy aging” is increasingly becoming a focus of the media and people. This trend is important, as the population of people over 65 years of age worldwide is expected to triple by midcentury. Many regard “healthy aging” as preventing wrinkles...

  7. Role of walnuts in maintaining brain health with age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the combination of population growth and population aging, increases in the incidence of chronic neurodegenerative disorders have become a societal concern, both in terms of decreased quality of life and increased financial burden. Clinical manifestation of many of these disorders takes years...

  8. Hot Topics in Research: Preventive Neuroradiology in Brain Aging and Cognitive Decline.

    PubMed

    Raji, C A; Eyre, H; Wei, S H; Bredesen, D E; Moylan, S; Law, M; Small, G; Thompson, P M; Friedlander, R M; Silverman, D H; Baune, B T; Hoang, T A; Salamon, N; Toga, A W; Vernooij, M W

    2015-10-01

    Preventive neuroradiology is a new concept supported by growing literature. The main rationale of preventive neuroradiology is the application of multimodal brain imaging toward early and subclinical detection of brain disease and subsequent preventive actions through identification of modifiable risk factors. An insightful example of this is in the area of age-related cognitive decline, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia with potentially modifiable risk factors such as obesity, diet, sleep, hypertension, diabetes, depression, supplementation, smoking, and physical activity. In studying this link between lifestyle and cognitive decline, brain imaging markers may be instrumental as quantitative measures or even indicators of early disease. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the major studies reflecting how lifestyle factors affect the brain and cognition aging. In this hot topics review, we will specifically focus on obesity and physical activity.

  9. Quality of care indicators for the rehabilitation of children with traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Rivara, Frederick P.; Ennis, Stephanie K.; Mangione-Smith, Rita; MacKenzie, Ellen J.; Jaffe, Kenneth M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop measurement tools for assessing compliance with identifiable processes of inpatient care for children with traumatic brain injury that are reliable, valid, and amenable to implementation. Design Literature review and expert panel using the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and a Delphi technique. Setting Not applicable Participants Children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) Interventions Not applicable Main outcome measures Quality of care indicators Results A total of 119 indicators were developed across the domains of general management; family-centered care; cognitive-communication, speech, language and swallowing impairments; gross and fine motor skill impairments; neuropsychological, social and behavioral impairments; school re-entry; community integration. There was a high degree of agreement on these indicators as valid and feasible quality measures for children with TBI. Conclusion These indicators are an important step toward building a better base of evidence about the effectiveness and efficiency of the components of acute inpatient rehabilitation for pediatric patients with TBI. PMID:22280892

  10. A prospective observational study of quality of diabetes care in a shared care setting: trends and age differences (ZODIAC-19)

    PubMed Central

    van Hateren, Kornelis J J; Drion, Iefke; Kleefstra, Nanne; Groenier, Klaas H; Houweling, Sebastiaan T; van der Meer, Klaas; Bilo, Henk J G

    2012-01-01

    Objective The Zwolle Outpatient Diabetes project Integrating Available Care (ZODIAC) study was initiated in 1998 to investigate the effects of shared care for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the Netherlands, and to reduce the number of diabetes-related complications. Benchmarking the performance of diabetes care was and is an important aspect of this study. We aimed to investigate trends in diabetes care, within the ZODIAC study for a wide variety of quality indicators during a long follow-up period (1998–2008), with special interest for different age groups. Design Prospective observational cohort study. Setting Primary care, Zwolle, The Netherlands. Participants Patients with T2DM. Methods A dataset of quality measures was collected annually during the patient's visit to the practice nurse or general practitioner. Linear time trends from 1998 to 2008 were estimated using linear mixed models in which we adjusted for age and gender. Age was included in the model as a categorical variable: for each follow-up year all participants were categorised into the categories <60, 60–75 and >75 years. Differences in trends between the age categories were investigated by adding an interaction term to the model. Results The number of patients who were reported to participate increased in the period 1998–2008 from 1622 to 27 438. All quality indicators improved in this study, except for body mass index. The prevalence albuminuria decreased in an 11-year-period from 42% to 21%. No relevant differences between the trends for the three age categories were observed. During all years of follow-up, mean blood pressure and body mass index were the lowest and highest, respectively, in the group of patients <60 years (data not shown). Conclusions Quality of diabetes care within the Dutch ZODIAC study, a shared care project, has considerably improved in the period 1998–2008. There were no relevant differences between trends across various age categories

  11. Metabolism of choline in brain of the aged CBF-1 mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, M.; Kindel, G.; Karczmar, A.G.; Rosenberg, A.

    1986-01-01

    In order to quantify the changes that occur in the cholinergic central nervous system with aging, we have compared acetylcholine (Ach) formation in brain cortex slice preparations from 2-year-old aged CBF-1 mouse brains and compared the findings with those in 2-4-month-old young adult mouse brain slices. Incorporation of exogenous radioactively labelled choline (31 nM (/sup 3/H) choline) into acetyl choline in incubated brain slices was linear with time for 90 min. Percentage of total choline label distributed into Ach remained constant from 5 min after starting the incubation to 90 min. In contrast, distribution of label into intracellular free choline (Ch) and phosphorylcholine (Pch) changed continuously over this period suggesting that the Ch pool for Ach synthesis in brain cortex is different from that for Pch synthesis. Incorporation of radioactivity into Ach was not influenced by administration of 10 microM eserine, showing that the increment of radioactivity in Ach reflects rate of Ach formation, independently from degradation by acetylcholine esterases. Under our experimental conditions, slices from cortices of aged 24-month-old mouse brain showed a significantly greater (27%) incorporation of radioactivity into intracellular Ach than those from young, 2-4-month-old, brain cortices. Inhibitors of Ach release, 1 mM ATP or GABA, had no effect. Since concentration of radioactive precursor in the incubation medium was very low (31 nM), the Ch pool for Ach synthesis in slices was labelled without measurably changing the size of the endogenous pool. These data suggest a compensatory acceleration of Ach synthesis or else a smaller precursor pool specific for Ach synthesis into which labelled Ch migrated in aged brain.

  12. The paradox of the Aged Care Act 1997: the marginalisation of nursing discourse.

    PubMed

    Angus, Jocelyn; Nay, Rhonda

    2003-06-01

    This paper examines the marginalisation of nursing discourse, which followed the enactment of the Aged Care Act 1997. This neo-reform period in aged care, dominated by theories of economic rationalism, enshrined legislation based upon market principles and by implication, the provision of care at the cheapest possible price. This paper exposes some of the gaps in the neo-reform period and challenges the assertion that the amalgamation of nursing homes and hostels in such an environment can provide better quality of care and life for residents. It argues that this amalgamation entails a transformation towards a social model of care and fails to address the professional healthcare needs of the acutely sick and complex extreme old person and makes evident new gaps in the provision of aged care services. The paper proceeds to present strategies where the future for nursing practice in aged care necessarily involves a judicious balancing of individual cases alongside economic prescriptions of care and ever-changing public policy initiatives. It concludes that this can be achieved through a more interactive public, professional and advocacy discourse. The methodology involves extensive analysis of public documents including media, academic journals, government reports and interviews with recognised leaders in the field of aged care. The study utilises a critical interpretative framework consistent with the logic of Michel Foucault.

  13. Diffusional anisotropy of the human brain assessed with diffusion-weighted MR: Relation with normal brain development and aging

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Toshiyuki; Sakuma, Hajime; Takeda, Kan; Tagami, Tomoyasu; Okuda, Yasuyuki; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi )

    1994-02-01

    To analyze diffusional anisotropy in frontal and occipital white matter of human brain quantitatively as a function of age by using diffusion-weighted MR imaging. Ten neonates (<1 month), 13 infants (1-10 months), 9 children (1-11 years), and 16 adults (20-79 years) were examined. After taking axial spin-echo images of the brain, diffusion-sensitive gradients were added parallel or perpendicular to the orientation of nerve fibers. The apparent diffusion coefficient parallel to the nerve fibers (0) and that perpendicular to the fibers (90) were computed. The anisotropic ratio (90/0) was calculated as a function of age. Anisotropic ratios of frontal white matter were significantly larger in neonates as compared with infants, children, or adults. The ratios showed rapid decrease until 6 months and thereafter were identical in all subjects. In the occipital lobe, the ratios were also greater in neonates, but the differences from other age groups were not so prominent as in the frontal lobe. Comparing anisotropic ratios between frontal and occipital lobes, a significant difference was observed only in neonates. Diffusion-weighted images demonstrated that the myelination process starts earlier in the occipital lobe than in the frontal lobe. The changes of diffusional anisotropy in white matter are completed within 6 months after birth. Diffusion-weighted imaging provides earlier detection of brain myelination compared with the conventional T1- and T2-weighted images. 18 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Don't Lose Your Brain at Work - The Role of Recurrent Novelty at Work in Cognitive and Brain Aging.

    PubMed

    Oltmanns, Jan; Godde, Ben; Winneke, Axel H; Richter, Götz; Niemann, Claudia; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Schömann, Klaus; Staudinger, Ursula M

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive and brain aging is strongly influenced by everyday settings such as work demands. Long-term exposure to low job complexity, for instance, has detrimental effects on cognitive functioning and regional gray matter (GM) volume. Brain and cognition, however, are also characterized by plasticity. We postulate that the experience of novelty (at work) is one important trigger of plasticity. We investigated the cumulative effect of recurrent exposure to work-task changes (WTC) at low levels of job complexity on GM volume and cognitive functioning of middle-aged production workers across a time window of 17 years. In a case-control study, we found that amount of WTC was associated with better processing speed and working memory as well as with more GM volume in brain regions that have been associated with learning and that show pronounced age-related decline. Recurrent novelty at work may serve as an 'in vivo' intervention that helps counteracting debilitating long-term effects of low job complexity.

  15. White Matter Lipids as a Ketogenic Fuel Supply in Aging Female Brain: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Klosinski, Lauren P; Yao, Jia; Yin, Fei; Fonteh, Alfred N; Harrington, Michael G; Christensen, Trace A; Trushina, Eugenia; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2015-12-01

    White matter degeneration is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Age remains the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's and the prevalence of age-related late onset Alzheimer's is greatest in females. We investigated mechanisms underlying white matter degeneration in an animal model consistent with the sex at greatest Alzheimer's risk. Results of these analyses demonstrated decline in mitochondrial respiration, increased mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production and cytosolic-phospholipase-A2 sphingomyelinase pathway activation during female brain aging. Electron microscopic and lipidomic analyses confirmed myelin degeneration. An increase in fatty acids and mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism machinery was coincident with a rise in brain ketone bodies and decline in plasma ketone bodies. This mechanistic pathway and its chronologically phased activation, links mitochondrial dysfunction early in aging with later age development of white matter degeneration. The catabolism of myelin lipids to generate ketone bodies can be viewed as a systems level adaptive response to address brain fuel and energy demand. Elucidation of the initiating factors and the mechanistic pathway leading to white matter catabolism in the aging female brain provides potential therapeutic targets to prevent and treat demyelinating diseases such as Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis. Targeting stages of disease and associated mechanisms will be critical.

  16. White Matter Lipids as a Ketogenic Fuel Supply in Aging Female Brain: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Klosinski, Lauren P.; Yao, Jia; Yin, Fei; Fonteh, Alfred N.; Harrington, Michael G.; Christensen, Trace A.; Trushina, Eugenia; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2015-01-01

    White matter degeneration is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Age remains the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's and the prevalence of age-related late onset Alzheimer's is greatest in females. We investigated mechanisms underlying white matter degeneration in an animal model consistent with the sex at greatest Alzheimer's risk. Results of these analyses demonstrated decline in mitochondrial respiration, increased mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production and cytosolic-phospholipase-A2 sphingomyelinase pathway activation during female brain aging. Electron microscopic and lipidomic analyses confirmed myelin degeneration. An increase in fatty acids and mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism machinery was coincident with a rise in brain ketone bodies and decline in plasma ketone bodies. This mechanistic pathway and its chronologically phased activation, links mitochondrial dysfunction early in aging with later age development of white matter degeneration. The catabolism of myelin lipids to generate ketone bodies can be viewed as a systems level adaptive response to address brain fuel and energy demand. Elucidation of the initiating factors and the mechanistic pathway leading to white matter catabolism in the aging female brain provides potential therapeutic targets to prevent and treat demyelinating diseases such as Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis. Targeting stages of disease and associated mechanisms will be critical. PMID:26844268

  17. Caring for an aging society: cohort values and eldercare services.

    PubMed

    Karner, T X

    2001-01-01

    Understanding the impact of cohort values is important in trying to project future aging service needs. The cultural characteristics of cohorts yet to reach the age of 65 are compared with those already "old," with specific focus on the Baby Boomers. Aging policies (and available services) reflect the cultural notions of age and aging held as normative during the historical era in which they are enacted. Previous research into lifestyle preferences, consumer practices, and key characteristics is drawn upon to investigate the values of Baby Boomers in light of their projected needs for eldercare services. Cohort research and generational marketing practices offer a promising foundation for exploring how best to develop, target, and deliver aging services that most effectively utilize our social resources.

  18. Future trends in health and health care: implications for social work practice in an aging society.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, William J; Davidson, Kay W

    2013-01-01

    Major economic, political, demographic, social, and operational system factors are prompting evolutionary changes in health care delivery. Of particular significance, the "graying of America" promises new challenges and opportunities for health care social work. At the same time, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, evolution of Accountable Care Organizations, and an emphasis on integrated, transdisciplinary, person-centered care represent fundamental shifts in service delivery with implications for social work practice and education. This article identifies the aging shift in American demography, its impact on health policy legislation, factors influencing fundamentally new service delivery paradigms, and opportunities of the profession to address the health disparities and care needs of an aging population. It underscores the importance of social work inclusion in integrated health care delivery and offers recommendations for practice education.

  19. Fluid intelligence and brain functional organization in aging yoga and meditation practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Gard, Tim; Taquet, Maxime; Dixit, Rohan; Hölzel, Britta K.; de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Brach, Narayan; Salat, David H.; Dickerson, Bradford C.; Gray, Jeremy R.; Lazar, Sara W.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented the normal age-related decline of neural structure, function, and cognitive performance. Preliminary evidence suggests that meditation may reduce decline in specific cognitive domains and in brain structure. Here we extended this research by investigating the relation between age and fluid intelligence and resting state brain functional network architecture using graph theory, in middle-aged yoga and meditation practitioners, and matched controls. Fluid intelligence declined slower in yoga practitioners and meditators combined than in controls. Resting state functional networks of yoga practitioners and meditators combined were more integrated and more resilient to damage than those of controls. Furthermore, mindfulness was positively correlated with fluid intelligence, resilience, and global network efficiency. These findings reveal the possibility to increase resilience and to slow the decline of fluid intelligence and brain functional architecture and suggest that mindfulness plays a mechanistic role in this preservation. PMID:24795629

  20. Fluid intelligence and brain functional organization in aging yoga and meditation practitioners.

    PubMed

    Gard, Tim; Taquet, Maxime; Dixit, Rohan; Hölzel, Britta K; de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Brach, Narayan; Salat, David H; Dickerson, Bradford C; Gray, Jeremy R; Lazar, Sara W

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented the normal age-related decline of neural structure, function, and cognitive performance. Preliminary evidence suggests that meditation may reduce decline in specific cognitive domains and in brain structure. Here we extended this research by investigating the relation between age and fluid intelligence and resting state brain functional network architecture using graph theory, in middle-aged yoga and meditation practitioners, and matched controls. Fluid intelligence declined slower in yoga practitioners and meditators combined than in controls. Resting state functional networks of yoga practitioners and meditators combined were more integrated and more resilient to damage than those of controls. Furthermore, mindfulness was positively correlated with fluid intelligence, resilience, and global network efficiency. These findings reveal the possibility to increase resilience and to slow the decline of fluid intelligence and brain functional architecture and suggest that mindfulness plays a mechanistic role in this preservation.

  1. Trends in aging and skin care: Ayurvedic concepts

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Hema Sharma; Paramesh, Rangesh

    2010-01-01

    The association between Ayurveda, anti-aging and cosmeceuticals is gaining importance in the beauty, health and wellness sector. Ayurvedic cosmeceuticals date back to the Indus Valley Civilization. Modern research trends mainly revolve around principles of anti-aging activity described in Ayurveda: Vayasthapana (age defying), Varnya (brighten skin-glow), Sandhaniya (cell regeneration), Vranaropana (healing), Tvachya (nurturing), Shothahara (anti-inflammatory), Tvachagnivardhani (strengthening skin metabolism) and Tvagrasayana (retarding aging). Many rasayana plants such as Emblica officinalis (Amla) and Centella asiatica (Gotukola) are extensively used. PMID:21836797

  2. Age-related changes of metallothionein 1/2 and metallothionein 3 expression in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Scudiero, Rosaria; Cigliano, Luisa; Verderame, Mariailaria

    2017-01-01

    Neurodegeneration is one of the main physiological consequences of aging on brain. Metallothioneins (MTs), low molecular weight, cysteine-rich proteins that bind heavy-metal ions and oxygen-free radicals, are commonly expressed in various tissues of mammals. MTs are involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and protection, and may be engaged in aging. Expression of the ubiquitous MTs (1 and 2) and the brain specific MT3 have been studied in many neurodegenerative disorders. The research results indicate that MTs may play important, although not yet fully known, roles in brain diseases; in addition, data lack the ability to identify the MT isoforms functionally involved. The aim of this study was to analyse the level of gene expression of selected MT isoforms during brain aging. By using real-time PCR analysis, we determined the MT1/2 and MT3 expression profiles in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of adolescent (2months), adult (4 and 8months), and middle-aged (16months) rats. We show that the relative abundance of all types of MT transcripts changes during aging in both hippocampus and cortex; the first effect is a generalized decrease in the content of MTs transcripts from 2- to 8-months-old rats. After passing middle age, at 16months, we observe a huge increase in MT3 transcripts in both cortical and hippocampal areas, while the MT1/2 mRNA content increases slightly, returning to the levels measured in adolescent rats. These findings demonstrate an age-related expression of the MT3 gene. A possible link between the increasing amount of MT3 in brain aging and its different metal-binding behaviour is discussed.

  3. Technology tackles dispensing in age of accountable care.

    PubMed

    Kaldy, Joanne

    2013-06-01

    Increasingly, long-term care facilities are using technology to improve safety, reduce costs, and save time. The growing role of high-tech tools in this setting is driven partly by regulations calling for facilities to improve outcomes and streamline costs. One tool that long-term pharmacies and their facilities are turning to is the automated dispensing system. These systems vary in term of type, size, cost, and function; and they are approved for use in long-term care facilities in some but not all states. However, where they can be and are used, they often result in reduced medication management costs and improved safety and accuracy. At the same time, automated dispensing systems may make medication administration easier for nurses. While challenges to their implementation and use remain, automated dispensing systems likely will be a key part of health care's future. This article serves as an introduction to the automated dispensing systems, their use in long-term care, and their potential use as a new era of health care begins.

  4. Edited Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Detects an Age-Related Decline in Nonhuman Primate Brain GABA Levels

    PubMed Central

    Killiany, Ronald J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research had shown a correlation between aging and decreasing Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. However, how GABA level varies with age in the medial portion of the brain has not yet been studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the GABA level variation with age focusing on the posterior cingulate cortex, which is the “core hub” of the default mode network. In this study, 14 monkeys between 4 and 21 years were recruited, and MEGA-PRESS MRS was performed to measure GABA levels, in order to explore a potential link between aging and GABA. Our results showed that a correlation between age and GABA+/Creatine ratio was at the edge of significance (r = −0.523, p = 0.081). There was also a near-significant trend between gray matter/white matter ratio and the GABA+/Creatine ratio (r = −0.518, p = 0.0848). Meanwhile, the correlation between age and grey matter showed no significance (r = −0.028, p = 0.93). Therefore, age and gray matter/white matter ratio account for different part of R-squared (adjusted R-squared = 0.5187) as independent variables for predicting GABA levels. Adjusted R-squared is about 0.5 for two independent variables. These findings suggest that there is internal neurochemical variation of GABA levels in the nonhuman primates associated with normal aging and structural brain decline. PMID:27660760

  5. A Survey of People with Intellectual Disabilities Living in Residential Aged Care Facilities in Victoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigby, C.; Webber, R.; Bowers, B.; McKenzie-Green, B.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Australia's national ageing policy recognises that people ageing with intellectual disability (ID) require particular attention, yet there is no policy framework concerning this population. This study describes the distribution and characteristics of people with ID in residential aged care in Victoria, provides insights into the…

  6. Effects of polyphenols on brain ageing and Alzheimer's disease: focus on mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Sebastian; Asseburg, Heike; Kuntz, Sabine; Muller, Walter E; Eckert, Gunter P

    2012-08-01

    The global trend of the phenomenon of population ageing has dramatic consequences on public health and the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases. Physiological changes that occur during normal ageing of the brain may exacerbate and initiate pathological processes that may lead to neurodegenerative disorders, especially Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hence, the risk of AD rises exponentially with age. While there is no cure currently available, sufficient intake of certain micronutrients and secondary plant metabolites may prevent disease onset. Polyphenols are highly abundant in the human diet, and several experimental and epidemiological evidences indicate that these secondary plant products have beneficial effects on AD risks. This study reviews current knowledge on the potential of polyphenols and selected polyphenol-rich diets on memory and cognition in human subjects, focusing on recent data showing in vivo efficacy of polyphenols in preventing neurodegenerative events during brain ageing and in dementia. Concentrations of polyphenols in animal brains following oral administration have been consistently reported to be very low, thus eliciting controversial discussion on their neuroprotective effects and potential mechanisms. Whether polyphenols exert any direct antioxidant effects in the brain or rather act by evoking alterations in regulatory systems of the brain or even the body periphery is still unclear. To understand the mechanisms behind the protective abilities of polyphenol-rich foods, an overall understanding of the biotransformation of polyphenols and identification of the various metabolites arising in the human body is also urgently needed.

  7. Assessment of ganglioside age-related and topographic specificity in human brain by Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sarbu, Mirela; Dehelean, Liana; Munteanu, Cristian V A; Vukelić, Željka; Zamfir, Alina D

    2017-03-15

    The gangliosides (GGs) of the central nervous system (CNS) exhibit age and topographic specificity and these patterns may correlate with the functions and pathologies of the brain regions. Here, chloroform extraction, nanoelectrospray (nanoESI) negative ionization, together with Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (MS) determined the topographic and age-related GG specificity in normal adult human brain. Mapping of GG mixtures extracted from 20 to 82 year old frontal and occipital lobes revealed besides a decrease in the GG number with age, a variability of sialylation degree within the brain regions. From the 111 species identified, 105 were distinguished in the FL20, 74 in OL20, 46 in FL82 and 56 in OL82. The results emphasize that within the juvenile brain, GG species exhibit a higher expression in the FL than in OL, while in the aged brain the number of GG species is higher in the OL. By applying MS/MS analysis, the generated fragment ions confirmed the incidence of GT1c (d18:1/18:0) and GT1c (d18:1/20:0) in the investigated samples. The present findings are of major value for further clinical studies carried out using Orbitrap MS in order to correlate gangliosides with CNS disorders.

  8. Regional and Gender Study of Neuronal Density in Brain during Aging and in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Pinilla, Eva; Ordóñez, Cristina; del Valle, Eva; Navarro, Ana; Tolivia, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Background: Learning processes or language development are only some of the cognitive functions that differ qualitatively between men and women. Gender differences in the brain structure seem to be behind these variations. Indeed, this sexual dimorphism at neuroanatomical level is accompanied unequivocally by differences in the way that aging and neurodegenerative diseases affect men and women brains. Objective: The aim of this study is the analysis of neuronal density in four areas of the hippocampus, and entorhinal and frontal cortices to analyze the possible gender influence during normal aging and in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: Human brain tissues of different age and from both sexes, without neurological pathology and with different Braak's stages of AD, were studied. Neuronal density was quantified using the optical dissector. Results: Our results showed the absence of a significant neuronal loss during aging in non-pathological brains in both sexes. However, we have demonstrated specific punctual significant variations in neuronal density related with the age and gender in some regions of these brains. In fact, we observed a higher neuronal density in CA3 and CA4 hippocampal areas of non-pathological brains of young men compared to women. During AD, we observed a negative correlation between Braak's stages and neuronal density in hippocampus, specifically in CA1 for women and CA3 for men, and in frontal cortex for both, men and women. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated a sexual dimorphism in the neuronal vulnerability to degeneration suggesting the need to consider the gender of the individuals in future studies, regarding neuronal loss in aging and AD, in order to avoid problems in interpreting data. PMID:27679571

  9. Using existing information from medico-legal death investigations to improve care of older people in residential aged care services.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Joseph Elias; Bugeja, Lyndal; Ranson, David

    2013-12-01

    The care of older people in residential aged care services could be improved by optimising the use of existing information gathered for medico-legal death investigations. The authors address three myths contributing to underuse of this information: deaths are not preventable; public health gains are too small; and it is someone else's charter or responsibility A significant proportion of deaths are preventable, specifically those occurring prematurely from natural causes or due to injury and trauma. By addressing these preventable deaths, significant public health cost savings and better health outcomes for our growing ageing population can be achieved. Despite substantive monitoring of the provision of aged care, no single entity is explicitly responsible for systematically analysing medico-legal death information. The data and skills for using information from medico-legal death investigations currently exist. Dispelling the myths removes one impediment to investing in this area of public health.

  10. White matter hyperintensities and imaging patterns of brain ageing in the general population.

    PubMed

    Habes, Mohamad; Erus, Guray; Toledo, Jon B; Zhang, Tianhao; Bryan, Nick; Launer, Lenore J; Rosseel, Yves; Janowitz, Deborah; Doshi, Jimit; Van der Auwera, Sandra; von Sarnowski, Bettina; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Hosten, Norbert; Homuth, Georg; Völzke, Henry; Schminke, Ulf; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Grabe, Hans J; Davatzikos, Christos

    2016-04-01

    White matter hyperintensities are associated with increased risk of dementia and cognitive decline. The current study investigates the relationship between white matter hyperintensities burden and patterns of brain atrophy associated with brain ageing and Alzheimer's disease in a large populatison-based sample (n = 2367) encompassing a wide age range (20-90 years), from the Study of Health in Pomerania. We quantified white matter hyperintensities using automated segmentation and summarized atrophy patterns using machine learning methods resulting in two indices: the SPARE-BA index (capturing age-related brain atrophy), and the SPARE-AD index (previously developed to capture patterns of atrophy found in patients with Alzheimer's disease). A characteristic pattern of age-related accumulation of white matter hyperintensities in both periventricular and deep white matter areas was found. Individuals with high white matter hyperintensities burden showed significantly (P < 0.0001) lower SPARE-BA and higher SPARE-AD values compared to those with low white matter hyperintensities burden, indicating that the former had more patterns of atrophy in brain regions typically affected by ageing and Alzheimer's disease dementia. To investigate a possibly causal role of white matter hyperintensities, structural equation modelling was used to quantify the effect of Framingham cardiovascular disease risk score and white matter hyperintensities burden on SPARE-BA, revealing a statistically significant (P < 0.0001) causal relationship between them. Structural equation modelling showed that the age effect on SPARE-BA was mediated by white matter hyperintensities and cardiovascular risk score each explaining 10.4% and 21.6% of the variance, respectively. The direct age effect explained 70.2% of the SPARE-BA variance. Only white matter hyperintensities significantly mediated the age effect on SPARE-AD explaining 32.8% of the variance. The direct age effect explained 66.0% of the SPARE

  11. An apocalyptic vision of ageing in China: Old age care for the largest elderly population in the world.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Sun, Li

    2015-06-01

    According to the National Bureau of Statistics of China, by 2010 the number of people aged 60 or over had reached 178 million in China or 13% of its population. With the largest elderly population in the world in absolute numbers, China faces a challenge of providing care for the elderly both in the present and the future. Unlike old age pensions and health protection for the elderly, in Chinese society elderly care had never been considered to be a social problem but rather the individual family's responsibility. After the turn of the millennium, as the repercussions of increasingly ageing demographics, the results of the One-Child Policy and drastic changes in traditional family structures gradually became more apparent, this issue of elderly care has increasingly become one of the most pressing concerns for the ageing society. As there is little existing research on this particular topic, this article aims to shed light on elderly care in China, focusing on the care of elderly needing assistance with activities of daily living, since this group of elderly are most in need of care, their numbers having risen to 33 million in 2010. This article argues it is urgent for China to switch from informal family-based elderly care to the state's formal long-term care, illustrates that a model of social insurance (e.g. as in Germany) is advocated by many Chinese scholars and points out the ways in which it is different from both the commercialized models (e.g. as in the USA) and state organized "Beveridge" models (e.g. as in Sweden).

  12. Building Peer Relationships in School Age Care. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teachy, Cindy L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This workshop section includes four essays: (1) "Building Lifelong Relationships: School Age Programs at Work" (Cindy L. Teachey); (2) "Building Friendships in School Age Programs" (Joan M. Bergstrom); (3) "On the Rocky Road to Friendship: Emerging Peer Relationships" (Kay Albrecht); (4) "Helping Teachers Understand Their Role in Supporting Peer…

  13. Care dependence in old age: preferences, practices and implications in two Indonesian communities

    PubMed Central

    SCHRÖDER-BUTTERFILL, ELISABETH; FITHRY, TENGKU SYAWILA

    2013-01-01

    The provision of physical care is a sensitive matter in all cultures and is circumscribed by moral injunctions and personal preferences. Research on Western cultures has shown care networks to be narrow subsets of people’s wider networks and revealed dependence to be deeply undermining of full personhood. In non-Western societies these issues have received little attention, although it is sometimes assumed that care provision and dependence are much less problematic. This paper uses longitudinal ethnographic data from two ethnic groups in rural Indonesia to compare care preferences and practices in old age and to examine the implications of care dependence. The groups manifest varying degrees of daughter preference in care and differ in the extent to which notions of shame and avoidance prohibit cross-gender intimate care and care by ‘non-blood’ relatives. Demographic and social constraints often necessitate compromises in actual care arrangements (e.g. dependence on in-laws, neighbours or paid carers), not all of which are compatible with quality care and a valued identity. We argue that by probing the norms and practices surrounding care provision in different socio-cultural settings, it becomes possible to arrive at a deeper understanding of kinship, personhood and sociality. These insights are not only of sociological interest but have implications for people’s vulnerability to poor quality care in old age. PMID:24518962

  14. [Research of anti-aging mechanism of ginsenoside Rg1 on brain].

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng-peng; Zhang, Meng-si; Liu, Jun; Geng, Shan; Li, Jing; Zhu, Jia-hong; Zhang, Yan-yan; Jia, Yan-yan; Wang, Lu; Wang, Shun-he; Wang, Ya-ping

    2014-11-01

    Neurodegenerative disease is common and frequently occurs in elderly patients. Previous studies have shown that ginsenoside Rg1 was able to inhibit senescent of brain, but the mechanism on the brain during the treatment remains elucidated. To study the mechanism of ginsenoside Rg1 in the process of anti-aging of brain, forty male SD rats were randomly divided into normal group, Rg1 normal group, brain aging model group and Rg1 brain aging model group, each group with 10 rats (brain aging model group: subcutaneous injection of D-galactose (120 mg kg(-1)), qd for 42 consecutive days; Rg1 brain aging model group: while copying the same test as that of brain aging model group, begin intraperitoneal injection of ginsenosides Rg1 (20 mg x kg(-1)) qd for 27 d from 16 d. Rg1 normal group: subcutaneous injection of the same amount of saline; begin intraperitoneal injection of ginsenosides Rg1 (20 mg x kg(-1)) qd for 27 d from 16 d. Normal: injected with an equal volume of saline within the same time. Perform the related experiment on the second day after finishing copying the model or the completion of the first two days of drug injections). Learning and memory abilities were measured by Morris water maze. The number of senescent cells was detected by SA-beta-Gal staining while the level of IL-1 and IL-6 proinflammatory cytokines in hippocampus were detected by ELISA. The activities of SOD, contents of GSH in hippo- campus were quantified by chromatometry. The change of telomerase activities and telomerase length were performed by TRAP-PCR and southern blotting assay, respectively. It is pointed that, in brain aging model group, the spatial learning and memory capacities were weaken, SA-beta-Gal positive granules increased in section of brain tissue, the activity of antioxidant enzyme SOD and the contents of GSH decreased in hippocampus, the level of IL-1 and IL-6 increased in hippocampus, while the length of telomere and the activity of telomerase decreased in hippocampus

  15. Critical Care Management Focused on Optimizing Brain Function After Cardiac Arrest.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Ryuta; Hifumi, Toru; Kawakita, Kenya; Okazaki, Tomoya; Egawa, Satoshi; Inoue, Akihiko; Seo, Ryutaro; Inagaki, Nobuhiro; Kuroda, Yasuhiro

    2017-03-24

    The discussion of neurocritical care management in post-cardiac arrest syndrome (PCAS) has generally focused on target values used for targeted temperature management (TTM). There has been less attention paid to target values for systemic and cerebral parameters to minimize secondary brain damage in PCAS. And the neurologic indications for TTM to produce a favorable neurologic outcome remain to be determined. Critical care management of PCAS patients is fundamental and essential for both cardiologists and general intensivists to improve neurologic outcome, because definitive therapy of PCAS includes both special management of the cause of cardiac arrest, such as coronary intervention to ischemic heart disease, and intensive management of the results of cardiac arrest, such as ventilation strategies to avoid brain ischemia. We reviewed the literature and the latest research about the following issues and propose practical care recommendations. Issues are (1) prediction of TTM candidate on admission, (2) cerebral blood flow and metabolism and target value of them, (3) seizure management using continuous electroencephalography, (4) target value of hemodynamic stabilization and its method, (5) management and analysis of respiration, (6) sedation and its monitoring, (7) shivering control and its monitoring, and (8) glucose management. We hope to establish standards of neurocritical care to optimize brain function and produce a favorable neurologic outcome.

  16. Mindfulness and the aging brain: a proposed paradigm shift

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; De Leon, Angeline A.; Patterson, Beth; Schirda, Brittney L.; Janssen, Alisha L.

    2014-01-01

    There has been a proliferation of cognitive training studies investigating the efficacy of various cognitive training paradigms as well as strategies for improving cognitive control in the elderly. While some have found support for the transfer of training, the majority of training studies show modest to no transfer effects. When transfer effects have been observed, the mechanisms contributing to enhanced functioning have been difficult to dissociate. In this review, we provide a theoretical rationale for the study of mindfulness in older adults as a particular type of training program designed to improve cognitive control by capitalizing on older adults’ acquired behavioral orientation toward higher socioemotional goals. Given the synergistic relationship between emotional and cognitive control processes, the paradoxical divergence in older adults’ functional trajectory in these respective domains, and the harmonious interplay of cognitive and emotional control embedded in the practice of mindfulness, we propose mindfulness training as an opportunistic approach to cultivating cognitive benefits in older adults. The study of mindfulness within aging, we argue, capitalizes on a fundamental finding of the socioemotional aging literature, namely the preferential change in motivational goals of older adults from ones involving future-oriented wants and desires to present-focused emotion regulation and gratification. PMID:25009492

  17. Span, CRUNCH, and Beyond: Working Memory Capacity and the Aging Brain

    PubMed Central

    Schneider-Garces, Nils J.; Gordon, Brian A.; Brumback-Peltz, Carrie R.; Shin, Eunsam; Lee, Yukyung; Sutton, Bradley P.; Maclin, Edward L.; Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Neuroimaging data emphasize that older adults often show greater extent of brain activation than younger adults for similar objective levels of difficulty. A possible interpretation of this finding is that older adults need to recruit neuronal resources at lower loads than younger adults, leaving no resources for higher loads, and thus leading to performance decrements [Compensation-Related Utilization of Neural Circuits Hypothesis; e.g., Reuter-Lorenz, P. A., & Cappell, K. A. Neurocognitive aging and the compensation hypothesis. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17, 177–182, 2008]. The Compensation-Related Utilization of Neural Circuits Hypothesis leads to the prediction that activation differences between younger and older adults should disappear when task difficulty is made subjectively comparable. In a Sternberg memory search task, this can be achieved by assessing brain activity as a function of load relative to the individual’s memory span, which declines with age. Specifically, we hypothesized a nonlinear relationship between load and both performance and brain activity and predicted that asymptotes in the brain activation function should correlate with performance asymptotes (corresponding to working memory span). The results suggest that age differences in brain activation can be largely attributed to individual variations in working memory span. Interestingly, the brain activation data show a sigmoid relationship with load. Results are discussed in terms of Cowan’s [Cowan, N. The magical number 4 in short-term memory: A reconsideration of mental storage capacity. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 24, 87–114, 2001] model of working memory and theories of impaired inhibitory processes in aging. PMID:19320550

  18. Brain aging and its modifiers: insights from in vivo neuromorphometry and susceptibility weighted imaging.

    PubMed

    Raz, Naftali; Rodrigue, Karen M; Haacke, E Mark

    2007-02-01

    Aging is marked by individual differences and differential vulnerability of cognitive operations and their neural substrates. Cross-sectional studies of brain volume reveal greater age-related shrinkage of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the hippocampus than in the entorhinal and primary visual cortex. Longitudinal studies of regional brain shrinkage indicate that when individual differences are controlled, larger and broader shrinkage estimates are evident, with most polymodal cortices affected to the same extent. The mechanisms of age-related shrinkage are unclear. Vascular risk factors may exacerbate brain aging and account for some of the observed declines as both the PFC and the hippocampus show elevated vulnerability to hypertension. MRI techniques that are sensitive to small vessels function, tissue oxygenation, and perfusion may be especially well suited to study brain aging and its vascular modifiers. We present an example of one such technique, susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI), that allows direct measurement of T2* values that reflect deoxy- to oxyhemoglobin fraction in blood vessels and iron deposits in cerebral tissue. The T2* shortening is associated with advanced age, but the effect is significantly stronger in the PFC and the hippocampus than the entorhinal and visual cortices. Moreover, T2* is shorter in hypertensive participants than in their matched normotensive counterparts, and the difference is especially prominent in the hippocampus, thus mirroring the findings of the neuromorphometric studies. Future research on brain aging would benefit from combining structural and metabolic techniques in a longitudinal design, as such studies will allow examination of leading-trailing effects of those factors.

  19. Brain tissue volumes in the general population of the elderly: the AGES-Reykjavik study.

    PubMed

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Aspelund, Thor; Forsberg, Lars; Fredriksson, Jesper; Kjartansson, Olafur; Oskarsdottir, Bryndis; Jonsson, Palmi V; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Harris, Tamara B; Zijdenbos, Alex; van Buchem, Mark A; Launer, Lenore J; Gudnason, Vilmundur

    2012-02-15

    Imaging studies have reported conflicting findings on how brain structure differs with age and sex. This may be explained by discrepancies and limitations in study population and study design. We report a study on brain tissue volumes in one of the largest cohorts of individuals studied to date of subjects with high mean age (mean ± standard deviation (SD) 76 ± 6 years). These analyses are based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans acquired at baseline on 4303 non-demented elderly, and 367 who had a second MRI, on average 2.5 ± 0.2 years later. Tissue segmentation was performed with an automatic image analysis pipeline. Total brain parenchymal (TBP) volume decreased with increasing age while there was an increase in white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in both sexes. A reduction in both normal white matter (NWM)- and gray matter (GM) volume contributed to the brain shrinkage. After adjusting for intra-cranial volume, women had larger brain volumes compared to men (3.32%, p < 0.001) for TBP volume in the cross-sectional analysis. The longitudinal analysis showed a significant age-sex interaction in TBP volume with a greater rate of annual change in men (-0.70%, 95%CI: -0.78% to -0.63%) than women (-0.55%, 95%CI: -0.61% to -0.49%). The annual change in the cross-sectional data was approximately 40% less than the annual change in the longitudinal data and did not show significant age-sex interaction. The findings indicate that the cross-sectional data underestimate the rate of change in tissue volumes with age as the longitudinal data show greater rate of change in tissue volumes with age for all tissues.

  20. Caring for an Ageing Population: Are Physiotherapy Graduates Adequately Prepared?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramklass, Serela S.; Butau, Anne; Ntinga, Nomusa; Cele, Nozipho

    2010-01-01

    In view of South African policy developments related to the care of older persons, it was necessary to examine the nature of the geriatrics content within physiotherapy curricula. A survey was conducted amongst final-year student physiotherapists at South African universities, together with content analysis of physiotherapy curricula. Very little…

  1. Learning and Caring in the Age of the Five Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Paul

    2007-01-01

    At its heart "Every Child Matters: change for children" endeavours to engender an ethic of "care for" the client group. However, although its raison d'etre might well espouse such orientations, it has a certain level of internal ambiguity which if not considered might lead education to position subsequent operationalization in…

  2. Sexuality and Aging: Implications for Long Term Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkley, Nancy E.

    With increasing emphasis on treating the whole person, on the maintenance of an individual's former life style, and on patients' rights, long-term care personnel need to become aware that many nursing home residents experience needs related to their sexuality. A model two-day workshop is presented wlth a focus on the following topics: (1) a broad…

  3. Learning Potentials and Limitations under Globalisation in Aged Care Workplaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of research on the Australian elder care industry used the categories of gender equity, gender differences, and gender deconstruction. Findings revealed the gender segregation of the industry, devaluing of women's work, and persistence of body/mind, male/female dualism. (Contains 16 references.) (SK)

  4. Effects of person-centered care on residents and staff in aged-care facilities: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Brownie, Sonya; Nancarrow, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Background Several residential aged-care facilities have replaced the institutional model of care to one that accepts person-centered care as the guiding standard of practice. This culture change is impacting the provision of aged-care services around the world. This systematic review evaluates the evidence for an impact of person-centered interventions on aged-care residents and nursing staff. Methods We searched Medline, Cinahl, Academic Search Premier, Scopus, Proquest, and Expanded Academic ASAP databases for studies published between January 1995 and October 2012, using subject headings and free-text search terms (in UK and US English spelling) including person-centered care, patient-centered care, resident-oriented care, Eden Alternative, Green House model, Wellspring model, long-term care, and nursing homes. Results The search identified 323 potentially relevant articles. Once duplicates were removed, 146 were screened for inclusion in this review; 21 were assessed for methodological quality, resulting in nine articles (seven studies) that met our inclusion criteria. There was only one randomized, controlled trial. The majority of studies were quasi-experimental pre-post test designs, with a control group (n = 4). The studies in this review incorporated a range of different outcome measures (ie, dependent variables) to evaluate the impact of person-centered interventions on aged-care residents and staff. One person-centered intervention, ie, the Eden Alternative, was associated with significant improvements in residents’ levels of boredom and helplessness. In contrast, facility-specific person-centered interventions were found to impact nurses’ sense of job satisfaction and their capacity to meet the individual needs of residents in a positive way. Two studies found that person-centered care was actually associated with an increased risk of falls. The findings from this review need to be interpreted cautiously due to limitations in study designs and the

  5. [Income as a condition of self care in the aged].

    PubMed

    Pfaff, A B

    1982-01-01

    The current type of distribution of tasks between the generations leads to a system of income maintenance programs for the aged, which is based on their own past (largely statutory) provision for their old age income via public institutions. On the whole, the aged are to a very limited degree in the labor force. Most of them receive public transfer payments. On the average, the diverse income maintenance systems dependent on own past performance provide a fairly substantial income level when compared with wages and salaries. The transfer level is largely dependent on the type of old age security institution, on the extent of past labor force participation or contribution and past income; consequently it is quite diverse. Sex largely correlates with income differentials. While some groups end up with retirement incomes higher than their last wage income, others are definitely needy. Especially women constitute a substantial part of the poor. Besides low income, the danger of becoming a nursing case makes the aged dependent on other persons' or institutions' aid. The forthcoming reform of the public pension system shows little hope of eliminating the pockets of poverty among the aged by assuring a redistribution also among the aged.

  6. Effects of non-pharmacological or pharmacological interventions on cognition and brain plasticity of aging individuals

    PubMed Central

    Pieramico, Valentina; Esposito, Roberto; Cesinaro, Stefano; Frazzini, Valerio; Sensi, Stefano L.

    2014-01-01

    Brain aging and aging-related neurodegenerative disorders are major health challenges faced by modern societies. Brain aging is associated with cognitive and functional decline and represents the favourable background for the onset and development of dementia. Brain aging is associated with early and subtle anatomo-functional physiological changes that often precede the appearance of clinical signs of cognitive decline. Neuroimaging approaches unveiled the functional correlates of these alterations and helped in the identification of therapeutic targets that can be potentially useful in counteracting age-dependent cognitive decline. A growing body of evidence supports the notion that cognitive stimulation and aerobic training can preserve and enhance operational skills in elderly individuals as well as reduce the incidence of dementia. This review aims at providing an extensive and critical overview of the most recent data that support the efficacy of non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions aimed at enhancing cognition and brain plasticity in healthy elderly individuals as well as delaying the cognitive decline associated with dementia. PMID:25228860

  7. EEG Resting-State Brain Topological Reorganization as a Function of Age.

    PubMed

    Petti, Manuela; Toppi, Jlenia; Babiloni, Fabio; Cincotti, Febo; Mattia, Donatella; Astolfi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Resting state connectivity has been increasingly studied to investigate the effects of aging on the brain. A reduced organization in the communication between brain areas was demonstrated by combining a variety of different imaging technologies (fMRI, EEG, and MEG) and graph theory. In this paper, we propose a methodology to get new insights into resting state connectivity and its variations with age, by combining advanced techniques of effective connectivity estimation, graph theoretical approach, and classification by SVM method. We analyzed high density EEG signals recorded at rest from 71 healthy subjects (age: 20-63 years). Weighted and directed connectivity was computed by means of Partial Directed Coherence based on a General Linear Kalman filter approach. To keep the information collected by the estimator, weighted and directed graph indices were extracted from the resulting networks. A relation between brain network properties and age of the subject was found, indicating a tendency of the network to randomly organize increasing with age. This result is also confirmed dividing the whole population into two subgroups according to the age (young and middle-aged adults): significant differences exist in terms of network organization measures. Classification of the subjects by means of such indices returns an accuracy greater than 80%.

  8. Brain levels of sex steroid hormones in men and women during normal aging and in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Rosario, Emily R.; Chang, Lilly; Head, Elizabeth H.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Pike, Christian J.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relationships between normal aging, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and brain levels of sex steroid hormones in men and women. In postmortem brain tissue from neuropathologically normal, postmenopausal women, we found no age-related changes in brain levels of either androgens or estrogens. In comparing women with and without AD at different ages, brain levels of estrogens and androgens were lower in AD cases aged 80 years and older but not significantly different in the 60–79 year age range. In male brains, we observed that normal aging was associated with significant decreases in androgens but not estrogens. Further, in men aged 60–79 years, brain levels of testosterone but not estrogens were lower in cases with mild neuropathological changes as well as those with advanced AD neuropathology. In male cases over age 80, brain levels hormones did not significantly vary by neuropathological status. To begin investigating the relationships between hormone levels and indices of AD neuropathology, we measured brain levels of soluble β-amyloid (Aβ). In male cases with mild neuropathological changes, we found an inverse relationship between brain levels of testosterone and soluble Aβ. Collectively, these findings demonstrate sex-specific relationships between normal, age-related depletion of androgens and estrogens in men and women, which may be relevant to development of AD. PMID:19428144

  9. Early Life Nutrient Restriction Impairs Blood-Brain Metabolic Profile and Neurobehavior Predisposing to Alzheimer’s disease with Aging

    PubMed Central

    Tomi, Masatoshi; Zhao, Yuanzi; Thamotharan, Shanthie; Shin, Bo-Chul; Devaskar, Sherin U.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal nutrient restriction (NR) culminating in intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) with postnatal catch up growth leads to diabesity. In contrast, postnatal NR with growth restriction (PNGR) superimposed on IUGR (IPGR) protects young and aging adults from this phenotype. We hypothesized that PNGR/IPGR will compromise the blood-brain metabolic profile impairing neurobehavior and predisposing to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). NR (50%) in late gestation followed by cross-fostering of rat pups to either ad lib fed (CON) or NR (50%) lactating mothers generated CON, IUGR, PNGR and IPGR male (M) and female (F) offspring that were examined through the life span. In PNGR/IPGR plasma/CSF glucose and lactate decreased while ketones increased in (M) and (F) (PN21, PN50). In addition increased brain glucose transporters, Glut1 & Glut3, greater brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), reduced Glut4, with unchanged serotonin transporter concentrations were noted in (F) (PN50-60). While (F) displayed more hyperactivity, both (F) and (M) exhibited anxiety although socially and cognitively unimpaired (PN25-28&50). Aging (15-17m) (F) not (M), expressed low plasma insulin, reduced brain IRS-2, pAkt, and pGSK-3pSer9, unchanged pPDK1, pTau or lipoprotein receptor related protein 1 (LRP1), higher glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and spinophilin but a 10-fold increased amyloid-p42. We conclude that therapeutically superimposing PNGR on IUGR (IPGR) should be carefully weighed in light of unintended consequences related to perturbed neurobehavior and potential predilection for AD. PMID:23228723

  10. Age and Sex Related Differences in Subcortical Brain Iron Concentrations among Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Ninni; Wu, Jianlin; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Ting; Shen, Jing; Bao, Ruyi; Ni, Mingfei; Liu, Tian; Wang, Yi; Spincemaille, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Age and sex can influence brain iron levels. We studied the influence of these variables on deep gray matter magnetic susceptibilities. In 183 healthy volunteers (44.7 ± 14.2 years, range 20-69, ♀ 49%), in vivo Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM) at 1.5T was performed to estimate brain iron accumulation in the following regions of interest (ROIs): caudate nucleus (Cd), putamen (Pt), globus pallidus (Gp), thalamus (Th), pulvinar (Pul), red nucleus (Rn), substantia nigra (Sn) and the cerebellar dentate nuclei (Dn). We gauged the influence of age and sex on magnetic susceptibility by specifying a series of Structural Equation Models. The distributions of susceptibility varied in degree across the structures, conforming to histologic findings (Hallgren & Sourander, 1958), with the highest degree of susceptibility in the Gp and the lowest in the Th. Iron increase correlated across several ROIs, which may reflect an underlying age-related process. Advanced age was associated with a particularly strong linear rise of susceptibility in the striatum. Nonlinear age trends were found in the Rn, where they were the most pronounced, followed by the Pul and Sn, while minimal nonlinear trends were observed for the Pt, Th, and Dn. Moreover, sex related variations were observed, so that women showed lower levels of susceptibility in the Sn after accounting for age. Regional susceptibility of the Pul increased linearly with age in men but exhibited a nonlinear association with age in women with a leveling off starting from midlife. Women expected to be post menopause (+51 years) showed lower total magnetic susceptibility in the subcortical gray matter. The current report is consistent with previous reports of age related variations of brain iron, but also adds to the current knowledge by reporting age-related changes in less studied, smaller subcortical nuclei. This is the first in-vivo report to show lower total subcortical brain iron levels selectively in women from

  11. Translating and Transforming Care: People With Brain Injury and Caregivers Filling in a Disability Claim Form.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Alex; Moore, Helen

    2016-03-01

    This article examines how the Disability Living Allowance claim form, used in the United Kingdom to allocate £13 billion of disability benefits, translates and transforms disability and care. Twenty-two people with acquired brain injury and their main informal caregivers (n = 44) were video-recorded filling in the disability claim form. Participants disagreed on 26% of the questions, revealing two types of problems. Translation problems arose as participants struggled to provide categorical responses to ambiguous questions and were unable to report contextual variability in care needs or divergences of perception. Transformation problems arose as participants resisted the way in which the form positioned them, forcing them to conceptualize their relationship in terms of dependency and burden. The disability claim form co-opts claimants to translate care and disability into bureaucratically predefined categories, and it transforms the care relationship that it purports to document.

  12. Differential expression of sirtuin family members in the developing, adult, and aged rat brain.

    PubMed

    Sidorova-Darmos, Elena; Wither, Robert G; Shulyakova, Natalya; Fisher, Carl; Ratnam, Melanie; Aarts, Michelle; Lilge, Lothar; Monnier, Philippe P; Eubanks, James H

    2014-01-01

    The sirtuins are NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases and/or ADP-ribosyltransferases that play roles in metabolic homeostasis, stress response and potentially aging. This enzyme family resides in different subcellular compartments, and acts on a number of different targets in the nucleus, cytoplasm and in the mitochondria. Despite their recognized ability to regulate metabolic processes, the roles played by specific sirtuins in the brain-the most energy demanding tissue in the body-remains less well investigated and understood. In the present study, we examined the regional mRNA and protein expression patterns of individual sirtuin family members in the developing, adult, and aged rat brain. Our results show that while each sirtuin is expressed in the brain at each of these different stages, they display unique spatial and temporal expression patterns within the brain. Further, for specific members of the family, the protein expression profile did not coincide with their respective mRNA expression profile. Moreover, using primary cultures enriched for neurons and astrocytes respectively, we found that specific sirtuin members display preferential neural lineage expression. Collectively, these results provide the first composite illustration that sirtuin family members display differential expression patterns in the brain, and provide evidence that specific sirtuins could potentially be targeted to achieve cell-type selective effects within the brain.

  13. Impact of Markov Random Field Optimizer on MRI-based Tissue Segmentation in the Aging Brain

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Christopher G.; Tsui, Alex; Fletcher, Evan; Singh, Baljeet; DeCarli, Charles; Carmichael, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Automatically segmenting brain magnetic resonance images into grey matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid compartments is a fundamentally important neuroimaging problem whose difficulty is heightened in the presence of aging and neurodegenerative disease. Current methods overlap greatly in terms of identifiable algorithmic components, and the impact of specific components on performance is generally unclear in important real-world scenarios involving serial scanning, multiple scanners, and neurodegenerative disease. Therefore we evaluated the impact that one such component, the Markov Random Field (MRF) optimizer that encourages spatially-smooth tissue labelings, has on brain tissue segmentation performance. Two challenging elderly sets were used to test segmentation consistency across scanners and biological plausibility of tissue change estimates; and a simulated young brain data set was used to test accuracy against ground truth. Comparisons among Graph Cuts (GC), Belief Propagation (BP), and Iterative Conditional Modes (ICM) suggested that in the elderly brain, BP and GC provide the highest segmentation performance, with a slight advantage to BP, and that performance is often superior to that provided by popular methods SPM and FAST. Conversely, SPM and FAST excelled in the young brain, thus emphasizing the unique challenges involved in imaging the aging brain. PMID:22256150

  14. The increase of the functional entropy of the human brain with age.

    PubMed

    Yao, Y; Lu, W L; Xu, B; Li, C B; Lin, C P; Waxman, D; Feng, J F

    2013-10-09

    We use entropy to characterize intrinsic ageing properties of the human brain. Analysis of fMRI data from a large dataset of individuals, using resting state BOLD signals, demonstrated that a functional entropy associated with brain activity increases with age. During an average lifespan, the entropy, which was calculated from a population of individuals, increased by approximately 0.1 bits, due to correlations in BOLD activity becoming more widely distributed. We attribute this to the number of excitatory neurons and the excitatory conductance decreasing with age. Incorporating these properties into a computational model leads to quantitatively similar results to the fMRI data. Our dataset involved males and females and we found significant differences between them. The entropy of males at birth was lower than that of females. However, the entropies of the two sexes increase at different rates, and intersect at approximately 50 years; after this age, males have a larger entropy.

  15. Cytidine diphosphate choline administration activates brain cytidine triphosphate: phosphocholine cytidylytransferase in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Giménez, R; Soler, S; Aguilar, J

    1999-10-08

    Beneficial effects of cytidine (5') diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) administration on several diseases including brain aging, ischemia and stroke are based on an increase in membrane phospholipid turnover. We have studied the possible involvement of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CT) in this mechanism by measuring its gene expression and enzyme activity in the brains of young and aged rats treated with 500 mg/kg per day of CDP-choline. Older animals showed higher (57%) of total CT activity in particulate (active) fraction than younger animals (46%). Treatment of aged animals for 8, 16, or 60 days had no effect on the CT gene expression but increased activation of the CT by translocation to membranes. The particulate fraction rose from 57% of total activity to more than 65% after 2 months of treatment. This may explain the long-term repairing effects of CDP-choline on damaged membranes of aged animals.

  16. A culture-brain link: Negative age stereotypes predict Alzheimer's disease biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Levy, Becca R; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zonderman, Alan B; Slade, Martin D; Troncoso, Juan; Resnick, Susan M

    2016-02-01

    Although negative age stereotypes have been found to predict adverse outcomes among older individuals, it was unknown whether the influence of stereotypes extends to brain changes associated with Alzheimer's disease. To consider this possibility, we drew on dementia-free participants, in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, whose age stereotypes were assessed decades before yearly magnetic resonance images and brain autopsies were performed. Those holding more-negative age stereotypes earlier in life had significantly steeper hippocampal-volume loss and significantly greater accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques, adjusting for relevant covariates. These findings suggest a new pathway to identifying mechanisms and potential interventions related to the pathology of Alzheimer's disease.

  17. Taurine content in different brain structures during ageing: effect on hippocampal synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Luz M; Muñoz, María-Dolores; Martín Del Río, Rafael; Solís, José M

    2016-05-01

    A reduction in taurine content accompanies the ageing process in many tissues. In fact, the decline of brain taurine levels has been associated with cognitive deficits whereas chronic administration of taurine seems to ameliorate age-related deficits such as memory acquisition and retention. In the present study, using rats of three age groups (young, adult and aged) we determined whether the content of taurine and other amino acids (glutamate, serine, glutamine, glycine, alanine and GABA) was altered during ageing in different brain areas (cerebellum, cortex and hippocampus) as well non-brain tissues (heart, kidney, liver and plasma). Moreover, using hippocampal slices we tested whether ageing affects synaptic function and plasticity. These parameters were also determined in aged rats fed with either taurine-devoid or taurine-supplemented diets. With age, we found heterogeneous changes in amino acid content depending on the amino acid type and the tissue. In the case of taurine, its content was reduced in the cerebellum of adult and aged rats, but it remained unchanged in the hippocampus, cortex, heart and liver. The synaptic response amplitude decreased in aged rats, although the late phase of long-term synaptic potentiation (late-LTP), a taurine-dependent process, was not altered. Our study highlights the stability of taurine content in the hippocampus during ageing regardless of whether taurine was present in the diet, which is consistent with the lack of changes detected in late-LTP. These results indicate that the beneficial effects of taurine supplementation might be independent of the replenishment of taurine stores.

  18. Identification of Cerebral Metal Ion Imbalance in the Brain of Aging Octodon degus

    PubMed Central

    Braidy, Nady; Poljak, Anne; Marjo, Chris; Rutlidge, Helen; Rich, Anne; Jugder, Bat-Erdene; Jayasena, Tharusha; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.; Sachdev, Perminder S.

    2017-01-01

    The accumulation of redox-active transition metals in the brain and metal dyshomeostasis are thought to be associated with the etiology and pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases, and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in particular. As well, distinct biometal imaging and role of metal uptake transporters are central to understanding AD pathogenesis and aging but remain elusive, due inappropriate detection methods. We therefore hypothesized that Octodon degus develop neuropathological abnormalities in the distribution of redox active biometals, and this effect may be due to alterations in the expression of lysosomal protein, major Fe/Cu transporters, and selected Zn transporters (ZnTs and ZIPs). Herein, we report the distribution profile of biometals in the aged brain of the endemic Chilean rodent O. degus—a natural model to investigate the role of metals on the onset and progression of AD. Using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, our quantitative images of biometals (Fe, Ca, Zn, Cu, and Al) appear significantly elevated in the aged O. degus and show an age-dependent rise. The metals Fe, Ca, Zn, and Cu were specifically enriched in the cortex and hippocampus, which are the regions where amyloid plaques, tau phosphorylation and glial alterations are most commonly reported, whilst Al was enriched in the hippocampus alone. Using whole brain extracts, age-related deregulation of metal trafficking pathways was also observed in O. degus. More specifically, we observed impaired lysosomal function, demonstrated by increased cathepsin D protein expression. An age-related reduction in the expression of subunit B2 of V-ATPase, and significant increases in amyloid beta peptide 42 (Aβ42), and the metal transporter ATP13a2 were also observed. Although the protein expression levels of the zinc transporters, ZnT (1,3,4,6, and 7), and ZIP7,8 and ZIP14 increased in the brain of aged O. degus, ZnT10, decreased. Although no significant age

  19. Effect of high-intensity exercise on aged mouse brain mitochondria, neurogenesis, and inflammation.

    PubMed

    E, Lezi; Burns, Jeffrey M; Swerdlow, Russell H

    2014-11-01

    In aged mice, we assessed how intensive exercise affects brain bioenergetics, inflammation, and neurogenesis-relevant parameters. After 8 weeks of a supra-lactate threshold treadmill exercise intervention, 21-month-old C57BL/6 mice showed increased brain peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α protein, mammalian target of rapamycin and phospho-mammalian target of rapamycin protein, citrate synthase messenger RNA, and mitochondrial DNA copy number. Hippocampal vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) gene expression trended higher, and a positive correlation between VEGF-A and PRC messenger RNA levels was observed. Brain doublecortin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, tumor necrosis factor-α, and CCL11 gene expression, as well as plasma CCL11 protein levels, were unchanged. Despite these apparent negative findings, a negative correlation between plasma CCL11 protein levels and hippocampal doublecortin gene expression was observed; further analysis indicated exercise may mitigate this relationship. Overall, our data suggest supra-lactate threshold exercise activates a partial mitochondrial biogenesis in aged mice, and a gene (VEGF-A) known to support neurogenesis. Our data are consistent with another study that found systemic inflammation in general, and CCL11 protein specifically, suppresses hippocampal neurogenesis. Our study supports the view that intense exercise above the lactate threshold may benefit the aging brain; future studies to address the extent to which exercise-generated lactate mediates the observed effects are warranted.

  20. The effects of age, sex, and hormones on emotional conflict-related brain response during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cservenka, Anita; Stroup, Madison L; Etkin, Amit; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2015-10-01

    While cognitive and emotional systems both undergo development during adolescence, few studies have explored top-down inhibitory control brain activity in the context of affective processing, critical to informing adolescent psychopathology. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain response during an Emotional Conflict (EmC) Task across 10-15-year-old youth. During the EmC Task, participants indicated the emotion of facial expressions, while disregarding emotion-congruent and incongruent words printed across the faces. We examined the relationships of age, sex, and gonadal hormones with brain activity on Incongruent vs. Congruent trials. Age was negatively associated with middle frontal gyrus activity, controlling for performance and movement confounds. Sex differences were present in occipital and parietal cortices, and were driven by activation in females, and deactivation in males to Congruent trials. Testosterone was negatively related with frontal and striatal brain response in males, and cerebellar and precuneus response in females. Estradiol was negatively related with fronto-cerebellar, cingulate, and precuneus brain activity in males, and positively related with occipital response in females. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the effects of age, sex, and sex steroids during an emotion-cognition task in adolescents. Further research is needed to examine longitudinal development of emotion-cognition interactions and deviations in psychiatric disorders in adolescence.

  1. [Health care needs of children and adolescents with a traumatic brain injury].

    PubMed

    Petersen, Corinna; Scherwath, A; Fink, J; Koch, U

    2008-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of acquired disability in childhood. Within a project to improve out-patient rehabilitation and aftercare advice, centres for families affected by traumatic brain injuries were implemented in four German cities. The results of two sub-studies are described which aimed on the one hand at a process analysis of the network operation and on the other hand at a prospective analysis of the network interaction. The process analysis was based on a database which was developed for this study. Within a prospective longitudinal study, 103 families could be included. At four project sites, families were questioned with an interview and questionnaire at three different time points. Health-related quality of life, utilisation and health care satisfaction were assessed. In addition, a neuropsychological assessment was conducted with a portion of the sample. Overall, quality of life of the children and adolescents can be described as good. Health care services were scarcely utilised. A childcentred health care was predictive for the health care satisfaction of the parents. The short assessment proved to be a feasible method for identifying children and adolescents with special health care needs.

  2. Physiological neuronal decline in healthy aging human brain - An in vivo study with MRI and short echo-time whole-brain (1)H MR spectroscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiao-Qi; Maudsley, Andrew A; Sabati, Mohammad; Sheriff, Sulaiman; Schmitz, Birte; Schütze, Martin; Bronzlik, Paul; Kahl, Kai G; Lanfermann, Heinrich

    2016-08-15

    Knowledge of physiological aging in healthy human brain is increasingly important for neuroscientific research and clinical diagnosis. To investigate neuronal decline in normal aging brain eighty-one healthy subjects aged between 20 and 70years were studied with MRI and whole-brain (1)H MR spectroscopic imaging. Concentrations of brain metabolites N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), total creatine (tCr), myo-inositol (mI), and glutamine+glutamate (Glx) in ratios to internal water, and the fractional volumes of brain tissue were estimated simultaneously in eight cerebral lobes and in cerebellum. Results demonstrated that an age-related decrease in gray matter volume was the largest contribution to changes in brain volume. Both lobar NAA and the fractional volume of gray matter (FVGM) decreased with age in all cerebral lobes, indicating that the decreased NAA was predominantly associated with decreased gray matter volume and neuronal density or metabolic activity. In cerebral white matter Cho, tCr, and mI increased with age in association with increased fractional volume, showing altered cellular membrane turn-over, energy metabolism, and glial activity in human aging white matter. In cerebellum tCr increased while brain tissue volume decreased with age, showing difference to cerebral aging. The observed age-related metabolic and microstructural variations suggest that physiological neuronal decline in aging human brain is associated with a reduction of gray matter volume and neuronal density, in combination with cellular aging in white matter indicated by microstructural alterations and altered energy metabolism in the cerebellum.

  3. Interprofessional education in aged-care facilities: Tensions and opportunities among undergraduate health student cohorts.

    PubMed

    Annear, Michael; Walker, Kim; Lucas, Peter; Lo, Amanda; Robinson, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    This article examines the reflective discourses of medical, nursing, and paramedic students participating in interprofessional education (IPE) activities in the context of aged-care clinical placements. The intent of the research is to explore how students engage with their interprofessional colleagues in an IPE assessment and care planning activity and elucidate how students configure their role as learners within the context of a non-traditional aged-care training environment. Research participants included cohorts of volunteer medical (n = 61), nursing (n = 46), and paramedic (n = 20) students who were on clinical placements at two large teaching aged-care facilities in Tasmania, Australia, over a period of 18 months. A total of 39 facilitated focus group discussions were undertaken with cohorts of undergraduate student volunteers from three health professions between February 2013 and October 2014. Thematic analysis of focus group transcripts was assisted by NVIVO software and verified through secondary coding and member checking procedures. With an acceptable level of agreement across two independent coders, four themes were identified from student focus group transcripts that described the IPE relations and perceptions of the aged-care environment. Emergent themes included reinforcement of professional hierarchies, IPE in aged care perceived as mundane and extraneous, opportunities for reciprocal teaching and learning, and understanding interprofessional roles. While not all students can be engaged with IPE activities in aged care, our evidence suggests that within 1 week of clinical placements there is a possibility to develop reciprocal professional relations, affirm a positive identity within a collaborative healthcare team, and support the health of vulnerable older adults with complex care needs. These important clinical learnings support aged-care-based IPE as a potentially powerful context for undergraduate learning in the 21st Century.

  4. Hormone replacement therapy and age-related brain shrinkage: regional effects.

    PubMed

    Raz, Naftali; Rodrigue, Karen M; Kennedy, Kristen M; Acker, James D

    2004-11-15

    Neuroprotective properties of estrogen have been established in animal models, but clinical trials of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) produced contradictory results. We examined the impact of HRT on age-related regional changes in human brain volume. Six brain regions were measured twice, five years apart, in 12 healthy women who took HRT and in matched controls who did not. The controls showed a typical pattern of differential brain shrinkage in the association cortices and the hippocampus with no change in the primary visual cortex. In contrast, women who took HRT showed comparable shrinkage of the hippocampus but no significant shrinkage of the neocortex. Future large scale studies may benefit from applying regional rather than global measures in assessment of brain integrity.

  5. Brain development, intelligence and cognitive outcome in children born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    de Bie, H M A; Oostrom, K J; Delemarre-van de Waal, H A

    2010-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can lead to infants being born small for gestational age (SGA). SGA is associated with increased neonatal morbidity and mortality as well as short stature, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus type 2, dyslipidemia and end-stage renal disease in adulthood. In addition, SGA children have decreased levels of intelligence and cognition, although the effects are mostly subtle. The overall outcome of each child is the result of a complex interaction between intrauterine and extrauterine factors. Animal and human studies show structural alterations in the brains of individuals with IUGR/SGA. The presence of growth hormone (GH) receptors in the brain implies that the brain is also a target for GH. Exogenous GH theoretically has the ability to act on the brain. This is exemplified by the effects of GH on cognition in GH-deficient adults. In SGA children, data on the effect of exogenous GH on intelligence and cognition are scant and contradictory.

  6. Econometric issues in testing the age neutrality of health care expenditure.

    PubMed

    Salas, C; Raftery, J P

    2001-10-01

    A recent study by Zweifel et al. (Zweifel P, Felder S, Meiers M. Ageing of the population and health care expenditure: a red herring? Health Economics 1999; 8: 485-496) suggests that age is not related to health care expenditure among the elderly once 'closeness to death' is controlled for. If correct, this finding has major policy implications, but flaws in the econometric analysis undermine its credibility. We highlight two in particular, and propose methods to deal with them.

  7. The brain map of gait variability in aging, cognitive impairment and dementia-A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qu; Chastan, Nathalie; Bair, Woei-Nan; Resnick, Susan M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Studenski, Stephanie A

    2017-03-01

    While gait variability may reflect subtle changes due to aging or cognitive impairment (CI), associated brain characteristics remain unclear. We summarize structural and functional neuroimaging findings associated with gait variability in older adults with and without CI and dementia. We identified 17 eligible studies; all were cross-sectional; few examined multiple brain areas. In older adults, temporal gait variability was associated with structural differences in medial areas important for lower limb coordination and balance. Both temporal and spatial gait variability were associated with structural and functional differences in hippocampus and primary sensorimotor cortex and structural differences in anterior cingulate cortex, basal ganglia, association tracts, and posterior thalamic radiation. In CI or dementia, some associations were found in primary motor cortex, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia. In older adults, gait variability may be associated with areas important for sensorimotor integration and coordination. To comprehend the neural basis of gait variability with aging and CI, longitudinal studies of multiple brain areas are needed.

  8. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of brain aluminum in Alzheimer disease and aging.

    PubMed

    Markesbery, W R; Ehmann, W D; Hossain, T I; Alauddin, M; Goodin, D T

    1981-12-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis procedures were used to determine the aluminum content of various brain regions in histologically verified Alzheimer disease (AD) and in controls. The grand mean aluminum level for 74 AD specimens was 0.372 +/- 0.058 microgram/gm and for 137 adult controls, 0.467 +/- 0.033 microgram/gm, both on a wet weight basis. No difference was found at the bulk sample level between AD and adult controls, corrected for age and sex, or when frontal, temporal, and hippocampal specimens were compared. Control specimens (infancy to 85 years) showed an increase in brain aluminum concentration with age. Comparison of freeze-dried to wet weight ratios of AD and controls revealed a small increase in water content in AD brains.

  9. Appraising the Role of Iron in Brain Aging and Cognition: Promises and Limitations of MRI Methods

    PubMed Central

    Daugherty, Ana M; Raz, Naftali

    2015-01-01

    Age-related increase in frailty is accompanied by a fundamental shift in cellular iron homeostasis. By promoting oxidative stress, the intracellular accumulation of non-heme iron outside of binding complexes contributes to chronic inflammation and interferes with normal brain metabolism. In the absence of direct non-invasive biomarkers of brain oxidative stress, iron accumulation estimated in vivo may serve as its proxy indicator. Hence, developing reliable in vivo measurements of brain iron content via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is of significant interest in human neuroscience. To date, by estimating brain iron content through various MRI methods, significant age differences and age-related increases in iron content of the basal ganglia have been revealed across multiple samples. Less consistent are the findings that pertain to the relationship between elevated brain iron content and systemic indices of vascular and metabolic dysfunction. Only a handful of cross-sectional investigations have linked high iron content in various brain regions and poor performance on assorted cognitive tests. The even fewer longitudinal studies indicate that iron accumulation may precede shrinkage of the basal ganglia and thus predict poor maintenance of cognitive functions. This rapidly developing field will benefit from introduction of higher-field MRI scanners, improvement in iron-sensitive and -specific acquisition sequences and post-processing analytic and computational methods, as well as accumulation of data from long-term longitudinal investigations. This review describes the potential advantages and promises of MRI-based assessment of brain iron, summarizes recent findings and highlights the limitations of the current methodology. PMID:26248580

  10. ADNP: A major autism mutated gene is differentially distributed (age and gender) in the songbird brain.

    PubMed

    Hacohen Kleiman, Gal; Barnea, Anat; Gozes, Illana

    2015-10-01

    ADNP is a protein necessary for brain development, important for brain plasticity, cognitive and social functioning, characteristics that are all impaired in autism and in the Adnp(+/-) mouse model, in a sex-dependent manner. ADNP was originally discovered as a protein that is secreted from glial cells in response to vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). VIP is a major neuroprotective peptide in the CNS and PNS and was also associated with social recognition in rodents and aggression, pair-bonding and parental behaviors in birds. Comparative sequence alignment revealed high evolutionary conservation of ADNP in Chordata. Despite its importance in brain function, ADNP has never been studied in birds. Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) are highly social songbirds that have a sexually dichotomous anatomical brain structure, with males demonstrating a developed song system, presenting a model to study behavior and potential sexually dependent fundamental differences. Here, using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), we discovered sexually dichotomous and age related differences in ADNP mRNA expression in three different regions of the song bird brain-cerebellum, cerebrum, and brain stem. Higher levels of ADNP mRNA were specifically found in young male compared to the female cerebrum, while aging caused a significant 2 and 3-fold decrease in the female and male cerebrum, respectively. Furthermore, a comparison between the three tested brain regions revealed unique sex-dependent ADNP mRNA distribution patterns, affected by aging. Future studies are aimed at deciphering the function of ADNP in birds, toward a better molecular understanding of sexual dichotomy in singing behavior in birds.

  11. Age-associated physiological and pathological changes at the blood-brain barrier: A review.

    PubMed

    Erdő, Franciska; Denes, László; de Lange, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    The age-associated decline of the neurological and cognitive functions becomes more and more serious challenge for the developed countries with the increasing number of aged populations. The morphological and biochemical changes in the aging brain are the subjects of many extended research projects worldwide for a long time. However, the crucial role of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment and disruption in the pathological processes in age-associated neurodegenerative disorders received special attention just for a few years. This article gives an overview on the major elements of the blood-brain barrier and its supporting mechanisms and also on their alterations during development, physiological aging process and age-associated neurodegenerative disorders (Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, pharmacoresistant epilepsy). Besides the morphological alterations of the cellular elements (endothelial cells, astrocytes, pericytes, microglia, neuronal elements) of the BBB and neurovascular unit, the changes of the barrier at molecular level (tight junction proteins, adheres junction proteins, membrane transporters, basal lamina, extracellular matrix) are also summarized. The recognition of new players and initiators of the process of neurodegeneration at the level of the BBB may offer new avenues for novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of numerous chronic neurodegenerative disorders currently without effective medication.

  12. Edited magnetic resonance spectroscopy detects an age-related decline in brain GABA levels.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fei; Edden, Richard A E; Li, Muwei; Puts, Nicolaas A J; Wang, Guangbin; Liu, Cheng; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Huiquan; Bai, Xue; Zhao, Chen; Wang, Xin; Barker, Peter B

    2013-09-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. Although measurements of GABA levels in vivo in the human brain using edited proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) have been established for some time, it is has not been established how regional GABA levels vary with age in the normal human brain. In this study, 49 healthy men and 51 healthy women aged between 20 and 76 years were recruited and J-difference edited spectra were recorded at 3T to determine the effect of age on GABA levels, and to investigate whether there are regional and gender differences in GABA in mesial frontal and parietal regions. Because the signal detected at 3.02 ppm using these experimental parameters is also expected to contain contributions from both macromolecules (MM) and homocarnosine, in this study the signal is labeled GABA+ rather than GABA. Significant negative correlations were observed between age and GABA+ in both regions studied (GABA+/Cr: frontal region, r=-0.68, p<0.001, parietal region, r=-0.54, p<0.001; GABA+/NAA: frontal region, r=-0.58, p<0.001, parietal region, r=-0.49, p<0.001). The decrease in GABA+ with age in the frontal region was more rapid in women than men. Evidence of a measureable decline in GABA is important in considering the neurochemical basis of the cognitive decline that is associated with normal aging.

  13. The impact of age on oncogenic potential: tumor-initiating cells and the brain microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Elizabeth A; Horner, Philip J; Rostomily, Robert C

    2013-10-01

    Paradoxically, aging leads to both decreased regenerative capacity in the brain and an increased risk of tumorigenesis, particularly the most common adult-onset brain tumor, glioma. A shared factor contributing to both phenomena is thought to be age-related alterations in neural progenitor cells (NPCs), which function normally to produce new neurons and glia, but are also considered likely cells of origin for malignant glioma. Upon oncogenic transformation, cells acquire characteristics known as the hallmarks of cancer, including unlimited replication, altered responses to growth and anti-growth factors, increased capacity for angiogenesis, potential for invasion, genetic instability, apoptotic evasion, escape from immune surveillance, and an adaptive metabolic phenotype. The precise molecular pathogenesis and temporal acquisition of these malignant characteristics is largely a mystery. Recent studies characterizing NPCs during normal aging, however, have begun to elucidate mechanisms underlying the age-associated increase in their malignant potential. Aging cells are dependent upon multiple compensatory pathways to maintain cell cycle control, normal niche interactions, genetic stability, programmed cell death, and oxidative metabolism. A few multi-functional proteins act as 'critical nodes' in the coordination of these various cellular activities, although both intracellular signaling and elements within the brain environment are critical to maintaining a balance between senescence and tumorigenesis. Here, we provide an overview of recent progress in our understanding of how mechanisms underlying cellular aging inform on glioma pathogenesis and malignancy.

  14. Caloric restriction increases ketone bodies metabolism and preserves blood flow in aging brain

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Xiaoli; Watts, Lora

    2015-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to increase the life span and health span of a broad range of species. However, CR effects on in vivo brain functions are far from explored. In this study, we used multimetric neuroimaging methods to characterize the CR-induced changes of brain metabolic and vascular functions in aging rats. We found that old rats (24 months of age) with CR diet had reduced glucose uptake and lactate concentration, but increased ketone bodies level, compared with the age-matched and young (5 months of age) controls. The shifted metabolism was associated with preserved vascular function: old CR rats also had maintained cerebral blood flow relative to the age-matched controls. When investigating the metabolites in mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle, we found that citrate and α-ketoglutarate were preserved in the old CR rats. We suggest that CR is neuroprotective; ketone bodies, cerebral blood flow, and α-ketoglutarate may play important roles in preserving brain physiology in aging. PMID:25896951

  15. Is Education Separate from Care?: Financing Education and Care for Children Younger than Kindergarten Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Gwen

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author presents two emerging state-level public policy trends in the United States, one toward universalizing pre-school services, and one toward systems for delivering early education and care. At this point, it is not clear whether the effect of the two trends will be to unite or divide the field of early education and care.…

  16. State Developments in Child Care, Early Education, and School-Age Care, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Helen; Behr, Andrea; Schulman, Karen

    This report provides highlights and updates regarding state actions on child care and early education issues during 2000. The information in the report was collected by means of written and telephone surveys with advocates or state child care administrators in each state. The final draft was reviewed for verification by advocates or a state child…

  17. Relating structural and functional anomalous connectivity in the aging brain via neural mass modeling.

    PubMed

    Pons, A J; Cantero, Jose L; Atienza, Mercedes; Garcia-Ojalvo, Jordi

    2010-09-01

    The structural changes that arise as the brain ages influence its functionality. In many cases, the anatomical degradation simply leads to normal aging. In others, the neurodegeneration is large enough to cause neurological disorders (e.g. Alzheimer's disease). Structure and function can be both currently measured using noninvasive techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) respectively. However, a full theoretical scheme linking structural and functional degradation is still lacking. Here we present a neural mass model that aims to bridge both levels of description and that reproduces experimentally observed multichannel EEG recordings of alpha rhythm in young subjects, healthy elderly subjects, and patients with mild cognitive impairment. We focus our attention in the dominant frequency of the signals at different electrodes and in the correlation between specific electrode pairs, measured via the phase-lag index. Our model allows us to study the influence of different structural connectivity pathways, independently of each other, on the normal and aberrantly aging brain. In particular, we study in detail the effect of the thalamic input on specific cortical regions, the long-range connectivity between cortical regions, and the short-range coupling within the same cortical area. Once the influence of each type of connectivity is determined, we characterize the regions of parameter space compatible with the EEG recordings of the populations under study. Our results show that the different types of connectivity must be fine-tuned to maintain the brain in a healthy functioning state independently of its age and brain condition.

  18. The aged brain: genesis and fate of residual progenitor cells in the subventricular zone

    PubMed Central

    Capilla-Gonzalez, Vivian; Herranz-Pérez, Vicente; García-Verdugo, Jose Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) persist in the adult mammalian brain through life. The subventricular zone (SVZ) is the largest source of stem cells in the nervous system, and continuously generates new neuronal and glial cells involved in brain regeneration. During aging, the germinal potential of the SVZ suffers a widespread decline, but the causes of this turn down are not fully understood. This review provides a compilation of the current knowledge about the age-related changes in the NSC population, as well as the fate of the newly generated cells in the aged brain. It is known that the neurogenic capacity is clearly disrupted during aging, while the production of oligodendroglial cells is not compromised. Interestingly, the human brain seems to primarily preserve the ability to produce new oligodendrocytes instead of neurons, which could be related to the development of neurological disorders. Further studies in this matter are required to improve our understanding and the current strategies for fighting neurological diseases associated with senescence. PMID:26441536

  19. Keep Your Brain Fit! A Psychoeducational Training Program for Healthy Cognitive Aging: A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reijnders, Jennifer; van Heugten, Caroline; van Boxtel, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A psychoeducational face-to-face training program (Keep Your Brain Fit!) was developed to support the working population in coping with age-related cognitive changes and taking proactive preventive measures to maintain cognitive health. A feasibility study was conducted to test the training program presented in a workshop format. Participants…

  20. Aging brain from a network science perspective: something to be positive about?

    PubMed

    Voss, Michelle W; Wong, Chelsea N; Baniqued, Pauline L; Burdette, Jonathan H; Erickson, Kirk I; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; McAuley, Edward; Laurienti, Paul J; Kramer, Arthur F

    2013-01-01

    To better understand age differences in brain function and behavior, the current study applied network science to model functional interactions between brain regions. We observed a shift in network topology whereby for older adults subcortical and cerebellar structures overlapping with the Salience network had more connectivity to the rest of the brain, coupled with fragmentation of large-scale cortical networks such as the Default and Fronto-Parietal networks. Additionally, greater integration of the dorsal medial thalamus and red nucleus in the Salience network was associated with greater satisfaction with life for older adults, which is consistent with theoretical predictions of age-related increases in emotion regulation that are thought to help maintain well-being and life satisfaction in late adulthood. In regard to cognitive abilities, greater ventral medial prefrontal cortex coherence with its topological neighbors in the Default Network was associated with faster processing speed. Results suggest that large-scale organizing properties of the brain differ with normal aging, and this perspective may offer novel insight into understanding age-related differences in cognitive function and well-being.

  1. Exercise and the Aging Brain. (The 1982 C. H. McCloy Research Lecture)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spirduso, Waneen W.

    1983-01-01

    Exercise may postpone the deterioration in response speed that generally appears in the motor system of the aging by maintaining the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in the brain. Exercise may also ameliorate symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Results of laboratory studies involving animals and rats are reported. (Author/PP)

  2. Visual search in school-aged children with unilateral brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Netelenbos, J Bernard; Van Rooij, Louise

    2004-05-01

    In this preliminary study, visual search for targets within and beyond the initial field of view was investigated in seven school-aged children (five females, two males; mean age at testing 8 years 10 months, SD 1 year 3 months; range 6 to 10 years) with various acquired, postnatal, focal brain injuries (haematoma, haemorrhage, meningioma, neuroblastoma, and cerebral abscess) in anterior or posterior sites of the left or right hemisphere, and seven control children (matched for age and sex) were also studied. All participants attended mainstream primary schools. The children with lesions underwent surgery after diagnosis (mean age at diagnosis 5 years 4 months, SD 2 years 7 months). Group results indicated that for the overall scores on three psychometric tests of visuospatial and fine motor abilities (Southern California Figure Ground Perception Test, Visual Organization Test, and Visual-Motor Integration Test), no difference between the children with left and right lesions was present. However, children with lesions in the right hemisphere, and not in the left hemisphere, took significantly more time than the controls to locate visual targets presented within and beyond the field of view. Examination of individual data suggested that, in accordance with brain imaging research, right-sided anterior cerebral lesions sustained in early childhood might have an enduring detrimental effect on voluntary visual search performance during development. This persistent effect of early brain injury might imply that developmental plasticity of the brain does not apply to certain specific functions of particular areas of the right hemisphere.

  3. Age-associated hyper-methylated regions in the human brain overlap with bivalent chromatin domains.

    PubMed

    Watson, Corey T; Disanto, Giulio; Sandve, Geir Kjetil; Breden, Felix; Giovannoni, Gavin; Ramagopalan, Sreeram V

    2012-01-01

    Recent associations between age-related differentially methylated sites and bivalently marked chromatin domains have implicated a role for these genomic regions in aging and age-related diseases. However, the overlap between such epigenetic modifications has so far only been identified with respect to age-associated hyper-methylated sites in blood. In this study, we observed that age-associated differentially methylated sites characterized in the human brain were also highly enriched in bivalent domains. Analysis of hyper- vs. hypo-methylated sites partitioned by age (fetal, child, and adult) revealed that enrichment was significant for hyper-methylated sites identified in children and adults (child, fold difference = 2.28, P = 0.0016; adult, fold difference = 4.73, P = 4.00 × 10(-5)); this trend was markedly more pronounced in adults when only the top 100 most significantly hypo- and hyper-methylated sites were considered (adult, fold difference = 10.7, P = 2.00 × 10(-5)). Interestingly, we found that bivalently marked genes overlapped by age-associated hyper-methylation in the adult brain had strong involvement in biological functions related to developmental processes, including neuronal differentiation. Our findings provide evidence that the accumulation of methylation in bivalent gene regions with age is likely to be a common process that occurs across tissue types. Furthermore, particularly with respect to the aging brain, this accumulation might be targeted to loci with important roles in cell differentiation and development, and the closing off of these developmental pathways. Further study of these genes is warranted to assess their potential impact upon the development of age-related neurological disorders.

  4. Vitamin E prevents oxidative modification of brain and lymphocyte band 3 proteins during aging.

    PubMed Central

    Poulin, J E; Cover, C; Gustafson, M R; Kay, M B

    1996-01-01

    Antioxidants may play an important role in preventing free radical damage associated with aging by interfering directly in the generation of radicals or by scavenging them. We investigated the effects of a high vitamin E and/or a high beta-carotene diet on aging of the anion transporter, band 3, in lymphocytes and brain. The band 3 proteins function as anion transporters, acid base regulators, C02 transporters, and structural proteins that provide a framework for membrane lipids and that link the plasma membrane to the cytoskeleton. Senescent cell antigen (SCA), which terminates the life of cells, is a degradation product of band 3. This study was conducted as a double-blind study in which eight groups of middle-aged or old mice received either high levels of beta-carotene and/or vitamin E or standard levels of these supplements in their diets. Anion transport kinetic assays were performed on isolated splenic lymphocytes. Immunoreactivity of an antibody that recognizes aging changes in old band 3 preceding generation of SCA was used to quantitate aged band 3 in brain tissue. Results indicate that vitamin E prevented the observed age-related decline in anion transport by lymphocytes and the generation of aged band 3 leading to SCA formation. beta-Carotene had no significant effect on the results of either assay. Since increased aged band 3 and decreased anion transport are initial steps in band 3 aging, which culminates in the generation of SCA and cellular removal, vitamin E prevents or delays aging of band 3-related proteins in lymphocytes and brain. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8643622

  5. Using care ethics to enhance qualitative research on rural aging and care.

    PubMed

    Herron, Rachel V; Skinner, Mark W

    2013-12-01

    Qualitative research offers important insights into the subjectivity, complexity, and relationality of care. In this article, we examine the particular processes and relationships involved in doing qualitative research about care with older people in rural places. We draw on our experience completing two related qualitative studies of rural care in Canada to extend discussions about responsible research practice in relation to participant recruitment, interviews, and focus groups. By applying Hankivsky's principles of care ethics in our reflection on research practices, we make explicit the role of emotions in connecting with research participants, collecting and participating in narrative-based research, and negotiating identity. We conclude with a discussion of the distinct ways in which applying care ethics throughout the research process can augment reflexive practice and enhance the integrity and theoretical contributions of qualitative health research while developing more inclusive understandings of vulnerability in older rural populations.

  6. Planning and Decision Making about the Future Care of Older Group Home Residents and Transition to Residential Aged Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigby, C.; Bowers, B.; Webber, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Planning for future care after the death of parental caregivers and adapting disability support systems to achieve the best possible quality of life for people with intellectual disability as they age have been important issues for more than two decades. This study examined perceptions held by family members, group home staff and…

  7. Oxidative stress induces the decline of brain EPO expression in aging rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu; Chen, Yubao; Shao, Siying; Tang, Qing; Chen, Weihai; Chen, Yi; Xu, Xiaoyu

    2016-10-01

    Brain Erythropoietin (EPO), an important neurotrophic factor and neuroprotective factor, was found to be associated with aging. Studies found EPO expression was significantly decreased in the hippocampus of aging rat compared with that of the youth. But mechanisms of the decline of the brain EPO during aging remain unclear. The present study utilized a d-galactose (d-gal)-induced aging model in which the inducement of aging was mainly oxidative injury, to explore underlying mechanisms for the decline of brain EPO in aging rats. d-gal-induced aging rats (2months) were simulated by subcutaneously injecting with d-gal at doses of 50mg·kg(-1), 150mg·kg(-1) and 250mg·kg(-1) daily for 8weeks while the control group received vehicle only. These groups were all compared with the aging rats (24months) which had received no other treatment. The cognitive impairment was assessed using Morris water maze (MWM) in the prepared models, and the amount of β-galactosidase, the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) level and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the hippocampus was examined by assay kits. The levels of EPO, EPOR, p-JAK2 and hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α) in the hippocampus were detected by western blot. Additionally, the correlation coefficient between EPO/EPOR expression and MDA level was analyzed. The MWM test showed that compared to control group, the escape latency was significantly extended and the times of crossing the platform was decreased at the doses of 150mg·kg(-1) and 250mg·kg(-1) (p<0.05). Also, the amount of β-galactosidase and the MDA level in the hippocampus were significantly increased but the SOD activity was significantly decreased (p<0.05, 0.01 and 0.01, respectively). Similar to aging rats, the expressions of EPO, EPOR, p-JAK2, and HIF-2αin the brain of d-gal-treated rats were significantly decreased (p<0.05) at 150mg·kg(-1) and 250mg·kg(-1). Interestingly, negative correlations were found between EPOR (r=-0

  8. Disentangling in vivo the effects of iron content and atrophy on the ageing human brain.

    PubMed

    Lorio, S; Lutti, A; Kherif, F; Ruef, A; Dukart, J; Chowdhury, R; Frackowiak, R S; Ashburner, J; Helms, G; Weiskopf, N; Draganski, B

    2014-12-01

    Evidence from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies shows that healthy aging is associated with profound changes in cortical and subcortical brain structures. The reliable delineation of cortex and basal ganglia using automated computational anatomy methods based on T1-weighted images remains challenging, which results in controversies in the literature. In this study we use quantitative MRI (qMRI) to gain an insight into the microstructural mechanisms underlying tissue ageing and look for potential interactions between ageing and brain tissue properties to assess their impact on automated tissue classification. To this end we acquired maps of longitudinal relaxation rate R1, effective transverse relaxation rate R2* and magnetization transfer - MT, from healthy subjects (n=96, aged 21-88 years) using a well-established multi-parameter mapping qMRI protocol. Within the framework of voxel-based quantification we find higher grey matter volume in basal ganglia, cerebellar dentate and prefrontal cortex when tissue classification is based on MT maps compared with T1 maps. These discrepancies between grey matter volume estimates can be attributed to R2* - a surrogate marker of iron concentration, and further modulation by an interaction between R2* and age, both in cortical and subcortical areas. We interpret our findings as direct evidence for the impact of ageing-related brain tissue property changes on automated tissue classification of brain structures using SPM12. Computational anatomy studies of ageing and neurodegeneration should acknowledge these effects, particularly when inferring about underlying pathophysiology from regional cortex and basal ganglia volume changes.

  9. Patients' age as a determinant of care received following acute stroke: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence-based care should improve acute stroke outcomes with the same magnitude of effect for stroke patients of all ages. However, there is evidence to suggest that, in some instances, older stroke patients may receive poorer quality care than younger patients. Our aim was to systematically review evidence of the quality of care provided to patients with acute stroke related to their age. Quality of care was determined by compliance with recommended care processes. Methods We systematically searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, ISI Web of Knowledge, Ageline and the Cochrane Library databases to identify publications (1995-2009) that reported data on acute stroke care process indicators by patient age. Data extracted included patient demographics and process indicator compliance. Included publications were critically appraised by two independent reviewers using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool, and a comparison was made of the risk of bias according to studies' findings. The evidence base for reported process indicators was determined, and meta-analysis was undertaken for studies with sufficient similarity. Results Nine from 163 potential studies met the inclusion criteria. Of the 56 process indicators reported, eleven indicators were evidence-based. Seven of these indicators (64%) showed significantly poorer care for older patients compared to younger ones, while younger patients received comparatively inferior care for only antihypertensive therapy at discharge. Our findings are limited by the variable methodological quality of included studies. Conclusion Patients' age may be a factor in the care they receive after an acute stroke. However, the possible influence of patients' age on clinicians' decision-making must be considered in terms of the many complex issues that surround the provision of optimal care for older patients with acute stroke. PMID:21729329

  10. Brain network characterization of high-risk preterm-born school-age children

    PubMed Central

    Fischi-Gomez, Elda; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Vasung, Lana; Griffa, Alessandra; Borradori-Tolsa, Cristina; Monnier, Maryline; Lazeyras, François; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Hüppi, Petra S.

    2016-01-01

    Higher risk for long-term cognitive and behavioral impairments is one of the hallmarks of extreme prematurity (EP) and pregnancy-associated fetal adverse conditions such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). While neurodevelopmental delay and abnormal brain function occur in the absence of overt brain lesions, these conditions have been recently associated with changes in microstructural brain development. Recent imaging studies indicate changes in brain connectivity, in particular involving the white matter fibers belonging to the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loop. Furthermore, EP and IUGR have been related to altered brain network architecture in childhood, with reduced network global capacity, global efficiency and average nodal strength. In this study, we used a connectome analysis to characterize the structural brain networks of these children, with a special focus on their topological organization. On one hand, we confirm the reduced averaged network node degree and strength due to EP and IUGR. On the other, the decomposition of the brain networks in an optimal set of clusters remained substantially different among groups, talking in favor of a different network community structure. However, and despite the different community structure, the brain networks of these high-risk school-age children maintained the typical small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics in all cases. Thus, our results suggest that brain reorganizes after EP and IUGR, prioritizing a tight modular structure, to maintain the small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics. By themselves, both extreme prematurity and IUGR bear a similar risk for neurocognitive and behavioral impairment, and the here defined modular network alterations confirm similar structural changes both by IUGR and EP at school age compared to control. Interestingly, the combination of both conditions (IUGR + EP) does not result in a worse outcome. In such cases, the alteration in network

  11. Excessive daytime sleepiness and fatigue may indicate accelerated brain aging in cognitively normal late middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Diego Z; St Louis, Erik K; Boeve, Bradley F; Mielke, Michelle M; Przybelski, Scott A; Knopman, David S; Machulda, Mary M; Roberts, Rosebud O; Geda, Yonas E; Petersen, Ronald C; Jack, Clifford R; Vemuri, Prashanthi

    2017-04-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and fatigue increases with age. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between EDS and fatigue with cortical thickness and hippocampal volume in cognitively normal, late middle-aged and older adults. We performed a cross-sectional observational study of 1374 cognitively-normal subjects aged 50 years and older who had a structural MRI. Regional cortical thickness and hippocampal volume were measured. Multiple linear regression models were fit to explore associations between EDS and fatigue and structural MRI measures in different brain regions, adjusting for multiple covariates. EDS was defined as Epworth Sleepiness Scale ≥10. Fatigue severity was assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory-2. 208 participants had EDS, 27 had significant fatigue, and 11 had both. Participants with EDS or fatigue had significantly lower cognitive scores, more disturbed sleep, and medical comorbidities. The presence of EDS was associated with both global and regional atrophy, whereas fatigue was more associated with frontal and temporal changes. Cortical thinning predicted by EDS and fatigue was maximal in the temporal region with average reduction of 34.2 μm (95% CI, -54.1, -14.3; P = 0.001) and 90.2 μm (95% CI, -142.1, -38.2; P = 0.001), respectively. Fatigue was also associated with hippocampal volume reduction of -374.2 mm(3) (95% CI, -670.8, -77.7; P = 0.013). Temporal cortical thinning predicted by presence of EDS and fatigue was equivalent to more than 3.5 and 9 additional years of aging, respectively. EDS and fatigue were associated with cortical thickness reduction primarily in regions with increased age-susceptibility, which may indicate accelerated brain aging.

  12. Proteomic profiling of mitochondria: what does it tell us about the ageing brain?

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, Thomas; Chakrabarti, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is evident in numerous neurodegenerative and age-related disorders. It has also been linked to cellular ageing, however our current understanding of the mitochondrial changes that occur are unclear. Functional studies have made some progress reporting reduced respiration, dynamic structural modifications and loss of membrane potential, though there are conflicts within these findings. Proteomic analyses, together with functional studies, are required in order to profile the mitochondrial changes that occur with age and can contribute to unravelling the complexity of the ageing phenotype. The emergence of improved protein separation techniques, combined with mass spectrometry analyses has allowed the identification of age and cell-type specific mitochondrial changes in energy metabolism, antioxidants, fusion and fission machinery, chaperones, membrane proteins and biosynthesis pathways. Here, we identify and review recent data from the analyses of mitochondria from rodent brains. It is expected that knowledge gained from understanding age-related mitochondrial changes of the brain should lead to improved biomarkers of normal ageing and also age-related disease progression. PMID:27992860

  13. Proteomic profiling of mitochondria: what does it tell us about the ageing brain?

    PubMed

    Ingram, Thomas; Chakrabarti, Lisa

    2016-12-13

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is evident in numerous neurodegenerative and age-related disorders. It has also been linked to cellular ageing, however our current understanding of the mitochondrial changes that occur are unclear. Functional studies have made some progress reporting reduced respiration, dynamic structural modifications and loss of membrane potential, though there are conflicts within these findings. Proteomic analyses, together with functional studies, are required in order to profile the mitochondrial changes that occur with age and can contribute to unravelling the complexity of the ageing phenotype. The emergence of improved protein separation techniques, combined with mass spectrometry analyses has allowed the identification of age and cell-type specific mitochondrial changes in energy metabolism, antioxidants, fusion and fission machinery, chaperones, membrane proteins and biosynthesis pathways. Here, we identify and review recent data from the analyses of mitochondria from rodent brains. It is expected that knowledge gained from understanding age-related mitochondrial changes of the brain should lead to improved biomarkers of normal ageing and also age-related disease progression.

  14. Age-dependent changes in plasma and brain cholinesterase activities of house wrens and European starlings.

    PubMed

    Mayack, David T; Martin, Tim

    2003-07-01

    We determined age-dependent changes in plasma and brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity for two species of passerines: house wren (Troglodytes aedon) and European starling (Sturnus vulgaris, starling). In plasma from nestlings of both species, total ChE activity increased with age, acetycholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7) activity declined rapidly immediately after hatching, and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, EC 3.1.1.8) activity increased steadily. For both species, total ChE and BChE activities and the BChE:AChE ratio in plasma were significantly greater in adults than nestlings suggesting trends observed in nestlings continue post fledging. In older nestlings and adults, AChE activity in plasma was significantly greater and BChE:AChE ratio less in house wrens than starlings. For house wrens as compared with starlings, ChE activity in brain increased at a significantly greater rate with age in nestlings and was significantly greater in adults. However, ChE activity in brain was similar at fledging for both species suggesting that the increase in ChE in brain is more directly related to ontogeny than chronologic age in nestlings of passerines. For both species, ChE activity increased significantly with brain weight of nestlings but not adults. House wrens hold similar patterns of age-dependent change in ChE activity in common with starlings but also exhibit differences in AChE activity in plasma that should be considered as a factor potentially affecting their relative toxicologic response to ChE inhibitors.

  15. Neuroculture, active ageing and the 'older brain': problems, promises and prospects.

    PubMed

    Williams, Simon J; Higgs, Paul; Katz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the characteristics of a newly emergent 'neuroculture' and its relationship to cultures of ageing; in particular, the social meanings associated with 'active ageing' and 'cognitive health' and the discourses and sciences around memory and the 'ageing brain'. The argument proposes a critical perspective on this relationship by looking at the shifting boundaries between standards of normality and abnormality, values of health and illness, practices of therapy and enhancement, and the lines demarcating Third Age (healthy, active and agentic) and Fourth Age (dependency, loss and decline) periods of ageing. Conclusions offer further reflections on the complex questions that arise regarding expectations, hopes and ethics in relation to the promises and perils of a neurocultural future.

  16. Brain Insulin Administration Triggers Distinct Cognitive and Neurotrophic Responses in Young and Aged Rats.

    PubMed

    Haas, Clarissa B; Kalinine, Eduardo; Zimmer, Eduardo R; Hansel, Gisele; Brochier, Andressa W; Oses, Jean P; Portela, Luis V; Muller, Alexandre P

    2016-11-01

    Aging is a major risk factor for cognitive deficits and neurodegenerative disorders, and impaired brain insulin receptor (IR) signaling is mechanistically linked to these abnormalities. The main goal of this study was to investigate whether brain insulin infusions improve spatial memory in aged and young rats. Aged (24 months) and young (4 months) male Wistar rats were intracerebroventricularly injected with insulin (20 mU) or vehicle for five consecutive days. The animals were then assessed for spatial memory using a Morris water maze. Insulin increased memory performance in young rats, but not in aged rats. Thus, we searched for cellular and molecular mechanisms that might account for this distinct memory response. In contrast with our expectation, insulin treatment increased the proliferative activity in aged rats, but not in young rats, implying that neurogenesis-related effects do not explain the lack of insulin effects on memory in aged rats. Furthermore, the expression levels of the IR and downstream signaling proteins such as GSK3-β, mTOR, and presynaptic protein synaptophysin were increased in aged rats in response to insulin. Interestingly, insulin treatment increased the expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) receptors in the hippocampus of young rats, but not of aged rats. Our data therefore indicate that aged rats can have normal IR downstream protein expression but failed to mount a BDNF response after challenge in a spatial memory test. In contrast, young rats showed insulin-mediated TrkB/BDNF response, which paralleled with improved memory performance.

  17. Phenomenology of squalor, hoarding and self-neglect: an Australian aged care perspective.

    PubMed

    Lee, S M; LoGiudice, D

    2012-01-01

    Aged care health professionals in Australia are increasingly referred patients whose standard of cleanliness and self-care has deteriorated to levels resulting in public health concern. This paper describes three illustrative case studies of people referred to an Australian Aged Care Assessment Service who present with 'Diogenes Syndrome'. The diversity and complexity of these cases reflect variable underlying diagnoses. Symptoms of self-neglect, hoarding and domestic squalor and combinations thereof may provide a more useful classification system of the older person who presents in such circumstances than the frequently used term Diogenes syndrome. Practical guidelines are required for appropriate assessment and management of these conditions.

  18. Cognitive function and brain structure after recurrent mild traumatic brain injuries in young-to-middle-aged adults

    PubMed Central

    List, Jonathan; Ott, Stefanie; Bukowski, Martin; Lindenberg, Robert; Flöel, Agnes

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) are regarded as an independent risk factor for developing dementia in later life. We here aimed to evaluate associations between recurrent mTBIs, cognition, and gray matter volume and microstructure as revealed by structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the chronic phase after mTBIs in young adulthood. We enrolled 20 young-to-middle-aged subjects, who reported two or more sports-related mTBIs, with the last mTBI > 6 months prior to study enrolment (mTBI group), and 21 age-, sex- and education matched controls with no history of mTBI (control group). All participants received comprehensive neuropsychological testing, and high resolution T1-weighted and diffusion tensor MRI in order to assess cortical thickness (CT) and microstructure, hippocampal volume, and ventricle size. Compared to the control group, subjects of the mTBI group presented with lower CT within the right temporal lobe and left insula using an a priori region of interest approach. Higher number of mTBIs was associated with lower CT in bilateral insula, right middle temporal gyrus and right entorhinal area. Our results suggest persistent detrimental effects of recurrent mTBIs on CT already in young-to-middle-aged adults. If additional structural deterioration occurs during aging, subtle neuropsychological decline may progress to clinically overt dementia earlier than in age-matched controls, a hypothesis to be assessed in future prospective trials. PMID:26052275

  19. Aging-Dependent Changes in the Radiation Response of the Adult Rat Brain

    SciTech Connect

    Schindler, Matthew K. Forbes, M. Elizabeth; Robbins, Mike E.; Riddle, David R.

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of aging on the radiation response in the adult rat brain. Methods and Materials: Male rats 8, 18, or 28 months of age received a single 10-Gy dose of whole-brain irradiation (WBI). The hippocampal dentate gyrus was analyzed 1 and 10 weeks later for sensitive neurobiologic markers associated with radiation-induced damage: changes in density of proliferating cells, immature neurons, total microglia, and activated microglia. Results: A significant decrease in basal levels of proliferating cells and immature neurons and increased microglial activation occurred with normal aging. The WBI induced a transient increase in proliferation that was greater in older animals. This proliferation response did not increase the number of immature neurons, which decreased after WBI in young rats, but not in old rats. Total microglial numbers decreased after WBI at all ages, but microglial activation increased markedly, particularly in older animals. Conclusions: Age is an important factor to consider when investigating the radiation response of the brain. In contrast to young adults, older rats show no sustained decrease in number of immature neurons after WBI, but have a greater inflammatory response. The latter may have an enhanced role in the development of radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction in older individuals.

  20. Classification of normal and pathological aging processes based on brain MRI morphology measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Gonzalez, J. L.; Yanez-Suarez, O.; Medina-Bañuelos, V.

    2014-03-01

    Reported studies describing normal and abnormal aging based on anatomical MRI analysis do not consider morphological brain changes, but only volumetric measures to distinguish among these processes. This work presents a classification scheme, based both on size and shape features extracted from brain volumes, to determine different aging stages: healthy control (HC) adults, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Three support vector machines were optimized and validated for the pair-wise separation of these three classes, using selected features from a set of 3D discrete compactness measures and normalized volumes of several global and local anatomical structures. Our analysis show classification rates of up to 98.3% between HC and AD; of 85% between HC and MCI and of 93.3% for MCI and AD separation. These results outperform those reported in the literature and demonstrate the viability of the proposed morphological indexes to classify different aging stages.

  1. Structural and functional rejuvenation of the aged brain by an approved anti-asthmatic drug

    PubMed Central

    Marschallinger, Julia; Schäffner, Iris; Klein, Barbara; Gelfert, Renate; Rivera, Francisco J.; Illes, Sebastian; Grassner, Lukas; Janssen, Maximilian; Rotheneichner, Peter; Schmuckermair, Claudia; Coras, Roland; Boccazzi, Marta; Chishty, Mansoor; Lagler, Florian B.; Renic, Marija; Bauer, Hans-Christian; Singewald, Nicolas; Blümcke, Ingmar; Bogdahn, Ulrich; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien; Lie, D. Chichung; Abbracchio, Maria P.; Aigner, Ludwig

    2015-01-01

    As human life expectancy has improved rapidly in industrialized societies, age-related cognitive impairment presents an increasing challenge. Targeting histopathological processes that correlate with age-related cognitive declines, such as neuroinflammation, low levels of neurogenesis, disrupted blood–brain barrier and altered neuronal activity, might lead to structural and functional rejuvenation of the aged brain. Here we show that a 6-week treatment of young (4 months) and old (20 months) rats with montelukast, a marketed anti-asthmatic drug antagonizing leukotriene receptors, reduces neuroinflammation, elevates hippocampal neurogenesis and improves learning and memory in old animals. By using gene knockdown and knockout approaches, we demonstrate that the effect is mediated through inhibition of the GPR17 receptor. This work illustrates that inhibition of leukotriene receptor signalling might represent a safe and druggable target to restore cognitive functions in old individuals and paves the way for future clinical translation of leukotriene receptor inhibition for the treatment of dementias. PMID:26506265

  2. The choroid plexus and the paradox of interferons in the aging brain.

    PubMed

    Dhib-Jalbut, Suhayl

    2015-02-01

    The choroid plexus (CP) function is largely viewed as the source of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and as a barrier between the blood and the CSF. Other functions of the CP are becoming increasingly recognized as in the recent publication by Baruch et. al. who demonstrate increased expression of interferon type I mRNA signature (irf7, ifnß and ifit1) in CP of aged brains compared to younger brains, whereas interferon type II dependent genes (icam1, cxcl10, and ccl17) are reduced in the aging CP. The authors speculate an IFN-dependent mechanism that plays a role in the aging process and cognitive decline. This short communication summarizes the findings by the authors and highlights the seemingly paradoxical roles of IFN type I and type II in neuroinflammation.

  3. Impairments of astrocytes are involved in the D-galactose-induced brain aging

    SciTech Connect

    Lei Ming; Hua Xiangdong; Xiao Ming Ding Jiong; Han Qunying Hu Gang

    2008-05-16

    Astrocyte dysfunction is implicated in course of various age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Chronic injection of D-galactose can cause a progressive deterioration in learning and memory capacity and serve as an animal model of aging. To investigate the involvement of astrocytes in this model, oxidative stress biomarkers, biochemical and pathological changes of astrocytes were examined in the hippocampus of the rats with six weeks of D-galactose injection. D-galactose-injected rats displayed impaired antioxidant systems, an increase in nitric oxide levels, and a decrease in reduced glutathione levels. Consistently, western blotting and immunostaining of glial fibrillary acidic protein showed extensive activation of astrocytes. Double-immunofluorescent staining further showed activated astrocytes highly expressed inducible nitric oxide synthase. Electron microscopy demonstrated the degeneration of astrocytes, especially in the aggregated area of synapse and brain microvessels. These findings indicate that impairments of astrocytes are involved in oxidative stress-induced brain aging by chronic injection of D-galactose.

  4. Distinct Brain and Behavioral Benefits from Cognitive vs. Physical Training: A Randomized Trial in Aging Adults.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Sandra B; Aslan, Sina; Spence, Jeffrey S; Keebler, Molly W; DeFina, Laura F; Didehbani, Nyaz; Perez, Alison M; Lu, Hanzhang; D'Esposito, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Insidious declines in normal aging are well-established. Emerging evidence suggests that non-pharmacological interventions, specifically cognitive and physical training, may counter diminishing age-related cognitive and brain functions. This randomized trial compared effects of two training protocols: cognitive training (CT) vs. physical training (PT) on cognition and brain function in adults 56-75 years. Sedentary participants (N = 36) were randomized to either CT or PT group for 3 h/week over 12 weeks. They were assessed at baseline-, mid-, and post-training using neurocognitive, MRI, and physiological measures. The CT group improved on executive function whereas PT group's memory was enhanced. Uniquely deploying cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral vascular reactivity (CVR) MRI, the CT cohort showed increased CBF within the prefrontal and middle/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) without change to CVR compared to PT group. Improvements in complex abstraction were positively associated with increased resting CBF in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). Exercisers with higher CBF in hippocampi bilaterally showed better immediate memory. The preliminary evidence indicates that increased cognitive and physical activity improves brain health in distinct ways. Reasoning training enhanced frontal networks shown to be integral to top-down cognitive control and brain resilience. Evidence of increased resting CBF without changes to CVR implicates increased neural health rather than improved vascular response. Exercise did not improve cerebrovascular response, although CBF increased in hippocampi of those with memory gains. Distinct benefits incentivize testing effectiveness of combined protocols to strengthen brain health.

  5. Docosahexaenoic acid homeostasis, brain aging and Alzheimer's disease: Can we reconcile the evidence?

    PubMed

    Cunnane, Stephen C; Chouinard-Watkins, Raphael; Castellano, Christian A; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    A crossroads has been reached on research into docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). On the one hand, several prospective observational studies now clearly indicate a protective effect of higher fish and DHA intake against risk of AD. On the other hand, once AD is clinically evident, supplementation trials demonstrate essentially no benefit of DHA in AD. Despite apparently low DHA intake in AD, brain DHA levels are frequently the same as in controls, suggesting that low DHA intake results in low plasma DHA but does not necessarily reduce brain DHA in humans. Animal models involving dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency to deplete brain DHA may therefore not be appropriate in AD research. Studies in the healthy elderly suggest that DHA homeostasis changes during aging. Tracer methodology now permits estimation of DHA half-life in the human brain and whole body. Apolipoprotein E alleles have an important impact not only on AD but also on DHA homeostasis in humans. We therefore encourage further development of innovative approaches to the study of DHA metabolism and its role in human brain function. A better understanding of DHA metabolism in humans will hopefully help explain how higher habitual DHA intake protects against the risk of deteriorating cognition during aging and may eventually give rise to a breakthrough in the treatment of AD.

  6. Differential expression of sirtuin family members in the developing, adult, and aged rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Sidorova-Darmos, Elena; Wither, Robert G.; Shulyakova, Natalya; Fisher, Carl; Ratnam, Melanie; Aarts, Michelle; Lilge, Lothar; Monnier, Philippe P.; Eubanks, James H.

    2014-01-01

    The sirtuins are NAD+-dependent protein deacetylases and/or ADP-ribosyltransferases that play roles in metabolic homeostasis, stress response and potentially aging. This enzyme family resides in different subcellular compartments, and acts on a number of different targets in the nucleus, cytoplasm and in the mitochondria. Despite their recognized ability to regulate metabolic processes, the roles played by specific sirtuins in the brain—the most energy demanding tissue in the body—remains less well investigated and understood. In the present study, we examined the regional mRNA and protein expression patterns of individual sirtuin family members in the developing, adult, and aged rat brain. Our results show that while each sirtuin is expressed in the brain at each of these different stages, they display unique spatial and temporal expression patterns within the brain. Further, for specific members of the family, the protein expression profile did not coincide with their respective mRNA expression profile. Moreover, using primary cultures enriched for neurons and astrocytes respectively, we found that specific sirtuin members display preferential neural lineage expression. Collectively, these results provide the first composite illustration that sirtuin family members display differential expression patterns in the brain, and provide evidence that specific sirtuins could potentially be targeted to achieve cell-type selective effects within the brain. PMID:25566066

  7. Aging and sex influence the permeability of the blood-brain barrier in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Saija, A.; Princi, P.; D'Amico, N.; De Pasquale, R.; Costa, G.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the existence of aging- and sex-related alterations in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the rat, by calculating a unidirectional blood-to-brain transfer constant (Ki) for the circulating tracer ({sup 14}C)-{alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid. The authors observed that: (a) the permeability of the BBB significantly increased within the frontal and temporo-parietal cortex, hypothalamus and cerebellum in 28-30 week old rats, in comparison with younger animals; (b) in several brain areas of female intact rats higher Ki values (even though not significantly different) were calculated at oestrus than at proestrus; (c) in 1-week ovariectomized rats there was a marked increase of Ki values at the level of the frontal, temporo-parietal and occipital cortex, cerebellum and brain-stem. One can speculate that aging and sex-related alterations in thee permeability of the BBB reflect respectively changes in brain neurochemical system activity and in plasma steroid hormone levels.

  8. Distinct Brain and Behavioral Benefits from Cognitive vs. Physical Training: A Randomized Trial in Aging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Sandra B.; Aslan, Sina; Spence, Jeffrey S.; Keebler, Molly W.; DeFina, Laura F.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Perez, Alison M.; Lu, Hanzhang; D'Esposito, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Insidious declines in normal aging are well-established. Emerging evidence suggests that non-pharmacological interventions, specifically cognitive and physical training, may counter diminishing age-related cognitive and brain functions. This randomized trial compared effects of two training protocols: cognitive training (CT) vs. physical training (PT) on cognition and brain function in adults 56–75 years. Sedentary participants (N = 36) were randomized to either CT or PT group for 3 h/week over 12 weeks. They were assessed at baseline-, mid-, and post-training using neurocognitive, MRI, and physiological measures. The CT group improved on executive function whereas PT group's memory was enhanced. Uniquely deploying cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral vascular reactivity (CVR) MRI, the CT cohort showed increased CBF within the prefrontal and middle/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) without change to CVR compared to PT group. Improvements in complex abstraction were positively associated with increased resting CBF in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). Exercisers with higher CBF in hippocampi bilaterally showed better immediate memory. The preliminary evidence indicates that increased cognitive and physical activity improves brain health in distinct ways. Reasoning training enhanced frontal networks shown to be integral to top-down cognitive control and brain resilience. Evidence of increased resting CBF without changes to CVR implicates increased neural health rather than improved vascular response. Exercise did not improve cerebrovascular response, although CBF increased in hippocampi of those with memory gains. Distinct benefits incentivize testing effectiveness of combined protocols to strengthen brain health. PMID:27462210

  9. A Descriptive Analysis of Incidents Reported by Community Aged Care Workers.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Amina; Douglas, Heather E; Smith, Cheryl; Georgiou, Andrew; Osmond, Tracey; Armour, Pauline; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about the types of incidents that occur to aged care clients in the community. This limits the development of effective strategies to improve client safety. The objective of the study was to present a profile of incidents reported in Australian community aged care settings. All incident reports made by community care workers employed by one of the largest community aged care provider organizations in Australia during the period November 1, 2012, to August 8, 2013, were analyzed. A total of 356 reports were analyzed, corresponding to a 7.5% incidence rate per client year. Falls and medication incidents were the most prevalent incident types. Clients receiving high-level care and those who attended day therapy centers had the highest rate of incidents with 14% to 20% of these clients having a reported incident. The incident profile indicates that clients on higher levels of care had higher incident rates. Incident data represent an opportunity to improve client safety in community aged care.

  10. Improving Care in Pediatric Neuro-oncology Patients:An Overview of the Unique Needs of Children with Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Cheryl; Petriccione, Mary; Donzelli, Maria; Pottenger, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Brain tumors represent the most common solid tumors in childhood, accounting for almost 25% of all childhood cancer, second only to leukemia. Childhood CNS tumors encompass a wide variety of diagnoses, from benign to malignant. Any brain tumor can be associated with significant morbidity, even when low grade, and mortality from childhood CNS tumors is disproportionately high compared to other childhood malignancies. Management of children with CNS tumors requires knowledge of the unique aspects of care associated with this particular patient population, beyond general oncology care. Pediatric brain tumor patients have unique needs during treatment, as cancer survivors, and at end of life. A multidisciplinary team approach, including advanced practice nurses with a specialty in neuro-oncology, allows for better supportive care. Knowledge of the unique aspects of care for children with brain tumors, and the appropriate interventions required, allows for improved quality of life. PMID:26245798

  11. Improving Care in Pediatric Neuro-oncology Patients: An Overview of the Unique Needs of Children With Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Cheryl; Petriccione, Mary; Donzelli, Maria; Pottenger, Elaine

    2016-03-01

    Brain tumors represent the most common solid tumors in childhood, accounting for almost 25% of all childhood cancer, second only to leukemia. Pediatric central nervous system tumors encompass a wide variety of diagnoses, from benign to malignant. Any brain tumor can be associated with significant morbidity, even when low grade, and mortality from pediatric central nervous system tumors is disproportionately high compared to other childhood malignancies. Management of children with central nervous system tumors requires knowledge of the unique aspects of care associated with this particular patient population, beyond general oncology care. Pediatric brain tumor patients have unique needs during treatment, as cancer survivors, and at end of life. A multidisciplinary team approach, including advanced practice nurses with a specialty in neuro-oncology, allows for better supportive care. Knowledge of the unique aspects of care for children with brain tumors, and the appropriate interventions required, allows for improved quality of life.

  12. Characteristics and Incidence of Traumatic Brain Injury in Older Adults Using Home Care in Ontario from 2003–2013

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Connor; Kristman, Vicki L.; Martin, Lynn; Bédard, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Describe the characteristics and determine the annual cumulative incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in older adults receiving home care in Ontario from 2003 to 2013. Methods A retrospective cohort study of longitudinal data from the Ontario Association of Community Care Access Centers (N = 554,313). TBI, demographic variables, depression, neurological conditions, and recent falls were measured from the Resident Assessment Instrument–Home Care. Comparisons were made between service users with and without TBI using odds ratios. Standardized incidence rates were calculated and the 10-year trend of annual cumulative incidence rates was examined. Results Characteristics associated with TBI: male sex (OR: 1.54), aboriginal origin (OR: 1.98), increasing age (low of OR: 1.22, in 70–74 years; high of OR: 2.31, in 90 years and older; comparison 65–69 years), being widowed (OR: 1.59), having one or more falls (OR: 2.31), the use of antidepressants (OR: 1.49) and the presence of depression (OR: 1.57), dementia (OR: 1.65), hemiplegia (OR: 4.34), multiple sclerosis (OR: 3.19) or parkinsonism (OR: 1.22). TBI incidence was significantly higher than rates previously reported in the literature. There was no change in the overall annual cumulative incidence over the 10-year period (p = .13). Conclusions Certain demographic characteristics, neurological diseases, antidepressant use, and a recent fall are associated with TBI. Incidence of TBI is higher than previous estimates and the overall incidence is not changing over time. These results can be used to improve care of the elderly and to generate hypotheses for future research regarding TBI in the home care setting.

  13. Imaging of Cerebral Blood Flow in Patients with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury in the Neurointensive Care

    PubMed Central

    Rostami, Elham; Engquist, Henrik; Enblad, Per

    2014-01-01

    Ischemia is a common and deleterious secondary injury following traumatic brain injury (TBI). A great challenge for the treatment of TBI patients in the neurointensive care unit (NICU) is to detect early signs of ischemia in order to prevent further advancement and deterioration of the brain tissue. Today, several imaging techniques are available to monitor cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the injured brain such as positron emission tomography (PET), single-photon emission computed tomography, xenon computed tomography (Xenon-CT), perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and CT perfusion scan. An ideal imaging technique would enable continuous non-invasive measurement of blood flow and metabolism across the whole brain. Unfortunately, no current imaging method meets all these criteria. These techniques offer snapshots of the CBF. MRI may also provide some information about the metabolic state of the brain. PET provides images with high resolution and quantitative measurements of CBF and metabolism; however, it is a complex and costly method limited to few TBI centers. All of these methods except mobile Xenon-CT require transfer of TBI patients to the radiological department. Mobile Xenon-CT emerges as a feasible technique to monitor CBF in the NICU, with lower risk of adverse effects. Promising results have been demonstrated with Xenon-CT in predicting outcome in TBI patients. This review covers available imaging methods used to monitor CBF in patients with severe TBI. PMID:25071702

  14. Assessment and Predicting Factors of Repeated Brain Computed Tomography in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients for Risk-Stratified Care Management: A 5-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Sumritpradit, Preeda; Setthalikhit, Thitipong

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective. To determine the value of repeated brain CT in TBI cases for risk-stratified care management (RSCM) and to identify predicting factors which will change the neurosurgical management after repeated brain CTs. Methods. A 5-year retrospective study from January 2009 to August 2013 was conducted. The primary outcome was the value of repeated brain CT in TBI cases. The secondary outcome is to identify predicting factors which will change the neurosurgical management after repeated brain CTs. Results. There were 145 consecutive patients with TBI and repeated brain CT after initial abnormal brain CT. Forty-two percent of all cases (N = 61) revealed the progression of intracranial hemorrhage after repeated brain CT. In all 145 consecutive patients, 67.6% of cases (N = 98) were categorized as mild TBI. For mild head injury, 8.2% of cases (N = 8) had undergone neurosurgical management after repeated brain CT. Only 1 from 74 mild TBI patients with repeated brain CT had neurosurgical intervention. Clopidogrel and midline shift more than 2 mm on initial brain CT were significant predicting factors to indicate the neurosurgical management in mild TBI cases. Conclusion. Routine repeated brain CT for RSCM had no clinical benefit in mild TBI cases. PMID:27703812

  15. Nurse practitioners in aged care: documentary analysis of successful project proposals.

    PubMed

    Clark, Shannon J; Parker, Rhian M; Davey, Rachel

    2014-11-01

    Meeting the primary health care needs of an aging population is an increasing challenge for many Western nations. In Australia, the federal government introduced a program to develop, test, and evaluate nurse practitioner models in aged care settings. In this article, we present a documentary analysis of 32 project proposals awarded funding under the Nurse Practitioner-Aged Care Models of Practice Program. Successfully funded models were diverse and were operated by a range of organizations across Australia. We identified three key priorities as underlying the proposed models: "The right care," "in the right place," and "at the right time." In this article, we explore how these priorities were presented by different applicants in different ways. Through the presentation of their models, the program's applicants identified and proposed to address current gaps in health services. Applicants contrasted their proposed models with available services to create persuasive and competitive applications for funding.

  16. You're All Grown up Now: Termination of Foster Care Support at Age 18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Rosemary J.; Freundlich, Madelyn

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the repercussions of discharging youth from foster care at age 18 based on recent research demonstrating that youth at this age are not developmentally prepared to live independently and have a continued need for strong social scaffolding during emerging adulthood. Drawing upon recent research findings, we make…

  17. Nursing Students' Intentions to Work in Dementia Care: Influence of Age, Ageism, and Perceived Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Ellen L.; Brown, Patricia M.

    2014-01-01

    Given a projected threefold increase in people living with dementia globally by 2050 (World Health Organization, 2012), attracting nurses to work in this area will be critical to meet demand. This study examined the role of age, positive ageism, negative ageism, and aged-care placement completion in predicting nursing students' intentions to work…

  18. Aging parents’ caregiving and rehabilitating a brain-injured son: an autoethnography of a 10-year journey

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Syed Tajuddin Syed; Jamaludin, Husna

    2014-01-01

    This autoethnography withdraws from information accumulated through a 10-year period of daily-weekly-monthly descriptive observation-recording (triangulated- parents & house-helper) of caregiving and rehabilitating of our brain injured son (survivor/care-receiver). We present it as an interactive voice of verbal conversation, thoughts, insights, and interpretations. It is delivered as a series of articulation intra-pulsated with our interrogation of societal-cultural-religious perspectives, norms and biases, and aligns with the CAP (Creative Analytical Practices) method of Ellis. This autoethnography glows from the richness of information which encapsulates the challenges confronting us the aging parent caregivers, the gradual incremental mind mending achievement of our son, and the interactive verbalizations and thoughts, of the caregivers, care-receiver, and other persons. The overwhelming mental and physical pain and struggle of the survivor and the aging caregivers and their sense of celebratory-satisfaction with rehabilitation progress are highlighted. Interpretation and valuation of positive and negative responses of other persons provide a critical matrix to this autoethnography. We intend to inform other caregivers and relevant healthcare professionals through this autoethnography. PMID:25763170

  19. Gender and age effects in structural brain asymmetry as measured by MRI texture analysis.

    PubMed

    Kovalev, Vassili A; Kruggel, Frithjof; von Cramon, D Yves

    2003-07-01

    Effects of gender and age on structural brain asymmetry were studied by 3D texture analysis in 380 adults. Asymmetry is detected by comparing the complex 3D gray-scale image patterns in the left and right cerebral hemispheres as revealed by anatomical T1-weighted MRI datasets. The Talairach and Tournoux parcellation system was applied to study the asymmetry on five levels: the whole cerebrum, nine coronal sections, 12 axial sections, boxes resulting from both coronal and axial subdivisions, and by a sliding spherical window of 9 mm diameter. The analysis revealed that the brain asymmetry increases in the anterior-posterior direction starting from the central region onward. Male brains were found to be more asymmetric than female. This gender-related effect is noticeable in all brain areas but is most significant in the superior temporal gyrus, Heschl's gyrus, the adjacent white matter regions in the temporal stem and the knee of the optic radiation, the thalamus, and the posterior cingulate. The brain asymmetry increases significantly with age in the inferior frontal gyrus, anterior insula, anterior cingulate, parahippocampal gyrus, retrosplenial cortex, coronal radiata, and knee region of the internal capsule. Asymmetry decreases with age in the optic radiation, precentral gyrus, and angular gyrus. The texture-based method reported here is based on extended multisort cooccurrence matrices that employ intensity, gradient, and anisotropy features in a uniform way. It is sensitive, simple to reproduce, robust, and unbiased in the sense that segmentation of brain compartments and spatial transformations are not necessary. Thus, it should be considered as another tool for digital morphometry in neuroscience.

  20. Antiaging Effect of Metformin on Brain in Naturally Aged and Accelerated Senescence Model of Rat.

    PubMed

    Garg, Geetika; Singh, Sandeep; Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2017-01-09

    Metformin, a biguanide, is a widely used antidiabetic drug, which inhibits gluconeogenesis and is used to treat hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. Through activation of AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) pathway, metformin also mimics caloric restriction health benefits. Aging causes substantial molecular to morphological changes in brain, the brain cells being more susceptible toward oxidative stress mediated damages due to the presence of high lipid content and higher oxygen consumption. Wistar rats (naturally aged and d-galactose induced rat model) were supplemented with metformin (300 mg/kg b.w. orally) for 6 weeks. The biomarkers of oxidative stress such as antioxidant capacity (ferric reducing antioxidant potential [FRAP]), malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), protein carbonyl (PCO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, and nitric oxide (NO) were measured in brain tissues of control and experimental groups. The results indicate that metformin treatment augmented the levels of FRAP and GSH in naturally aged, and d-gal induced aging model groups compared to the respective controls. In contrast, metformin treated groups exhibited significant reduction in MDA, PCO, ROS, and NO levels and a significant increase in AChE activity in induced aging rats. The administration of d-galactose upregulated the expression of sirtuin-2, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and downregulated the expression of Beclin-1. Metformin supplementation downregulated the d-galactose induced expressions of sirtuin-2, IL-6, and TNF-α expression, whereas upregulated the Beclin-1 expression. Our data confirm that metformin restores the antioxidant status and improves healthy brain aging through the activation of autophagy and reduction in inflammation.

  1. Role of DHA in aging-related changes in mouse brain synaptic plasma membrane proteome.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Vishaldeep K; Huang, Bill X; Desai, Abhishek; Kevala, Karl; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2016-05-01

    Aging has been related to diminished cognitive function, which could be a result of ineffective synaptic function. We have previously shown that synaptic plasma membrane proteins supporting synaptic integrity and neurotransmission were downregulated in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-deprived brains, suggesting an important role of DHA in synaptic function. In this study, we demonstrate aging-induced synaptic proteome changes and DHA-dependent mitigation of such changes using mass spectrometry-based protein quantitation combined with western blot or messenger RNA analysis. We found significant reduction of 15 synaptic plasma membrane proteins in aging brains including fodrin-α, synaptopodin, postsynaptic density protein 95, synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2B, synaptosomal-associated protein 25, synaptosomal-associated protein-α, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit epsilon-2 precursor, AMPA2, AP2, VGluT1, munc18-1, dynamin-1, vesicle-associated membrane protein 2, rab3A, and EAAT1, most of which are involved in synaptic transmission. Notably, the first 9 proteins were further reduced when brain DHA was depleted by diet, indicating that DHA plays an important role in sustaining these synaptic proteins downregulated during aging. Reduction of 2 of these proteins was reversed by raising the brain DHA level by supplementing aged animals with an omega-3 fatty acid sufficient diet for 2 months. The recognition memory compromised in DHA-depleted animals was also improved. Our results suggest a potential role of DHA in alleviating aging-associated cognitive decline by offsetting the loss of neurotransmission-regulating synaptic proteins involved in synaptic function.

  2. Right posterior brain-damaged patients are poor at assessing the age of a face.

    PubMed

    De Renzi, E; Bonacini, M G; Faglioni, P

    1989-01-01

    The ability to order unknown faces by age was investigated in right and left brain-damaged patients, divided into posterior and non-posterior groups on the basis of CT scan findings. A face recognition test and a figure ground discrimination test were also given. All three tests were affected by brain damage, but their sensitivity to the locus and side of lesion varied. While no hemispheric difference was found on the figure ground discrimination test, the face age test significantly discriminated patients with right posterior injury from any other brain-damaged group. The face recognition test occupied an intermediate position, with right posterior patients significantly impaired in comparison with right non-posterior patients and marginally impaired with respect to left posterior patients. Aphasia did not affect the performance of left brain-damaged patients on any of the tests. The findings are interpreted as evidence that damage of the right posterior hemisphere areas disrupts the structural encoding of visual information. Four prosopagnosic patients were also tested. Only those showing signs of apperceptive agnosia failed on the face age test.

  3. Protein and DNA oxidation in different anatomic regions of rat brain in a mimetic ageing model.

    PubMed

    Yanar, Karolin; Aydın, Seval; Cakatay, Ufuk; Mengi, Murat; Buyukpınarbaşılı, Nur; Atukeren, Pınar; Sitar, Mustafa E; Sönmez, Aslı; Uslu, Ezel

    2011-12-01

    It has been reported that d-galactose administration causes an increase in oxidative and osmotic stresses in several tissues of rodents. In this study, we established a brain ageing model by using d-galactose and investigated the concentrations of oxidative stress markers on the hippocampus, parietal and frontal lobes of male Sprague-Dawley rats. A mimetic ageing model was established by injecting d-galactose (60 mg/kg/day/i.p.) in the experimental group for 42 days. At the end of this period, we tested spatial memory using the Morris water maze test. To investigate the magnitude of oxidative damage in proteins, lipids and DNA, we studied the concentrations of various oxidative stress parameters in the hippocampus, parietal and frontal lobes of the brain. Glial and neuronal cell oxidative damage was observed in each of the three anatomic regions. It was found that protein carbonyl groups and advanced oxidation product concentrations in the d-galactose applied group were significantly high in each of the three brain lobes compared with the control group. Thiol concentration was found to be decreased in the parietal lobe. A concurrent increase in lipid hydroperoxides was also observed in this lobe. On the other hand, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine concentration was significantly increased in the hippocampal lobe of rats in the experimental group when compared with the controls. The results obtained from the mimetic ageing model rats showed that various anatomical regions of brain have different susceptibility to oxidative damage of proteins, lipids and DNA.

  4. Brain Food for Alzheimer-Free Ageing: Focus on Herbal Medicines.

    PubMed

    Hügel, Helmut M

    2015-01-01

    Healthy brain aging and the problems of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are a global concern. Beyond 60 years of age, most, if not everyone, will experience a decline in cognitive skills, memory capacity and changes in brain structure. Longevity eventually leads to an accumulation of amyloid plaques and/or tau tangles, including some vascular dementia damage. Therefore, lifestyle choices are paramount to leading either a brain-derived or a brain-deprived life. The focus of this review is to critically examine the evidence, impact, influence and mechanisms of natural products as chemopreventive agents which induce therapeutic outcomes that modulate the aggregation process of beta-amyloid (Aβ), providing measureable cognitive benefits in the aging process. Plants can be considered as chemical factories that manufacture huge numbers of diverse bioactive substances, many of which have the potential to provide substantial neuroprotective benefits. Medicinal herbs and health food supplements have been widely used in Asia since over 2,000 years. The phytochemicals utilized in traditional Chinese medicine have demonstrated safety profiles for human consumption. Many herbs with anti-amyloidogenic activity, including those containing polyphenolic constituents such as green tea, turmeric, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and Panax ginseng, are presented. Also covered in this review are extracts from kitchen spices including cinnamon, ginger, rosemary, sage, salvia herbs, Chinese celery and many others some of which are commonly used in herbal combinations and represent highly promising therapeutic natural compounds against AD. A number of clinical trials conducted on herbs to counter dementia and AD are discussed.

  5. Effects of ageing on the content in sulfur-containing amino acids in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, M S; Russo, A; Marrari, P; Dostert, P

    1991-01-01

    Concentrations of the sulfur-containing amino acids methionine, homocysteic acid, cysteic acid and taurine were measured in brain structures of young and old Wistar rats in an attempt to establish a possible link between the increase in oxidative stress with ageing and changes in tissue levels of these amino acids. Contrary to data reported by others, in all brain structures of young and old rats homocysteic acid levels could not be quantified. Compared with young rats, in old animals taurine and methionine concentrations significantly decreased in striatum and cortex; decreased taurine levels were also found in nucleus accumbens and cerebellum and lower concentrations of methionine were found in midbrain, hippocampus and pons-medulla. Cysteic acid levels either did not change or significantly increased in cortex and hippocampus. These results are discussed taking into account the biosynthesis of sulfur-containing amino acids in rat brain and the decrease in glutathione in relation to oxidative stress with ageing. Changes in aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, glutamine, glycine and GABA concentrations with ageing were also determined in the same brain structures and were in good agreement with those previously reported (Strolin Benedetti et al., 1990 a, b).

  6. Gut Microbiota: A Modulator of Brain Plasticity and Cognitive Function in Ageing.

    PubMed

    Leung, Katherine; Thuret, Sandrine

    2015-09-29

    Gut microbiota have recently been a topic of great interest in the field of microbiology, particularly their role in normal physiology and its influence on human health in disease. A large body of research has supported the presence of a pathway of communication between the gut and the brain, modulated by gut microbiota, giving rise to the term "microbiota-gut-brain" axis. It is now thought that, through this pathway, microbiota can affect behaviour and modulate brain plasticity and cognitive function in ageing. This review summarizes the evidence supporting the existence of such a connection and possible mechanisms of action whereby microbiota can influence the function of the central nervous system. Since normalisation of gut flora has been shown to prevent changes in behaviour, we further postulate on possible therapeutic targets to intervene with cognitive decline in ageing. The research poses various limitations, for example uncertainty about how this data translates to broad human populations. Nonetheless, the microbiota-gut-brain axis is an exciting field worthy of further investigation, particularly with regards to its implications on the ageing population.

  7. Brain Volume Reductions within Multiple Cognitive Systems in Male Preterm Children at Age Twelve

    PubMed Central

    Kesler, Shelli R.; Reiss, Allan L.; Vohr, Betty; Watson, Christa; Schneider, Karen C.; Katz, Karol H.; Maller-Kesselman, Jill; Silbereis, John; Constable, R. Todd; Makuch, Robert W.; Ment, Laura R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To more precisely examine regional and subregional microstructural brain changes associated with preterm birth. Study design We obtained brain volumes from 29 preterm children, age 12 years, with no ultrasound scanning evidence of intraventricular hemorrhage or cystic periventricular leukomalacia in the newborn period, and 22 age- and sex-matched term control subjects. Results Preterm male subjects demonstrated significantly lower white matter volumes in bilateral cingulum, corpus callosum, corticospinal tract, prefrontal cortex, superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi compared with term male subjects. Gray matter volumes in prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, and temporal lobe also were significantly reduced in preterm male subjects. Brain volumes of preterm female subjects were not significantly different from those of term female control subjects. Voxel-based morphometry results were not correlated with perinatal variables or cognitive outcome. Higher maternal education was associated with higher cognitive performance in preterm male subjects. Conclusions Preterm male children continue to demonstrate abnormal neurodevelopment at 12 years of age. However, brain morphology in preterm female children may no longer differ from that of term female children. The neurodevelopmental abnormalities we detected in preterm male subjects appear to be relatively diffuse, involving multiple neural systems. The relationship between aberrant neurodevelopment and perinatal variables may be mediated by genetic factors, environmental factors, or both reflected in maternal education level. PMID:18346506

  8. FTO genotype and aging: pleiotropic longitudinal effects on adiposity, brain function, impulsivity and diet.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Y-F; Tanaka, T; Beason-Held, L L; An, Y; Terracciano, A; Sutin, A R; Kraut, M; Singleton, A B; Resnick, S M; Thambisetty, M

    2015-02-01

    Although overweight and obesity are associated with poor health outcomes in the elderly, the biological bases of obesity-related behaviors during aging are poorly understood. Common variants in the FTO gene are associated with adiposity in children and younger adults as well as with adverse mental health in older individuals. However, it is unclear whether FTO influences longitudinal trajectories of adiposity and other intermediate phenotypes relevant to mental health during aging. We examined whether a commonly carried obesity-risk variant in the FTO gene (rs1421085 single-nucleotide polymorphism) influences adiposity and is associated with changes in brain function in participants within the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, one of the longest-running longitudinal aging studies in the United States. Our results show that obesity-related risk allele carriers of FTO gene show dose-dependent increments in body mass index during aging. Moreover, the obesity-related risk allele is associated with reduced medial prefrontal cortical function during aging. Consistent with reduced brain function in regions intrinsic to impulse control and taste responsiveness, risk allele carriers of FTO exhibit dose-dependent increments in both impulsivity and intake of fatty foods. We propose that a common neural mechanism may underlie obesity-associated impulsivity and increased consumption of high-calorie foods during aging.

  9. /sup 3/H-imipramine binding in aged mouse brain: regulation by ions and serotonin

    SciTech Connect

    Severson, J.A.

    1986-03-01

    The density of binding sites (Bmax) for /sup 3/H-imipramine was elevated in cerebral cortical, hypothalamic and hippocampal membranes from 24 month old male C57BL/6J mice. Cerebellar binding was constant with increasing age. There were no changes in the equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) for /sup 3/H-imipramine in any brain region. The increase in the binding of /sup 3/H-imipramine induced by sodium and chloride ions in vitro was diminished in cerebral cortical homogenates from aged mice; both the sodium-sensitive and chloride-sensitive components of binding were about 50% less in aged mice. Dose-response curves indicated that the effectiveness with which chloride enhanced binding was similar with age, even though the absolute increase in binding was less. The rate of dissociation of /sup 3/H-imipramine from cerebral cortical homogenates was similar with age and serotonin slowed the rate of dissociation equally at all ages. Possible mechanisms for the age-related increase in brain /sup 3/H-imipramine binding are discussed. Ion-sensitive binding is discussed in relationship to the current controversy surrounding desipramine-sensitive versus ion-sensitive binding.

  10. Differences in COPD Patient Care by Primary Family Caregivers: An Age-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Peng-Ching; Chu, Chi-Ming; Sung, Pei-Yi; Perng, Wann-Cherng; Wang, Kwua-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Background Because Taiwan has the fastest aging rate among developed countries, care for the elderly is becoming more prominent in the country. Primary family caregivers play an important role in patient health and health promotion behavior. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), an age-related disease, is a major public health problem with high morbidity and mortality and can be a long-term burden for family members; however, little attention has been given to the differences in COPD care between elder caregivers and other caregivers. This study aimed to investigate the differences between elder family caregivers and non-elder family caregivers caring for COPD patients in Taiwan, including caring behavior, caregiver response, and caring knowledge. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted between March 2007 and January 2008; 406 primary family caregivers of COPD patients from the thoracic outpatient departments of 6 hospitals in north-central Taiwan were recruited to answer questionnaires measuring COPD characteristics, care behavior, caregiver response, and COPD knowledge. All questionnaires, which addressed caregiver knowledge, care behaviors, and care reactions, were shown to have acceptable validity and reliability, and the data were analyzed using univariate and generalized linear model techniques. Results The elder caregivers group had 79 participants, and the non-elder caregivers comprised 327 participants. The COPD-related knowledge scale results were positively correlated with the family caregiver caring behavior scale, suggesting that better COPD-related knowledge among family caregivers may result in improved caring behavior. After adjusting for all possible confounding factors, the elder caregivers had significantly lower COPD-related knowledge than the non-elder caregivers (P<0.001). However, there were no significant differences in the family caregiver caring behavior scale or the caregiver reaction assessment scale between the two

  11. Altered conformation and increased strand breaks in neuronal and astroglial DNA of aging rat brain.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, M S; Rao, K S

    1994-05-01

    Melting temperatures (Tm) of the DNA isolated from young, adult, and old rat brain neurons and astrocytes were recorded under different conditions. There was a rise in Tm and decrease in hyperchromicity in the old when compared to the young and adult. Single and double strand breaks were assessed by using nick translation type incubation of DNA with E. coli Pol I and addition of nucleotides at the terminal 3'-OH by calf thymus terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. Results show that DNA from old brain cells is more compact in conformation. However, there is also an increase in the number of single and double strand breaks with age in both neuronal and astroglial DNA.

  12. Exercise benefits for the aging brain depend on the accompanying cognitive load: insights from sleep electroencephalogram.

    PubMed

    Horne, Jim

    2013-11-01

    Although exercise clearly offsets aging effects on the body, its benefits for the aging brain are likely to depend on the extent that physical activity (especially locomotion) facilitates multisensory encounters, curiosity, and interactions with novel environments; this is especially true for exploratory activity, which occupies much of wakefulness for most mammals in the wild. Cognition is inseparable from physical activity, with both interlinked to promote neuroplasticity and more successful brain aging. In these respects and for humans, exercising in a static, featureless, artificially lit indoor setting contrasts with exploratory outdoor walking within a novel environment during daylight. However, little is known about the comparative benefits for the aging brain of longer-term daily regimens of this latter nature including the role of sleep, to the extent that sleep enhances neuroplasticity as shown in short-term laboratory studies. More discerning analyses of sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) slow-wave activity especially 0.5-2-Hz activity would provide greater insights into use-dependent recovery processes during longer-term tracking of these regimens and complement slower changing waking neuropsychologic and resting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measures, including those of the brain's default mode network. Although the limited research only points to ephemeral small sleep EEG effects of pure exercise, more enduring effects seem apparent when physical activity incorporates cognitive challenges. In terms of "use it or lose it," curiosity-driven "getting out and about," encountering, interacting with, and enjoying novel situations may well provide the brain with its real exercise, further reflected in changes to the dynamics of sleep.

  13. The Indirect Effect of Age Group on Switch Costs via Gray Matter Volume and Task-Related Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Steffener, Jason; Gazes, Yunglin; Habeck, Christian; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging simultaneously affects brain structure, brain function, and cognition. These effects are often investigated in isolation ignoring any relationships between them. It is plausible that age related declines in cognitive performance are the result of age-related structural and functional changes. This straightforward idea is tested in within a conceptual research model of cognitive aging. The current study tested whether age-related declines in task-performance were explained by age-related differences in brain structure and brain function using a task-switching paradigm in 175 participants. Sixty-three young and 112 old participants underwent MRI scanning of brain structure and brain activation. The experimental task was an executive context dual task with switch costs in response time as the behavioral measure. A serial mediation model was applied voxel-wise throughout the brain testing all pathways between age group, gray matter volume, brain activation and increased switch costs, worsening performance. There were widespread age group differences in gray matter volume and brain activation. Switch costs also significantly differed by age group. There were brain regions demonstrating significant indirect effects of age group on switch costs via the pathway through gray matter volume and brain activation. These were in the bilateral precuneus, bilateral parietal cortex, the left precentral gyrus, cerebellum, fusiform, and occipital cortices. There were also significant indirect effects via the brain activation pathway after controlling for gray matter volume. These effects were in the cerebellum, occipital cortex, left precentral gyrus, bilateral supramarginal, bilateral parietal, precuneus, middle cingulate extending to medial superior frontal gyri and the left middle frontal gyri. There were no significant effects through the gray matter volume alone pathway. These results demonstrate that a large proportion of the age group effect on switch costs can

  14. The Indirect Effect of Age Group on Switch Costs via Gray Matter Volume and Task-Related Brain Activity.

    PubMed

    Steffener, Jason; Gazes, Yunglin; Habeck, Christian; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging simultaneously affects brain structure, brain function, and cognition. These effects are often investigated in isolation ignoring any relationships between them. It is plausible that age related declines in cognitive performance are the result of age-related structural and functional changes. This straightforward idea is tested in within a conceptual research model of cognitive aging. The current study tested whether age-related declines in task-performance were explained by age-related differences in brain structure and brain function using a task-switching paradigm in 175 participants. Sixty-three young and 112 old participants underwent MRI scanning of brain structure and brain activation. The experimental task was an executive context dual task with switch costs in response time as the behavioral measure. A serial mediation model was applied voxel-wise throughout the brain testing all pathways between age group, gray matter volume, brain activation and increased switch costs, worsening performance. There were widespread age group differences in gray matter volume and brain activation. Switch costs also significantly differed by age group. There were brain regions demonstrating significant indirect effects of age group on switch costs via the pathway through gray matter volume and brain activation. These were in the bilateral precuneus, bilateral parietal cortex, the left precentral gyrus, cerebellum, fusiform, and occipital cortices. There were also significant indirect effects via the brain activation pathway after controlling for gray matter volume. These effects were in the cerebellum, occipital cortex, left precentral gyrus, bilateral supramarginal, bilateral parietal, precuneus, middle cingulate extending to medial superior frontal gyri and the left middle frontal gyri. There were no significant effects through the gray matter volume alone pathway. These results demonstrate that a large proportion of the age group effect on switch costs can

  15. Medical necessity of routine admission of children with mild traumatic brain injury to the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Ament, Jared D; Greenan, Krista N; Tertulien, Patrick; Galante, Joseph M; Nishijima, Daniel K; Zwienenberg, Marike

    2017-04-07

    OBJECTIVE Approximately 475,000 children are treated for traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the US each year; most are classified as mild TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] Score 13-15). Patients with positive findings on head CT, defined as either intracranial hemorrhage or skull fracture, regardless of severity, are often transferred to tertiary care centers for intensive care unit (ICU) monitoring. This practice creates a significant burden on the health care system. The purpose of this investigation was to derive a clinical decision rule (CDR) to determine which children can safely avoid ICU care. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed patients with mild TBI who were ≤ 16 years old and who presented to a Level 1 trauma center between 2008 and 2013. Data were abstracted from institutional TBI and trauma registries. Independent covariates included age, GCS score, pupillary response, CT characteristics, and Injury Severity Score. A composite outcome measure, ICU-level care, was defined as cardiopulmonary instability, transfusion, intubation, placement of intracranial pressure monitor or other invasive monitoring, and/or need for surgical intervention. Stepwise logistic regression defined significant predictors for model inclusion with p < 0.10. The authors derived the CDR with binary recursive partitioning (using a misclassification cost of 20:1). RESULTS A total of 284 patients with mild TBI were included in the analysis; 40 (14.1%) had ICU-level care. The CDR consisted of 5 final predictor variables: midline shift > 5 mm, intraventricular hemorrhage, nonisolated head injury, postresuscitation GCS score of < 15, and cisterns absent. The CDR correctly identified 37 of 40 patients requiring ICU-level care (sensitivity 92.5%; 95% CI 78.5-98.0) and 154 of 244 patients who did not require an ICU-level intervention (specificity 63.1%; 95% CI 56.7-69.1). This results in a negative predictive value of 98.1% (95% CI 94.1-99.5). CONCLUSIONS The authors derived a clinical

  16. EFFECTS OF AGE, DIETARY AND BEHAVIORAL ENRICHMENT ON BRAIN MITOCHONDRIA IN A CANINE MODEL OF HUMAN AGING

    PubMed Central

    Head, E.; Nukala, V. N.; Fenoglio, K.A.; Muggenburg, B. A.; Cotman, C. W.; Sullivan, P. G.

    2009-01-01

    Dogs develop cognitive decline and a progressive accumulation of oxidative damage. In a previous longitudinal study, we demonstrated that aged dogs treated with either an antioxidant diet or with behavioral enrichment show cognitive improvement. The antioxidant diet included cellular antioxidants (Vitamins E, C, fruits and vegetables) and mitochondrial co-factors (lipoic acid and carnitine). Behavioral enrichment consisted of physical exercise, social enrichment and cognitive training. We hypothesized that the antioxidant treatment improved neuronal function through increased mitochondrial function. Thus, we measured reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and bioenergetics in mitochondria isolated from young, aged and treated aged animals. Aged canine brain mitochondria show significant increases in ROS production and a reduction in NADH-linked respiration. Mitochondrial function (ROS and NADH-linked respiration) was improved selectively in aged dogs treated with an antioxidant diet. In contrast behavioral enrichment had no effect on any mitochondrial parameters. These results suggest that an antioxidant diet improves cognition by maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis, which may be an independent molecular pathway not engaged by behavioral enrichment. PMID:19703441

  17. Language of the aging brain: Event-related potential studies of comprehension in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Wlotko, Edward W.; Lee, Chia-Lin; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2010-01-01

    Normal aging brings increased richness in knowledge and experience as well as declines in cognitive abilities. Event-related brain potential (ERP) studies of language comprehension corroborate findings showing that the structure and organization of semantic knowledge remains relatively stable with age. Highlighting the advantages of the temporal and functional specificity of ERPs, this survey focuses on age-related changes in higher-level processes required for the successful comprehension of meaning representations built from multiple words. Older adults rely on different neural pathways and cognitive processes during normal, everyday comprehension, including a shift away from the predictive use of sentential context, differential recruitment of neural resources, and reduced engagement of controlled processing. Within age groups, however, there are important individual differences that, for example, differentiate a subset of older adults whose processing patterns more closely resemble that of young adults, providing a window into cognitive skills and abilities that may mediate or moderate age-related declines. PMID:20823949

  18. Environment as 'Brain Training': A review of geographical and physical environmental influences on cognitive ageing.

    PubMed

    Cassarino, Marica; Setti, Annalisa

    2015-09-01

    Global ageing demographics coupled with increased urbanisation pose major challenges to the provision of optimal living environments for older persons, particularly in relation to cognitive health. Although animal studies emphasize the benefits of enriched environments for cognition, and brain training interventions have shown that maintaining or improving cognitive vitality in older age is possible, our knowledge of the characteristics of our physical environment which are protective for cognitive ageing is lacking. The present review analyses different environmental characteristics (e.g. urban vs. rural settings, presence of green) in relation to cognitive performance in ageing. Studies of direct and indirect associations between physical environment and cognitive performance are reviewed in order to describe the evidence that our living contexts constitute a measurable factor in determining cognitive ageing.

  19. Fetal Functional Brain Age Assessed from Universal Developmental Indices Obtained from Neuro-Vegetative Activity Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Hoyer, Dirk; Tetschke, Florian; Jaekel, Susan; Nowack, Samuel; Witte, Otto W.; Schleußner, Ekkehard; Schneider, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Fetal brain development involves the development of the neuro-vegetative (autonomic) control that is mediated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Disturbances of the fetal brain development have implications for diseases in later postnatal life. In that context, the fetal functional brain age can be altered. Universal principles of developmental biology applied to patterns of autonomic control may allow a functional age assessment. The work aims at the development of a fetal autonomic brain age score (fABAS) based on heart rate patterns. We analysed n = 113 recordings in quiet sleep, n = 286 in active sleep, and n = 29 in active awakeness from normals. We estimated fABAS from magnetocardiographic recordings (21.4–40.3 weeks of gestation) preclassified in quiet sleep (n = 113, 63 females) and active sleep (n = 286, 145 females) state by cross-validated multivariate linear regression models in a cross-sectional study. According to universal system developmental principles, we included indices that address increasing fluctuation range, increasing complexity, and pattern formation (skewness, power spectral ratio VLF/LF, pNN5). The resulting models constituted fABAS. fABAS explained 66/63% (coefficient of determination R2 of training and validation set) of the variance by age in quiet, while 51/50% in active sleep. By means of a logistic regression model using fluctuation range and fetal age, quiet and active sleep were automatically reclassified (94.3/93.1% correct classifications). We did not find relevant gender differences. We conclude that functional brain age can be assessed based on universal developmental indices obtained from autonomic control patterns. fABAS reflect normal complex functional brain maturation. The presented normative data are supplemented by an explorative study of 19 fetuses compromised by intrauterine growth restriction. We observed a shift in the state distribution towards active awakeness. The lower WGA dependent f

  20. Brain cortex mitochondrial bioenergetics in synaptosomes and non-synaptic mitochondria during aging.

    PubMed

    Lores-Arnaiz, Silvia; Lombardi, Paulina; Karadayian, Analía G; Orgambide, Federico; Cicerchia, Daniela; Bustamante, Juanita

    2016-02-01

    Alterations in mitochondrial bioenergetics have been associated with brain aging. In order to evaluate the susceptibility of brain cortex synaptosomes and non-synaptic mitochondria to aging-dependent dysfunction, male Swiss mice of 3 or 17 months old were used. Mitochondrial function was evaluated by oxygen consumption, mitochondrial membrane potential and respiratory complexes activity, together with UCP-2 protein expression. Basal respiration and respiration driving proton leak were decreased by 26 and 33 % in synaptosomes from 17-months old mice, but spare respiratory capacity was not modified by aging. Succinate supported state 3 respiratory rate was decreased by 45 % in brain cortex non-synaptic mitochondria from 17-month-old mice, as compared with young animals, but respiratory control was not affected. Synaptosomal mitochondria would be susceptible to undergo calcium-induced depolarization in 17 months-old mice, while non-synaptic mitochondria would not be affected by calcium overload. UCP-2 was significantly up-regulated in both synaptosomal and submitochondrial membranes from 17-months old mice, compared to young animals. UCP-2 upregulation seems to be a possible mechanism by which mitochondria would be resistant to suffer oxidative damage during aging.

  1. Brain activation changes during locomotion in middle-aged to older adults with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Manuel E; Holtzer, Roee; Chaparro, Gioella; Jean, Kharine; Balto, Julia M; Sandroff, Brian M; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Motl, Robert W

    2016-11-15

    Mobility and cognitive impairments are common in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), and are expected to worsen with increasing age. However, no studies, to date, in part due to limitations of conventional neuroimaging methods, have examined changes in brain activation patterns during active locomotion in older patients with MS. This study used functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) to evaluate real-time neural activation differences in the pre-frontal cortex (PFC) between middle-aged to older adults with MS and healthy controls during single (Normal Walk; NW) and dual-task (Walking While Talking; WWT) locomotion tasks. Eight middle-aged to older adults with MS and eight healthy controls underwent fNIRS recording while performing the NW and WWT tasks with an fNIRS cap consisting of 16 optodes positioned over the forehead. The MS group had greater elevations in PFC oxygenation levels during WWT compared to NW than healthy controls. There was no walking performance difference between groups during locomotion. These findings suggest that middle-aged to older individuals with MS might be able to achieve similar levels of performance through the use of increased brain activation. This study is the first to investigate brain activation changes during the performance of simple and divided-attention locomotion tasks in MS using fNIRS.

  2. Alzheimer Lesions in the Autopsied Brains of People 30 to 50 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Pletnikova, Olga; Rudow, Gay L.; Hyde, Thomas M.; Kleinman, Joel E.; Ali, Sabeen Z.; Bharadwaj, Rahul; Gangadeen, Salina; Crain, Barbara J.; Fowler, David R.; Rubio, Ana I.; Troncoso, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that asymptomatic Alzheimer disease lesions may appear before 50 years of age. Background Alzheimer disease has an asymptomatic stage during which people are cognitively intact despite having substantial pathologic changes in the brain. While this asymptomatic stage is common in older people, how early in life it may develop has been unknown. Methods We microscopically examined the postmortem brains of 154 people aged 30-39 years (n = 59) and 40-50 years (n = 95) for specific Alzheimer lesions: beta-amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and tau-positive neurites. We genotyped DNA samples for the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE). Results We found beta-amyloid lesions in 13 brains, all of them from people aged 40 to 49 with no history of dementia. These plaques were of the diffuse type only and appeared throughout the neocortex. Among these 13 brains, 5 had very subtle tau lesions in the entorhinal cortex and/or hippocampus. All individuals with beta-amyloid deposits carried 1 or 2 APOE4 alleles. Among the individuals aged 40 to 50 with genotype APOE3/4, 10 (36%) had beta-amyloid deposits but 18 (64%) had none. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that beta-amyloid deposits in the cerebral cortex appear as early as 40 years of age in APOE4 carriers, suggesting that these lesions may constitute a very early stage of Alzheimer disease. Future preventive and therapeutic measures for this disease may have to be stratified by risk factors like APOE genotype and target people in their 40s or even earlier. PMID:26413742

  3. Sparse Representation of Brain Aging: Extracting Covariance Patterns from Structural MRI

    PubMed Central

    Su, Longfei; Wang, Lubin; Chen, Fanglin; Shen, Hui; Li, Baojuan; Hu, Dewen

    2012-01-01

    An enhanced understanding of how normal aging alters brain structure is urgently needed for the early diagnosis and treatment of age-related mental diseases. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a reliable technique used to detect age-related changes in the human brain. Currently, multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) enables the exploration of subtle and distributed changes of data obtained from structural MRI images. In this study, a new MVPA approach based on sparse representation has been employed to investigate the anatomical covariance patterns of normal aging. Two groups of participants (group 1∶290 participants; group 2∶56 participants) were evaluated in this study. These two groups were scanned with two 1.5 T MRI machines. In the first group, we obtained the discriminative patterns using a t-test filter and sparse representation step. We were able to distinguish the young from old cohort with a very high accuracy using only a few voxels of the discriminative patterns (group 1∶98.4%; group 2∶96.4%). The experimental results showed that the selected voxels may be categorized into two components according to the two steps in the proposed method. The first component focuses on the precentral and postcentral gyri, and the caudate nucleus, which play an important role in sensorimotor tasks. The strongest volume reduction with age was observed in these clusters. The second component is mainly distributed over the cerebellum, thalamus, and right inferior frontal gyrus. These regions are not only critical nodes of the sensorimotor circuitry but also the cognitive circuitry although their volume shows a relative resilience against aging. Considering the voxels selection procedure, we suggest that the aging of the sensorimotor and cognitive brain regions identified in this study has a covarying relationship with each other. PMID:22590522

  4. In the rush for green gold: Can green tea delay age-progressive brain neurodegeneration?

    PubMed

    Mandel, Silvia A; Youdim, Moussa B H

    2012-12-01

    It is evident that brain aging engages changes in biological systems linked to synaptic function and cell metabolism and in the capacity to cope with different stresses that are either idiopathic in nature, or subject to environmental insults. In a substantial segment of the aging population there is a pathological transition to cognitive and behavioral dysfunction and thus, age constitutes the primary risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. To address the etiological complexity of aging and age-associated conditions, a new paradigm gaining increasing acceptance considers the use of multi-targeted ligands or combination of drugs to modulate several targets at once. During the past years intensive efforts are dedicated to the implementation of life style habits such as exercise and dietary compounds/supplements in combination with symptomatic treatment drugs to improve age-related cognitive decline and to attenuate motor and neurological dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases. The catechin polyphenols constituents of green tea, which were for long time regarded merely as dietary antioxidants, have caught our and other scientist's attention because of their diverse pharmacological activities, which have been allied to a possible beneficial action on brain health. This review will elaborate on the impact of nutritional supplementation on brain function in general, and provide a compilation of the most updated literature on epidemiology, clinical and animal studies with green tea polyphenols in age-associated cognitive decline and in fighting neurodegenerative diseases. To conclude, a future perspective on the utility and assigned patents with green tea constituents will be presented.

  5. Human brain networks in physiological aging: a graph theoretical analysis of cortical connectivity from EEG data.

    PubMed

    Vecchio, Fabrizio; Miraglia, Francesca; Bramanti, Placido; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2014-01-01

    Modern analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms provides information on dynamic brain connectivity. To test the hypothesis that aging processes modulate the brain connectivity network, EEG recording was conducted on 113 healthy volunteers. They were divided into three groups in accordance with their ages: 36 Young (15-45 years), 46 Adult (50-70 years), and 31 Elderly (>70 years). To evaluate the stability of the investigated parameters, a subgroup of 10 subjects underwent a second EEG recording two weeks later. Graph theory functions were applied to the undirected and weighted networks obtained by the lagged linear coherence evaluated by eLORETA on cortical sources. EEG frequency bands of interest were: delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha1 (8-10.5 Hz), alpha2 (10.5-13 Hz), beta1 (13-20 Hz), beta2 (20-30 Hz), and gamma (30-40 Hz). The spectral connectivity analysis of cortical sources showed that the normalized Characteristic Path Length (λ) presented the pattern Young > Adult>Elderly in the higher alpha band. Elderly also showed a greater increase in delta and theta bands than Young. The correlation between age and λ showed that higher ages corresponded to higher λ in delta and theta and lower in the alpha2 band; this pattern reflects the age-related modulation of higher (alpha) and decreased (delta) connectivity. The Normalized Clustering coefficient (γ) and small-world network modeling (σ) showed non-significant age-modulation. Evidence from the present study suggests that graph theory can aid in the analysis of connectivity patterns estimated from EEG and can facilitate the study of the physiological and pathological brain aging features of functional connectivity networks.

  6. Bridging the gap in ageing: Translating policies into practice in Malaysian Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Population ageing is poised to become a major challenge to the health system as Malaysia progresses to becoming a developed nation by 2020. This article aims to review the various ageing policy frameworks available globally; compare aged care policies and health services in Malaysia with Australia; and discuss various issues and challenges in translating these policies into practice in the Malaysian primary care system. Fundamental solutions identified to bridge the gap include restructuring of the health care system, development of comprehensive benefit packages for older people under the national health financing scheme, training of the primary care workforce, effective use of electronic medical records and clinical guidelines; and empowering older people and their caregivers with knowledge, skills and positive attitudes to ageing and self care. Ultimately, family medicine specialists must become the agents for change to lead multidisciplinary teams and work with various agencies to ensure that better coordination, continuity and quality of care are eventually delivered to older patients across time and settings. PMID:21385446

  7. Interprofessional education in practice: Evaluation of a work integrated aged care program.

    PubMed

    Lawlis, Tanya; Wicks, Alison; Jamieson, Maggie; Haughey, Amy; Grealish, Laurie

    2016-03-01

    Health professional clinical education is commonly conducted in single discipline modes, thus limiting student collaboration skills. Aged care residential facilities, due to the chronic and complex health care needs of residents, provide an ideal placement to provide a collaborative experience. Interprofessional education is widely acknowledged as the pedagogical framework through which to facilitate collaboration. The aim of the evaluation was to assess student attitudes towards collaboration after active involvement in an interprofessional education program. Students studying nursing, occupational therapy, and aged care were invited to complete a version of the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale before and after participating in a three-week pilot interprofessional program. A positive change in student attitudes towards other health professionals and the importance of working in interprofessional teams was reported with significant differences between two statements indicated: Learning with health-care students before qualifications would improve relationships after qualifications; and I learned a lot from the students from the other disciplines. The innovative pilot project was found to enhance student learning in interprofessional teams and the aged care environment. Further development of this and similar interprofessional programs is required to develop sustainable student projects that have health benefits for residents in aged care residential facilities.

  8. The Minority Aging Research Study: ongoing efforts to obtain brain donation in African Americans without dementia.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Lisa L; Shah, Raj C; Aggarwal, Neelum T; Bennett, David A; Schneider, Julie A

    2012-07-01

    The Minority Aging Research Study (MARS) is a longitudinal, epidemiologic cohort study of decline in cognitive function and risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in older African Americans, with brain donation after death added as an optional component for those willing to consider organ donation. In this manuscript, we first summarize the study design and methods of MARS. We then provide details of ongoing efforts to achieve neuropathologic data on over 100 African Americans participating in MARS and in three other clinical-pathologic cohort studies at Rush University Medical Center. The results examine strategies for recruiting and consenting African Americans without dementia; (2) efforts to maintain high rates of follow-up participation; (3) strategies for achieving high rates of agreement to brain donation; and (4) the methodology of obtaining rapid brain autopsy at death. The implications of these efforts are discussed.

  9. Inputs to prefrontal cortex support visual recognition in the aging brain

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Jessica R.; Moran, Rosalyn J.

    2016-01-01

    Predictive coding models of brain function propose that top-down cortical signals promote efficient neural codes by carrying predictions of upcoming sensory events. We hypothesized that older brains would employ these codes more prominently given their longer repertoire of sensory experience. We measured the connectivity underlying stimulus-evoked responses in cortical visual networks using electroencephalography and dynamic causal modeling and found that in young adults with reported normal or corrected-to-normal vision, signals propagated from early visual regions and reverberated along reciprocal connections to temporal, parietal and frontal cortices, while in contrast, the network was driven by both early visual and prefrontal inputs in older adults with reported normal or corrected-to-normal vision. Previously thought of as exceptions to the rule of bottom-up signal propagation, our results demonstrate a prominent role for prefrontal inputs in driving vision in aged brains in line with lifespan-dependent predictive neural codes. PMID:27550752

  10. PROGESTERONE AND VITAMIN D HORMONE FOR TREATMENT OF TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY IN THE AGED1

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Donald G.; Cekic, Milos M.

    2013-01-01

    There is growing recognition that traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a highly variable and complex systemic disorder that is refractory to therapies that target individual mechanisms. It is even more complex in the elderly, in whom frailty, prior comorbidities, altered metabolism, and a long history of medication use are likely to complicate the secondary effects of brain trauma. Progesterone, one of the few neuroprotective agents that has shown promise for the treatment of acute brain injury, is now in national and international Phase III multi-center trial. New findings show that vitamin D hormone (VDH) and vitamin D deficiency in aging (and across the developmental spectrum) may interact with progesterone and TBI treatment. This paper reviews the use of progesterone and VDH as biologics based therapies and recent studies showing that the combination of progesterone and VDH may promote better functional outcomes than either treatment independently. PMID:21703565

  11. The effects of age, gender, and crash types on drivers' injury-related health care costs.

    PubMed

    Shen, Sijun; Neyens, David M

    2015-04-01

    There are many studies that evaluate the effects of age, gender, and crash types on crash related injury severity. However, few studies investigate the effects of those crash factors on the crash related health care costs for drivers that are transported to hospital. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between drivers' age, gender, and the crash types, as well as other crash characteristics (e.g., not wearing a seatbelt, weather condition, and fatigued driving), on the crash related health care costs. The South Carolina Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (SC CODES) from 2005 to 2007 was used to construct six separate hierarchical linear regression models based on drivers' age and gender. The results suggest that older drivers have higher health care costs than younger drivers and male drivers tend to have higher health care costs than female drivers in the same age group. Overall, single vehicle crashes had the highest health care costs for all drivers. For males older than 64-years old sideswipe crashes are as costly as single vehicle crashes. In general, not wearing a seatbelt, airbag deployment, and speeding were found to be associated with higher health care costs. Distraction-related crashes are more likely to be associated with lower health care costs in most cases. Furthermore this study highlights the value of considering drivers in subgroups, as some factors have different effects on health care costs in different driver groups. Developing an understanding of longer term outcomes of crashes and their characteristics can lead to improvements in vehicle technology, educational materials, and interventions to reduce crash-related health care costs.

  12. The "brain drain" of health care workers: causes, solutions and the example of Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Lofters, Aisha K

    2012-07-18

    Despite much media attention being given to the physician shortage in Canada in recent years, this shortage pales in comparison to that seen in many middle- and low-income countries. A major cause of the shortage in these countries is the migration of health care workers from developing to developed nations, a phenomenon known as the "brain drain". The loss of these workers is having devastating impacts globally, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean. Causes of the "brain drain" are numerous and include poor working conditions in poorer countries and active recruitment by richer countries. Jamaica has been one of the countries in the Caribbean hardest hit by mass migration of health care workers. The multiple dimensions of Jamaica's health worker "brain drain" illustrate both the complexity of the issues reviewed in this commentary, and the net loss for low- and middle-income countries. Creative and sustainable solutions to the problem are actively being sought globally, but will require commitment and support from all nations as well as from international funding bodies if meaningful impacts on health are to be realized.

  13. Financing care for aging women in the U.S.: international perspectives.

    PubMed

    Neuman, P H; Rice, D P; Hussey, P S

    2000-04-01

    The aging of the U.S. population presents challenges in financing care and meeting the health and long-term care needs of older Americans. Women, who constitute a majority of the older adult population and a disproportionate share of those with low incomes, chronic conditions and long-term care needs, have much at stake in the future direction of health programs for aging Americans. This paper examines the status of older women in 12 industrialized nations to assess how the U.S. compares to other countries in terms of its aging female population. We find that women across the 12 industrialized countries have a longer life expectancy than men at ages 65 and 80, underscoring the universality of aging as a "women's issue". With respect to age composition, the U.S. lags behind many industrialized nations in the share of its elderly female population; by 2030, the proportion of women aged 65 and older, and 80 and older, will be lower in the U.S. than in any of the industrialized nations compared in this paper. Against this backdrop, the paper examines the characteristics of older adult women in the U.S., considers the role of Medicare in meeting the needs of aging women, and identifies gaps in coverage, primarily prescription drug and long-term care, that disproportionately affect older women. The paper concludes by considering how other nations provide and finance prescription drug and long-term care services for older adults, suggesting useful models for the U.S. to consider as it struggles to meet the demands of its aging population.

  14. Impact of age on care pathways of people living with HIV followed up in hospital.

    PubMed

    Jacomet, Christine; Berland, Pauline; Guiguet, Marguerite; Simon, Anne; Rey, David; Arvieux, Cédric; Pugliese, Pascal; Gerbaud, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    The aging population of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PLWH) is exposed to a widening spectrum of non-AIDS-defining diseases. Thus, our objective was to compare the health care offered to PLWH according to age. We conducted a multicenter cross-sectional study on PLWH who consulted at one of 59 French HIV reference centers from 15th to 19th October 2012. Using our survey questionnaires, PLWH self-reported the medical care they received, whether or not tied to HIV infection monitoring, during the previous year. A total of 650 PLWH participated in the survey (median age 48 years, Interquartile range (IQR) 40-54), of which 95 were aged 60 years or over (14.5%). Compared to younger PLWH, 60-and-over PLWH were more often under complementary health insurance cover and less socially deprived based on the French EPICES (Evaluation of Precarity and Inequalities in Health Examination Centers) score. The elderly PLWH presented more comorbidities and less coinfections with hepatitis viruses. During health care, therapeutic education was less often offered to older PLWH (14% vs. 26%, p = .01), but this difference was mainly explained by sociodemographic factors and clinical status. Over the previous 6 months, 74% of PLWH who were followed up in hospital had also consulted another doctor, with a mean of 3.75 consultations (±4.18) without difference between age groups. After adjustment for sociodemographic factors and comorbidities, PLWH over 60 years were more likely to have consulted medical specialists as outpatients in the last 6 months (odds ratio [OR] = 2.63 [1.11-6.20]). Whatever their age, 13% of PLWH had been refused care on disclosure of their HIV status, and 27% of PLWH still did not disclose their HIV status to some caregivers. Coordinated health care throughout patients' lives is crucial, as health-care pathways evolve toward outpatient care as the patients get older.

  15. Motherhood mitigates aging-related decrements in learning and memory and positively affects brain aging in the rat.

    PubMed

    Gatewood, Jessica D; Morgan, Melissa D; Eaton, Mollie; McNamara, Ilan M; Stevens, Lillian F; Macbeth, Abbe H; Meyer, Elizabeth A A; Lomas, Lisa M; Kozub, Frederick J; Lambert, Kelly G; Kinsley, Craig Howard

    2005-07-30

    The current work examined spatial learning and memory (i.e., latencies to find a baited food well) in age-matched nulliparous, primiparous and multiparous (NULL, PRIM and MULT, zero, one or two pregnancies and lactations, respectively). We tested at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months of age in a dry land version of the Morris water maze (Main task), and at 12, 18 and 24 months in the same task in which the original location of the baited well was changed (Reversal task). We show that PRIM/MULT rats, compared to the age-matched NULL females, learned the spatial tasks significantly better and exhibited attenuated memory decline, up to 24 months of age. Furthermore, at the conclusion of behavioral testing, we investigated levels of these animals' hippocampal (CA1 and dentate gyrus) immunoreactive amyloid precursor protein (APP), a marker of neurodegeneration and age-related cognitive loss. MULTs had significantly reduced APP in both CA1 and DG, relative to PRIMs and NULLs, and PRIMs had a trend (p<0.06) toward a reduction in APP compared to NULLs in DG. Further, level of APP was negatively correlated with performance in the two tasks (viz., more APP, worse maze performance). Reproduction, therefore, with its attendant natural endocrine and postpartum sensory experiences, may facilitate lifelong learning and memory, and may mitigate markers of neural aging, in the rat. Combining natural hormonal exposure with subsequent substantial experience with stimuli from the offspring may preserve the aged parous female brain relative to that of NULL females.

  16. Critical action research applied in clinical placement development in aged care facilities.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lily D; Kelton, Moira; Paterson, Jan

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop quality clinical placements in residential aged care facilities for undergraduate nursing students undertaking their nursing practicum topics. The proportion of people aged over 65 years is expected to increase steadily from 13% in 2006 to 26% of the total population in Australia in 2051. However, when demand is increasing for a nursing workforce competent in the care of older people, studies have shown that nursing students generally lack interest in working with older people. The lack of exposure of nursing students to quality clinical placements is one of the key factors contributing to this situation. Critical action research built on a partnership between an Australian university and five aged care organisations was utilised. A theoretical framework informed by Habermas' communicative action theory was utilised to guide the action research. Multiple research activities were used to support collaborative critical reflection and inform actions throughout the action research. Clinical placements in eight residential aged care facilities were developed to support 179 nursing students across three year-levels to complete their practicum topics. Findings were presented in three categories described as structures developed to govern clinical placement, learning and teaching in residential aged care facilities.

  17. Age- and brain-region-specific effects of dietary vitamin K on myelin sulfatides

    PubMed Central

    Crivello, Natalia A.; Casseus, Sherley L.; Peterson, James W.; Smith, Donald E.; Booth, Sarah L.

    2009-01-01

    Dysregulation of myelin sulfatides is a risk factor for cognitive decline with age. Vitamin K is present in high concentrations in the brain and has been implicated in the regulation of sulfatide metabolism. Our objective was to investigate the age-related interrelation between dietary vitamin K and sulfatides in myelin fractions isolated from the brain regions of Fischer 344 male rats fed one of two dietary forms of vitamin K: phylloquinone or its hydrogenated form, dihydrophylloquinone for 28 days. Both dietary forms of vitamin K were converted to menaquinone-4 in the brain. The efficiency of dietary dihydrophylloquinone conversion to menaquinone-4 compared to dietary phylloquinone was lower in the striatum and cortex, and was similar to those in the hippocampus. There were significant positive correlations between sulfatides and menaquinone-4 in the hippocampus (phylloquinone-supplemented diet -12mo and 24mo; dihydrophylloquinone -supplemented diet - 12mo) and cortex (phylloquinone-supplemented diet -12mo and 24 mo). No significant correlations were observed in the striatum. Furthermore, sulfatides in the hippocampus were significantly positively correlated with MK-4 in serum. This is the first attempt to establish and characterize a novel animal model that exploits the inability of dietary dihydrophylloquinone to convert to brain menaquinone-4 to study the dietary effects of vitamin K on brain sulfatide in brain regions controlling motor and cognitive functions. Our findings suggest that this animal model may be useful for investigation of the effect of the dietary vitamin K on sulfatide metabolism, myelin structure, and behavior functions. PMID:20092997

  18. Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders and Brain and Body Donation Program.

    PubMed

    Beach, Thomas G; Adler, Charles H; Sue, Lucia I; Serrano, Geidy; Shill, Holly A; Walker, Douglas G; Lue, LihFen; Roher, Alex E; Dugger, Brittany N; Maarouf, Chera; Birdsill, Alex C; Intorcia, Anthony; Saxon-Labelle, Megan; Pullen, Joel; Scroggins, Alexander; Filon, Jessica; Scott, Sarah; Hoffman, Brittany; Garcia, Angelica; Caviness, John N; Hentz, Joseph G; Driver-Dunckley, Erika; Jacobson, Sandra A; Davis, Kathryn J; Belden, Christine M; Long, Kathy E; Malek-Ahmadi, Michael; Powell, Jessica J; Gale, Lisa D; Nicholson, Lisa R; Caselli, Richard J; Woodruff, Bryan K; Rapscak, Steven Z; Ahern, Geoffrey L; Shi, Jiong; Burke, Anna D; Reiman, Eric M; Sabbagh, Marwan N

    2015-08-01

    The Brain and Body Donation Program (BBDP) at Banner Sun Health Research Institute (http://www.brainandbodydonationprogram.org) started in 1987 with brain-only donations and currently has banked more than 1600 brains. More than 430 whole-body donations have been received since this service was commenced in 2005. The collective academic output of the BBDP is now described as the Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders (AZSAND). Most BBDP subjects are enrolled as cognitively normal volunteers residing in the retirement communities of metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona. Specific recruitment efforts are also directed at subjects with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and cancer. The median age at death is 82. Subjects receive standardized general medical, neurological, neuropsychological and movement disorders assessments during life and more than 90% receive full pathological examinations by medically licensed pathologists after death. The Program has been funded through a combination of internal, federal and state of Arizona grants as well as user fees and pharmaceutical industry collaborations. Subsets of the Program are utilized by the US National Institute on Aging Arizona Alzheimer's Disease Core Center and the US National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke National Brain and Tissue Resource for Parkinson's Disease and Related Disorders. Substantial funding has also been received from the Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research. The Program has made rapid autopsy a priority, with a 3.0-hour median post-mortem interval for the entire collection. The median RNA Integrity Number (RIN) for frozen brain and body tissue is 8.9 and 7.4, respectively. More than 2500 tissue requests have been served and currently about 200 are served annually. These requests have been made by more than 400 investigators located in 32 US states and 15 countries. Tissue from the BBDP has contributed to more than 350 publications and more than 200

  19. Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders and Brain and Body Donation Program

    PubMed Central

    Beach, Thomas G.; Adler, Charles H.; Sue, Lucia I.; Serrano, Geidy; Shill, Holly A.; Walker, Douglas G.; Lue, LihFen; Roher, Alex E.; Dugger, Brittany N.; Maarouf, Chera; Birdsill, Alex C.; Intorcia, Anthony; Saxon-Labelle, Megan; Pullen, Joel; Scroggins, Alexander; Filon, Jessica; Scott, Sarah; Hoffman, Brittany; Garcia, Angelica; Caviness, John N.; Hentz, Joseph G.; Driver-Dunckley, Erika; Jacobson, Sandra A.; Davis, Kathryn J.; Belden, Christine M.; Long, Kathy E.; Malek-Ahmadi, Michael; Powell, Jessica J.; Gale, Lisa D.; Nicholson, Lisa R.; Caselli, Richard J.; Woodruff, Bryan K.; Rapscak, Steven Z.; Ahern, Geoffrey L.; Shi, Jiong; Burke, Anna D.; Reiman, Eric M.; Sabbagh, Marwan N.

    2015-01-01

    The Brain and Body Donation Program (BBDP) at Banner Sun Health Research Institute (http://www.brainandbodydonationprogram.org) started in 1987 with brain-only donations and currently has banked more than 1600 brains. More than 430 whole-body donations have been received since this service was commenced in 2005. The collective academic output of the BBDP is now described as the Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders (AZSAND). Most BBDP subjects are enrolled as cognitively normal volunteers residing in the retirement communities of metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona. Specific recruitment efforts are also directed at subjects with Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and cancer. The median age at death is 82. Subjects receive standardized general medical, neurological, neuropsychological and movement disorders assessments during life and more than 90% receive full pathological examinations by medically licensed pathologists after death. The Program has been funded through a combination of internal, federal and state of Arizona grants as well as user fees and pharmaceutical industry collaborations. Subsets of the Program are utilized by the US National Institute on Aging Arizona Alzheimer’s Disease Core Center and the US National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke National Brain and Tissue Resource for Parkinson’s Disease and Related Disorders. Substantial funding has also been received from the Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research. The Program has made rapid autopsy a priority, with a 3.0-hour median postmortem interval for the entire collection. The median RNA Integrity Number (RIN) for frozen brain and body tissue is 8.9 and 7.4, respectively. More than 2500 tissue requests have been served and currently about 200 are served annually. These requests have been made by more than 400 investigators located in 32 US states and 15 countries. Tissue from the BBDP has contributed to more than 350 publications and more than

  20. Staff-family relationships in residential aged care facilities: the views of residents' family members and care staff.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Michael; Fetherstonhaugh, Deirdre; Tarzia, Laura; Chenco, Carol

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to examine staff and family members' perceptions of each other's roles and responsibilities in the Australian residential aged care setting. Data was collected by interview and focus group from 27 staff and 14 family members at five residential aged care facilities in the state of Victoria, Australia. Findings highlight "communication" as the core category supporting the formation of constructive staff-family relationships, as described by three main themes; "building trust," "involvement," and "keeping the family happy." Staff attitudes, mutual cooperation, meaningful engagement, and shared expectations lay the foundation for relationships. Findings suggest that further efforts to establish and sustain good relationships with families are required by facilities. Characteristics, roles, and expectations of staff and family that can both promote and hinder the formation of constructive staff-family relationships are discussed.

  1. Physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) care pathways: adults with severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Pradat-Diehl, P; Joseph, P-A; Beuret-Blanquart, F; Luauté, J; Tasseau, F; Remy-Neris, O; Azouvi, P; Sengler, J; Bayen, É; Yelnik, A; Mazaux, J-M

    2012-11-01

    This document is part of a series of guidelines documents designed by the French Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Society (SOFMER) and the French Federation of PRM (FEDMER). These reference documents focus on a particular pathology (here patients with severe TBI). They describe for each given pathology patients' clinical and social needs, PRM care objectives and necessary human and material resources of the pathology-dedicated pathway. 'Care pathways in PRM' is therefore a short document designed to enable readers (physician, decision-maker, administrator, lawyer, finance manager) to have a global understanding of available therapeutic care structures, organization and economic needs for patients' optimal care and follow-up. After a severe traumatic brain injury, patients might be divided into three categories according to impairment's severity, to early outcomes in the intensive care unit and to functional prognosis. Each category is considered in line with six identical parameters used in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (World Health Organization), focusing thereafter on personal and environmental factors liable to affect the patients' needs.