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Sample records for aging cardiovascular system

  1. Cardiovascular system

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    The cardiovascular system is composed of the heart and the network of arteries, veins, and capillaries that transport blood throughout the body. The ... which they are eliminated. Most of the blood is made up of a watery, protein-laden fluid ...

  2. Polyphenols: Benefits to the Cardiovascular System in Health and in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Sandhya; Venkataraman, Krishnan; Hollingsworth, Amanda; Piche, Matthew; Tai, T. C.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of naturally occurring dietary polyphenols in promoting cardiovascular health and emphasized the significant role these compounds play in limiting the effects of cellular aging. Polyphenols such as resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and curcumin have been acknowledged for having beneficial effects on cardiovascular health, while some have also been shown to be protective in aging. This review highlights the literature surrounding this topic on the prominently studied and documented polyphenols as pertaining to cardiovascular health and aging. PMID:24077237

  3. Pharmacological Strategies to Retard Cardiovascular Aging.

    PubMed

    Alfaras, Irene; Di Germanio, Clara; Bernier, Michel; Csiszar, Anna; Ungvari, Zoltan; Lakatta, Edward G; de Cabo, Rafael

    2016-05-13

    Aging is the major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, which are the leading cause of death in the United States. Traditionally, the effort to prevent cardiovascular disease has been focused on addressing the conventional risk factors, including hypertension, hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, and high circulating levels of triglycerides. However, recent preclinical studies have identified new approaches to combat cardiovascular disease. Calorie restriction has been reproducibly shown to prolong lifespan in various experimental model animals. This has led to the development of calorie restriction mimetics and other pharmacological interventions capable to delay age-related diseases. In this review, we will address the mechanistic effects of aging per se on the cardiovascular system and focus on the prolongevity benefits of various therapeutic strategies that support cardiovascular health. PMID:27174954

  4. Nonlinear dynamics of cardiovascular ageing

    PubMed Central

    Shiogai, Y.; Stefanovska, A.; McClintock, P.V.E.

    2010-01-01

    The application of methods drawn from nonlinear and stochastic dynamics to the analysis of cardiovascular time series is reviewed, with particular reference to the identification of changes associated with ageing. The natural variability of the heart rate (HRV) is considered in detail, including the respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) corresponding to modulation of the instantaneous cardiac frequency by the rhythm of respiration. HRV has been intensively studied using traditional spectral analyses, e.g. by Fourier transform or autoregressive methods, and, because of its complexity, has been used as a paradigm for testing several proposed new methods of complexity analysis. These methods are reviewed. The application of time–frequency methods to HRV is considered, including in particular the wavelet transform which can resolve the time-dependent spectral content of HRV. Attention is focused on the cardio-respiratory interaction by introduction of the respiratory frequency variability signal (RFV), which can be acquired simultaneously with HRV by use of a respiratory effort transducer. Current methods for the analysis of interacting oscillators are reviewed and applied to cardio-respiratory data, including those for the quantification of synchronization and direction of coupling. These reveal the effect of ageing on the cardio-respiratory interaction through changes in the mutual modulation of the instantaneous cardiac and respiratory frequencies. Analyses of blood flow signals recorded with laser Doppler flowmetry are reviewed and related to the current understanding of how endothelial-dependent oscillations evolve with age: the inner lining of the vessels (the endothelium) is shown to be of crucial importance to the emerging picture. It is concluded that analyses of the complex and nonlinear dynamics of the cardiovascular system can illuminate the mechanisms of blood circulation, and that the heart, the lungs and the vascular system function as a single entity in

  5. Sex differences in cardiovascular ageing.

    PubMed

    Merz, Allison A; Cheng, Susan

    2016-06-01

    Despite recent progress in identifying and narrowing the gaps in cardiovascular outcomes between men and women, general understanding of how and why cardiovascular disease presentations differ between the sexes remains limited. Sex-specific patterns of cardiac and vascular ageing play an important role and, in fact, begin very early in life. Differences between the sexes in patterns of age-related cardiac remodelling are associated with the relatively greater prevalence in women than in men of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Similarly, sex variation in how vascular structure and function change with ageing contributes to differences between men and women in how coronary artery disease manifests typically or atypically over the adult life course. Both hormonal and non-hormonal factors underlie sex differences in cardiovascular ageing and the development of age-related disease. The midlife withdrawal of endogenous oestrogen appears to augment the age-related increase in cardiovascular risk seen in postmenopausal compared with premenopausal women. However, when compared with intrinsic biological differences between men and women that are present throughout life, this menopausal transition may not be as substantial an actor in determining cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:26917537

  6. Telomere length and cardiovascular aging.

    PubMed

    Fyhrquist, Frej; Saijonmaa, Outi

    2012-06-01

    Telomeres are located at the end of chromosomes. They are composed of repetitive TTAGGG tandem repeats and associated proteins of crucial importance for telomere function. Telomeric DNA is shortened by each cell division until a critical length is achieved and the cell enters senescence and eventually apoptosis. Telomeres are therefore considered a 'biological clock' of the cell. Telomerase adds nucleotides to telomeric DNA thereby contributing to telomere maintenance, genomic stability, functions, and proliferative capacity of the cell. In certain rare forms of progeria, point mutations within the telomere lead to accelerated telomere attrition and premature aging. Endogenous factors causing telomere shortening are aging, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortening is inhibited by estrogen and endogenous antioxidants. Accelerated telomere attrition is associated with cardiovascular risk factors such as age, gender, obesity, smoking, sedentary life-style, excess alcohol intake, and even mental stress. Cardiovascular (CV) diseases and CV aging are usually but not invariably associated with shorter telomeres than in healthy subjects. LTL appears to be a biomarker of CV aging, reflecting the cumulative burden of endogenous and exogenous factors negatively affecting LTL. Whether accelerated telomere shortening is cause or consequence of CV aging and disease is not clear. PMID:22713142

  7. Efficacy of Female Rat Models in Translational Cardiovascular Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    Rice, K. M.; Fannin, J. C.; Gillette, C.; Blough, E. R.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women in the United States. Aging is a primary risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease as well as cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Aging is a universal process that all humans undergo; however, research in aging is limited by cost and time constraints. Therefore, most research in aging has been done in primates and rodents; however it is unknown how well the effects of aging in rat models translate into humans. To compound the complication of aging gender has also been indicated as a risk factor for various cardiovascular diseases. This review addresses the systemic pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system associated with aging and gender for aging research with regard to the applicability of rat derived data for translational application to human aging. PMID:25610649

  8. Heat waves, aging, and human cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Kenney, W Larry; Craighead, Daniel H; Alexander, Lacy M

    2014-10-01

    This brief review is based on a President's Lecture presented at the Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine in 2013. The purpose of this review was to assess the effects of climate change and consequent increases in environmental heat stress on the aging cardiovascular system. The earth's average global temperature is slowly but consistently increasing, and along with mean temperature changes come increases in heat wave frequency and severity. Extreme passive thermal stress resulting from prolonged elevations in ambient temperature and prolonged physical activity in hot environments creates a high demand on the left ventricle to pump blood to the skin to dissipate heat. Even healthy aging is accompanied by altered cardiovascular function, which limits the extent to which older individuals can maintain stroke volume, increase cardiac output, and increase skin blood flow when exposed to environmental extremes. In the elderly, the increased cardiovascular demand during heat waves is often fatal because of increased strain on an already compromised left ventricle. Not surprisingly, excess deaths during heat waves 1) occur predominantly in older individuals and 2) are overwhelmingly cardiovascular in origin. Increasing frequency and severity of heat waves coupled with a rapidly growing at-risk population dramatically increase the extent of future untoward health outcomes. PMID:24598696

  9. The Middle Ages Contributions to Cardiovascular Medicine.

    PubMed

    Ranhel, André Silva; Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco

    2016-04-01

    The historical period called the Middle Ages, a long interval between the 5th and the 15th centuries, is still commonly known as the Dark Ages, especially in the area of health sciences. In the last decades, this "classic" view of the Middle Ages has been gradually modified with advances in historiographical studies and the history of science. During that period in Western Europe, knowledge about the human body suffered a regression in terms of anatomy and physiology, with the predominance of religious conceptions mainly about diseases and their treatments. Knowledge on the cardiovascular system and heart diseases has been classically described as a repetition of the concepts developed by Galen from the dissection of animals and his keen sense of observation. However, the Middle East, especially Persia, was the birth place of a lot of intellectuals who preserved the ancient knowledge of the Greeks while building new knowledge and practices, especially from the 8th to the 13th century. The invasion of the Arabs in North of Africa and the Iberian Peninsula and the eclosion of the Crusades resulted in a greater contact between the East and the West, which in turn brought on the arrival of the Arab medical knowledge, among others, to 12th century Europe. Such fact contributed to an extremely important change in the scientific medical knowledge in the West, leading to the incorporation of different concepts and practices in the field of cardiovascular Medicine. The new way of teaching and practicing Medicine of the great Arab doctors, together with the teaching hospitals and foundations in the Koran, transformed the Medicine practiced in Europe definitely. The objective of this paper is to describe the knowledge drawn up from the Middle Ages about the cardiovascular system, its understanding and therapeutic approach to cardiologists and cardiovascular surgeons. PMID:27556317

  10. Effects of Endurance Jogging on Cardiovascular System and Body Composition in Middle-Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooshi, Ali

    This study investigated the effects of 30 minutes of endurance jogging on pulse rates at rest, during exercise, and at recovery and eight skinfold fat measures in middle-aged women. Subjects were 15 middle-aged women between 30 and 58 years of age who had not been engaged in any exercise program at least for 1 year. Eight sedentary subjects were…

  11. So! What's aging? Is cardiovascular aging a disease?

    PubMed

    Lakatta, Edward G

    2015-06-01

    "Inside every old person is a young person wondering what happened." So, what is aging? Aging is a manifestation of progressive, time-dependent failure of molecular mechanisms that create disorder within a system of DNA and its environment (nuclear, cytosolic, tissue, organ, organism, other organisms, society, terra firma, atmosphere, universe). Continuous signaling, transmitted with different kinetics across each of these environments, confers a "mutual enslavement" that creates ordered functions among the components within the system. Accrual of this molecular disorder over time, i.e. during aging, causes progressive changes in the structure and function of the heart and arteries that are quite similar in humans, non-human primates, rabbits and rats that compromise cardiovascular reserve function, and confer a marked risk for incident cardiovascular disease. Nearly all aspects of signaling within the DNA environment system within the heart and arteries become disordered with advancing age: Signals change, as does sensing of the signals, transmission of signals and responses to signals, impaired cell renewal, changes in the proteome due to alterations in genomic transcription, mRNA translation, and proteostasis. The density of some molecules becomes reduced, and post-translational modifications, e.g. oxidation and nitration phosphorylation, lead to altered misfolding and disordered molecular interactions. The stoichiometry and kinetics of enzymatic and those reactions which underlie crucial cardiac and vascular cell functions and robust reserve mechanisms that remove damaged organelles and proteins deteriorate. The CV cells generate an inflammatory defense in an attempt to limit the molecular disorder. The resultant proinflammatory milieu is not executed by "professional" inflammatory cells (i.e. white blood cells), however, but by activation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone endothelin signaling cascades that leads to endothelial and vascular smooth muscle and

  12. Role of Telomerase in the Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Zurek, Mark; Altschmied, Joachim; Kohlgrüber, Stefanie; Ale-Agha, Niloofar; Haendeler, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Aging is one major risk factor for the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and the development of atherosclerosis. One important enzyme known to be involved in aging processes is Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (TERT). After the discovery of the enzyme in humans, TERT had initially only been attributed to germ line cells, stem cells and cancer cells. However, over the last few years it has become clear that TERT is also active in cells of the cardiovascular system including cardiac myocytes, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts. Interference with the activity of this enzyme greatly contributes to cardiovascular diseases. This review will summarize the findings on the role of TERT in cardiovascular cells. Moreover, recent findings concerning TERT in different mouse models with respect to cardiovascular diseases will be described. Finally, the extranuclear functions of TERT will be covered within this review. PMID:27322328

  13. Role of Telomerase in the Cardiovascular System.

    PubMed

    Zurek, Mark; Altschmied, Joachim; Kohlgrüber, Stefanie; Ale-Agha, Niloofar; Haendeler, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Aging is one major risk factor for the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and the development of atherosclerosis. One important enzyme known to be involved in aging processes is Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (TERT). After the discovery of the enzyme in humans, TERT had initially only been attributed to germ line cells, stem cells and cancer cells. However, over the last few years it has become clear that TERT is also active in cells of the cardiovascular system including cardiac myocytes, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts. Interference with the activity of this enzyme greatly contributes to cardiovascular diseases. This review will summarize the findings on the role of TERT in cardiovascular cells. Moreover, recent findings concerning TERT in different mouse models with respect to cardiovascular diseases will be described. Finally, the extranuclear functions of TERT will be covered within this review. PMID:27322328

  14. Aging and the complexity of cardiovascular dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, D. T.; Furman, M. I.; Pincus, S. M.; Ryan, S. M.; Lipsitz, L. A.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1991-01-01

    Biomedical signals often vary in a complex and irregular manner. Analysis of variability in such signals generally does not address directly their complexity, and so may miss potentially useful information. We analyze the complexity of heart rate and beat-to-beat blood pressure using two methods motivated by nonlinear dynamics (chaos theory). A comparison of a group of healthy elderly subjects with healthy young adults indicates that the complexity of cardiovascular dynamics is reduced with aging. This suggests that complexity of variability may be a useful physiological marker.

  15. [Cardiovascular drugs in aged and multimorbid patients].

    PubMed

    Follath, Ferenc

    2015-09-16

    Cardiovascular diseases, such as arterial hypertension, heart failure, coronary artery disease, peripheral circulatory problems and atrial fibrillation are increasingly present in aged patients. Comorbidities, mainly diabetes, renal dysfunction, chronic bronchitis and degenerative joint diseases, are also frequent and need additional drug treatment. The usual polypharmacy often causes side effects due to overdosage and/or drug interactions. The main difficulty in choosing the proper therapeutic regimen consists in the lack of suitable dosing guidelines with adapted therapeutic targets for the older multimorbid population, usually not represented in the large controlled trials forming the basis of general recommendations. European guidelines for hypertension and heart failure are discussed as examples. PMID:26373905

  16. Aging and the complexity of cardiovascular dynamics.

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, D T; Furman, M I; Pincus, S M; Ryan, S M; Lipsitz, L A; Goldberger, A L

    1991-01-01

    Biomedical signals often vary in a complex and irregular manner. Analysis of variability in such signals generally does not address directly their complexity, and so may miss potentially useful information. We analyze the complexity of heart rate and beat-to-beat blood pressure using two methods motivated by nonlinear dynamics (chaos theory). A comparison of a group of healthy elderly subjects with healthy young adults indicates that the complexity of cardiovascular dynamics is reduced with aging. This suggests that complexity of variability may be a useful physiological marker. PMID:2065195

  17. Lycopene Deficiency in Ageing and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Petyaev, Ivan M

    2016-01-01

    Lycopene is a hydrocarbon phytochemical belonging to the tetraterpene carotenoid family and is found in red fruit and vegetables. Eleven conjugated double bonds predetermine the antioxidant properties of lycopene and its ability to scavenge lipid peroxyl radicals, reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide. Lycopene has a low bioavailability rate and appears in the blood circulation incorporated into chylomicrons and other apo-B containing lipoproteins. The recent body of evidence suggests that plasma concentration of lycopene is not only a function of intestinal absorption rate but also lycopene breakdown via enzymatic and oxidative pathways in blood and tissues. Oxidative stress and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide may represent a major cause of lycopene depletion in ageing, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has been shown recently that low carotenoid levels, and especially decreased serum lycopene levels, are strongly predictive of all-cause mortality and poor outcomes of cardiovascular disease. However, there is a poor statistical association between dietary and serum lycopene levels which occurs due to limited bioavailability of lycopene from dietary sources. Hence, it is very unlikely that nutritional intervention alone could be instrumental in the correction of lycopene and carotenoid deficiency. Therefore, new nutraceutical formulations of carotenoids with enhanced bioavailability are urgently needed. PMID:26881023

  18. Lycopene Deficiency in Ageing and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Petyaev, Ivan M.

    2016-01-01

    Lycopene is a hydrocarbon phytochemical belonging to the tetraterpene carotenoid family and is found in red fruit and vegetables. Eleven conjugated double bonds predetermine the antioxidant properties of lycopene and its ability to scavenge lipid peroxyl radicals, reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide. Lycopene has a low bioavailability rate and appears in the blood circulation incorporated into chylomicrons and other apo-B containing lipoproteins. The recent body of evidence suggests that plasma concentration of lycopene is not only a function of intestinal absorption rate but also lycopene breakdown via enzymatic and oxidative pathways in blood and tissues. Oxidative stress and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide may represent a major cause of lycopene depletion in ageing, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has been shown recently that low carotenoid levels, and especially decreased serum lycopene levels, are strongly predictive of all-cause mortality and poor outcomes of cardiovascular disease. However, there is a poor statistical association between dietary and serum lycopene levels which occurs due to limited bioavailability of lycopene from dietary sources. Hence, it is very unlikely that nutritional intervention alone could be instrumental in the correction of lycopene and carotenoid deficiency. Therefore, new nutraceutical formulations of carotenoids with enhanced bioavailability are urgently needed. PMID:26881023

  19. Changes in cardiovascular function with aging.

    PubMed

    Lakatta, E G

    1990-05-01

    Overall cardiovascular function at rest in most healthy elderly individuals is adequate to meet the body's need for pressure and flow. The resting heart rate is unchanged. Heart size is essentially not different in younger vs older adults, but heart wall thickness increases modestly, due largely to an increase in myocyte size. While the early diastolic filling rate is reduced, an enhanced atrial contribution to ventricular filling in elderly individuals maintains filling volume at a normal level. Although systolic pressure at rest increases with age, the resting end-systolic volume and election fraction are not altered, due partly to the increase in left ventricular thickness. Physical work capacity declines with advancing age, but the extent to which this can be attributed to a decrement in cardiac reserve is not certain. Part of the age-related decline in maximum oxygen consumption appears to be due to peripheral rather than central circulatory factors, e.g. to a decrease in muscle mass with age during exercise, the ability to direct blood flow to muscles, and the ability of muscle to utilize oxygen. Some elderly individuals exhibit cardiac dilatation which produces an increased stroke volume sufficient to counter the well-known age-related decrease in exercise heart rate, such that high levels of cardiac output can be maintained during exercise. Still, in these individuals, the exercise-induced reduction in end-systolic volume and increase in ejection fraction is less than in younger individuals. A similar haemodynamic profile occurs in individuals of any age who exercise in the presence of beta-adrenergic blockade.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2188839

  20. Impact of miRNAs on cardiovascular aging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seahyoung; Choi, Eunhyun; Cha, Min-Ji; Park, Ae-Jun; Yoon, Cheesoon; Hwang, Ki-Chul

    2015-09-01

    Aging is a multidimensional process that leads to an increased risk of developing severe diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, and immunological diseases. Recently, small non-coding RNAs known as microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to regulate gene expression, which contributes to many physiological and pathophysiological processes in humans. Increasing evidence suggests that changes in miRNA expression profiles contribute to cellular senescence, aging and aging-related diseases. However, only a few miRNAs whose functions have been elucidated have been associated with aging and/or aging-related diseases. This article reviews the currently available findings regarding the roles of aging-related miRNAs, with a focus on cardiac and cardiovascular aging. PMID:26512249

  1. A life course approach to cardiovascular aging

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Rebecca; Lawlor, Debbie A; Kuh, Diana

    2015-01-01

    A life course approach in epidemiology investigates the biological, behavioral and social pathways that link physical and social exposures and experiences during gestation, childhood, adolescence and adult life, and across generations, to later-life health and disease risk. We illustrate how a life course approach has been applied to cardiovascular disease, highlighting the evidence in support of the early origins of disease risk. We summarize how trajectories of cardiometabolic risk factors change over the life course and suggest that understanding underlying ‘normal’ or ‘healthy’ trajectories and the characteristics that drive deviations from such trajectories offer the potential for early prevention and for identifying means of preventing future disease. PMID:25606706

  2. Divergence of mechanistic pathways mediating cardiovascular aging and developmental programming of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Allison, Beth J; Kaandorp, Joepe J; Kane, Andrew D; Camm, Emily J; Lusby, Ciara; Cross, Christine M; Nevin-Dolan, Rhianon; Thakor, Avnesh S; Derks, Jan B; Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Ozanne, Susan E; Giussani, Dino A

    2016-05-01

    Aging and developmental programming are both associated with oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction, suggesting common mechanistic origins. However, their interrelationship has been little explored. In a rodent model of programmed cardiovascular dysfunction we determined endothelial function and vascular telomere length in young (4 mo) and aged (15 mo) adult offspring of normoxic or hypoxic pregnancy with or without maternal antioxidant treatment. We show loss of endothelial function [maximal arterial relaxation to acetylcholine (71 ± 3 vs. 55 ± 3%) and increased vascular short telomere abundance (4.2-1.3 kb) 43.0 ± 1.5 vs. 55.1 ± 3.8%) in aged vs. young offspring of normoxic pregnancy (P < 0.05). Hypoxic pregnancy in young offspring accelerated endothelial dysfunction (maximal arterial relaxation to acetylcholine: 42 ± 1%, P < 0.05) but this was dissociated from increased vascular short telomere length abundance. Maternal allopurinol rescued maximal arterial relaxation to acetylcholine in aged offspring of normoxic or hypoxic pregnancy but not in young offspring of hypoxic pregnancy. Aged offspring of hypoxic allopurinol pregnancy compared with aged offspring of untreated hypoxic pregnancy had lower levels of short telomeres (vascular short telomere length abundance 35.1 ± 2.5 vs. 48.2 ± 2.6%) and of plasma proinflammatory chemokine (24.6 ± 2.8 vs. 36.8 ± 5.5 pg/ml, P < 0.05). These data provide evidence for divergence of mechanistic pathways mediating cardiovascular aging and developmental programming of cardiovascular disease, and aging being decelerated by antioxidants even prior to birth.-Allison, B. J., Kaandorp, J. J., Kane, A. D., Camm, E. J., Lusby, C., Cross, C. M., Nevin-Dolan, R., Thakor, A. S., Derks, J. B., Tarry-Adkins, J. L., Ozanne, S. E., Giussani, D. A. Divergence of mechanistic pathways mediating cardiovascular aging and developmental programming of cardiovascular disease. PMID:26932929

  3. Age and Sex Pattern of Cardiovascular Mortality, Hospitalisation and Associated Cost in India

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Akanksha; Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2013-01-01

    Context Though the cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality in India, little is known about the human and economic loss attributed to the disease. The aim of this paper is to account the age and sex pattern of mortality, hospitalisation and the cost of hospitalisation for cardiovascular diseases in India. Data and Methods Data for the present study has been drawn from multiple sources; 52nd and 60th rounds of the National Sample Survey, Special Survey of Death, 2001–03 and the Sample Registration System 2004–2010. Under the changing demographics and constant assumptions of mortality, hospitalisation and cost of hospitalisation, we have estimated the deaths, hospitalisation and cost of hospitalisation for cardiovascular diseases in India during 2004 to 2021. Descriptive analyses and multivariate techniques were used to understand the socio-economic differentials in cost of hospitalisation for cardiovascular diseases in India. Findings In India, the cardiovascular diseases accounted for an estimated 1.4 million deaths in 2004 and it is likely to be 2.1 million in 2021. An estimated 6.7 million people were hospitalised for cardiovascular diseases in 2004, and projected to be 10.9 million by 2021. Unlike mortality, majority of the hospitalisation due to cardiovascular diseases will be in the prime working age group (25–59). The estimated cost of hospitalisation for cardiovascular diseases was 94/− billion rupees in 2004 and expected to be 152/− billion rupees by 2021, at 2004 prices. The cost of hospitalisation for cardiovascular diseases was significantly high in private health centres, high fertility states and among high socio-economic groups. Conclusion The cardiovascular mortality and hospitalisation will be largely concentrated in the prime working age group and the cost of hospitalisation is expected to increase substantially in coming years. This calls for mobilising resources, increasing access to health insurance and devising

  4. The Emerging Role of IGF-1 Deficiency in Cardiovascular Aging: Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    Csiszar, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on cardiovascular protective effects of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, provides a landscape of molecular mechanisms involved in cardiovascular alterations in patients and animal models with congenital and adult-onset IGF-1 deficiency, and explores the link between age-related IGF-1 deficiency and the molecular, cellular, and functional changes that occur in the cardiovascular system during aging. Microvascular protection conferred by endocrine and paracrine IGF-1 signaling, its implications for the pathophysiology of cardiac failure and vascular cognitive impairment, and the role of impaired cellular stress resistance in cardiovascular aging considered here are based on emerging knowledge of the effects of IGF-1 on Nrf2-driven antioxidant response. PMID:22451468

  5. Cardiovascular disease in systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Cannarile, Francesca; Valentini, Valentina; Mirabelli, Giulia; Alunno, Alessia; Terenzi, Riccardo; Luccioli, Filippo; Bartoloni, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) system involvement is a frequent complication of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It still remains unclear if a premature atherosclerosis (ATS) occurs even in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Although microvascular disease is a hallmark of SSc, in the last few years a number of studies highlighted a higher prevalence of macrovascular disease in SSc patients in comparison to healthy individuals and these data have been correlated with a poorer prognosis. The mechanisms promoting ATS in SSc are not fully understood, but it is believed to be secondary to multi-system organ inflammation, endothelial wall damage and vasculopathy. Both traditional risk factors and endothelial dysfunction have been proposed to participate to the onset and progression of ATS in such patients. In particular, endothelial cell injury induced by anti-endothelial antibodies, ischemia/reperfusion damage, immune-mediated cytotoxicity represent the main causes of vascular injury together with an impaired vascular repair mechanism that determine a defective vasculogenesis. Aim of this review is to analyse both causes and clinical manifestations of macrovascular involvement and ATS in SSc. PMID:25705640

  6. Allergy and the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Triggiani, M; Patella, V; Staiano, R I; Granata, F; Marone, G

    2008-09-01

    The most dangerous and life-threatening manifestation of allergic diseases is anaphylaxis, a condition in which the cardiovascular system is responsible for the majority of clinical symptoms and for potentially fatal outcome. The heart is both a source and a target of chemical mediators released during allergic reactions. Mast cells are abundant in the human heart, where they are located predominantly around the adventitia of large coronary arteries and in close contact with the small intramural vessels. Cardiac mast cells can be activated by a variety of stimuli including allergens, complement factors, general anesthetics and muscle relaxants. Mediators released from immunologically activated human heart mast cells strongly influence ventricular function, cardiac rhythm and coronary artery tone. Histamine, cysteinyl leukotrienes and platelet-activating factor (PAF) exert negative inotropic effects and induce myocardial depression that contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of anaphylactic shock. Moreover, cardiac mast cells release chymase and renin that activates the angiotensin system locally, which further induces arteriolar vasoconstriction. The number and density of cardiac mast cells is increased in patients with ischaemic heart disease and dilated cardiomyopathies. This observation may help explain why these conditions are major risk factors for fatal anaphylaxis. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in cardiac mast cell activation may lead to an improvement in prevention and treatment of systemic anaphylaxis. PMID:18721322

  7. Cardiovascular Toxicities from Systemic Breast Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shuang; Wong, Serena

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular toxicity is unfortunately a potential short- or long-term sequela of breast cancer therapy. Both conventional chemotherapeutic agents such as anthracyclines and newer targeted agents such as trastuzumab can cause varying degrees of cardiac dysfunction. Type I cardiac toxicity is dose-dependent and irreversible, whereas Type II is not dose-dependent and is generally reversible with cessation of the drug. In this review, we discuss what is currently known about the cardiovascular effects of systemic breast cancer treatments, with a focus on the putative mechanisms of toxicity, the role of biomarkers, and potential methods of preventing and minimizing cardiovascular complications. PMID:25538891

  8. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in systemic hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Systemic hypertension is a highly prevalent potentially modifiable cardiovascular risk factor. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of underlying causes for hypertension, in assessing cardiovascular complications of hypertension, and in understanding the pathophysiology of the disease process. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) provides accurate and reproducible measures of ventricular volumes, mass, function and haemodynamics as well as uniquely allowing tissue characterization of diffuse and focal fibrosis. In addition, CMR is well suited for exclusion of common secondary causes for hypertension. We review the current and emerging clinical and research applications of CMR in hypertension. PMID:22559053

  9. Diagnosis of Age-Related Cardiovascular Disorders | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers at the NIH, National Institute on Aging, Cardiovascular Biology Unit-Vascular Group have discovered a method for the diagnosis and prognosis of cardiovascular aging, and is seeking parties interested in in-licensing or collaborative research to co-develop, evaluate, or commercialize novel methods for diagnosing age-related cardiovascular disorders.

  10. The effect of meclofenoxate with ginkgo biloba extract or zinc on lipid peroxide, some free radical scavengers and the cardiovascular system of aged rats.

    PubMed

    al-Zuhair, H; Abd el-Fattah, A; el-Sayed, M I

    1998-07-01

    Aged rats are highly prone to many physiological changes such as blood pressure and heart rate. These changes could be due to modification in membrane phospholipid composition of their blood vessels. Lipid peroxide in vivo has been identified as a basic deteriorative reaction in cellular mechanisms of aging in human. The effect of a nootropic drug, meclofenoxate (MF) or its combination with extract of ginkgo biloba (EGb-761) or zinc (Zn) on malondialdehyde (MDA) product as an index of endogenous lipid peroxidation; phospholipid; glutathione (GSH) and protein thiols (PrSHs) contents as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in blood, brain, heart and liver of 24-month-old male rats was investigated. Aged rats were treated with MF once daily at oral doses of 100 mg kg-1 body wt. alone or with either EGb at a dose of 150 mg kg-1 body wt. or Zn at 10.5 mg kg-1 body wt. for 4 weeks. This study showed that aging caused a higher increment in MDA level of brain and heart than liver and plasma accompanied with reduction in brain and heart phospholipid contents as well as alteration of the antioxidant systems as compared to 4-month-old rats. Treatment of aged rats with MF alone or combined with either EGb or Zn caused improvement in the measured free radical scavengers especially in brain and heart tissues. Our results also showed that both EGb and Zn induced a significant potential effect of MF action on blood pressure and heart rate. The results were explained in the light of the antioxidant properties of EGb and Zn. Thus it is concluded that EGb and Zn have a beneficial role with MF in diminishing cumulative oxidative changes in aging. PMID:9697157

  11. Association of age-related macular degeneration and reticular macular disease with cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Neelesh; Smith, R Theodore

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of adult blindness in the developed world. Thus, major endeavors to understand the risk factors and pathogenesis of this disease have been undertaken. Reticular macular disease is a proposed subtype of age-related macular degeneration correlating histologically with subretinal drusenoid deposits located between the retinal pigment epithelium and the inner segment ellipsoid zone. Reticular lesions are more prevalent in females and in older age groups and are associated with a higher mortality rate. Risk factors for developing age-related macular degeneration include hypertension, smoking, and angina. Several genes related to increased risk for age-related macular degeneration and reticular macular disease are also associated with cardiovascular disease. Better understanding of the clinical and genetic risk factors for age-related macular degeneration and reticular macular disease has led to the hypothesis that these eye diseases are systemic. A systemic origin may help to explain why reticular disease is diagnosed more frequently in females as males suffer cardiovascular mortality at an earlier age, before the age of diagnosis of reticular macular disease and age-related macular degeneration. PMID:26518628

  12. [From cardiovascular prevention to anti-aging medicine: influence on telomere and cell aging].

    PubMed

    Gleichmann, U; Gleichmann, U-S; Gleichmann, S

    2011-09-01

    The most important cardiovascular risk factors (hypercholesterolemia , hypertension, diabetes, chronic stress, physical inactivity, smoking, adipositas) were evaluated in the second half of the last century using placebo controlled trials. The mechanismen of action was not fully understood or remained unclear. In some studies not only the risk of atherosclerosis was reduced but life expectancy was improved. The length of telomeres is influenced by many of the cardiovascular risk factors and is a biomarker of age. Reduced telomere length are found in higher age, atherosclerosis, hypertension, adipositas, diabetes, smoking, physical inactivity, heart failure, maltreatment in childhood, exposure to traffic pollution, chronic infection, single life and dementia. A positive effect on telomerase and telomere length is found with increased physical activity, statins for treatment of hypercholesterolemia, and higher blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids. The probable mechanismen for this is an activation of telomerase activity. Many of the cardiovascular risk factors influence the cellular DNA by telomere shortening. These effects could be reduced by life style measures with prudent diet and drugs for good somatic fitness and healthy aging. By this mechanism cardiovascular prevention not only reduces the risk of atherosclerosis but also improves life exspectancy by anti-aging effects. PMID:21915807

  13. The Protective Effect of Lipoic Acid on Selected Cardiovascular Diseases Caused by Age-Related Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Goraca, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is considered to be the primary cause of many cardiovascular diseases, including endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease, hypertension, and heart failure. Oxidative stress increases during the aging process, resulting in either increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production or decreased antioxidant defense. The increase in the incidence of cardiovascular disease is directly related to age. Aging is also associated with oxidative stress, which in turn leads to accelerated cellular senescence and organ dysfunction. Antioxidants may help lower the incidence of some pathologies of cardiovascular diseases and have antiaging properties. Lipoic acid (LA) is a natural antioxidant which is believed to have a beneficial effect on oxidative stress parameters in relation to diseases of the cardiovascular system. PMID:25949771

  14. KATP Channels in the Cardiovascular System.

    PubMed

    Foster, Monique N; Coetzee, William A

    2016-01-01

    KATP channels are integral to the functions of many cells and tissues. The use of electrophysiological methods has allowed for a detailed characterization of KATP channels in terms of their biophysical properties, nucleotide sensitivities, and modification by pharmacological compounds. However, even though they were first described almost 25 years ago (Noma 1983, Trube and Hescheler 1984), the physiological and pathophysiological roles of these channels, and their regulation by complex biological systems, are only now emerging for many tissues. Even in tissues where their roles have been best defined, there are still many unanswered questions. This review aims to summarize the properties, molecular composition, and pharmacology of KATP channels in various cardiovascular components (atria, specialized conduction system, ventricles, smooth muscle, endothelium, and mitochondria). We will summarize the lessons learned from available genetic mouse models and address the known roles of KATP channels in cardiovascular pathologies and how genetic variation in KATP channel genes contribute to human disease. PMID:26660852

  15. Cell death in the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Murray; Bennett, Martin; Littlewood, Trevor

    2007-01-01

    Cell death is important for both development and tissue homeostasis in the adult. As such, it is tightly controlled and deregulation is associated with diverse pathologies; for example, regulated cell death is involved in vessel remodelling during development or following injury, but deregulated death is implicated in pathologies such as atherosclerosis, aneurysm formation, ischaemic and dilated cardiomyopathies and infarction. We describe the mechanisms of cell death and its role in the normal physiology and various pathologies of the cardiovascular system. PMID:16547202

  16. Drug releasing systems in cardiovascular tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Spadaccio, Cristiano; Chello, Massimo; Trombetta, Marcella; Rainer, Alberto; Toyoda, Yoshiya; Genovese, Jorge A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Heart disease and atherosclerosis are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The lack of suitable autologous grafts has produced a need for artificial grafts; however, current artificial grafts carry significant limitations, including thrombosis, infection, limited durability and the inability to grow. Tissue engineering of blood vessels, cardiovascular structures and whole organs is a promising approach for creating replacement tissues to repair congenital defects and/or diseased tissues. In an attempt to surmount the shortcomings of artificial grafts, tissue-engineered cardiovascular graft (TECVG), constructs obtained using cultured autologous vascular cells seeded onto a synthetic biodegradable polymer scaffold, have been developed. Autologous TECVGs have the potential advantages of growth, durability, resistance to infection, and freedom from problems of rejection, thrombogenicity and donor scarcity. Moreover polymers engrafted with growth factors, cytokines, drugs have been developed allowing drug-releasing systems capable of focused and localized delivery of molecules depending on the environmental requirements and the milieu in which the scaffold is placed. A broad range of applications for compound-releasing, tissue-engineered grafts have been suggested ranging from drug delivery to gene therapy. This review will describe advances in the development of drug-delivery systems for cardiovascular applications focusing on the manufacturing techniques and on the compounds delivered by these systems to date. PMID:19379142

  17. Aging affects the cardiovascular responses to cold stress in humans

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Kari L.; Wilson, Thad E.; Sauder, Charity L.; Gao, Zhaohui; Ray, Chester A.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular-related mortality peaks during cold winter months, particularly in older adults. Acute physiological responses, such as increases in blood pressure, in response to cold exposure may contribute to these associations. To determine whether the blood pressure-raising effect (pressor response) of non-internal body temperature-reducing cold stress is greater with age, we measured physiological responses to 20 min of superficial skin cooling, via water-perfused suit, in 12 younger [25 ± 1 (SE) yr old] and 12 older (65 ± 2 yr old) adults. We found that superficial skin cooling elicited an increase in blood pressure from resting levels (pressor response; P < 0.05) in younger and older adults. However, the magnitude of this pressor response (systolic and mean blood pressure) was more than twofold higher in older adults (P < 0.05 vs. younger adults). The magnitude of the pressor response was similar at peripheral (brachial) and central (estimated in the aorta) measurement sites. Regression analysis revealed that aortic pulse wave velocity, a measure of central arterial stiffness obtained before cooling, was the best predictor of the increased pressor response to superficial skin cooling in older adults, explaining ∼63% of its variability. These results indicate that there is a greater pressor response to non-internal body temperature-reducing cold stress with age in humans that may be mediated by increased levels of central arterial stiffness. PMID:19679742

  18. Cardiovascular Events in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Nebro, Antonio; Rúa-Figueroa, Íñigo; López-Longo, Francisco J.; Galindo-Izquierdo, María; Calvo-Alén, Jaime; Olivé-Marqués, Alejandro; Ordóñez-Cañizares, Carmen; Martín-Martínez, María A.; Blanco, Ricardo; Melero-González, Rafael; Ibáñez-Rúan, Jesús; Bernal-Vidal, José Antonio; Tomero-Muriel, Eva; Uriarte-Isacelaya, Esther; Horcada-Rubio, Loreto; Freire-González, Mercedes; Narváez, Javier; Boteanu, Alina L.; Santos-Soler, Gregorio; Andreu, José L.; Pego-Reigosa, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This article estimates the frequency of cardiovascular (CV) events that occurred after diagnosis in a large Spanish cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and investigates the main risk factors for atherosclerosis. RELESSER is a nationwide multicenter, hospital-based registry of SLE patients. This is a cross-sectional study. Demographic and clinical variables, the presence of traditional risk factors, and CV events were collected. A CV event was defined as a myocardial infarction, angina, stroke, and/or peripheral artery disease. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the possible risk factors for atherosclerosis. From 2011 to 2012, 3658 SLE patients were enrolled. Of these, 374 (10.9%) patients suffered at least a CV event. In 269 (7.4%) patients, the CV events occurred after SLE diagnosis (86.2% women, median [interquartile range] age 54.9 years [43.2–66.1], and SLE duration of 212.0 months [120.8–289.0]). Strokes (5.7%) were the most frequent CV event, followed by ischemic heart disease (3.8%) and peripheral artery disease (2.2%). Multivariate analysis identified age (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.03 [1.02–1.04]), hypertension (1.71 [1.20–2.44]), smoking (1.48 [1.06–2.07]), diabetes (2.2 [1.32–3.74]), dyslipidemia (2.18 [1.54–3.09]), neurolupus (2.42 [1.56–3.75]), valvulopathy (2.44 [1.34–4.26]), serositis (1.54 [1.09–2.18]), antiphospholipid antibodies (1.57 [1.13–2.17]), low complement (1.81 [1.12–2.93]), and azathioprine (1.47 [1.04–2.07]) as risk factors for CV events. We have confirmed that SLE patients suffer a high prevalence of premature CV disease. Both traditional and nontraditional risk factors contribute to this higher prevalence. Although it needs to be verified with future studies, our study also shows—for the first time—an association between diabetes and CV events in SLE patients. PMID:26200625

  19. Cardiovascular system simulation in biomedical engineering education.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rideout, V. C.

    1972-01-01

    Use of complex cardiovascular system models, in conjunction with a large hybrid computer, in biomedical engineering courses. A cardiovascular blood pressure-flow model, driving a compartment model for the study of dye transport, was set up on the computer for use as a laboratory exercise by students who did not have the computer experience or skill to be able to easily set up such a simulation involving some 27 differential equations running at 'real time' rate. The students were given detailed instructions regarding the model, and were then able to study effects such as those due to septal and valve defects upon the pressure, flow, and dye dilution curves. The success of this experiment in the use of involved models in engineering courses was such that it seems that this type of laboratory exercise might be considered for use in physiology courses as an adjunct to animal experiments.

  20. Cardiovascular responses to postural changes: differences with age for women and men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, M. A.; Tomaselli, C. M.; Hoffler, W. G.

    1994-01-01

    The cardiovascular responses to postural change, and how they are affected by aging, are inadequately described in women. Therefore, the authors examined the influence of age and sex on the responses of blood pressure, cardiac output, heart rate, and other variables to change in posture. Measurements were made after 10 minutes each in the supine, seated, and standing positions in 22 men and 25 women who ranged in age from 21 to 59 years. Several variables differed, both by sex and by age, when subjects were supine. On rising, subjects' diastolic and mean arterial pressures, heart rate, total peripheral resistance (TPR), and thoracic impedance increased; cardiac output, stroke volume, and mean stroke ejection rate decreased; and changes in all variables, except heart rate, were greater from supine to sitting than sitting to standing. The increase in heart rate was greater in the younger subjects, and increases in TPR and thoracic impedance were greater in the older subjects. Stroke volume decreased less, and TPR and thoracic impedance increased more, in the women than in the men. The increase in TPR was particularly pronounced in the older women. These studies show that the cardiovascular responses to standing differ, in some respects, between the sexes and with age. The authors suggest that the sex differences are, in part, related to greater decrease of thoracic blood volume with standing in women than in men, and that the age differences result, in part, from decreased responsiveness of the high-pressure baroreceptor system.

  1. Exercise Modulates Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Aging and Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sallam, Nada

    2016-01-01

    Despite the wealth of epidemiological and experimental studies indicating the protective role of regular physical activity/exercise training against the sequels of aging and cardiovascular diseases, the molecular transducers of exercise/physical activity benefits are not fully identified but should be further investigated in more integrative and innovative approaches, as they bear the potential for transformative discoveries of novel therapeutic targets. As aging and cardiovascular diseases are associated with a chronic state of oxidative stress and inflammation mediated via complex and interconnected pathways, we will focus in this review on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of exercise, mainly exerted on adipose tissue, skeletal muscles, immune system, and cardiovascular system by modulating anti-inflammatory/proinflammatory cytokines profile, redox-sensitive transcription factors such as nuclear factor kappa B, activator protein-1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha, antioxidant and prooxidant enzymes, and repair proteins such as heat shock proteins, proteasome complex, oxoguanine DNA glycosylase, uracil DNA glycosylase, and telomerase. It is important to note that the effects of exercise vary depending on the type, intensity, frequency, and duration of exercise as well as on the individual's characteristics; therefore, the development of personalized exercise programs is essential. PMID:26823952

  2. NADPH oxidases: key modulators in aging and age-related cardiovascular diseases?

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Sanghamitra; Meijles, Daniel N.; Pagano, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress have long been linked to aging and diseases prominent in the elderly such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes and atrial fibrillation (AF). NADPH oxidases (Nox) are a major source of ROS in the vasculature and are key players in mediating redox signalling under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In this review, we focus on the Nox-mediated ROS signalling pathways involved in the regulation of ‘longevity genes’ and recapitulate their role in age-associated vascular changes and in the development of age-related cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). This review is predicated on burgeoning knowledge that Nox-derived ROS propagate tightly regulated yet varied signalling pathways, which, at the cellular level, may lead to diminished repair, the aging process and predisposition to CVDs. In addition, we briefly describe emerging Nox therapies and their potential in improving the health of the elderly population. PMID:26814203

  3. The role of AGEs and AGE inhibitors in diabetic cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Thomas, M C; Baynes, J W; Thorpe, S R; Cooper, M E

    2005-06-01

    Prolonged hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in diabetes result in the production and accumulation of AGEs. It is now clear that AGEs contribute to the development and progression of cardiovascular disease in diabetes, as well as other complications. AGEs are thought to act through receptor-independent and dependent mechanisms to promote vascular damage, fibrosis and inflammation associated with accelerated atherogenesis. As a result, novel therapeutic agents to reduce the accumulation of AGEs in diabetes have gained interest as potential cardioprotective approaches. A variety of agents have been developed which are examined in detail in this review. These include aminoguanidine, ALT-946, pyridoxamine, benfotiamine, OPB-9195, alagebrium chloride, N-phenacylthiazolium bromide and LR-90. In addition, it has been demonstrated that a number of established therapies have the ability to reduce the accumulation of AGEs in diabetes including ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor antagonists, metformin, peroxisome proliferators receptor agonists, metal chelators and some antioxidants. The fact that many of these inhibitors of AGEs are effective in experimental models, despite their disparate mechanisms of action, supports the keystone role of AGEs in diabetic vascular damage. Nonetheless, the clinical utility of AGE inhibition remains to be firmly established. Optimal metabolic and blood pressure control, that is achieved early and sustained indefinitely, remains the best recourse for inhibition of AGEs until more specific interventions become a clinical reality. PMID:16026265

  4. Impact of age on the cardiovascular response to dynamic upright exercise in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Fleg, J L; O'Connor, F; Gerstenblith, G; Becker, L C; Clulow, J; Schulman, S P; Lakatta, E G

    1995-03-01

    To examine whether age differentially modifies the physiological response to exercise in men and women, we performed gated radionuclide ventriculography with measurement of left ventricular volumes at rest and during peak upright cycle exercise in 200 rigorously screened healthy sedentary volunteers (121 men and 79 women) aged 22-86 yr from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. At rest in the sitting position, age-associated declines in heart rate (HR) and increases in systolic blood pressure occurred in both sexes. Whereas resting cardiac index (CI) and total systemic vascular resistance (TSVR) in men did not vary with age, in women resting CI decreased 16% and TSVR increased 46% over the six-decade age span. Men, but not women, demonstrated an age-associated increase of approximately 20% in sitting end-diastolic volume index (EDVI), end-systolic volume index (ESVI), and stroke volume index over this age span. Peak cycle work rate declined with age approximately 40% in both sexes, but at any age it was greater in men than in women even after normalization for body weight. At peak effort, ejection fraction (EF), HR, and CI were reduced similarly with age while ESVI and TSVR were increased in both sexes; EDVI increased 35% with age and stroke work index (SWI) rose 19% in men, but neither was related to age in women; and stroke volume index did not vary with age in either sex. When hemodynamics were expressed as the change from rest to peak effort as an index of cardiovascular reserve function, both sexes demonstrated age-associated increases in EDVI and ESVI and reductions in EF, HR, and CI. However, the exercise-induced reduction in ESVI and the increases in EF, CI, and SWI from rest were greater in men than in women. Thus, age and gender each have a significant impact on the cardiac response to exhaustive upright cycle exercise. PMID:7775334

  5. Exercise and the Cardiovascular System: Clinical Science and Cardiovascular Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lavie, Carl J.; Arena, Ross; Swift, Damon L.; Johannsen, Neil M.; Sui, Xuemei; Lee, Duck-chul; Earnest, Conrad P.; Church, Timothy S.; O’Keefe, James H.; Milani, Richard V.; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Substantial evidence has established the value of high levels of physical activity (PA), exercise training (ET), and overall cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This paper reviews some basics of exercise physiology and the acute and chronic responses of ET, as well as the impact of PA and CRF on CVD. This review also surveys data from epidemiologic and ET studies in the primary and secondary prevention of CVD, particularly coronary heart disease (CHD) and heart failure (HF). These data strongly support the routine prescription of ET to all patients and referrals for patients with CVD, especially CHD and HF, to specific cardiac rehabilitation and ET programs. PMID:26139859

  6. Fetuin-A and the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Mori, Katsuhito; Emoto, Masanori; Inaba, Masaaki

    2012-01-01

    Fetuin was first isolated from bovine serum in 1944. It is now most commonly known as either fetuin-A or alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein (AHSG), the protein product of Ahsg gene. A prominent feature of this protein is the functional diversity exerted in human physiology and pathophysiology. Fetuin-A plays a role in bone metabolism, metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus (DM), and central nervous system (CNS) disorders such as ischemic stroke (IS) and neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, emerging evidence suggests involvement of fetuin-A in the cardiovascular system. However, there are many discordant findings on the associations between fetuin-A and vascular diseases. In other words, it is unknown whether fetuin-A is an exacerbating or a protective factor in the cardiovascular system. One reason for the seemingly inconsistent behavior is the dual functionality of fetuin-A in vascular diseases where it can act as an atherogenic factor or as a vascular calcification inhibitor. In addition, the existence of confounding factors such as DM and renal dysfunction can veil the primary association between fetuin-A and clinical parameters. Considering these issues, we discuss the role of fetuin-A for atherosclerosis and vascular calcification in this review. PMID:22397032

  7. Reductive Metabolism of AGE Precursors: A Metabolic Route for Preventing AGE Accumulation in Cardiovascular Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Shahid P.; Barski, Oleg A.; Ahmed, Yonis; O'Toole, Timothy E.; Conklin, Daniel J.; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Srivastava, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the role of aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) in the cardiovascular metabolism of the precursors of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Steady-state kinetic parameters of AKRs with AGE precursors were determined using recombinant proteins expressed in bacteria. Metabolism of methylglyoxal and AGE accumulation were studied in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and C57 wild-type, akr1b3 (aldose reductase)-null, cardiospecific-akr1b4 (rat aldose reductase), and akr1b8 (FR-1)-transgenic mice. AGE accumulation and atherosclerotic lesions were studied 12 weeks after streptozotocin treatment of C57, akr1b3-null, and apoE- and akr1b3-apoE–null mice. RESULTS Higher levels of AGEs were generated in the cytosol than at the external surface of HUVECs cultured in high glucose, indicating that intracellular metabolism may be an important regulator of AGE accumulation and toxicity. In vitro, AKR 1A and 1B catalyzed the reduction of AGE precursors, whereas AKR1C, AKR6, and AKR7 were relatively ineffective. Highest catalytic efficiency was observed with AKR1B1. Acetol formation in methylglyoxal-treated HUVECs was prevented by the aldose reductase inhibitor sorbinil. Acetol was generated in hearts perfused with methylglyoxal, and its formation was increased in akr1b4- or akr1b8-transgenic mice. Reduction of AGE precursors was diminished in hearts from akr1b3-null mice. Diabetic akr1b3-null mice accumulated more AGEs in the plasma and the heart than wild-type mice, and deletion of akr1b3 increased AGE accumulation and atherosclerotic lesion formation in apoE-null mice. CONCLUSIONS Aldose reductase–catalyzed reduction is an important pathway in the endothelial and cardiac metabolism of AGE precursors, and it prevents AGE accumulation and atherosclerotic lesion formation. PMID:19651811

  8. [Thyroid hormone and the cardiovascular system].

    PubMed

    Fraczek, Magdalena Maria; Łacka, Katarzyna

    2014-09-01

    It is well established that thyroid hormones affect the cardiovascular system through genomic and nongenomic actions. TRalpha1 is the major thyroid hormone receptor in the heart. T3 suppresses increased mitotic activity of stimulated cardiomyocytes. Hyperthyroidism induces a hyperdynamic cardiovascular state, which is associated with enhanced left ventricular systolic and diastolic function and the chronotropic and inotropic properties of thyroid hormones. Hypothyroidism, however, is characterized by opposite changes. In addition, thyroid hormones decrease peripheral vascular resistance, influence the rennin-angiotensin system (RAS), and increase blood volume and erythropoetin secretion with subsequent increased preload and cardiac output. Thyroid hormones play an important role in cardiac electrophysiology and have both pro- and anti-arrhytmic potential. Thyroid hormone deficiency is associated with a less favorable lipid profile. Selective modulation of the TRbeta1 receptor is considered as a potential therapeutic target to treat dyslipidemia without cardiac side effects. Thyroid hormones have a beneficial effect on limiting myocardial ischemic injury, preventing and reversing cardiac remodeling and improving cardiac hemodynamics in endstage heart failure. This is crucial because a low T3 syndrome accompanies both acute and chronic cardiac diseases. PMID:25345279

  9. Age-related changes in the ``complexity'' of cardiovascular dynamics: A potential marker of vulnerability to disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, D. A. Lipsitz M.

    1995-03-01

    Healthy physiologic control of cardiovascular function is a result of complex interactions between multiple regulatory processes that operate over different time scales. These include the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems which regulate beat-to-beat heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), as well as extravascular volume, body temperature, and sleep which influence HR and BP over the longer term. Interactions between these control systems generate highly variable fluctuations in continuous HR and BP signals. Techniques derived from nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory are now being adapted to quantify the dynamic behavior of physiologic time series and study their changes with age or disease. We have shown significant age-related changes in the 1/fx relationship between the log amplitude and log frequency of the heart rate power spectrum, as well as declines in approximate dimension and approximate entropy of both heart rate and blood pressure time series. These changes in the ``complexity'' of cardiovascular dynamics reflect the breakdown and decoupling of integrated physiologic regulatory systems with aging, and may signal an impairment in cardiovascular ability to adapt to external and internal perturbations. Studies are currently underway to determine whether the complexity of HR or BP time series can distinguish patients with fainting spells due to benign vasovagal reactions from those due to life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. Thus, measures of the complexity of physiologic variability may provide novel methods to monitor cardiovascular aging and test the efficacy of specific interventions to improve adaptive capacity in old age.

  10. Space weather and cardiovascular system. New findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurfinkel, Yury; Breus, Tamara

    2014-05-01

    Researches of last two decades have shown that the cardiovascular system represents the most probable target for influence of helio - and geomagnetic activity. Both cardiovascular system and system of blood are connected very closely: one system cannot exist without another. For the same reason the effects perceived by one system, are easily transferred to another. Laboratory tests such as blood coagulation, platelet aggregation, and capillary blood velocity (CBV) performed in Scientific Clinical Center JSC "Russian Railways in patients suffering from coronary heart disease (CHD) revealed a high dependence with a level of geomagnetic activity. Results of these and other findings allow to assume that blood itself can be a sensor of geomagnetic fields variations because erythrocytes, platelets, and leucocytes bearing electric charge on membranes, and in a comparable magnetic field can change as own properties and properties of blood flow. It is interesting that not only geomagnetic disturbances, but also the periods of very quiet geomagnetic conditions affect a capillary blood velocity, slowing down it. It was shown during long-term experiment with isolation named 'MARS-500' in spatial facility of the Institute of Biomedical Problems in Moscow as imitation of an extended space mission to Mars. Using digital capillaroscope 'Russia', two crewmembers - medical doctors made records of microcirculation parameters at themselves and other four participants of 'Martian' team. Capillary records were performed before, during, and after period of isolation in medical module of MARS-500 facility. At the period of experiment nobody of crewmembers knew about real geomagnetic conditions. In days of active geomagnetic conditions average CBV has registered as 389 ± 167 μm/s, that statistically significant (p

  11. Major electrocardiographic abnormalities in persons aged 65 years and older (the Cardiovascular Health Study). Cardiovascular Health Study Collaborative Research Group.

    PubMed

    Furberg, C D; Manolio, T A; Psaty, B M; Bild, D E; Borhani, N O; Newman, A; Tabatznik, B; Rautaharju, P M

    1992-05-15

    Electrocardiographic abnormalities are often found in older patients, but their prevalence in free-living elderly populations is not well-defined. In addition, the clinical significance of many of these abnormalities is uncertain. The prevalence of major electrocardiographic abnormalities was determined in 5,150 adults aged greater than or equal to 65 years from the Cardiovascular Health Study--a study of risk factors for stroke and coronary heart disease in the elderly. Ventricular conduction defects, major Q/QS waves, left ventricular hypertrophy, isolated major ST-T-wave abnormalities, atrial fibrillation and first-degree atrioventricular block were collectively categorized as major electrocardiographic abnormalities. Prevalence of any major electrocardiographic abnormality was 29% in the entire cohort, 19% among 2,413 participants who reported no history of coronary artery disease or systemic hypertension, and 37% among 2,737 participants with a history of coronary artery disease or hypertension. Prevalence of major electrocardiographic abnormalities was higher in men than in women regardless of history, and tended to increase with age. Major Q/QS waves were found in 5.2%, and more than half were in those who did not report a previous myocardial infarction. Major electrocardiographic abnormalities are common in elderly men and women irrespective of the history of heart disease. PMID:1585868

  12. "TRP inflammation" relationship in cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Numata, Tomohiro; Takahashi, Kiriko; Inoue, Ryuji

    2016-05-01

    Despite considerable advances in the research and treatment, the precise relationship between inflammation and cardiovascular (CV) disease remains incompletely understood. Therefore, understanding the immunoinflammatory processes underlying the initiation, progression, and exacerbation of many cardiovascular diseases is of prime importance. The innate immune system has an ancient origin and is well conserved across species. Its activation occurs in response to pathogens or tissue injury. Recent studies suggest that altered ionic balance, and production of noxious gaseous mediators link to immune and inflammatory responses with altered ion channel expression and function. Among plausible candidates for this are transient receptor potential (TRP) channels that function as polymodal sensors and scaffolding proteins involved in many physiological and pathological processes. In this review, we will first focus on the relevance of TRP channel to both exogenous and endogenous factors related to innate immune response and transcription factors related to sustained inflammatory status. The emerging role of inflammasome to regulate innate immunity and its possible connection to TRP channels will also be discussed. Secondly, we will discuss about the linkage of TRP channels to inflammatory CV diseases, from a viewpoint of inflammation in a general sense which is not restricted to the innate immunity. These knowledge may serve to provide new insights into the pathogenesis of various inflammatory CV diseases and their novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:26482920

  13. A Web Based Cardiovascular Disease Detection System.

    PubMed

    Alshraideh, Hussam; Otoom, Mwaffaq; Al-Araida, Aseel; Bawaneh, Haneen; Bravo, José

    2015-10-01

    Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is one of the most catastrophic and life threatening health issue nowadays. Early detection of CVD is an important solution to reduce its devastating effects on health. In this paper, an efficient CVD detection algorithm is identified. The algorithm uses patient demographic data as inputs, along with several ECG signal features extracted automatically through signal processing techniques. Cross-validation results show a 98.29 % accuracy for the decision tree classification algorithm. The algorithm has been integrated into a web based system that can be used at anytime by patients to check their heart health status. At one end of the system is the ECG sensor attached to the patient's body, while at the other end is the detection algorithm. Communication between the two ends is done through an Android application. PMID:26293754

  14. Social-Strata-Related Cardiovascular Health Disparity and Comorbidity in an Aging Society: Implications for Professional Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ai, Amy L.; Carrigan, Lynn T.

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is on the rise in the aging population of the United States. Heart disease is the leading cause of death, hospital bed use, and social security disability. Enhancing knowledge about CVD may improve social work's professional role in the health care system. This article focuses on a pressing CVD-related issue that needs…

  15. Corticosteroids: do they damage the cardiovascular system?

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, S. R.; Moots, R. J.; Kendall, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    Since their introduction for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, corticosteroids have become widely used as effective agents in the control of inflammatory diseases. Although there have been undoubted benefits upon mortality in diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, many patients survive only to suffer a high incidence of premature atherosclerosis. There is also evidence of increased rates of vascular mortality in other corticosteroid-treated diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, reversible airways obstruction and transplant recipients. Possible mechanisms of damage include elevated blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidaemia, and imbalances in thrombosis and fibrinolysis. This paper reviews the clinical evidence supporting the contention that there is an excess cardiovascular mortality in steroid-treated patients and the underlying mechanisms, and points to further areas of research. PMID:7870631

  16. Sleep apnoea syndromes and the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Pepperell, Justin C

    2011-06-01

    Management of SAS and cardiovascular disease risk should be closely linked. It is important to screen for cardiovascular disease risk in patients with SAS and vice versa. CSA/CSR may be improved by ventilation strategies in heart failure, but benefit remains to be proven. For OSA, although CPAP may reduce cardiovascular disease risk, its main benefit is symptom control. In the longer-term, CPAP should be used alongside standard cardiovascular risk reduction strategies including robust weight management programmes, with referral for bariatric surgery in appropriate cases. CPAP and NIV should be considered for acute admissions with decompensated cardiac failure. PMID:21902085

  17. Dante and cardiology: Physiopathology and clinical features of cardiovascular diseases in the Middle Ages.

    PubMed

    Riva, M A; Cambioli, L; Castagna, F; Cianci, N; Varrenti, M; Giannattasio, C; Cesana, G

    2015-02-15

    Ancient non-medical texts can unexpectedly provide useful information on the development of knowledge about the heart and its diseases throughout history. The 750th anniversary of the birth of the Italian poet Dante Alighieri (1265-1321) provides a timely opportunity to analyze medical references in his works, in particular, focusing on literary descriptions that may be attributed to cardiovascular disorders. Dante's high level of medical knowledge, probably derived from his academic studies, is testified by his affiliation to the Florentine Guild of physicians and pharmacists. In all his works, the poet shows a deep interest for the heart. However, his anatomical and physiological knowledge of the circulatory system appears to be poor, probably due to it being based on theories and concepts brought forth by Aristotle and Galen, which were taught in medieval universities. Despite this, accurate descriptions of some symptoms (emotional syncope, orthopnea, dyspnea on exertion) and signs (ascites, paleness), which may be attributed to cardiovascular disorders, can be easily found in Dante's works, particularly in his masterpiece, the Divine Comedy. The literary and historical analysis of cardiovascular signs and symptoms allows us to assume that clinical features due to alterations of heart function were probably known by medieval physicians, but their etiology and pathophysiological mechanisms were not completely understood in that period. Historians of cardiology and clinicians should consider analysis of non-medical texts (including poetry) as an opportunity to better investigate the evolution of their discipline throughout the ages. PMID:25544198

  18. Hydroxybenzoic acid isomers and the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Today we are beginning to understand how phytochemicals can influence metabolism, cellular signaling and gene expression. The hydroxybenzoic acids are related to salicylic acid and salicin, the first compounds isolated that have a pharmacological activity. In this review we examine how a number of hydroxyphenolics have the potential to ameliorate cardiovascular problems related to aging such as hypertension, atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia. The compounds focused upon include 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (Pyrocatechuic acid), 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (Gentisic acid), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (Protocatechuic acid), 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (α-Resorcylic acid) and 3-monohydroxybenzoic acid. The latter two compounds activate the hydroxycarboxylic acid receptors with a consequence there is a reduction in adipocyte lipolysis with potential improvements of blood lipid profiles. Several of the other compounds can activate the Nrf2 signaling pathway that increases the expression of antioxidant enzymes, thereby decreasing oxidative stress and associated problems such as endothelial dysfunction that leads to hypertension as well as decreasing generalized inflammation that can lead to problems such as atherosclerosis. It has been known for many years that increased consumption of fruits and vegetables promotes health. We are beginning to understand how specific phytochemicals are responsible for such therapeutic effects. Hippocrates’ dictum of ‘Let food be your medicine and medicine your food’ can now be experimentally tested and the results of such experiments will enhance the ability of nutritionists to devise specific health-promoting diets. PMID:24943896

  19. A Mechanical System to Reproduce Cardiovascular Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, Thomas; Valsecchi, Pietro

    2010-11-01

    Within the framework of the "Pumps&Pipes" collaboration between ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company and The DeBakey Heart and Vascular Center in Houston, a hydraulic control system was developed to accurately simulate general cardiovascular flows. The final goal of the development of the apparatus was the reproduction of the periodic flow of blood through the heart cavity with the capability of varying frequency and amplitude, as well as designing the systolic/diastolic volumetric profile over one period. The system consists of a computer-controlled linear actuator that drives hydraulic fluid in a closed loop to a secondary hydraulic cylinder. The test section of the apparatus is located inside a MRI machine, and the closed loop serves to physically separate all metal moving parts (control system and actuator cylinder) from the MRI-compatible pieces. The secondary cylinder is composed of nonmetallic elements and directly drives the test section circulatory flow loop. The circulatory loop consists of nonmetallic parts and several types of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, which model the behavior of blood. This design allows for a periodic flow of blood-like fluid pushed through a modeled heart cavity capable of replicating any healthy heart condition as well as simulating anomalous conditions. The behavior of the flow inside the heart can thus be visualized by MRI techniques.

  20. Significant roles of anti-aging protein klotho and fibroblast growth factor23 in cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Hong-Ying; Ma, Hou-Xun

    2015-01-01

    The klotho gene has been identified as an aging suppressor that encodes a protein involved in cardiovascular disease (CVD). The inactivation of the klotho gene causes serious systemic disorders resembling human aging, such as atherosclerosis, diffuse vascular calcification and shortened life span. Klotho has been demonstrated to ameliorate vascular endothelial dysfunction and delay vascular calcification. Furthermore, klotho gene polymorphisms in the human are associated with various cardiovascular events. Recent experiments show that klotho may reduce transient receptor potential canonical6 (TRPC6) channels, resulting in protecting the heart from hypertrophy and systolic dysfunction. Fibroblast growth factor23 (FGF23) is a bone-derived hormone that plays an important role in the regulation of phosphate and vitamin D metabolism. FGF23 accelerates urinary phosphate excretion and suppresses 1,25-dihydroxy vitaminD3 (1,25(OH)2D3) synthesis in the presence of FGF receptor1 (FGFR1) and its co-receptor klotho, principally in the kidney. The hormonal affects of circulating klotho protein and FGF23 on vascular and heart have contributed to an understanding of their roles in the pathophysiology of arterial stiffness and left ventricular hypertrophy. Klotho and FGF23 appear to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of vascular disease, and may represent a novel potential therapeutic strategy for clinical intervention. PMID:26347327

  1. Cardiovascular medication after cancer at a young age in Finland: A nationwide registry linkage study.

    PubMed

    Kero, A E; Madanat-Harjuoja, L M; Järvelä, L S; Malila, N; Matomäki, J; Lähteenmäki, P M

    2016-08-01

    Despite improved survival rates, childhood and young adult (YA) cancer survivors face elevated risks for life-threatening morbidities, especially cardiovascular complications. Our nationwide Finnish registry study investigated the purchases of cardiovascular medication from 1993 to 2011 in patients diagnosed with cancer aged below 35 years (N = 8,197) between 1993 and 2004 compared to siblings (N = 29,974) via linkage to the drug purchase registry. The cumulative incidence for purchasing cardiovascular medications was higher in childhood and YA cancer patients compared to siblings with a rising trend over time. After childhood cancer, the highest hazard ratio (HR) was found for purchasing anticoagulants (HR 19.8, 95% CI 8.5-45.9). The HRs for any cardiovascular medication (HR 7.2, 95% CI 5.1-10.1) and cardiac medication (HR 4.8, 95% CI 3.3-6.9) were markedly elevated after childhood cancer as well. Regarding YA cancer patients, the respective HRs were 2.5 (95% CI 2.0-3.2) for anticoagulants, HR 1.7 (95% CI 1.5-1.9) for any cardiovascular medication and HR 1.5 (95% CI 1.3-1.7) for cardiac medication. Among cancer patients, highest HRs for cardiovascular medication were observed after childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and bone tumors (HR 10.2, 95% CI 6.8-15.5 and HR 7.4, 95% CI 4.0-13.7) and YA ALL and acute myeloid leukemia (HR 5.1, 95% CI 3.5-7.1 and HR 2.8, 95% CI 1.8-4.0). Our study demonstrated increased HRs for purchasing cardiovascular medication after early-onset cancer compared to siblings reflecting elevated cardiovascular morbidity. Thus, the implementation of long-term cardiovascular disease screening is imperative to prevent, detect and adequately treat cardiovascular late effects after cancer at a young age. PMID:26610262

  2. Gravitational Force and the Cardiovascular System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendergast, D. R.; Olszowka, A. J.; Rokitka, M. A.; Farhi, L. E.

    1991-01-01

    Cardiovascular responses to changes in gravitational force are considered. Man is ideally suited to his 1-g environment. Although cardiovascular adjustments are required to accommodate to postural changes and exercise, these are fully accomplished for short periods (min). More challenging stresses are those of short-term microgravity (h) and long-term microgravity (days) and of gravitational forces greater than that of Earth. The latter can be simulated in the laboratory and quantitative studies can be conducted.

  3. Association between breed, gender and age in relation to cardiovascular disorders in insured dogs in Japan

    PubMed Central

    INOUE, Mai; HASEGAWA, Atsuhiko; HOSOI, Yuta; SUGIURA, Katsuaki

    2015-01-01

    The association between breed, gender and age and cardiovascular disorders in the insured dog population in Japan was investigated, using multiple logistic regression analysis and data from 299,555 dogs insured between April 2010 and March 2011. The overall annual prevalence of cardiovascular disorder diagnosis was 2.1%. Using the Miniature Dachshund as the reference breed, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel had the highest odds of cardiovascular disorder with a ratio of 16.2 (95% confidence interval: 14.4–18.2), followed by Maltese, Pomeranian, Chihuahua and Shih Tzu. Male dogs had increased odds of 1.2 (1.1–1.3). The dogs had increased odds of having cardiovascular disorder by 1.5 times as their age increased by one year. PMID:26460315

  4. Computer model of cardiovascular control system responses to exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croston, R. C.; Rummel, J. A.; Kay, F. J.

    1973-01-01

    Approaches of systems analysis and mathematical modeling together with computer simulation techniques are applied to the cardiovascular system in order to simulate dynamic responses of the system to a range of exercise work loads. A block diagram of the circulatory model is presented, taking into account arterial segments, venous segments, arterio-venous circulation branches, and the heart. A cardiovascular control system model is also discussed together with model test results.

  5. Trait anxiety mimics age-related cardiovascular autonomic modulation in young adults.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Gonzalez, M A; Guzik, P; May, R W; Koutnik, A P; Hughes, R; Muniz, S; Kabbaj, M; Fincham, F D

    2015-04-01

    Anxiety produces maladaptive cardiovascular changes and accelerates biological aging. We evaluated cardiovascular reactivity in young and middle-aged individuals with varying anxiety scores to test the hypothesis that anxiety mimics cardiovascular aging by influencing cardiovascular autonomic modulation. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was used to classify healthy young individuals (20-29 years) into high (YHA, n=22;10 men) and low (YLA, n=21;10 men) anxiety, and to identify middle-aged individuals (50-60 years) with low anxiety (MLA, n=22;11 men). Heart rate, blood pressure (BP) and their variability (HRV and BPV, respectively) and baroreflex function were analyzed from beat-to-beat finger BP and electrocardiogram recordings collected during 5-min baseline, 6-min speech task (ST) and 3-min post ST recovery. Analyses of covariance showed significant differences (P<0.05) at baseline for HRV, BPV and barorelfex, and low-frequency power of systolic BP variability (LFSBP) was lower, whereas baroreflex and high frequency (HF) normalized units were higher in the YLA compared with YHA and MLA groups. Compared with YLA, YHA and MLA displayed attenuated vagal withdraw response (HF) to ST. BP and LFSBP responses to ST in YHA and MLA were higher compared with the YLA group. These findings suggest that anxiety could be linked to cardiovascular aging as it attenuates cardiac reactivity and exaggerates vascular responses to stress. PMID:25355009

  6. Human thermoregulation and the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    González-Alonso, José

    2012-03-01

    A key but little understood function of the cardiovascular system is to exchange heat between the internal body tissues, organs and the skin to maintain internal temperature within a narrow range in a variety of conditions that produce vast changes in external (exogenous) and/or internal (endogenous) thermal loads. Heat transfer via the flowing blood (i.e. vascular convective heat transfer) is the most important heat-exchange pathway inside the body. This pathway is particularly important when metabolic heat production increases many-fold during exercise. During exercise typical of many recreational and Olympic events, heat is transferred from the heat-producing contracting muscles to the skin surrounding the exercising limbs and to the normally less mobile body trunk and head via the circulating blood. Strikingly, a significant amount of heat produced by the contracting muscles is liberated from the skin of the exercising limbs. The local and central mechanisms regulating tissue temperature in the exercising limbs, body trunk and head are essential to avoid the deleterious consequences on human performance of either hyperthermia or hypothermia. This brief review focuses on recent literature addressing the following topics: (i) the dynamics of heat production in contracting skeletal muscle; (ii) the influence of exercise and environmental heat and cold stress on limb and systemic haemodynamics; and (iii) the impact of changes in muscle blood flow on heat exchange in human limbs. The paper highlights the need to investigate the responses and mechanisms of vascular convective heat exchange in exercising limbs to advance our understanding of local tissue temperature regulation during exercise and environmental stress. PMID:22227198

  7. Cardiovascular Risk in Men Aged Over 40 in Boa Vista, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Lima Junior, Mário Maciel; Bezerra, Emanuel Araújo; Ticianeli, José Geraldo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of disease in the developed world. Early detection and risk prediction are a key component in reducing cardiovascular mortality. The Framingham Risk Score uses age, sex, cholesterol, blood pressure, diabetes, and smoking to calculate the 10-year risk probability of developing cardiovascular disease for a given patient. The aim of this study was to examine cardiovascular disease risk in men aged over 40 years in Boa Vista, Brazil and identify socioeconomic factors contributing to the risk. Methods: This was an epidemiological, cross-sectional, descriptive study. Physical examination and questionnaire survey were conducted on the participants. Results: Of the 598 participants (average age = 55.38 ± 10.77 years), 346 completed all the examinations and answered the survey, while 252 completed the survey and the physical examinations but did not undertake the laboratory tests. A large proportion of participants were overweight (42.6%) or obese (23.6%), 14.5% were hypertensive, and 71.9% were prehypertensive. Consumption of red meat and junk food was high, while participation in the exercise was low. Framingham scores ranged from −3 to 13 (mean score: 3.86 ± 3.16). A total of 204 participants (34.1%) had a low risk of cardiovascular disease, 98 (16.4%) had a medium risk, and 44 (7.4%) possessed high risk. Increased abdominal circumference (P = 0.013), resting pulse (P = 0.002), and prostate-specific antigen levels (P < 0.001) were associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Conclusions: Our study highlights a worrying trend in increasing obesity and hypertension, most likely associated with increasingly poor diet and reduced participation in exercises. As the Brazilian population ages, this will drive increasing rates of cardiovascular mortality unless these trends are reversed. This study suggests that such campaigns should focus on men over the age of 40, who are married or divorced and of

  8. Mechanisms of Lipotoxicity in the Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Wende, Adam R.; Symons, J. David; Abel, E. Dale

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases account for approximately one third of all deaths globally. Obese and diabetic patients have a high likelihood of dying from complications associated with cardiovascular dysfunction. Obesity and diabetes increase circulating lipids that upon tissue uptake, may be stored as triglyceride, or may be metabolized in other pathways, leading to the generation of toxic intermediates. Excess lipid utilization or activation of signaling pathways by lipid metabolites may disrupt cellular homeostasis and contribute to cell death, defining the concept of lipotoxicity. Lipotoxicity occurs in multiple organs, including cardiac and vascular tissues, and a number of specific mechanisms have been proposed to explain lipotoxic tissue injury. In addition, recent data suggests that increased tissue lipids may also be protective in certain contexts. This review will highlight recent progress toward elucidating the relationship between nutrient oversupply, lipotoxicity, and cardiovascular dysfunction. The review will focus in two sections on the vasculature and cardiomyocytes respectively. PMID:23054891

  9. The paleopathology of the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, M R

    1993-01-01

    Paleopathology, the study of disease in ancient remains, adds the dimension of time to our study of health and disease. The oldest preserved heart is from a mummified rabbit of the Pleistocene epoch, over 20,000 years old. Cardiovascular disease has been identified in human mummies from Alaska and Egypt, covering a time span ranging from approximately 3,000 to 300 years ago. An experimental study suggests that the potential exists for identifying a wide range of cardiovascular pathologic conditions in mummified remains. The antiquity and ubiquity of arteriosclerotic heart disease is considered in terms of pathogenesis. Images PMID:8298320

  10. [Impact of aortic stiffness on central hemodynamics and cardiovascular system].

    PubMed

    Bulas, J; Potočárová, M; Filková, M; Simková, A; Murín, J

    2013-06-01

    Arterial stiffness increases as a result of degenerative processes accelerated by aging and many risk factors, namely arterial hypertension. Basic clinical examination reveals increased pulse pressure as its hemodynamic manifestation. The most serious consequence of increased vascular stiffness, which cannot be revealed by clinical examination, is a change of central hemodynamics leading to increased load of left ventricle, left ventricular hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction and to overall increase of cardiovascular risk. This review aimed to point at some patophysiological mechanisms taking part in the development of vascular stiffness, vascular remodeling and hemodynamic consequences of these changes. This work also gives an overview of noninvasive examination methods and their characteristics enabling to evaluate the local, regional and systemic arterial stiffness and central pulse wave analysis and their meaning for central hemodynamics and heart workload. PMID:23808736

  11. Is Physical Activity Able to Modify Oxidative Damage in Cardiovascular Aging?

    PubMed Central

    Corbi, Graziamaria; Conti, Valeria; Russomanno, Giusy; Rengo, Giuseppe; Vitulli, Piergiusto; Ciccarelli, Anna Linda; Filippelli, Amelia; Ferrara, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Aging is a multifactorial process resulting in damage of molecules, cells, and tissues. It has been demonstrated that the expression and activity of antioxidant systems (SOD, HSPs) are modified in aging, with reduced cell ability to counteract the oxidant molecules, and consequent weak resistance to ROS accumulation. An important mechanism involved is represented by sirtuins, the activity of which is reduced by aging. Physical activity increases the expression and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, with consequent reduction of ROS. Positive effects of physical exercise in terms of antioxidant activity could be ascribable to a greater expression and activity of SOD enzymes, HSPs and SIRT1 activity. The antioxidant effects could increase, decrease, or not change in relation to the exercise protocol. Therefore, some authors by using a new approach based on the in vivo/vitro technique demonstrated that the highest survival and proliferation and the lowest senescence were obtained by performing an aerobic training. Therefore, the in vivo/vitro technique described could represent a good tool to better understand how the exercise training mediates its effects on aging-related diseases, as elderly with heart failure that represents a special population in which the exercise plays an important role in the improvement of cardiovascular function, quality of life, and survival. PMID:23029599

  12. Multidetector computed tomographic angiography of the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Burrill, Joshua; Dabbagh, Zaid; Gollub, Frank; Hamady, Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is considered a dramatic development in CT imaging that has direct implication in the imaging of various systems, in particular the cardiovascular system. The advantages of MDCT are an enormous increase in imaging acquisition speed, more coverage of the patient, and high spatial resolution. This article reviews the recent developments in CT angiography and discusses the clinical application relevant to diagnosis and endovascular treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:17989269

  13. Cardiovascular disease, risk factors and heart rate variability in the elderly general population: Design and objectives of the CARdiovascular disease, Living and Ageing in Halle (CARLA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Greiser, Karin H; Kluttig, Alexander; Schumann, Barbara; Kors, Jan A; Swenne, Cees A; Kuss, Oliver; Werdan, Karl; Haerting, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    Background The increasing burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in the ageing population of industrialized nations requires an intensive search for means of reducing this epidemic. In order to improve prevention, detection, therapy and prognosis of cardiovascular diseases on the population level in Eastern Germany, it is necessary to examine reasons for the East-West gradient of CVD morbidity and mortality, potential causal mechanisms and prognostic factors in the elderly. Psychosocial and nutritional factors have previously been discussed as possible causes for the unexplained part of the East-West gradient. A reduced heart rate variability appears to be associated with cardiovascular disease as well as with psychosocial and other cardiovascular risk factors and decreases with age. Nevertheless, there is a lack of population-based data to examine the role of heart rate variability and its interaction with psychosocial and nutritional factors regarding the effect on cardiovascular disease in the ageing population. There also is a paucity of epidemiological data describing the health situation in Eastern Germany. Therefore, we conduct a population-based study to examine the distribution of CVD, heart rate variability and CVD risk factors and their associations in an elderly East German population. This paper describes the design and objectives of the CARLA Study. Methods/design For this study, a random sample of 45–80 year-old inhabitants of the city of Halle (Saale) in Eastern Germany was drawn from the population registry. By the end of the baseline examination (2002–2005), 1750 study participants will have been examined. A multi-step recruitment strategy aims at achieving a 70 % response rate. Detailed information is collected on own and family medical history, socioeconomic, psychosocial, behavioural and biomedical factors. Medical examinations include anthropometric measures, blood pressure of arm and ankle, a 10-second and a 20-minute electrocardiogram

  14. Radiological features of uncommon aneurysms of the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Kalisz, Kevin; Rajiah, Prabhakar

    2016-01-01

    Although aortic aneurysms are the most common type encountered clinically, they do not span the entire spectrum of possible aneurysms of the cardiovascular system. As cross sectional imaging techniques with cardiac computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging continue to improve and becomes more commonplace, once rare cardiovascular aneurysms are being encountered at higher rates. In this review, a series of uncommon, yet clinically important, cardiovascular aneurysms will be presented with review of epidemiology, clinical presentation and complications, imaging features and relevant differential diagnoses, and aneurysm management. PMID:27247710

  15. A novel approach to modeling and diagnosing the cardiovascular system

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, P.E.; Kangas, L.J.; Hashem, S.; Kouzes, R.T.; Allen, P.A.

    1995-07-01

    A novel approach to modeling and diagnosing the cardiovascular system is introduced. A model exhibits a subset of the dynamics of the cardiovascular behavior of an individual by using a recurrent artificial neural network. Potentially, a model will be incorporated into a cardiovascular diagnostic system. This approach is unique in that each cardiovascular model is developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled variables and the variables of an individual at a given time are used for diagnosis. This approach also exploits sensor fusion to optimize the utilization of biomedical sensors. The advantage of sensor fusion has been demonstrated in applications including control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.

  16. Evaluation of the electromechanical properties of the cardiovascular system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, S. A., Jr.; Hoffler, G. W.; Johnson, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Cardiovascular electromechanical measurements were collected on returning Skylab crewmembers at rest and during both lower body negative pressure and exercise stress testing. These data were compared with averaged responses from multiple preflight tests. Systolic time intervals and first heart sound amplitude changes were measured. Clinical cardiovascular examinations and clinical phonocardiograms were evaluated. All changes noted returned to normal within 30 days postflight so that the processes appear to be transient and self limited. The cardiovascular system seems to adapt quite readily to zero-g, and more importantly it is capable of readaptation to one-g after long duration space flight. Repeated exposures to zero-g also appear to have no detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system.

  17. Role of TRP channels in the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Zhichao; Xie, Jia; Yu, Albert S.; Stock, Jonathan; Du, Jianyang

    2014-01-01

    The transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily consists of a large number of nonselective cation channels with variable degree of Ca2+-permeability. The 28 mammalian TRP channel proteins can be grouped into six subfamilies: canonical, vanilloid, melastatin, ankyrin, polycystic, and mucolipin TRPs. The majority of these TRP channels are expressed in different cell types including both excitable and nonexcitable cells of the cardiovascular system. Unlike voltage-gated ion channels, TRP channels do not have a typical voltage sensor, but instead can sense a variety of other stimuli including pressure, shear stress, mechanical stretch, oxidative stress, lipid environment alterations, hypertrophic signals, and inflammation products. By integrating multiple stimuli and transducing their activity to downstream cellular signal pathways via Ca2+ entry and/or membrane depolarization, TRP channels play an essential role in regulating fundamental cell functions such as contraction, relaxation, proliferation, differentiation, and cell death. With the use of targeted deletion and transgenic mouse models, recent studies have revealed that TRP channels are involved in numerous cellular functions and play an important role in the pathophysiology of many diseases in the cardiovascular system. Moreover, several TRP channels are involved in inherited diseases of the cardiovascular system. This review presents an overview of current knowledge concerning the physiological functions of TRP channels in the cardiovascular system and their contributions to cardiovascular diseases. Ultimately, TRP channels may become potential therapeutic targets for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25416190

  18. [Changes in the cardiovascular system in selected endocrinopathies in children].

    PubMed

    Semeran, Kornel; Bossowski, Artur

    2011-01-01

    Hormones have influence on many tissues and organs including the cardiovascular system. This article analyzes fluctuations that happen in a child's cardiovascular system in selected endocrinopathies. We are pointing out the higher risk, in the course of diabetes, of development of arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis including participating mechanisms in their pathogenesis - disorders of the lipid metabolism, hiperinsulinaemia, insulin resistance or/and autonomic neuropathy. We are describing how the increased and reduced action of thyroid hormones on certain molecular pathways in the heart and vasculature causes relevant cardiovascular derangement. In the article, we are signaling also that the cardiovascular consequences of cortisol excess are elevation of blood pressure, obesity, hyperinsulinemia and/or dyslipidemia. This review analyzes the relationship of cortisol excess to these cardiovascular risk factors and to putative mechanisms for hypertension. In reference to clinical studies we are describing how the deficiency of the growth hormone is connected with a development of risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. In conclusion we underlined that early diagnosis and proper treatment of illnesses of the endocrine system can protect our pediatric patients from serious cardiac complications in later years. PMID:21489356

  19. A Cross-Sectional Study of Ageing and Cardiovascular Function over the Baboon Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Kristen R.; Pears, Suzanne; Heffernan, Scott J.; Makris, Angela; Hennessy, Annemarie; Lind, Joanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ageing is associated with changes at the molecular and cellular level that can alter cardiovascular function and ultimately lead to disease. The baboon is an ideal model for studying ageing due to the similarities in genetic, anatomical, physiological and biochemical characteristics with humans. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the changes in cardiovascular profile of baboons over the course of their lifespan. Methods Data were collected from 109 healthy baboons (Papio hamadryas) at the Australian National Baboon Colony. A linear regression model, adjusting for sex, was used to analyse the association between age and markers of ageing with P < 0.01 considered significant. Results Male (n = 49, 1.5–28.5 years) and female (n = 60, 1.8–24.6 years) baboons were included in the study. Age was significantly correlated with systolic (R2 = 0.23, P < 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (R2 = 0.44, P < 0.001), with blood pressure increasing with age. Age was also highly correlated with core augmentation index (R2 = 0.17, P < 0.001) and core pulse pressure (R2 = 0.30, P < 0.001). Creatinine and urea were significantly higher in older animals compared to young animals (P < 0.001 for both). Older animals (>12 years) had significantly shorter telomeres when compared to younger (<3 years) baboons (P = 0.001). Conclusion This study is the first to demonstrate that cardiovascular function alters with age in the baboon. This research identifies similarities within cardiovascular parameters between humans and baboon even though the length of life differs between the two species. PMID:27427971

  20. Cardiovascular and nervous system changes during meditation

    PubMed Central

    Steinhubl, Steven R.; Wineinger, Nathan E.; Patel, Sheila; Boeldt, Debra L.; Mackellar, Geoffrey; Porter, Valencia; Redmond, Jacob T.; Muse, Evan D.; Nicholson, Laura; Chopra, Deepak; Topol, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A number of benefits have been described for the long-term practice of meditation, yet little is known regarding the immediate neurological and cardiovascular responses to meditation. Wireless sensor technology allows, for the first time, multi-parameter and quantitative monitoring of an individual's responses during meditation. The present study examined inter-individual variations to meditation through continuous monitoring of EEG, blood pressure, heart rate and its variability (HRV) in novice and experienced meditators. Methods: Participants were 20 experienced and 20 novice meditators involved in a week-long wellness retreat. Monitoring took place during meditation sessions on the first and last full days of the retreat. All participants wore a patch that continuously streamed ECG data, while half of them also wore a wireless EEG headset plus a non-invasive continuous blood pressure monitor. Results: Meditation produced variable but characteristic EEG changes, significantly different from baseline, even among novice meditators on the first day. In addition, although participants were predominately normotensive, the mean arterial blood pressure fell a small (2–3 mmHg) but significant (p < 0.0001) amount during meditation. The effect of meditation on HRV was less clear and influenced by calculation technique and respiration. No clear relationship between EEG changes, HRV alterations, or mean blood pressure during meditation was found. Conclusion: This is the first study to investigate neurological and cardiovascular responses during meditation in both novice and experienced meditators using novel, wearable, wireless devices. Meditation produced varied inter-individual physiologic responses. These results support the need for further investigation of the short- and long-term cardiovascular effects of mental calm and individualized ways to achieve it. PMID:25852526

  1. Gravitational force and the cardiovascular system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendergast, D. R.; Olszowka, A. J.; Rokitka, M. A.; Farhi, L. E.

    1991-01-01

    Ground-based simulation studies have been conducted to clarify the problems of the cardiovascular adaptation to alterations in gravitational force. Simulated microgravity experiments resulted in increases in cardiac stretch, urine flow, and sodium excretion, which were accompanied by lower plasma renin, aldosterone, and ADH. There appears to be a decrease in plasma volume as well as in sympathetic tone after 2-3 days of 0 Gz. Complete adjustment to 0 Gz is found within 8 h without a decrease in plasma volume, when subjects are allowed to dehydrate mildly.

  2. [Baseball during the growing years: repercussions on the cardiovascular system (echocardiographic evaluation)].

    PubMed

    Zuliani, U; Dei Cas, L; Manca, C

    1985-01-01

    The influence upon the cardiovascular system of a period (21 months) of physical training program for baseball was studied in 40 normal children (aged 8 to 10 years) in an experimental (20) and control (20) group. The echocardiographic changes observed at the end of the period proved to be substantially alike in both groups. The physiopathological involvements linked to the baseball training in the prepubescent age are discussed. PMID:2930983

  3. The aging diver: endothelial biochemistry and its potential implications for cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Berenji Ardestani, Simin; Buzzacott, Peter; Eftedal, Ingrid

    2015-12-01

    Divers are exposed to circulatory stress that directly affects the endothelial lining of blood vessels, and even asymptomatic dives are associated with inflammatory responses, microparticle release and endothelial dysfunction. As humans age, there is a relative increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease, attributed in part to declining endothelial function. Whether extensive diving in the older diver increases the risk of disease as a result of accumulated circulatory stress or provides protection through processes of acclimatization remains an open question. We provide a brief review of current knowledge about the separate effects of diving and aging on the vascular endothelium in humans and rodents, and discuss the available data on their combined effects. The aim is to elucidate possible outcomes of the interplay between exogenous and endogenous stress factors for endothelial function and to question potential implications for cardiovascular health in the aging diver. PMID:26687310

  4. Developmental Change and Intraindividual Variability: Relating Cognitive Aging to Cognitive Plasticity, Cardiovascular Lability, and Emotional Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis; Lindenberger, Ulman; Smith, Jacqui

    2010-01-01

    Repeated assessments obtained over years can be used to measure individuals’ developmental change, whereas repeated assessments obtained over a few weeks can be used to measure individuals’ dynamic characteristics. Using data from a burst of measurement embedded in the Berlin Aging Study (BASE: Baltes & Mayer, 1999), we illustrate and examine how long-term changes in cognitive ability are related to short-term changes in cognitive performance, cardiovascular function, and emotional experience. Our findings suggest that “better” cognitive aging over approximately13 years was associated with greater cognitive plasticity, less cardiovascular lability, and less emotional diversity over approximately 2 weeks at age 90 years. The study highlights the potential benefits of multi-time scale longitudinal designs for the study of individual function and development. PMID:21443355

  5. Age alters the cardiovascular response to direct passive heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minson, C. T.; Wladkowski, S. L.; Cardell, A. F.; Pawelczyk, J. A.; Kenney, W. L.

    1998-01-01

    During direct passive heating in young men, a dramatic increase in skin blood flow is achieved by a rise in cardiac output (Qc) and redistribution of flow from the splanchnic and renal vascular beds. To examine the effect of age on these responses, seven young (Y; 23 +/- 1 yr) and seven older (O; 70 +/- 3 yr) men were passively heated with water-perfused suits to their individual limit of thermal tolerance. Measurements included heart rate (HR), Qc (by acetylene rebreathing), central venous pressure (via peripherally inserted central catheter), blood pressures (by brachial auscultation), skin blood flow (from increases in forearm blood flow by venous occlusion plethysmography), splanchnic blood flow (by indocyanine green clearance), renal blood flow (by p-aminohippurate clearance), and esophageal and mean skin temperatures. Qc was significantly lower in the older than in the young men (11.1 +/- 0.7 and 7.4 +/- 0.2 l/min in Y and O, respectively, at the limit of thermal tolerance; P < 0. 05), despite similar increases in esophageal and mean skin temperatures and time to reach the limit of thermal tolerance. A lower stroke volume (99 +/- 7 and 68 +/- 4 ml/beat in Y and O, respectively, P < 0.05), most likely due to an attenuated increase in inotropic function during heating, was the primary factor for the lower Qc observed in the older men. Increases in HR were similar in the young and older men; however, when expressed as a percentage of maximal HR, the older men relied on a greater proportion of their chronotropic reserve to obtain the same HR response (62 +/- 3 and 75 +/- 4% maximal HR in Y and O, respectively, P < 0.05). Furthermore, the older men redistributed less blood flow from the combined splanchnic and renal circulations at the limit of thermal tolerance (960 +/- 80 and 720 +/- 100 ml/min in Y and O, respectively, P < 0. 05). As a result of these combined attenuated responses, the older men had a significantly lower increase in total blood flow directed to

  6. Age alters the cardiovascular response to direct passive heating.

    PubMed

    Minson, C T; Wladkowski, S L; Cardell, A F; Pawelczyk, J A; Kenney, W L

    1998-04-01

    During direct passive heating in young men, a dramatic increase in skin blood flow is achieved by a rise in cardiac output (Qc) and redistribution of flow from the splanchnic and renal vascular beds. To examine the effect of age on these responses, seven young (Y; 23 +/- 1 yr) and seven older (O; 70 +/- 3 yr) men were passively heated with water-perfused suits to their individual limit of thermal tolerance. Measurements included heart rate (HR), Qc (by acetylene rebreathing), central venous pressure (via peripherally inserted central catheter), blood pressures (by brachial auscultation), skin blood flow (from increases in forearm blood flow by venous occlusion plethysmography), splanchnic blood flow (by indocyanine green clearance), renal blood flow (by p-aminohippurate clearance), and esophageal and mean skin temperatures. Qc was significantly lower in the older than in the young men (11.1 +/- 0.7 and 7.4 +/- 0.2 l/min in Y and O, respectively, at the limit of thermal tolerance; P < 0. 05), despite similar increases in esophageal and mean skin temperatures and time to reach the limit of thermal tolerance. A lower stroke volume (99 +/- 7 and 68 +/- 4 ml/beat in Y and O, respectively, P < 0.05), most likely due to an attenuated increase in inotropic function during heating, was the primary factor for the lower Qc observed in the older men. Increases in HR were similar in the young and older men; however, when expressed as a percentage of maximal HR, the older men relied on a greater proportion of their chronotropic reserve to obtain the same HR response (62 +/- 3 and 75 +/- 4% maximal HR in Y and O, respectively, P < 0.05). Furthermore, the older men redistributed less blood flow from the combined splanchnic and renal circulations at the limit of thermal tolerance (960 +/- 80 and 720 +/- 100 ml/min in Y and O, respectively, P < 0. 05). As a result of these combined attenuated responses, the older men had a significantly lower increase in total blood flow directed to

  7. Central neural control of the cardiovascular system: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Dampney, Roger A L

    2016-09-01

    This brief review, which is based on a lecture presented at the American Physiological Society Teaching Refresher Course on the Brain and Systems Control as part of the Experimental Biology meeting in 2015, aims to summarize current concepts of the principal mechanisms in the brain that regulate the autonomic outflow to the cardiovascular system. Such cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms do not operate in isolation but are closely coordinated with respiratory and other regulatory mechanisms to maintain homeostasis. The brain regulates the cardiovascular system by two general means: 1) feedforward regulation, often referred to as "central command," and 2) feedback or reflex regulation. In most situations (e.g., during exercise, defensive behavior, sleep, etc.), both of these general mechanisms contribute to overall cardiovascular homeostasis. The review first describes the mechanisms and central circuitry subserving the baroreceptor, chemoreceptor, and other reflexes that work together to regulate an appropriate level of blood pressure and blood oxygenation and then considers the brain mechanisms that defend the body against more complex environmental challenges, using dehydration and cold and heat stress as examples. The last section of the review considers the central mechanisms regulating cardiovascular function associated with different behaviors, with a specific focus on defensive behavior and exercise. PMID:27445275

  8. Toxic effects of marijuana on the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Pratap, Balaji; Korniyenko, Aleksandr

    2012-06-01

    We present a case of marijuana-induced ST segment elevation mimicking Brugada syndrome in a young man. Cannabis can have a multitude of effects on the different organ systems of the body; we take a closer look at its effects on the cardiovascular system, including acute coronary syndrome, arrhythmias and congestive heart failure. PMID:22194141

  9. A Computer Model of the Cardiovascular System for Effective Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothe, Carl F.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a model of the cardiovascular system which solves a set of interacting, possibly nonlinear, differential equations. Figures present a schematic diagram of the model and printouts that simulate normal conditions, exercise, hemorrhage, reduced contractility. The nine interacting equations used to describe the system are described in the…

  10. Bad Marriage, Broken Heart? Age and Gender Differences in the Link between Marital Quality and Cardiovascular Risks among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Waite, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Working from a life course perspective, we develop hypotheses about age and gender differences in the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk and test them using data from the first two waves of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. The analytic sample includes 459 married women and 739 married men (aged 57–85 in the first wave) who were interviewed in both waves. We apply Heckman-type corrections for selection bias due to mortality and marriage. Cardiovascular risk is measured as hypertension, rapid heart rate, C-reactive protein, and general cardiovascular events. Results suggest that changes in marital quality and cardiovascular risk are more closely related for older married people than for their younger counterparts; and that the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk is more pronounced among women than among men at older ages. These findings fit with the gendered life course perspective and cumulative disadvantage framework. PMID:25413802

  11. Effect of zero magnetic field on cardiovascular system and microcirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurfinkel, Yu. I.; At'kov, O. Yu.; Vasin, A. L.; Breus, T. K.; Sasonko, M. L.; Pishchalnikov, R. Yu.

    2016-02-01

    The effects of zero magnetic field conditions on cardiovascular system of healthy adults have been studied. In order to generate zero magnetic field, the facility for magnetic fields modeling "ARFA" has been used. Parameters of the capillary blood flow, blood pressure, and the electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring were measured during the study. All subjects were tested twice: in zero magnetic field and, for comparison, in sham condition. The obtained results during 60 minutes of zero magnetic field exposure demonstrate a clear effect on cardiovascular system and microcirculation. The results of our experiments can be used in studies of long-term stay in hypo-magnetic conditions during interplanetary missions.

  12. Effect of zero magnetic field on cardiovascular system and microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Gurfinkel, Yu I; At'kov, O Yu; Vasin, A L; Breus, T K; Sasonko, M L; Pishchalnikov, R Yu

    2016-02-01

    The effects of zero magnetic field conditions on cardiovascular system of healthy adults have been studied. In order to generate zero magnetic field, the facility for magnetic fields modeling "ARFA" has been used. Parameters of the capillary blood flow, blood pressure, and the electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring were measured during the study. All subjects were tested twice: in zero magnetic field and, for comparison, in sham condition. The obtained results during 60 minutes of zero magnetic field exposure demonstrate a clear effect on cardiovascular system and microcirculation. The results of our experiments can be used in studies of long-term stay in hypo-magnetic conditions during interplanetary missions. PMID:26948007

  13. Age- and sex-specific causal effects of adiposity on cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Fall, Tove; Hägg, Sara; Ploner, Alexander; Mägi, Reedik; Fischer, Krista; Draisma, Harmen H M; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Benyamin, Beben; Ladenvall, Claes; Åkerlund, Mikael; Kals, Mart; Esko, Tõnu; Nelson, Christopher P; Kaakinen, Marika; Huikari, Ville; Mangino, Massimo; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Kristiansson, Kati; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Kobl, Michael; Grallert, Harald; Dehghan, Abbas; Kuningas, Maris; de Vries, Paul S; de Bruijn, Renée F A G; Willems, Sara M; Heikkilä, Kauko; Silventoinen, Karri; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Legry, Vanessa; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Goumidi, Louisa; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Strauch, Konstantin; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lichtner, Peter; Herder, Christian; Palotie, Aarno; Menni, Cristina; Uitterlinden, André G; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Havulinna, Aki S; Moreno, Luis A; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Evans, Alun; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Yarnell, John W G; Virtamo, Jarmo; Ferrières, Jean; Veronesi, Giovanni; Perola, Markus; Arveiler, Dominique; Brambilla, Paolo; Lind, Lars; Kaprio, Jaakko; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Ikram, M Arfan; Franco, Oscar H; Cottel, Dominique; Dallongeville, Jean; Hall, Alistair S; Jula, Antti; Tobin, Martin D; Penninx, Brenda W; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Samani, Nilesh J; Montgomery, Grant W; Whitfield, John B; Martin, Nicholas G; Groop, Leif; Spector, Tim D; Magnusson, Patrik K; Amouyel, Philippe; Boomsma, Dorret I; Nilsson, Peter M; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Metspalu, Andres; Strachan, David P; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli; Pedersen, Nancy L; Prokopenko, Inga; McCarthy, Mark I; Ingelsson, Erik

    2015-05-01

    Observational studies have reported different effects of adiposity on cardiovascular risk factors across age and sex. Since cardiovascular risk factors are enriched in obese individuals, it has not been easy to dissect the effects of adiposity from those of other risk factors. We used a Mendelian randomization approach, applying a set of 32 genetic markers to estimate the causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, glycemic indices, circulating lipid levels, and markers of inflammation and liver disease in up to 67,553 individuals. All analyses were stratified by age (cutoff 55 years of age) and sex. The genetic score was associated with BMI in both nonstratified analysis (P = 2.8 × 10(-107)) and stratified analyses (all P < 3.3 × 10(-30)). We found evidence of a causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, fasting levels of insulin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in a nonstratified analysis and in the <55-year stratum. Further, we found evidence of a smaller causal effect on total cholesterol (P for difference = 0.015) in the ≥55-year stratum than in the <55-year stratum, a finding that could be explained by biology, survival bias, or differential medication. In conclusion, this study extends previous knowledge of the effects of adiposity by providing sex- and age-specific causal estimates on cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25712996

  14. Age- and Sex-Specific Causal Effects of Adiposity on Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Tove; Hägg, Sara; Ploner, Alexander; Mägi, Reedik; Fischer, Krista; Draisma, Harmen H.M.; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Benyamin, Beben; Ladenvall, Claes; Åkerlund, Mikael; Kals, Mart; Esko, Tõnu; Nelson, Christopher P.; Kaakinen, Marika; Huikari, Ville; Mangino, Massimo; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Kristiansson, Kati; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Kobl, Michael; Grallert, Harald; Dehghan, Abbas; Kuningas, Maris; de Vries, Paul S.; de Bruijn, Renée F.A.G.; Willems, Sara M.; Heikkilä, Kauko; Silventoinen, Karri; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Legry, Vanessa; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Goumidi, Louisa; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Strauch, Konstantin; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lichtner, Peter; Herder, Christian; Palotie, Aarno; Menni, Cristina; Uitterlinden, André G.; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Havulinna, Aki S.; Moreno, Luis A.; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Evans, Alun; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Yarnell, John W.G.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Ferrières, Jean; Veronesi, Giovanni; Perola, Markus; Arveiler, Dominique; Brambilla, Paolo; Lind, Lars; Kaprio, Jaakko; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Franco, Oscar H.; Cottel, Dominique; Dallongeville, Jean; Hall, Alistair S.; Jula, Antti; Tobin, Martin D.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Samani, Nilesh J.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Whitfield, John B.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Groop, Leif; Spector, Tim D.; Magnusson, Patrik K.; Amouyel, Philippe; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Nilsson, Peter M.; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Metspalu, Andres; Strachan, David P.; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Prokopenko, Inga; McCarthy, Mark I.

    2015-01-01

    Observational studies have reported different effects of adiposity on cardiovascular risk factors across age and sex. Since cardiovascular risk factors are enriched in obese individuals, it has not been easy to dissect the effects of adiposity from those of other risk factors. We used a Mendelian randomization approach, applying a set of 32 genetic markers to estimate the causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, glycemic indices, circulating lipid levels, and markers of inflammation and liver disease in up to 67,553 individuals. All analyses were stratified by age (cutoff 55 years of age) and sex. The genetic score was associated with BMI in both nonstratified analysis (P = 2.8 × 10−107) and stratified analyses (all P < 3.3 × 10−30). We found evidence of a causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, fasting levels of insulin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in a nonstratified analysis and in the <55-year stratum. Further, we found evidence of a smaller causal effect on total cholesterol (P for difference = 0.015) in the ≥55-year stratum than in the <55-year stratum, a finding that could be explained by biology, survival bias, or differential medication. In conclusion, this study extends previous knowledge of the effects of adiposity by providing sex- and age-specific causal estimates on cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25712996

  15. Common carotid intima-media thickness relates to cardiovascular events in adults aged <45 years.

    PubMed

    Eikendal, Anouk L M; Groenewegen, Karlijn A; Anderson, Todd J; Britton, Annie R; Engström, Gunnar; Evans, Greg W; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Grobbee, Diederick E; Hedblad, Bo; Holewijn, Suzanne; Ikeda, Ai; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Kitamura, Akihiko; Lonn, Eva M; Lorenz, Matthias W; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Nijpels, Giel; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Okazaki, Shuhei; O'Leary, Daniel H; Polak, Joseph F; Price, Jacqueline F; Robertson, Christine; Rembold, Christopher M; Rosvall, Maria; Rundek, Tatjana; Salonen, Jukka T; Sitzer, Matthias; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Hoefer, Imo E; Peters, Sanne A E; Bots, Michiel L; den Ruijter, Hester M

    2015-04-01

    Although atherosclerosis starts in early life, evidence on risk factors and atherosclerosis in individuals aged <45 years is scarce. Therefore, we studied the relationship between risk factors, common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and first-time cardiovascular events in adults aged <45 years. Our study population consisted of 3067 adults aged <45 years free from symptomatic cardiovascular disease at baseline, derived from 6 cohorts that are part of the USE-IMT initiative, an individual participant data meta-analysis of general-population-based cohort studies evaluating CIMT measurements. Information on risk factors, CIMT measurements, and follow-up of the combined end point (first-time myocardial infarction or stroke) was obtained. We assessed the relationship between risk factors and CIMT and the relationship between CIMT and first-time myocardial infarction or stroke using a multivariable linear mixed-effects model and a Cox proportional-hazards model, respectively. During a follow-up of 16.3 years, 55 first-time myocardial infarctions or strokes occurred. Median CIMT was 0.63 mm. Of the risk factors under study, age, sex, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol related to CIMT. Furthermore, CIMT related to first-time myocardial infarction or stroke with a hazard ratio of 1.40 per SD increase in CIMT, independent of risk factors (95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.76). CIMT may be a valuable marker for cardiovascular risk in adults aged <45 years who are not yet eligible for standard cardiovascular risk screening. This is especially relevant in those with an increased, unfavorable risk factor burden. PMID:25624341

  16. Optical systems for non-invasive cardiovascular biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erts, R.; Spigulis, J., Sr.; Ozols, M.

    2005-09-01

    Three portable prototype devices for cardiovascular biosensing based on reflection-type photoplethysmography (PPG) principle have been designed and clinically tested. The single-channel PPG finger sensor provides real-time measurements with fast calculation of the mean single-period PPG signal shape ("cardiovascular fingerprint", potentially useful for recognition). The dual-channel PPG system gives additional possibility to monitor on-line the arterial pulse wave transit time and its responses to physical exercises. The four-channel PPG system proved to be applicable for fast detection of cardiovascular pathologies, e.g. arterial occlusions in extremities. Design principles and software algorithms of the regarded devices will be discussed, as well as the results of recent clinical tests.

  17. Clinical Application of Stem Cells in the Cardiovascular System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamm, Christof; Klose, Kristin; Choi, Yeong-Hoon

    Regenerative medicine encompasses "tissue engineering" - the in vitro fabrication of tissues and/or organs using scaffold material and viable cells - and "cell therapy" - the transplantation or manipulation of cells in diseased tissue in vivo. In the cardiovascular system, tissue engineering strategies are being pursued for the development of viable replacement blood vessels, heart valves, patch material, cardiac pacemakers and contractile myocardium. Anecdotal clinical applications of such vessels, valves and patches have been described, but information on systematic studies of the performance of such implants is not available, yet. Cell therapy for cardiovascular regeneration, however, has been performed in large series of patients, and numerous clinical studies have produced sometimes conflicting results. The purpose of this chapter is to summarize the clinical experience with cell therapy for diseases of the cardiovascular system, and to analyse possible factors that may influence its outcome.

  18. Aging alters muscle reflex control of autonomic cardiovascular responses to rhythmic contractions in humans.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Simranjit K; Weavil, Joshua C; Venturelli, Massimo; Rossman, Matthew J; Gmelch, Benjamin S; Bledsoe, Amber D; Richardson, Russell S; Amann, Markus

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the influence of aging on the group III/IV muscle afferents in the exercise pressor reflex-mediated cardiovascular response to rhythmic exercise. Nine old (OLD; 68 ± 2 yr) and nine young (YNG; 24 ± 2 yr) males performed single-leg knee extensor exercise (15 W, 30 W, 80% max) under control conditions and with lumbar intrathecal fentanyl impairing feedback from group III/IV leg muscle afferents. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output, leg blood flow (QL), systemic (SVC) and leg vascular conductance (LVC) were continuously determined. With no hemodynamic effect at rest, fentanyl blockade during exercise attenuated both cardiac output and QL ∼17% in YNG, while the decrease in cardiac output in OLD (∼5%) was significantly smaller with no impact on QL (P = 0.8). Therefore, in the face of similar significant ∼7% reduction in MAP during exercise with fentanyl blockade in both groups, LVC significantly increased ∼11% in OLD, but decreased ∼8% in YNG. The opposing direction of change was reflected in SVC with a significant ∼5% increase in OLD and a ∼12% decrease in YNG. Thus while cardiac output seems to account for the majority of group III/IV-mediated MAP responses in YNG, the impact of neural feedback on the heart may decrease with age and alterations in SVC become more prominent in mediating the similar exercise pressor reflex in OLD. Interestingly, in terms of peripheral hemodynamics, while group III/IV-mediated feedback plays a clear role in increasing LVC during exercise in the YNG, these afferents seem to actually reduce LVC in OLD. These peripheral findings may help explain the limited exercise-induced peripheral vasodilation often associated with aging. PMID:26386110

  19. ALDOSTERONE DYSREGULATION WITH AGING PREDICTS RENAL-VASCULAR FUNCTION AND CARDIO-VASCULAR RISK

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jenifer M.; Underwood, Patricia C.; Ferri, Claudio; Hopkins, Paul N.; Williams, Gordon H.; Adler, Gail K.; Vaidya, Anand

    2014-01-01

    Aging and abnormal aldosterone regulation are both associated with vascular disease. We hypothesized that aldosterone dysregulation influences the age-related risk of renal- and cardio-vascular disease. We conducted an analysis of 562 subjects who underwent detailed investigations under conditions of liberal and restricted dietary sodium intake (1,124 visits) in a Clinical Research Center. Aldosterone regulation was characterized by the ratio of maximal suppression-to-stimulation (supine serum aldosterone on a liberal sodium diet divided by the same measure on a restricted sodium diet). We previously demonstrated that higher levels of this Sodium-modulated Aldosterone Suppression-Stimulation Index (SASSI) indicate greater aldosterone dysregulation. Renal plasma flow (RPF) was determined via p-aminohippurate clearance to assess basal renal hemodynamics, and the renal-vascular responses to dietary sodium manipulation and angiotensin II (AngII) infusion. Cardiovascular risk was calculated using the Framingham Risk Score. In univariate linear regression, older age (β= -4.60, p<0.0001) and higher SASSI (β= -58.63, p=0.001) predicted lower RPF and a blunted RPF response to sodium loading and AngII infusion. We observed a continuous, independent, multivariate-adjusted interaction between age and SASSI, where the inverse relationship between SASSI and RPF was most apparent with older age (p<0.05). Higher SASSI and lower RPF independently predicted higher Framingham Risk Score (p<0.0001) and together displayed an additive effect. Aldosterone regulation and age may interact to mediate renal-vascular disease. Our findings suggest that the combination of aldosterone dysregulation and renal-vascular dysfunction could additively increase the risk of future cardiovascular outcomes; therefore, aldosterone dysregulation may represent a modifiable mechanism of age-related vascular disease. PMID:24664291

  20. Paraoxonase 1 Polymorphism and Prenatal Pesticide Exposure Associated with Adverse Cardiovascular Risk Profiles at School Age

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Helle R.; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Dalgård, Christine; Christiansen, Lene; Main, Katharina M.; Nellemann, Christine; Murata, Katsuyuki; Jensen, Tina K.; Skakkebæk, Niels E.; Grandjean, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Background Prenatal environmental factors might influence the risk of developing cardiovascular disease later in life. The HDL-associated enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has anti-oxidative functions that may protect against atherosclerosis. It also hydrolyzes many substrates, including organophosphate pesticides. A common polymorphism, PON1 Q192R, affects both properties, but a potential interaction between PON1 genotype and pesticide exposure on cardiovascular risk factors has not been investigated. We explored if the PON1 Q192R genotype affects cardiovascular risk factors in school-age children prenatally exposed to pesticides. Methods Pregnant greenhouse-workers were categorized as high, medium, or not exposed to pesticides. Their children underwent a standardized examination at age 6-to-11 years, where blood pressure, skin folds, and other anthropometric parameters were measured. PON1-genotype was determined for 141 children (88 pesticide exposed and 53 unexposed). Serum was analyzed for insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), insulin and leptin. Body fat percentage was calculated from skin fold thicknesses. BMI results were converted to age and sex specific Z-scores. Results Prenatally pesticide exposed children carrying the PON1 192R-allele had higher abdominal circumference, body fat content, BMI Z-scores, blood pressure, and serum concentrations of leptin and IGF-I at school age than unexposed children. The effects were related to the prenatal exposure level. For children with the PON1 192QQ genotype, none of the variables was affected by prenatal pesticide exposure. Conclusion Our results indicate a gene-environment interaction between prenatal pesticide exposure and the PON1 gene. Only exposed children with the R-allele developed adverse cardiovascular risk profiles thought to be associated with the R-allele. PMID:22615820

  1. 76 FR 62164 - VASRD Improvement Forum-Updating Disability Criteria for the Respiratory System, Cardiovascular...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... AFFAIRS VASRD Improvement Forum--Updating Disability Criteria for the Respiratory System, Cardiovascular...) Improvement Forum-- Updating Disability Criteria for the Respiratory System, Cardiovascular System, Hearing... four body systems: (1) Respiratory System (38 CFR 4.96-4.97), (2) the Cardiovascular System (38 CFR...

  2. Cardiovascular disease and type 1 diabetes: prevalence, prediction and management in an ageing population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Siang Ing; Patel, Mitesh; Jones, Christopher M; Narendran, Parth

    2015-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). However, evidence of its risks and management is often extrapolated from studies in type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients or the general population. This approach is unsatisfactory given that the underlying pathology, demographics and natural history of the disease differ between T1D and T2D. Furthermore, with a rising life expectancy, a greater number of T1D patients are exposed to the cardiovascular (CV) risk factors associated with an ageing population. The aim of this review is to examine the existing literature around CVD in T1D. We pay particular attention to CVD prevalence, how well we manage risk, potential biomarkers, and whether the studies included the older aged patients (defined as aged over 65). We also discuss approaches to the management of CV risk in the older aged. The available data suggest a significant CVD burden in patients with T1D and poor management of CV risk factors. This is underpinned by a poor evidence base for therapeutic management of CV risk specifically for patients with T1D, and in the most relevant population - the older aged patients. We would suggest that important areas remain to be addressed, particularly exploring the risks and benefits of therapeutic approaches to CVD management in the older aged. PMID:26568811

  3. Cardiovascular disease and type 1 diabetes: prevalence, prediction and management in an ageing population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Siang Ing; Patel, Mitesh; Jones, Christopher M.; Narendran, Parth

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). However, evidence of its risks and management is often extrapolated from studies in type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients or the general population. This approach is unsatisfactory given that the underlying pathology, demographics and natural history of the disease differ between T1D and T2D. Furthermore, with a rising life expectancy, a greater number of T1D patients are exposed to the cardiovascular (CV) risk factors associated with an ageing population. The aim of this review is to examine the existing literature around CVD in T1D. We pay particular attention to CVD prevalence, how well we manage risk, potential biomarkers, and whether the studies included the older aged patients (defined as aged over 65). We also discuss approaches to the management of CV risk in the older aged. The available data suggest a significant CVD burden in patients with T1D and poor management of CV risk factors. This is underpinned by a poor evidence base for therapeutic management of CV risk specifically for patients with T1D, and in the most relevant population – the older aged patients. We would suggest that important areas remain to be addressed, particularly exploring the risks and benefits of therapeutic approaches to CVD management in the older aged. PMID:26568811

  4. A Computer Model of the Cardiovascular System for Effective Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothe, Carl F.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a physiological model which solves a set of interacting, possibly nonlinear, differential equations through numerical integration on a digital computer. Sample printouts are supplied and explained for effects on the components of a cardiovascular system when exercise, hemorrhage, and cardiac failure occur. (CS)

  5. Electronic circuit detects left ventricular ejection events in cardiovascular system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gebben, V. D.; Webb, J. A., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Electronic circuit processes arterial blood pressure waveform to produce discrete signals that coincide with beginning and end of left ventricular ejection. Output signals provide timing signals for computers that monitor cardiovascular systems. Circuit operates reliably for heart rates between 50 and 200 beats per minute.

  6. Structural identifiability analysis of a cardiovascular system model.

    PubMed

    Pironet, Antoine; Dauby, Pierre C; Chase, J Geoffrey; Docherty, Paul D; Revie, James A; Desaive, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    The six-chamber cardiovascular system model of Burkhoff and Tyberg has been used in several theoretical and experimental studies. However, this cardiovascular system model (and others derived from it) are not identifiable from any output set. In this work, two such cases of structural non-identifiability are first presented. These cases occur when the model output set only contains a single type of information (pressure or volume). A specific output set is thus chosen, mixing pressure and volume information and containing only a limited number of clinically available measurements. Then, by manipulating the model equations involving these outputs, it is demonstrated that the six-chamber cardiovascular system model is structurally globally identifiable. A further simplification is made, assuming known cardiac valve resistances. Because of the poor practical identifiability of these four parameters, this assumption is usual. Under this hypothesis, the six-chamber cardiovascular system model is structurally identifiable from an even smaller dataset. As a consequence, parameter values computed from limited but well-chosen datasets are theoretically unique. This means that the parameter identification procedure can safely be performed on the model from such a well-chosen dataset. Thus, the model may be considered suitable for use in diagnosis. PMID:26970891

  7. Effects of Aerobic Dance on Physical Work Capacity, Cardiovascular Function and Body Composition of Middle-Age Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdy, Deborah B.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study proposed to determine the effects of aerobics on physical work capacity, cardiovascular function and body composition of 28 women aged 25 to 44 years. Measurements taken after a conditioning program showed significant changes in work capacity and cardiovascular function for the conditioned group but no change in body composition.…

  8. Decadal Cycles in the Human Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Halberg, Franz; Cornelissen, Germaine; Sothern, Robert B.; Hillman, Dewayne; Watanabe, Yoshihiko; Haus, Erhard; Schwartzkopff, Othild; Best, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Seven of the eight authors of this report each performed physiologic self-surveillance, some around the clock for decades. We here document the presence of long cycles (decadals, including circaundecennians) in the time structure of systolic (S) and diastolic (D) blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). Because of the non-stationary nature in time and space of these and other physiologic and environmental periodic components that, like the wind, can appear and disappear in a given or other geographic location at one or another time, they have been called “Aeolian”. The nonlinear estimation of the uncertainties of the periods (τs) of two or more variables being compared has been used to determine whether these components are congruent or not, depending on whether their CIs (95% confidence intervals) overlap or not. Among others, congruence has been found for components with τs clustering around 10 years in us and around us. There is a selective assortment among individuals, variables and cycle characteristics (mean and circadian amplitude and acrophase). Apart from basic interest, like other nonphotic solar signatures such as transyears with periods slightly longer than one year or about 33-year Brückner-Egeson-Lockyer (BEL) cycles, about 10-year and longer cycles present in 7 of 7 self-monitoring individuals are of interest in the diagnosis of Vascular Variability Anomalies (VVAs), including MESOR-hypertension, and others. Some of the other VVAs, such as a circadian overswing, i.e., CHAT (Circadian Hyper-Aplitude-Tension), or an excessive pulse pressure, based on repeated 7-day around-the-clock records, can represent a risk of severe cardiovascular events, greater than that of a high BP. The differential diagnosis of physiologic cycles, infradians (components with a τ longer than 28 hours) as well as circadians awaits the collection of reference values for the infradian parameters of the cycles described herein. Just as in stroke-prone spontaneously

  9. Mathematical biomarkers for the autonomic regulation of cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Luciana A.; Pereira, Valter L.; Muralikrishna, Amita; Albarwani, Sulayma; Brás, Susana; Gouveia, Sónia

    2013-01-01

    Heart rate and blood pressure are the most important vital signs in diagnosing disease. Both heart rate and blood pressure are characterized by a high degree of short term variability from moment to moment, medium term over the normal day and night as well as in the very long term over months to years. The study of new mathematical algorithms to evaluate the variability of these cardiovascular parameters has a high potential in the development of new methods for early detection of cardiovascular disease, to establish differential diagnosis with possible therapeutic consequences. The autonomic nervous system is a major player in the general adaptive reaction to stress and disease. The quantitative prediction of the autonomic interactions in multiple control loops pathways of cardiovascular system is directly applicable to clinical situations. Exploration of new multimodal analytical techniques for the variability of cardiovascular system may detect new approaches for deterministic parameter identification. A multimodal analysis of cardiovascular signals can be studied by evaluating their amplitudes, phases, time domain patterns, and sensitivity to imposed stimuli, i.e., drugs blocking the autonomic system. The causal effects, gains, and dynamic relationships may be studied through dynamical fuzzy logic models, such as the discrete-time model and discrete-event model. We expect an increase in accuracy of modeling and a better estimation of the heart rate and blood pressure time series, which could be of benefit for intelligent patient monitoring. We foresee that identifying quantitative mathematical biomarkers for autonomic nervous system will allow individual therapy adjustments to aim at the most favorable sympathetic-parasympathetic balance. PMID:24109456

  10. Parasympathetic Stimuli on Bronchial and Cardiovascular Systems in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Zannin, Emanuela; Pellegrino, Riccardo; Di Toro, Alessandro; Antonelli, Andrea; Dellacà, Raffaele L.; Bernardi, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Background It is not known whether parasympathetic outflow simultaneously acts on bronchial tone and cardiovascular system waxing and waning both systems in parallel, or, alternatively, whether the regulation is more dependent on local factors and therefore independent on each system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the simultaneous effect of different kinds of stimulations, all associated with parasympathetic activation, on bronchomotor tone and cardiovascular autonomic regulation. Methods Respiratory system resistance (Rrs, forced oscillation technique) and cardio-vascular activity (heart rate, oxygen saturation, tissue oxygenation index, blood pressure) were assessed in 13 volunteers at baseline and during a series of parasympathetic stimuli: O2 inhalation, stimulation of the carotid sinus baroreceptors by neck suction, slow breathing, and inhalation of methacholine. Results Pure cholinergic stimuli, like O2 inhalation and baroreceptors stimulation, caused an increase in Rrs and a reduction in heart rate and blood pressure. Slow breathing led to bradycardia and hypotension, without significant changes in Rrs. However slow breathing was associated with deep inhalations, and Rrs evaluated at the baseline lung volumes was significantly increased, suggesting that the large tidal volumes reversed the airways narrowing effect of parasympathetic activation. Finally inhaled methacholine caused marked airway narrowing, while the cardiovascular variables were unaffected, presumably because of the sympathetic activity triggered in response to hypoxemia. Conclusions All parasympathetic stimuli affected bronchial tone and moderately affected also the cardiovascular system. However the response differed depending on the nature of the stimulus. Slow breathing was associated with large tidal volumes that reversed the airways narrowing effect of parasympathetic activation. PMID:26046774

  11. Benefits of L-Arginine on Cardiovascular System.

    PubMed

    Sudar-Milovanovic, Emina; Obradovic, Milan; Jovanovic, Aleksandra; Zaric, Bozidarka; Zafirovic, Sonja; Panic, Anastasija; Radak, Djordje; Isenovic, Esma R

    2015-01-01

    The amino acid, L-Arginine (L-Arg) plays an important role in the cardiovascular system. Data from the literature show that L-Arg is the only substrate for the production of nitric oxide (NO), from which L-Arg develops its effects on the cardiovascular system. As a free radical, NO is synthesized in all mammalian cells by L-Arg with the activity of NO synthase (NOS). In states of hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and vascular inflammation a disorder occurs in the metabolic pathway of the synthesis of NO from L-Arg which all together bring alterations of blood vessels. Experimental results obtained on animals, as well as clinical studies show that L-Arg has an effect on thrombocytes, on the process of coagulation and on the fibrolytic system. This mini review represents a summary of the latest scientific animal and human studies related to L-Arg and its mechanisms of actions with a focus on the role of L-Arg via NO pathway in cardiovascular disorders. Moreover, here we present data from recent animal and clinical studies suggesting that L-Arg could be one of the possible therapeutic molecules for improving the treatment of different cardiovascular disorders. PMID:26471966

  12. Unmasking Silent Endothelial Activation in the Cardiovascular System Using Molecular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Belliere, Julie; Martinez de Lizarrondo, Sara; Choudhury, Robin P.; Quenault, Aurélien; Le Béhot, Audrey; Delage, Christine; Chauveau, Dominique; Schanstra, Joost P.; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Vivien, Denis; Gauberti, Maxime

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial activation is a hallmark of cardiovascular diseases, acting either as a cause or a consequence of organ injury. To date, we lack suitable methods to measure endothelial activation in vivo. In the present study, we developed a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method allowing non-invasive endothelial activation mapping in the vasculature of the main organs affected during cardiovascular diseases. In clinically relevant contexts in mice (including systemic inflammation, acute and chronic kidney diseases, diabetes mellitus and normal aging), we provided evidence that this method allows detecting endothelial activation before any clinical manifestation of organ failure in the brain, kidney and heart with an exceptional sensitivity. In particular, we demonstrated that diabetes mellitus induces chronic endothelial cells activation in the kidney and heart. Moreover, aged mice presented activated endothelial cells in the kidneys and the cerebrovasculature. Interestingly, depending on the underlying condition, the temporospatial patterns of endothelial activation in the vascular beds of the cardiovascular system were different. These results demonstrate the feasibility of detecting silent endothelial activation occurring in conditions associated with high cardiovascular risk using molecular MRI. PMID:26379785

  13. Unmasking Silent Endothelial Activation in the Cardiovascular System Using Molecular Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Belliere, Julie; Martinez de Lizarrondo, Sara; Choudhury, Robin P; Quenault, Aurélien; Le Béhot, Audrey; Delage, Christine; Chauveau, Dominique; Schanstra, Joost P; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Vivien, Denis; Gauberti, Maxime

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial activation is a hallmark of cardiovascular diseases, acting either as a cause or a consequence of organ injury. To date, we lack suitable methods to measure endothelial activation in vivo. In the present study, we developed a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method allowing non-invasive endothelial activation mapping in the vasculature of the main organs affected during cardiovascular diseases. In clinically relevant contexts in mice (including systemic inflammation, acute and chronic kidney diseases, diabetes mellitus and normal aging), we provided evidence that this method allows detecting endothelial activation before any clinical manifestation of organ failure in the brain, kidney and heart with an exceptional sensitivity. In particular, we demonstrated that diabetes mellitus induces chronic endothelial cells activation in the kidney and heart. Moreover, aged mice presented activated endothelial cells in the kidneys and the cerebrovasculature. Interestingly, depending on the underlying condition, the temporospatial patterns of endothelial activation in the vascular beds of the cardiovascular system were different. These results demonstrate the feasibility of detecting silent endothelial activation occurring in conditions associated with high cardiovascular risk using molecular MRI. PMID:26379785

  14. Differential Role of Leptin and Adiponectin in Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Ghantous, C. M.; Azrak, Z.; Hanache, S.; Abou-Kheir, W.; Zeidan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Leptin and adiponectin are differentially expressed adipokines in obesity and cardiovascular diseases. Leptin levels are directly associated with adipose tissue mass, while adiponectin levels are downregulated in obesity. Although significantly produced by adipocytes, leptin is also produced by vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiomyocytes. Plasma leptin concentrations are elevated in cases of cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, congestive heart failure, and myocardial infarction. As for the event of left ventricular hypertrophy, researchers have been stirring controversy about the role of leptin in this form of cardiac remodeling. In this review, we discuss how leptin has been shown to play an antihypertrophic role in the development of left ventricular hypertrophy through in vitro experiments, population-based cross-sectional studies, and longitudinal cohort studies. Conversely, we also examine how leptin may actually promote left ventricular hypertrophy using in vitro analysis and human-based univariate and multiple linear stepwise regression analysis. On the other hand, as opposed to leptin's generally detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system, adiponectin is a cardioprotective hormone that reduces left ventricular and vascular hypertrophy, oxidative stress, and inflammation. In this review, we also highlight adiponectin signaling and its protective actions on the cardiovascular system. PMID:26064110

  15. Quantification of GDF11 and Myostatin in Human Aging and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Schafer, Marissa J; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Vanderboom, Patrick M; Kotajarvi, Brian; White, Thomas A; Moore, Matthew M; Bruce, Charles J; Greason, Kevin L; Suri, Rakesh M; Khosla, Sundeep; Miller, Jordan D; Bergen, H Robert; LeBrasseur, Nathan K

    2016-06-14

    Growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is a transforming growth factor β superfamily member with a controversial role in aging processes. We have developed a highly specific LC-MS/MS assay to quantify GDF11, resolved from its homolog, myostatin (MSTN), based on unique amino acid sequence features. Here, we demonstrate that MSTN, but not GDF11, declines in healthy men throughout aging. Neither GDF11 nor MSTN levels differ as a function of age in healthy women. In an independent cohort of older adults with severe aortic stenosis, we show that individuals with higher GDF11 were more likely to be frail and have diabetes or prior cardiac conditions. Following valve replacement surgery, higher GDF11 at surgical baseline was associated with rehospitalization and multiple adverse events. Cumulatively, our results show that GDF11 levels do not decline throughout aging but are associated with comorbidity, frailty, and greater operative risk in older adults with cardiovascular disease. PMID:27304512

  16. The cardiovascular system and diving risk.

    PubMed

    Bove, Alfred A

    2011-01-01

    Recreational scuba diving is a sport that requires a certain physical capacity, in addition to consideration of the environmental stresses produced by increased pressure, low temperature and inert gas kinetics in tissues of the body. Factors that may influence ability to dive safely include age, physical conditioning, tolerance of cold, ability to compensate for central fluid shifts induced by water immersion, and ability to manage exercise demands when heart disease might compromise exercise capacity. Patients with coronary heart disease, valvular heart disease, congenital heart disease and cardiac arrhythmias are capable of diving, but consideration must be given to the environmental factors that might interact with the cardiac disorder. Understanding of the interaction of the diving environment with various cardiac disorders is essential to providing a safe diving environment to individual divers with known heart disease. PMID:21877555

  17. Evaluating a decision making system for cardiovascular dysautonomias diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Idri, Ali; Kadi, Ilham

    2016-01-01

    Autonomic nervous system (ANS) is the part of the nervous system that is involved in homeostasis of the whole body functions. A malfunction in this system can lead to a cardiovascular dysautonomias. Hence, a set of dynamic tests are adopted in ANS units to diagnose and treat patients with cardiovascular dysautonomias. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a decision tree based cardiovascular dysautonomias prediction system on a dataset collected from the ANS unit of the Moroccan university hospital Avicenne. We collected a dataset of 263 records from the ANS unit of the Avicenne hospital. This dataset was split into three subsets: training set (123 records), test set (55 records) and validation set (85 records). C4.5 decision tree algorithm was used in this study to develop the prediction system. Moreover, Java Enterprise Edition platform was used to implement a prototype of the developed system which was deployed in the Avicenne ANS unit so as to be clinically validated. The performance of the decision tree-based prediction system was evaluated by means of the error rate criterion. The error rates were measured for each classifier and have achieved an average value of 1.46, 2.24 and 0.89 % in training, test, and validation sets respectively. The results obtained were encouraging but further replicated studies are still needed to be performed in order to confirm the findings of this study. PMID:26844028

  18. Visceral predictors of cardiovascular deconditioning in late middle-aged men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldwater, D. J.; De Roshia, C.; Natelson, B. H.; Levin, B. E.

    1985-01-01

    A number of visceral and behavioral factors connected with cardiovascular deconditioning were investigated, in order to identify a method for predicting the degree of orthostatic intolerance to spaceflight in several late-middle-aged men (55-65 years). Preliminary measurements were made of: mean arterial blood pressure plasma cortisol levels; and norepinephrine levels. Measurements of core temperature; plasma epinephrine level and subjective arousal from sleep were also obtained. Pairwise correlations were found for each of the variables and the time-to-blackout due centrifugal acceleration of up to +3 Gz. It is shown that the men with relatively low resting blood pressure were at greater risk of developing the clinical signs of cardiovascular deconditioning than were the men with higher basal blood pressure. Some applications of the experimental results to the development of selection criteria for Shuttle crews are discussed.

  19. Influence of Age on Incident Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease in Prostate Cancer Survivors Receiving Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Morgans, Alicia K.; Fan, Kang-Hsien; Koyama, Tatsuki; Albertsen, Peter C.; Goodman, Michael; Hamilton, Ann S.; Hoffman, Richard M.; Stanford, Janet L.; Stroup, Antoinette M.; Resnick, Matthew J.; Barocas, Daniel A.; Penson, David F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Observational data suggest that androgen deprivation therapy increases the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Using data from the population based PCOS we evaluated whether age at diagnosis and comorbidity impact the association of androgen deprivation therapy with incident diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Materials and Methods We identified men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer diagnosed from 1994 to 1995 who were followed through 2009 to 2010. We used multivariable logistic regression models to assess the relationship of androgen deprivation therapy exposure (2 or fewer years, greater than 2 years or none) with incident diabetes and cardiovascular disease, adjusting for age at diagnosis, race, stage and comorbidity. Results Of 3,526 eligible study participants 2,985 without diabetes and 3,112 without cardiovascular disease comprised the cohorts at risk. Androgen deprivation therapy was not associated with an increased risk of diabetes or cardiovascular disease in men diagnosed with prostate cancer before age 70 years. Prolonged androgen deprivation therapy and increasing age at diagnosis in older men was associated with an increased risk of diabetes (at age 76 years OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.0–4.4) and cardiovascular disease (at age 74 years OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0–3.5). Men with comorbidities were at greater risk for diabetes (OR 4.3, 95% CI 2.3–7.9) and cardiovascular disease (OR 8.1, 95% CI 4.3–15.5) than men without comorbidities. Conclusions Prolonged androgen deprivation therapy exposure increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in men diagnosed with prostate cancer who are older than approximately 75 years, especially those with other comorbidities. Older men who receive prolonged androgen deprivation therapy should be closely monitored for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:25451829

  20. A wave dynamics criterion for optimization of mammalian cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Pahlevan, Niema M; Gharib, Morteza

    2014-05-01

    The cardiovascular system in mammals follows various optimization criteria covering the heart, the vascular network, and the coupling of the two. Through a simple dimensional analysis we arrived at a non-dimensional number (wave condition number) that can predict the optimum wave state in which the left ventricular (LV) pulsatile power (LV workload) is minimized in a mammalian cardiovascular system. This number is also universal among all mammals independent of animal size maintaining a value of around 0.1. By utilizing a unique in vitro model of human aorta, we tested our hypothesis against a wide range of aortic compliance (pulse wave velocity). We concluded that the optimum value of the wave condition number remains to be around 0.1 for a wide range of aorta compliance that we could simulate in our in-vitro system. PMID:24642352

  1. Systems biology of aging.

    PubMed

    Bolt, Kendra; Bergman, Aviv

    2015-01-01

    Human aging occurs at rates that vary widely between organisms and cell types. We hypothesize that in both cases, variation is due to differences in heat production, heat management and molecular susceptibility to heat-induced change. Metabolic rates have long been implored for their contributions to the aging process, with a negative correlation observed between basal metabolic rate and lifespan (Savage et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:4718–4723, 2007, Economos, Exp Gerontol 17:145–152, 1982, Keys et al., Metabolism 22:579–587, 1973, O’Connor et al., Comp Biochem Physiol Part A, Molr & Integr Physiol 133:835–842, 2002, Speakman, J Exp Biol 208:1717–1730, 2005, Poehlman, J Am Geriatrics Soc 41:552–559, 1993). Small amounts of heat are the well-known byproduct of metabolism and other biological processes, and despite their magnitude, are sufficient to elicit alterations in biomolecular characteristics (Somero, Ann Rev Physiol 57:43–68, 1995). Existing theories of aging suggest that damage occurs to the conformations or sequences of molecules, which only shifts focus onto the implied failure of repair mechanisms. Contrarily, heat-induced changes affect the behavioral characteristics of molecules and are thus able to persist “under the radar” of heat shock proteins and other canalizing mechanisms, which recognize only physical aberrancies (Rutherford and Lindquist, Nature 396:336–342, 1998, Siegal and Bergman, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:10528–10532, 2002, Waddington, Nature 150:563–565, 1942). According to our hypothesis, behavioral changes to the binding affinities, kinetics, motilities, and functionalities are dependent on minute energetic fields within and between molecules. Exposure to the thermal byproducts of metabolism cause heritable shifts in molecular interaction schemes and diminish the integrity of genetic and epigenetic networks. Restructured topologies alter the emergent properties of networks and are observed as the

  2. Effects of Caloric Restriction on Cardiovascular Aging in Non-human Primates and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Cruzen, Christina; Colman, Ricki J.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Approximately one in three Americans has some form of cardiovascular disease (CVD), accounting for one of every 2.8 deaths in the United States in 2004. Two of the major risk factors for CVD are advancing age and obesity. An intervention able to positively impact both aging and obesity, such as caloric restriction (CR), may prove extremely useful in the fight against CVD. CR is the only environmental or lifestyle intervention that has repeatedly been shown to increase maximum life span and to retard aging in laboratory rodents. In this article, we review evidence that CR in nonhuman primates and humans has a positive effect on risk factors for CVD. PMID:19944270

  3. An electro-fluid-dynamic simulator for the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Felipini, Celso Luiz; de Andrade, Aron José Pazin; Lucchi, Júlio César; da Fonseca, Jeison Willian Gomes; Nicolosi, Denys

    2008-04-01

    This work presents the initial studies and the proposal for a cardiovascular system electro-fluid-dynamic simulator to be applied in the development of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs). The simulator, which is being developed at University Sao Judas Tadeu and at Institute Dante Pazzanese of Cardiology, is composed of three modules: (i) an electrical analog model of the cardiovascular system operating in the PSpice electrical simulator environment; (ii) an electronic controller, based on laboratory virtual instrumentation engineering workbench (LabVIEW) acquisition and control tool, which will act over the physical simulator; and (iii) the physical simulator: a fluid-dynamic equipment composed of pneumatic actuators and compliance tubes for the simulation of active cardiac chambers and big vessels. The physical simulator (iii) is based on results obtained from the electrical analog model (i) and physiological parameters. PMID:18370952

  4. A forward model-based validation of cardiovascular system identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, R.; Cohen, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    We present a theoretical evaluation of a cardiovascular system identification method that we previously developed for the analysis of beat-to-beat fluctuations in noninvasively measured heart rate, arterial blood pressure, and instantaneous lung volume. The method provides a dynamical characterization of the important autonomic and mechanical mechanisms responsible for coupling the fluctuations (inverse modeling). To carry out the evaluation, we developed a computational model of the cardiovascular system capable of generating realistic beat-to-beat variability (forward modeling). We applied the method to data generated from the forward model and compared the resulting estimated dynamics with the actual dynamics of the forward model, which were either precisely known or easily determined. We found that the estimated dynamics corresponded to the actual dynamics and that this correspondence was robust to forward model uncertainty. We also demonstrated the sensitivity of the method in detecting small changes in parameters characterizing autonomic function in the forward model. These results provide confidence in the performance of the cardiovascular system identification method when applied to experimental data.

  5. How valuable is physical examination of the cardiovascular system?

    PubMed

    Elder, Andrew; Japp, Alan; Verghese, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Physical examination of the cardiovascular system is central to contemporary teaching and practice in clinical medicine. Evidence about its value focuses on its diagnostic accuracy and varies widely in methodological quality and statistical power. This makes collation, analysis, and understanding of results difficult and limits their application to daily clinical practice. Specific factors affecting interpretation and clinical application include poor standardisation of observers' technique and training, the study of single signs rather than multiple signs or signs in combination with symptoms, and the tendency to compare physical examination directly with technological aids to diagnosis rather than explore diagnostic strategies that combine both. Other potential aspects of the value of physical examination, such as cost effectiveness or patients' perceptions, are poorly studied. This review summarises the evidence for the clinical value of physical examination of the cardiovascular system. The best was judged to relate to the detection and evaluation of valvular heart disease, the diagnosis and treatment of heart failure, the jugular venous pulse in the assessment of central venous pressure, and the detection of atrial fibrillation, peripheral arterial disease, impaired perfusion, and aortic and carotid disease. Although technological aids to diagnosis are likely to become even more widely available at the point of care, the evidence suggests that further research into the value of physical examination of the cardiovascular system is needed, particularly in low resource settings and as a potential means of limiting inappropriate overuse of technological aids to diagnosis. PMID:27598000

  6. Regulation of sympathetic nervous system function after cardiovascular deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasser, E. M.; Moffitt, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    Humans subjected to prolonged periods of bed rest or microgravity undergo deconditioning of the cardiovascular system, characterized by resting tachycardia, reduced exercise capability, and a predisposition for orthostatic intolerance. These changes in cardiovascular function are likely due to a combination of factors, including changes in control of body fluid balance or cardiac alterations resulting in inadequate maintenance of stroke volume, altered arterial or venous vascular function, reduced activation of cardiovascular hormones, and diminished autonomic reflex function. There is evidence indicating a role for each of these mechanisms. Diminished reflex activation of the sympathetic nervous system and subsequent vasoconstriction appear to play an important role. Studies utilizing the hindlimb-unloaded (HU) rat, an animal model of deconditioning, evaluated the potential role of altered arterial baroreflex control of the sympathetic nervous system. These studies indicate that HU results in blunted baroreflex-mediated activation of both renal and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity in response to a hypotensive stimulus. HU rats are less able to maintain arterial pressure during hemorrhage, suggesting that diminished ability to increase sympathetic activity has functional consequences for the animal. Reflex control of vasopressin secretion appears to be enhanced following HU. Blunted baroreflex-mediated sympathoexcitation appears to involve altered central nervous system function. Baroreceptor afferent activity in response to changes in arterial pressure is unaltered in HU rats. However, increases in efferent sympathetic nerve activity for a given decrease in afferent input are blunted after HU. This altered central nervous system processing of baroreceptor inputs appears to involve an effect at the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). Specifically, it appears that tonic GABAA-mediated inhibition of the RVLM is enhanced after HU. Augmented inhibition apparently

  7. Aging with a disability: A systematic review of cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis among women aging with a physical disability

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, Andrea L.; Wisdom, Jennifer Pelt; Horner-Johnson, Willi; McGee, Marjorie G.; Michael, Yvonne L.

    2016-01-01

    Compared to men, women live longer but experience greater morbidity as they age. However, little is known about the rapidly growing population of women aging with disability. Women aging with disabilities may encounter barriers that increase risk of morbidity, including lack of access to medical care or inadequate assistance, equipment, or services. To evaluate risks of morbidity in this group, we conducted a systematic review focused on two important and prevalent conditions: cardiovascular disease (CVD) and osteoporosis. MEDLINE was searched for reports published between January 1, 1990 and August 6, 2010 and additional studies were identified through searches of bibliographies. 9,156 abstracts and 93 articles were reviewed to identify empirical studies of women with physical disability who were 45 years or older and that reported CVD or osteoporosis as an outcome and not a cause of the disability. Articles meeting inclusion criteria were then critically appraised to exclude poor quality studies. In seven articles that evaluated CVD outcomes, we found limited evidence to support an increased risk of prevalence of CVD or risk factors for CVD in women aging with physical disabilities compared to non-disabled control populations. The literature is limited by small sample sizes that reduced statistical power to detect true differences. No articles meeting inclusion criteria were identified to evaluate osteoporosis risk in this group. This review is limited by the narrow focus on physical disabilities and two health outcomes. Additional high quality empirical research is necessary to understand the risks to health of women aging with disabilities. PMID:21075569

  8. Fish oil and olive oil supplements attenuate the adverse cardiovascular effects of concentrated ambient air pollution particles exposure in healthy middle-aged adult human volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to ambient levels of air pollution increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Advanced age is among the factors associated with susceptibility to the adverse effects of air pollution. Dietary fatty acid supplementation has been shown to decrease cardiovascular ris...

  9. Systems Medicine as an Emerging Tool for Cardiovascular Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Tina; Börnigen, Daniela; Müller, Christian; Zeller, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, the pathogenesis of CVD is complex and remains elusive. Within the last years, systems medicine has emerged as a novel tool to study the complex genetic, molecular, and physiological interactions leading to diseases. In this review, we provide an overview about the current approaches for systems medicine in CVD. They include bioinformatical and experimental tools such as cell and animal models, omics technologies, network, and pathway analyses. Additionally, we discuss challenges and current literature examples where systems medicine has been successfully applied for the study of CVD. PMID:27626034

  10. Systems Medicine as an Emerging Tool for Cardiovascular Genetics.

    PubMed

    Haase, Tina; Börnigen, Daniela; Müller, Christian; Zeller, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, the pathogenesis of CVD is complex and remains elusive. Within the last years, systems medicine has emerged as a novel tool to study the complex genetic, molecular, and physiological interactions leading to diseases. In this review, we provide an overview about the current approaches for systems medicine in CVD. They include bioinformatical and experimental tools such as cell and animal models, omics technologies, network, and pathway analyses. Additionally, we discuss challenges and current literature examples where systems medicine has been successfully applied for the study of CVD. PMID:27626034

  11. 76 FR 47143 - Approval for Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 153; Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ...); Whereas, notice inviting public comment has been given in the Federal Register (76 FR 4283, 1/25/2011) and... Cardiovascular Systems, Inc., (Cardiovascular Devices), Riverside County, CA Pursuant to its Authority Under the... 153, has requested manufacturing authority on behalf of Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.,...

  12. Multi-scale modeling of hemodynamics in the cardiovascular system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hao; Liang, Fuyou; Wong, Jasmin; Fujiwara, Takashi; Ye, Wenjing; Tsubota, Ken-iti; Sugawara, Michiko

    2015-08-01

    The human cardiovascular system is a closed-loop and complex vascular network with multi-scaled heterogeneous hemodynamic phenomena. Here, we give a selective review of recent progress in macro-hemodynamic modeling, with a focus on geometrical multi-scale modeling of the vascular network, micro-hemodynamic modeling of microcirculation, as well as blood cellular, subcellular, endothelial biomechanics, and their interaction with arterial vessel mechanics. We describe in detail the methodology of hemodynamic modeling and its potential applications in cardiovascular research and clinical practice. In addition, we present major topics for future study: recent progress of patient-specific hemodynamic modeling in clinical applications, micro-hemodynamic modeling in capillaries and blood cells, and the importance and potential of the multi-scale hemodynamic modeling.

  13. The human cardiovascular system in the absence of gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bungo, M. W.; Charles, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    The data collected from a Space Shuttle crew to investigate cardiovascular changes due to microgravity are presented. The experimental procedures which involved preflight, immediate postflight, and one week following postflight echocardiograms of 13 individuals are described. The immediate postflight results reveal a 20 percent decrease in stroke volume, a 16 percent decrease in left ventricular diastolic volume index (LVDVI), no change in systolic volume, blood pressure, or cardiac index, and a 24 percent increase in heart rate. One week later a 17 percent stroke volume increase, a 29 percent increase in cardiac index, and normal blood pressure, and LVDVI were observed. It is concluded that upon reexposure to gravity a readaptation process for the cardiovascular system occurs.

  14. IRAG and novel PKG targeting in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Schlossmann, Jens; Desch, Matthias

    2011-09-01

    Signaling by nitric oxide (NO) determines several cardiovascular functions including blood pressure regulation, cardiac and smooth muscle hypertrophy, and platelet function. NO stimulates the synthesis of cGMP by soluble guanylyl cyclases and thereby activates cGMP-dependent protein kinases (PKGs), mediating most of the cGMP functions. Hence, an elucidation of the PKG signaling cascade is essential for the understanding of the (patho)physiological aspects of NO. Several PKG signaling pathways were identified, meanwhile regulating the intracellular calcium concentration, mediating calcium desensitization or cytoskeletal rearrangement. During the last decade it emerged that the inositol trisphosphate receptor-associated cGMP-kinase substrate (IRAG), an endoplasmic reticulum-anchored 125-kDa membrane protein, is a main signal transducer of PKG activity in the cardiovascular system. IRAG interacts specifically in a trimeric complex with the PKG1β isoform and the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor I and, upon phosphorylation, reduces the intracellular calcium release from the intracellular stores. IRAG motifs for phosphorylation and for targeting to PKG1β and 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor I were identified by several approaches. The (patho)physiological functions for the regulation of smooth muscle contractility and the inhibition of platelet activation were perceived. In this review, the IRAG recognition, targeting, and function are summarized compared with PKG and several PKG substrates in the cardiovascular system. PMID:21666108

  15. Nicotine effect on cardiovascular system and ion channels.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Salma Toma

    2006-03-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Nicotine is one of the components of cigarette smoke. Nicotine effects on the cardiovascular system reflect the activity of the nicotine receptors centrally and on peripheral autonomic ganglia. It has been found that cigarette smoke extract-induced contraction of porcine coronary arteries is related to superoxide anion-mediated degradation of nitric oxide. Treatment of rabbit aortas with an oxygen free radicals scavenger attenuated cigarette smoke impairment of arterial relaxation. Treatment of smokers with vitamin C, an antioxidant, improved impaired endothelium-dependent reactivity of large peripheral arteries. Thus it appears that chronic smoking and acute exposure to cigarette smoke extract may alter endothelium-dependent reactivity via the production of oxygen derived free radicals. This review discusses the effects of nicotine on resistance arterioles, compliance arteries, smooth muscle cells, and ion channels in the cardiovascular system. We discuss studies performed on humans, nicotine-exposed animals, and cell cultures yielding varying and inconsistent results that may be due to differences in experimental design, species, and the dose of exposure. Nicotine exposure appears to induce a combination of free radical production, vascular wall adhesion, and a reduction of fibrinolytic activity in the plasma. PMID:16633075

  16. Resveratrol blunts the positive effects of exercise training on cardiovascular health in aged men

    PubMed Central

    Gliemann, Lasse; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Olesen, Jesper; Biensø, Rasmus Sjørup; Peronard, Sebastian Louis; Grandjean, Simon Udsen; Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Nyberg, Michael; Bangsbo, Jens; Pilegaard, Henriette; Hellsten, Ylva

    2013-01-01

    Ageing is thought to be associated with decreased vascular function partly due to oxidative stress. Resveratrol is a polyphenol, which in animal studies has been shown to decrease atherosclerosis, and improve cardiovascular health and physical capacity, in part through its effects on Sirtuin 1 signalling and through an improved antioxidant capacity. We tested the hypothesis that resveratrol supplementation enhances training-induced improvements in cardiovascular health parameters in aged men. Twenty-seven healthy physically inactive aged men (age: 65 ± 1 years; body mass index: 25.4 ± 0.7 kg m−2; mean arterial pressure (MAP): 95.8 ± 2.2 mmHg; maximal oxygen uptake: 2488 ± 72 ml O2 min−1) were randomized into 8 weeks of either daily intake of either 250 mg trans-resveratrol (n= 14) or of placebo (n= 13) concomitant with high-intensity exercise training. Exercise training led to a 45% greater (P < 0.05) increase in maximal oxygen uptake in the placebo group than in the resveratrol group and to a decrease in MAP in the placebo group only (−4.8 ± 1.7 mmHg; P < 0.05). The interstitial level of vasodilator prostacyclin was lower in the resveratrol than in the placebo group after training (980 ± 90 vs. 1174 ± 121 pg ml−1; P < 0.02) and muscle thromboxane synthase was higher in the resveratrol group after training (P < 0.05). Resveratrol administration also abolished the positive effects of exercise on low-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein ratio and triglyceride concentrations in blood (P < 0.05). Resveratrol did not alter the effect of exercise training on the atherosclerosis marker vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). Sirtuin 1 protein levels were not affected by resveratrol supplementation. These findings indicate that, whereas exercise training effectively improves several cardiovascular health parameters in aged men, concomitant resveratrol supplementation can blunt these effects. PMID:23878368

  17. Acute and delayed effects of intermittant ozone on cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses of young and aged rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone (03) is associated with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. The aged population is considered to be more sensitive to air pollutants but relatively few studies have demonstrated increased susceptibility in animal models of aging. To study the acute and delayed physiolo...

  18. Aged spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) are predisposed to ultrafine carbon particle (UfCP) mediated cardiovascular impairment.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Elderly individuals are considered to be more susceptible to particulate matter (PM) related cardiovascular (CV) health effects. In this study we investigated UfCP mediated CV effects on aged SHRs and compared the findings to that of adult SHRs to identify age related...

  19. Susceptibility of the aging Brown Norway rat to carbaryl, an anti-cholinesterase-based insecticide: Thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proportion of aged in the United States is projected to expand markedly for the next several decades. Hence, the U.S.EPA is assessing if the aged are more susceptible to environmental toxicants. The thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses of young adult, mature adult, a...

  20. NOX4 NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in Aging-Associated Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vendrov, Aleksandr E.; Vendrov, Kimberly C.; Smith, Alberto; Yuan, Jinling; Sumida, Arihiro; Robidoux, Jacques; Madamanchi, Nageswara R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Increased oxidative stress and vascular inflammation are implicated in increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence with age. We and others demonstrated that NOX1/2 NADPH oxidase inhibition, by genetic deletion of p47phox, in Apoe−/− mice decreases vascular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and atherosclerosis in young age. The present study examined whether NOX1/2 NADPH oxidases are also pivotal to aging-associated CVD. Results: Both aged (16 months) Apoe−/− and Apoe−/−/p47phox−/− mice had increased atherosclerotic lesion area, aortic stiffness, and systolic dysfunction compared with young (4 months) cohorts. Cellular and mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) levels were significantly higher in aortic wall and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from aged wild-type and p47phox−/− mice. VSMCs from aged mice had increased mitochondrial protein oxidation and dysfunction and increased vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 expression, which was abrogated with (2-(2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl-4-ylamino)-2-oxoethyl)triphenylphosphonium chloride (MitoTEMPO) treatment. NOX4 expression was increased in the vasculature and mitochondria of aged mice and its suppression with shRNA in VSMCs from aged mice decreased mtROS levels and improved function. Increased mtROS levels were associated with enhanced mitochondrial NOX4 expression in aortic VSMCs from aged subjects, and NOX4 expression levels in arterial wall correlated with age and atherosclerotic severity. Aged Apoe−/− mice treated with MitoTEMPO and 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-4-methyl-5-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridine-3,6(2H,5H)-dione had decreased vascular ROS levels and atherosclerosis and preserved vascular and cardiac function. Innovation and Conclusion: These data suggest that NOX4, but not NOX1/2, and mitochondrial oxidative stress are mediators of CVD in aging under hyperlipidemic conditions. Regulating NOX4 activity/expression and using mitochondrial antioxidants are

  1. Correlates of dietary energy sources with cardiovascular disease risk markers in Mexican school-age children.

    PubMed

    Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Balas-Nakash, Margie; Rodríguez-Cano, Ameyalli; Muñoz-Manrique, Cinthya; Monge-Urrea, Adriana; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe

    2010-02-01

    Dietary and lifestyle changes in Mexico have been linked to an increase in chronic diseases such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. Important dietary changes such as an increase in the consumption of energy-dense foods (high in oils, animal or processed fats, and sugars) have been recently reported. The objective of this study was to identify how key dietary energy sources correlated with other indexes of cardiovascular disease in a Mexican school-age population. From 2004 to 2006, a convenience sample (n=228) of 9- to 13-year-olds, 48.2% girls and 51.8% boys, from three public urban schools were included. Anthropometric, blood pressure, and dietary assessment (two multiple pass 24-hour recalls) were done. More than half of children did not meet the fruit and vegetable recommended intake. High-fat dairy foods (14% of total energy intake), refined carbohydrates (13.5%), red/processed meat (8.5%), added sugars/desserts (7%), corn tortilla (6.5%), and soft drinks/sweetened beverages (5%) were the highest dietary energy sources consumed. In a subgroup of children (n=185), a fasting blood sample was collected for biochemical analysis. A positive association was observed between glucose and diastolic blood pressure with the intake of soft drinks/sweetened beverages, insulin concentrations and the intake of white bread, and triglyceride concentrations with the intake of added fats. Unhealthful dietary energy sources are frequently consumed by these children. Culturally competent nutrition counseling should be offered to Mexican-American children and their families with a significant risk of cardiovascular disease. Efforts should be made to design and implement nutrition education and health promotion strategies in schools. PMID:20102853

  2. Bushehr Elderly Health (BEH) Programme, phase I (cardiovascular system)

    PubMed Central

    Ostovar, Afshin; Nabipour, Iraj; Larijani, Bagher; Heshmat, Ramin; Darabi, Hossein; Vahdat, Katayoun; Ravanipour, Maryam; Mehrdad, Neda; Raeisi, Alireza; Heidari, Gholamreza; Shafiee, Gita; Haeri, Mohammadjavad; Pourbehi, Mohammadreza; Sharifi, Farshad; Noroozi, Azita; Tahmasebi, Rahim; Aghaei Meybodi, Hamidreza; Assadi, Majid; Farrokhi, Shokrollah; Nemati, Reza; Amini, Mohammad Reza; Barekat, Maryam; Amini, Abdullatif; Salimipour, Houman; Dobaradaran, Sina; Moshtaghi, Darab

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The main objective of the Bushehr Elderly Health Programme, in its first phase, is to investigate the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and their association with major adverse cardiovascular events. Participants Between March 2013 and October 2014, a total of 3000 men and women aged ≥60 years, residing in Bushehr, Iran, participated in this prospective cohort study (participation rate=90.2%). Findings to date Baseline data on risk factors, including demographic and socioeconomic status, smoking and medical history, were collected through a modified WHO MONICA questionnaire. Vital signs and anthropometric measures, including systolic and diastolic blood pressure, weight, height, and waist and hip circumference, were also measured. 12-lead electrocardiography and echocardiography were conducted on all participants, and total of 10 cc venous blood was taken, and sera was separated and stored at –80°C for possible future use. Preliminary data analyses showed a noticeably higher prevalence of risk factors among older women compared to that in men. Future plans Risk factor assessments will be repeated every 5 years, and the participants will be followed during the study to measure the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events. Moreover, the second phase, which includes investigation of bone health and cognition in the elderly, was started in September 2015. Data are available at the Persian Gulf Biomedical Research Institute, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran, for any collaboration. PMID:26674503

  3. Patient-specific modeling of human cardiovascular system elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossovich, Leonid Yu.; Kirillova, Irina V.; Golyadkina, Anastasiya A.; Polienko, Asel V.; Chelnokova, Natalia O.; Ivanov, Dmitriy V.; Murylev, Vladimir V.

    2016-03-01

    Object of study: The research is aimed at development of personalized medical treatment. Algorithm was developed for patient-specific surgical interventions of the cardiovascular system pathologies. Methods: Geometrical models of the biological objects and initial and boundary conditions were realized by medical diagnostic data of the specific patient. Mechanical and histomorphological parameters were obtained with the help mechanical experiments on universal testing machine. Computer modeling of the studied processes was conducted with the help of the finite element method. Results: Results of the numerical simulation allowed evaluating the physiological processes in the studied object in normal state, in presence of different pathologies and after different types of surgical procedures.

  4. Effects of Forest Bathing on Cardiovascular and Metabolic Parameters in Middle-Aged Males

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Maiko; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi; Ochiai, Toshiya; Miura, Takashi; Imai, Michiko; Wang, Zhiyu; Otsuka, Toshiaki; Kawada, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of a forest bathing on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters. Nineteen middle-aged male subjects were selected after they provided informed consent. These subjects took day trips to a forest park in Agematsu, Nagano Prefecture, and to an urban area of Nagano Prefecture as control in August 2015. On both trips, they walked 2.6 km for 80 min each in the morning and afternoon on Saturdays. Blood and urine were sampled before and after each trip. Cardiovascular and metabolic parameters were measured. Blood pressure and pulse rate were measured during the trips. The Japanese version of the profile of mood states (POMS) test was conducted before, during, and after the trips. Ambient temperature and humidity were monitored during the trips. The forest bathing program significantly reduced pulse rate and significantly increased the score for vigor and decreased the scores for depression, fatigue, anxiety, and confusion. Urinary adrenaline after forest bathing showed a tendency toward decrease. Urinary dopamine after forest bathing was significantly lower than that after urban area walking, suggesting the relaxing effect of the forest bathing. Serum adiponectin after the forest bathing was significantly greater than that after urban area walking. PMID:27493670

  5. Effects of Forest Bathing on Cardiovascular and Metabolic Parameters in Middle-Aged Males.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Kobayashi, Maiko; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi; Ochiai, Toshiya; Miura, Takashi; Kagawa, Takahide; Imai, Michiko; Wang, Zhiyu; Otsuka, Toshiaki; Kawada, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of a forest bathing on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters. Nineteen middle-aged male subjects were selected after they provided informed consent. These subjects took day trips to a forest park in Agematsu, Nagano Prefecture, and to an urban area of Nagano Prefecture as control in August 2015. On both trips, they walked 2.6 km for 80 min each in the morning and afternoon on Saturdays. Blood and urine were sampled before and after each trip. Cardiovascular and metabolic parameters were measured. Blood pressure and pulse rate were measured during the trips. The Japanese version of the profile of mood states (POMS) test was conducted before, during, and after the trips. Ambient temperature and humidity were monitored during the trips. The forest bathing program significantly reduced pulse rate and significantly increased the score for vigor and decreased the scores for depression, fatigue, anxiety, and confusion. Urinary adrenaline after forest bathing showed a tendency toward decrease. Urinary dopamine after forest bathing was significantly lower than that after urban area walking, suggesting the relaxing effect of the forest bathing. Serum adiponectin after the forest bathing was significantly greater than that after urban area walking. PMID:27493670

  6. Physiological adaptation of the cardiovascular system to high altitude.

    PubMed

    Naeije, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Altitude exposure is associated with major changes in cardiovascular function. The initial cardiovascular response to altitude is characterized by an increase in cardiac output with tachycardia, no change in stroke volume, whereas blood pressure may temporarily be slightly increased. After a few days of acclimatization, cardiac output returns to normal, but heart rate remains increased, so that stroke volume is decreased. Pulmonary artery pressure increases without change in pulmonary artery wedge pressure. This pattern is essentially unchanged with prolonged or lifelong altitude sojourns. Ventricular function is maintained, with initially increased, then preserved or slightly depressed indices of systolic function, and an altered diastolic filling pattern. Filling pressures of the heart remain unchanged. Exercise in acute as well as in chronic high-altitude exposure is associated with a brisk increase in pulmonary artery pressure. The relationships between workload, cardiac output, and oxygen uptake are preserved in all circumstances, but there is a decrease in maximal oxygen consumption, which is accompanied by a decrease in maximal cardiac output. The decrease in maximal cardiac output is minimal in acute hypoxia but becomes more pronounced with acclimatization. This is not explained by hypovolemia, acid-bases status, increased viscosity on polycythemia, autonomic nervous system changes, or depressed systolic function. Maximal oxygen uptake at high altitudes has been modeled to be determined by the matching of convective and diffusional oxygen transport systems at a lower maximal cardiac output. However, there has been recent suggestion that 10% to 25% of the loss in aerobic exercise capacity at high altitudes can be restored by specific pulmonary vasodilating interventions. Whether this is explained by an improved maximum flow output by an unloaded right ventricle remains to be confirmed. Altitude exposure carries no identified risk of myocardial ischemia in

  7. Development of a numerical simulation model of the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Geertsema, A A; Rakhorst, G; Mihaylov, D; Blanksma, P K; Verkerke, G J

    1997-12-01

    A numerical simulation model of the cardiovascular system has been developed. It consists of a model of the left atrium, the left ventricle, the coronary vascular system, the aorta, the arterial system, and the venous system. The input of the complete model is the elastance (pressure/volume ratio) developed by the left ventricle. The shape of this elastance is constant in different circumstances. Left ventricular (LV) myocardial oxygen consumption and the amount of oxygen offered to the left ventricle can be calculated with the model. The model has been validated using data from a patient suffering from coronary artery disease. The measured clinical hemodynamical waveforms could be fitted to those generated by the model. With the numerical simulation model, it is possible to predict the functioning of the left ventricle under different circumstances. This makes it possible to study in vitro various pathological clinical situations. PMID:9423983

  8. Leukocytes Link Local and Systemic Inflammation in Ischemic Cardiovascular Disease: An Expanded "Cardiovascular Continuum".

    PubMed

    Libby, Peter; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Swirski, Filip K

    2016-03-01

    Physicians have traditionally viewed ischemic heart disease in a cardiocentric manner: plaques grow in arteries until they block blood flow, causing acute coronary and other ischemic syndromes. Recent research provides new insight into the integrative biology of inflammation as it contributes to ischemic cardiovascular disease. These results have revealed hitherto unsuspected inflammatory signaling networks at work in these disorders that link the brain, autonomic nervous system, bone marrow, and spleen to the atherosclerotic plaque and to the infarcting myocardium. A burgeoning clinical published data indicates that such inflammatory networks-far from a mere laboratory curiosity-operate in our patients and can influence aspects of ischemic cardiovascular disease that determine decisively clinical outcomes. These new findings enlarge the circle of the traditional "cardiovascular continuum" beyond the heart and vessels to include the nervous system, the spleen, and the bone marrow. PMID:26940931

  9. Medication Underuse in Aging Outpatients with Cardiovascular Disease: Prevalence, Determinants, and Outcomes in a Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Meid, Andreas D.; Quinzler, Renate; Freigofas, Julia; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Schöttker, Ben; Holleczek, Bernd; Heider, Dirk; König, Hans-Helmut; Brenner, Hermann; Haefeli, Walter E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in older people, and the impact of being exposed or not exposed to preventive cardiovascular medicines is accordingly high. Underutilization of beneficial drugs is common, but prevalence estimates differ across settings, knowledge on predictors is limited, and clinical consequences are rarely investigated. Methods Using data from a prospective population-based cohort study, we assessed the prevalence, determinants, and outcomes of medication underuse based on cardiovascular criteria from Screening Tool To Alert to Right Treatment (START). Results Medication underuse was present in 69.1% of 1454 included participants (mean age 71.1 ± 6.1 years) and was significantly associated with frailty (odds ratio: 2.11 [95% confidence interval: 1.24–3.63]), body mass index (1.03 [1.01–1.07] per kg/m2), and inversely with the number of prescribed drugs (0.84 [0.79–0.88] per drug). Using this information for adjustment in a follow-up evaluation (mean follow-up time 2.24 years) on cardiovascular and competing outcomes, we found no association of medication underuse with cardiovascular events (fatal and non-fatal) (hazard ratio: 1.00 [0.65–1.56]), but observed a significant association of medication underuse with competing deaths from non-cardiovascular causes (2.52 [1.01–6.30]). Conclusion Medication underuse was associated with frailty and adverse non-cardiovascular clinical outcomes. This may suggest that cardiovascular drugs were withheld because of serious co-morbidity or that concurrent illness can preclude benefit from cardiovascular prevention. In the latter case, adapted prescribing criteria should be developed and evaluated in those patients. PMID:26288222

  10. Aspirin and lipid mediators in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Schrör, Karsten; Rauch, Bernhard H

    2015-09-01

    Aspirin is an unique compound because it bears two active moieties within one and the same molecule: a reactive acetyl group and the salicylate metabolite. Salicylate has some effects similar to aspirin, however only at higher concentrations, usually in the millimolar range, which are not obtained at conventional antiplatelet aspirin doses of 100-300 mg/day. Pharmacological actions of aspirin in the cardiovascular system at these doses are largely if not entirely due to target structure acetylation. Several classes of lipid mediators become affected: Best known is the cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) in platelets with subsequent inhibition of thromboxane and, possibly, thrombin formation. By this action, aspirin also inhibits paracrine thromboxane functions on other lipid mediators, such as the platelet storage product sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), an inflammatory mediator. Acetylation of COX-2 allows for generation of 15-(R)HETE and subsequent formation of "aspirin-triggered lipoxin" (ATL) by interaction with white cell lipoxygenases. In the cardiovascular system, aspirin also acetylates eNOS with subsequent upregulation of NO formation and enhanced expression of the antioxidans heme-oxygenase-1. This action is possibly also COX-2/ATL mediated. Many more acetylation targets have been identified in live cells by quantitative acid-cleavable activity-based protein profiling and might result in discovery of even more aspirin targets in the near future. PMID:26201059

  11. Guidance Receptors in the Nervous and Cardiovascular Systems.

    PubMed

    Rubina, K A; Tkachuk, V A

    2015-10-01

    Blood vessels and nervous fibers grow in parallel, for they express similar receptors for chemokine substances. Recently, much attention is being given to studying guidance receptors and their ligands besides the growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines necessary to form structures in the nervous and vascular systems. Such guidance molecules determine trajectory for growing axons and vessels. Guidance molecules include Ephrins and their receptors, Neuropilins and Plexins as receptors for Semaphorins, Robos as receptors for Slit-proteins, and UNC5B receptors binding Netrins. Apart from these receptors and their ligands, urokinase and its receptor (uPAR) and T-cadherin are also classified as guidance molecules. The urokinase system mediates local proteolysis at the leading edge of cells, thereby providing directed migration. T-cadherin is a repellent molecule that regulates the direction of growing axons and blood vessels. Guidance receptors also play an important role in the diseases of the nervous and cardiovascular systems. PMID:26567567

  12. Association of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity with cardiovascular risk factors in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Tso, T K; Huang, W N; Huang, H Y; Chang, C K

    2005-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with premature atherosclerosis. Increasing arterial stiffness is closely associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, and pulse wave velocity (PWV) is considered to be an indicator of arterial stiffness. The objective of this study was to identify the relationship between brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with SLE. Age, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting blood glucose (FBS), plasma lipid profile, plasma homocysteine, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), baPWV, ankle-brachial index (ABI), and SLE-related factors were determined in a total of 83 SLE patients (12 males and 71 females). All SLE patients were further classified into two subgroups according to baPWV value (baPWV < 1400 cm/s, n=37 versus baPWV > 1400 cm/s, n=46). The mean baPWV value of studied SLE patients was 1520 +/- 381 cm/s. Age, BMI, SBP, DBP, FBS, TBARS and homocysteine levels were significantly higher in SLE patients with baPWV value > 1400cm/s than in SLE patients with baPWV value < 1400cm/s. In addition, baPWV correlated significantly with age, SBP, DBP, FBS and homocysteine. Moreover, stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that age and SBP were independently associated with baPWV. The results of this study indicate a possible link between vascular stiffness measured by baPWV and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with SLE. PMID:16335579

  13. The AGE-RAGE pathway and its relation to cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Leurs, Paul; Lindholm, Bengt

    2013-11-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) carries an unequivocal high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) contributing to high morbimortality; however, the underlying reasons are not fully known. Among mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of CVD, chronic overstimulation of the advanced glycation end-products (AGE)-receptor for AGE (RAGE) pathway is likely a major contributor in patients with CKD. This review describes briefly some of the components of this pathway, highlighting especially differences between circulating AGE and tissue AGE and how activation of the AGE-RAGE pathway may promote CVD in CKD. PMID:24231387

  14. Management of cardiovascular complications in systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Skamra, Carly; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Patients with SLE have an excess risk compared with the general population; this is particularly pronounced in younger women with SLE who have an excess risk of over 50-fold compared with population controls. There is a higher prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with SLE compared with controls, as demonstrated by a variety of imaging modalities discussed in this review. The causality of the excess risk of CVD and subclinical atherosclerosis is multifactorial in patients with SLE. While traditional risk factors play a role, after controlling for the traditional Framingham risk factors, the excess risk is still 7.5-fold greater than the general population. This review will also cover novel cardiovascular risk factors and some SLE-specific variables that contribute to CVD risk. This review discusses the risk factor modification and the evidence available for treatment of these risk factors in SLE. There have not yet been any published randomized, controlled trials in patients with SLE with respect to CVD risk factor modifications. Thus, the treatment and management recommendations are based largely on published guidelines for other populations at high risk for CVD. PMID:20305727

  15. An integrated mathematical model of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.

    PubMed

    Trenhago, Paulo Roberto; Fernandes, Luciano Gonçalves; Müller, Lucas Omar; Blanco, Pablo Javier; Feijóo, Raúl Antonino

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a lumped model for the human cardiorespiratory system. Specifically, we incorporate a sophisticated gas dissociation and transport system to a fully integrated cardiovascular and pulmonary model. The model provides physiologically consistent predictions in terms of hemodynamic variables such as pressure, flow rate, gas partial pressures, and pH. We perform numerical simulations to evaluate the behavior of the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in different vascular and pulmonary compartments. For this, we design the rest condition with low oxygen requirements and carbon dioxide production and exercise conditions with high oxygen demand and carbon dioxide production. Furthermore, model sensitivity to more relevant model parameters is studied. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26198626

  16. Mathematical modelling of flow distribution in the human cardiovascular system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sud, V. K.; Srinivasan, R. S.; Charles, J. B.; Bungo, M. W.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents a detailed model of the entire human cardiovascular system which aims to study the changes in flow distribution caused by external stimuli, changes in internal parameters, or other factors. The arterial-venous network is represented by 325 interconnected elastic segments. The mathematical description of each segment is based on equations of hydrodynamics and those of stress/strain relationships in elastic materials. Appropriate input functions provide for the pumping of blood by the heart through the system. The analysis employs the finite-element technique which can accommodate any prescribed boundary conditions. Values of model parameters are from available data on physical and rheological properties of blood and blood vessels. As a representative example, simulation results on changes in flow distribution with changes in the elastic properties of blood vessels are discussed. They indicate that the errors in the calculated overall flow rates are not significant even in the extreme case of arteries and veins behaving as rigid tubes.

  17. Community-Based ECG Monitoring System for Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bor-Shyh; Wong, Alice M; Tseng, Kevin C

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to develop a community-based electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring system for cardiac outpatients to wirelessly detect heart rate, provide personalized healthcare, and enhance interactive social contact because of the prevalence of deaths from cardiovascular disease and the growing problem of aging in the world. The system not only strengthens the performance of the ECG monitoring system but also emphasizes the ergonomic design of wearable devices and user interfaces. In addition, it enables medical professionals to diagnose cardiac symptoms remotely and electronically manage medical reports and suggestions. The experimental result shows high performance of the dry electrode, even in dynamic conditions. The comparison result with different ECG healthcare systems shows the essential factors that the system should possess and the capability of the proposed system. Finally, a user survey was conducted based on the unified theory of acceptance and users of technology (UTAUT) model. PMID:26802010

  18. Microalbuminuria in Obese Young and Middle Aged Population: A Potential Marker of Cardiovascular Risk.

    PubMed

    Purohit, Purvi; Garg, Kunal; Singh, Vikram; Dwivedi, Shailendra; Sharma, Praveen

    2016-07-01

    Microalbuminuria is an established cardiovascular risk indicator in diabetes, hypertension and the general population. There is lack of information on MAU in healthy obese Indian adults and an ongoing debate whether obese adults deserve targeted identification and clinical intervention for MAU and prediabetes. We aimed to screen the healthy obese, young (group I) and middle aged (group II) adults for prevalence of MAU and prediabetes and study its association with Framingham risk score. The study included 50 healthy obese young (20-30 years) and middle aged adults (31-50 years), attending the outpatient clinic of Dept. of Medicine for a duration of 2 months (July-August). The patients were screened for fasting blood sugar, lipid profile and MAU. Of the total patients 28 % had MAU, 32.14 % of which had prediabetes and 33.33 % had diabetes whereas 10 % were normoglycemic. The group I patients had 50 % cases of MAU and group II had 25 % patients with MAU. Group II 63.63 % pre-diabetics. The values of MAU obtained were correlated with age, gender, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, FBS, waist to hip ratio using Pearson's Coefficient (p < 0.05). The 10 year CVD risk calculated using FRS in subjects with MAU was higher as compared to those without MAU. Thus we conclude that Indian, young and middle aged obese adults to be at a risk of prediabetes, MAU and CV risk warranting their routine screening for better clinical outcomes. PMID:27382209

  19. AGING SYSTEM DESIGN DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

    SciTech Connect

    J. Beesley

    2005-02-07

    This plan provides an overview, work to date, and the path forward for the design development strategy of the Aging cask for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) at the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) repository site. Waste for subsurface emplacement at the repository includes US Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (HLW), DOE SNF, commercial fuel in dual-purpose canisters (DPCs), uncanistered bare fuel, naval fuel, and other waste types. Table 1-1 lists the types of radioactive materials that may be aged at YMP, and those materials that will not be placed in an aging cask or module. This plan presents the strategy for design development of the Aging system. The Aging system will not handle naval fuel, DOE HLW, MCOs, or DOE SNF since those materials will be delivered to the repository in a state and sequence that allows them to be placed into waste packages for emplacement. Some CSNF from nuclear reactors, especially CSNF that is thermally too hot for emplacement underground, will need to be aged at the repository.

  20. A review and rationale for studying the cardiovascular effects of drinking water arsenic in women of reproductive age

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, Richard K.

    2007-08-01

    Drinking water arsenic has been shown to be associated with a host of adverse health outcomes at exposure levels > 300 {mu}g of As/L. However, the results are not consistent at exposures below this level. We have reviewed selected articles that examine the effects of drinking water arsenic on cardiovascular outcomes and present a rationale for studying these effects on women of reproductive age, and also over the course of pregnancy when they would potentially be more susceptible to adverse cardiovascular and reproductive outcomes. It is only recently that reproductive effects have been linked to drinking water arsenic. However, there is a paucity of information about the cardiovascular effects of drinking water arsenic on women of reproductive age. Under the cardiovascular challenge of pregnancy, we hypothesize that women with a slightly elevated exposure to drinking water arsenic may exhibit adverse cardiovascular outcomes at higher rates than in the general population. Studying sensitive clinical and sub-clinical indicators of disease in susceptible sub-populations may yield important information about the potentially enormous burden of disease related to low-level drinking water arsenic exposure.

  1. Nutrition as a part of healthy aging and reducing cardiovascular risk: improving functionality in later life using quality protein, with optimized timing and distribution.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Beryl M; Axford, Samantha

    2014-09-01

    Aging is associated with many physiological changes, which may in time lead to numerous pathophysiological outcomes, including adverse vascular events. For example, senescence of the immune system and cellular senescence both contribute to rising inflammation with age, potentially induced by the overall burden of comorbid illness, adipose tissue mass, diet, socioeconomic status, and physical activity. In turn, this chronic inflammation decreases physical and cognitive performance, and promotes sarcopenia and the syndrome of frailty. These events and others decrease the functionality of life as we age and include an increased risk of thrombosis and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. In this review, we aim to overview the aging process primarily as related to functional impairment, and provide evidence for the role of protein, and specifically differential quality protein, in particular whey protein, and timing and distribution of intake, to help reduce some of the morbid effects of aging, including reducing obesity, improving glycemic control, and improving vascular function. PMID:25151523

  2. Use of implantable telemetry systems for study of cardiovascular phenomena.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandler, H.; Fryer, T. B.; Westbrook, R. M.; Stone, H. L.

    1972-01-01

    Preliminary observations of cardiovascular function have been made in four chimpanzees using multichannel implantable units. Measurements of right- and left-sided pressures were periodically made in these animals over a four-month period, including continuous observations for selected 24-hour periods. Pressures recorded with animals in an awake, unanesthetized, unrestrained state were much lower than pressures reported for restrained animals in similar situations. Diurnal variations of pressure tended to occur, but were not as clear-cut as those reported to occur for humans. The ability to implant a transmitter chronically and receive useful multichannel information in the chimpanzee encourages the future use of such implant devices as part of the control system for an artificial heart or directly for use in man.

  3. In Vivo Wireless Monitoring System of Cardiovascular Force Data.

    PubMed

    Bechsgaard, Tommy; Honge, Jesper Langhoff; Nygaard, Hans; Jensen, Morten Olgaard

    2015-03-01

    Biotelemetry provides the possibility to measure physiological data in awake, free-ranging animals without the effects of anesthesia and repeated surgery. In this project a fully implantable, telemetric system to measure biomechanical force data of the moving structures of the heart along with the ECG of experimental animals was developed. The system is based on a microcontroller with a built in bidirectional radio frequency transceiver, which allows for the implant to both receive and send data wirelessly. ECG was acquired using electrodes placed directly onto the heart, and the forces were collected using a miniature force transducer. The system was tested in a porcine model (60 kg body weight), where the system transmitted ECG and force data at a range of 5 m between the implant and the receiver. The data was displayed and saved to the hard drive of a laptop computer using a custom built software user interface. It was shown feasible to wirelessly measure forces simultaneously with physiological data from the cardiovascular system of living animals. The current system was optimized to measure forces and ECG, and more channels can be added to increase the number of parameters recorded. PMID:26577097

  4. Simulated Microgravity Exerts an Age-Dependent Effect on the Differentiation of Cardiovascular Progenitors Isolated from the Human Heart.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Tania I; Appleby, Nancy; Raya, Michael; Bailey, Leonard; Hasaniya, Nahidh; Stodieck, Louis; Kearns-Jonker, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Microgravity has a profound effect on cardiovascular function, however, little is known about the impact of microgravity on progenitors that reside within the heart. We investigated the effect of simulated microgravity exposure on progenitors isolated from the neonatal and adult human heart by quantifying changes in functional parameters, gene expression and protein levels after 6-7 days of 2D clinorotation. Utilization of neonatal and adult cardiovascular progenitors in ground-based studies has provided novel insight into how microgravity may affect cells differently depending on age. Simulated microgravity exposure did not impact AKT or ERK phosphorylation levels and did not influence cell migration, but elevated transcripts for paracrine factors were identified in neonatal and adult cardiovascular progenitors. Age-dependent responses surfaced when comparing the impact of microgravity on differentiation. Endothelial cell tube formation was unchanged or increased in progenitors from adults whereas neonatal cardiovascular progenitors showed a decline in tube formation (p<0.05). Von Willebrand Factor, an endothelial differentiation marker, and MLC2v and Troponin T, markers for cardiomyogenic differentiation, were elevated in expression in adult progenitors after simulated microgravity. DNA repair genes and telomerase reverse transcriptase which are highly expressed in early stem cells were increased in expression in neonatal but not adult cardiac progenitors after growth under simulated microgravity conditions. Neonatal cardiac progenitors demonstrated higher levels of MESP1, OCT4, and brachyury, markers for early stem cells. MicroRNA profiling was used to further investigate the impact of simulated microgravity on cardiovascular progenitors. Fifteen microRNAs were significantly altered in expression, including microRNAs-99a and 100 (which play a critical role in cell dedifferentiation). These microRNAs were unchanged in adult cardiac progenitors. The effect of

  5. Intrauterine growth restriction programs an accelerated age-related increase in cardiovascular risk in male offspring.

    PubMed

    Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira; Backstrom, Miles A; Carter, Anthony J; Alexander, Barbara T

    2016-08-01

    Placental insufficiency programs an increase in blood pressure associated with a twofold increase in serum testosterone in male growth-restricted offspring at 4 mo of age. Population studies indicate that the inverse relationship between birth weight and blood pressure is amplified with age. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that intrauterine growth restriction programs an age-related increase in blood pressure in male offspring. Growth-restricted offspring retained a significantly higher blood pressure at 12 but not at 18 mo of age compared with age-matched controls. Blood pressure was significantly increased in control offspring at 18 mo of age relative to control counterparts at 12 mo; however, blood pressure was not increased in growth-restricted at 18 mo relative to growth-restricted counterparts at 12 mo. Serum testosterone levels were not elevated in growth-restricted offspring relative to control at 12 mo of age. Thus, male growth-restricted offspring no longer exhibited a positive association between blood pressure and testosterone at 12 mo of age. Unlike hypertension in male growth-restricted offspring at 4 mo of age, inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system with enalapril (250 mg/l for 2 wk) did not abolish the difference in blood pressure in growth-restricted offspring relative to control counterparts at 12 mo of age. Therefore, these data suggest that intrauterine growth restriction programs an accelerated age-related increase in blood pressure in growth-restricted offspring. Furthermore, this study suggests that the etiology of increased blood pressure in male growth-restricted offspring at 12 mo of age differs from that at 4 mo of age. PMID:27147668

  6. Anoikis in the cardiovascular system: known and unknown extracellular mediators.

    PubMed

    Michel, Jean-Baptiste

    2003-12-01

    Anoïkis is defined as programmed cell death induced by the loss of cell/matrix interactions. Adhesion to structural glycoproteins of the extracellular matrix is necessary for survival of the differentiated adherent cells in the cardiovascular system, including endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and cardiac myocytes. Adhesion is also a key factor for the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. In particular, fibronectin is considered a factor of survival and differentiation for many adherent cells. Adhesion generates cell tensional integrity (tensegrity) and repression of apoptotic signals, whereas detachment has the opposite effect. Anoïkis plays a physiological role by regulating cell homeostasis in tissues. However, anoïkis can also be involved in pathological processes, as illustrated by the resistance to anoïkis in cancer and its enhancement in degenerative tissue remodeling. Extracellular mediators of anoïkis include matrix retraction, leading to loss of tensegrity in fibroblasts, pharmacological disengagement of integrins by RGD-like peptides and fragments of fibronectin, and focal adhesion disassembly by fragments of thrombospondin, plasminogen activator-1, and high-molecular-weight kininogen. In addition to binding of the RGD peptide by integrins, the engagement of the heparin binding sites of adhesive glycoproteins with glycosaminoglycans on the cell surface is also involved in the prevention of cell detachment-induced apoptosis. Proteases able to degrade adhesive glycoproteins, such as fibronectin, induce anoïkis of vascular adherent cells. Active proteases can either be secreted directly by inflammatory cells, as elastase and cathepsin G by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, chymase and tryptase by mast cells, and granzymes by lymphocytes, or generated from circulating zymogens by activation in close contact with the cells. This is the case for the pericellular conversion of plasminogen to plasmin, which degrades fibronectin and

  7. Neural Control of the Cardiovascular System in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Benjamin D.; Pawelczyk, James A.; Zuckerman, Julie; Zhang, Rong; Fu, Qi; Iwasaki, Kenichi; Ray, Chet; Blomqvist, C. Gunnar; Lane, Lynda D.; Giller, Cole A.

    2003-01-01

    During the acute transition from lying supine to standing upright, a large volume of blood suddenly moves from the chest into the legs. To prevent fainting, the blood pressure control system senses this change immediately, and rapidly adjusts flow (by increasing heart rate) and resistance to flow (by constricting the blood vessels) to restore blood pressure and maintain brain blood flow. If this system is inadequate, the brain has a backup plan. Blood vessels in the brain can adjust their diameter to keep blood flow constant. If blood pressure drops, the brain blood vessels dilate; if blood pressure increases, the brain blood vessels constrict. This process, which is called autoregulation, allows the brain to maintain a steady stream of oxygen, even when blood pressure changes. We examined what changes in the blood pressure control system or cerebral autoregulation contribute to the blood pressure control problems seen after spaceflight. We asked: (1) does the adaptation to spaceflight cause an adaptation in the blood pressure control system that impairs the ability of the system to constrict blood vessels on return to Earth?; (2) if such a defect exists, could we pinpoint the neural pathways involved?; and (3) does cerebral autoregulation become abnormal during spaceflight, impairing the body s ability to maintain constant brain blood flow when standing upright on Earth? We stressed the blood pressure control system using lower body negative pressure, upright tilt, handgrip exercise, and cold stimulation of the hand. Standard cardiovascular parameters were measured along with sympathetic nerve activity (the nerve activity causing blood vessels to constrict) and brain blood flow. We confirmed that the primary cardiovascular effect of spaceflight was a postflight reduction in upright stroke volume (the amount of blood the heart pumps per beat). Heart rate increased appropriately for the reduction in stroke volume, thereby showing that changes in heart rate

  8. Comprehensive quality assurance phantom for cardiovascular imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Pei-Jan P.

    1998-07-01

    With the advent of high heat loading capacity x-ray tubes, high frequency inverter type generators, and the use of spectral shaping filters, the automatic brightness/exposure control (ABC) circuit logic employed in the new generation of angiographic imaging equipment has been significantly reprogrammed. These new angiographic imaging systems are designed to take advantage of the power train capabilities to yield higher contrast images while maintaining, or lower, the patient exposure. Since the emphasis of the imaging system design has been significantly altered, the system performance parameters one is interested and the phantoms employed for the quality assurance must also change in order to properly evaluate the imaging capability of the cardiovascular imaging systems. A quality assurance (QA) phantom has been under development in this institution and was submitted to various interested organizations such as American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), Society for Cardiac Angiography & Interventions (SCA&I), and National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) for their review and input. At the same time, in an effort to establish a unified standard phantom design for the cardiac catheterization laboratories (CCL), SCA&I and NEMA have formed a joint work group in early 1997 to develop a suitable phantom. The initial QA phantom design has since been accepted to serve as the base phantom by the SCA&I- NEMA Joint Work Group (JWG) from which a comprehensive QA Phantom is being developed.

  9. First trimester fetal growth restriction and cardiovascular risk factors in school age children: population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    de Jonge, Layla L; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Steegers, Eric A P; Gaillard, Romy

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine whether first trimester fetal growth restriction correlates with cardiovascular outcomes in childhood. Design Population based prospective cohort study. Setting City of Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Participants 1184 children with first trimester fetal crown to rump length measurements, whose mothers had a reliable first day of their last menstrual period and a regular menstrual cycle. Main outcomes measures Body mass index, total and abdominal fat distribution, blood pressure, and blood concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and C peptide at the median age of 6.0 (90% range 5.7-6.8) years. Clustering of cardiovascular risk factors was defined as having three or more of: high android fat mass; high systolic or diastolic blood pressure; low high density lipoprotein cholesterol or high triglycerides concentrations; and high insulin concentrations. Results One standard deviation score greater first trimester fetal crown to rump length was associated with a lower total fat mass (−0.30%, 95% confidence interval −0.57% to −0.03%), android fat mass (−0.07%, −0.12% to −0.02%), android/gynoid fat mass ratio (−0.53, −0.89 to −0.17), diastolic blood pressure (−0.43, −0.84 to −0.01, mm Hg), total cholesterol (−0.05, −0.10 to 0, mmol/L), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (−0.04, −0.09 to 0, mmol/L), and risk of clustering of cardiovascular risk factors (relative risk 0.81, 0.66 to 1.00) in childhood. Additional adjustment for gestational age and weight at birth changed these effect estimates only slightly. Childhood body mass index fully explained the associations of first trimester fetal crown to rump length with childhood total fat mass. First trimester fetal growth was not associated with other cardiovascular outcomes. Longitudinal growth analyses showed that compared with school age children without clustering of cardiovascular risk factors, those with clustering had a smaller first trimester fetal crown

  10. National Training Course. Emergency Medical Technician. Paramedic. Instructor's Lesson Plans. Module VI. Cardiovascular System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This instructor's lesson plan guide on the cardiovascular system is one of fifteen modules designed for use in the training of emergency medical technicians (paramedics). Seven units of study are presented: (1) the anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular system; (2) patient assessment for the cardiac patient; (3) pathophysiology; (4) reading…

  11. Cell aging in relation to stress arousal and cardiovascular disease risk factors.

    PubMed

    Epel, Elissa S; Lin, Jue; Wilhelm, Frank H; Wolkowitz, Owen M; Cawthon, Richard; Adler, Nancy E; Dolbier, Christyn; Mendes, Wendy B; Blackburn, Elizabeth H

    2006-04-01

    We previously reported that psychological stress is linked to and possibly accelerates cellular aging, as reflected by lower PBMC telomerase and shortened telomeres. Psychological stress is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), with multiple behavioral and physiological mediators. Telomere shortness has been associated with CVD, but the relationship between low telomerase activity, a potential precursor to telomere shortening, and CVD risk factors has not been examined in humans. Here we examine whether telomere length and telomerase in leukocytes are associated with physiological signs of stress arousal and CVD risk factors in 62 healthy women. Low telomerase activity in leukocytes was associated with exaggerated autonomic reactivity to acute mental stress and elevated nocturnal epinephrine. Further, low telomerase activity was associated with the major risk factors for CVD -smoking, poor lipid profile, high systolic blood pressure, high fasting glucose, greater abdominal adiposity-as well as to a composite Metabolic Syndrome variable. Telomere length was related only to elevated stress hormones (catecholamines and cortisol). Thus, we propose that low leukocyte telomerase constitutes an early marker of CVD risk, possibly preceding shortened telomeres, that results in part from chronic stress arousal. Possible cellular mechanisms by which low telomerase may link stress and traditional risk factors to CVD are discussed. These findings may implicate telomerase as a novel and important mediator of the effects of psychological stress on physical health and disease. PMID:16298085

  12. Combating the Epidemic of Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease: Perspectives from School-aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Addison, Clifton C.; White, Monique S.; Jenkins, Brenda W.; Young, Lavon

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to assess students’ perceptions of the obstacles to positive dietary practices and increased physical activity and to solicit the students’ recommendations for addressing and possibly reducing the negative practices that are associated with the rise in obesity and the development of cardiovascular diseases. Data for the study were obtained from the administration of the 2005 Project Health High School Survey (PHHSS) which measured the students’ perceptions regarding obstacles to eating more nutritious, healthier foods and obstacles to participating in daily physical activity. The reasons for students’ lack of interest in practicing more life-healthy behaviors are ranked and recorded. Some of the students indicated that they usually ate what they liked to eat, and the decision about what to eat was made because of the taste of the food without regard for any health consequence or negative health outcomes. Finding ways to reach these students at their young ages is the key to successfully combating the high prevalence of obesity and the development of other chronic diseases in childhood, as well as in adulthood. PMID:16968973

  13. Anthropometric trends and the risk of cardiovascular disease mortality in a Lithuanian urban population aged 45–64 years

    PubMed Central

    Luksiene, Dalia; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Virviciute, Dalia; Bernotiene, Gailute; Peasey, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To estimate trends in anthropometric indexes from 1992 to 2008 and to evaluate the risk of cardiovascular disease mortality in relation to anthropometric indexes (body mass index, waist circumference, waist:hip ratio, waist:height ratio). Methods: Data from the three surveys (1992–2008) are presented. A random sample of 5147 subjects aged 45–64 years was selected for statistical analysis. During follow-up there were 141 deaths from cardiovascular disease (excluding those with cardiovascular disease at entry). Cox’s regression was used to estimate the associations between anthropometric indexes and cardiovascular disease mortality. Results: During a 17-year period among men, the prevalence of obesity (body mass index ⩾30 kg/m2) increased from 18.4% to 32.1% (p<0.001) and a high level of waist:hip ratio (>0.9) from 59.3% to 72.9% (p<0.001). The risk profile of obesity did not change in women, but prevalence of a high level of waist:hip ratio (>0.85) increased from 25.9% to 41.5% (p<0.001). Multivariable-adjusted Cox’s regression models showed that body mass index, waist circumference, waist:hip ratio, waist:height ratio were associated with cardiovascular disease mortality risk only in men (hazard ratios 1.40, 1.45, 1.49, 1.46 respectively (p<0.01)). Conclusions: Our data indicate that anthropometric measures such as body mass index, waist circumference, waist:hip ratio and waist:height ratio are good indicators of cardiovascular disease mortality risk only in men aged 45–64 years. PMID:26261188

  14. Increasing pulse wave velocity in a realistic cardiovascular model does not increase pulse pressure with age

    PubMed Central

    Mohiuddin, Mohammad W.; Rihani, Ryan J.; Laine, Glen A.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism of the well-documented increase in aortic pulse pressure (PP) with age is disputed. Investigators assuming a classical windkessel model believe that increases in PP arise from decreases in total arterial compliance (Ctot) and increases in total peripheral resistance (Rtot) with age. Investigators assuming a more sophisticated pulse transmission model believe PP rises because increases in pulse wave velocity (cph) make the reflected pressure wave arrive earlier, augmenting systolic pressure. It has recently been shown, however, that increases in cph do not have a commensurate effect on the timing of the reflected wave. We therefore used a validated, large-scale, human arterial system model that includes realistic pulse wave transmission to determine whether increases in cph cause increased PP with age. First, we made the realistic arterial system model age dependent by altering cardiac output (CO), Rtot, Ctot, and cph to mimic the reported changes in these parameters from age 30 to 70. Then, cph was theoretically maintained constant, while Ctot, Rtot, and CO were altered. The predicted increase in PP with age was similar to the observed increase in PP. In a complementary approach, Ctot, Rtot, and CO were theoretically maintained constant, and cph was increased. The predicted increase in PP was negligible. We found that increases in cph have a limited effect on the timing of the reflected wave but cause the system to degenerate into a windkessel. Changes in PP can therefore be attributed to a decrease in Ctot. PMID:22561301

  15. Cardiovascular Effects of Dietary Salt Intake in Aged Healthy Cats: A 2-Year Prospective Randomized, Blinded, and Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Chetboul, Valérie; Reynolds, Brice Stéphane; Trehiou-Sechi, Emilie; Nguyen, Patrick; Concordet, Didier; Sampedrano, Carolina Carlos; Testault, Isabelle; Elliott, Jonathan; Abadie, Jérôme; Biourge, Vincent; Lefebvre, Hervé Pierre

    2014-01-01

    High salt dry expanded diets are commercially available for cats to increase water intake and urine volume, as part of the prevention or treatment of naturally occurring urinary stone formation (calcium oxalates and struvites). However, chronic high salt intake may have potential cardiovascular adverse effects in both humans, especially in aging individuals, and several animal models. The objective of this prospective, randomized, blinded, and controlled study was to assess the long-term cardiovascular effects of high salt intake in healthy aged cats. Twenty healthy neutered cats (10.1±2.4 years) were randomly allocated into 2 matched groups. One group was fed a high salt diet (3.1 g/Mcal sodium, 5.5 g/Mcal chloride) and the other group a control diet of same composition except for salt content (1.0 g/Mcal sodium, 2.2 g/Mcal chloride). Clinical examination, systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure measurements, standard transthoracic echocardiography and conventional Doppler examinations were repeatedly performed on non-sedated cats by trained observers before and over 24 months after diet implementation. Radial and longitudinal velocities of the left ventricular free wall and the interventricular septum were also assessed in systole and diastole using 2-dimensional color tissue Doppler imaging. Statistics were performed using a general linear model. No significant effect of dietary salt intake was observed on systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure values. Out of the 33 tested imaging variables, the only one affected by dietary salt intake was the radial early on late diastolic velocity ratio assessed in the endocardium of the left ventricular free wall, statistically lower in the high salt diet group at 12 months only (P = 0.044). In conclusion, in this study involving healthy aged cats, chronic high dietary salt intake was not associated with an increased risk of systemic arterial hypertension and myocardial dysfunction, as observed in some

  16. Association between Birth Interval and Cardiovascular Outcomes at 30 Years of Age: A Prospective Cohort Study from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Devakumar, D.; Hallal, P. C.; Horta, B. L.; Barros, F. C.; Wells, J. C. K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Birth interval is an important and potentially modifiable factor that is associated with child health. Whether an association exists with longer-term outcomes in adults is less well known. Methods Using the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study, the association of birth interval with markers of cardiovascular health at 30 years of age was examined. Multivariable linear regression was used with birth interval as a continuous variable and categorical variable, and effect modification by gender was explored. Results Birth interval and cardiovascular data were present for 2,239 individuals. With birth interval as a continuous variable, no association was found but stratification by gender tended to show stronger associations for girls. When compared to birth intervals of <18 months, as binary variable, longer intervals were associated with increases in height (1.6 cm; 95% CI: 0.5, 2.8) and lean mass (1.7 kg; 95% CI: 0.2, 3.2). No difference was seen with other cardiovascular outcomes. Conclusions An association was generally not found between birth interval and cardiovascular outcomes at 30 years of age, though some evidence existed for differences between males and females and for an association with height and lean mass for birth intervals of 18 months and longer. PMID:26890250

  17. SNF AGING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    L.L. Swanson

    2005-04-06

    The purpose of this system description document (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) aging system and associated bases, which will allow the design effort to proceed. This SDD will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design, as it currently exists, with emphasis on attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD is an engineering tool for design control; accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. This SDD is part of an iterative design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The SDD follows the design with regard to the description of the system. The description provided in the SDD reflects the current results of the design process. Throughout this SDD, the term aging cask applies to vertical site-specific casks and to horizontal aging modules. The term overpack is a vertical site-specific cask that contains a dual-purpose canister (DPC) or a disposable canister. Functional and operational requirements applicable to this system were obtained from ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' (F&OR) (Curry 2004 [DIRS 170557]). Other requirements that support the design process were taken from documents such as ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (PDC) (BSC 2004 [DES 171599]), ''Site Fire Hazards Analyses'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172174]), and ''Nuclear Safety Design Bases for License Application'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 171512]). The documents address requirements in the ''Project Requirements Document'' (PRD) (Canori and Leitner 2003 [DIRS 166275]). This SDD includes several appendices. Appendix A is a Glossary; Appendix B is a list of key system charts, diagrams, drawings, lists and additional supporting information; and Appendix C is a list of

  18. Chemokines and Heart Disease: A Network Connecting Cardiovascular Biology to Immune and Autonomic Nervous Systems

    PubMed Central

    Dusi, Veronica; Ghidoni, Alice; Ravera, Alice; De Ferrari, Gaetano M.; Calvillo, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Among the chemokines discovered to date, nineteen are presently considered to be relevant in heart disease and are involved in all stages of cardiovascular response to injury. Chemokines are interesting as biomarkers to predict risk of cardiovascular events in apparently healthy people and as possible therapeutic targets. Moreover, they could have a role as mediators of crosstalk between immune and cardiovascular system, since they seem to act as a “working-network” in deep linkage with the autonomic nervous system. In this paper we will describe the single chemokines more involved in heart diseases; then we will present a comprehensive perspective of them as a complex network connecting the cardiovascular system to both the immune and the autonomic nervous systems. Finally, some recent evidences indicating chemokines as a possible new tool to predict cardiovascular risk will be described. PMID:27242392

  19. A simple ballistocardiographic system for a medical cardiovascular physiology course.

    PubMed

    Eblen-Zajjur, Antonio

    2003-12-01

    Ballistocardiography is an old, noninvasive technique used to record the movements of the body synchronous with the heartbeat due to left ventricular pump activity. Despite the fact that this technique to measure cardiac output has been superseded by more advanced and precise techniques, it is useful for teaching cardiac cycle physiology in an undergraduate practical course because of its noninvasive application in humans, clear physiological and physiopathological analysis, and practical approach to considering cardiac output issues. In the present report, a simple, low cost, easy-to-build ballistocardiography system is implemented together with a theoretical and practical session that includes Newton's laws, cardiac output, cardiac pump activity, anatomy and physiology of the vessel circulation, vectorial composition, and signal transduction, which makes cardiovascular physiology easy to understand and focuses on the study of cardiac output otherwise seen only with the help of computer simulation or echocardiography. The proposed system is able to record body displacement or force as ballistocardiography traces and its changes caused by different physiological factors. The ballistocardiography session was included in our medical physiology course six years ago with very high acceptance and approval rates from the students. PMID:14627620

  20. Theory and Developments in an Unobtrusive Cardiovascular System Representation: Ballistocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Eduardo; Postolache, Octavian; Girão, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Due to recent technological improvements, namely in the field of piezoelectric sensors, ballistocardiography – an almost forgotten physiological measurement – is now being object of a renewed scientific interest. Transcending the initial purposes of its development, ballistocardiography has revealed itself to be a useful informative signal about the cardiovascular system status, since it is a non-intrusive technique which is able to assess the body’s vibrations due to its cardiac, and respiratory physiological signatures. Apart from representing the outcome of the electrical stimulus to the myocardium – which may be obtained by electrocardiography – the ballistocardiograph has additional advantages, as it can be embedded in objects of common use, such as a bed or a chair. Moreover, it enables measurements without the presence of medical staff, factor which avoids the stress caused by medical examinations and reduces the patient’s involuntary psychophysiological responses. Given these attributes, and the crescent number of systems developed in recent years, it is therefore pertinent to revise all the information available on the ballistocardiogram’s physiological interpretation, its typical waveform information, its features and distortions, as well as the state of the art in device implementations. PMID:21673836

  1. Effects of Tetrodotoxin on the Mammalian Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The human genome encodes nine functional voltage-gated Na+ channels. Three of them, namely Nav1.5, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9, are resistant to nanomolar concentrations of tetrodotoxin (TTX; IC50 ≥ 1 μM). The other isoforms, which are predominantly expressed in the skeletal muscle and nervous system, are highly sensitive to TTX (IC50 ~ 10 nM). During the last two decades, it has become evident that in addition to the major cardiac isoform Nav1.5, several of those TTX sensitive isoforms are expressed in the mammalian heart. Whereas immunohistochemical and electrophysiological methods demonstrated functional expression in various heart regions, the physiological importance of those isoforms for cardiac excitation in higher mammals is still debated. This review summarizes our knowledge on the systemic cardiovascular effects of TTX in animals and humans, with a special focus on cardiac excitation and performance at lower concentrations of this marine drug. Altogether, these data strongly suggest that TTX sensitive Na+ channels, detected more recently in various heart tissues, are not involved in excitation phenomena in the healthy adult heart of higher mammals. PMID:20411124

  2. Effects of age, sex and smoking on ankle-brachial index in a Finnish population at risk for cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Syvänen, Kari; Aarnio, Pertti; Jaatinen, Pekka; Korhonen, Päivi

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Smoking is a well-known risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Data regarding differences in the prevalence of PAD between sexes are somewhat controversial. In addition, most studies indicate that the prevalence of PAD increases with age in both sexes. In the present study, the effects of sex, age and smoking on the ankle-brachial index (ABI) in a Finnish cardiovascular risk population were investigated. OBJECTIVES To investigate the relationship between the ankle-brachial index, and age, sex and smoking in a Finnish population at risk for cardiovascular disease. METHODS All men and women between 45 and 70 years of age living in a rural town (Harjavalta, Finland; total population 7700) were invited to participate in a population survey (Harmonica study). Patients with previously diagnosed diabetes or vascular disease were excluded. In total, 2856 patients were invited to participate in the study. From these subjects, a cardiovascular risk population was screened. Complete data were available from 1028 persons. ABI (the ratio between the posterior tibial or dorsalis pedis artery and brachial artery pressures) was measured, and questionnaires were used to detect smoking status and relevant medical history. Only current smoking status was taken into account. RESULTS The mean ABI for the entire study population was 1.10 (range 0.56 to 1.64). Current smokers had a lower mean ABI (1.06; P<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in ABI values among age groups, although the majority of patients with ABI values below 0.9 were older than 60 years of age. There was no statistically significant difference in ABI between sexes. CONCLUSION As previously reported, the present study shows the significant effect of smoking in the development of PAD. No statistically significant difference was found among age groups, but the tendency was toward lower ABIs in the oldest age groups. Sex had a minimal effect on the ABI. PMID:22477327

  3. Association Between Age at Menarche and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Won, Jong Chul; Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Early menarche is strongly associated with adulthood obesity; however, the relationship between age at menarche and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Korean women remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the association between early menarche and risk factors for developing CVD during adulthood using a nationwide population database. In total, 12,336 women (weighted n = 17,483,406; weighted age, 45.7 years) who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2013 were included in this study. Participants were scored using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for metabolic syndrome. Risk of CVD was estimated using the 10-year Framingham Coronary Heart Disease Risk Point Scale (10-year FRS). Early menarche (≤11 years) was reported in 5.2% (weighted n = 917,493) of subjects. The weighted prevalences of metabolic syndrome and ≥20% 10-year FRS were 23.6% [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 22.7–24.6] and 7.7% (7.1–8.3), respectively. Women with early menarche reported a significantly higher body mass index and waist circumference, along with a higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome than those with later menarche (≥13 years). Furthermore, the prevalence of women with a ≥10% or ≥20% 10-year FRS was higher in those with early menarche than in other groups after adjusting for age, smoking, education level, and menstruation. Logistic regression analyses controlling for these and other confounding factors revealed odds ratios of 2.29 (95% CI = 1.25–4.19) and 1.78 (0.96–3.30) for ≥10% and ≥20% 10-year FRS in women with early menarche, respectively, compared with those in the latest menarche group (≥17 years). Taken together, this nationwide study revealed that women with early menarche are at increased risks of metabolic syndrome and CVD. Early menarche may therefore represent an important marker for early preventive

  4. Associations Between Cardiovascular Health and Health-Related Quality of Life, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jing; Zack, Matthew; Moore, Latetia; Loustalot, Fleetwood

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The American Heart Association established 7 cardiovascular health metrics as targets for promoting healthier lives. Cardiovascular health has been hypothesized to play a role in individuals’ perception of quality of life; however, previous studies have mostly assessed the effect of cardiovascular risk factors on quality of life. Methods Data were from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a state-based telephone survey of adults 18 years or older (N = 347,073). All measures of cardiovascular health and health-related quality of life were self-reported. The 7 ideal cardiovascular health metrics were normal blood pressure, cholesterol, body mass index, not having diabetes, not smoking, being physically active, and having adequate fruit or vegetable intake. Cardiovascular health was categorized into meeting 0–2, 3–5, or 6–7 ideal cardiovascular health metrics. Logistic regression models examined the association between cardiovascular health, general health status, and 3 measures of unhealthy days per month, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and annual income. Results Meeting 3 to 5 or 6 to 7 ideal cardiovascular health metrics was associated with a 51% and 79% lower adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) of fair/poor health, respectively (aPR = 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.47–0.50], aPR = 0.21, 95% CI [0.19–0.23]); a 47% and 72% lower prevalence of ≥14 physically unhealthy days (aPR = 0.53, 95% CI [0.51–0.55], aPR = 0.28, 95% CI [0.26–0.20]); a 43% and 66% lower prevalence of ≥14 mentally unhealthy days (aPR = 0.57, 95% CI [0.55–0.60], aPR = 0.34, 95% CI [0.31–0.37]); and a 50% and 74% lower prevalence of ≥14 activity limitation days (aPR = 0.50, 95% CI [0.48–0.53], aPR = 0.26, 95% CI [0.23–0.29]) in the past 30 days. Conclusion Achieving a greater number of ideal cardiovascular health metrics may be associated with less impairment in health-related quality of life. PMID:27468158

  5. Ultrafine carbon particle mediated cardiovascular impairment of aged spontaneously hypertensive rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Previous studies provided compelling evidences for particulate matter (PM) associated cardiovascular health effects. Elderly individuals, particularly those with preexisting conditions like hypertension are regarded to be vulnerable. Experimental data are warranted to...

  6. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Bishop-Bailey, David

    2000-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)s are a family of three nuclear hormone receptors, PPARα, -δ, and -γ, which are members of the steriod receptor superfamily. The first member of the family (PPARα) was originally discovered as the mediator by which a number of xenobiotic drugs cause peroxisome proliferation in the liver. Defined functions for all these receptors, until recently, mainly concerned their ability to regulate energy balance, with PPARα being involved in β-oxidation pathways, and PPARγ in the differentiation of adipocytes. Little is known about the functions of PPARδ, though it is the most ubiquitously expressed. Since their discovery, PPARs have been shown to be expressed in monocytes/macrophages, the heart, vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and in atherosclerotic lesions. Furthermore, PPARs can be activated by a vast number of compounds including synthetic drugs, of the clofibrate, and anti-diabetic thiazoldinedione classes, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and a number of eicosanoids, including prostaglandins, lipoxygenase products, and oxidized low density lipoprotein. This review will aim to introduce the field of PPAR nuclear hormone receptors, and discuss the discovery and actions of PPARs in the cardiovascular system, as well as the source of potential ligands. PMID:10696077

  7. Vascular system: role of nitric oxide in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Bian, Ka; Doursout, Marie-Françoise; Murad, Ferid

    2008-04-01

    In contrast with the short research history of the enzymatic synthesis of nitric oxide (NO), the introduction of nitrate-containing compounds for medicinal purposes marked its 150th anniversary in 1997. Glyceryl trinitrate (nitroglycerin) is the first compound of this category. On October 12, 1998, the Nobel Assembly awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology to scientists Robert Furchgott, Louis Ignarro, and Ferid Murad for their discoveries concerning NO as a signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system. NO-mediated signaling is a recognized component in various physiologic processes (eg, smooth muscle relaxation, inhibition of platelet and leukocyte aggregation, attenuation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, neurotransmission, and immune defense), to name only a few. NO has also been implicated in the pathology of many inflammatory diseases, including arthritis, myocarditis, colitis, and nephritis and a large number of pathologic conditions such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. Some of these processes (eg, smooth muscle relaxation, platelet aggregation, and neurotransmission) require only a brief production of NO at low nanomolar concentrations and are dependent on the recruitment of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent signaling. Other processes are associated with direct interaction of NO or reactive nitrogen species derived from it with target proteins and requires a more sustained production of NO at higher concentrations but do not involve the cGMP pathway. PMID:18401228

  8. Vasopressin and Oxytocin in Control of the Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Japundžić-Žigon, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) are mainly synthesized in the magnocellular neurons of the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothalamus. Axons from the magnocellular part of the PVN and SON project to neurohypophysis where VP and OT are released in blood to act like hormones. Axons from the parvocellular part of PVN project to extra-hypothalamic brain areas (median eminence, limbic system, brainstem and spinal cord) where VP and OT act like neurotransmitters/modulators. VP and OT act in complementary manner in cardiovascular control, both as hormones and neurotransmitters. While VP conserves water and increases circulating blood volume, OT eliminates sodium. Hyperactivity of VP neurons and quiescence of OT neurons in PVN underlie osmotic adjustment to pregnancy. In most vascular beds VP is a potent vasoconstrictor, more potent than OT, except in the umbilical artery at term. The vasoconstriction by VP and OT is mediated via V1aR. In some vascular beds, i.e. the lungs and the brain, VP and OT produce NO dependent vasodilatation. Peripherally, VP has been found to enhance the sensitivity of the baro-receptor while centrally, VP and OT increase sympathetic outflow, suppresse baro-receptor reflex and enhance respiration. Whilst VP is an important mediator of stress that triggers ACTH release, OT exhibits anti-stress properties. Moreover, VP has been found to contribute considerably to progression of hypertension and heart failure while OT has been found to decrease blood pressure and promote cardiac healing. PMID:23997756

  9. Hyperhomocysteinemia: a biochemical link between bone and cardiovascular system diseases?

    PubMed

    Petramala, L; Acca, M; Francucci, C M; D'Erasmo, E

    2009-01-01

    Homocysteine (HCY) is a sulfur-containing amino acid involved in two metabolic pathways, catalized by cystathionine-B-synthase and methionine synthase, depending on vitamin (vit) B6, B12, and folate levels and enzymatic activity of methylenetetrahydrofolate. High HCY levels (HHCY) are associated with cardiovascular (CV) and bone diseases, in particular osteoporosis (OP)/hip fracture. As regards the mechanisms involved in the link between HHCY, CV diseases (CVD), and OP, it has been proposed the role of lysyl-oxydase inhibition that might interfere with collagen crosslink formation. Some studies suggested the dysregulation of the osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB (RANK) ligand/RANK axis, others the involvement of oxidative stress. These mechanisms may act both on bone and CV system, but whether the common denominator is HCY itself or HCY is merely a marker, remains to be clearly established. Folate, vit B6, and B12 supplementation is associated with HCY reduction, but is unable to certainly reduce the incidence of OP/fracture and CVD, probably because, in the majority of patients, HCY is only moderately increased. PMID:19724160

  10. Increasing pulse wave velocity in a realistic cardiovascular model does not increase pulse pressure with age.

    PubMed

    Mohiuddin, Mohammad W; Rihani, Ryan J; Laine, Glen A; Quick, Christopher M

    2012-07-01

    The mechanism of the well-documented increase in aortic pulse pressure (PP) with age is disputed. Investigators assuming a classical windkessel model believe that increases in PP arise from decreases in total arterial compliance (C(tot)) and increases in total peripheral resistance (R(tot)) with age. Investigators assuming a more sophisticated pulse transmission model believe PP rises because increases in pulse wave velocity (c(ph)) make the reflected pressure wave arrive earlier, augmenting systolic pressure. It has recently been shown, however, that increases in c(ph) do not have a commensurate effect on the timing of the reflected wave. We therefore used a validated, large-scale, human arterial system model that includes realistic pulse wave transmission to determine whether increases in c(ph) cause increased PP with age. First, we made the realistic arterial system model age dependent by altering cardiac output (CO), R(tot), C(tot), and c(ph) to mimic the reported changes in these parameters from age 30 to 70. Then, c(ph) was theoretically maintained constant, while C(tot), R(tot), and CO were altered. The predicted increase in PP with age was similar to the observed increase in PP. In a complementary approach, C(tot), R(tot), and CO were theoretically maintained constant, and c(ph) was increased. The predicted increase in PP was negligible. We found that increases in c(ph) have a limited effect on the timing of the reflected wave but cause the system to degenerate into a windkessel. Changes in PP can therefore be attributed to a decrease in C(tot). PMID:22561301

  11. Systemic Inflammation in Cardiovascular and Periodontal Disease: Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Glurich, Ingrid; Grossi, Sara; Albini, Boris; Ho, Alex; Shah, Rashesh; Zeid, Mohamed; Baumann, Heinz; Genco, Robert J.; De Nardin, Ernesto

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have implicated periodontal disease (PD) as a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). These studies addressed the premise that local infection may perturb the levels of systemic inflammatory mediators, thereby promoting mechanisms of atherosclerosis. Levels of inflammatory mediators in the sera of subjects with only PD, only CVD, both diseases, or neither condition were compared. Subjects were assessed for levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), ceruloplasmin, α1-acid-glycoprotein (AAG), α1-antichymotrypsin (ACT), and the soluble cellular adhesion molecules sICAM-1 and sVCAM by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent and/or radial immunodiffusion assays. CRP levels in subjects with either condition alone were elevated twofold above subjects with neither disease, whereas a threefold increase was noted in subjects with both diseases (P = 0.0389). Statistically significant increases in SAA and ACT were noted in subjects with both conditions compared to those with one or neither condition (P = 0.0162 and 0.0408, respectively). Ceruloplasmin levels were increased in subjects with only CVD (P = 0.0001). Increases in sVCAM levels were noted in all subjects with CVD (P = 0.0054). No differences in sICAM levels were noted among subject groups. A trend toward higher levels of AAG was noted in subjects with both conditions and for ACT in subjects with only PD. Immunohistochemical examination of endarterectomy specimens of carotid arteries from subjects with atherosclerosis documented SAA and CRP deposition in association with atheromatous lesions. The data support the hypothesis that localized persistent infection may influence systemic levels of inflammatory mediators. Changes in inflammatory mediator levels potentially impact inflammation-associated atherosclerotic processes. PMID:11874889

  12. Impact of gestational risk factors on maternal cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Perales, María; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Luaces, María; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Garatachea, Nuria; Barakat, Rubén; Lucia, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Background Scarce evidence is available on the potential cardiovascular abnormalities associated with some common gestational complications. We aimed to analyze the potential maternal cardiac alterations related to gestational complications, including body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2, gaining excessive weight, or developing antenatal depression. Methods The design of this study was a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Echocardiography was performed to assess cardiovascular indicators of maternal hemodynamic, cardiac remodeling and left ventricular (LV) function in 59 sedentary pregnant women at 20 and 34 weeks of gestation. Results Starting pregnancy with a BMI >25 kg/m2, gaining excessive weight, and developing antenatal depression had no cardiovascular impact on maternal health (P value >0.002). Depressed women were more likely to exceed weight gain recommendations than non-depressed women (P value <0.002). Conclusions The evaluated gestational complications seem not to induce cardiovascular alterations in hemodynamic, remodeling and LV function indicators. However, developing antenatal depression increases the risk of an excessive weight gain. This finding is potentially important because excessive weight gain during pregnancy associates with a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) later in life. PMID:27500154

  13. Autonomic Nervous System Dysfunction and Inflammation Contribute to the Increased Cardiovascular Mortality Risk Associated With Depression

    PubMed Central

    Kop, Willem J.; Stein, Phyllis K.; Tracy, Russell P.; Barzilay, Joshua I.; Schulz, Richard; Gottdiener, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate prospectively whether autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction and inflammation play a role in the increased cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related mortality risk associated with depression. Methods Participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study (n = 907; mean age, 71.3 ± 4.6 years; 59.1% women) were evaluated for ANS indices derived from heart rate variability (HRV) analysis (frequency and time domain HRV, and nonlinear indices, including detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA1) and heart rate turbulence). Inflammation markers included C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, fibrinogen, and white blood cell count). Depressive symptoms were assessed, using the 10-item Centers for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate the mortality risk associated with depression, ANS, and inflammation markers, adjusting for demographic and clinical covariates. Results Depression was associated with ANS dysfunction (DFA1, p = .018), and increased inflammation markers (white blood cell count, p = .012, fibrinogen p = .043) adjusting for covariates. CVD-related mortality occurred in 121 participants during a median follow-up of 13.3 years. Depression was associated with an increased CVD mortality risk (hazard ratio, 1.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.23–2.86). Multivariable analyses showed that depression was an independent predictor of CVD mortality (hazard ratio, 1.72; 95% confidence interval, 1.05–2.83) when adjusting for independent HRV and inflammation predictors (DFA1, heart rate turbulence, interleukin-6), attenuating the depression-CVD mortality association by 12.7% (p < .001). Conclusion Autonomic dysfunction and inflammation contribute to the increased cardiovascular mortality risk associated with depression, but a large portion of the predictive value of depression remains unexplained by these neuroimmunological measures. PMID:20639389

  14. Cardiovascular Autonomic Nervous System Function and Aerobic Capacity in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hägglund, Harriet; Uusitalo, Arja; Peltonen, Juha E.; Koponen, Anne S.; Aho, Jyrki; Tiinanen, Suvi; Seppänen, Tapio; Tulppo, Mikko; Tikkanen, Heikki O.

    2012-01-01

    Impaired cardiovascular autonomic nervous system (ANS) function has been reported in type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients. ANS function, evaluated by heart rate variability (HRV), systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV), and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), has been linked to aerobic capacity (VO2peak) in healthy subjects, but this relationship is unknown in T1D. We examined cardiovascular ANS function at rest and during function tests, and its relations to VO2peak in T1D individuals. Ten T1D patients (34 ± 7 years) and 11 healthy control (CON; 31 ± 6 years) age and leisure-time physical activity-matched men were studied. ANS function was recorded at rest and during active standing and handgrip. Determination of VO2peak was obtained with a graded cycle ergometer test. During ANS recordings SBPV, BRS, and resting HRV did not differ between groups, but alpha1 responses to maneuvers in detrended fluctuation analyses were smaller in T1D (active standing; 32%, handgrip; 20%, medians) than in CON (active standing; 71%, handgrip; 54%, p < 0.05). VO2peak was lower in T1D (36 ± 4 ml kg−1 min−1) than in CON (45 ± 9 ml kg−1 min−1, p < 0.05). Resting HRV measures, RMSSD, HF, and SD1 correlated with VO2peak in CON (p < 0.05) and when analyzing groups together. These results suggest that T1D had lower VO2peak, weaker HRV response to maneuvers, but not impaired cardiovascular ANS function at rest compared with CON. Resting parasympathetic cardiac activity correlated with VO2peak in CON but not in T1D. Detrended fluctuation analysis could be a sensitive detector of changes in cardiac ANS function in T1D. PMID:22973238

  15. Tai Ji Quan for the aging cancer survivor: Mitigating the accelerated development of disability, falls, and cardiovascular disease from cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Winters-Stone, Kerri

    2014-01-01

    Currently there are more than 13.7 million cancer survivors living in the U.S., and that figure is projected to increase by 31% in the next decade, adding another 4 million cancer survivors into the healthcare system. Cancer is largely a disease of aging, and the aging of the population will sharply raise the proportion of older cancer survivors, many of whom will be long-term survivors (5+ years post diagnosis). This review will address the potential utility of exercise to address three health problems that are of particular concern for the aging cancer survivor and the healthcare system, i.e., disability, falls, and cardiovascular disease, because the development of these age-related problems may be accelerated by cancer treatment. While there are many different modes of exercise that each produce specific adaptations, Tai Ji Quan may be a particularly suitable strategy to mitigate the development of age- and cancer-treatment-related problems. Based on studies in older adults without cancer, Tai Ji Quan produces musculoskeletal and cardiometabolic adaptations and is more easily performed by older adults due to its low energy cost and slower movement patterns. Since cancer survivors are mostly older, inactive, and often physically limited by the lingering side effects of treatment, they need to engage in safe, practical, and effective modes of exercise. The dearth of published controlled trials examining the efficacy of Tai Ji Quan to mitigate cancer-treatment-related musculoskeletal and cardiovascular side effects points to ample research opportunities to explore the application of this non-Western exercise modality to improve long-term outcomes for aging cancer survivors. PMID:25285233

  16. P2 receptor subtypes in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed Central

    Kunapuli, S P; Daniel, J L

    1998-01-01

    Extracellular nucleotides have been implicated in a number of physiological functions. Nucleotides act on cell-surface receptors known as P2 receptors, of which several subtypes have been cloned. Both ATP and ADP are stored in platelets and are released upon platelet activation. Furthermore, nucleotides are also released from damaged or broken cells. Thus during vascular injury nucleotides play an important role in haemostasis through activation of platelets, modulation of vascular tone, recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes to the site of injury, and facilitation of adhesion of leucocytes to the endothelium. Nucleotides also moderate these functions by generating nitric oxide and prostaglandin I2 through activation of endothelial cells, and by activating different receptor subtypes on vascular smooth muscle cells. In the heart, P2 receptors regulate contractility through modulation of L-type Ca2+ channels, although the molecular mechanisms involved are still under investigation. Classical pharmacological studies have identified several P2 receptor subtypes in the cardiovascular system. Molecular pharmacological studies have clarified the nature of some of these receptors, but have complicated the picture with others. In platelets, the classical P2T receptor has now been resolved into three P2 receptor subtypes: the P2Y1, P2X1 and P2TAC receptors (the last of these, which is coupled to the inhibition of adenylate cyclase, is yet to be cloned). In peripheral blood leucocytes, endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiomyocytes, the effects of classical P2X, P2Y and P2U receptors have been found to be mediated by more than one P2 receptor subtype. However, the exact functions of these multiple receptor subtypes remain to be understood, as P2-receptor-selective agonists and antagonists are still under development. PMID:9841859

  17. Biochemistry, Physiology and Pathophysiology of NADPH Oxidases in the Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Lassègue, Bernard; San Martín, Alejandra; Griendling, Kathy K.

    2012-01-01

    The NADPH oxidase (Nox) enzymes are critical mediators of cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology. These proteins are expressed in virtually all cardiovascular cells, and regulate such diverse functions as differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, senescence, inflammatory responses and oxygen sensing. They target a number of important signaling molecules, including kinases, phosphatases, transcription factors, ion channels and proteins that regulate the cytoskeleton. Nox enzymes have been implicated in many different cardiovascular pathologies: atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling, angiogenesis and collateral formation, stroke and heart failure. In this review, we discuss in detail the biochemistry of Nox enzymes expressed in the cardiovascular system (Nox1, 2, 4 and 5), their roles in cardiovascular cell biology, and their contributions to disease development. PMID:22581922

  18. Lifestyle Modifications Versus Antihypertensive Medications in Reducing Cardiovascular Events in an Aging Society: A Success Rate-oriented Simulation.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yoichi; Shibazaki, Satomi; Araki, Ryuichiro; Miyazaki, Takashi; Sato, Makiko; Takahashi, Sachiko; Suwa, Emi; Takenaka, Tsuneo; Suzuki, Hiromichi

    2016-01-01

    Objective It is difficult to compare directly the practical effects of lifestyle modifications and antihypertensive medications on reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD). The purpose of this study was to compare the hypothetical potential of lifestyle modifications with that of antihypertensive medications in reducing CVD in an aging society using a success rate-oriented simulation. Methods We constructed a simulation model for virtual Japanese subpopulations according to sex and age at 10-year intervals from 40 years of age as an example of an aging society. The fractional incidence rate of CVD was calculated as the product of the incidence rate at each systolic blood pressure (SBP) level and the proportion of the SBP frequency distribution in the fractional subpopulations of each SBP. The total incidence rate was calculated by the definite integral of the fractional incidence rate at each SBP level in the sex- and age-specific subpopulations. Results If we consider the effects of lifestyle modifications on metabolic factors and transfer them onto SBP, the reductions in the total incidence rate of CVD were competitive between lifestyle modifications and antihypertensive medications in realistic scenarios. In middle-aged women, the preventive effects of both approaches were limited due to a low incidence rate. In middle-aged men and extremely elderly subjects whose adherence to antihypertensive medications is predicted to be low, lifestyle modifications could be an alternative choice. Conclusion The success rate-oriented simulation suggests that the effectiveness of lifestyle modifications or antihypertensive medications in preventing cardiovascular events largely depends on the baseline incidence rate and sex- and age-specific behavioral factors. PMID:27522993

  19. Mathematical modeling of human cardiovascular system for simulation of orthostatic response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melchior, F. M.; Srinivasan, R. S.; Charles, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with the short-term response of the human cardiovascular system to orthostatic stresses in the context of developing a mathematical model of the overall system. It discusses the physiological issues involved and how these issues have been handled in published cardiovascular models for simulation of orthostatic response. Most of the models are stimulus specific with no demonstrated capability for simulating the responses to orthostatic stimuli of different types. A comprehensive model incorporating all known phenomena related to cardiovascular regulation would greatly help to interpret the various orthostatic responses of the system in a consistent manner and to understand the interactions among its elements. This paper provides a framework for future efforts in mathematical modeling of the entire cardiovascular system.

  20. Mathematical modeling of human cardiovascular system for simulation of orthostatic response.

    PubMed

    Melchior, F M; Srinivasan, R S; Charles, J B

    1992-06-01

    This paper deals with the short-term response of the human cardiovascular system to orthostatic stresses in the context of developing a mathematical model of the overall system. It discusses the physiological issues involved and how these issues have been handled in published cardiovascular models for simulation of orthostatic response. Most of the models are stimulus specific with no demonstrated capability for simulating the responses to orthostatic stimuli of different types. A comprehensive model incorporating all known phenomena related to cardiovascular regulation would greatly help to interpret the various orthostatic responses of the system in a consistent manner and to understand the interactions among its elements. This paper provides a framework for future efforts in mathematical modeling of the entire cardiovascular system. PMID:1621848

  1. Applicability of implantable telemetry systems in cardiovascular research.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krutz, R. W.; Rader, R. D.; Meehan, J. P.; Henry, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the results of an experimental program undertaken to develop and apply implanted telemetry to cardiovascular research. Because of the role the kidney may play in essential hypertension, emphasis is placed on telemetry's applicability in the study of renal physiology. Consequently, the relationship between pressure, flow, and hydraulic impedance are stressed. Results of an exercise study are given.

  2. The impact of the circadian timing system on cardiovascular and metabolic function

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Christopher J.; Yang, Jessica N.; Scheer, Frank A. J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show that adverse cardiovascular events peak in the morning (i.e., between 6 AM and noon) and that shift work is associated with cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes. The endogenous circadian timing system modulates certain cardiovascular risk markers to be highest (e.g., cortisol, nonlinear dynamic heart rate control, and platelet activation) or to respond most unfavorably to stressors such as exercise (e.g., epinephrine, norepinephrine, and vagal cardiac modulation) at an internal body time corresponding to the time of day when adverse cardiovascular events most likely occur. This indicates that the circadian timing system and its interaction with external cardiovascular stressors (e.g., physical activity) could contribute to the morning peak in adverse cardiovascular events. Moreover, circadian misalignment and simulated night work have adverse effects on cardiovascular and metabolic function. This suggests that misalignment between the behavioral cycle and the circadian timing system in shift workers contributes to that population’s increased risk for cardiometabolic disease. PMID:22877674

  3. Regulation of NAD(P)H oxidases by AMPK in cardiovascular systems

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ping; Zou, Ming-Hui

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are ubiquitously produced in cardiovascular systems. Under physiological conditions, ROS/RNS function as signaling molecules that are essential in maintaining cardiovascular function. Aberrant concentrations of ROS/RNS have been demonstrated in cardiovascular diseases due to increased production or decreased scavenging, which have been considered as common pathways for the initiation and progression of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, (re)stenosis, and congestive heart failure. NAD(P)H oxidases are primary sources of ROS and can be induced or activated by all known cardiovascular risk factors. Stresses, hormones, vasoactive agents, and cytokines via different signaling cascades control the expression and activity of these enzymes and of their regulatory subunits. But the molecular mechanisms by which NAD(P)H oxidase is regulated in cardiovascular systems remain poorly characterized. Investigations by us and others suggest that adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), as an energy sensor and modulator, is highly sensitive to ROS/RNS. We have also obtained convincing evidence that AMPK is a physiological suppressor of NAD(P)H oxidase in multiple cardiovascular cell systems. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of how AMPK functions as a physiological repressor of NAD(P)H oxidase. PMID:22357101

  4. Usefulness of Left Ventricular Mass and Geometry for Determining 10-Year Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease in Adults Aged >65 Years (from the Cardiovascular Health Study).

    PubMed

    Desai, Chintan S; Bartz, Traci M; Gottdiener, John S; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Gardin, Julius M

    2016-09-01

    Left ventricular (LV) mass and geometry are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We sought to determine whether LV mass and geometry contribute to risk prediction for CVD in adults aged ≥65 years of the Cardiovascular Health Study. We indexed LV mass to body size, denoted as LV mass index (echo-LVMI), and we defined LV geometry as normal, concentric remodeling, and eccentric or concentric LV hypertrophy. We added echo-LVMI and LV geometry to separate 10-year risk prediction models containing traditional risk factors and determined the net reclassification improvement (NRI) for incident coronary heart disease (CHD), CVD (CHD, heart failure [HF], and stroke), and HF alone. Over 10 years of follow-up in 2,577 participants (64% women, 15% black, mean age 72 years) for CHD and CVD, the adjusted hazards ratios for a 1-SD higher echo-LVMI were 1.25 (95% CI 1.14 to 1.37), 1.24 (1.15 to 1.33), and 1.51 (1.40 to 1.62), respectively. Addition of echo-LVMI to the standard model for CHD resulted in an event NRI of -0.011 (95% CI -0.037 to 0.028) and nonevent NRI of 0.034 (95% CI 0.008 to 0.076). Addition of echo-LVMI and LV geometry to the standard model for CVD resulted in an event NRI of 0.013 (95% CI -0.0335 to 0.0311) and a nonevent NRI of 0.043 (95% CI 0.011 to 0.09). The nonevent NRI was also significant with addition of echo-LVMI for HF risk prediction (0.10, 95% CI 0.057 to 0.16). In conclusion, in adults aged ≥65 years, echo-LVMI improved risk prediction for CHD, CVD, and HF, driven primarily by improved reclassification of nonevents. PMID:27457431

  5. [The functional state of the cardiovascular and central nervous system in patients with occupational deafness].

    PubMed

    Tin'kov, A N; Raĭtselis, I V

    2009-01-01

    The workers of the Orenburg gas-processing plant have been found to be at high risk for concomitant diseases of the cardiovascular, central nervous, and other systems in the presence of occupational sensorineural deafness. Among the comorbidities in deaf patients, cardiovascular disease heads the list (63%), of them autonomic vascular dystonia is most common (22%); diseases of the central nervous system and lung rank second (13%) and third (11%), respectively. PMID:19802944

  6. Audit of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Supported Adults with Intellectual Disability Attending an Ageing Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Robyn A.; Schluter, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor profile for older adults with intellectual disability (ID). As many CVD risk factors are treatable by lifestyle changes, confirmation of the risk factor profile for older adults with ID could substantially impact upon preventive health practices for this group. Method:…

  7. Aging changes in the female reproductive system

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/article/004016.htm Aging changes in the female reproductive system To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Aging changes in the female reproductive system result mainly from changing hormone levels . One clear ...

  8. Oxidative stress-mediated effects of angiotensin II in the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Hairuo; Gwathmey, Judith K; Xie, Lai-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II), an endogenous peptide hormone, plays critical roles in the pathophysiological modulation of cardiovascular functions. Ang II is the principle effector of the renin-angiotensin system for maintaining homeostasis in the cardiovascular system, as well as a potent stimulator of NAD(P)H oxidase, which is the major source and primary trigger for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in various tissues. Recent accumulating evidence has demonstrated the importance of oxidative stress in Ang II-induced heart diseases. Here, we review the recent progress in the study on oxidative stress-mediated effects of Ang II in the cardiovascular system. In particular, the involvement of Ang II-induced ROS generation in arrhythmias, cell death/heart failure, ischemia/reperfusion injury, cardiac hypertrophy and hypertension are discussed. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II is an important molecule linking Ang II, ROS and cardiovascular pathological conditions. PMID:24587981

  9. Endogenous Sulfur Dioxide: A New Member of Gasotransmitter Family in the Cardiovascular System.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yaqian; Tang, Chaoshu; Du, Junbao; Jin, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) was previously regarded as a toxic gas in atmospheric pollutants. But it has been found to be endogenously generated from metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids in mammals through transamination by aspartate aminotransferase (AAT). SO2 could be produced in cardiovascular tissues catalyzed by its synthase AAT. In recent years, studies revealed that SO2 had physiological effects on the cardiovascular system, including vasorelaxation and cardiac function regulation. In addition, the pathophysiological effects of SO2 were also determined. For example, SO2 ameliorated systemic hypertension and pulmonary hypertension, prevented the development of atherosclerosis, and protected against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury. These findings suggested that endogenous SO2 was a novel gasotransmitter in the cardiovascular system and provided a new therapy target for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26839635

  10. Endogenous Sulfur Dioxide: A New Member of Gasotransmitter Family in the Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yaqian; Tang, Chaoshu; Du, Junbao; Jin, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) was previously regarded as a toxic gas in atmospheric pollutants. But it has been found to be endogenously generated from metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids in mammals through transamination by aspartate aminotransferase (AAT). SO2 could be produced in cardiovascular tissues catalyzed by its synthase AAT. In recent years, studies revealed that SO2 had physiological effects on the cardiovascular system, including vasorelaxation and cardiac function regulation. In addition, the pathophysiological effects of SO2 were also determined. For example, SO2 ameliorated systemic hypertension and pulmonary hypertension, prevented the development of atherosclerosis, and protected against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury. These findings suggested that endogenous SO2 was a novel gasotransmitter in the cardiovascular system and provided a new therapy target for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26839635

  11. Estrogen receptor β actions in the female cardiovascular system: A systematic review of animal and human studies.

    PubMed

    Muka, Taulant; Vargas, Kris G; Jaspers, Loes; Wen, Ke-xin; Dhana, Klodian; Vitezova, Anna; Nano, Jana; Brahimaj, Adela; Colpani, Veronica; Bano, Arjola; Kraja, Bledar; Zaciragic, Asija; Bramer, Wichor M; van Dijk, Gaby M; Kavousi, Maryam; Franco, Oscar H

    2016-04-01

    Five medical databases were searched for studies that assessed the role of ERβ in the female cardiovascular system and the influence of age and menopause on ERβ functioning. Of 9472 references, 88 studies met our inclusion criteria (71 animal model experimental studies, 15 human model experimental studies and 2 population based studies). ERβ signaling was shown to possess vasodilator and antiangiogenic properties by regulating the activity of nitric oxide, altering membrane ionic permeability in vascular smooth muscle cells, inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation and by regulating adrenergic control of the arteries. Also, a possible protective effect of ERβ signaling against left ventricular hypertrophy and ischemia/reperfusion injury via genomic and non-genomic pathways was suggested in 27 studies. Moreover, 5 studies reported that the vascular effects of ERβ may be vessel specific and may differ by age and menopause status. ERβ seems to possess multiple functions in the female cardiovascular system. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether isoform-selective ERβ-ligands might contribute to cardiovascular disease prevention. PMID:26921926

  12. Relationship between body composition and both cardiovascular risk factors and lung function in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Caramaschi, Paola; Biasi, Domenico; Caimmi, Cristian; Barausse, Giovanni; Gatti, Davide; Ferrari, Marcello; Pieropan, Sara; Sabbagh, Dania; Adami, Silvano

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate body composition in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and to assess its association with the traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis and parameters of lung function. Eighty-six patients affected by SSc (13 men and 73 women, mean age 58.5 years, mean disease duration 10.7 years, 31 with diffuse form and 55 with limited pattern) underwent evaluation of body composition using a dual-energy X-ray (DXA) fan beam densitometer (GE Lunar iDXA) in order to assess total and regional body fat mass and fat-free mass. Clinical features, pulmonary function parameters, and the concomitant presence of the traditional cardiovascular risk factors were recorded. Android fat resulted to be higher in SSc patients with coexistence of hypercholesterolemia (P = 0.021), hypertension (P = 0.028), and overweight/obesity (P < 0.001) and positively correlated with body mass index (P < 0.001). Forced vital capacity (FVC) was inversely correlated with android fat (P = 0.034) and with the android fat/gynoid fat ratio (P = 0.013) and positively correlated with android lean (P = 0.041); the correlations were improved when FVC data were adjusted for sex, age, disease duration, and smoking habits (P = 0.010 for android fat, P = 0.010 for android fat/gynoid fat ratio, P = 0.011 for android lean). In this study, we showed that visceral abdominal fat, measured by DXA, is correlated with the main cardiovascular risk factors and lung volumes in SSc patients. Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate if decrease of abdominal fat would improve lung function. PMID:24052413

  13. The effect of mirthful laughter on the human cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michael; Fry, William F

    2009-11-01

    It has become increasingly recognized and more widely acknowledged during the past several decades, that a complex relationship exists between behavior associated with emotion and the human cardiovascular (CV) system. Early studies focused on the interplay between negative emotions and elevated CV risk, an effect that has in large part been attributed to increased adrenergic activity. Thus, a variety of adverse CV effects ranging from sudden cardiac death triggered by natural disasters such as earthquakes to transient myocardial stunning resulting from heightened sympathetic overload have been identified in response to acute emotional distress. In fact, the biologic interplay between emotion and CV health has been greatly enhanced through studies of the vascular endothelium. As the largest organ in humans, the inner blood vessel lining serves as a conduit for the transfer of blood cells, lipids and various nutrients across the lumen to neighboring tissues. Healthy endothelial cells secrete vasoactive chemicals, most notably endothelial-derived relaxing factor or nitric oxide (NO), that effects smooth muscle relaxation and vessel dilation via a cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) dependent protein kinase signaling pathway. In addition, endothelial derived NO may reduce vascular inflammation by attenuating or inhibiting leukocyte adhesion and subendothelial transmigration as well as decreasing platelet activation via cGMP mediated pathways. Taken together, studying the endothelium provides an exceptional opportunity to advance our understanding of the potentially important interrelationship between emotions and the vasculature. Premised on the identification of physiological and biochemical correlates, the former was demonstrated after intracoronary administration of acetylcholine yielded paradoxical endothelial vasoconstriction in response to mental stress exercises. More recently, the brachial artery reactivity test (BART) has permitted endothelial function to be

  14. The effects of music on the cardiovascular system and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Trappe, Hans-Joachim

    2010-12-01

    Music may not only improve quality of life but may also effect changes in heart rate and heart rate variability. It has been shown that cerebral flow was significantly lower when listening to 'Va pensiero' from Verdi's 'Nabucco' (70.4±3.3 cm/s) compared with 'Libiam nei lieti calici' from Verdi's 'La Traviata' (70.2±3.1 cm/s) (p<0.02) or Bach's Cantata No. 169 'Gott soll allein mein Herze haben' (70.9±2.9 cm/s) (p<0.02). There was no significant difference in cerebral flow during rest (67.6±3.3 cm/s) or when listening to Beethoven's Ninth Symphony (69.4±3.1 cm/s). It was reported that relaxing music significantly decreases the level of anxiety of patients in a preoperative setting (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)-X-1 score 34)-to a greater extent even than orally administered midazolam (STAI-X-1 score 36) (p<0.001). In addition the score was better after surgery in the music group (STAI-X-1 score 30) compared with the midazolam group (STAI-X-1 score 34) (p<0.001). Higher effectiveness and absence of apparent adverse effects make relaxing, preoperative music a useful alternative to midazolam for premedication. In addition, there is sufficient practical evidence of stress reduction suggesting that a proposed regimen of listening to music while resting in bed after open-heart surgery is important in clinical use. After 30 min of bed rest, there was a significant difference in cortisol levels between the music (484.4 mmol/l) and the non-music group (618.8 mmol/l) (p<0.02). Vocal and orchestral music produce significantly better correlations between cardiovascular or respiratory signals compared with music with a more uniform emphasis (p<0.05). The greatest benefit on health is visible with classical music and meditation music, whereas heavy metal music or techno are not only ineffective but possibly dangerous and can lead to stress and/or life-threatening arrhythmias. The music of many composers most effectively improves quality of life, will increase health

  15. The effect of aged garlic extract on blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors in uncontrolled hypertensives: the AGE at Heart trial

    PubMed Central

    Ried, Karin; Travica, Nikolaj; Sali, Avni

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertension affects 30% of adults worldwide. Garlic supplements have shown promise in the treatment of uncontrolled hypertension, and the mechanism of action is biologically plausible. Our trial is the first to assess the effect of aged garlic extract on central blood pressure and arterial stiffness, regarded as important risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity. Subjects and methods A total of 88 general practice patients and community members with uncontrolled hypertension completed a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial of 12 weeks investigating the effect of daily intake of aged garlic extract (1.2 g containing 1.2 mg S-allylcysteine) or placebo on blood pressure, and secondary outcome measures of central-hemodynamics and other cardiovascular markers, including cholesterol, homocysteine, platelet function, and inflammatory markers. Results Mean blood pressure was significantly reduced by 5.0±2.1 mmHg (P=0.016) systolic, and in responders by 11.5±1.9 mmHg systolic and 6.3±1.1 mmHg diastolic compared to placebo (P<0.001). Central hemodynamic-measures tended to improve in the garlic group more than in the placebo group, including central blood pressure, central pulse pressure, mean arterial pressure, augmentation pressure, pulse-wave velocity, and arterial stiffness. While changes in other cardiovascular markers did not reach significance due to small numbers in subgroups with elevated levels, trends in beneficial effects of garlic on the inflammatory markers TNFα, total cholesterol, low-density lipid cholesterol, and apolipoproteins were observed. Aged garlic extract was highly tolerable and acceptable, and did not increase the risk of bleeding in patients on blood-thinning medication. Conclusion Our trial suggests that aged garlic extract is effective in reducing peripheral and central blood pressure in a large proportion of patients with uncontrolled hypertension, and has the potential to improve arterial stiffness, inflammation

  16. Physiological system integrations with emphasis on the respiratory-cardiovascular system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    The integration of two types of physiological system simulations is presented. The long term model is a circulatory system model which simulates long term blood flow variations and compartmental fluid shifts. The short term models simulate transient phenomena of the respiratory, thermoregulatory, and pulsatile cardiovascular systems as they respond to stimuli such as LBNP, exercise, and environmental gaseous variations. An overview of the interfacing approach is described. Descriptions of the variable interface for long term to short term and between the three short term models are given.

  17. Space physiology IV: mathematical modeling of the cardiovascular system in space exploration.

    PubMed

    Keith Sharp, M; Batzel, Jerry Joseph; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2013-08-01

    Mathematical modeling represents an important tool for analyzing cardiovascular function during spaceflight. This review describes how modeling of the cardiovascular system can contribute to space life science research and illustrates this process via modeling efforts to study postflight orthostatic intolerance (POI), a key issue for spaceflight. Examining this application also provides a context for considering broader applications of modeling techniques to the challenges of bioastronautics. POI, which affects a large fraction of astronauts in stand tests upon return to Earth, presents as dizziness, fainting and other symptoms, which can diminish crew performance and cause safety hazards. POI on the Moon or Mars could be more critical. In the field of bioastronautics, POI has been the dominant application of cardiovascular modeling for more than a decade, and a number of mechanisms for POI have been investigated. Modeling approaches include computational models with a range of incorporated factors and hemodynamic sophistication, and also physical models tested in parabolic and orbital flight. Mathematical methods such as parameter sensitivity analysis can help identify key system mechanisms. In the case of POI, this could lead to more effective countermeasures. Validation is a persistent issue in modeling efforts, and key considerations and needs for experimental data to synergistically improve understanding of cardiovascular responses are outlined. Future directions in cardiovascular modeling include subject-specific assessment of system status, as well as research on integrated physiological responses, leading, for instance, to assessment of subject-specific susceptibility to POI or effects of cardiovascular alterations on muscular, vision and cognitive function. PMID:23539439

  18. Nonlinear effects of respiration on the crosstalk between cardiovascular and cerebrovascular control systems.

    PubMed

    Bari, Vlasta; Marchi, Andrea; De Maria, Beatrice; Rossato, Gianluca; Nollo, Giandomenico; Faes, Luca; Porta, Alberto

    2016-05-13

    Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems are vital control mechanisms responsible for guaranteeing homeostasis and are affected by respiration. This work proposes the investigation of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular control systems and the nonlinear influences of respiration on both regulations through joint symbolic analysis (JSA), conditioned or unconditioned on respiration. Interactions between cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems were evaluated as well by performing correlation analysis between JSA indexes describing the two control systems. Heart period, systolic and mean arterial pressure, mean cerebral blood flow velocity and respiration were acquired on a beat-to-beat basis in 13 subjects experiencing recurrent syncope episodes (SYNC) and 13 healthy individuals (non-SYNC) in supine resting condition and during head-up tilt test at 60° (TILT). Results showed that JSA distinguished conditions and groups, whereas time domain parameters detected only the effect of TILT. Respiration affected cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems in a nonlinear way and was able to modulate the interactions between the two control systems with different outcome in non-SYNC and SYNC groups, thus suggesting that the analysis of the impact of respiration on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems might improve our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the development of postural-related syncope. PMID:27044988

  19. Changes in cardiovascular health score and atherosclerosis progression in middle-aged and older persons in China: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jingsheng; Bao, Minghui; Liu, Yan; Shi, Jihong; Huang, Zhe; Xing, Aijun; Wang, Yang; An, Shasha; Cai, Jun; Wu, Shouling; Yang, Xinchun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The American Heart Association (AHA) proposed a definition of 4 cardiovascular health behaviours and 3 health factors. On the basis of the 7 metrics, the cardiovascular health score (CHS) was used to estimate individual-level changes in cardiovascular health status. The aim of this study was to investigate whether changes in CHS (⊿CHS) at different time-points are associated with atherosclerosis progression in middle-aged and older persons. Design Prospective cohort study in China. Settings We defined 8 groups (≤−4, −3, −2, −1, 0, 1, 2 and ≥3) according to ⊿CHS. The impact of ⊿CHS on the change of brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity (⊿baPWV) and atherosclerosis progression was analysed. Participants A total of 3951 individuals met the inclusion criteria (≥40 years old; no history of stroke, transient ischaemic attack or myocardial infarction) and had complete information. Results ⊿baPWV decreased gradually (126.46±355.91, 78.4±343.81, 69.6±316.27, 49.59±287.57, 57.07±261.17, 40.45±264.27, 37.45±283.26 and 21.66±264.17 cm/s, respectively) with increasing ⊿CHS (p for trend<0.05). Multivariate linear regression analysis suggested a negative relationship between these 2 variables, which persisted after adjustment for other risk factors. Each increase in CHS was associated with a reduced baPWV for 15.22 cm/s (B value −15.22, p<0.001). Conclusions ⊿CHS were negatively related to ⊿baPWV, which proved to be an independent predictor of the progression of atherosclerosis in middle-aged and older persons. Trial registration number Kailuan study (ChiCTR-TNC-11001489). PMID:26310397

  20. Aging and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus - Immunosenescence and Beyond.

    PubMed

    van den Hoogen, Lucas Laurens; Sims, Gary Patrick; van Roon, Joel Adrianus Gijsbert; Fritsch-Stork, Ruth Dorothea Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    The lifespan of humans has increased drastically over the last decades; considerable effort has been applied to delineate the mechanisms behind aging in order to find strategies for longevity. As the benefits of the gained knowledge might extend to diseases, where accelerated aging is suspected, the role of aging in the systemic autoimmune disease Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is of particular interest. In this review the immunological similarities of SLE and aging are analyzed on three levels: the clinical, the cellular and the molecular, in order to find possible common pathological mechanisms. Common clinical features (e.g. increased infection rates, incidence of tumors and cardiovascular diseases) of SLE-patients and elderly individuals and shared characteristics of immuno-senescence and SLE are identified. These similarities are strongest in the adaptive immune system, where terminally differentiated T-cells and an immunological risk profile are found in both conditions. Also the aging innate immune system has overlapping features with SLE, exemplified by a generally lowered phagocytic capacity. However, great disparities between the aging immune system and SLE become apparent on a closer look, affecting numbers, phenotype and function of most immune cells, ranging from NETosis by granulocytes to the mechanisms underlying abnormal IL-2 production by T-cells. On the molecular level, also the increased presence of aging mechanisms like telomere attrition, DNA damage, autophagy and the characteristics of the mTOR pathway in SLE, possibly contributing to the shared changes on the cellular and clinical level are elaborated. The possible implications thereof concern existing (hydroxychloroquine, rapamycine, Glucocorticoids) as well as novel therapeutic strategies targeting more specific pathways which might rapidly reach the clinical arena. Overall a differential view on the similarities of aging and SLE and possible consequences is presented. PMID:26212055

  1. Effective maintenance practices to manage system aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chockie, Alan; Bjorkelo, Kenneth

    A study for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission was recently undertaken to identify effective maintenance practices that could be adapted by the nuclear industry in the United States to assist in managing the aging degradation of plant systems and components. Four organizations were examined to assess the influence of maintenance programs on addressing the system and component aging degradation issues. An effective maintenance program was found to be essential to the management of system and component aging. Four key elements of an effective maintenance program that are important to an aging management were identified: (1) the selection of critical systems and components; (2) the development of an understanding of aging through the collection and analysis of equipment performance information; (3) the development of appropriate preventive and predictive maintenance tasks to manage equipment and system aging degradation; and (4) the use of feedback mechanisms to continuously improve the management of aging systems and components. These elements were found to be common to all four organizations.

  2. The AGE-RAGE Axis and Its Relationship to Markers of Cardiovascular Disease in Newly Diagnosed Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Villegas-Rodríguez, Ma. Etzabel; Uribarri, Jaime; Solorio-Meza, Sergio E.; Fajardo-Araujo, Martha E.; Cai, Weijing; Torres-Graciano, Sofía; Rangel-Salazar, Rubén; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Garay-Sevilla, Ma. Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Aim The purpose of the study was the simultaneous measurement of all the different components of the AGE-RAGE axis as well as several non-invasive markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a cohort of newly diagnosed diabetic patients. Materials and Methods In 80 newly diagnosed diabetic patients we measured serum carboxymethyllysine (CML), soluble RAGE (sRAGE) and peripheral mononuclear (PMNC) RAGE and AGER1 mRNA together with ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and malondialdehyde (MDA). We also assessed cardiovascular function by measurement of flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), intima-media thickness (IMT) and arterial stiffness. Univariant correlation analysis was used to determine correlation between the variables in the study and multiple regression analysis was used to examine the association between the AGE-RAGE axis components and FMD, IMT and arterial stiffness. Results Serum CML correlated positively with sRAGE, PMNC RAGE, HOMA-IR, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MDA, but inversely with PMNC AGER1. sRAGE and RAGE was positively correlated with AGER; IMT was positively correlated with HOMA-IR, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MDA, and sRAGE and arterial stiffness had correlation with HOMA-IR, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MDA, CML, sRAGE, AGER1 and RAGE. In multivariate analysis we found a significant relationship between CML with PMNC RAGE, HOMA-IR; sRAGE with VCAM-1 and MDA; PMNC RAGE with PMNC AGER1and CML; PMNC AGER1 with PMNC RAGE; FMD with sRAGE, CML and HbA1c; IMT with sRAGE, and arterial stiffness with sRAGE, sCML and AGER1 Conclusions We found significant and strong associations between the different components of the AGE-RAGE axis and also found significant association between AGE-RAGE axis markers, especially sRAGE with several noninvasive markers of cardiovascular disease risk. sRAGE, an easily measured parameter in blood, may potentially be used as a surrogate marker of AGEs-RAGE in patients with diabetes. PMID:27434539

  3. Sex and Age Differences in the Association of Depression With Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease and Adverse Cardiovascular Events

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Amit J.; Ghasemzadeh, Nima; Zaragoza‐Macias, Elisa; Patel, Riyaz; Eapen, Danny J.; Neeland, Ian J.; Pimple, Pratik M.; Zafari, A. Maziar; Quyyumi, Arshed A.; Vaccarino, Viola

    2014-01-01

    Background Young women with coronary heart disease have high rates of depression and a higher risk of adverse events than men of similar age. Whether depression has a higher prognostic value in this group than in men and older women is not known. Our objective was to assess whether depression in young women is associated with higher risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and adverse outcomes compared with similarly aged men and older women. Methods and Results We examined 3237 patients undergoing coronary angiography for evaluation of CAD and followed them for 2.9 years (median). Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)‐9, and CAD burden was dichotomized based on its presence or absence. After multivariable adjustment for CAD risk factors, depressive symptoms predicted CAD presence in women aged ≤55 years (odds ratio=1.07 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02 to 1.13 per 1 point increase in PHQ‐9 score), but not in men aged ≤55 years or women aged >55 years. Depressive symptoms also predicted increased risk of death in women aged ≤55 years (adjusted hazard ratio=1.07, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.14, per 1 point increase in PHQ‐9 score), but not in men aged ≤55 years and women aged >55 years, with P=0.02 for the depression‐sex interaction and P=0.02 for depression‐sex‐age interaction. Conclusions Among patients with suspected or established CAD, depressive symptoms are associated with increased risk of death, particularly in young women. This group may be especially vulnerable to the adverse cardiovascular effects of depression. PMID:24943475

  4. Increased Waist-to-height Ratio May Contribute to Age-related Increase in Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Akhlaghi, Masoumeh; Kamali, Majid; Dastsouz, Farideh; Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Amanat, Sassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) increases with age. The objective was to determine whether lifestyle and dietary behaviors and anthropometric measures, which are affected by these behaviors, contribute to the increase of CVD risk factors across age categories of 20–50-year-old. Methods: In a cross-sectional design, 437 adults aged 20–50-year-old were selected from households living in Shiraz. Risk factors of CVD, including body mass index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), blood pressure, fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C, respectively) as well as lifestyle behaviors (physical activity and smoking), dietary habits, and food intakes were assessed across the age categories of 20–29, 30–39, and 40–50 years. Linear regression was used to examine the contribution of different variables to the age-related increase of CVD risk factors. Results: All CVD risk factors, except for HDL-C, significantly increased across age categories. Older subjects had healthier dietary habits and food intakes, but they possessed nonsignificantly lower physical activity and higher smoking rate compared to younger adults. Adjusting for physical activity, smoking, and BMI did not change the significant positive association between age and CVD risk factors but adjusting for WHtR disappeared associations for blood pressure, triglycerides, and metabolic syndrome although significant associations remained for FBG and total and LDL-C. Conclusions: Age-related increase of CVD risk factors occurred independent of lifestyle habits. WHtR, but not BMI, may partially contribute to the age-related increase in CVD risk factors. PMID:27195100

  5. Study report on guidelines and test procedures for investigating stability of nonlinear cardiovascular control system models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzjerrell, D. G.

    1974-01-01

    A general study of the stability of nonlinear as compared to linear control systems is presented. The analysis is general and, therefore, applies to other types of nonlinear biological control systems as well as the cardiovascular control system models. Both inherent and numerical stability are discussed for corresponding analytical and graphic methods and numerical methods.

  6. Mathematical modelling of the human cardiovascular system in the presence of stenosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sud, V. K.; Srinivasan, R. S.; Charles, J. B.; Bungo, M. W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports a theoretical study on the distribution of blood flow in the human cardiovascular system when one or more blood vessels are affected by stenosis. The analysis employs a mathematical model of the entire system based on the finite element method. The arterial-venous network is represented by a large number of interconnected segments in the model. Values for the model parameters are based upon the published data on the physiological and rheological properties of blood. Computational results show how blood flow through various parts of the cardiovascular system is affected by stenosis in different blood vessels. No significant changes in the flow parameters of the cardiovascular system were found to occur when the reduction in the lumen diameter of the stenosed vessels was less than 65%.

  7. Autonomic Modulation by Electrical Stimulation of the Parasympathetic Nervous System: An Emerging Intervention for Cardiovascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    He, Bo; Lu, Zhibing; He, Wenbo; Huang, Bing; Jiang, Hong

    2016-06-01

    The cardiac autonomic nervous system has been known to play an important role in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Autonomic modulation by electrical stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system, which increases the parasympathetic activity and suppresses the sympathetic activity, is emerging as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Here, we review the recent literature on autonomic modulation by electrical stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system, including vagus nerve stimulation, transcutaneous auricular vagal stimulation, spinal cord stimulation, and ganglionated plexi stimulation, in the treatment of heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and ventricular arrhythmias. PMID:26914959

  8. Regulators and effectors of bone morphogenetic protein signalling in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiang-Yun; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Li; Huang, Yu

    2015-07-15

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play key roles in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in various tissues and organs, including the cardiovascular system. BMPs signal through both Smad-dependent and -independent cascades to exert a wide spectrum of biological activities. Cardiovascular disorders such as abnormal angiogenesis, atherosclerosis, pulmonary hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy have been linked to aberrant BMP signalling. To correct the dysregulated BMP signalling in cardiovascular pathogenesis, it is essential to get a better understanding of how the regulators and effectors of BMP signalling control cardiovascular function and how the dysregulated BMP signalling contributes to cardiovascular dysfunction. We hence highlight several key regulators of BMP signalling such as extracellular regulators of ligands, mechanical forces, microRNAs and small molecule drugs as well as typical BMP effectors like direct downstream target genes, mitogen-activated protein kinases, reactive oxygen species and microRNAs. The insights into these molecular processes will help target both the regulators and important effectors to reverse BMP-associated cardiovascular pathogenesis. PMID:25952563

  9. Imbalance between Endothelial Damage and Repair: A Gateway to Cardiovascular Disease in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is accelerated in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and it leads to excessive cardiovascular complications in these patients. Despite the improved awareness of cardiovascular disease and advent of clinical diagnostics, the process of atherogenesis in most patients remains clinically silent until symptoms and signs of cardiovascular complications develop. As evidence has demonstrated that vascular damage is already occurring before clinically overt cardiovascular disease develops in lupus patients, intervention at the preclinical stage of atherogenesis would be plausible. Indeed, endothelial dysfunction, one of the earliest steps of atherogenesis, has been demonstrated to occur in lupus patients even when they are naïve for cardiovascular disease. Currently known “endothelium-toxic” factors including type 1 interferon, proinflammatory cytokines, inflammatory cells, immune complexes, costimulatory molecules, neutrophils extracellular traps, lupus-related autoantibodies, oxidative stress, and dyslipidemia, coupled with the aberrant functions of the endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) which are crucial to vascular repair, likely tip the balance towards endothelial dysfunction and propensity to develop cardiovascular disease in lupus patients. In this review, altered physiology of the endothelium, factors leading to perturbed vascular repair contributed by lupus EPC and the impact of proatherogenic factors on the endothelium which potentially lead to atherosclerosis in lupus patients will be discussed. PMID:24790989

  10. Ambient particle inhalation and the cardiovascular system: potential mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, K; Stone, V; Seaton, A; MacNee, W

    2001-01-01

    Well-documented air pollution episodes throughout recent history have led to deaths among individuals with cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Although the components of air pollution that cause the adverse health effects in these individuals are unknown, a small proportion by mass but a large proportion by number of the ambient air particles are ultrafine, i.e., less than 100 nm in diameter. This ultrafine component of particulate matter with a mass median aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microm (PM(10) may mediate some of the adverse health effects reported in epidemiologic studies and for which there is toxicologic evidence to support this contention. The exact mechanism by which ultrafine particles have adverse effects is unknown, but these particles have recently been shown to enhance calcium influx on contact with macrophages. Oxidative stress is also to be anticipated at the huge particle surface; this can be augmented by oxidants generated by recruited inflammatory leukocytes. Atheromatous plaques form in the coronary arteries and are major causes of morbidity and death associated epidemiologically with particulate air pollution. In populations exposed to air pollution episodes, blood viscosity, fibrinogen, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were higher. More recently, increases in heart rate in response to rising air pollution have been described and are most marked in individuals who have high blood viscosity. In our study of elderly individuals, there were significant rises in CRP, an index of inflammation. In this present review, we consider the likely interactions between the ultrafine particles the acute phase response and cardiovascular disease. PMID:11544157

  11. Identifying subtypes of patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration by genotypic and cardiovascular risk characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background One of the challenges in the interpretation of studies showing associations between environmental and genotypic data with disease outcomes such as neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is understanding the phenotypic heterogeneity within a patient population with regard to any risk factor associated with the condition. This is critical when considering the potential therapeutic response of patients to any drug developed to treat the condition. In the present study, we identify patient subtypes or clusters which could represent several different targets for treatment development, based on genetic pathways in AMD and cardiovascular pathology. Methods We identified a sample of patients with neovascular AMD, that in previous studies had been shown to be at elevated risk for the disease through environmental factors such as cigarette smoking and genetic variants including the complement factor H gene (CFH) on chromosome 1q25 and variants in the ARMS2/HtrA serine peptidase 1 (HTRA1) gene(s) on chromosome 10q26. We conducted a multivariate segmentation analysis of 253 of these patients utilizing available epidemiologic and genetic data. Results In a multivariate model, cigarette smoking failed to differentiate subtypes of patients. However, four meaningfully distinct clusters of patients were identified that were most strongly differentiated by their cardiovascular health status (histories of hypercholesterolemia and hypertension), and the alleles of ARMS2/HTRA1 rs1049331. Conclusions These results have significant personalized medicine implications for drug developers attempting to determine the effective size of the treatable neovascular AMD population. Patient subtypes or clusters may represent different targets for therapeutic development based on genetic pathways in AMD and cardiovascular pathology, and treatments developed that may elevate CV risk, may be ill advised for certain of the clusters identified. PMID:21682878

  12. Flow and pressure regulation in the cardiovascular system. [engineering systems model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iberall, A.

    1974-01-01

    Principles and descriptive fragments which may contribute to a model of the regulating chains in the cardiovascular system are presented. Attention is given to the strain sensitivity of blood vessels, the law of the autonomy of the heart beat oscillator, the law of the encapsulation of body fluids, the law of the conservation of protein, the law of minimum 'arterial' pressure, the design of the 'mammalian' kidney, questions of homeokinetic organization, and the development of self-regulatory chains. Details concerning the development program for the heart muscle are considered along with the speed of response of the breathing rate and the significance of the pulmonary vascular pressure-flow characteristics.

  13. Cardiovascular aspects of experimental meningococcal sepsis in young and older awake piglets: age-related differences.

    PubMed

    Hazelzet, J A; Stubenitsky, R; Petrov, A B; van Wieringen, G W; van der Voort, E; Hess, J; Hop, W C; Thijs, L G; Duncker, D J; Poolman, J T; Verdouw, P D

    1999-08-01

    Severe meningococcal disease is characterized by: a high load of specific endotoxin, capillary leakage and coagulation disorders. We studied the possible age-related differences in global hemodynamic and regional blood flow responses to different dosages (1 and 10 microg/kg body weight) of rough meningococcal endotoxin in young (8 kg) and older piglets (40 kg). Animals were chronically instrumented and studied in the awake state. The response to plasma infusion (30 mL/kg in 30 min) was evaluated after placebo and endotoxin infusion. The clinical picture was similar in all groups. The mortality was 0/8, 3/8,1/8, 4/9 in young-low, young-high, old-low, and old-high dose respectively. Most important findings were that cardiac index (CI) decreased in the young animals after endotoxin infusion, while it was well preserved in the older animals; in the older animals the systemic vascular resistance dropped 20%, while in the younger ones there was no change in resistance. Conductance to the kidneys, intestines, and spleen decreased significantly more in the young animals, while the increase in conductance and flow to the liver was higher in the old animals; subsequent volume loading resulted only partly in a recovery of the hemodynamic parameters, but failed to improve oxygen delivery. PMID:10446896

  14. A cardiovascular system model for lower-body negative pressure response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, B. A., Jr.; Giese, R. P.

    1971-01-01

    Mathematical models used to study complex physiological control systems are discussed. Efforts were made to modify a model of the cardiovascular system for use in studying lower body negative pressure. A computer program was written which allows orderly, straightforward expansion to include exercise, metabolism (thermal stress), respiration, and other body functions.

  15. Affective and Cardiovascular Responding to Unpleasant Events from Adolescence to Old Age: Complexity of Events Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrzus, Cornelia; Muller, Viktor; Wagner, Gert G.; Lindenberger, Ulman; Riediger, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Two studies investigated the "overpowering hypothesis" as a possible explanation for the currently inconclusive empirical picture on age differences in affective responding to unpleasant events. The overpowering hypothesis predicts that age differences in affective responding are particularly evident in highly resource-demanding situations that…

  16. EFFECT OF AGING ON THE CARDIOVASCULAR AND THERMOREGULATORY RESPONSE TO TOLUENE IN THE BROWN NORWAY RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the proportion of aged in the U.S. will expand markedly for the next several decades, the U.S.EPA is assessing if the aged are more susceptible to environmental toxicants. The neurotoxicity of toluene (TOL) has been well characterized in young adults but has not been studie...

  17. Methods for establishing a surveillance system for cardiovascular diseases in Indian industrial populations.

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, K. S.; Prabhakaran, D.; Chaturvedi, V.; Jeemon, P.; Thankappan, K. R.; Ramakrishnan, L.; Mohan, B. V. M.; Pandav, C. S.; Ahmed, F. U.; Joshi, P. P.; Meera, R.; Amin, R. B.; Ahuja, R. C.; Das, M. S.; Jaison, T. M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish a surveillance network for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors in industrial settings and estimate the risk factor burden using standardized tools. METHODS: We conducted a baseline cross-sectional survey (as part of a CVD surveillance programme) of industrial populations from 10 companies across India, situated in close proximity to medical colleges that served as study centres. The study subjects were employees (selected by age and sex stratified random sampling) and their family members. Information on behavioural, clinical and biochemical determinants was obtained through standardized methods (questionnaires, clinical measurements and biochemical analysis). Data collation and analyses were done at the national coordinating centre. FINDINGS: We report the prevalence of CVD risk factors among individuals aged 20-69 years (n = 19 973 for the questionnaire survey, n = 10 442 for biochemical investigations); mean age was 40 years. The overall prevalence of most risk factors was high, with 50.9% of men and 51.9% of women being overweight, central obesity was observed among 30.9% of men and 32.8% of women, and 40.2% of men and 14.9% of women reported current tobacco use. Self-reported prevalence of diabetes (5.3%) and hypertension (10.9%) was lower than when measured clinically and biochemically (10.1% and 27.7%, respectively). There was marked heterogeneity in the prevalence of risk factors among the study centres. CONCLUSION: There is a high burden of CVD risk factors among industrial populations across India. The surveillance system can be used as a model for replication in India as well as other developing countries. PMID:16799730

  18. Adaptive life simulator: A novel approach to modeling the cardiovascular system

    SciTech Connect

    Kangas, L.J.; Keller, P.E.; Hashem, S.

    1995-06-01

    In this paper, an adaptive life simulator (ALS) is introduced. The ALS models a subset of the dynamics of the cardiovascular behavior of an individual by using a recurrent artificial neural network. These models are developed for use in applications that require simulations of cardiovascular systems, such as medical mannequins, and in medical diagnostic systems. This approach is unique in that each cardiovascular model is developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled variables and the actual variables of an individual can subsequently be used for diagnosis. This approach also exploits sensor fusion applied to biomedical sensors. Sensor fusion optimizes the utilization of the sensors. The advantage of sensor fusion has been demonstrated in applications including control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.

  19. Pediatric computed tomographic angiography: imaging the cardiovascular system gently.

    PubMed

    Hellinger, Jeffrey C; Pena, Andres; Poon, Michael; Chan, Frandics P; Epelman, Monica

    2010-03-01

    Whether congenital or acquired, timely recognition and management of disease is imperative, as hemodynamic alterations in blood flow, tissue perfusion, and cellular oxygenation can have profound effects on organ function, growth and development, and quality of life for the pediatric patient. Ensuring safe computed tomographic angiography (CTA) practice and "gentle" pediatric imaging requires the cardiovascular imager to have sound understanding of CTA advantages, limitations, and appropriate indications as well as strong working knowledge of acquisition principles and image post processing. From this vantage point, CTA can be used as a useful adjunct along with the other modalities. This article presents a summary of dose reduction CTA methodologies along with techniques the authors have employed in clinical practice to achieve low-dose and ultralow-dose exposure in pediatric CTA. CTA technical principles are discussed with an emphasis on the low-dose methodologies and safe contrast medium delivery strategies. Recommended parameters for currently available multidetector-row computed tomography scanners are summarized alongside recommended radiation and contrast medium parameters. In the second part of the article an overview of pediatric CTA clinical applications is presented, illustrating low-dose and ultra-low dose techniques, with an emphasis on the specific protocols. PMID:20609882

  20. Effects of Aging on the Digestive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mail Facebook TwitterTitle Google+ LinkedIn Home Digestive Disorders Biology of the Digestive System Effects of Aging on ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of the Digestive System Overview of the Digestive ...

  1. Aging changes in the nervous system

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/article/004023.htm Aging changes in the nervous system To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The brain and nervous system are your body's central control center. They control ...

  2. Patient-specific system for prognosis of surgical treatment outcomes of human cardiovascular system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golyadkina, Anastasiya A.; Kalinin, Aleksey A.; Kirillova, Irina V.; Kossovich, Elena L.; Kossovich, Leonid Y.; Menishova, Liyana R.; Polienko, Asel V.

    2015-03-01

    Object of study: Improvement of life quality of patients with high stroke risk ia the main goal for development of system for patient-specific modeling of cardiovascular system. This work is dedicated at increase of safety outcomes for surgical treatment of brain blood supply alterations. The objects of study are common carotid artery, internal and external carotid arteries and bulb. Methods: We estimated mechanical properties of carotid arteries tissues and patching materials utilized at angioplasty. We studied angioarchitecture features of arteries. We developed and clinically adapted computer biomechanical models, which are characterized by geometrical, physical and mechanical similarity with carotid artery in norm and with pathology (atherosclerosis, pathological tortuosity, and their combination). Results: Collaboration of practicing cardiovascular surgeons and specialists in the area of Mathematics and Mechanics allowed to successfully conduct finite-element modeling of surgical treatment taking into account various features of operation techniques and patching materials for a specific patient. Numerical experiment allowed to reveal factors leading to brain blood supply decrease and atherosclerosis development. Modeling of carotid artery reconstruction surgery for a specific patient on the basis of the constructed biomechanical model demonstrated the possibility of its application in clinical practice at approximation of numerical experiment to the real conditions.

  3. Autonomic control of cardiovascular system in pre- and postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Neufeld, Irina W.; Kiselev, Anton R.; Karavaev, Antoly S.; Prokhorov, Mikhail D.; Gridnev, Vladimir I.; Ponomarenko, Vladimir I.; Bezruchko, Boris P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the features of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in pre- and postmenopausal women. Material and Methods We studied 185 postmenopausal women aged 59.3±8.5 years (mean±SD) and 104 premenopausal women aged 45.1±5.8 years. Standard indices of heart rate variability (HRV) (mean heart rate, coefficient of variation, standard deviation of the NN interval (the time elapsing between two consecutive R waves in the electrocardiogram with normal sinus rhythm) (SDNN), square root of the mean squared differences of successive NN intervals (RMSSD), proportion derived by dividing RR50, the number of interval differences of successive NN intervals greater than 50 ms, by the total number of NN intervals (PNN50), and power of low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) bands in absolute values and percentages of total spectral power) and index S of synchronization between the 0.1-Hz rhythms in heart rate and photoplethysmogram were compared between these two groups at rest. We assessed the following sex hormones: estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and testosterone. Results Mean heart rate and power of LF and HF bands were significantly different (p<0.05) in pre- and postmenopausal women. The autonomic indices were similar in women with natural and surgical menopause. Some indices (coefficient of variation, SDNN, RMSSD, PNN50, and power of LF and HF bands) showed weak correlation with menopause time in women with natural menopause. In women with surgical menopause, a moderate statistically significant correlation was observed only between menopause time and S index (r=−0.41, p=0.039). In premenopausal women, only testosterone correlated weakly with coefficient of variation, SDNN, PNN50, RMSSD, and power of HF band. In postmenopausal women, no correlations were found. We did not find any significant relationship between autonomic indices and hot flashes, assessed by hot

  4. Klinefelter syndrome, cardiovascular system, and thromboembolic disease: review of literature and clinical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Salzano, Andrea; Arcopinto, Michele; Marra, Alberto M; Bobbio, Emanuele; Esposito, Daniela; Accardo, Giacomo; Giallauria, Francesco; Bossone, Eduardo; Vigorito, Carlo; Lenzi, Andrea; Pasquali, Daniela; Isidori, Andrea M; Cittadini, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the most frequently occurring sex chromosomal aberration in males, with an incidence of about 1 in 500-700 newborns. Data acquired from large registry-based studies revealed an increase in mortality rates among KS patients when compared with mortality rates among the general population. Among all causes of death, metabolic, cardiovascular, and hemostatic complication seem to play a pivotal role. KS is associated, as are other chromosomal pathologies and genetic diseases, with cardiac congenital anomalies that contribute to the increase in mortality. The aim of the current study was to systematically review the relationships between KS and the cardiovascular system and hemostatic balance. In summary, patients with KS display an increased cardiovascular risk profile, characterized by increased prevalence of metabolic abnormalities including Diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia, and alterations in biomarkers of cardiovascular disease. KS does not, however, appear to be associated with arterial hypertension. Moreover, KS patients are characterized by subclinical abnormalities in left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function and endothelial function, which, when associated with chronotropic incompetence may led to reduced cardiopulmonary performance. KS patients appear to be at a higher risk for cardiovascular disease, attributing to an increased risk of thromboembolic events with a high prevalence of recurrent venous ulcers, venous insufficiency, recurrent venous and arterial thromboembolism with higher risk of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. It appears that cardiovascular involvement in KS is mainly due to chromosomal abnormalities rather than solely on low serum testosterone levels. On the basis of evidence acquisition and authors' own experience, a flowchart addressing the management of cardiovascular function and prognosis of KS patients has been developed for clinical use. PMID:26850445

  5. Soluble cluster of differentiation 36 concentrations are not associated with cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged subjects

    PubMed Central

    ALKHATATBEH, MOHAMMAD J.; AYOUB, NEHAD M.; MHAIDAT, NIZAR M.; SAADEH, NESREEN A.; LINCZ, LISA F.

    2016-01-01

    Cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) is involved in the development of atherosclerosis by enhancing macrophage endocytosis of oxidized low-density lipoproteins and foam cell formation. Soluble CD36 (sCD36) was found to be elevated in type 2 diabetic patients and possibly acted as a marker of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. In young subjects, sCD36 was associated with cardiovascular risk factors including obesity and hypertriglyceridemia. The present study was conducted to further investigate the association between plasma sCD36 and cardiovascular risk factors among middle-aged patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and healthy controls. sCD36 concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for 41 patients with MetS and 36 healthy controls. Data for other variables were obtained from patient medical records. sCD36 concentrations were relatively low compared to the majority of other studies and were not significantly different between the MetS group and controls (P=0.17). sCD36 was also not correlated with age, body mass index, glucose, lipid profile, serum electrolytes and blood counts. sCD36 was not significantly different between subjects with obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension or cardiovascular disease, and those without these abnormalities (P>0.05). The inconsistency between results reported in the present study and other studies may be unique to the study population or be a result of the lack of a reliable standardized method for determining absolute sCD36 concentrations. However, further investigations are required to assess CD36 tissue expression in the study population and to assess the accuracy of various commercially available sCD36 ELISA kits. Thus, the availability of a standardized simple sCD36 ELISA that could be performed in any basic laboratory would be more favorable to the specialized flow cytometry methods that detect CD36+ microparticles if it was to be used as a biomarker. PMID:27123261

  6. Systems biology approaches in aging research.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Anuradha; Liebal, Ulf W; Vera, Julio; Baltrusch, Simone; Junghanß, Christian; Tiedge, Markus; Fuellen, Georg; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Köhling, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a systemic process which progressively manifests itself at multiple levels of structural and functional organization from molecular reactions and cell-cell interactions in tissues to the physiology of an entire organ. There is ever increasing data on biomedical relevant network interactions for the aging process at different scales of time and space. To connect the aging process at different structural, temporal and spatial scales, extensive systems biological approaches need to be deployed. Systems biological approaches can not only systematically handle the large-scale datasets (like high-throughput data) and the complexity of interactions (feedback loops, cross talk), but also can delve into nonlinear behaviors exhibited by several biological processes which are beyond intuitive reasoning. Several public-funded agencies have identified the synergistic role of systems biology in aging research. Using one of the notable public-funded programs (GERONTOSYS), we discuss how systems biological approaches are helping the scientists to find new frontiers in aging research. We elaborate on some systems biological approaches deployed in one of the projects of the consortium (ROSage). The systems biology field in aging research is at its infancy. It is open to adapt existing systems biological methodologies from other research fields and devise new aging-specific systems biological methodologies. PMID:25341520

  7. Incidence of and Risk Factors for Adverse Cardiovascular Events Among Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Magder, Laurence S.; Petri, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are at excess risk of cardiovascular events (CVEs). There is uncertainty regarding the relative importance of SLE disease activity, medications, or traditional risk factors in this increased risk. To gain insight into this, the authors analyzed data from a cohort of 1,874 patients with SLE who were seen quarterly at a single clinical center (April 1987–June 2010) using pooled logistic regression analysis. In 9,485 person-years of follow-up, the authors observed 134 CVEs (rate = 14.1/1,000 person-years). This was 2.66 times what would be expected in the general population based on Framingham risk scores (95% confidence interval: 2.16, 3.16). After adjustment for age, CVE rates were not associated with duration of SLE. However, they were associated with average past levels of SLE disease activity and recent levels of circulating anti-double-stranded DNA. Past use of corticosteroids (in the absence of current use) was not associated with CVE rates. However, persons currently using 20 mg/day or more of corticosteroids had a substantial increase in risk even after adjustment for disease activity. Thus, consistent with findings in several recent publications among cohorts with other diseases, current use of corticosteroids was associated with an increased risk of CVEs. These results suggest a short-term impact of corticosteroids on CVE risk. PMID:23024137

  8. Influence of mitochondrion-toxic agents on the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Ohnsorge, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease may be induced or worsened by mitochondrion-toxic agents. Mitochondrion-toxic agents may be classified as those with or without a clinical effect, those which induce cardiac disease only in humans or animals or both, as prescribed drugs, illicit drugs, exotoxins, or nutritiants, as those which affect the heart exclusively or also other organs, as those which are effective only in patients with a mitochondrial disorder or cardiac disease or also in healthy subjects, or as solid, liquid, or volatile agents. In humans, cardiotoxic agents due to mitochondrial dysfunction include anthracyclines (particularly doxorubicin), mitoxantrone, cyclophosphamide, cisplatin, fluorouracil, imatinib, bortezomib, trastuzumab, arsenic trioxide, cyclosporine-A, zidovudine, lamotrigine, glycosides, lidocain, isoproterenol, nitroprusside, pivalic acid, alcohol, cocaine, pesticides, cadmium, mycotoxins, cyanotoxins, meat meal, or carbon monoxide. Even more agents exhibit cardiac abnormalities due to mitochondrion-toxicity only in animals or tissue cultures. The mitochondrion-toxic effect results from impairment of the respiratory chain, the oxidative phosphorylation, the Krebs cycle, or the β-oxidation, from decrease of the mitochondrion-membrane potential, from increased oxidative stress, reduced anti-oxidative capacity, or from induction of apoptosis. Cardiac abnormalities induced via these mechanisms include cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, coronary heart disease, arrhythmias, heart failure, or Takotsubo syndrome. Discontinuation of the cardiotoxic agent results in complete recovery in the majority of the cases. Antioxidants and nutritiants may be of additional help. Particularly coenzyme-Q, riboflavin, vitamin-E, vitamin-C, L-carnitine, vitamin-D, thiamin, folic acid, omega-3 fatty acids, and D-ribose may alleviate mitochondrial cardiotoxic effects. PMID:24036395

  9. Systemic Hemodynamic Atherothrombotic Syndrome and Resonance Hypothesis of Blood Pressure Variability: Triggering Cardiovascular Events

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) exhibits different variabilities and surges with different time phases, from the shortest beat-by-beat to longest yearly changes. We hypothesized that the synergistic resonance of these BP variabilites generates an extraordinarily large dynamic surge in BP and triggers cardiovascular events (the resonance hypothesis). The power of pulses is transmitted to the peripheral sites without attenuation by the large arteries, in individuals with stiffened arteries. Thus, the effect of a BP surge on cardiovascular risk would be especially exaggerated in high-risk patients with vascular disease. Based on this concept, our group recently proposed a new theory of systemic hemodynamic atherothromboltic syndrome (SHATS), a vicious cycle of hemodynamic stress and vascular disease that advances organ damage and triggers cardiovascular disease. Clinical phenotypes of SHATS are large-artery atherothombotic diseases such as stroke, coronary artery disease, and aortic and pheripheral artery disease; small-artery diseases, and microcirculation-related disease such as vascular cognitive dysfunction, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. The careful consideration of BP variability and vascular diseases such as SHATS, and the early detection and management of SHATS, will achieve more effective individualized cardiovascular protection. In the near future, information and communication technology-based 'anticipation medicine' predicted by the changes of individual BP values could be a promising approach to achieving zero cardiovascular events. PMID:27482253

  10. Therapeutic targeting of two-pore-domain potassium (K(2P)) channels in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Wiedmann, Felix; Schmidt, Constanze; Lugenbiel, Patrick; Staudacher, Ingo; Rahm, Ann-Kathrin; Seyler, Claudia; Schweizer, Patrick A; Katus, Hugo A; Thomas, Dierk

    2016-05-01

    The improvement of treatment strategies in cardiovascular medicine is an ongoing process that requires constant optimization. The ability of a therapeutic intervention to prevent cardiovascular pathology largely depends on its capacity to suppress the underlying mechanisms. Attenuation or reversal of disease-specific pathways has emerged as a promising paradigm, providing a mechanistic rationale for patient-tailored therapy. Two-pore-domain K(+) (K(2P)) channels conduct outward K(+) currents that stabilize the resting membrane potential and facilitate action potential repolarization. K(2P) expression in the cardiovascular system and polymodal K2P current regulation suggest functional significance and potential therapeutic roles of the channels. Recent work has focused primarily on K(2P)1.1 [tandem of pore domains in a weak inwardly rectifying K(+) channel (TWIK)-1], K(2P)2.1 [TWIK-related K(+) channel (TREK)-1], and K(2P)3.1 [TWIK-related acid-sensitive K(+) channel (TASK)-1] channels and their role in heart and vessels. K(2P) currents have been implicated in atrial and ventricular arrhythmogenesis and in setting the vascular tone. Furthermore, the association of genetic alterations in K(2P)3.1 channels with atrial fibrillation, cardiac conduction disorders and pulmonary arterial hypertension demonstrates the relevance of the channels in cardiovascular disease. The function, regulation and clinical significance of cardiovascular K(2P) channels are summarized in the present review, and therapeutic options are emphasized. PMID:26993052

  11. Systemic Hemodynamic Atherothrombotic Syndrome and Resonance Hypothesis of Blood Pressure Variability: Triggering Cardiovascular Events.

    PubMed

    Kario, Kazuomi

    2016-07-01

    Blood pressure (BP) exhibits different variabilities and surges with different time phases, from the shortest beat-by-beat to longest yearly changes. We hypothesized that the synergistic resonance of these BP variabilites generates an extraordinarily large dynamic surge in BP and triggers cardiovascular events (the resonance hypothesis). The power of pulses is transmitted to the peripheral sites without attenuation by the large arteries, in individuals with stiffened arteries. Thus, the effect of a BP surge on cardiovascular risk would be especially exaggerated in high-risk patients with vascular disease. Based on this concept, our group recently proposed a new theory of systemic hemodynamic atherothromboltic syndrome (SHATS), a vicious cycle of hemodynamic stress and vascular disease that advances organ damage and triggers cardiovascular disease. Clinical phenotypes of SHATS are large-artery atherothombotic diseases such as stroke, coronary artery disease, and aortic and pheripheral artery disease; small-artery diseases, and microcirculation-related disease such as vascular cognitive dysfunction, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. The careful consideration of BP variability and vascular diseases such as SHATS, and the early detection and management of SHATS, will achieve more effective individualized cardiovascular protection. In the near future, information and communication technology-based 'anticipation medicine' predicted by the changes of individual BP values could be a promising approach to achieving zero cardiovascular events. PMID:27482253

  12. The Age-Specific Quantitative Effects of Metabolic Risk Factors on Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes: A Pooled Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Farzadfar, Farshad; Stevens, Gretchen A.; Woodward, Mark; Wormser, David; Kaptoge, Stephen; Whitlock, Gary; Qiao, Qing; Lewington, Sarah; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; vander Hoorn, Stephen; Lawes, Carlene M. M.; Ali, Mohammed K.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Ezzati, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Background The effects of systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body mass index (BMI) on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been established in epidemiological studies, but consistent estimates of effect sizes by age and sex are not available. Methods We reviewed large cohort pooling projects, evaluating effects of baseline or usual exposure to metabolic risks on ischemic heart disease (IHD), hypertensive heart disease (HHD), stroke, diabetes, and, as relevant selected other CVDs, after adjusting for important confounders. We pooled all data to estimate relative risks (RRs) for each risk factor and examined effect modification by age or other factors, using random effects models. Results Across all risk factors, an average of 123 cohorts provided data on 1.4 million individuals and 52,000 CVD events. Each metabolic risk factor was robustly related to CVD. At the baseline age of 55–64 years, the RR for 10 mmHg higher SBP was largest for HHD (2.16; 95% CI 2.09–2.24), followed by effects on both stroke subtypes (1.66; 1.39–1.98 for hemorrhagic stroke and 1.63; 1.57–1.69 for ischemic stroke). In the same age group, RRs for 1 mmol/L higher TC were 1.44 (1.29–1.61) for IHD and 1.20 (1.15–1.25) for ischemic stroke. The RRs for 5 kg/m2 higher BMI for ages 55–64 ranged from 2.32 (2.04–2.63) for diabetes, to 1.44 (1.40–1.48) for IHD. For 1 mmol/L higher FPG, RRs in this age group were 1.18 (1.08–1.29) for IHD and 1.14 (1.01–1.29) for total stroke. For all risk factors, proportional effects declined with age, were generally consistent by sex, and differed by region in only a few age groups for certain risk factor-disease pairs. Conclusion Our results provide robust, comparable and precise estimates of the effects of major metabolic risk factors on CVD and diabetes by age group. PMID:23935815

  13. Baroreflex and metaboreflex control of cardiovascular system during exercise in space.

    PubMed

    Pagani, Massimo; Pizzinelli, Paolo; Beltrami, Silvia; Massaro, Michele; Lucini, Daniela; Iellamo, Ferdinando

    2009-10-01

    This brief review summarizes current knowledge on the neural mechanisms of cardiovascular regulation during exercise in space, with specific emphasis on the role of the arterial baroreflex and the muscle metaboreflex, with the attendant modifications in autonomic nervous system activity, in determining the cardiovascular responses to exercise in microgravity conditions. Available data suggest that the muscle metaboreflex is enhanced during dynamic exercise in space and that the potentiation of the muscle metaboreflex affects the vagally mediated arterial baroreflex contribution to HR control. PMID:19446046

  14. Aging and brain rejuvenation as systemic events

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Jill; Villeda, Saul A

    2015-01-01

    The effects of aging were traditionally thought to be immutable, particularly evident in the loss of plasticity and cognitive abilities occurring in the aged central nervous system (CNS). However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that extrinsic systemic manipulations such as exercise, caloric restriction, and changing blood composition by heterochronic parabiosis or young plasma administration can partially counteract this age-related loss of plasticity in the aged brain. In this review, we discuss the process of aging and rejuvenation as systemic events. We summarize genetic studies that demonstrate a surprising level of malleability in organismal lifespan, and highlight the potential for systemic manipulations to functionally reverse the effects of aging in the CNS. Based on mounting evidence, we propose that rejuvenating effects of systemic manipulations are mediated, in part, by blood-borne ‘pro-youthful’ factors. Thus, systemic manipulations promoting a younger blood composition provide effective strategies to rejuvenate the aged brain. As a consequence, we can now consider reactivating latent plasticity dormant in the aged CNS as a means to rejuvenate regenerative, synaptic, and cognitive functions late in life, with potential implications even for extending lifespan. PMID:25327899

  15. Regulation of signal transduction by reactive oxygen species in the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Brown, David I.; Griendling, Kathy K.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has long been implicated in cardiovascular disease, but more recently, the role of reactive oxygen species in normal physiological signaling has been elucidated. Signaling pathways modulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) are complex and compartmentalized, and we are only beginning to identify the molecular modifications of specific targets. Here we review the current literature regarding ROS signaling in the cardiovascular system, focusing on the role of ROS in normal physiology and how dysregulation of signaling circuits contributes to cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, cardiomyopathy and heart failure. In particular, we consider how ROS modulate signaling pathways related to phenotypic modulation, migration and adhesion, contractility, proliferation and hypertrophy, angiogenesis, endoplasmic reticulum stress, apoptosis and senescence. Understanding the specific targets of ROS may guide the development of the next generation of ROS-modifying therapies to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with oxidative stress. PMID:25634975

  16. TEMPORAL ASSOCIATION BETWEEN PULMONARY AND SYSTEMIC EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER IN HEALTHY AND CARDIOVASCULAR COMPROMISED RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Temporal association between pulmonary and systemic effects of particulate matter in healthy and cardiovascular compromised rats

    Urmila P. Kodavanti, Mette C. Schladweiler, Allen D. Ledbetter, Russ Hauser*, David C. Christiani*, John McGee, Judy R. Richards, Daniel L. Co...

  17. Hydrogen sulphide in cardiovascular system: A cascade from interaction between sulphur atoms and signalling molecules.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Jie; Cai, Wen-Jie; Zhu, Yi-Chun

    2016-05-15

    As a gasotransmitter, hydrogen sulphide exerts its extensive physiological and pathophysiological effects in mammals. The interaction between sulphur atoms and signalling molecules forms a cascade that modulates cellular functions and homeostasis. In this review, we focus on the signalling mechanism underlying the effect of hydrogen sulphide in the cardiovascular system and metabolism as well as the biological relevance to human diseases. PMID:27071836

  18. Role of ventrolateral medulla in regulation of respiratory and cardiovascular systems.

    PubMed

    Millhorn, D E; Eldridge, F L

    1986-10-01

    It is now widely accepted that the ventrolateral aspect of the medulla oblongata (VLM) plays an important role in regulation of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. The VLM has been implicated as being involved in a number of different physiological functions, including central chemoreception, integration of afferent inputs from certain sense organs to the respiratory and cardiovascular controllers, the source of excitatory input to preganglionic sympathetic neurons in the spinal cord, and location of synaptic relay between the higher brain defense areas and spinal cord sympathetic elements. In recent years there have been a number of important findings concerning both the anatomical substrate and neurophysiological characteristics of VLM neurons involved in regulation of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. New anatomical findings show that neuronal networks located in the VLM send projections to and receive projections from brain stem nuclei that have traditionally been associated with respiratory and cardiovascular regulation. Nevertheless, there are still many important questions concerning the role of the VLM in control of these vital systems that have yet to be answered. For instance, are the same VLM neurons involved in control of both systems? Is the VLM the only site for central respiratory chemoreception? This review will endeavor to examine new findings and to reexamine some older findings concerning the VLM. PMID:3536832

  19. The immune system and aging: a review.

    PubMed

    Castelo-Branco, Camil; Soveral, Iris

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The concept of immunosenescence reflects age-related changes in immune responses, both cellular and serological, affecting the process of generating specific responses to foreign and self-antigens. The decline of the immune system with age is reflected in the increased susceptibility to infectious diseases, poorer response to vaccination, increased prevalence of cancer, autoimmune and other chronic diseases. Both innate and adaptive immune responses are affected by the aging process; however, the adaptive response seems to be more affected by the age-related changes in the immune system. Additionally, aged individuals tend to present a chronic low-grade inflammatory state that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many age-related diseases (atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, osteoporosis and diabetes). However, some individuals arrive to advanced ages without any major health problems, referred to as healthy aging. The immune system dysfunction seems to be somehow mitigated in this population, probably due to genetic and environmental factors yet to be described. In this review, an attempt is made to summarize the current knowledge on how the immune system is affected by the aging process. PMID:24219599

  20. A Follow-Up Study of Medical Students' Biomedical Understanding and Clinical Reasoning Concerning the Cardiovascular System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahopelto, Ilona; Mikkila-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Olkinuora, Erkki; Kaapa, Pekka

    2011-01-01

    Novice medical students usually hold initial conceptions concerning medical domains, such as the cardiovascular system, which may contradict scientific explanations and thus hinder learning. The purpose of this study was to investigate which kinds of biomedical representations medical students constructed of the central cardiovascular system in…

  1. Space Weather and a State of Cardiovascular System of Human Being with a Weakened Adaptation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsonov, S. N.

    As has been shown in [Samsonov et al., 2013] even at the considerable disturbances of space weather parameters a healthy human being did not undergo painful symptoms although measurements of objective physiological indices showed their changes. At the same time the state of health of people with the weakened adaptation system under the same conditions can considerably be deteriorated up to fatal outcome. The analysis of results of the project "Heliomed" and the number of calls for the emergency medical care (EMC) around Yakutsk as to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has shown:- the total number of calls for EMC concerning myocardial infarction (MI) per year near the geomagnetic disturbance maximum (1992) exceeds the number of calls per year near the geomagnetic activity minimum (1998) by a factor of 1,5 and concerning to strokes - by a factor of 1,8.- maxima of MI are observed during spring and autumn periods coinciding with maxima of geophysical disturbance;- the coincidence of 30-32 daily periods in a power spectrum of MI with the same periods in power spectra of space weather parameters (speeds and density of the solar wind, interplanetary magnetic field, geophysical disturbance);- the existence of 3 maxima of the number of calls for EMC: a) at the moment of disturbance on the Sun; during a geophysical disturbance (in 2-4 days after a disturbance on the Sun); in 2-4 days after a geophysical disturbance;- the availability of coincidence of insignificant disturbances of space weather parameters with changes of the functional state of cardiovascular system of a human being with the weakened adaptation system and the occurrence of MI and strokes at considerable values of such disturbances is explained by a quasi-logarithmic dependence of the response of human being organisms to the environment disturbance intensity.

  2. Prenatal famine exposure and adult mortality from cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other causes through age 63 years.

    PubMed

    Ekamper, Peter; van Poppel, Frans; Stein, Aryeh D; Bijwaard, Govert E; Lumey, L H

    2015-02-15

    Nutritional conditions in early life may affect adult health, but prior studies of mortality have been limited to small samples. We evaluated the relationship between pre-/perinatal famine exposure during the Dutch Hunger Winter of 1944-1945 and mortality through age 63 years among 41,096 men born in 1944-1947 and examined at age 18 years for universal military service in the Netherlands. Of these men, 22,952 had been born around the time of the Dutch famine in 6 affected cities; the remainder served as unexposed controls. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios for death from cancer, heart disease, other natural causes, and external causes. After 1,853,023 person-years of follow-up, we recorded 1,938 deaths from cancer, 1,040 from heart disease, 1,418 from other natural causes, and 523 from external causes. We found no increase in mortality from cancer or cardiovascular disease after prenatal famine exposure. However, there were increases in mortality from other natural causes (hazard ratio = 1.24, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.49) and external causes (hazard ratio = 1.46, 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 1.97) after famine exposure in the first trimester of gestation. Further follow-up of the cohort is needed to provide more accurate risk estimates of mortality from specific causes of death after nutritional disturbances during gestation and very early life. PMID:25632050

  3. Sex, Age, and Race/Ethnicity Do Not Modify the Effectiveness of a Diet Intervention among Family Members of Hospitalized Cardiovascular Disease Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mochari-Greenberger, Heidi; Terry, Mary Beth; Mosca, Lori

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether effectiveness of a diet intervention for family members of cardiovascular disease patients varies by participant sex, race/ethnicity, or age because these characteristics have been associated with unique barriers to diet change. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting and Participants: University medical…

  4. Prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Canadians 55 to 74 years of age: results from the Canadian Heart Health Surveys, 1986-1992

    PubMed Central

    Langille, DB; Joffres, MR; MacPherson, KM; Andreou, P; Kirkland, SA; MacLean, DR

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: By 2016, the proportion of Canadians older than 65 years of age will increase to 16%, and there will be an increase in the absolute number of cases of cardiovascular disease in older Canadians. The Canadian Heart Health Surveys database provides information about this population upon which health policy related to cardiovascular disease can be based. This paper presents for the first time population-based data on the risk factors for cardiovascular disease in older Canadians. METHODS: Canadians from all 10 provinces participated in surveys of cardiovascular risk factors; health insurance registries were used as sampling frames. In each province, probability samples of 2200 adults 18 to 74 years old not living in institutions, on reserves or in military camps were asked to participate in interviews and to undergo testing at clinics for major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. RESULTS: A total of 2739 men (response rate 70%) and 2617 women (response rate 66%) aged 55 to 74 years participated in the survey and also provided follow-up clinical measurements at the clinic. Overall, 52% of participants were hypertensive, 26% had isolated systolic hypertension, and 30% had a total blood cholesterol level of 6.2 mmol/L or greater. Rates of current smoking were lower in women than men (17% v. 22%). Overall, 87% of men and 78% of women who were current smokers smoked at least 10 cigarettes per day. Only slightly more than half of participants exercised at least once a week for at least 15 minutes, and almost half had a body mass index of 27 or greater. In only 4% was no major risk factor for cardiovascular disease detected. INTERPRETATION: Significant numbers of older Canadians have one or more major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Many of these risk factors are amenable to modification. PMID:10551206

  5. Inflammation and Infection Do Not Promote Arterial Aging and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Lean Horticulturalists

    PubMed Central

    Gurven, Michael; Kaplan, Hillard; Winking, Jeffrey; Eid Rodriguez, Daniel; Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Kim, Jung Ki; Finch, Caleb; Crimmins, Eileen

    2009-01-01

    Background Arterial aging is well characterized in industrial populations, but scantly described in populations with little access to modern medicine. Here we characterize health and aging among the Tsimane, Amazonian forager-horticulturalists with short life expectancy, high infectious loads and inflammation, but low adiposity and robust physical fitness. Inflammation has been implicated in all stages of arterial aging, atherogenesis and hypertension, and so we test whether greater inflammation associates with atherosclerosis and CVD risk. In contrast, moderate to vigorous daily activity, minimal obesity, and low fat intake predict minimal CVD risk among older Tsimane. Methods and Findings Peripheral arterial disease (PAD), based on the Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI), and hypertension were measured in Tsimane adults, and compared with rates from industrialized populations. No cases of PAD were found among Tsimane and hypertension was comparatively low (prevalence: 3.5%, 40+; 23%, 70+). Markers of infection and inflammation were much higher among Tsimane than among U.S. adults, whereas HDL was substantially lower. Regression models examine associations of ABI and BP with biomarkers of energy balance and metabolism and of inflammation and infection. Among Tsimane, obesity, blood lipids, and disease history were not significantly associated with ABI. Unlike the Tsimane case, higher cholesterol, C-reactive protein, leukocytes, cigarette smoking and systolic pressure among North Americans are all significantly associated with lower ABI. Conclusions Inflammation may not always be a risk factor for arterial degeneration and CVD, but instead may be offset by other factors: healthy metabolism, active lifestyle, favorable body mass, lean diet, low blood lipids and cardiorespiratory health. Other possibilities, including genetic susceptibility and the role of helminth infections, are discussed. The absence of PAD and CVD among Tsimane parallels anecdotal reports from other small

  6. Review of Zero-D and 1-D Models of Blood Flow in the Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Zero-dimensional (lumped parameter) and one dimensional models, based on simplified representations of the components of the cardiovascular system, can contribute strongly to our understanding of circulatory physiology. Zero-D models provide a concise way to evaluate the haemodynamic interactions among the cardiovascular organs, whilst one-D (distributed parameter) models add the facility to represent efficiently the effects of pulse wave transmission in the arterial network at greatly reduced computational expense compared to higher dimensional computational fluid dynamics studies. There is extensive literature on both types of models. Method and Results The purpose of this review article is to summarise published 0D and 1D models of the cardiovascular system, to explore their limitations and range of application, and to provide an indication of the physiological phenomena that can be included in these representations. The review on 0D models collects together in one place a description of the range of models that have been used to describe the various characteristics of cardiovascular response, together with the factors that influence it. Such models generally feature the major components of the system, such as the heart, the heart valves and the vasculature. The models are categorised in terms of the features of the system that they are able to represent, their complexity and range of application: representations of effects including pressure-dependent vessel properties, interaction between the heart chambers, neuro-regulation and auto-regulation are explored. The examination on 1D models covers various methods for the assembly, discretisation and solution of the governing equations, in conjunction with a report of the definition and treatment of boundary conditions. Increasingly, 0D and 1D models are used in multi-scale models, in which their primary role is to provide boundary conditions for sophisticate, and often patient-specific, 2D and 3D models

  7. Pharmacological, immunological, and gene targeting of the renin-angiotensin system for treatment of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Igic, Rajko; Behnia, Rahim

    2007-01-01

    Effective blood pressure control with a large arsenal of conventional antihypertensive drugs, such as diuretics, beta-adrenergic blockers, and calcium channel blockers, significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. However, blood pressure control with these drugs does not reduce cardiovascular disease risks to the levels in normotensive persons. Only two drug classes that inhibit or antagonize portions of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor type-1 (AT(1) receptor) blockers, have protective and beneficial effects unrelated to the degree of blood pressure reduction. These drugs may prevent the blood pressure related functional and structural abnormalities of the cardiovascular system and reduce the end organ-damage. The first part of this review presents the components of the RAS, biological actions of angiotensin peptides, and the functions of the enzymes that generate and metabolize angiotensins, including the likely effect of manipulating them. Special attention is devoted to renin, ACE, ACE2, chymase, and neprilysin. The second part of this review presents the rationale for targeting the RAS, based on clinical studies of the ACE inhibitors and AT(1) receptor blockers. Finally, we present the investigational agents acting on the RAS that have a potential for clinical usage, and give the perspective of pharmacological, immunological and gene targeting of the RAS for treatment of cardiovascular disease. PMID:17504230

  8. Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Boppart, Stephen A.; Tearney, Gary J.; Bouma, Brett E.; Southern, James F.; Brezinski, Mark E.; Fujimoto, James G.

    1997-01-01

    Studies investigating normal and abnormal cardiac development are frequently limited by an inability to assess cardiovascular function within the intact organism. In this work, optical coherence tomography (OCT), a new method of micron-scale, noninvasive imaging based on the measurement of backscattered infrared light, was introduced for the high resolution assessment of structure and function in the developing Xenopus laevis cardiovascular system. Microstructural details, such as ventricular size and wall positions, were delineated with OCT at 16-μm resolution and correlated with histology. Three-dimensional representation of the cardiovascular system also was achieved by repeated cross-sectional imaging at intervals of 25 μm. In addition to structural information, OCT provides high speed in vivo axial ranging and imaging, allowing quantitative dynamic activity, such as ventricular ejection fraction, to be assessed. The sensitivity of OCT for dynamic assessment was demonstrated with an inotropic agent that altered cardiac function and dimensions. Optical coherence tomography is an attractive new technology for assessing cardiovascular development because of its high resolution, its ability to image through nontransparent structures, and its inexpensive portable design. In vivo and in vitro imaging are performed at a resolution approaching that of histopathology without the need for animal killing. PMID:9113976

  9. Gender, Age and Season as Modifiers of the Effects of Diurnal Temperature Range on Emergency Room Admissions for Cause-Specific Cardiovascular Disease among the Elderly in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shan; Wang, Minzhen; Li, Bei; Wang, Shigong; He, Shilin; Yin, Ling; Shang, Kezheng; Li, Tanshi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diurnal temperature range (DTR) is an important index of climate change and variability. It is also a risk factor affecting human health. However, limited evidence is available to illustrate the effect of DTR modification on cause-specific cardiovascular disease among the elderly. Methods: A semi-parametric generalized additive model (GAM) was used to analyze the exposure-effect relationship between DTR and daily emergency room (ER) admissions for cause-specific cardiovascular diseases among the elderly from 2009 to 2011 in Beijing. We examined the effects of DTR for stratified groups by gender and age, and examined the effects of DTR in the warm season and cold season for cause-specific cardiovascular diseases. Results: Significant associations were found between DTR and ER admissions for all cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease among elderly males, while DTR was significantly associated with ER admissions for all cardiovascular disease, ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease among elderly females. People aged 75 years and older were more vulnerable to DTR. DTR caused greater adverse effects on both genders in the warm season, whereas the effect estimates on females were higher in cold season than in warm season. Conclusions: A short-term increase of DTR was significantly associated with ER admissions for cause-specific cardiovascular disease among the elderly in Beijing. Gender, age and season may modify the acute health effect of DTR. Some prevention programs that target the high risk subgroups in the elderly for impending large temperature changes may reduce the impact of DTR on people’s health. PMID:27128931

  10. Cardiovascular and other dynamic systems in long-term space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tipton, David A.

    1987-01-01

    The paper examines the physiology of the cardiovascular system, and to a lesser extent the endocrine, renal, and hematopoietic systems. The paper highlights the aspects of these areas that are most pertinent to space manufacturing, i.e., working in space. Areas covered include the physiological costs of working in microgravity and partial gravity (e.g., the moon or Mars), countermeasures to potentially adverse physiological adaptations, and problems associated with return to earth after long periods of weightlessness.

  11. Isolated Systolic Hypertension in Young and Middle-Aged Adults and 31-Year Risk for Cardiovascular Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Yuichiro; Stamler, Jeremiah; Garside, Daniel B.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Franklin, Stanley S.; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Liu, Kiang; Greenland, Philip; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) <90 mm Hg, in younger and middle-aged adults is increasing in prevalence. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to assess the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) with ISH in younger and middle-aged adults. METHODS CVD risks were explored in 15,868 men and 11,213 women 18 to 49 years of age (mean age 34 years) at baseline, 85% non-Hispanic white, free of coronary heart disease (CHD) and antihypertensive therapy, from the Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry study. Participant classifications were as follows: 1) optimal-normal blood pressure (BP) (SBP <130 mm Hg and DBP <85 mm Hg); 2) high-normal BP (130 to 139/85 to 89 mm Hg); 3) ISH; 4) isolated diastolic hypertension (SBP <140 mm Hg and DBP ≥90 mm Hg); and 5) systolic diastolic hypertension (SBP ≥140 mm Hg and DBP ≥90 mm Hg). RESULTS During a 31-year average follow-up period (842,600 person-years), there were 1,728 deaths from CVD, 1,168 from CHD, and 223 from stroke. Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for age, race, education, body mass index, current smoking, total cholesterol, and diabetes. In men, with optimal-normal BP as the reference stratum, hazard ratios for CVD and CHD mortality risk for those with ISH were 1.23 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03 to 1.46) and 1.28 (95% CI: 1.04 to 1.58), respectively. ISH risks were similar to those with high-normal BP and less than those associated with isolated diastolic hypertension and systolic diastolic hypertension. In women with ISH, hazard ratios for CVD and CHD mortality risk were 1.55 (95% CI: 1.18 to 2.05) and 2.12 (95% CI: 1.49 to 3.01), respectively. ISH risks were higher than in those with high-normal BP or isolated diastolic hypertension and less than those associated with systolic diastolic hypertension. CONCLUSIONS Over long-term follow-up, younger and middle-aged adults with ISH

  12. The Applicability of Nonlinear Systems Dynamics Chaos Measures to Cardiovascular Physiology Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, John C.

    1991-01-01

    Three measures of nonlinear chaos (fractal dimension, Approximate Entropy (ApEn), and Lyapunov exponents) were studied as potential measures of cardiovascular condition. It is suggested that these measures have potential in the assessment of cardiovascular condition in environments of normal cardiovascular stress (normal gravity on the Earth surface), cardiovascular deconditioning (microgravity of space), and increased cardiovascular stress (lower body negative pressure (LBNP) treatments).

  13. Aging assessment for active fire protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, S.B.; Nowlen, S.P.; Tanaka, T.

    1995-06-01

    This study assessed the impact of aging on the performance and reliability of active fire protection systems including both fixed fire suppression and fixed fire detection systems. The experience base shows that most nuclear power plants have an aggressive maintenance and testing program and are finding degraded fire protection system components before a failure occurs. Also, from the data reviewed it is clear that the risk impact of fire protection system aging is low. However, it is assumed that a more aggressive maintenance and testing program involving preventive diagnostics may reduce the risk impact even further.

  14. Marathon run: cardiovascular adaptation and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Predel, Hans-Georg

    2014-11-21

    The first marathon run as an athletic event took place in the context of the Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens, Greece. Today, participation in a 'marathon run' has become a global phenomenon attracting young professional athletes as well as millions of mainly middle-aged amateur athletes worldwide each year. One of the main motives for these amateur marathon runners is the expectation that endurance exercise (EE) delivers profound beneficial health effects. However, with respect to the cardiovascular system, a controversial debate has emerged whether the marathon run itself is healthy or potentially harmful to the cardiovascular system, especially in middle-aged non-elite male amateur runners. In this cohort, exercise-induced increases in cardiac biomarkers-troponin and brain natriuretic peptide-and acute functional cardiac alterations have been observed and interpreted as potential cardiac damage. Furthermore, in the cohort of 40- to 65-year-old males engaged in intensive EE, a significant risk for the development of atrial fibrillation has been identified. Fortunately, recent studies demonstrated a normalization of the cardiac biomarkers and the functional alterations within a short time frame. Therefore, these alterations may be perceived as physiological myocardial reactions to the strenuous exercise and the term 'cardiac fatigue' has been coined. This interpretation is supported by a recent analysis of 10.9 million marathon runners demonstrating that there was no significantly increased overall risk of cardiac arrest during long-distance running races. In conclusion, intensive and long-lasting EE, e.g. running a full-distance Marathon, results in high cardiovascular strain whose clinical relevance especially for middle-aged and older athletes is unclear and remains a matter of controversy. Furthermore, there is a need for evidence-based recommendations with respect to medical screening and training strategies especially in male amateur runners over the age of

  15. What Research Says: The Cardiovascular System: Children's Conceptions and Misconceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnaudin, Mary W.; Mintzes, Joel J.

    1986-01-01

    Reports findings of a study on children's perceptions and alternate conceptions about the human circulatory system. Summarizes the responses of fifth and eighth grade students on questions dealing with the heart and blood. Offers examples of hands-on activities and confrontation strategies that address common misconceptions on circulation. (ML)

  16. S-Nitrosothiols and the S-Nitrosoproteome of the Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Maron, Bradley A.; Tang, Shiow-Shih

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Since their discovery in the early 1990's, S-nitrosylated proteins have been increasingly recognized as important determinants of many biochemical processes. Specifically, S-nitrosothiols in the cardiovascular system exert many actions, including promoting vasodilation, inhibiting platelet aggregation, and regulating Ca2+ channel function that influences myocyte contractility and electrophysiologic stability. Recent Advances: Contemporary developments in liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry methods, the development of biotin- and His-tag switch assays, and the availability of cyanide dye-labeling for S-nitrosothiol detection in vitro have increased significantly the identification of a number of cardiovascular protein targets of S-nitrosylation in vivo. Critical Issues: Recent analyses using modern S-nitrosothiol detection techniques have revealed the mechanistic significance of S-nitrosylation to the pathophysiology of numerous cardiovascular diseases, including essential hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, ischemic heart disease, stroke, and congestive heart failure, among others. Future Directions: Despite enhanced insight into S-nitrosothiol biochemistry, translating these advances into beneficial pharmacotherapies for patients with cardiovascular diseases remains a primary as-yet unmet goal for investigators within the field. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 270–287. PMID:22770551

  17. Cardiovascular Disease in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: The Role of Traditional and Lupus Related Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Zeller, Carlos Borelli; Appenzeller, Simone

    2008-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by immune cell activation, inflammation driven plaque formation and subsequent destabilization. In other disorders of an inflammatory nature, the chronic inflammatory state per se has been linked to acceleration of the atherosclerotic process which is underlined by an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and antiphopholipid (Hughes) syndrome (APS). SLE is an autoimmune disease that may affect any organ. Premature coronary heart disease has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in SLE. In addition to mortality, cardiovascular morbidity is also markedly increased in these patients, compared with the general population. The increased cardiovascular risk can be explained only partially by an increased prevalence of classical risk factors for cardiovascular disease; it also appears to be related to inflammation. Inflammation is increasingly being considered central to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and an important risk factor for vascular disease. Recent epidemiologic and pathogenesis studies have suggested a great deal in common between the pathogenesis of prototypic autoimmune disease such as SLE and that of atherosclerosis. We will review traditional risk factors for CVD in SLE. We will also discuss the role of inflammation in atherosclerosis, as well as possible treatment strategies in these patients. PMID:19936286

  18. Computational Models of the Cardiovascular System and Its Response to Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamm, Roger D.

    1999-01-01

    Computational models of the cardiovascular system are powerful adjuncts to ground-based and in-flight experiments. We will provide NSBRI with a model capable of simulating the short-term effects of gravity on cardiovascular function. The model from this project will: (1) provide a rational framework which quantitatively defines interactions among complex cardiovascular parameters and which supports the critical interpretation of experimental results and testing of hypotheses. (2) permit predictions of the impact of specific countermeasures in the context of various hypothetical cardiovascular abnormalities induced by microgravity. Major progress has been made during the first 18 months of the program: (1) We have developed an operational first-order computer model capable of simulating the cardiovascular response to orthostatic stress. The model consists of a lumped parameter hemodynamic model and a complete reflex control system. The latter includes cardiopulmonary and carotid sinus reflex limbs and interactions between the two. (2) We have modeled the physiologic stress of tilt table experiments and lower body negative pressure procedures (LBNP). We have verified our model's predictions by comparing them with experimental findings from the literature. (3) We have established collaborative efforts with leading investigators interested in experimental studies of orthostatic intolerance, cardiovascular control, and physiologic responses to space flight. (4) We have established a standardized method of transferring data to our laboratory from the ongoing NSBRI bedrest studies. We use this data to estimate input parameters to our model and compare our model predictions to actual data to further verify our model. (5) We are in the process of systematically simulating current hypotheses concerning the mechanism underlying orthostatic intolerance by matching our simulations to stand test data from astronauts pre- and post-flight. (6) We are in the process of developing a

  19. Evaluation of cardiovascular biomarkers in patients with age-related wet macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Keles, Sadullah; Ates, Orhan; Kartal, Baki; Alp, Hamit Hakan; Ekinci, Metin; Ceylan, Erdinc; Ondas, Osman; Arpali, Eren; Dogan, Semih; Yildirim, Kenan; Keles, Mevlut Sait

    2014-01-01

    Aim To evaluate levels of homocysteine, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and nitric oxide (NO), as well as activity of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods The levels of homocysteine, ADMA, and NO and activity of eNOS in patients who were diagnosed with wet AMD by fundus fluorescein angiography (n=30) were compared to a control group with no retinal pathology (n=30). Results Levels of homocysteine and ADMA were found to be significantly higher in the wet AMD group than in the control group (P<0.001), whereas NO levels and eNOS activity were higher in the control group (P<0.001). In the wet AMD group, we detected a 2.64- and 0.33-fold increase in the levels of ADMA and homocysteine, respectively, and a 0.49- and 2.41-fold decrease in the eNOS activity and NO level, respectively. Conclusion Elevated levels of homocysteine and ADMA were observed in patients with wet AMD. Increased ADMA may be responsible for the diminished eNOS activity found in these patients, which in turn contributes to the decrease in NO levels, which likely plays a role in the pathogenesis of AMD. PMID:25210424

  20. Cardiovascular risk factors in middle age obese Indians: a cross-sectional study on association of per cent body fat and intra-abdominal fat mass

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Jaspal Singh; Esht, Vandana; Shenoy, Shweta

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the association of per cent total body fat (TBF), intra-abdominal fat (IAF) mass and subcutaneous abdominal fat with cardiovascular risk factors in middle age obese Indians. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Hydrostatic Laboratory, Department of Sports Medicine and Physiotherapy, Guru Nanak Dev University, India. Participants: 51 subjects aged 30–55 years with a body mass index value 23 and above. Methodology In all the participants, TBF was estimated by underwater weighing machine and IAF and subcutaneous fat were measured by ultrasonography. Lipid profile was determined by a semiautomated analyser. Main outcome measures were: IAF, per cent body fat to TBF ratio, lipid profile and risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Results IAF was found to be significantly associated with lipid variables (95% CI, p<0.01) and risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (95% CI, p≤0.05) in both male and female subjects. TBF and subcutaneous fat thickness showed no significant results (95% CI, p>0.05) with either lipid variables or risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (tables 1 and 2). IAF mass showed significant association with age (95% CI, p<0.01) and significant negative association with physical activity (95% CI, p<0.05) in male subjects (tables 3 and 4). Conclusion An ultrasonic measurement of IAF is a better predictor of the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in middle aged Indian population. In male subjects, physical activity of 5 or more days a week showed lesser amount of IAF as compared with those with physical activity <5 days a week. PMID:27326015

  1. Systolic time interval data acquisition system. Specialized cardiovascular studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, J. T.

    1976-01-01

    The development of a data acquisition system for noninvasive measurement of systolic time intervals is described. R-R interval from the ECG determines instantaneous heart rate prior to the beat to be measured. Total electromechanical systole (Q-S2) is measured from the onset of the ECG Q-wave to the onset of the second heart sound (S2). Ejection time (ET or LVET) is measured from the onset of carotid upstroke to the incisure. Pre-ejection period (PEP) is computed by subtracting ET from Q-S2. PEP/ET ratio is computed directly.

  2. Web-Based Interventions Targeting Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Middle-Aged and Older People: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Beishuizen, Cathrien RL; Stephan, Blossom CM; van Gool, Willem A; Brayne, Carol; Peters, Ron JG; Andrieu, Sandrine; Kivipelto, Miia; Soininen, Hilkka; Busschers, Wim B; Moll van Charante, Eric P

    2016-01-01

    Background Web-based interventions can improve single cardiovascular risk factors in adult populations. In view of global aging and the associated increasing burden of cardiovascular disease, older people form an important target population as well. Objective In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we evaluated whether Web-based interventions for cardiovascular risk factor management reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in older people. Methods Embase, Medline, Cochrane and CINAHL were systematically searched from January 1995 to November 2014. Search terms included cardiovascular risk factors and diseases (specified), Web-based interventions (and synonyms) and randomized controlled trial. Two authors independently performed study selection, data-extraction and risk of bias assessment. In a meta-analysis, outcomes regarding treatment effects on cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1C), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, smoking status, weight and physical inactivity) and incident cardiovascular disease were pooled with random effects models. Results A total of 57 studies (N=19,862) fulfilled eligibility criteria and 47 studies contributed to the meta-analysis. A significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (mean difference –2.66 mmHg, 95% CI –3.81 to –1.52), diastolic blood pressure (mean difference –1.26 mmHg, 95% CI –1.92 to –0.60), HbA1c level (mean difference –0.13%, 95% CI –0.22 to –0.05), LDL cholesterol level (mean difference –2.18 mg/dL, 95% CI –3.96 to –0.41), weight (mean difference –1.34 kg, 95% CI –1.91 to –0.77), and an increase of physical activity (standardized mean difference 0.25, 95% CI 0.10-0.39) in the Web-based intervention group was found. The observed effects were more pronounced in studies with short (<12 months) follow-up and studies that combined the Internet application with human support (blended care). No difference in incident cardiovascular disease

  3. Minimizing Risk of Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis is a rare condition appearing only in patients with severe renal impairment or failure and presents with dermal lesions and involvement of internal organs. Although many cases are mild, an estimated 5 % have a progressive debilitating course. To date, there is no known effective treatment thus stressing the necessity of ample prevention measures. An association with the use of Gadolinium based contrast agents (GBCA) makes Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis a potential side effect of contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and offers the opportunity for prevention by limiting use of gadolinium based contrast agents in renal failure patients. In itself toxic, Gadolinium is embedded into chelates that allow its safe use as a contrast agent. One NSF theory is that Gadolinium chelates distribute into the extracellular fluid compartment and set Gadolinium ions free, depending on multiple factors among which the duration of chelates exposure is directly related to the renal function. Major medical societies both in Europe and in North America have developed guidelines for the usage of GBCA. Since the establishment of these guidelines and the increased general awareness of this condition, the occurrence of NSF has been nearly eliminated. Giving an overview over the current knowledge of NSF pathobiochemistry, pathogenesis and treatment options this review focuses on the guidelines of the European Medicines Agency, the European Society of Urogenital Radiology, the FDA and the American College of Radiology from 2008 up to 2011 and the transfer of this knowledge into every day practice. PMID:22607376

  4. Religious motivation and cardiovascular reactivity among middle aged adults: is being pro-religious really that good for you?

    PubMed

    Masters, Kevin S; Knestel, Andrea

    2011-12-01

    Religiousness has been observed to have a beneficial relationship with blood pressure, however, specific aspects of religiousness that interact with physiological mechanisms to influence this relationship are not known. This study explored laboratory cardiovascular reactivity (blood pressure, heart rate) to psychological stress among middle aged community dwelling individuals grouped by religious motivation (Intrinsic, Pro-religious, Non-religious). Measures of personality, cynical hostility, aggression, sense of coherence, and compassion were administered. Results indicated that the Pro-religious group demonstrated dampened reactivity compared to the other research groups. However, the Pro-religious also demonstrated a less positive psychological profile (e.g., greater cynicism, aggression, and neuroticism; less compassion and sense of coherence) and poorer self-reported health compared with the Intrinsic group and behavioral observations demonstrated that the Pro-religious were unreliable in keeping appointments and appeared rushed during the experiment. These findings indicate a complicated interface between personality, coping, and religious motivation in response to stressors and emphasize the need for naturalistic and longitudinal investigations of individuals who vary in terms of religious motivation. PMID:21604184

  5. Long working hours and occupational stress-related cardiovascular attacks among middle-aged workers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Uehata, T

    1991-12-01

    Two hundred and three Karoshi victims who suffered cardiovascular attacks and for whom workers' compensations was claimed were surveyed. These cases were 196 males and 7 females in middle age, and comprised 123 strokes, 50 acute cardiac failures, 27 myocardial infarctions and 4 aortic ruptures. As a sociomedical background, it was shown that two-thirds of them were working for long hours such as more than 60 hr per week, more than 50 hr overtime per month, or more than half of their fixed holidays before the attack. Moreover, among the white-collar workers, these long working hours were accompanied with other stressful work issues such as career problems, excessive business trips, strident norms, and changes of work places; among the blue-collar workers, they were accompanied with those such as irregular midnight work, insufficient manpower and long-distance driving, etc. On the other hand, eighty-eight cases of them experienced several minor and sudden events including work-related emotional anxiety or excitement, rapid increase of workload, unexpected work trouble or environmental changes of work places anticipated at least within 24 hr directly before the attack. It was concluded that Karoshi, meaning fatal attacks by overload, was one of the work-related diseases mainly triggered by long working hours. PMID:1842961

  6. Effects of Aging on the Respiratory System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitzky, Michael G.

    1984-01-01

    Relates alterations in respiratory system functions occurring with aging to changes in respiratory system structure during the course of life. Main alterations noted include loss of alveolar elastic recoil, alteration in chest wall structure and decreased respiratory muscle strength, and loss of surface area and changes in pulmonary circulation.…

  7. [Effects of the 520-day isolation on the functional state of the cardiovascular system].

    PubMed

    Stepanova, G P; Buĭlov, S P; Eshchenko, A I; Skedina, M A; Voronkov, Iu I

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the work was to study the cardiovascular effects of simulated factors in a 520-day crewed mission to Mars, and to validate the diagnostic value of the ultrasonic investigation of microcirculation and endothelium-dependent dilation of the right brachial artery in 6 male volunteers at the age of 28 to 39 years. It appears that 520-d isolation affected intracardiac hemodynamics and endothelium function more dramatically compared with 105-d isolation, increasing the risk of atherosclerosis. These findings add insight into the "cost of human adaptation" to very long isolation. PMID:25365873

  8. Interaction of Hydrogen Sulfide with Nitric Oxide in the Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Nagpure, B. V.; Bian, Jin-Song

    2016-01-01

    Historically acknowledged as toxic gases, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nitric oxide (NO) are now recognized as the predominant members of a new family of signaling molecules, “gasotransmitters” in mammals. While H2S is biosynthesized by three constitutively expressed enzymes (CBS, CSE, and 3-MST) from L-cysteine and homocysteine, NO is generated endogenously from L-arginine by the action of various isoforms of NOS. Both gases have been transpired as the key and independent regulators of many physiological functions in mammalian cardiovascular, nervous, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and immune systems. The analogy between these two gasotransmitters is evident not only from their paracrine mode of signaling, but also from the identical and/or shared signaling transduction pathways. With the plethora of research in the pathophysiological role of gasotransmitters in various systems, the existence of interplay between these gases is being widely accepted. Chemical interaction between NO and H2S may generate nitroxyl (HNO), which plays a specific effective role within the cardiovascular system. In this review article, we have attempted to provide current understanding of the individual and interactive roles of H2S and NO signaling in mammalian cardiovascular system, focusing particularly on heart contractility, cardioprotection, vascular tone, angiogenesis, and oxidative stress. PMID:26640616

  9. Fluctuations in a coupled-oscillator model of the cardiovascular system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Jorge A.; Suárez-Vargas, Jose J.; Stefanovska, Aneta; McClintock, Peter V. E.

    2007-06-01

    We present a model of the cardiovascular system (CVS) based on a system of coupled oscillators. Using this approach we can describe several complex physiological phenomena that can have a range of applications. For instance, heart rate variability (HRV), can have a new deterministic explanation. The intrinsic dynamics of the HRV is controlled by deterministic couplings between the physiological oscillators in our model and without the need to introduce external noise as is commonly done. This new result provides potential applications not only for physiological systems but also for the design of very precise electronic generators where the frequency stability is crucial. Another important phenomenon is that of oscillation death. We show that in our CVS model the mechanism leading to the quenching of the oscillations can be controlled, not only by the coupling parameter, but by a more general scheme. In fact, we propose that a change in the relative current state of the cardiovascular oscillators can lead to a cease of the oscillations without actually changing the strength of the coupling among them. We performed real experiments using electronic oscillators and show them to match the theoretical and numerical predictions. We discuss the relevance of the studied phenomena to real cardiovascular systems regimes, including the explanation of certain pathologies, and the possible applications in medical practice.

  10. [Age-related changes of sensory system].

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Hanyu, Haruo; Umahara, Takahiko

    2013-10-01

    Pathological processes usually superimpose on physiological aging even in the sensory system including visual, hearing, olfactory, taste and somatosensory functions. Representative changes of age-related changes are presbyopia, cataracts, and presbyacusis. Reduced sense of smell is seen in normal aging, but the prominent reduction detected by the odor stick identification test is noticed especially in early stage of Alzheimer or Parkinson disease. Reduced sense of taste is well-known especially in salty sense, while the changes of sweet, bitter, and sour tastes are different among individuals. Finally, deep sensation of vibration and proprioception is decreased with age as well as superficial sensation (touch, temperature, pain). As a result, impaired sensory system could induce deterioration of the activities of daily living and quality of life in the elderly. PMID:24261198

  11. The Influence of Normal and Early Vascular Aging on Hemodynamic Characteristics in Cardio- and Cerebrovascular Systems.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongtao; Huang, George P; Yang, Zifeng; Liang, Fuyou; Ludwig, Bryan

    2016-06-01

    Age-associated alterations in cardiovascular structure and function induce cardiovascular disease in elderly subjects. To investigate the effects of normal vascular aging (NVA) and early vascular aging (EVA) on hemodynamic characteristics in the circle of Willis (CoW), a closed-loop one-dimensional computational model was developed based on fluid mechanics in the vascular system. The numerical simulations revealed that higher central pulse pressure and augmentation index (AIx) appear in the EVA subjects due to early arrival of reflected waves, resulted in the increase of cardiac afterload compared with the NVA subjects. Moreover, the hemodynamic characteristics in the CoW show that the EVA subjects in an older age display a higher blood pressure than that of the NVA with a complete CoW. Herein, the increased blood pressure and flow rate coexist in the subjects with an incomplete CoW. In conclusion, the hemodynamic characteristics in the aortic tree and CoW related to aging appear to play an important role in causing cardiovascular and intravascular disease. PMID:27019876

  12. Circulating Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Is Associated with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Middle-Aged Normal Population

    PubMed Central

    Garvin, Peter; Nilsson, Lennart; Carstensen, John; Jonasson, Lena; Kristenson, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    Background Elevated levels of circulating matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) have been demonstrated in patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of this study was to analyse levels of MMP-9 in a population free from symptomatic CAD and investigate their associations with cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, including C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in a population based random sample aged 45–69 (n = 345, 50% women). MMP-9 levels were measured in EDTA-plasma using an ELISA-method. CV risk factors were measured using questionnaires and standard laboratory methods. Results Plasma MMP-9 was detectable in all participants, mean 38.9 ng/mL (SD 22.1 ng/mL). Among individuals without reported symptomatic CAD a positive association (p<0.001) was seen, for both men and women, of MMP-9 levels regarding total risk load of eight CV risk factors i.e. blood pressure, dyslipidemia, diabetes, obesity, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake. The association was significant also after adjustment for CRP, and was not driven by a single risk factor alone. In regression models adjusted for age, sex, smoking, alcohol intake and CRP, elevated MMP-9 levels were independently positively associated with systolic blood pressure (p = 0.037), smoking (p<0.001), alcohol intake (p = 0.003) and CRP (p<0.001). The correlation coefficient between MMP-9 and CRP was r = 0.24 (p<0.001). Conclusions In a population without reported symptomatic CAD, MMP-9 levels were associated with total CV risk load as well as with single risk factors. This was found also after adjustment for CRP. PMID:18335048

  13. Age Differences in Affective and Cardiovascular Responses to a Negative Social Interaction: The Role of Goals, Appraisals, and Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Luong, Gloria; Charles, Susan T.

    2014-01-01

    Older adults often report less affective reactivity to interpersonal tensions than younger individuals, but few studies have directly investigated mechanisms explaining this effect. The current study examined whether older adults’ differential endorsement of goals, appraisals, and emotion regulation strategies (i.e., conflict avoidance/de-escalation, self-distraction) during a controlled negative social interaction may explain age differences in affective and cardiovascular responses to the conflict discussion. Participants (N=159; 80 younger adults, 79 older adults) discussed hypothetical dilemmas with disagreeable confederates. Throughout the laboratory session, participants’ subjective emotional experience, blood pressure, and pulse rate were assessed. Older adults generally exhibited less reactivity (negative affect reactivity, diastolic blood pressure reactivity, and pulse rate reactivity) to the task, and more pronounced positive and negative affect recovery following the task, than did younger adults. Older adults appraised the task as more enjoyable and the confederate as more likeable, and more strongly endorsed goals to perform well on the task, which mediated age differences in negative affect reactivity, pulse rate reactivity, and positive affect recovery (i.e., increases in post-task positive affect), respectively. In addition, younger adults showed increased negative affect reactivity with greater use of self-distraction, whereas older adults did not. Together, findings suggest that older adults respond less negatively to unpleasant social interactions than younger adults, and these responses are explained in part by older adults’ pursuit of different motivational goals, less threatening appraisals of the social interaction, and more effective use of self-distraction, compared to younger adults. PMID:24773101

  14. Influence of age on the prevalence and components of the metabolic syndrome and the association with cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Devers, Marion C; Campbell, Stewart; Simmons, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective The significance of the metabolic syndrome (MS) is debated. We investigated whether MS component (by ATPIII and IDF definitions) clustering and any association between MS and prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) varied with age. Research design and methods In all, 1429 adults (≥25 years) from randomly selected households in rural Victoria, Australia, were assessed for components of MS and prevalent CVD. The expected prevalence of MS was calculated following a simple probabilistic model using the prevalence of each MS component. Results The observed prevalence of MS was greater than expected: 27.0% vs 21.2% (ATPIII) and 36.0% vs 30.1% (IDF; p<0.0001), based on the prevalence of individual components. There was significant clustering of 4 and 5 MS components in participants <65 years (p<0.0001). CVD was more prevalent in MS participants, 13.5% (IDF), 14.5% (ATPIII) versus 5.3% (no MS) p<0.0001. The OR for CVD in MS participants was greatest in those <45 years OR (95% CI): IDF 17.5 (1.8 to 172); ATPIII 24.3(2.4 to 241), p<0.001 for both, and was not significant in those >65 years. The prevalence of MS (ATPIII) with normal waist circumference (WC) was less than expected (4.8% vs 7.9%, p<0.002). Low levels of high-density lipoprotein and high triglyceride were less common in older MS participants. Conclusions ATPIII MS is rare among those with a normal WC. MS components cluster most markedly among those aged <65 years, who also experience substantially greater rates of CVD. Younger patients with MS may warrant more aggressive CVD preventative treatment than suggested by the summation of their individual risk factors. PMID:27158519

  15. Bayesian network modeling: A case study of an epidemiologic system analysis of cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Fuster-Parra, P; Tauler, P; Bennasar-Veny, M; Ligęza, A; López-González, A A; Aguiló, A

    2016-04-01

    An extensive, in-depth study of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) seems to be of crucial importance in the research of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in order to prevent (or reduce) the chance of developing or dying from CVD. The main focus of data analysis is on the use of models able to discover and understand the relationships between different CVRF. In this paper a report on applying Bayesian network (BN) modeling to discover the relationships among thirteen relevant epidemiological features of heart age domain in order to analyze cardiovascular lost years (CVLY), cardiovascular risk score (CVRS), and metabolic syndrome (MetS) is presented. Furthermore, the induced BN was used to make inference taking into account three reasoning patterns: causal reasoning, evidential reasoning, and intercausal reasoning. Application of BN tools has led to discovery of several direct and indirect relationships between different CVRF. The BN analysis showed several interesting results, among them: CVLY was highly influenced by smoking being the group of men the one with highest risk in CVLY; MetS was highly influence by physical activity (PA) being again the group of men the one with highest risk in MetS, and smoking did not show any influence. BNs produce an intuitive, transparent, graphical representation of the relationships between different CVRF. The ability of BNs to predict new scenarios when hypothetical information is introduced makes BN modeling an Artificial Intelligence (AI) tool of special interest in epidemiological studies. As CVD is multifactorial the use of BNs seems to be an adequate modeling tool. PMID:26777431

  16. The central nervous system and its operation in cardiovascular control.

    PubMed

    Korner, P I

    1981-01-01

    In the intact organism environmental disturbances affecting the circulation often result in simultaneous changes of several groups of peripheral afferents. These elicit characteristic patterns of autonomic activity with distinctive patterns of vagal activity, of regional sympathetic neural activity and of adrenal catecholamine secretion. During simultaneous changes in several groups of afferents the autonomic responses are often non-linear, with the response to one input markedly influenced by the level of the others. When these non-linear interactions involve the central arterial baroreflex pathways the properties of the body's blood pressure system can become greatly altered. With certain combinations of afferents these interactions make it possible for the organism to better withstand large perturbations than it could do through the normal properties of the arterial baroreceptor reflex. The different neuron groups contributing to the CNS autonomic pathways release many different transmitters including noradrenaline or serotonin and changes in reflex properties result from alterations in transmitter release in one or other of the pathways of the particular network. The peripheral arterial baroreceptors become rapidly reset during sustained alterations in blood pressure. Their 'memory' for any given absolute blood pressure is only a few minutes duration. Hence sustained changes in autonomic activity depend on the properties of the CNS either through signals arising from other groups of peripheral receptors, from central 'command' or owing to changes in transmitter release in a given pathway. PMID:7249873

  17. Phase and frequency locking in the model of cardiovascular system baroreflectory regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishbulatov, Yurii M.; Karavaev, Anatoly S.; Kiselev, Anton R.; Ponomarenko, Vladimir I.; Prokhorov, Mikhail D.

    2016-04-01

    We proposed the model of cardiovascular system which describes the sinus rhythm, autonomic regulation of heart and arterial vessels, baroreflex, arterial pressure and respiration process. The model included a self-oscillating loop of regulation of mean arterial pressure. It was shown that suggested model more accurately simulated the spectral and statistical characteristics of heart rate variability signal in comparison with the model proposed earlier by Seidel and Herzel.

  18. Nonlinear systems dynamics in cardiovascular physiology: The heart rate delay map and lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, John C.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary study of the applicability of nonlinear dynamic systems analysis techniques to low body negative pressure (LBNP) studies. In particular, the applicability of the heart rate delay map is investigated. It is suggested that the heart rate delay map has potential as a supplemental tool in the assessment of subject performance in LBNP tests and possibly in the determination of susceptibility to cardiovascular deconditioning with spaceflight.

  19. The influence of selective vitamin D receptor activator paricalcitol on cardiovascular system and cardiorenal protection

    PubMed Central

    Duplancic, Darko; Cesarik, Marijan; Poljak, Nikola Kolja; Radman, Maja; Kovacic, Vedran; Radic, Josipa; Rogosic, Veljko

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquitous distribution of vitamin D receptors in the human body is responsible for the pleiotropic effects of vitamin D-receptor activation. We discuss the possible beneficial effects of a selective activator of vitamin D receptor, paricalcitol, on the cardiovascular system in chronic heart failure patients and chronic kidney patients, in light of new trials. Paricalcitol should provide additional clinical benefits over the standard treatment for chronic kidney and heart failure, especially in cases of cardiorenal syndrome. PMID:23430986

  20. Emerging concepts for the role of TRP channels in the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Vennekens, Rudi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The transient receptor potential (TRP) family of ion channels is a large family of cation selective ion channels, which are expressed and functional in a variety of tissues. In this review we focus on the most recent results detailing the role of TRP channels in the cardiovascular system. The presented results underscore the role of TRP channels in cardiomyocytes, smooth cells and endothelium, and in disease states such as hypertension, cardiac conduction block and cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:21173080

  1. Altered Nitric Oxide System in Cardiovascular and Renal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Eun Hui; Ma, Seong Kwon; Kim, Soo Wan

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized by a family of NO synthases (NOS), including neuronal, inducible, and endothelial NOS (n/i/eNOS). NO-mediated effects can be beneficial or harmful depending on the specific risk factors affecting the disease. In hypertension, the vascular relaxation response to acetylcholine is blunted, and that to direct NO donors is maintained. A reduction in the activity of eNOS is mainly responsible for the elevation of blood pressure, and an abnormal expression of iNOS is likely to be related to the progression of vascular dysfunction. While eNOS/nNOS-derived NO is protective against the development of atherosclerosis, iNOS-derived NO may be proatherogenic. eNOS-derived NO may prevent the progression of myocardial infarction. Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury is significantly enhanced in eNOS-deficient animals. An important component of heart failure is the loss of coronary vascular eNOS activity. A pressure-overload may cause severer left ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction in eNOS null mice than in wild-type mice. iNOS-derived NO has detrimental effects on the myocardium. NO plays an important role in regulating the angiogenesis and slowing the interstitial fibrosis of the obstructed kidney. In unilateral ureteral obstruction, the expression of eNOS was decreased in the affected kidney. In triply n/i/eNOS null mice, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus developed along with reduced aquaporin-2 abundance. In chronic kidney disease model of subtotal-nephrectomized rats, treatment with NOS inhibitors decreased systemic NO production and induced left ventricular systolic dysfunction (renocardiac syndrome). PMID:27231671

  2. The endothelin system as a therapeutic target in cardiovascular disease: great expectations or bleak house?

    PubMed Central

    Kirkby, N S; Hadoke, P W F; Bagnall, A J; Webb, D J

    2007-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that the potent vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 (ET-1) contributes to the pathogenesis of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. As such, pharmacological manipulation of the ET system might represent a promising therapeutic goal. Many clinical trials have assessed the potential of ET receptor antagonists in cardiovascular disease, the most positive of which have resulted in the licensing of the mixed ET receptor antagonist bosentan, and the selective ETA receptor antagonists, sitaxsentan and ambrisentan, for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). In contrast, despite encouraging data from in vitro and animal studies, outcomes in human heart failure have been disappointing, perhaps illustrating the risk of extrapolating preclinical work to man. Many further potential applications of these compounds, including resistant hypertension, chronic kidney disease, connective tissue disease and sub-arachnoid haemorrhage are currently being investigated in the clinic. Furthermore, experience from previous studies should enable improved trial design and scope remains for development of improved compounds and alternative therapeutic strategies. Although ET-converting enzyme inhibitors may represent one such alternative, there have been relatively few suitable compounds developed, and consequently, clinical experience with these agents remains extremely limited. Recent advances, together with an increased understanding of the biology of the ET system provided by improved experimental tools (including cell-specific transgenic deletion of ET receptors), should allow further targeting of clinical trials to diseases in which ET is involved and allow the therapeutic potential for targeting the ET system in cardiovascular disease to be fully realized. PMID:17965745

  3. The endothelin system as a therapeutic target in cardiovascular disease: great expectations or bleak house?

    PubMed

    Kirkby, N S; Hadoke, P W F; Bagnall, A J; Webb, D J

    2008-03-01

    There is considerable evidence that the potent vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 (ET-1) contributes to the pathogenesis of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. As such, pharmacological manipulation of the ET system might represent a promising therapeutic goal. Many clinical trials have assessed the potential of ET receptor antagonists in cardiovascular disease, the most positive of which have resulted in the licensing of the mixed ET receptor antagonist bosentan, and the selective ET(A) receptor antagonists, sitaxsentan and ambrisentan, for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). In contrast, despite encouraging data from in vitro and animal studies, outcomes in human heart failure have been disappointing, perhaps illustrating the risk of extrapolating preclinical work to man. Many further potential applications of these compounds, including resistant hypertension, chronic kidney disease, connective tissue disease and sub-arachnoid haemorrhage are currently being investigated in the clinic. Furthermore, experience from previous studies should enable improved trial design and scope remains for development of improved compounds and alternative therapeutic strategies. Although ET-converting enzyme inhibitors may represent one such alternative, there have been relatively few suitable compounds developed, and consequently, clinical experience with these agents remains extremely limited. Recent advances, together with an increased understanding of the biology of the ET system provided by improved experimental tools (including cell-specific transgenic deletion of ET receptors), should allow further targeting of clinical trials to diseases in which ET is involved and allow the therapeutic potential for targeting the ET system in cardiovascular disease to be fully realized. PMID:17965745

  4. A dimensionally-heterogeneous closed-loop model for the cardiovascular system and its applications.

    PubMed

    Blanco, P J; Feijóo, R A

    2013-05-01

    In the present work a computational model of the entire cardiovascular system is developed using heterogeneous mathematical representations. This model integrates different levels of detail for the blood circulation. The arterial tree is described by a one dimensional model in order to simulate the wave propagation phenomena that take place at the larger arterial vessels. The inflow and outflow locations of this 1D model are coupled with lumped parameter descriptions of the remainder part of the circulatory system, closing the loop. The four cardiac valves are considered using a valve model which allows for stenoses and regurgitation phenomena. In addition, full 3D geometrical models of arterial districts are embedded in this closed-loop circuit to model the local blood flow in specific vessels. This kind of detailed closed-loop network for the cardiovascular system allows hemodynamics analyses of patient-specific arterial district, delivering naturally the appropriate boundary conditions for different cardiovascular scenarios. An example of application involving the effect of aortic insufficiency on the local hemodynamics of a cerebral aneurism is provided as a motivation to reproduce, through numerical simulation, the hemodynamic environment in patients suffering from infective endocarditis and mycotic aneurisms. The need for incorporating homeostatic control mechanisms is also discussed in view of the large sensitivity observed in the results, noting that this kind of integrative modeling allows such incorporation. PMID:22902782

  5. Detection of mild cognitive impairment in people older than 65 years of age and its relationship to cardiovascular risk factors (DECRIVAM)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies centered on the detection of cognitive impairment and its relationship to cardiovascular risk factors in elderly people have gained special relevance in recent years. Knowledge of the cardiovascular risk factors that may be associated to cognitive impairment could be very useful for introducing treatments in early stages - thereby possibly contributing to improve patient quality of life. The present study explores cognitive performance in people over 65 years of age in Salamanca (Spain), with special emphasis on the identification of early symptoms of cognitive impairment, with the purpose of detecting mild cognitive impairment and of studying the relationships between this clinical situation and cardiovascular risk factors. Methods/Design A longitudinal study is contemplated. The reference population will consist of 420 people over 65 years of age enrolled through randomized sampling stratified by healthcare area, and who previously participated in another study. Measurement: a) Sociodemographic variables; b) Cardiovascular risk factors; c) Comorbidity; d) Functional level for daily life activities; and e) Study of higher cognitive functions based on a neuropsychological battery especially adapted to the evaluation of elderly people. Discussion We hope that this study will afford objective information on the representative prevalence of cognitive impairment in the population over 65 years of age in Salamanca. We also hope to obtain data on the relationship between cognitive impairment and cardiovascular risk factors in this specific population group. Based on the results obtained, we also will be able to establish the usefulness of some of the screening tests applied during the study, such as the Mini-Mental State Examination and the 7 Minute Screen test. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01327196 PMID:21708036

  6. Nnuclear uptake and retention of a synthetic progestin in the cardiovascular system of the baboon

    SciTech Connect

    Sheridan, P.J.; McGill, H.C. Jr.

    1984-06-01

    It has long been known that there is a sexual dimorphism in the incidence of coronary heart disease. This observation, together with more recent reports of increased cardiovascular disease associated with the use of oral contraceptives, led to a search for steroid receptors in the cardiovascular system. In this study the nuclear uptake and retention of a synthetic progestin was examined in the cardiovascular system of the baboons. Long term oophorectomized baboons were primed with estradiol benzoate for 3 days before the experiment (50 micrograms/kg, im) and adrenalectomized 2 days before the experiment. On the day of the experiment, the animals were injected under anesthesia with 2.5 micrograms/kg BW (/sup 3/H)ORG 2058 (16 alpha-ethyl-21-hydroxy-19-nor-(6,7-/sup 3/H)pregn-4-ene-3,20-dione) or with (/sup 3/H) ORG 2058 plus a 1000-fold excess of unlabeled progesterone (control). One hour after the injection, the animals were rapidly exsanguinated, and parts of the cardiovascular system were removed and processed for autoradiography. Localization of the synthetic progestin was found in nuclei of between 25-75% of all smooth muscle cells of the media of all arteries examined and to a lesser extent in the nuclei of the fibroblasts and others cells of the adventitia. Localization of the synthetic progestin in the heart was limited to approximately 1% of the myocardial cells and less than 5% of interstitial cell nuclei. The pattern of localization found differs from that for estrogen and androgen and suggests the possible presence of estrogen-independent progesterone receptors in smooth muscle cells of the media of the aorta and coronary arteries.

  7. Peculiarities of a Group Response of Cardiovascular System of Volunteers at Different Latitudes to Changes of Space Weather Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parshina, S. S.; Samsonov, S. N.; Manykina, V. I.; Afanasyeva, T. N.; Vishnevsky, V. V.; Petrova, P. G.; Petrova, V. D.; Strekalovskaya, A. A.; Tokayeva, L. K.; Kaplanova, T. I.; Potapova, M. V.

    A simultaneous monitoring in evaluating of the response of a cardiovascular system of healthy volunteers was performed. The research was oriented to changes of a space weather parameters in aurural (Tixie), subauroral (Yakutsk) and medium (Saratov) areas. In each of the experimental groups there was revealed an effect of synchronization between repolarization processes of ventrical myocard responding (according to a T-wave symmetry coefficient of a cardiogram) and geomagnetic activity (according Kp-index). At rest the group effect of synchronization (GES) of myocard in geomagnetic activity change was noticed in 33,3%-61,3% of the respondents. The origin of GES has features depending on the area of habitation and an age of the volunteers. The study is performed with the partial financial support in partnership with Russian-Ukrainian grant RFFI №14-02-90424 ukr_a.

  8. Cardiovascular Events in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Nationwide Study in Spain From the RELESSER Registry.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Nebro, Antonio; Rúa-Figueroa, Íñigo; López-Longo, Francisco J; Galindo-Izquierdo, María; Calvo-Alén, Jaime; Olivé-Marqués, Alejandro; Ordóñez-Cañizares, Carmen; Martín-Martínez, María A; Blanco, Ricardo; Melero-González, Rafael; Ibáñez-Rúan, Jesús; Bernal-Vidal, José Antonio; Tomero-Muriel, Eva; Uriarte-Isacelaya, Esther; Horcada-Rubio, Loreto; Freire-González, Mercedes; Narváez, Javier; Boteanu, Alina L; Santos-Soler, Gregorio; Andreu, José L; Pego-Reigosa, José M

    2015-07-01

    This article estimates the frequency of cardiovascular (CV) events that occurred after diagnosis in a large Spanish cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and investigates the main risk factors for atherosclerosis. RELESSER is a nationwide multicenter, hospital-based registry of SLE patients. This is a cross-sectional study. Demographic and clinical variables, the presence of traditional risk factors, and CV events were collected. A CV event was defined as a myocardial infarction, angina, stroke, and/or peripheral artery disease. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the possible risk factors for atherosclerosis. From 2011 to 2012, 3658 SLE patients were enrolled. Of these, 374 (10.9%) patients suffered at least a CV event. In 269 (7.4%) patients, the CV events occurred after SLE diagnosis (86.2% women, median [interquartile range] age 54.9 years [43.2-66.1], and SLE duration of 212.0 months [120.8-289.0]). Strokes (5.7%) were the most frequent CV event, followed by ischemic heart disease (3.8%) and peripheral artery disease (2.2%). Multivariate analysis identified age (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.03 [1.02-1.04]), hypertension (1.71 [1.20-2.44]), smoking (1.48 [1.06-2.07]), diabetes (2.2 [1.32-3.74]), dyslipidemia (2.18 [1.54-3.09]), neurolupus (2.42 [1.56-3.75]), valvulopathy (2.44 [1.34-4.26]), serositis (1.54 [1.09-2.18]), antiphospholipid antibodies (1.57 [1.13-2.17]), low complement (1.81 [1.12-2.93]), and azathioprine (1.47 [1.04-2.07]) as risk factors for CV events. We have confirmed that SLE patients suffer a high prevalence of premature CV disease. Both traditional and nontraditional risk factors contribute to this higher prevalence. Although it needs to be verified with future studies, our study also shows-for the first time-an association between diabetes and CV events in SLE patients. PMID:26200625

  9. Protective effects of red wine polyphenolic compounds on the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Zenebe, Woineshet; Pechánová, Olga; Bernátová, Iveta

    2001-01-01

    Phenolic phytochemicals are widely distributed in the plant kingdom. In terms of protective effects on organisms, the group of polyphenols is the most important. In various experiments, it has been shown that selected polyphenols, mainly flavonoids, confer protective effects on the cardiovascular system and have anti-cancer, antiviral and antiallergic properties. In coronary artery disease, the protective effects are due mainly to antithrombic, antioxidant, anti-ischemic and vasorelaxant properties of flavonoids. Flavonoids are low molecular weight compounds composed of a three-ring structure with various substitutions, which appear to be responsible for the antioxidant and antiproliferative properties. It has been hypothesized that the low incidence of coronary artery disease in the French population may be partially related to the pharmacological properties of polyphenolic compounds present in red wine. Many epidemiological studies have shown that regular flavonoid intake is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:20428452

  10. Cholinergic signal activated renin angiotensin system associated with cardiovascular changes in the ovine fetus

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Chunsong; Mao, Caiping; Wu, Lei; Cheng, Yu; Liu, Rulu; Chen, Bingxin; Chen, Ling; Zhang, Lubo; Xu, Zhice

    2010-01-01

    Aim Cholinergic regulation is important in the control of cardiovascular and endocrine responses. The mechanisms behind cardiovascular responses induced by cholinergic activation are explored by studying hormonal systems, including renin-angiotensin and vasopressin (VP). Results In chronically prepared fetal sheep, intravenous infusion of the cholinergic agonist carbachol increased fetal systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure accompanied with bradycardia at near-term. Although intravenous administration of carbachol had no effect on plasma VP concentrations, this agonist increased angiotensin I and angiotensin II levels in fetal plasma. Fetal blood values, including sodium, osmolality, nitric oxide, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were unchanged by intravenous carbachol. Conclusion Cholinergic activation by carbachol controls fetal blood pressure and heart rate in utero. An over-activated fetal renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) is associated with changes in vascular pressure following intravenous administration of carbachol, indicating that the cholinergic stimulation-mediated hormonal mechanism in the fetus might play a critical role in the regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis. PMID:19921993

  11. Diet Quality of Urban Older Adults Aged 60-99: The Cardiovascular Health of Seniors and Built Environment Study

    PubMed Central

    Deierlein, Andrea L.; Morland, Kimberly B.; Scanlin, Kathleen; Wong, Sally; Spark, Arlene

    2013-01-01

    There are few studies that evaluate dietary intakes and predictors of diet quality in older adults. The objectives of this study were to describe nutrient intakes and examine associations between demographic, economic, behavioral, social environment, and health status factors and diet quality. Cross-sectional data was from Black, White, and Hispanic adults ages 60-99 years, living independently in New York City and participating in the Cardiovascular Health of Seniors and the Built Environment Study, 2009-2011 (n=1306). Multivariable log-linear regression estimated associations between selected factors and good diet quality, defined as a Healthy Eating Index score based on the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (HEI-2005)>80. Dietary intakes were similar for men and women; intakes of energy, fiber, and the majority of micronutrients were below recommendations, while intakes of fats, added sugar, and sodium were within the upper range or exceeded recommendations. Hispanic ethnicity (Relative Risk, RR=1.37; 95% Confidence Interval, CI, 1.07-1.75), caloric intake <~1500 calories/day (RR=1.93; 95%CI, 1.37-2.71), adherence to a special diet (RR=1.23; 95%CI: 1.02-1.50), purchasing food at supermarkets at least once/week (RR=1.34; 95%CI, 1.04-1.74), and being married/living with a partner (RR=1.37; 95%CI, 1.10-1.71) were positively associated with HEI-2005>80. Consuming at least restaurant one meal/day was negatively associated with HEI-2005>80 (RR=0.69; 95%CI, 0.50-0.94). These findings identify specific groups of older adults, such as Blacks or those who live alone, who may benefit from dietary interventions, as well as specific modifiable behaviors among older adults, such as eating restaurant meals or shopping at supermarkets, which may be targeted through interventions. PMID:24262516

  12. Aging of the Human Vestibular System.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Christopher K

    2015-08-01

    Aging affects every sensory system in the body, including the vestibular system. Although its impact is often difficult to quantify, the deleterious impact of aging on the vestibular system is serious both medically and economically. The deterioration of the vestibular sensory end organs has been known since the 1970s; however, the measurable impact from these anatomical changes remains elusive. Tests of vestibular function either fall short in their ability to quantify such anatomical deterioration, or they are insensitive to the associated physiologic decline and/or central compensatory mechanisms that accompany the vestibular aging process. When compared with healthy younger individuals, a paucity of subtle differences in test results has been reported in the healthy older population, and those differences are often observed only in response to nontraditional and/or more robust stimuli. In addition, the reported differences are often clinically insignificant insomuch that the recorded physiologic responses from the elderly often fall within the wide normative response ranges identified for normal healthy adults. The damaging economic impact of such vestibular sensory decline manifests itself in an exponential increase in geriatric dizziness and a subsequent higher prevalence of injurious falls. An estimated $10 to $20 billion dollar annual cost has been reported to be associated with falls-related injuries and is the sixth leading cause of death in the elderly population, with a 20% mortality rate. With an estimated 115% increase in the geriatric population over 65 years of age by the year 2050, the number of balanced-disordered patients with a declining vestibular system is certain to reach near epidemic proportions. An understanding of the effects of age on the vestibular system is imperative if clinicians are to better manage elderly patients with balance disorders, dizziness, and vestibular disease. PMID:27516717

  13. Aging of the Human Vestibular System

    PubMed Central

    Zalewski, Christopher K.

    2015-01-01

    Aging affects every sensory system in the body, including the vestibular system. Although its impact is often difficult to quantify, the deleterious impact of aging on the vestibular system is serious both medically and economically. The deterioration of the vestibular sensory end organs has been known since the 1970s; however, the measurable impact from these anatomical changes remains elusive. Tests of vestibular function either fall short in their ability to quantify such anatomical deterioration, or they are insensitive to the associated physiologic decline and/or central compensatory mechanisms that accompany the vestibular aging process. When compared with healthy younger individuals, a paucity of subtle differences in test results has been reported in the healthy older population, and those differences are often observed only in response to nontraditional and/or more robust stimuli. In addition, the reported differences are often clinically insignificant insomuch that the recorded physiologic responses from the elderly often fall within the wide normative response ranges identified for normal healthy adults. The damaging economic impact of such vestibular sensory decline manifests itself in an exponential increase in geriatric dizziness and a subsequent higher prevalence of injurious falls. An estimated $10 to $20 billion dollar annual cost has been reported to be associated with falls-related injuries and is the sixth leading cause of death in the elderly population, with a 20% mortality rate. With an estimated 115% increase in the geriatric population over 65 years of age by the year 2050, the number of balanced-disordered patients with a declining vestibular system is certain to reach near epidemic proportions. An understanding of the effects of age on the vestibular system is imperative if clinicians are to better manage elderly patients with balance disorders, dizziness, and vestibular disease. PMID:27516717

  14. Activation of the central histaminergic system mediates arachidonic-acid-induced cardiovascular effects.

    PubMed

    Altinbas, Burcin; Topuz, Bora Burak; İlhan, Tuncay; Yilmaz, Mustafa Sertac; Erdost, Hatice; Yalcin, Murat

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explain the involvement of the central histaminergic system in arachidonic acid (AA)-induced cardiovascular effects in normotensive rats using hemodynamic, immunohistochemistry, and microdialysis studies. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered AA (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 μmol) induced dose- and time-dependent increases in mean arterial pressure and decreased heart rate in conscious normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats. Central injection of AA (0.5 μmol) also increased posterior hypothalamic extracellular histamine levels and produced strong COX-1 but not COX-2 immunoreactivity in the posterior hypothalamus of rats. Moreover, the cardiovascular effects and COX-1 immunoreactivity in the posterior hypothalamus induced by AA (0.5 μmol; i.c.v.) were almost completely blocked by the H2 receptor antagonist ranitidine (50 and 100 nmol; i.c.v.) and partially blocked by the H1 receptor blocker chlorpheniramine (100 nmol; i.c.v.) and the H3-H4 receptor antagonist thioperamide (50 and 100 nmol; i.c.v.). In conclusion, these results indicate that centrally administered AA induces pressor and bradycardic responses in conscious rats. Moreover, we suggest that AA may activate histaminergic neurons and increase extracellular histamine levels, particularly in the posterior hypothalamus. Acting as a neurotransmitter, histamine is potentially involved in AA-induced cardiovascular effects under normotensive conditions. PMID:25065747

  15. Cell Systems to Investigate the Impact of Polyphenols on Cardiovascular Health

    PubMed Central

    Grootaert, Charlotte; Kamiloglu, Senem; Capanoglu, Esra; Van Camp, John

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenols are a diverse group of micronutrients from plant origin that may serve as antioxidants and that contribute to human health in general. More specifically, many research groups have investigated their protective effect against cardiovascular diseases in several animal studies and human trials. Yet, because of the excessive processing of the polyphenol structure by human cells and the residing intestinal microbial community, which results in a large variability between the test subjects, the exact mechanisms of their protective effects are still under investigation. To this end, simplified cell culture systems have been used to decrease the inter-individual variability in mechanistic studies. In this review, we will discuss the different cell culture models that have been used so far for polyphenol research in the context of cardiovascular diseases. We will also review the current trends in cell culture research, including co-culture methodologies. Finally, we will discuss the potential of these advanced models to screen for cardiovascular effects of the large pool of bioactive polyphenols present in foods and their metabolites. PMID:26569293

  16. [Simulation Analysis of the Pulse Signal on the Electricity Network of Cardiovascular System].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Yin, Yanfei; Zhang, Defa; Wang, Menghong; Bi, Yongqiang

    2015-12-01

    Pulse waves contain abundant physiological and pathological information of human body. Research of the relationship between pulse wave and human cardiovascular physiological parameters can not only help clinical diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, but also contribute to develop many new medical instruments. Based on the traditional double elastic cavity model, the human cardiovascular system was established by using the electric network model in this paper. The change of wall pressure and blood flow in artery was simulated. And the influence of the peripheral resistance and vessel compliance to the distribution of blood flow in artery was analyzed. The simulation results were compared with the clinical monitoring results to predict the physiological and pathological state of human body. The result showed that the simulation waveform of arterial wall pressure and blood flow was stabile after the second cardiac cycle. With the increasing of peripheral resistance, the systolic blood pressure of artery increased, the diastolic blood pressure had no significant change, and the pulse pressure of artery increased gradually. With the decreasing of vessel compliance, the vasoactivity became worse and the pulse pressure increased correspondingly. The simulation results were consistent with the clinical monitoring results. The increasing of peripheral resistance and decreasing of vascular compliance indicated that the incidence of hypertension and atherosclerosis was increased. PMID:27079088

  17. Recent insights and therapeutic perspectives of angiotensin-(1-9) in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Ocaranza, Maria Paz; Michea, Luis; Chiong, Mario; Lagos, Carlos F; Lavandero, Sergio; Jalil, Jorge E

    2014-11-01

    Chronic RAS (renin-angiotensin system) activation by both AngII (angiotensin II) and aldosterone leads to hypertension and perpetuates a cascade of pro-hypertrophic, pro-inflammatory, pro-thrombotic and atherogenic effects associated with cardiovascular damage. In 2000, a new pathway consisting of ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme2), Ang-(1-9) [angiotensin-(1-9)], Ang-(1-7) [angiotensin-(1-7)] and the Mas receptor was discovered. Activation of this novel pathway stimulates vasodilation, anti-hypertrophy and anti-hyperplasia. For some time, studies have focused mainly on ACE2, Ang-(1-7) and the Mas receptor, and their biological properties that counterbalance the ACE/AngII/AT1R (angiotensin type 1 receptor) axis. No previous information about Ang-(1-9) suggested that this peptide had biological properties. However, recent data suggest that Ang-(1-9) protects the heart and blood vessels (and possibly the kidney) from adverse cardiovascular remodelling in patients with hypertension and/or heart failure. These beneficial effects are not modified by the Mas receptor antagonist A779 [an Ang-(1-7) receptor blocker], but they are abolished by the AT2R (angiotensin type 2 receptor) antagonist PD123319. Current information suggests that the beneficial effects of Ang-(1-9) are mediated via the AT2R. In the present review, we summarize the biological effects of the novel vasoactive peptide Ang-(1-9), providing new evidence of its cardiovascular-protective activity. We also discuss the potential mechanism by which this peptide prevents and ameliorates the cardiovascular damage induced by RAS activation. PMID:25029123

  18. Molecular aging of the mammalian vestibular system.

    PubMed

    Brosel, Sonja; Laub, Christoph; Averdam, Anne; Bender, Andreas; Elstner, Matthias

    2016-03-01

    Dizziness and imbalance frequently affect the elderly and contribute to falls and frailty. In many geriatric patients, clinical testing uncovers a dysfunction of the vestibular system, but no specific etiology can be identified. Neuropathological studies have demonstrated age-related degeneration of peripheral and central vestibular neurons, but the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. In contrast, recent studies into age-related hearing loss strongly implicate mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death of cochlear hair cells. While some data suggest that analogous biological pathomechanisms may underlie vestibular dysfunction, actual proof is missing. In this review, we summarize the available data on the molecular causes of vestibular dysfunction. PMID:26739358

  19. Relationship between office and home blood pressure with increasing age: The International Database of HOme blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome (IDHOCO).

    PubMed

    Ntineri, Angeliki; Stergiou, George S; Thijs, Lutgarde; Asayama, Kei; Boggia, José; Boubouchairopoulou, Nadia; Hozawa, Atsushi; Imai, Yutaka; Johansson, Jouni K; Jula, Antti M; Kollias, Anastasios; Luzardo, Leonella; Niiranen, Teemu J; Nomura, Kyoko; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Tsuji, Ichiro; Tzourio, Christophe; Wei, Fang-Fei; Staessen, Jan A

    2016-08-01

    Home blood pressure (HBP) measurements are known to be lower than conventional office blood pressure (OBP) measurements. However, this difference might not be consistent across the entire age range and has not been adequately investigated. We assessed the relationship between OBP and HBP with increasing age using the International Database of HOme blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome (IDHOCO). OBP, HBP and their difference were assessed across different decades of age. A total of 5689 untreated subjects aged 18-97 years, who had at least two OBP and HBP measurements, were included. Systolic OBP and HBP increased across older age categories (from 112 to 142 mm Hg and from 109 to 136 mm Hg, respectively), with OBP being higher than HBP by ∼7 mm Hg in subjects aged >30 years and lesser in younger subjects (P=0.001). Both diastolic OBP and HBP increased until the age of ∼50 years (from 71 to 79 mm Hg and from 66 to 76 mm Hg, respectively), with OBP being consistently higher than HBP and a trend toward a decreased OBP-HBP difference with aging (P<0.001). Determinants of a larger OBP-HBP difference were younger age, sustained hypertension, nonsmoking and negative cardiovascular disease history. These data suggest that in the general adult population, HBP is consistently lower than OBP across all the decades, but their difference might vary between age groups. Further research is needed to confirm these findings in younger and older subjects and in hypertensive individuals. PMID:27053011

  20. Numerical simulation of the blood flow in the human cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Zácek, M; Krause, E

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a numerical model of the human cardiovascular system. The model is composed of 15 elements connected in series representing the main parts of the system. Each element is composed of a rigid connecting tube and an elastic reservoir. The blood flow is described by a one-dimensional time-dependent Bernoulli equation. The action of the ventricles is simulated with a Hill's three-element model, adapted for the left and right heart. The closing of the four heart valves is simulated with the aid of time-dependent drag coefficients. Closing is achieved by letting the drag coefficient approach infinity. The resulting system of 32 non-linear ordinary differential equations is solved numerically with the Runge-Kutta method. The results of the simulation (pressure-time and volume-time dependence for the atria and ventricles and pressure forms in the aorta at a heart rate of 70 beats per minute) agree with the physiological data given in the literature. The model's input aortic impedance is 31.5 dyn s cm-5 which agrees with literature data given for aortic input impedance in man 26-80 dyn s cm-5). Long-term stability of the system was achieved. The cardiovascular system presented here can also be simulated at higher and varying heart rates--up to 200 beats per minute. The results of calculations for some pathological changes (e.g. valvular abnormalities) are discussed. PMID:8839013

  1. Knowledge based system with embedded intelligent heart sound analyser for diagnosing cardiovascular disorders.

    PubMed

    Javed, F; Venkatachalam, P A; Hani, A F M

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide, and due to the lack of early detection techniques, the incidence of CVD is increasing day by day. In order to address this limitation, a knowledge based system with embedded intelligent heart sound analyser (KBHSA) has been developed to diagnose cardiovascular disorders at early stages. The system analyses digitized heart sounds that are recorded from an electronic stethoscope using advanced digital signal processing and artificial intelligence techniques. KBHSA takes into account data including the patient's personal and past medical history, clinical examination, auscultation findings, chest x-ray and echocardiogram, and provides a list of diseases that it has diagnosed. The system can assist the general physician in making more accurate and reliable diagnosis under emergency conditions where expert cardiologists and advanced equipment are not readily available. To test the validity of the system, abnormal heart sound samples and medical data from 40 patients were recorded and analysed. The diagnoses made by the system were counter checked by four senior cardiologists in Malaysia. The results show that the findings of KBHSA coincide with those of cardiologists. PMID:17701779

  2. The aging of a clinical information system.

    PubMed

    Rada, Roy; Finley, Scott

    2004-10-01

    The senescence of a clinical information system is more likely to have administrative than technical bases. Supporting this claim is a case study of one aging oncology information system. The case study is qualitative, as behooves the subject matter. Content analysis of several documents suggests that the change in job description of the data coordinator led to a workflow breakdown. Next, twenty-two individuals were interviewed. Notes from the interviews were coded, and the resulting patterns led to partial support for the workflow breakdown conjecture, refutation of the hypothesis that users disliked the character-based, human-computer interface, support of the conjecture that political rather than technical factors drive the usage patterns of the system, and evidence that 'political' activity will determine the future of the information system. A stakeholder matrix is proposed that addresses administrative concerns. Also, the issue of the uniqueness of any oncology clinical information system is linked to the plans for this legacy system. PMID:15488746

  3. Development of Diagnostic Reference Levels Using a Real-Time Radiation Dose Monitoring System at a Cardiovascular Center in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsu; Seo, Deoknam; Choi, Inseok; Nam, Sora; Yoon, Yongsu; Kim, Hyunji; Her, Jae; Han, Seonggyu; Kwon, Soonmu; Park, Hunsik; Yang, Dongheon; Kim, Jungmin

    2015-12-01

    Digital cardiovascular angiography accounts for a major portion of the radiation dose among the examinations performed at cardiovascular centres. However, dose-related information is neither monitored nor recorded systemically. This report concerns the construction of a radiation dose monitoring system based on digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) data and its use at the cardiovascular centre of the University Hospitals in Korea. The dose information was analysed according to DICOM standards for a series of procedures, and the formulation of diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) at our cardiovascular centre represents the first of its kind in Korea. We determined a dose area product (DAP) DRL for coronary angiography of 75.6 Gy cm(2) and a fluoroscopic time DRL of 318.0 s. The DAP DRL for percutaneous transluminal coronary intervention was 213.3 Gy cm(2), and the DRL for fluoroscopic time was 1207.5 s. PMID:25700616

  4. Immunosenescence, Aging, and Systemic Lupus Erythematous

    PubMed Central

    Montoya-Ortiz, Gladis

    2013-01-01

    Senescence is a normal biological process that occurs in all organisms and involves a decline in cell functions. This process is caused by molecular regulatory machinery alterations, and it is closely related to telomere erosion in chromosomes. In the context of the immune system, this phenomenon is known as immunosenescence and refers to the immune function deregulation. Therefore, functions of several cells involved in the innate and adaptive immune responses are severely compromised with age progression (e.g., changes in lymphocyte subsets, decreased proliferative responses, chronic inflammatory states, etc.). These alterations make elderly individuals prone to not only infectious diseases but also to malignancy and autoimmunity. This review will explore the molecular aspects of processes related to cell aging, their importance in the context of the immune system, and their participation in elderly SLE patients. PMID:24260712

  5. An experimental ovine Theileriosis: The effect of Theileria lestoquardi infection on cardiovascular system in sheep.

    PubMed

    Yaghfoori, Saeed; Razmi, Gholam Reza; Mohri, Mehrdad; Razavizadeh, Ali Reza Taghavi; Movassaghi, Ahmad Reza

    2016-09-01

    The malignant ovine theileriosis is caused by Theileria lestoquardi, which is highly pathogenic in sheep. Theileriosis involves different organs in ruminants, but the effect of the disease on the cardiovascular system is unclear. To understand the pathogenesis of T. lestoquardi on the cardiovascular system, Baluchi breed sheep were infected with the mentioned parasite by releasing unfed adults of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, which were infected with T. lestoquardi. The infected sheep were clinically examined on days 0, 2, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14, 17, and 21, and the blood samples were collected for biochemical parameters measurement. At termination of the experiment, the infected sheep were euthanized and pathological examinations of heart tissue were conducted. During experimental infection of sheep with T. lestoquardi, activities of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase, were significantly increased (P˂0.05), while a conspicuous decrease (P˂0.05) was observed in creatine phosphokinase activities. Alterations made in biochemical factors almost coincided with the presence of piroplasm in the blood and schizont in lymph nodes. Maximum and minimum of parasitemia in the sheep stood between 3.3% and 0.28%, respectively. In addition, electrocardiography revealed sinus tachycardia, sinus arrhythmia, sino-atrial block and ST-elevation, atrial premature beat, and alteration in QRS and in T waves' amplitude. Heart histopathological examination showed hyperemia, infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells into interstitial tissue, endocarditis, and focal necrosis of cardiac muscle cells. In addition, in one of the sheep, definite occurrence of infarction was observed. The results indicate that T. lestoquardi infection has devastating pathological impacts on the cardiovascular system of sheep. Furthermore, measurement of the cTnI amount is a useful biochemical factor for diagnosis and for better understanding of the severity and

  6. [Use of spirometry in the evaluation of the cardiovascular and respiratory system in mitral valve prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Bykorez, V A; Rasputiak, O V

    1993-01-01

    Before the operation, in 103 patients with the defects of the right and left atrioventricular valves, echocardiography and spiro-ergometry were performed. Their performance permitted to reveal latent myocardial incompetence in these patients. Changes in the indices of external respiration and gas exchange at a level of the threshold standard load can serve as objective criteria for assessment of reserve resources of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems and prognosis of the development of acute cardiac failure at the shortest period after the mitral valve replacement. PMID:8139185

  7. [Characteristics of the human cardiovascular system in the human diving response].

    PubMed

    Baranova, T I

    2004-01-01

    Comparative-evolutional research of diving response showed that mechanisms of its expression had much in common in humans and in animals. Firstly, it involves a reflex bradycardia, vasoconstriction of peripheral vessels, and blood flow centralization. But, unlike animals whose diving response has some typical species peculiarities, human diving response is rather diverse. Four types of cardiovascular system response to face submersion were revealed: over-reactive, reactive, paradoxical, and nonreactive. These types were chosen according to the bradycardia character. It is also supposed that the occurrence of individual maximal R--R-interval, while serving as a signal to apnea stopping, is among the reasons of apnea activity limitation. PMID:15143489

  8. White blood cell counts in persons aged 65 years or more from the Cardiovascular Health Study. Correlations with baseline clinical and demographic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bovill, E G; Bild, D E; Heiss, G; Kuller, L H; Lee, M H; Rock, R; Wahl, P W

    1996-06-01

    A higher white blood cell (WBC) count has been shown to be a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke in middle-aged populations. This study evaluated the relation between baseline WBC count and other risk factors, as well as subclinical and prevalent disease, in the Cardiovascular Health Study, an epidemiologic study of coronary heart disease and stroke in 5,201 persons aged 65 years or older. Baseline data were collected over a 12-month period in 1989-1990. WBC counts were statistically significantly higher in people with prevalent and subclinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease than in those who were free of disease. WBC counts correlated (p < 0.01) positively with coagulation factors, measures of glucose metabolism, creatinine, smoking, and triglycerides. In contrast, WBC counts correlated negatively with high density lipoprotein cholesterol, forced expiratory volume, forced vital capacity, and height. The correlations between WBC counts and risk factors were similar in both the entire cohort and the subgroup of persons who had never smoked. The authors conclude that WBC counts in the elderly are associated with prevalent and subclinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, as well as its risk factors. PMID:8633599

  9. Systemic and topical drugs for aging skin.

    PubMed

    Kockaert, Michael; Neumann, Martino

    2003-08-01

    The rejuvenation of aging skin is a common desire for our patients, and several options are available. Although there are some systemic methods, the most commonly used treatments for rejuvenation of the skin are applied topically. The most frequently used topical drugs include retinoids, alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs), vitamin C, beta hydroxy acids, anti-oxidants, and tocopherol. Combination therapy is frequently used; particularly common is the combination of retinoids and AHAs. Systemic therapies available include oral retinoids and vitamin C. Other available therapies such as chemical peels, face-lifts, collagen, and botulinum toxin injections are not discussed in this article. PMID:12884471

  10. The effects of phthalates in the cardiovascular and reproductive systems: A review.

    PubMed

    Mariana, Melissa; Feiteiro, Joana; Verde, Ignacio; Cairrao, Elisa

    2016-09-01

    Every year millions of tons of plastic are produced around the world and humans are increasingly exposed to them. This constant exposure to plastics has raised some concerns against human health, particularly when it comes to phthalates. These compounds have endocrine-disrupting properties, as they have the ability to bind molecular targets in the body and interfere with hormonal function and quantity. The main use of phthalates is to give flexibility to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymers. Phthalates are found in a variety of industrial and consumer products, and as they are not covalently bound to the plastic, phthalates contaminate the environment from which human exposure occurs. Studies in human and animal populations suggest a correlation between phthalate exposure and adverse health outcomes, particularly at the reproductive and cardiovascular systems, however there is much less information about the phthalate toxicity of the later. Thus, the main purpose of this review is to present the studies relating the effects already stated of phthalates on the cardiovascular and reproductive systems, and also present the link between these two systems. PMID:27424259

  11. Space Weather and the State of Cardiovascular System of a Healthy Human Being

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsonov, S. N.; Manykina, V. I.; Krymsky, G. F.; Petrova, P. G.; Palshina, A. M.; Vishnevsky, V. V.

    The term "space weather" characterizes a state of the near-Earth environmental space. An organism of human being represents an open system so the change of conditions in the environment including the near-Earth environmental space influences the health state of a human being.In recent years many works devoted to the effect of space weather on the life on the Earth, and the degree of such effect has been represented from a zero-order up to apocalypse. To reveal a real effect of space weather on the health of human being the international Russian- Ukrainian experiment "Geliomed" is carried out since 2005 (http://geliomed.immsp.kiev.ua) [Vishnevsky et al., 2009]. The analysis of observational set of data has allowed to show a synchronism and globality of such effect (simultaneous manifestation of space weather parameters in a state of cardiovascular system of volunteer groups removed from each other at a distance over 6000 km). The response of volunteer' cardiovascular system to the changes of space weather parameters were observed even at insignificant values of the Earth's geomagnetic field. But even at very considerable disturbances of space weather parameters a human being healthy did not feel painful symptoms though measurements of objective physiological indices showed their changes.

  12. Study of nanosensor systems for hypertension associated cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasamy, Mouli; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2015-04-01

    Hypertension and hypertension associated cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases are on a rise. At-least 970 million people in the world and Seventy percent of the American adults are affected by high blood pressure, also known as hypertension. Even though blood pressure monitoring systems are readily available, the number of people being affected has been increasing. Most of the blood pressure monitoring systems require cumbersome approaches. Even the noninvasive techniques have not lowered the number of people affected nor did at-least increase the user base of these systems. Uncontrolled or untreated hypertension may lead to various cerebrovascular disorders including stroke, hypertensive crisis, lacunar infarcts intracerebral damage, microaneurysm, and cardiovascular disorders including heart failure, myocardial infraction, and ischemic heart disease. Hypertension is rated as the one of the most important causes of premature death in spite of the technical advances in biomedical technology. This paper briefs a review of the widely adopted blood pressure monitoring methods, research techniques, and finally, proposes a concept of implementing nanosensors and wireless communication for real time non-invasive blood pressure monitoring.

  13. Effect of Age on Complexity and Causality of the Cardiovascular Control: Comparison between Model-Based and Model-Free Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Porta, Alberto; Faes, Luca; Bari, Vlasta; Marchi, Andrea; Bassani, Tito; Nollo, Giandomenico; Perseguini, Natália Maria; Milan, Juliana; Minatel, Vinícius; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Takahashi, Anielle C. M.; Catai, Aparecida M.

    2014-01-01

    The proposed approach evaluates complexity of the cardiovascular control and causality among cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms from spontaneous variability of heart period (HP), systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and respiration (RESP). It relies on construction of a multivariate embedding space, optimization of the embedding dimension and a procedure allowing the selection of the components most suitable to form the multivariate embedding space. Moreover, it allows the comparison between linear model-based (MB) and nonlinear model-free (MF) techniques and between MF approaches exploiting local predictability (LP) and conditional entropy (CE). The framework was applied to study age-related modifications of complexity and causality in healthy humans in supine resting (REST) and during standing (STAND). We found that: 1) MF approaches are more efficient than the MB method when nonlinear components are present, while the reverse situation holds in presence of high dimensional embedding spaces; 2) the CE method is the least powerful in detecting age-related trends; 3) the association of HP complexity on age suggests an impairment of cardiac regulation and response to STAND; 4) the relation of SAP complexity on age indicates a gradual increase of sympathetic activity and a reduced responsiveness of vasomotor control to STAND; 5) the association from SAP to HP on age during STAND reveals a progressive inefficiency of baroreflex; 6) the reduced connection from HP to SAP with age might be linked to the progressive exploitation of Frank-Starling mechanism at REST and to the progressive increase of peripheral resistances during STAND; 7) at REST the diminished association from RESP to HP with age suggests a vagal withdrawal and a gradual uncoupling between respiratory activity and heart; 8) the weakened connection from RESP to SAP with age might be related to the progressive increase of left ventricular thickness and vascular stiffness and to the gradual decrease of

  14. Model of human cardiovascular system with a loop of autonomic regulation of the mean arterial pressure.

    PubMed

    Karavaev, Anatoly S; Ishbulatov, Yurii M; Ponomarenko, Vladimir I; Prokhorov, Mikhail D; Gridnev, Vladimir I; Bezruchko, Boris P; Kiselev, Anton R

    2016-03-01

    A model of human cardiovascular system is proposed which describes the main heart rhythm, the regulation of heart function and blood vessels by the autonomic nervous system, baroreflex, and the formation of arterial blood pressure. The model takes into account the impact of respiration on these processes. It is shown that taking into account nonlinearity and introducing the autonomous loop of mean arterial blood pressure in the form of self-oscillating time-delay system allow to obtain the model signals whose statistical and spectral characteristics are qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those for experimental signals. The proposed model demonstrates the phenomenon of synchronization of mean arterial pressure regulatory system by the signal of respiration with the basic period close to 10 seconds, which is observed in the physiological experiments. PMID:26847603

  15. Associations of Pregnancy Complications with Calculated CVD Risk and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Middle Age: The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Abigail; Nelson, Scott M.; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Cherry, Lynne; Butler, Elaine; Sattar, Naveed; Lawlor, Debbie A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The nature and contribution of different pregnancy related complications to future cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors, as well as mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear. Methods and Results We studied associations of pregnancy diabetes, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP), preterm delivery and size for gestational age with calculated 10 year CVD risk (based on the Framingham score) and a wide range of cardiovascular risk factors measured 18 years after pregnancy (mean age at outcome assessment: 48 years) in a prospective cohort of 3,416 women. Gestational diabetes (GDM) was positively associated with fasting glucose and insulin, even after adjusting for potential confounders whilst HDP were associated with BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, lipids and insulin. Large for gestational age (LGA) was associated with greater waist circumference and glucose concentrations, whilst small for gestational age (SGA) and preterm delivery were associated with higher blood pressure. The association with the calculated 10 year CVD risk based on the Framingham prediction score was OR=1.31 (95%CI: 1.11, 1.53) for preeclampsia and 1.26 (0.95, 1.68) for GDM compared to women without preeclampsia and GDM respectively. Conclusions HDP and pregnancy diabetes are independently associated with an increased calculated 10 year CVD risk. Preeclampsia may be the better predictor of future CVD since it was associated with a wider range of cardiovascular risk factors. Our results suggest that pregnancy may be an important opportunity for early identification of women at increased risk of CVD later in life. PMID:22344039

  16. Cardiovascular and lung function in relation to outdoor and indoor exposure to fine and ultrafine particulate matter in middle-aged subjects.

    PubMed

    Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo; Madsen, Anne Mette; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Massling, Andreas; Ketzel, Matthias; Ellermann, Thomas; Lund, Rikke; Sigsgaard, Torben; Møller, Peter; Loft, Steffen

    2014-12-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between exposure to airborne indoor and outdoor particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular and respiratory health in a population-based sample of 58 residences in Copenhagen, Denmark. Over a 2-day period indoor particle number concentrations (PNC, 10-300 nm) and PM2.5 (aerodynamic diameter<2.5 μm) were monitored for each of the residences in the living room, and outdoor PNC (10-280 nm), PM2.5 and PM10 (aerodynamic diameter<10 μm) were monitored at an urban background station in Copenhagen. In the morning, after the 2-day monitoring period, we measured microvascular function (MVF) and lung function and collected blood samples for biomarkers related to inflammation, in 78 middle-aged residents. Bacteria, endotoxin and fungi were analyzed in material from electrostatic dust fall collectors placed in the residences for 4 weeks. Data were analyzed using linear regression with the generalized estimating equation approach. Statistically significant associations were found between indoor PNC, dominated by indoor use of candles, and lower lung function, the prediabetic marker HbA1c and systemic inflammatory markers observed as changes in leukocyte differential count and expression of adhesion markers on monocytes, whereas C-reactive protein was significantly associated with indoor PM2.5. The presence of indoor endotoxin was associated with lower lung function and expression of adhesion markers on monocytes. An inverse association between outdoor PNC and MVF was also statistically significant. The study suggests that PNC in the outdoor environment may be associated with decreased MVF, while PNC, mainly driven by candle burning, and bioaerosols in the indoor environment may have a negative effect on lung function and markers of systemic inflammation and diabetes. PMID:25233101

  17. Dietary Sodium Content, Mortality, and Risk for Cardiovascular Events in Older Adults: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Kalogeropoulos, Andreas P.; Georgiopoulou, Vasiliki V.; Murphy, Rachel A.; Newman, Anne B.; Bauer, Douglas C.; Harris, Tamara B.; Yang, Zhou; Applegate, William B.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Additional information is needed on the role of dietary sodium on health outcomes in older adults. Objective To examine the association between dietary sodium intake and mortality, incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), and incident heart failure (HF) in older adults. Design, Setting, and Participants We analyzed 10-year follow-up data from 2,642 older adults (age 71-80) participating in a community-based, prospective cohort study (inception 1997-98). Exposure Dietary sodium intake at baseline was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We examined sodium intake both as a continuous and as a categorical variable (<1500mg/d [N=291; 11.0%]; 1500–2300mg/d [N=779; 29.5%]; and >2300mg/d [N=1572; 59.5%]. Main Outcomes Adjudicated death, incident CVD, and incident HF over 10-years of follow-up. Analysis of incident CVD was restricted to those without prevalent CVD (N=1981) at baseline. Results Average age of participants was 73.6±2.9 years; 51.2% were women; 61.7% white; and 38.3% black. After 10 years, 881 participants had died, 572 developed CVD and 398 developed HF. In adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, sodium intake was not associated with mortality (HR per 1g, 1.03; 95%CI 0.98–1.09; P=0.27). Ten-year mortality was nonsignificantly lower in the 1500–2300-mg group (30.7%) compared to the <1500-mg (33.8%) and >2300-mg (35.2%) groups; P=0.074. Sodium intake >2300mg/d was associated with nonsignificantly higher mortality in adjusted models (HR vs. 1500–2300 mg/d, 1.15; 95%CI 0.99–1.35; P=0.072). Indexing sodium intake for caloric intake and body mass index did not materially affect the results. Adjusted HR for mortality was 1.20 (95%CI 0.93–1.54; P=0.16) per mg/kcal sodium and 1.11 (95%CI 0.96–1.28; P=0.17) per 100mg/kg/m2 sodium. In adjusted models accounting for the competing risk of death, sodium intake was not associated with risk for CVD (HR per 1g, 1.03; 95%CI 0.95–1.11; P=0.47) or HF (HR per 1g, 1.00; 95%CI 0.92–1

  18. Antidepressant use and risk of cardiovascular outcomes in people aged 20 to 64: cohort study using primary care database

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Trevor; Morriss, Richard; Moore, Michael; Arthur, Antony; Hippisley-Cox, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess associations between different antidepressant treatments and rates of three cardiovascular outcomes (myocardial infarction, stroke or transient ischaemic attack, and arrhythmia) in people with depression. Design Cohort study. Setting UK general practices contributing to the QResearch primary care database. Participants 238 963 patients aged 20 to 64 years with a first diagnosis of depression between 1 January 2000 and 31 July 2011. Exposures Antidepressant class (tricyclic and related antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, other antidepressants), dose, duration of use, and commonly prescribed individual antidepressant drugs. Main outcome measures First diagnoses of myocardial infarction, stroke or transient ischaemic attack, and arrhythmia during five years’ follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios, adjusting for potential confounding variables. Results During five years of follow-up, 772 patients had a myocardial infarction, 1106 had a stroke or transient ischaemic attack, and 1452 were diagnosed as having arrhythmia. No significant associations were found between antidepressant class and myocardial infarction over five years’ follow-up. In the first year of follow-up, patients treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors had a significantly reduced risk of myocardial infarction (adjusted hazard ratio 0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.42 to 0.79) compared with no use of antidepressants; among individual drugs, fluoxetine was associated with a significantly reduced risk (0.44, 0.27 to 0.72) and lofepramine with a significantly increased risk (3.07, 1.50 to 6.26). No significant associations were found between antidepressant class or individual drugs and risk of stroke or transient ischaemic attack. Antidepressant class was not significantly associated with arrhythmia over five years’ follow-up, although the risk was significantly increased during the first 28 days of

  19. Cardiovascular Effects Caused by Increasing Concentrations of Diesel Exhaust in Middle-Aged Healthy GSTM1 Null Human Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT Objectives: Epidemiological studies have shown an association between the incidence of adverse cardiovascular effects and exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM). Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major contributor to ambient PM in urban areas. This study was designed to e...

  20. Uncoupling of the autonomic and cardiovascular systems in acute brain injury.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, B; Toweill, D; Lai, S; Sonnenthal, K; Kimberly, B

    1998-10-01

    We hypothesized that acute brain injury results in decreased heart rate (HR) variability and baroreflex sensitivity indicative of uncoupling of the autonomic and cardiovascular systems and that the degree of uncoupling should be proportional to the degree of neurological injury. We used HR and blood pressure (BP) power spectral analysis to measure neuroautonomic regulation of HR and BP and the transfer function magnitude (TF) between BP and HR as a measure of baroreflex modulation of HR. In 24 brain-injured patients [anoxic/ischemic injury (n = 7), multiple trauma (n = 6), head trauma (n = 5), central nervous system infection (n = 4), and intracranial hemorrhage (n = 2)], neurological injury and survival was associated with low-frequency (0.01-0.15 Hz) HR and BP power and TF. Brain-dead patients showed decreased low-frequency HR power [0. 51 +/- 0.36 (SE) vs. 2.54 +/- 0.14 beats/min2, P = 0.03] and TF [0. 61 +/- 0.16 (SE) vs. 1.29 +/- 0.07 beats . min-1 . mmHg-1, P = 0.05] compared with non-brain-dead patients. We conclude that 1) severity of neurological injury and outcome are inversely associated with HR and BP variability and 2) there is direct evidence for cardiovascular and autonomic uncoupling in acute brain injury with complete uncoupling during brain death. PMID:9756562

  1. Development of a mathematical model of the human cardiovascular system: An educational perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Bruce Allen

    A mathematical model of the human cardiovascular system will be a useful educational tool in biological sciences and bioengineering classrooms. The goal of this project is to develop a mathematical model of the human cardiovascular system that responds appropriately to variations of significant physical variables. Model development is based on standard fluid statics and dynamics principles, pressure-volume characteristics of the cardiac cycle, and compliant behavior of blood vessels. Cardiac cycle phases provide the physical and logical model structure, and Boolean algebra links model sections. The model is implemented using VisSim, a highly intuitive and easily learned block diagram modeling software package. Comparisons of model predictions of key variables to published values suggest that the model reasonably approximates expected behavior of those variables. The model responds plausibly to variations of independent variables. Projected usefulness of the model as an educational tool is threefold: independent variables which determine heart function may be easily varied to observe cause and effect; the model is used in an interactive setting; and the relationship of governing equations to model behavior is readily viewable and intuitive. Future use of this model in classrooms may give a more reasonable indication of its value as an educational tool.* *This dissertation includes a CD that is multimedia (contains text and other applications that are not available in a printed format). The CD requires the following applications: CorelPhotoHouse, CorelWordPerfect, VisSinViewer (included on CD), Internet access.

  2. Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of the embryonic murine cardiovascular system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wei; Marks, Daniel L.; Ralston, Tyler S.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2006-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging high-resolution real-time biomedical imaging technology that has potential as a novel investigational tool in developmental biology and functional genomics. In this study, murine embryos and embryonic hearts are visualized with an OCT system capable of 2-µm axial and 15-µm lateral resolution and with real-time acquisition rates. We present, to our knowledge, the first sets of high-resolution 2- and 3-D OCT images that reveal the internal structures of the mammalian (murine) embryo (E10.5) and embryonic (E14.5 and E17.5) cardiovascular system. Strong correlations are observed between OCT images and corresponding hematoxylin- and eosin-stained histological sections. Real-time in vivo embryonic (E10.5) heart activity is captured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, processed, and displayed at a continuous rate of five frames per second. With the ability to obtain not only high-resolution anatomical data but also functional information during cardiovascular development, the OCT technology has the potential to visualize and quantify changes in murine development and in congenital and induced heart disease, as well as enable a wide range of basic in vitro and in vivo research studies in functional genomics.

  3. Functional plasticity of the developing cardiovascular system: examples from different vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Pelster, Bernd; Gittenberger-de Groot, A C; Poelmann, R E; Rombough, Peter; Schwerte, Thorsten; Thompson, Michael B

    2010-01-01

    Technical advances that have made it possible to perform physiological measurements on very small organisms, including those in embryonic and larval stages, have resulted in the formation of the discipline of developmental physiology. The transparency and size of developing organisms in some areas permit insights into physiological processes that cannot be obtained with opaque, adult organisms. On the other hand, it is widely accepted that without eggs, there are no chickens, so physiological adaptations during early life are just as important to species survival as those manifested by adults. Physiological adaptations of early developmental stages, however, are not always the same as patterns known in adults; they often follow their own rules. The adaptability of early developmental stages demonstrates that development is not stereotyped and a phenotype is not just the result of genetic information and the expression of a certain series of genes. Environmental factors influence phenotype production, and this in turn results in flexibility and plasticity in physiological processes. This article comprises exemplary studies presented at the Fourth International Conference in Africa for Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry (Maasai Mara, Kenya, 2008). It includes a brief introduction into technical advances, discusses the developing cardiovascular system of various vertebrates, and demonstrates the flexibility and plasticity of early developmental stages. Fluid forces, oxygen availability, ionic homeostasis, and the chemical environment (including, e.g., hormone concentrations or cholesterol levels) all contribute to the shaping and performance of the cardiovascular system. PMID:20687830

  4. Energy harvesting from the cardiovascular system, or how to get a little help from yourself.

    PubMed

    Pfenniger, Alois; Jonsson, Magnus; Zurbuchen, Adrian; Koch, Volker M; Vogel, Rolf

    2013-11-01

    Human energy harvesting is envisioned as a remedy to the weight, the size, and the poor energy density of primary batteries in medical implants. The first implant to have necessarily raised the idea of a biological power supply was the pacemaker in the early 1960s. So far, review articles on human energy harvesting have been rather unspecific and no tribute has been given to the early role of the pacemaker and the cardiovascular system in triggering research in the field. The purpose of the present article is to provide an up-to-date review of research efforts targeting the cardiovascular system as an alternative energy source for active medical implants. To this end, a chronological survey of the last 14 most influential publications is proposed. They include experimental and/or theoretical studies based on electromagnetic, piezoelectric, or electrostatic transducers harnessing various forms of energy, such as heart motion, pressure gradients, and blood flow. Technical feasibility does not imply clinical applicability: although most of the reported devices were shown to harvest an interesting amount of energy from a physiological environment, none of them were tested in vivo for a longer period of time. PMID:23949656

  5. Knowledge and awareness of risk factors for cardiovascular disease among Canadians 55 to 74 years of age: results from the Canadian Heart Health Surveys, 1986-1992

    PubMed Central

    Kirkland, SA; MacLean, DR; Langille, DB; Joffres, MR; MacPherson, KM; Andreou, P

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and disability in older people, who account for an increasing proportion of Canada's population. Knowledge and awareness of risk factors is essential for changes in behaviour, yet little is known about these issues in older people. The Canadian Heart Health Surveys database provides a unique resource to examine knowledge and awareness of cardiovascular risk factors in older Canadians. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study used data from the Canadian provinces' Heart Health Surveys, for the years 1986 to 1992. Sampling within each province consisted of stratified, 2-stage, replicated probability samples; 4976 people 55 to 74 years of age were included in the present analysis. Knowledge and awareness of cardiovascular risk factors was determined from the survey question "Can you tell me what are the major causes of heart disease or heart problems?" Blood pressure was measured during a home visit; anthropometric and blood measurements were obtained during a clinic visit. Cardiovascular health status was determined by self-reporting. RESULTS: Smoking and stress or worry were mentioned as major causes of heart disease by the greatest proportion of participants (41% and 44% respectively); hypertension was mentioned by only 16%. Men and women did not differ in their awareness of high blood cholesterol (cited by 23% of participants), smoking (41%), excess weight (30%) or lack of exercise (28%) as causes of heart disease. A greater proportion of women than men were aware of hypertension (19% v. 12%) and heredity (31% v. 17%) as major causes of heart disease. Awareness of risk factors was consistently lower in the older age group (65-74 v. 55-64 years). Among women, there was greater awareness of the respective risk factors as causes of heart disease among those who were smokers (60% v. 35% of nonsmokers), those who had a body mass index (BMI) of 25 or greater (38% v. 24% of those with a BMI less than

  6. Milan PM1 Induces Adverse Effects on Mice Lungs and Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Farina, Francesca; Sancini, Giulio; Longhin, Eleonora; Mantecca, Paride; Camatini, Marina; Palestini, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested a link between inhaled particulate matter (PM) exposure and increased mortality and morbidity associated with cardiorespiratory diseases. Since the response to PM1 has not yet been deeply investigated, its impact on mice lungs and cardiovascular system is here examined. A repeated exposure to Milan PM1 was performed on BALB/c mice. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf) and the lung parenchyma were screened for markers of inflammation (cell counts, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2); heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1); nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells p50 subunit (NFκB-p50); inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS); endothelial-selectin (E-selectin)), cytotoxicity (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); alkaline phosphatase (ALP); heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70); caspase-8-p18), and a putative pro-carcinogenic marker (cytochrome 1B1 (Cyp1B1)). Heart tissue was tested for HO-1, caspase-8-p18, NFκB-p50, iNOS, E-selectin, and myeloperoxidase (MPO); plasma was screened for markers of platelet activation and clot formation (soluble platelet-selectin (sP-selectin); fibrinogen; plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1)). PM1 triggers inflammation and cytotoxicity in lungs. A similar cytotoxic effect was observed on heart tissues, while plasma analyses suggest blood-endothelium interface activation. These data highlight the importance of lung inflammation in mediating adverse cardiovascular events following increase in ambient PM1 levels, providing evidences of a positive correlation between PM1 exposure and cardiovascular morbidity. PMID:23509745

  7. An optical multi-sensing system for detection of cardiovascular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Koo, Kyo-in; Kim, Sang Bok; Kim, Keekyoung; Oh, Jonghyun

    2014-05-01

    A mini-microscope-based system for multisite detection of cardiovascular toxicity was developed. The mini-microscope consisted of an image sensor and lens module extracted from an inexpensive webcam. The flipped lens module enabled cells to be magnified and monitored during testing. The portability and compactness of this system enables short-term and potential long-term experimentation inside a conventional incubator. The toxicity test results demonstrated that the normalized beating rates of cardiac muscle cells selected from multiple regions increased over time when treated with 100 nM isoprenaline. The presented system could be a promising cost-effective cell-based testing tool for discovering and screening drugs. PMID:24563288

  8. Design and implementation of multimedia display system for electronic cardiovascular conferences with radiological consultation services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianguo; Stahl, Johannes N.; Li, Gaoping; Huang, H. K.; Liu, Jun; Li, Jian; Zhou, Peng

    2000-04-01

    We present a networked multimedia display system based on component technologies for the electronic cardiovascular conferences with radiological consultation services. The system consists of two parts: a data acquisition gateway and a multimedia display workstation. The acquisition gateway is used to collect digital data from difference modalities and authorize them in different sessions for conference presentation. The display workstation is used to display static/dynamic radiographic images, or video sequences, ECG and other text information. The display program is designed with functions of image processing, multimedia data manipulation and visualization. In addition, the workstation also integrates with a real time tele-consultation component for the necessary consultation between cardiologists and remote radiologists equipped with a tele-consultation workstation. Finally, we discuss the system clinical performance and the applications.

  9. THE AGE OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM REVISITED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadhwa, M.; Bouvier, A.

    2009-12-01

    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in chondritic meteorites are believed to be the earliest solids to form in solar protoplanetary disk [1]. As such, their absolute ages have been taken to represent the time of formation of the Solar System. Recently, several high precision Pb-Pb studies of CAIs from the CV3 chondrites Efremovka and Allende have been conducted, and estimates of the Pb-Pb ages for CAIs range from 4567.1 ± 0.1 Ma [2] to 4568.5 ± 0.5 Ma [3]. This age range of ~1-2 Ma is significantly larger than the time interval for CAI formation estimated from 26Al-26Mg isotope systematics [4,5]. To resolve the question of the absolute formation age of CAIs and to, thereby, obtain better constrains on the age of the Solar System, we have conducted high precision Pb-Pb and Al-Mg studies of CAIs from the CV3 meteorites Allende, Leoville and NWA 2364 [6-8]. Our results show that the initial 26Al/27Al ratio in these CAIs at the time of last equilibration of Mg isotopes was, within errors, the same as the canonical value (i.e., ~5 × 10^-5) and that this equilibration event for each of these CAIs occurred within a span of ~300,000 years. We obtained a Pb-Pb internal isochron age for an Allende CAI (based on 3 leached residues of interior fragments and 1 radiogenic leachate having 206Pb/204Pb ratios up to ~3,500) of 4567.6 ± 0.1 Ma (MSWD = 0.2) [6]. For the NWA 2364 CAI, however, we obtained an older Pb-Pb internal isochron age of 4568.7 ± 0.2 Ma (MSWD = 1.4) [7] based on even more radiogenic compositions than those that we obtained for the Allende CAI (3 leached residues of interior fragments and their most radiogenic leachates having 206Pb/204Pb ratios up to ~10,200). This older age is consistent with the Hf-W and Al-Mg model ages of CAIs, if these short-lived chronometers are anchored to the angrite D’Orbigny for which precise Pb-Pb, Al-Mg and Hf-W systematics were recently reported [9-11]. If the older age of 4568.7 ± 0.2 Ma for the NWA 2364 CAI represents

  10. Cardiovascular Diseases in HIV-infected Subjects (HIV-HEART Study)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2010-05-07

    Detection of Frequency, Severity and Progression of Cardiovascular Diseases in Patients With HIV-infection.; Effect on Cardiovascular Risk and Life Quality by Age, Gender, Classic Cardiovascular Risk Factors,; HIV-specific Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Cardiovascular Medication, Antiretroviral Medication

  11. Obesity and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Jokinen, E

    2015-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of mortality in rich countries and today it has the same meaning for health care as the epidemics of past centuries had for medicine in earlier times: 50% of the population in these countries die of cardiovascular disease. The amount of cardiovascular disease is also increasing in the developing countries together with economic growth. By 2015 one in three deaths will globally be due to cardiovascular diseases. Coronary heart disease is a chronic disease that starts in childhood, even if the symptoms first occur in the middle age. The risks for coronary heart disease are well-known: lipid disorders, especially high serum LDL-cholesterol concentration, high blood pressure, tobacco smoking, obesity, diabetes, male gender and physical inactivity. Obesity is both an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease but is also closely connected with several other risk factors. This review focuses on the connection between overweight or obesity and cardiovascular disease. PMID:25387321

  12. Aging of immune system: Immune signature from peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in 1068 healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Ling; Jing, Xie; Qiu, Zhifeng; Cao, Wei; Jiao, Yang; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Li, Taisheng

    2016-01-01

    Aging is a major risk factor for several conditions including neurodegenerative, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Functional impairments in cellular pathways controlling genomic stability, and immune control have been identified. Biomarker of immune senescence is needed to improve vaccine response and to develop therapy to improve immune control. To identify phenotypic signature of circulating immune cells with aging, we enrolled 1068 Chinese healthy volunteers ranging from 18 to 80 years old. The decreased naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, increased memory CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, loss of CD28 expression on T cells and reverse trend of CD38 and HLA-DR, were significant for aging of immune system. Conversely, the absolute counts and percentage of NK cells and CD19+B cells maintained stable in aging individuals. The Chinese reference ranges of absolute counts and percentage of peripheral lymphocyte in this study might be useful for future clinical evaluation. PMID:26886066

  13. Feasability of a ARFI/B-mode/Doppler system for real-time, freehand scanning of the cardiovascular system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, Douglas M.; Lee, Seung-Yun; Doherty, Joshua R.; Trahey, Gregg E.

    2011-03-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging has been previously described for the visualization of the cardiovascular system, including assessment of cerebral and lower-limb vascular disease, myocardial function, and cardiac RF ablation monitoring. Given that plaque imposes a 3-dimensional burden on the artery and that accurate visualization of all lesion borders are important for ablation guidance, it would be convenient if an entire plaque or lesion volume could be acquired, either using a 3D system or 2D freehand scanning. Currently, ARFI imaging uses single-frame acquisition, with acquisition times ranging from 100-200ms. Such a system would be cumbersome for real-time, freehand scanning. In this work, we evaluate the feasibility of using ARFI for freehand, real-time scanning of the cardiovascular system. New techniques are presented which acquire B-mode / ARFI/ and Color-flow Doppler (BACD) information in less than 50 ms. Freehand feasibility is evaluated by sweeping the BACD system across lesion phantoms and vascular phantoms modeling a thin-cap fibroatheroma at sweep rates currently utilized in conventional B-mode systems. Stationary in vivo BACD images were then formed from the carotid artery of a canine model, demonstrating the system's potential. The results suggest that little loss in either ARFI or Doppler quality occurs during translational-stage controlled, quasi-freehand sweeps.

  14. Sent to destroy: the ubiquitin proteasome system regulates cell signaling and protein quality control in cardiovascular development and disease.

    PubMed

    Willis, Monte S; Townley-Tilson, W H Davin; Kang, Eunice Y; Homeister, Jonathon W; Patterson, Cam

    2010-02-19

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) plays a crucial role in biological processes integral to the development of the cardiovascular system and cardiovascular diseases. The UPS prototypically recognizes specific protein substrates and places polyubiquitin chains on them for subsequent destruction by the proteasome. This system is in place to degrade not only misfolded and damaged proteins, but is essential also in regulating a host of cell signaling pathways involved in proliferation, adaptation to stress, regulation of cell size, and cell death. During the development of the cardiovascular system, the UPS regulates cell signaling by modifying transcription factors, receptors, and structural proteins. Later, in the event of cardiovascular diseases as diverse as atherosclerosis, cardiac hypertrophy, and ischemia/reperfusion injury, ubiquitin ligases and the proteasome are implicated in protecting and exacerbating clinical outcomes. However, when misfolded and damaged proteins are ubiquitinated by the UPS, their destruction by the proteasome is not always possible because of their aggregated confirmations. Recent studies have discovered how these ubiquitinated misfolded proteins can be destroyed by alternative "specific" mechanisms. The cytosolic receptors p62, NBR, and histone deacetylase 6 recognize aggregated ubiquitinated proteins and target them for autophagy in the process of "selective autophagy." Even the ubiquitination of multiple proteins within whole organelles that drive the more general macro-autophagy may be due, in part, to similar ubiquitin-driven mechanisms. In summary, the crosstalk between the UPS and autophagy highlight the pivotal and diverse roles the UPS plays in maintaining protein quality control and regulating cardiovascular development and disease. PMID:20167943

  15. Circulating interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 concentrations are closely associated with γ-glutamyltranspeptidase activity in middle-aged Japanese men without obvious cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Kazuki; Misaki, Yasumi; Miyauchi, Rie; Takabe, Satsuki; Shimada, Masaya; Miyoshi, Noriyuki; Ichikawa, Yoko; Goda, Toshinao

    2011-07-01

    Interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 expressions are known to be induced by oxidant stress. In the present study, we examined the relationships between these interleukins and the activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (γ-GTP), which was recently reported as a source of oxidant stress production, in the circulating blood of middle-aged Japanese men without obvious cardiovascular diseases. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 317 Japanese men without obvious cardiovascular diseases aged 40 to 69 years (mean ± SD, 58.6 ± 7.6 years) who participated in health checkups in Japan. We analyzed their clinical parameters in serum, lifestyle factors, and plasma IL-1β and IL-6 concentrations. We compared the relationships between these interleukin concentrations and the clinical parameters and lifestyle factors by Spearman correlation coefficients. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses for interleukins based on the other parameters and γ-GTP, which were classified into 3 groups according to the concentrations, were performed. Interleukin-1β and IL-6 concentrations were closely associated with γ-GTP activity but less associated with alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities by Spearman correlation coefficients. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses showed that γ-GTP activity was the explanatory variable for elevated IL-1β and IL-6 concentrations. As natural logarithms, the IL-1β and IL-6 concentrations were estimated to be 1.734- and 1.157-fold higher, respectively, in subjects with high γ-GTP activity ranges than in subjects with a low γ-GTP activity range. The present results show that circulating IL-1β and IL-6 concentrations are strongly and independently associated with γ-GTP activity in middle-aged Japanese men without obvious cardiovascular diseases. PMID:20934730

  16. The influence of neighbourhood-level socioeconomic deprivation on cardiovascular disease mortality in older age: longitudinal multilevel analyses from a cohort of older British men

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, S E; Morris, R W; Whincup, P H; Subramanian, S V; Papacosta, A O; Lennon, Lucy T; Wannamethee, S G

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence from longitudinal studies on the influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic factors in older age on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is limited. We aimed to investigate the prospective association of neighbourhood-level deprivation in later life with CVD mortality, and assess the underlying role of established cardiovascular risk factors. Methods A socially representative cohort of 3924 men, aged 60–79 years in 1998–2000, from 24 British towns, was followed up until 2012 for CVD mortality. Quintiles of the national Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD), a composite score of neighbourhood-level factors (including income, employment, education, housing and living environment) were used. Multilevel logistic regression with discrete-time models (stratifying follow-up time into months) were used. Results Over 12 years, 1545 deaths occurred, including 580 from CVD. The risk of CVD mortality showed a graded increase from IMD quintile 1 (least deprived) to 5 (most deprived). Compared to quintile 1, the age-adjusted odds of CVD mortality in quintile 5 were 1.71 (95% CI 1.32 to 2.21), and 1.62 (95% CI 1.23 to 2.13) on further adjustment for individual social class, which was attenuated slightly to 1.44 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.89), but remained statistically significant after adjustment for smoking, body mass index, physical activity and use of alcohol. Further adjustment for blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and prevalent diabetes made little difference. Conclusions Neighbourhood-level deprivation was associated with an increased risk of CVD mortality in older people independent of individual-level social class and cardiovascular risk factors. The role of other specific neighbourhood-level factors merits further research. PMID:26285580

  17. Immune System: Can Your Immune System Still Defend You As You Age?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aging Heath and Aging Biology of Aging IMMUNE SYSTEM: Can Your Immune System Still Defend You As You Age? Elementary schools ... protection in older individuals. Organs of the Immune System Adapted from www.niaid.nih.gov The Future ...

  18. Neutral endopeptidase inhibition and the natriuretic peptide system: an evolving strategy in cardiovascular therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Mangiafico, Sarah; Costello-Boerrigter, Lisa C.; Andersen, Ingrid A.; Cataliotti, Alessandro; Burnett, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension and heart failure (HF) are common diseases that, despite advances in medical therapy, continue to be associated with high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, innovative therapeutic strategies are needed. Inhibition of the neutral endopeptidase (NEPinh) had been investigated as a potential novel therapeutic approach because of its ability to increase the plasma concentrations of the natriuretic peptides (NPs). Indeed, the NPs have potent natriuretic and vasodilator properties, inhibit the activity of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, lower sympathetic drive, and have antiproliferative and antihypertrophic effects. Such potentially beneficial effects can be theoretically achieved by the use of NEPinh. However, studies have shown that NEPinh alone does not result in clinically meaningful blood pressure-lowering actions. More recently, NEPinh has been used in combination with other cardiovascular agents, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and antagonists of the angiotensin receptor. Another future possible combination would be the use of NEPinh with NPs or their newly developed chimeric peptides. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the use and effects of NEPinh alone or in combination with other therapeutic agents for the treatment of human cardiovascular disease such as HF and hypertension. PMID:22942338

  19. Multi-scale Modeling of the Cardiovascular System: Disease Development, Progression, and Clinical Intervention.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanhang; Barocas, Victor H; Berceli, Scott A; Clancy, Colleen E; Eckmann, David M; Garbey, Marc; Kassab, Ghassan S; Lochner, Donna R; McCulloch, Andrew D; Tran-Son-Tay, Roger; Trayanova, Natalia A

    2016-09-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death in the western world. With the current development of clinical diagnostics to more accurately measure the extent and specifics of CVDs, a laudable goal is a better understanding of the structure-function relation in the cardiovascular system. Much of this fundamental understanding comes from the development and study of models that integrate biology, medicine, imaging, and biomechanics. Information from these models provides guidance for developing diagnostics, and implementation of these diagnostics to the clinical setting, in turn, provides data for refining the models. In this review, we introduce multi-scale and multi-physical models for understanding disease development, progression, and designing clinical interventions. We begin with multi-scale models of cardiac electrophysiology and mechanics for diagnosis, clinical decision support, personalized and precision medicine in cardiology with examples in arrhythmia and heart failure. We then introduce computational models of vasculature mechanics and associated mechanical forces for understanding vascular disease progression, designing clinical interventions, and elucidating mechanisms that underlie diverse vascular conditions. We conclude with a discussion of barriers that must be overcome to provide enhanced insights, predictions, and decisions in pre-clinical and clinical applications. PMID:27138523

  20. Vascular peroxidase 1: a novel enzyme in promoting oxidative stress in cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qi-Lin; Zhang, Guo-Gang; Peng, Jun

    2013-07-01

    Vascular peroxidase 1 (VPO1) is a recently identified novel family member of peroxidases in cardiovascular system. As an enzyme that is downstream of NADPH oxidases (NOX), VPO1 functions to utilize NOX - derived hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to produce hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a strong oxidant which is believed to greatly promote oxidative stress. Under multiple conditions, NOX is activated concomitantly with an increase in superoxide anion (O2(.-)) and H2O2 production. The latter is converted to HOCl by VPO1. In this process (O2(.-) → H2O2 → HOCl), the oxidant reactivities of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are significantly increased and therefore the oxidative stress is dramatically amplified. Several lines of evidence suggest that the NOX/VPO1 pathway - mediated oxidative stress plays an important role in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, endothelial cell apoptosis and/or smooth muscle cell proliferation. In addition, VPO1 can be secreted into the extracellular space to participate in extracellular matrix formation, suggesting that VPO1 may also play a role in cardiovascular remodeling (such as fibrosis). This function is independent of the peroxidase activity of VPO1. PMID:23357484

  1. Modeling the cardiovascular system using a nonlinear additive autoregressive model with exogenous input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedl, M.; Suhrbier, A.; Malberg, H.; Penzel, T.; Bretthauer, G.; Kurths, J.; Wessel, N.

    2008-07-01

    The parameters of heart rate variability and blood pressure variability have proved to be useful analytical tools in cardiovascular physics and medicine. Model-based analysis of these variabilities additionally leads to new prognostic information about mechanisms behind regulations in the cardiovascular system. In this paper, we analyze the complex interaction between heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and respiration by nonparametric fitted nonlinear additive autoregressive models with external inputs. Therefore, we consider measurements of healthy persons and patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), with and without hypertension. It is shown that the proposed nonlinear models are capable of describing short-term fluctuations in heart rate as well as systolic blood pressure significantly better than similar linear ones, which confirms the assumption of nonlinear controlled heart rate and blood pressure. Furthermore, the comparison of the nonlinear and linear approaches reveals that the heart rate and blood pressure variability in healthy subjects is caused by a higher level of noise as well as nonlinearity than in patients suffering from OSAS. The residue analysis points at a further source of heart rate and blood pressure variability in healthy subjects, in addition to heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and respiration. Comparison of the nonlinear models within and among the different groups of subjects suggests the ability to discriminate the cohorts that could lead to a stratification of hypertension risk in OSAS patients.

  2. System identification of closed-loop cardiovascular control mechanisms: diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, R.; Mathias, J. M.; Mullen, T. J.; Cohen, R. J.; Freeman, R.

    1999-01-01

    We applied cardiovascular system identification (CSI) to characterize closed-loop cardiovascular regulation in patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN). The CSI method quantitatively analyzes beat-to-beat fluctuations in noninvasively measured heart rate, arterial blood pressure (ABP), and instantaneous lung volume (ILV) to characterize four physiological coupling mechanisms, two of which are autonomically mediated (the heart rate baroreflex and the coupling of respiration, measured in terms of ILV, to heart rate) and two of which are mechanically mediated (the coupling of ventricular contraction to the generation of the ABP wavelet and the coupling of respiration to ABP). We studied 37 control and 60 diabetic subjects who were classified as having minimal, moderate, or severe DAN on the basis of standard autonomic tests. The autonomically mediated couplings progressively decreased with increasing severity of DAN, whereas the mechanically mediated couplings were essentially unchanged. CSI identified differences between the minimal DAN and control groups, which were indistinguishable based on the standard autonomic tests. CSI may provide a powerful tool for assessing DAN.

  3. Mechanical Regulation of Cardiac Aging in Model Systems.

    PubMed

    Sessions, Ayla O; Engler, Adam J

    2016-05-13

    Unlike diet and exercise, which individuals can modulate according to their lifestyle, aging is unavoidable. With normal or healthy aging, the heart undergoes extensive vascular, cellular, and interstitial molecular changes that result in stiffer less compliant hearts that experience a general decline in organ function. Although these molecular changes deemed cardiac remodeling were once thought to be concomitant with advanced cardiovascular disease, they can be found in patients without manifestation of clinical disease. It is now mostly acknowledged that these age-related mechanical changes confer vulnerability of the heart to cardiovascular stresses associated with disease, such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. However, recent studies have aimed at differentiating the initial compensatory changes that occur within the heart with age to maintain contractile function from the maladaptive responses associated with disease. This work has identified new targets to improve cardiac function during aging. Spanning invertebrate to vertebrate models, we use this review to delineate some hallmarks of physiological versus pathological remodeling that occur in the cardiomyocyte and its microenvironment, focusing especially on the mechanical changes that occur within the sarcomere, intercalated disc, costamere, and extracellular matrix. PMID:27174949

  4. A universal number for wave reflection optimization of the mammalian cardiovascular system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahlevan, Niema; Gharib, Morteza

    2015-11-01

    Quantifying the optimum arterial wave reflection and systemic arterial function is essential to the evaluation of optimal cardiovascular system (CVS) operation. The CVS function depends on both the dynamics of the heart and wave dynamics of the arterial network. Here, we are introducing a universal dimensionless number, called wave condition number (α) that quantifies the arterial wave reflection. An in-vitro experimental approach, utilizing a unique hydraulic model was used to quantify α in human aortas with a wide range of aortic rigidities. Our results indicate that the optimum value of the wave condition number is 0.1 at each level of aortic rigidity. Looking into mammals of various size (from mice to elephant), our results show that the optimum wave condition number remains 0.1 and is universal among all mammals. Clinical applications and the relevancy of the wave condition number will also be discussed.

  5. Unusual fistulas and connections in the cardiovascular system: A pictorial review

    PubMed Central

    Ghandour, Abed; Rajiah, Prabhakar

    2014-01-01

    A fistula is an abnormal vascular connection leading to diversion of blood from a high resistance arterial circuit to low resistance venous circuit. Coronary artery fistulas are abnormal communications of the coronary artery with a chamber of the heart, or with any segment of systemic or pulmonary circulation, bypassing the myocardial capillaries. Other unusual fistulas include connection between aorta and the right atrium/superior vena cava, aorta and the inferior vena cava or between a coronary artery bypass graft and a cardiac vein. Abnormal connections also include origin of the coronary artery from the pulmonary artery. In this article, we review the imaging, particularly computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of unusual fistulas and connections involving the cardiovascular system, particularly the coronary arteries and the aorta. PMID:24876921

  6. Computer systems analysis of the cardiovascular mechanisms of reentry orthostasis in astronauts.

    PubMed

    Summers, R L; Coleman, T G

    2002-01-01

    Reentry orthostasis secondary to a prolonged exposure to microgravity is a common problem among astronauts. However, the physiologic mechanisms are poorly understood due to the many control systems involved. In this study an advanced computer model of cardiovascular functioning was employed in a systems analysis approach to clarify the relative importance of some of the adaptive physiologic processes engaged when humans return from space. After simulation of the conditions of zero gravity for one month, the model predicted that the change in capacitance of the lower extremity veins resulting from a loss of external fluid forces in the dehydrated extracellular compartment was the dominant mechanism associated with reentry orthostasis. This condition appears accentuated in women due to their inherent lower center of gravity and proportionately larger mass in the lower extremities. PMID:14686452

  7. [Vascular endothelium as a factor in information transfer between the cardiovascular and immune systems].

    PubMed

    Stvrtinová, V; Ferencík, M; Hulín, I; Jahnová, E

    1998-01-01

    In health, the vascular endothelium forms a multifunctional interface between the circulating blood and various tissues and organs of the body. It constitutes a selectively permeable barrier for macromolecules, as well as a nonthrombogenic and nonadhesive container that actively maintains the fluidity of blood. It is a metabolically active endocrine organ, serving as the source of multiple factors and mediators that are critical for normal homeostasis. These include vasodilators (nitric oxide, prostacyclin, endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor), vasoconstrictors (endothelin-1, thromboxane A2, prostaglandin H2 and components of the renin angiotensin system), various pro- and antithrombotic factors (e.g. tissue factor, platelet activating factor--PAF, von Willebrand factor), fibrinolytic activators and inhibitors (e.g. tissue plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1), potent arachidonate metabolites (prostanoids), leukocyte adhesion molecules (e.g. E-selectin, P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1--ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1--VCAM-1), and multiple cytokines with activities of growth stimulators and inhibitors, transforming growth factors, proinflammatory and antiinflammatory mediators, tumour necrosis factors and chemotactic factors (chemokines). Besides these essential activities controlling the cardiovascular system, the endothelial cells represent an important part of the immune system as well. They have a pivotal role in the initiation and development of defensive and damaging inflammatory responses. Therefore endothelium can be considered as being the central equipment for the mutual exchange of life important information between the cardiovascular and immune systems. This in turn is leading to rapid advances in understanding the pathogenesis of some of the most serious and most common diseases, including inflammation, atherosclerosis and hypertension. (Tab. 7, Ref. 89.) PMID:9588073

  8. Cuffless Blood Pressure Estimation with Photoplethysmograph Signal by Classifying on Account of Cardiovascular Characteristics of Old Aged Patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Satomi; Oguri, Koji

    Blood Pressure (BP) is a very important factor for monitoring the cardiovascular condition. In general, non-invasive BP measurements need a cuff. However, such measurement techniques can hardly monitor BP continuously. Recently it has gotten easier to measure biological signals daily because sensor technologies have well-developed, and because of availability of many kinds of miniaturized measurement instruments consuming less power. This study suggests a method of estimating Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) with a wearable sensor instead of a cuff. In particular, our study depends on only one pulse wave signal detected by a Photoplethysmograph (PPG) sensor since the PPG sensor is very small. Moreover, the human subject just wears the sensor on the surface of the body to measure the signal. Cardiovascular peculiarities keep changing as people get older. Additionally, the peculiarities vary among individuals according to the advanced rate of arteriosclerosis. Hence, it is necessary for estimating the SBP to divide the data into several classes, by parameters that relate to individual cardiovascular peculiarities. In this study, the regression equation of SBP was calculated from individual information and from features of the PPG signal in each class. As a result, the estimation accuracy was improved. This technique would make cuffless SBP monitoring become more convenient and helpful as only one device is required for monitoring, which is smaller than traditional measurements.

  9. The Kallikrein-Kinin System as a Regulator of Cardiovascular and Renal Function

    PubMed Central

    Rhaleb, Nour-Eddine; Yang, Xiao-Ping; Carretero, Oscar A.

    2015-01-01

    Autocrine, paracrine, endocrine, and neuroendocrine hormonal systems help regulate cardiovascular and renal function. Any change in the balance among these systems may result in hypertension and target organ damage, whether the cause is genetic, environmental or a combination of the two. Endocrine and neuroendocrine vasopressor hormones such as the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), aldosterone, and catecholamines are important for regulation of blood pressure and pathogenesis of hypertension and target organ damage. While the role of vasodepressor autacoids such as kinins is not as well defined, there is increasing evidence that they are not only critical to blood pressure and renal function but may also oppose remodeling of the cardiovascular system. Here we will primarily be concerned with kinins, which are oligopeptides containing the aminoacid sequence of bradykinin. They are generated from precursors known as kininogens by enzymes such as tissue (glandular) and plasma kallikrein. Some of the effects of kinins are mediated via autacoids such as eicosanoids, nitric oxide (NO), endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF), and/or tissue plasminogen activator (†PA). Kinins help protect against cardiac ischemia and play an important part in preconditioning as well as the cardiovascular and renal protective effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin type 1 receptor blockers (ARB). But the role of kinins in the pathogenesis of hypertension remains controversial. A study of Utah families revealed that a dominant kallikrein gene expressed as high urinary kallikrein excretion was associated with a decreased risk of essential hypertension. Moreover, researchers have identified a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) that distinguishes the kallikrein gene family found in one strain of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) from a homologous gene in normotensive Brown Norway rats, and in recombinant inbred substrains derived from these SHR

  10. Cardiovascular system identification: Simulation study using arterial and central venous pressures.

    PubMed

    Karamolegkos, Nikolaos; Vicario, Francesco; Chbat, Nicolas W

    2015-08-01

    The paper presents a study of the identifiability of a lumped model of the cardiovascular system. The significance of this work from the existing literature is in the potential advantage of using both arterial and central venous (CVP) pressures, two signals that are frequently monitored in the critical care unit. The analysis is done on the system's state-space representation via control theory and system identification techniques. Non-parametric state-space identification is preferred over other identification techniques as it optimally assesses the order of a model, which best describes the input-output data, without any prior knowledge about the system. In particular, a recent system identification algorithm, namely Observer Kalman Filter Identification with Deterministic Projection, is used to identify a simplified version of an existing cardiopulmonary model. The outcome of the study highlights the following two facts. In the deterministic (noiseless) case, the theoretical indicators report that the model is fully identifiable, whereas the stochastic case reveals the difficulty in determining the complete system's dynamics. This suggests that even with the use of CVP as an additional pressure signal, the identification of a more detailed (high order) model of the circulatory system remains a challenging task. PMID:26736432

  11. Cross Sectional and Longitudinal Associations between Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Age Related Macular Degeneration in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Jennifer L. Y.; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Chan, Michelle P. Y.; Broadway, David C.; Peto, Tunde; Tufail, Adnan; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Bhaniani, Amit; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the cross sectional and longitudinal relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a large British cohort study. Methods The EPIC Norfolk Eye study is nested in a larger prospective cohort study. Data on cardiovascular risk factors were collected at baseline (1993-1997) and follow up (2006-2011) via clinical examination, validated lifestyle questionnaires and serum blood samples. AMD was ascertained using standardised grading of fundus photographs at the follow up. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between baseline and follow up risk factors with AMD. Results 5,344 pairs (62.0% of total 8623) of fundus photographs were of sufficient quality for grading of AMD in participants with mean age of 67.4 years old (range 44-91) at diagnosis. There were 28 cases of late AMD (0.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.3-0.8%) and 645 cases of early AMD (12.1%, 95%CI=11.2-13.0.%). In multivariable analysis, older people with higher levels of baseline high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C ) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were more likely to have any signs of AMD, after adjusting for sex, education, smoking, and systolic blood pressure. In cross sectional analysis, only older age and higher HDL were significantly associated with AMD. Conclusions We have found that older age and higher levels of CRP and HDL-C were associated with increased odds of AMD in this population in the longitudinal analysis, but older age and HDL-C, not CRP was significantly associated with AMD in the cross sectional analysis. The prevalence of AMD in this cohort was low compared to other cohorts in Europe, the US and Australia, and probably reflects the some selection biases in follow up participation as well as the low rate of smoking among our healthy participants. PMID:26176222

  12. Leptin in end stage renal disease (ESRD): a link between fat mass, bone and the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Mallamaci, F; Tripepi, G; Zoccali, C

    2005-01-01

    Adipose tissue is now considered an important system operating strictly in concert with other systems. The adipocyte is the main producer of two pleiotropic compounds, leptin and adiponectin, modulating inflammation and having multiple effects in disparate organs including the cardiovascular and the central nervous system. Leptin has disparate influences on various physiologic and organ systems including glucose homeostasis, hematopoiesis and the reproductive and cardiovascular systems and is a crucial hormone for the regulation of food intake and body weight. Peripherally, leptin modulates insulin sensitivity and high leptin triggers insulin resistance and vice versa. Obesity, a situation where circulating leptin attains very high levels is accompanied by increased bone mass, a phenomenon which may depend on direct stimulation of osteoblasts by leptin. However in animal models the stimulating effect of leptin on the osteoblast is counterbalanced by a strong inhibitor effect on bone formation in the central nervous system. Two recent studies reported an inverse link between leptin, bone mass and PTH in dialysis patients suggesting that leptin may be implicated in low bone turnover in these patients, likely by a mechanism involving the central nervous system. Leptin induces vascular calcifications in vitro. In uremic man leptin is unrelated to valvular calcifications but predicts incident cardiovascular events in overweight and obese dialysis patients. Leptin seems to be a relevant player in the emerging connection between bone and cardiovascular alterations in patients with end stage renal disease. PMID:16245256

  13. [Structure and biological action on cardiovascular systems of saponins from Panax notoginseng].

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Wang, Ru-feng; Yang, Li; Wang, Zheng-tao

    2015-09-01

    Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma (Sanqi), the underground part of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen (Araliaceae) is commonly used in Chinese medicine for treatment of haemorrhage, haemostasis, swelling, etc. The aerial part including leaves, flowers and fruits are also applied for similar functions. Triterpenoid saponins are considered to be responsible for the biological activities of Sanqi. Up to date, more than 100 saponins have been isolated from theroots, rhizomes, leaves, flowers and fruits of P. notoginseng. The reported saponins can be classified into protopanaxadiol (PPD), protopanaxatriol (PPT), C17 side-chain varied and other types, according to the skeletons of the aglycons. The present review summarizes the saponins isolated from P. notoginseng and their distribution in different medicinal organs, as well as the pharmacological actions on cardiovascular system. PMID:26978992

  14. Role of altered intestinal microbiota in systemic inflammation and cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Mafra, Denise; Lobo, Julie C; Barros, Amanda F; Koppe, Laetitia; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Fouque, Denis

    2014-01-01

    The normal intestinal microbiota plays a major role in the maintenance of health and disease prevention. In fact, the alteration of the intestinal microbiota has been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of several pathological conditions, including obesity and insulin resistance, among others. Recent studies have revealed profound alterations of the gut microbial flora in patients and animals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Alterations in the composition of the microbiome in CKD may contribute to the systemic inflammation and accumulation of gut-derived uremic toxins, which play a central role in the pathogenesis of accelerated cardiovascular disease and numerous other CKD-associated complications. This review is intended to provide a concise description of the potential role of the CKD-associated changes in the gut microbiome and its potential role the pathogenesis of inflammation and uremic toxicity. In addition, the potential efficacy of pre- and pro-biotics in the restoration of the microbiome is briefly described. PMID:24762311

  15. Rejuvenating health systems for aging communities.

    PubMed

    Paccaud, Fred

    2002-08-01

    Nowadays, about the half of Swiss women die after their 84th birthday. This unprecedented proportion of the population reaching an old age, or even a very old age (25% of women die after 89 years, and 5% after 95 years) is a novel aspect of human demographics, and represents the very last stage of the epidemiological transition, a term coined to describe the transformation of the prevailing health burden in the population, shifting from infectious and communicable pathologies to chronic and degenerative diseases. In developed countries, this epidemiological transition has been well documented during the last century; worldwide, a similar transition is taking place, with some countries still at mid or early stages of transition. A striking aspect of the current transition is its speed. In India, the mean duration of life since 1947 has increased from 32 to 62 years. As a result, India, like many other developing countries, is facing a double burden of disease, i.e., an upsurge of degenerative diseases while the burden from the old agenda (i.e., malaria, tuberculosis) still reaches devastating proportions in the population. This double burden is certainly a crucial problem in developing countries, and probably is the most important health challenge for the coming century. A similar accelerated pace of change is observed with the decline of mortality at old age. Worldwide, the current estimate of centenarians is 100000, i.e., ten time more centenarians than the number estimated in 1960. The downward trend in mortality, which is steeper with increasing age, is now the leading factor to Increase the life expectancy in developed countries. In the United Kingdom, life expectancy increased by 2.5 years between 1971 and 1991; this is equivalent to the increase observed between 1851 and 1961. This accelerated increase will influence public health in two different ways. The first will be the absolute increase in the number of older persons, with a corresponding increase in

  16. The implication of protein malnutrition on cardiovascular control systems in rats

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Fernanda C.; de Menezes, Rodrigo C.; Chianca, Deoclécio A.

    2015-01-01

    The malnutrition in early life is associated with metabolic changes and cardiovascular impairment in adulthood. Deficient protein intake-mediated hypertension has been observed in clinical and experimental studies. In rats, protein malnutrition also increases the blood pressure and enhances heart rate and sympathetic activity. In this review, we discuss the effects of post-weaning protein malnutrition on the resting mean arterial pressure and heart rate and their variabilities, cardiovascular reflexes sensitivity, cardiac autonomic balance, sympathetic and renin-angiotensin activities and neural plasticity during adult life. These insights reveal an interesting prospect on the autonomic modulation underlying the cardiovascular imbalance and provide relevant information on preventing cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26388783

  17. Tenascin-C and mechanotransduction in the development and diseases of cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Imanaka-Yoshida, Kyoko; Aoki, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    Living tissue is composed of cells and extracellular matrix (ECM). In the heart and blood vessels, which are constantly subjected to mechanical stress, ECM molecules form well-developed fibrous frameworks to maintain tissue structure. ECM is also important for biological signaling, which influences various cellular functions in embryonic development, and physiological/pathological responses to extrinsic stimuli. Among ECM molecules, increased attention has been focused on matricellular proteins. Matricellular proteins are a growing group of non-structural ECM proteins highly up-regulated at active tissue remodeling, serving as biological mediators. Tenascin-C (TNC) is a typical matricellular protein, which is highly expressed during embryonic development, wound healing, inflammation, and cancer invasion. The expression is tightly regulated, dependent on the microenvironment, including various growth factors, cytokines, and mechanical stress. In the heart, TNC appears in a spatiotemporal-restricted manner during early stages of development, sparsely detected in normal adults, but transiently re-expressed at restricted sites associated with tissue injury and inflammation. Similarly, in the vascular system, TNC is strongly up-regulated during embryonic development and under pathological conditions with an increase in hemodynamic stress. Despite its intriguing expression pattern, cardiovascular system develops normally in TNC knockout mice. However, deletion of TNC causes acute aortic dissection (AAD) under strong mechanical and humoral stress. Accumulating reports suggest that TNC may modulate the inflammatory response and contribute to elasticity of the tissue, so that it may protect cardiovascular tissue from destructive stress responses. TNC may be a key molecule to control cellular activity during development, adaptation, or pathological tissue remodeling. PMID:25120494

  18. Fabrication of polyurethane and polyurethane based composite fibres by the electrospinning technique for soft tissue engineering of cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Kucinska-Lipka, J; Gubanska, I; Janik, H; Sienkiewicz, M

    2015-01-01

    Electrospinning is a unique technique, which provides forming of polymeric scaffolds for soft tissue engineering, which include tissue scaffolds for soft tissues of the cardiovascular system. Such artificial soft tissues of the cardiovascular system may possess mechanical properties comparable to native vascular tissues. Electrospinning technique gives the opportunity to form fibres with nm- to μm-scale in diameter. The arrangement of obtained fibres and their surface determine the biocompatibility of the scaffolds. Polyurethanes (PUs) are being commonly used as a prosthesis of cardiovascular soft tissues due to their excellent biocompatibility, non-toxicity, elasticity and mechanical properties. PUs also possess fine spinning properties. The combination of a variety of PU properties with an electrospinning technique, conducted at the well tailored conditions, gives unlimited possibilities of forming novel polyurethane materials suitable for soft tissue scaffolds applied in cardiovascular tissue engineering. This paper can help researches to gain more widespread and deeper understanding of designing electrospinable PU materials, which may be used as cardiovascular soft tissue scaffolds. In this paper we focus on reagents used in PU synthesis designed to increase PU biocompatibility (polyols) and biodegradability (isocyanates). We also describe suggested surface modifications of electrospun PUs, and the direct influence of surface wettability on providing enhanced biocompatibility of scaffolds. We indicate a great influence of electrospinning parameters (voltage, flow rate, working distance) and used solvents (mostly DMF, THF and HFIP) on fibre alignment and diameter - what impacts the biocompatibility and hemocompatibility of such electrospun PU scaffolds. Moreover, we present PU modifications with natural polymers with novel approach applied in electrospinning of PU scaffolds. This work may contribute with further developing of novel electrospun PUs, which may be

  19. Usefulness of serum interleukin-18 in predicting cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease – systems and clinical approach

    PubMed Central

    Formanowicz, Dorota; Wanic-Kossowska, Maria; Pawliczak, Elżbieta; Radom, Marcin; Formanowicz, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to check if serum interleukin-18 (IL-18) predicts 2-year cardiovascular mortality in patients at various stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and history of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) within the previous year. Diabetes mellitus was one of the key factors of exclusion. It was found that an increase in serum concentration of IL-18 above the cut-off point (1584.5 pg/mL) was characterized by 20.63-fold higher risk of cardiovascular deaths among studied patients. IL-18 serum concentration was found to be superior to the well-known cardiovascular risk parameters, like high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), glomerular filtration rate, albumins, ferritin, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in prognosis of cardiovascular mortality. The best predictive for IL-18 were 4 variables, such as CIMT, NT-proBNP, albumins and hsCRP, as they predicted its concentration at 89.5%. Concluding, IL-18 seems to be important indicator and predictor of cardiovascular death in two-year follow-up among non-diabetic patients suffering from CKD, with history of AMI in the previous year. The importance of IL-18 in the process of atherosclerotic plaque formation has been confirmed by systems analysis based on a formal model expressed in the language of Petri nets theory. PMID:26669254

  20. Increased cardiovascular and renal risk is associated with low nephron endowment in aged females: an ovine model of fetal unilateral nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Reetu R; Jefferies, Andrew J; Lankadeva, Yugeesh R; Lombardo, Paul; Schneider-Kolsky, Michal; Hilliard, Lucinda; Denton, Kate M; Moritz, Karen M

    2012-01-01

    Previously we have shown that ovariectomised (OVX) female sheep have reduced renal function and elevated blood pressure from 6 months of age following fetal uninephrectomy (uni-x) at 100 days of gestation (term = 150 days). In the current study we examined if in intact female sheep the onset of decline in renal function and elevation in blood pressure was prevented. Studies were performed at 1 year, 2 and 5 years of age. Following fetal uni-x at 100 days, intact female sheep had ~30% reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at 1 year, which did not exacerbate with age (P(treatment) = 0.0001, P(age) = 0.7). In contrast renal blood flow was similar between the treatment groups at 1 year of age but had declined in the uni-x animals at 5 years of age (P(treatment × age) = 0.046). Interestingly, intact uni-x sheep did not develop elevations in arterial pressure until 2 years of age. Furthermore, uni-x animals had a similar capacity to respond to a cardiac challenge at 1 year and 2 years of age, however, cardiac functional reserve was significantly reduced compared to sham group at 5 years of age. Uni-x animals exhibited an increase in left ventricular dimensions at 5 years of age compared to the sham animals and compared to 2 years of age (P(treatment)<0.001, P(treatment × age)<0.001). In conclusion, the onset of renal dysfunction preceded the onset of hypertension in intact female uni-x sheep. Furthermore, this study showed that the intact females are protected from the impact of a reduced nephron endowment on cardiovascular health early in life as opposed to our findings in young male sheep and OVX uni-x female sheep. However, with ageing this protection is lost as evidenced by presence of left ventricular hypertrophy and impaired cardiac function in 5 year old uni-x female sheep. PMID:22879965

  1. The role of endothelin system in cardiovascular disease and the potential therapeutic perspectives of its inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kaoukis, Andreas; Deftereos, Spyridon; Raisakis, Konstantinos; Giannopoulos, Georgios; Bouras, Georgios; Panagopoulou, Vasiliki; Papoutsidakis, Nikolaos; Cleman, Michael W; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2013-01-01

    Since its identification in 1988 and the recognition of its primary role as a potent vasoconstrictor, endothelin has been extensively studied and is now considered as a ubiquitous protein, involved in important aspects of human homeostasis as well as in several pathophysiological pathways, mostly associated with cardiovascular disease. From an evolutionary point of view, endothelin consists a primitive molecule with the rare characteristic of being exactly the same in all mammals, thus permitting scientists to perform experiments in animals and doing predictions for humans. The understanding of its contribution to the genesis, evolution and maintenance of disease through activation of special receptor subtypes has led to the development of both selective and unselective receptor antagonists. Despite the disappointing results of these antagonists in the field of heart failure, almost from the initial animal trials of bosentan, a dual endothelin receptor antagonist, in pulmonary arterial hypertension, it has been demonstrated that the drug leads at least to hemodynamic and clinical improvement of the patients, thus receiving official approval for the management of this rare but eventually lethal disease. Resistant hypertension is another area where endothelin receptor blockers might potentially play a role, while the pathophysiological role of endothelin in atherosclerotic coronary artery disease is well-established and the relative research goes on. The main goal of this review is to describe the endothelin system and mostly to enlighten its role in pathophysiologic pathways, as well to state the relative research in the various fields of cardiovascular disease and also highlight its prognostic significance wherever there exists one. PMID:23470073

  2. The impact of high fructose on cardiovascular system: Role of α-lipoic acid.

    PubMed

    Saygin, M; Asci, H; Cankara, F N; Bayram, D; Yesilot, S; Candan, I A; Alp, H H

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of α-lipoic acid (α-LA) on oxidative damage and inflammation that occur in endothelium of aorta and heart while constant consumption of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS). The rats were randomly divided into three groups with each group containing eight rats. The groups include HFCS, HFCS + α-LA treatment, and control. HFCS was given to the rats at a ratio of 30% of F30 corn syrup in drinking water for 10 weeks. α-LA treatment was given to the rats at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day orally for the last 6 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the rats were killed by cervical dislocation. The blood samples were collected for biochemical studies, and the aortic and cardiac tissues were collected for evaluation of oxidant-antioxidant system, tissue bath, and pathological examination. HFCS had increased the levels of malondialdehyde, creatine kinase MB, lactate dehydrogenase, and uric acid and showed significant structural changes in the heart of the rats by histopathology. Those changes were improved by α-LA treatment as it was found in this treatment group. Immunohistochemical expressions of tumor necrosis factor α and inducible nitric oxide synthase were increased in HFCS group, and these receptor levels were decreased by α-LA treatment. All the tissue bath studies supported these findings. Chronic consumption of HFCS caused several problems like cardiac and endothelial injury of aorta by hyperuricemia and induced oxidative stress and inflammation. α-LA treatment reduced uric acid levels, oxidative stress, and corrected vascular responses. α-LA can be added to cardiac drugs due to its cardiovascular protective effects against the cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25825413

  3. Evaluation of a new fiber-optic pressure recording system for cardiovascular measurements in mice.

    PubMed

    Woldbaek, Per Reidar; Stromme, Taevje Andreas; Sande, Jørn Bodvar; Christensen, Geir; Tønnessen, Theis; Ilebekk, Arnfinn

    2003-11-01

    We have tested a new fiber-optic pressure recording system, Samba, with a thin fiber [outer diameter (OD) = 0.25 mm] and a pressure sensor (length and OD = 0.42 mm) attached to the end. The accuracy of the system tested in vitro was good, with a coefficient of variation of 2.54% at 100 mmHg. The drift was <0.45 mmHg/h, and the temperature sensitivity was approximately 0.07 mmHg/1 degrees C between 22 and 37 degrees C. The frequency response characteristics were similar to a 1.4-Fr Millar catheter (0-200 Hz). Introduction of the Samba sensor from the right carotid artery into the left ventricle in six mice caused no drop in mean aortic pressure, whereas introduction of a 1.4-Fr Millar catheter (OD = 0.47 mm; n = 6) caused a pressure drop from 91.6 +/- 9.2 to 65.1 +/- 6.2 mmHg; P < 0.05. Thus the Samba sensor system may represent a new alternative to assess hemodynamic variables in the murine cardiovascular system. PMID:12829434

  4. Effect of a botanical composition, UP446, on respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous systems in beagle dogs and rats.

    PubMed

    Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young Chul; Jia, Qi

    2016-06-01

    Extensive safety evaluation of UP446, a botanical composition comprised of standardized extracts from roots of Scutellaria baicalensis and heartwoods of Acacia catechu, has been reported previously. Here we carried out additional studies to assess the effect of UP446 on respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous (CNS) systems. A Functional observational battery (FOB) and whole body plethysmography system in rats and implanted telemetry in dogs were utilized to evaluate the potential CNS, respiratory and cardiovascular toxicity, respectively. UP446 was administered orally at dose levels of 800, 2000 and 5000 mg/kg to SpragueDawley rats and at 4 ascending dose levels (0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) to beagle dogs. No abnormal effects were observed on the cage side, open field, hand held, and sensori-motor observations suggestive of toxicity in respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous (CNS) systems. Rectal temperatures were comparable for each treatment groups. Similarly, respiratory rate, tidal volume and minute volume were unaffected by any of the treatment groups. No UP446 related changes were observed on blood pressure, heart rate and electrocardiogram in beagle dogs at dose levels of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg. Some minor incidental, non-dose correlated changes were observed in the FOB assessment. These data suggest that UP446 has minimal or no pharmaco-toxicological effect on the respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous systems. PMID:27012374

  5. Aircraft flight simulation of spacelab experiment using an implanted telemetry system to obtain cardiovascular data from the monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccutcheon, E. P.; Miranda, R.; Fryer, T. B.; Hodges, G.; Newson, B. D.; Pace, N.

    1977-01-01

    The utility of a multichannel implantable telemetry system for obtaining cardiovascular data was tested in a monkey with a CV-990 aircraft flight simulation of a space flight experiment. Valuable data were obtained to aid planning and execution of flight experiments using chronically instrumented animals.

  6. First-Year Medical Students' Conceptual Understanding of and Resistance to Conceptual Change Concerning the Central Cardiovascular System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikkila-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Sodervik, Ilona; Vilppu, Henna; Kaapa, Pekka; Olkinuora, Erkki

    2012-01-01

    Medical students often have initial understanding concerning medical domains, such as the central cardiovascular system (CCVS), when they enter the study programme. These notions may to some extent be in conflict with scientific understanding, which can be seen as a challenge for medical teaching. Hence, the purpose of this study was to analyse…

  7. An Investigation of the Potential for a Computer-based Tutorial Program Covering the Cardiovascular System to Replace Traditional Lectures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewhurst, D. G.; Williams, A. D.

    1998-01-01

    Presents the results of a comparative study to evaluate the effectiveness of two interactive computer-based learning (CBL) programs, covering the cardiovascular system, as an alternative to lectures for first year undergraduate students at a United Kingdom University. Discusses results in relation to the design of evaluative studies and the future…

  8. Systems Biology in Aging: Linking the Old and the Young

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Lei; Huang, Jialiang; Green, Christopher D; Boyd-Kirkup, Jerome; Zhang, Wei; Yu, Xiaoming; Gong, Wenxuan; Zhou, Bing; Han, Jing-Dong J

    2012-01-01

    Aging can be defined as a process of progressive decline in the physiological capacity of an organism, manifested by accumulated alteration and destabilization at the whole system level. Systems biology approaches offer a promising new perspective to examine the old problem of aging. We begin this review by introducing the concepts of systems biology, and then illustrate the application of systems biology approaches to aging research, from gene expression profiling to network analysis. We then introduce the network that can be constructed using known lifespan and aging regulators, and conclude with a look forward to the future of systems biology in aging research. In summary, systems biology is not only a young field that may help us understand aging at a higher level, but also an important platform that can link different levels of knowledge on aging, moving us closer to a more comprehensive control of systematic decline during aging. PMID:23633915

  9. Systems biology in aging: linking the old and the young.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lei; Huang, Jialiang; Green, Christopher D; Boyd-Kirkup, Jerome; Zhang, Wei; Yu, Xiaoming; Gong, Wenxuan; Zhou, Bing; Han, Jing-Dong J

    2012-11-01

    Aging can be defined as a process of progressive decline in the physiological capacity of an organism, manifested by accumulated alteration and destabilization at the whole system level. Systems biology approaches offer a promising new perspective to examine the old problem of aging. We begin this review by introducing the concepts of systems biology, and then illustrate the application of systems biology approaches to aging research, from gene expression profiling to network analysis. We then introduce the network that can be constructed using known lifespan and aging regulators, and conclude with a look forward to the future of systems biology in aging research. In summary, systems biology is not only a young field that may help us understand aging at a higher level, but also an important platform that can link different levels of knowledge on aging, moving us closer to a more comprehensive control of systematic decline during aging. PMID:23633915

  10. Mosaic aging

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Lary C.; Herndon, James G.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Although all multicellular organisms undergo structural and functional deterioration with age, senescence is not a uniform process. Rather, each organism experiences a constellation of changes that reflect the heterogeneous effects of age on molecules, cells, organs and systems, an idiosyncratic pattern that we refer to as mosaic aging. Varying genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors (local and extrinsic) contribute to the aging phenotype in a given individual, and these agents influence the type and rate of functional decline, as well as the likelihood of developing age-associated afflictions such as cardiovascular disease, arthritis, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. Identifying key factors that drive aging, clarifying their activities in different systems, and in particular understanding how they interact will enhance our comprehension of the aging process, and could yield insights into the permissive role that senescence plays in the emergence of acute and chronic diseases of the elderly. PMID:20110150

  11. The Effect of Age and NT-proBNP on the Association of Central Obesity with 6-Years Cardiovascular Mortality of Middle-Aged and Elderly Diabetic People: The Population-Based Casale Monferrato Study

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Graziella; Barutta, Federica; Landi, Andrea; Cavallo Perin, Paolo; Gruden, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    Background Among people with type 2 diabetes the relationship between central obesity and cardiovascular mortality has not been definitely assessed. Moreover, NT-proBNP is negatively associated with central obesity, but no study has examined their combined effect on survival. We have examined these issues in a well-characterized population-based cohort. Methods and Findings Survival data of 2272 diabetic people recruited in 2000 who had no other chronic disease have been updated to 31 December 2006. NT-proBNP was measured in a subgroup of 1690 patients. Cox proportional hazards modeling was employed to estimate the independent associations between cardiovascular and all-cause mortality and waist circumference. Mean age was 67.9 years, 49.3% were men. Both age and NT-proBNP were negatively correlated with waist circumference (r = −0.11, p<0.001 and r = −0.07, p = 0.002). Out of 2272 subjects, 520 deaths (221 for CV mortality) occurred during a median follow-up of 5.4 years. Central obesity was not associated with CV mortality (hazard ratio, HR, adjusted for age, sex, diabetes duration, 1.14, 95% CI 0.86–1.52). NTproBNP was a negative confounder and age a strong modifier of this relationship (p for interaction<0.001): age<70 years, fully adjusted model HR = 3.52 (1.17–10.57) and age ≥70 years, HR = 0.80 (0.46–1.40). Respective HRs for all-cause mortality were 1.86 (1.03–3.32) and 0.73 (0.51–1.04). Conclusions In diabetic people aged 70 years and lower, central obesity was independently associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, independently of the negative effect of NT-proBNP. In contrast, no effect on 6-years survival was evident in diabetic people who have yet survived up to 70 years. PMID:24788805

  12. Integrated Evaluation of Age-Related Changes in Structural and Functional Vascular Parameters Used to Assess Arterial Aging, Subclinical Atherosclerosis, and Cardiovascular Risk in Uruguayan Adults: CUiiDARTE Project

    PubMed Central

    Bia, Daniel; Zócalo, Yanina; Farro, Ignacio; Torrado, Juan; Farro, Federico; Florio, Lucía; Olascoaga, Alicia; Brum, Javier; Alallón, Walter; Negreira, Carlos; Lluberas, Ricardo; Armentano, Ricardo L.

    2011-01-01

    This work was carried out in a Uruguayan (South American) population to characterize aging-associated physiological arterial changes. Parameters markers of subclinical atherosclerosis and that associate age-related changes were evaluated in healthy people. A conservative approach was used and people with nonphysiological and pathological conditions were excluded. Then, we excluded subjects with (a) cardiovascular (CV) symptoms, (b) CV disease, (c) diabetes mellitus or renal failure, and (d) traditional CV risk factors (other than age and gender). Subjects (n = 388) were submitted to non-invasive vascular studies (gold-standard techniques), to evaluate (1) common (CCA), internal, and external carotid plaque prevalence, (2) CCA intima-media thickness and diameter, (3) CCA stiffness (percentual pulsatility, compliance, distensibility, and stiffness index), (4) aortic stiffness (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity), and (5) peripheral and central pressure wave-derived parameters. Age groups: ≤20, 21–30, 31–40, 41–50, 51–60, 61–70, and 71–80 years old. Age-related structural and functional vascular parameters profiles were obtained and analyzed considering data from other populations. The work has the strength of being the first, in Latin America, that uses an integrative approach to characterize vascular aging-related changes. Data could be used to define vascular aging and abnormal or disease-related changes. PMID:22187622

  13. Integrated Evaluation of Age-Related Changes in Structural and Functional Vascular Parameters Used to Assess Arterial Aging, Subclinical Atherosclerosis, and Cardiovascular Risk in Uruguayan Adults: CUiiDARTE Project.

    PubMed

    Bia, Daniel; Zócalo, Yanina; Farro, Ignacio; Torrado, Juan; Farro, Federico; Florio, Lucía; Olascoaga, Alicia; Brum, Javier; Alallón, Walter; Negreira, Carlos; Lluberas, Ricardo; Armentano, Ricardo L

    2011-01-01

    This work was carried out in a Uruguayan (South American) population to characterize aging-associated physiological arterial changes. Parameters markers of subclinical atherosclerosis and that associate age-related changes were evaluated in healthy people. A conservative approach was used and people with nonphysiological and pathological conditions were excluded. Then, we excluded subjects with (a) cardiovascular (CV) symptoms, (b) CV disease, (c) diabetes mellitus or renal failure, and (d) traditional CV risk factors (other than age and gender). Subjects (n = 388) were submitted to non-invasive vascular studies (gold-standard techniques), to evaluate (1) common (CCA), internal, and external carotid plaque prevalence, (2) CCA intima-media thickness and diameter, (3) CCA stiffness (percentual pulsatility, compliance, distensibility, and stiffness index), (4) aortic stiffness (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity), and (5) peripheral and central pressure wave-derived parameters. Age groups: ≤20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, 61-70, and 71-80 years old. Age-related structural and functional vascular parameters profiles were obtained and analyzed considering data from other populations. The work has the strength of being the first, in Latin America, that uses an integrative approach to characterize vascular aging-related changes. Data could be used to define vascular aging and abnormal or disease-related changes. PMID:22187622

  14. Systems Pharmacology Dissection of the Integrated Treatment for Cardiovascular and Gastrointestinal Disorders by Traditional Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenjuan; Tao, Qin; Guo, Zihu; Fu, Yingxue; Chen, Xuetong; Shar, Piar Ali; Shahen, Mohamed; Zhu, Jinglin; Xue, Jun; Bai, Yaofei; Wu, Ziyin; Wang, Zhenzhong; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Yonghua

    2016-01-01

    Though cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and gastrointestinal disorders (GIDs) are different diseases associated with different organs, they are highly correlated clinically. Importantly, in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), similar treatment strategies have been applied in both diseases. However, the etiological mechanisms underlying them remain unclear. Here, an integrated systems pharmacology approach is presented for illustrating the molecular correlations between CVDs and GIDs. Firstly, we identified pairs of genes that are associated with CVDs and GIDs and found that these genes are functionally related. Then, the association between 115 heart meridian (HM) herbs and 163 stomach meridian (SM) herbs and their combination application in Chinese patent medicine was investigated, implying that both CVDs and GIDs can be treated by the same strategy. Exemplified by a classical formula Sanhe Decoration (SHD) treating chronic gastritis, we applied systems-based analysis to introduce a drug-target-pathway-organ network that clarifies mechanisms of different diseases being treated by the same strategy. The results indicate that SHD regulated several pathological processes involved in both CVDs and GIDs. We experimentally confirmed the predictions implied by the effect of SHD for myocardial ischemia. The systems pharmacology suggests a novel integrated strategy for rational drug development for complex associated diseases. PMID:27597117

  15. Systems Pharmacology Dissection of the Integrated Treatment for Cardiovascular and Gastrointestinal Disorders by Traditional Chinese Medicine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjuan; Tao, Qin; Guo, Zihu; Fu, Yingxue; Chen, Xuetong; Shar, Piar Ali; Shahen, Mohamed; Zhu, Jinglin; Xue, Jun; Bai, Yaofei; Wu, Ziyin; Wang, Zhenzhong; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Yonghua

    2016-01-01

    Though cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and gastrointestinal disorders (GIDs) are different diseases associated with different organs, they are highly correlated clinically. Importantly, in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), similar treatment strategies have been applied in both diseases. However, the etiological mechanisms underlying them remain unclear. Here, an integrated systems pharmacology approach is presented for illustrating the molecular correlations between CVDs and GIDs. Firstly, we identified pairs of genes that are associated with CVDs and GIDs and found that these genes are functionally related. Then, the association between 115 heart meridian (HM) herbs and 163 stomach meridian (SM) herbs and their combination application in Chinese patent medicine was investigated, implying that both CVDs and GIDs can be treated by the same strategy. Exemplified by a classical formula Sanhe Decoration (SHD) treating chronic gastritis, we applied systems-based analysis to introduce a drug-target-pathway-organ network that clarifies mechanisms of different diseases being treated by the same strategy. The results indicate that SHD regulated several pathological processes involved in both CVDs and GIDs. We experimentally confirmed the predictions implied by the effect of SHD for myocardial ischemia. The systems pharmacology suggests a novel integrated strategy for rational drug development for complex associated diseases. PMID:27597117

  16. Relationship of Blood Pressure With Mortality and Cardiovascular Events Among Hypertensive Patients aged ≥ 60 years in Rural Areas of China: A Strobe-Compliant Study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Liqiang; Li, Jue; Sun, Zhaoqing; Zhang, Xingang; Hu, Dayi; Sun, Yingxian

    2015-09-01

    The Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC-8) panel recently recommended a systolic blood pressure (BP) threshold of ≥ 150 mmHg for the initiation of drug therapy and a therapeutic target of <150/90 mmHg in patients ≥ 60 years of age. However, results from some post-hoc analysis of randomized controlled trials and observational studies did not support these recommendations. In the prospective cohort study, 5006 eligible hypertensive patients aged ≥ 60 years from rural areas of China were enrolled for the present analysis. The association between the average follow-up BP and outcomes (all-cause and cardiovascular death, incident coronary heart disease [CHD], and stroke), followed by a median of 4.8 years, were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for other potential confounders. The relationship between BP (systolic or diastolic) showed an increased or J-shaped curve association with adverse outcomes. Compared with the reference group of BP <140/90 mmHg, the risk of all-cause death (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.698; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.989-3.659), cardiovascular death (HR: 2.702; 95% CI: 1.855-3.935), incident CHD (HR: 3.263; 95% CI: 2.063-5.161), and stroke (HR: 2.334; 95% CI: 1.559-3.945) was still significantly increased in the group with BP of 140-149/<90 mmHg. Older hypertensive patients with BP of 140-149/<90 mmHg were at higher risk of developing adverse outcomes, implying that lenient BP control of 140-149/<90 mmHg, based on the JNC-8 guidelines, may not be appropriate for hypertensive patients aged ≥ 60 years in rural areas of China. PMID:26426621

  17. A method to construct a points system to predict cardiovascular disease considering repeated measures of risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Carbayo-Herencia, Julio Antonio; Vigo, Maria Isabel; Gil-Guillén, Vicente Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Current predictive models for cardiovascular disease based on points systems use the baseline situation of the risk factors as independent variables. These models do not take into account the variability of the risk factors over time. Predictive models for other types of disease also exist that do consider the temporal variability of a single biological marker in addition to the baseline variables. However, due to their complexity these other models are not used in daily clinical practice. Bearing in mind the clinical relevance of these issues and that cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide we show the properties and viability of a new methodological alternative for constructing cardiovascular risk scores to make predictions of cardiovascular disease with repeated measures of the risk factors and retaining the simplicity of the points systems so often used in clinical practice (construction, statistical validation by simulation and explanation of potential utilization). We have also applied the system clinically upon a set of simulated data solely to help readers understand the procedure constructed. PMID:26893963

  18. An Integrated Model of the Cardiovascular and Central Nervous Systems for Analysis of Microgravity Induced Fluid Redistribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, R.; Gady, S.; Heinemann, K.; Nelson, E. S.; Mulugeta, L.; Ethier, C. R.; Samuels, B. C.; Feola, A.; Vera, J.; Myers, J. G.

    2015-01-01

    A recognized side effect of prolonged microgravity exposure is visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. The medical understanding of this phenomenon is at present preliminary, although it is hypothesized that the headward shift of bodily fluids in microgravity may be a contributor. Computational models can be used to provide insight into the origins of VIIP. In order to further investigate this phenomenon, NASAs Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is developing an integrated computational model of the human body which is divided into the eye, the cerebrovascular system, and the cardiovascular system. This presentation will focus on the development and testing of the computational model of an integrated model of the cardiovascular system (CVS) and central nervous system (CNS) that simulates the behavior of pressures, volumes, and flows within these two physiological systems.

  19. Testosterone and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Kloner, Robert A; Carson, Culley; Dobs, Adrian; Kopecky, Stephen; Mohler, Emile R

    2016-02-01

    Testosterone (T) is the principal male sex hormone. As men age, T levels typically fall. Symptoms of low T include decreased libido, vasomotor instability, and decreased bone mineral density. Other symptoms may include depression, fatigue, erectile dysfunction, and reduced muscle strength/mass. Epidemiology studies show that low levels of T are associated with more atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular events. However, treating hypogonadism in the aging male has resulted in discrepant results in regard to its effect on cardiovascular events. Emerging studies suggest that T may have a future role in treating heart failure, angina, and myocardial ischemia. A large, prospective, long-term study of T replacement, with a primary endpoint of a composite of adverse cardiovascular events including myocardial infarction, stroke, and/or cardiovascular death, is needed. The Food and Drug Administration recently put additional restrictions on T replacement therapy labeling and called for additional studies to determine its cardiac safety. PMID:26846952

  20. Cardiovascular effects of thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Sangster, Jodi K; Panciera, David L; Abbott, Jonathan A

    2013-07-01

    Thyroid hormones have many effects on cardiovascular function, and deficiency or excess of thyroid hormones can result in cardiac dysfunction. Abnormalities of the cardiovascular system are often identified during examination of hyperthyroid and hypothyroid patients. This article addresses the effects of thyroid hormones on the cardiovascular system and the clinical relevance of the cardiovascular response to thyroid dysfunction. In addition, treatment recommendations are presented. PMID:23677842

  1. Hydrogen Peroxide Sensing and Signaling by Protein Kinases in the Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Burgoyne, Joseph R.; Oka, Shin-ichi; Ale-Agha, Niloofar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Oxidants were once principally considered perpetrators of injury and disease. However, this has become an antiquated view, with cumulative evidence showing that the oxidant hydrogen peroxide serves as a signaling molecule. Hydrogen peroxide carries vital information about the redox state of the cell and is crucial for homeostatic regulation during health and adaptation to stress. Recent Advances: In this review, we examine the contemporary concepts for how hydrogen peroxide is sensed and transduced into a biological response by introducing post-translational oxidative modifications on select proteins. Oxidant sensing and signaling by kinases are of particular importance as they integrate oxidant signals into phospho-regulated pathways. We focus on CAMKII, PKA, and PKG, kinases whose redox regulation has notable impact on cardiovascular function. Critical Issues: In addition, we examine the mechanism for regulating intracellular hydrogen peroxide, considering the net concentrations that may accumulate. The effects of endogenously generated oxidants are often modeled by applying exogenous hydrogen peroxide to cells or tissues. Here we consider whether model systems exposed to exogenous hydrogen peroxide have relevance to systems where the oxidant is generated endogenously, and if so, what concentration can be justified in terms of relevance to health and disease. Future Directions: Improving our understanding of hydrogen peroxide signaling and the sensor proteins that it can modify will help us develop new strategies to regulate intracellular signaling to prevent disease. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1042–1052. PMID:22867279

  2. Non-proliferative and Proliferative Lesions of the Cardiovascular System of the Rat and Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Berridge, Brian R.; Mowat, Vasanthi; Nagai, Hirofumi; Nyska, Abraham; Okazaki, Yoshimasa; Clements, Peter J.; Rinke, Matthias; Snyder, Paul W.; Boyle, Michael C.; Wells, Monique Y.

    2016-01-01

    The INHAND Project (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice) is a joint initiative of the Societies of Toxicologic Pathology from Japan (JSTP), Europe (ESTP), Great Britain (BSTP) and North America (STP) to develop an internationally-accepted nomenclature for proliferative and non-proliferative lesions in laboratory animals. The primary purpose of this publication is to provide a standardized nomenclature for characterizing lesions observed in the cardiovascular (CV) system of rats and mice commonly used in drug or chemical safety assessment. The standardized nomenclature presented in this document is also available electronically for society members on the internet (http://goreni.org). Accurate and precise morphologic descriptions of changes in the CV system are important for understanding the mechanisms and pathogenesis of those changes, differentiation of natural and induced injuries and their ultimate functional consequence. Challenges in nomenclature are associated with lesions or pathologic processes that may present as a temporal or pathogenic spectrum or when natural and induced injuries share indistinguishable features. Specific nomenclature recommendations are offered to provide a consistent approach. PMID:27621537

  3. Redox regulation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase Iα in the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Prysyazhna, Oleksandra; Eaton, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Elevated levels of oxidants in biological systems have been historically referred to as “oxidative stress,” a choice of words that perhaps conveys an imbalanced view of reactive oxygen species in cells and tissues. The term stress suggests a harmful role, whereas a contemporary view is that oxidants are also crucial for the maintenance of homeostasis or adaptive signaling that can actually limit injury. This regulatory role for oxidants is achieved in part by them inducing oxidative post-translational modifications of proteins which may alter their function or interactions. Such mechanisms allow changes in cell oxidant levels to be coupled to regulated alterations in enzymatic function (i.e., signal transduction), which enables “redox signaling.” In this review we focus on the role of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) Ia disulfide dimerisation, an oxidative modification that is induced by oxidants that directly activates the enzyme, discussing how this impacts on the cardiovascular system. Additionally, how this oxidative activation of PKG may coordinate with or differ from classical activation of this kinase by cGMP is also considered. PMID:26236235

  4. Non-proliferative and Proliferative Lesions of the Cardiovascular System of the Rat and Mouse.

    PubMed

    Berridge, Brian R; Mowat, Vasanthi; Nagai, Hirofumi; Nyska, Abraham; Okazaki, Yoshimasa; Clements, Peter J; Rinke, Matthias; Snyder, Paul W; Boyle, Michael C; Wells, Monique Y

    2016-01-01

    The INHAND Project (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice) is a joint initiative of the Societies of Toxicologic Pathology from Japan (JSTP), Europe (ESTP), Great Britain (BSTP) and North America (STP) to develop an internationally-accepted nomenclature for proliferative and non-proliferative lesions in laboratory animals. The primary purpose of this publication is to provide a standardized nomenclature for characterizing lesions observed in the cardiovascular (CV) system of rats and mice commonly used in drug or chemical safety assessment. The standardized nomenclature presented in this document is also available electronically for society members on the internet (http://goreni.org). Accurate and precise morphologic descriptions of changes in the CV system are important for understanding the mechanisms and pathogenesis of those changes, differentiation of natural and induced injuries and their ultimate functional consequence. Challenges in nomenclature are associated with lesions or pathologic processes that may present as a temporal or pathogenic spectrum or when natural and induced injuries share indistinguishable features. Specific nomenclature recommendations are offered to provide a consistent approach. PMID:27621537

  5. System identification of closed-loop cardiovascular control: effects of posture and autonomic blockade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, T. J.; Appel, M. L.; Mukkamala, R.; Mathias, J. M.; Cohen, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    We applied system identification to the analysis of fluctuations in heart rate (HR), arterial blood pressure (ABP), and instantaneous lung volume (ILV) to characterize quantitatively the physiological mechanisms responsible for the couplings between these variables. We characterized two autonomically mediated coupling mechanisms [the heart rate baroreflex (HR baroreflex) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (ILV-HR)] and two mechanically mediated coupling mechanisms [the blood pressure wavelet generated with each cardiac contraction (circulatory mechanics) and the direct mechanical effects of respiration on blood pressure (ILV-->ABP)]. We evaluated the method in humans studied in the supine and standing postures under control conditions and under conditions of beta-sympathetic and parasympathetic pharmacological blockades. Combined beta-sympathetic and parasympathetic blockade abolished the autonomically mediated couplings while preserving the mechanically mediated coupling. Selective autonomic blockade and postural changes also altered the couplings in a manner consistent with known physiological mechanisms. System identification is an "inverse-modeling" technique that provides a means for creating a closed-loop model of cardiovascular regulation for an individual subject without altering the underlying physiological control mechanisms.

  6. Old Systems Never Die...They Just Age Us.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherron, Gene T.

    1992-01-01

    Results of a national survey investigating problems with aging college computer systems are reported. On average, 68 percent of systems were identified as aging (five or more years old or not under database management systems). Strategies for upgrading obsolescent systems are discussed, and the role of planning is emphasized. Anecdotal information…

  7. Age related vascular endothelial function following lifelong sedentariness: positive impact of cardiovascular conditioning without further improvement following low frequency high intensity interval training

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Fergal M.; Herbert, Peter; Ratcliffe, John W.; New, Karl J.; Baker, Julien S.; Sculthorpe, Nicholas F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aging is associated with diffuse impairments in vascular endothelial function and traditional aerobic exercise is known to ameliorate these changes. High intensity interval training (HIIT) is effective at improving vascular function in aging men with existing disease, but its effectiveness remains to be demonstrated in otherwise healthy sedentary aging. However, the frequency of commonly used HIIT protocols may be poorly tolerated in older cohorts. Therefore, the present study investigated the effectiveness of lower frequency HIIT (LfHIIT) on vascular function in a cohort of lifelong sedentary (SED; n =22, age 62.7 ± 5.2 years) men compared with a positive control group of lifelong exercisers (LEX; n = 17, age 61.1 ± 5.4 years). The study consisted of three assessment phases; enrolment to the study (Phase A), following 6 weeks of conditioning exercise in SED (Phase B) and following 6 weeks of low frequency HIIT in both SED and LEX (LfHIIT; Phase C). Conditioning exercise improved FMD in SED (3.4 ± 1.5% to 4.9 ± 1.1%; P <0.01) such that the difference between groups on enrolment (3.4 ± 1.5% vs. 5.3 ± 1.4%; P <0.01) was abrogated. This was maintained but not further improved following LfHIIT in SED whilst FMD remained unaffected by LfHIIT in LEX. In conclusion, LfHIIT is effective at maintaining improvements in vascular function achieved during conditioning exercise in SED. LfHIIT is a well‐tolerated and effective exercise mode for reducing cardiovascular risk and maintaining but does not improve vascular function beyond that achieved by conditioning exercise in aging men, irrespective of fitness level. PMID:25626864

  8. Effects of thyroid hormone and thyroid dysfunction on the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Kienle, R D; Bruyette, D; Pion, P D

    1994-05-01

    Thyroid disease is common in veterinary practice. The heart, especially the myocardium, is sensitive to thyroid hormone, and deficiencies or excesses can alter cardiovascular function. Observed changes result from direct effects upon the myocardium and indirect effects that result from effects upon the vasculature and peripheral tissues. Clinically significant cardiovascular abnormalities related to hypothyroidism are rare. If present, they are primarily manifest as reduced left ventricular pump function, as apparent echocardiographically, or arrhythmias. Hyperthyroidism is common in the cat and infrequently encountered in dogs. Clinically significant cardiovascular manifestations are common and often dramatic. Hyperdynamic systolic function and mild myocardial hypertrophy are common manifestations which may lead to overt congestive and high output heart failure. If signs of congestive heart failure or significant arrhythmias are not evident, specific therapy need only be directed toward restoration of the euthyroid state. In most cases the cardiovascular changes associated with thyroid dysfunction are completely reversible. PMID:8053109

  9. Quality Control Systems in Cardiac Aging

    PubMed Central

    Quarles, Ellen K; Dai, Dao-Fu; Tocchi, Autumn; Basisty, Nathan; Gitari, Lemuel; Rabinovitch, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac aging is an intrinsic process that results in impaired cardiac function, along with cellular and molecular changes. These degenerative changes are intimately associated with quality control mechanisms. This review provides a general overview of the clinical and cellular changes which manifest in cardiac aging, and the quality control mechanisms involved in maintaining homeostasis and retarding aging. These mechanisms include autophagy, ubiquitin-mediated turnover, apoptosis, mitochondrial quality control and cardiac matrix homeostasis. Finally, we discuss aging interventions that have been observed to impact cardiac health outcomes. These include caloric restriction, rapamycin, resveratrol, GDF11, mitochondrial antioxidants and cardiolipin-targeted therapeutics. A greater understanding of the quality control mechanisms that promote cardiac homeostasis will help to understand the benefits of these interventions, and hopefully lead to further improved therapeutic modalities. PMID:25702865

  10. Aging changes in the male reproductive system

    MedlinePlus

    ... a scarlike tissue. This condition, called benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), affects about 50% of men. BPH may ... Many physical age-related changes, such as prostate enlargement or testicular atrophy, are not preventable. Getting treated ...

  11. Increasing Area Deprivation and Socioeconomic Inequalities in Heart Disease, Stroke, and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Among Working Age Populations, United States, 1969-2011

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gopal K.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Azuine, Romuladus E.; Williams, Shanita D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We examined the extent to which area- and individual-level socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular-disease (CVD), heart disease, and stroke mortality among United States men and women aged 25-64 years changed between 1969 and 2011. Methods: National vital statistics data and the National Longitudinal Mortality Study were used to estimate area- and individual-level socioeconomic gradients in mortality over time. Rate ratios and log-linear and Cox regression were used to model mortality trends and differentials. Results: Area socioeconomic gradients in mortality from CVD, heart disease, and stroke increased substantially during the study period. Compared to those in the most affluent group, individuals in the most deprived area group had, respectively 35%, 29%, and 73% higher CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality in 1969, but 120-121% higher mortality in 2007-2011. Gradients were steeper for women than for men. Education, income, and occupation were inversely associated with CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality, with individual-level socioeconomic gradients being steeper during 1990-2002 than in 1979-1989. Individuals with low education and incomes had 2.7 to 3.7 times higher CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality risks than their counterparts with high education and income levels. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Although mortality declined for all US groups during 1969-2011, socioeconomic disparities in mortality from CVD, heart disease and stroke remained marked and increased over time because of faster declines in mortality among higher socioeconomic groups. Widening disparities in mortality may reflect increasing temporal areal inequalities in living conditions, behavioral risk factors such as smoking, obesity and physical inactivity, and access to and use of health services. With social inequalities and prevalence of smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity on the rise, most segments of the working-age population in low

  12. Cardiovascular Risk Factors of Adults Age 20–49 Years in the United States, 1971–2012: A Series of Cross-Sectional Studies

    PubMed Central

    Casagrande, Sarah S.; Menke, Andy; Cowie, Catherine C.

    2016-01-01

    Background The health of younger adults in the U.S. has important public health and economic-related implications. However, previous literature is insufficient to fully understand how the health of this group has changed over time. This study examined generational differences in cardiovascular risk factors of younger adults over the past 40 years. Methods Data were from 6 nationally representative cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1971–2012; N = 44,670). Participants were adults age 20–49 years who self-reported sociodemographic characteristics and health conditions, and had examination/laboratory measures for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, obesity, and chronic kidney disease. Prevalences of sociodemographic characteristics and health status were determined by study period. Logistic regression was used to determine the odds [odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval] of health conditions by study period: models adjusted only for age, sex, and race, and fully adjusted models additionally adjusted for socioeconomic characteristics, smoking, BMI, diabetes, and/or hypertension (depending on the outcome) were assessed. Results Participants in 2009–2012 were significantly more likely to be obese and have diabetes compared to those in 1971–1975 (OR = 4.98, 3.57–6.97; OR = 3.49, 1.59–7.65, respectively, fully adjusted). Participants in 2009–2012 vs. 1988–1994 were significantly more likely to have had hypertension but uncontrolled hypertension was significantly less likely (OR = 0.67, 0.52–0.86, fully adjusted). There was no difference over time for high cholesterol, but uncontrolled high cholesterol was significantly less likely in 2009–2012 vs. 1988–1994 (OR = 0.80, 0.68–0.94, fully adjusted). The use of hypertensive and cholesterol medications increased while chronic kidney and cardiovascular diseases were relatively stable. Conclusions Cardiovascular risk factors of younger U.S. adults have worsened over

  13. Multi-scale modeling of the human cardiovascular system with applications to aortic valvular and arterial stenoses.

    PubMed

    Liang, Fuyou; Takagi, Shu; Himeno, Ryutaro; Liu, Hao

    2009-07-01

    A computational model of the entire cardiovascular system is established based on multi-scale modeling, where the arterial tree is described by a one-dimensional model coupled with a lumped parameter description of the remainder. The resultant multi-scale model forms a closed loop, thus placing arterial wave propagation into a global hemodynamic environment. The model is applied to study the global hemodynamic influences of aortic valvular and arterial stenoses located in various regions. Obtained results show that the global hemodynamic influences of the stenoses depend strongly on their locations in the arterial system, particularly, the characteristics of hemodynamic changes induced by the aortic valvular and aortic stenoses are pronounced, which imply the possibility of noninvasively detecting the presence of the stenoses from peripheral pressure pulses. The variations in aortic pressure/flow pulses with the stenoses play testimony to the significance of modeling the entire cardiovascular system in the study of arterial diseases. PMID:19198911

  14. A Systems Biology Approach to Uncovering Pharmacological Synergy in Herbal Medicines with Applications to Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xia; Xu, Xue; Tao, Weiyang; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua; Yang, Ling

    2012-01-01

    Background. Clinical trials reveal that multiherb prescriptions of herbal medicine often exhibit pharmacological and therapeutic superiority in comparison to isolated single constituents. However, the synergistic mechanisms underlying this remain elusive. To address this question, a novel systems biology model integrating oral bioavailability and drug-likeness screening, target identification, and network pharmacology method has been constructed and applied to four clinically widely used herbs Radix Astragali Mongolici, Radix Puerariae Lobatae, Radix Ophiopogonis Japonici, and Radix Salviae Miltiorrhiza which exert synergistic effects of combined treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Results. The results show that the structural properties of molecules in four herbs have substantial differences, and each herb can interact with significant target proteins related to CVD. Moreover, the bioactive ingredients from different herbs potentially act on the same molecular target (multiple-drug-one-target) and/or the functionally diverse targets but with potentially clinically relevant associations (multiple-drug-multiple-target-one-disease). From a molecular/systematic level, this explains why the herbs within a concoction could mutually enhance pharmacological synergy on a disease. Conclusions. The present work provides a new strategy not only for the understanding of pharmacological synergy in herbal medicine, but also for the rational discovery of potent drug/herb combinations that are individually subtherapeutic. PMID:23243453

  15. Definitions of and contributions to cardiovascular disease in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Johanna T; Svenungsson, Elisabet

    2014-03-01

    Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Increased prevalence of atherosclerosis may explain part of this enhanced risk, but SLE related CVD can also result from other mechanisms. Vascular events may be the result of several pathophysiologic mechanisms; some can be caused by atherosclerosis, others may be primarily thrombotic, and some may be due to ongoing inflammation. The traditional risk factors are of importance for the development of CVD in lupus. However, lupus-related factors, such as endothelial dysfunction and inflammation, renal impairment and disease activity, lupus phenotype, autoantibodies and genetic predisposition are equally or even more important. Risk factors may also contribute separately or in combination to increase the risk of atherosclerosis and clinical CVD in SLE. Studies investigating risk factors for CVD in SLE vary with respect to definition of outcome, it is, e.g. common that the terms atherosclerosis and clinical CVD are used interchangeably. Varying definitions and outcomes may thus explain divergent results of different studies and make comparisons difficult. This review summarizes some of the current knowledge regarding risk factors and mechanisms for atherosclerosis and clinical CVD in SLE. Aspects on the importance of CVD definitions and outcomes are briefly discussed. PMID:24228980

  16. [Influences of indomethacin on the cardiovascular and metabolic systems of fetuses].

    PubMed

    Chimura, T; Fujimori, K

    1982-09-01

    The influences of indomethacin--a drug with prostaglandins inhibiting effect--on the cardiovascular and metabolic systems of fetuses were studied. 1) 1mg/day of indomethacin was administered subcutaneously to pregnant Wister rats for 5-6 days. The rats were administered laparotomyon on the 21st day of conception, and the histopathological changes of the lungs of the fetuses were studied. The findings demonstrated no histopathological changes due to indomethacin nor any hypertrophy of the smooth muscles in the small arteries of the lungs. 2) 10-35mg of indomethacin was administered intravenously to rabbits in the final stages of pregnancy, thus, indomethacin was absorbed into the maternal livers, placentas, fetal livers, maternal plasmas, and amniotic fluids as the serum concentrations of indomethacin increased with each added dosage. The percentile changes in relation to the maternal plasma concentration values revealed high percentages in fetal livers, followed by placentas, maternal livers, and fetal plasmas. Amniotic fluid concentrations were as low as 20 percent. 3) As for the clinical results of the use of indomethacin (N = 302), tocolysis showed that abortions numbered 7 out of 101 (5.3%), premature births 63 out of 155 (40.6%), SFD 14 out of 302 (4.6%), perinatal deaths 8 out of 302 (2.6%), and deaths due to distress 3 out of 302 (1%). No neonatal pulmonary hypertension was observed in the 8 premature infants that were delivered dead. PMID:7130772

  17. Impact of Bisphenol A on the Cardiovascular System — Epidemiological and Experimental Evidence and Molecular Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiaoqian; Wang, Hong-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous plasticizing agent used in the manufacturing of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. There is well-documented and broad human exposure to BPA. The potential risk that BPA poses to the human health has attracted much attention from regulatory agencies and the general public, and has been extensively studied. An emerging and rapidly growing area in the study of BPA’s toxicity is its impact on the cardiovascular (CV) system. Recent epidemiological studies have shown that higher urinary BPA concentration in humans is associated with various types of CV diseases, including angina, hypertension, heart attack and coronary and peripheral arterial disease. Experimental studies have demonstrated that acute BPA exposure promotes the development of arrhythmias in female rodent hearts. Chronic exposure to BPA has been shown to result in cardiac remodeling, atherosclerosis, and altered blood pressure in rodents. The underlying mechanisms may involve alteration of cardiac Ca2+ handling, ion channel inhibition/activation, oxidative stress, and genome/transcriptome modifications. In this review, we discuss these recent findings that point to the potential CV toxicity of BPA, and highlight the knowledge gaps in this growing research area. PMID:25153468

  18. The cardiovascular system and the biochemistry of grafts used in heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Suna; Aydin, Suleyman; Nesimi Eren, Mehmet; Sahin, Ibrahim; Yilmaz, Musa; Kalayci, Mehmet; Gungor, Orhan

    2013-01-01

    Blood is pumped into the cardiac muscle through arteries called the coronary arteries. Over time, the accumulation of cholesterol, coagulation factors, and cells on the walls of these arteries causes the walls to thicken and lose their elasticity, resulting in the development of atherosclerosis. When the blood supply of the heart is diminished by atherosclerosis, it can be restored by bypass surgery, in which atherosclerosis-free vein and/or artery grafts taken from another area of the body are used to replace the atherosclerotic vessels. These biological grafts used in surgery differ in biochemical composition and long-term patency. Although the great saphenous vein (GSV) has been the most popular graft material in revascularization for years, it has recently been superseded by the internal mammarian artery (IMA), which has a lower incidence of recurrence of atherosclerosis. The aim of the present review is briefly to address the structure of the cardiovascular system and blood vessels, and then, in the light recent data, to present the biochemical compositions and individual advantages of the graft materials used to restore an impaired blood supply to the heart. PMID:24324924

  19. Development of Anatomophysiologic Knowledge Regarding the Cardiovascular System: From Egyptians to Harvey

    PubMed Central

    Bestetti, Reinaldo Bulgarelli; Restini, Carolina Baraldi A.; Couto, Lucélio B.

    2014-01-01

    Our knowledge regarding the anatomophysiology of the cardiovascular system (CVS) has progressed since the fourth millennium BC. In Egypt (3500 BC), it was believed that a set of channels are interconnected to the heart, transporting air, urine, air, blood, and the soul. One thousand years later, the heart was established as the center of the CVS by the Hippocratic Corpus in the medical school of Kos, and some of the CVS anatomical characteristics were defined. The CVS was known to transport blood via the right ventricle through veins and the pneuma via the left ventricle through arteries. Two hundred years later, in Alexandria, following the development of human anatomical dissection, Herophilus discovered that arteries were 6 times thicker than veins, and Erasistratus described the semilunar valves, emphasizing that arteries were filled with blood when ventricles were empty. Further, 200 years later, Galen demonstrated that arteries contained blood and not air. With the decline of the Roman Empire, Greco-Roman medical knowledge about the CVS was preserved in Persia, and later in Islam where, Ibn Nafis inaccurately described pulmonary circulation. The resurgence of dissection of the human body in Europe in the 14th century was associated with the revival of the knowledge pertaining to the CVS. The main findings were the description of pulmonary circulation by Servetus, the anatomical discoveries of Vesalius, the demonstration of pulmonary circulation by Colombo, and the discovery of valves in veins by Fabricius. Following these developments, Harvey described blood circulation. PMID:25590934

  20. Development of anatomophysiologic knowledge regarding the cardiovascular system: from Egyptians to Harvey.

    PubMed

    Bestetti, Reinaldo Bulgarelli; Restini, Carolina Baraldi A; Couto, Lucélio B

    2014-12-01

    Our knowledge regarding the anatomophysiology of the cardiovascular system (CVS) has progressed since the fourth millennium BC. In Egypt (3500 BC), it was believed that a set of channels are interconnected to the heart, transporting air, urine, air, blood, and the soul. One thousand years later, the heart was established as the center of the CVS by the Hippocratic Corpus in the medical school of Kos, and some of the CVS anatomical characteristics were defined. The CVS was known to transport blood via the right ventricle through veins and the pneuma via the left ventricle through arteries. Two hundred years later, in Alexandria, following the development of human anatomical dissection, Herophilus discovered that arteries were 6 times thicker than veins, and Erasistratus described the semilunar valves, emphasizing that arteries were filled with blood when ventricles were empty. Further, 200 years later, Galen demonstrated that arteries contained blood and not air. With the decline of the Roman Empire, Greco-Roman medical knowledge about the CVS was preserved in Persia, and later in Islam where, Ibn Nafis inaccurately described pulmonary circulation. The resurgence of dissection of the human body in Europe in the 14th century was associated with the revival of the knowledge pertaining to the CVS. The main findings were the description of pulmonary circulation by Servetus, the anatomical discoveries of Vesalius, the demonstration of pulmonary circulation by Colombo, and the discovery of valves in veins by Fabricius. Following these developments, Harvey described blood circulation. PMID:25590934

  1. Development of Anatomophysiologic Knowledge Regarding the Cardiovascular System: From Egyptians to Harvey.

    PubMed

    Bestetti, Reinaldo Bulgarelli; Restini, Carolina Baraldi A; Couto, Lucélio B

    2014-10-10

    Our knowledge regarding the anatomophysiology of the cardiovascular system (CVS) has progressed since the fourth millennium BC. In Egypt (3500 BC), it was believed that a set of channels are interconnected to the heart, transporting air, urine, air, blood, and the soul. One thousand years later, the heart was established as the center of the CVS by the Hippocratic Corpus in the medical school of Kos, and some of the CVS anatomical characteristics were defined. The CVS was known to transport blood via the right ventricle through veins and the pneuma via the left ventricle through arteries. Two hundred years later, in Alexandria, following the development of human anatomical dissection, Herophilus discovered that arteries were 6 times thicker than veins, and Erasistratus described the semilunar valves, emphasizing that arteries were filled with blood when ventricles were empty. Further, 200 years later, Galen demonstrated that arteries contained blood and not air. With the decline of the Roman Empire, Greco-Roman medical knowledge about the CVS was preserved in Persia, and later in Islam where, Ibn Nafis inaccurately described pulmonary circulation. The resurgence of dissection of the human body in Europe in the 14th century was associated with the revival of the knowledge pertaining to the CVS. The main findings were the description of pulmonary circulation by Servetus, the anatomical discoveries of Vesalius, the demonstration of pulmonary circulation by Colombo, and the discovery of valves in veins by Fabricius. Following these developments, Harvey described blood circulation. PMID:25317863

  2. Labview Based ECG Patient Monitoring System for Cardiovascular Patient Using SMTP Technology

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Om Prakash; Mekonnen, Dawit; Malarvili, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper leads to developing a Labview based ECG patient monitoring system for cardiovascular patient using Simple Mail Transfer Protocol technology. The designed device has been divided into three parts. First part is ECG amplifier circuit, built using instrumentation amplifier (AD620) followed by signal conditioning circuit with the operation amplifier (lm741). Secondly, the DAQ card is used to convert the analog signal into digital form for the further process. Furthermore, the data has been processed in Labview where the digital filter techniques have been implemented to remove the noise from the acquired signal. After processing, the algorithm was developed to calculate the heart rate and to analyze the arrhythmia condition. Finally, SMTP technology has been added in our work to make device more communicative and much more cost-effective solution in telemedicine technology which has been key-problem to realize the telediagnosis and monitoring of ECG signals. The technology also can be easily implemented over already existing Internet. PMID:27006940

  3. Labview Based ECG Patient Monitoring System for Cardiovascular Patient Using SMTP Technology.

    PubMed

    Singh, Om Prakash; Mekonnen, Dawit; Malarvili, M B

    2015-01-01

    This paper leads to developing a Labview based ECG patient monitoring system for cardiovascular patient using Simple Mail Transfer Protocol technology. The designed device has been divided into three parts. First part is ECG amplifier circuit, built using instrumentation amplifier (AD620) followed by signal conditioning circuit with the operation amplifier (lm741). Secondly, the DAQ card is used to convert the analog signal into digital form for the further process. Furthermore, the data has been processed in Labview where the digital filter techniques have been implemented to remove the noise from the acquired signal. After processing, the algorithm was developed to calculate the heart rate and to analyze the arrhythmia condition. Finally, SMTP technology has been added in our work to make device more communicative and much more cost-effective solution in telemedicine technology which has been key-problem to realize the telediagnosis and monitoring of ECG signals. The technology also can be easily implemented over already existing Internet. PMID:27006940

  4. Spectrofluorimetric methods of stability-indicating assay of certain drugs affecting the cardiovascular system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, B. A.; Mohamed, M. F.; Youssef, N. F.

    2011-01-01

    Two stability-indicating spectrofluorimetric methods have been developed for the determination of ezetimibe and olmesartan medoxomil, drugs affecting the cardiovascular system, and validated in the presence of their degradation products. The first method, for ezetimibe, is based on an oxidative coupling reaction of ezetimibe with 3-methylbenzothiazolin-2-one hydrazone hydrochloride in the presence of cerium (IV) ammonium sulfate in an acidic medium. The quenching effect of ezetimibe on the fluorescence of excess cerous ions is measured at the emission wavelength, λem, of 345 nm with the excitation wavelength, λex, of 296 nm. Factors affecting the reaction were carefully studied and optimized. The second method, for olmesartan medoxomil, is based on measuring the native fluorescence intensity of olmesartan medoxomil in methanol at λem = 360 nm with λex = 286 nm. Regression plots revealed good linear relationships in the assay limits of 10-120 and 8-112 g/ml for ezetimibe and olmesartan medoxomil, respectively. The validity of the methods was assessed according to the United States Pharmacopeya guidelines. Statistical analysis of the results exposed good Student's t-test and F-ratio values. The introduced methods were successfully applied to the analysis of ezetimibe and olmesartan medoxomil in drug substances and drug products as well as in the presence of their degradation products.

  5. Molecular mechanisms underlying the role of nitric oxide in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Stoclet, J C; Troncy, E; Muller, B; Brua, C; Kleschyov, A L

    1998-11-01

    In the cardiovascular system, nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the short and long-term regulation of haemodynamics, and in a number of their pathological alterations. Investigation into the biochemistry of NO-synthase isoforms has confirmed that they also all produce superoxide anion (O(*)). The free radical NO can interact with many targets on which novel information has been recently obtained. The major results of these interactions are not only the well known activation of guanylyl cyclase, but also the formation of potentially cytotoxic peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), and the formation of S-nitrosothiols and non-haem iron-dinitrosyl dithiolate complexes. Tissue O(2), O(*), low molecular weight thiols and transition metals (especially FeII) play a pivotal role in directing NO towards targets responsible for biological effects, or storage or release from these stores. In addition, circulating forms of NO have been proposed with S-nitrosation of blood proteins. All these mechanisms provide potential pharmacological targets for future therapeutic strategies. PMID:15991928

  6. Investigation of Toxic Effects of Mushroom Poisoning on the Cardiovascular System.

    PubMed

    Erenler, Ali Kemal; Doğan, Tolga; Koçak, Cem; Ece, Yasemin

    2016-09-01

    Mushroom poisoning (MP) is a public health problem in many countries. It is well known that consumption of wild mushrooms may cause serious toxicity on renal, hepatic and brain functions. In the literature, however, studies investigating cardiotoxic effects of MP are rare. In this study, we evaluated laboratory and ECG findings of patients and sought for possible toxic effects of MP on the cardiovascular system. During a 2-year period, 175 patients with MP were included in the study. The majority of the poisonings occurred in early summertime. The most common complaint was found to be nausea and vomiting followed by mental status alterations. Methods of treatment were mainly based on gastric lavage, activated charcoal and supportive therapy. The most common ECG abnormalities in the patients with MP were sinus tachycardia, sinus arrhythmia, ST/T inversion, 1st degree AV block and QT prolongation, respectively. Cardiac markers of the patients were found to be normal. Then, patients were divided into two subgroups according to symptom onset after consumption (less than 6 hr and more than 6 hr). When the two groups were compared, prevalence of tachycardia was significantly higher in Group II. Additionally, the interval between mushroom consumption and onset of symptoms was strongly correlated with blood pressure (BP). As this interval prolonged, BP of the patients tended to increase. In conclusion, according to our results, although mechanisms need to be clarified, MP causes hypertension and ECG alterations, particularly tachycardia in patients with late-onset symptoms. PMID:26879235

  7. A computational physiology approach to personalized treatment models: the beneficial effects of slow breathing on the human cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Fonoberova, Maria; Mezić, Igor; Buckman, Jennifer F.; Fonoberov, Vladimir A.; Mezić, Adriana; Vaschillo, Evgeny G.; Mun, Eun-Young; Vaschillo, Bronya

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate variability biofeedback intervention involves slow breathing at a rate of ∼6 breaths/min (resonance breathing) to maximize respiratory and baroreflex effects on heart period oscillations. This intervention has wide-ranging clinical benefits and is gaining empirical support as an adjunct therapy for biobehavioral disorders, including asthma and depression. Yet, little is known about the system-level cardiovascular changes that occur during resonance breathing or the extent to which individuals differ in cardiovascular benefit. This study used a computational physiology approach to dynamically model the human cardiovascular system at rest and during resonance breathing. Noninvasive measurements of heart period, beat-to-beat systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and respiration period were obtained from 24 healthy young men and women. A model with respiration as input was parameterized to better understand how the cardiovascular processes that control variability in heart period and blood pressure change from rest to resonance breathing. The cost function used in model calibration corresponded to the difference between the experimental data and model outputs. A good match was observed between the data and model outputs (heart period, blood pressure, and corresponding power spectral densities). Significant improvements in several modeled cardiovascular functions (e.g., blood flow to internal organs, sensitivity of the sympathetic component of the baroreflex, ventricular elastance) were observed during resonance breathing. Individual differences in the magnitude and nature of these dynamic responses suggest that computational physiology may be clinically useful for tailoring heart rate variability biofeedback interventions for the needs of individual patients. PMID:25063789

  8. A computational physiology approach to personalized treatment models: the beneficial effects of slow breathing on the human cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Fonoberova, Maria; Mezić, Igor; Buckman, Jennifer F; Fonoberov, Vladimir A; Mezić, Adriana; Vaschillo, Evgeny G; Mun, Eun-Young; Vaschillo, Bronya; Bates, Marsha E

    2014-10-01

    Heart rate variability biofeedback intervention involves slow breathing at a rate of ∼6 breaths/min (resonance breathing) to maximize respiratory and baroreflex effects on heart period oscillations. This intervention has wide-ranging clinical benefits and is gaining empirical support as an adjunct therapy for biobehavioral disorders, including asthma and depression. Yet, little is known about the system-level cardiovascular changes that occur during resonance breathing or the extent to which individuals differ in cardiovascular benefit. This study used a computational physiology approach to dynamically model the human cardiovascular system at rest and during resonance breathing. Noninvasive measurements of heart period, beat-to-beat systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and respiration period were obtained from 24 healthy young men and women. A model with respiration as input was parameterized to better understand how the cardiovascular processes that control variability in heart period and blood pressure change from rest to resonance breathing. The cost function used in model calibration corresponded to the difference between the experimental data and model outputs. A good match was observed between the data and model outputs (heart period, blood pressure, and corresponding power spectral densities). Significant improvements in several modeled cardiovascular functions (e.g., blood flow to internal organs, sensitivity of the sympathetic component of the baroreflex, ventricular elastance) were observed during resonance breathing. Individual differences in the magnitude and nature of these dynamic responses suggest that computational physiology may be clinically useful for tailoring heart rate variability biofeedback interventions for the needs of individual patients. PMID:25063789

  9. Systemic inflammation and cardiovascular risk factors predict rapid progression of atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    del Rincón, Inmaculada; Polak, Joseph F; O’Leary, Daniel H; Battafarano, Daniel F; Erikson, John M; Restrepo, Jose F; Molina, Emily; Escalante, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate atherosclerosis progression and identify influencing factors in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods We used carotid ultrasound to measure intima-media thickness (IMT) in RA patients, and ascertained cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, inflammation markers and medications. A second ultrasound was performed approximately 3 years later. We calculated the progression rate by subtracting the baseline from the follow-up IMT, divided by the time between the two scans. We used logistic regression to identify baseline factors predictive of rapid progression. We tested for interactions of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) with CV risk factors and medication use. Results Results were available for 487 RA patients. The mean (SD) common carotid IMT at baseline was 0.571 mm (0.151). After a mean of 2.8 years, the IMT increased by 0.050 mm (0.055), p≤0.001, a progression rate of 0.018 mm/year (95% CI 0.016 to 0.020). Baseline factors associated with rapid progression included the number of CV risk factors (OR 1.27 per risk factor, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.61), and the ESR (OR 1.12 per 10 mm/h, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.23). The ESR×CV risk factor and ESR×medication product terms were significant, suggesting these variables modify the association between the ESR and IMT progression. Conclusions Systemic inflammation and CV risk factors were associated with rapid IMT progression. CV risk factors may modify the role of systemic inflammation in determining IMT progression over time. Methotrexate and antitumour necrosis factor agents may influence IMT progression by reducing the effect of the systemic inflammation on the IMT. PMID:24845391

  10. Physical Fitness in Spanish Schoolchildren Aged 6-12 Years: Reference Values of the Battery EUROFIT and Associated Cardiovascular Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulías-González, Roberto; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Olivas-Bravo, Ángel; Solera-Martínez, Montserrat; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Background: Physical fitness is considered an important indicator of health in children. The aims of this study were to (1) provide sex- and age-specific EUROFIT battery levels of fitness in Spanish children; (2) compare Spanish children's fitness levels with those of children from other countries; and (3) determine the percentage of Spanish…

  11. Relation of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Plaque With Incident Cardiovascular Events in Women With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Amy H.; Lertratanakul, Apinya; Elliott, Jennifer R.; Sattar, Abdus; Santelices, Linda; Shaw, Penny; Birru, Mehret; Avram, Zheni; Thompson, Trina; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Manzi, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are at increased risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between subclinical CV disease as measured by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque using B-mode carotid ultrasound and incident CV events in a combined cohort of female patients with SLE. This was a prospective, 2-center observational study of 392 adult women with SLE and no previous CV events with a mean 8 years of follow-up. Incident CV events confirmed by clinicians were defined as angina, myocardial infarction, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, coronary artery bypass graft, fatal cardiac arrest, transient ischemic attack, and cerebrovascular accident. Incident hard CV events excluded angina and transient ischemic attack. The mean age was 43.5 years, and most patients were Caucasian (77.3%). During follow-up, 38 patients had incident CV events, and 17 had incident hard CV events. Patients with incident hard CV events had higher mean carotid IMT (0.80 vs 0.64 mm, p <0.01) and presence of carotid plaque (76.5% vs 30.4%, p <0.01) compared with those without incident hard CV events. Baseline carotid IMT and presence of plaque were predictive of any incident hard CV event (hazard ratio 1.35, 95% confidence interval 1.12 to 1.64, and hazard ratio 4.26, 95% confidence interval 1.23 to 14.83, respectively), independent of traditional CV risk factors and medication use. In conclusion, in women with SLE without previous CV events, carotid IMT and plaque are predictive of future CV events. This suggests that carotid ultrasound may provide an additional tool for CV risk stratification in patients with SLE. PMID:23827400

  12. Overweight Is a Major Contributor to Atherosclerosis in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients at Apparent Low Risk for Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sacre, Karim; Escoubet, Brigitte; Zennaro, Maria-Christina; Chauveheid, Marie-Paule; Gayat, Etienne; Papo, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of death in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. We aimed to determine whether overweight (defined as a body mass index [BMI] > 25 kg/m2) contributed to subclinical atherosclerosis in SLE patients at low risk for CVD according to traditional factors. Wall thickness of the internal carotid artery (ICWT) measured at the carotid bulb and carotid plaques were assessed in 49 SLE patients asymptomatic for CVD and 49 controls matched on Framingham score. Factors associated to ICWT were identified and multivariate analysis was performed. SLE patients and controls displayed a low 10-year risk for CVD according to Framingham score (mean 1.9 ± 3.5 in SLE vs 1.8 ± 3.2% in controls, P = 0.37). ICWT (P < 0.001) and number of patients with carotid plaques (P = 0.015) were, however, higher in SLE patients as compared to controls. In multivariable analysis, SLE was an independent risk for a carotid atherosclerosis (OR [95% confidence interval, CI]: 3.53 [1.36–9.14]; P = 0.009). Older age, higher BMI, and higher Framingham score were associated with atherosclerosis in SLE patients in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, only the association with overweight remained significant (OR [95% CI]: 4.13 [1.02–16.75]; P = 0.047). Overweight is a major contributor to atherosclerosis in SLE patients at apparent low risk for CVD. PMID:26632902

  13. NATIONAL AGING PROGRAMS INFORMATION SYSTEM (NAPIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1992 reauthorization of the Older Americans Act (OAA) directed the Administration on Aging to improve performance reporting on programs and services funded by the OA This impetus caused AoA to reconsider reporting requirements for all Titles of the Act under the direction of ...

  14. Lack of cardiovascular risk assessment in inflammatory arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus patients at a tertiary care center.

    PubMed

    Keeling, Stephanie O; Teo, Michelle; Fung, Daisy

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate cardiovascular risk assessment at a Canadian rheumatology center and describe the cardiovascular risk of inflammatory arthritis (IA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients using the Framingham risk score. A retrospective chart review of 504 patients attending nine rheumatology practices at the University of Alberta Hospital was performed. A pre-specified case report form detailed patient demographics, cardiac risk factors, variables for the Framingham 2008 score, disease activity, and medication use. In this group of 504 patients, 64 (12.7%) had SLE (male (M) to female (F) ratio = 60:4) and 440 (87.3%) had an IA (M to F ratio = 117:323). Of the SLE patients, 31 (48.4%) met four or more American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria, 33 (51.6%) had less than four ACR criteria. Of the IA patients, 156 (35.5%) were CCP positive and 257 (58.4%) were RF positive. Utilizing the chart data, retrospective Framingham risk scores were calculable for one (1.6%) SLE patient and three (0.68%) IA patients. The most common cardiac risk factors not documented in the medical records of both the SLE and IA patients included: (1) positive family history of MI, (2) diabetes, and (3) lipid status. The blood pressure was more frequently documented in the SLE patients (93.8%) compared to the IA patients (56.1%). While traditional cardiac risk factors only partially contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk in these patients, cardiovascular risk assessment was suboptimally performed amongst a large group of rheumatologists. A dedicated cardiovascular risk reduction clinic for inflammatory rheumatic diseases has been established at this site to fulfill this need and evaluate treatment strategies. PMID:21503617

  15. Modeling of short-term mechanism of arterial pressure control in the cardiovascular system: object-oriented and acausal approach.

    PubMed

    Kulhánek, Tomáš; Kofránek, Jiří; Mateják, Marek

    2014-11-01

    This letter introduces an alternative approach to modeling the cardiovascular system with a short-term control mechanism published in Computers in Biology and Medicine, Vol. 47 (2014), pp. 104-112. We recommend using abstract components on a distinct physical level, separating the model into hydraulic components, subsystems of the cardiovascular system and individual subsystems of the control mechanism and scenario. We recommend utilizing an acausal modeling feature of Modelica language, which allows model variables to be expressed declaratively. Furthermore, the Modelica tool identifies which are the dependent and independent variables upon compilation. An example of our approach is introduced on several elementary components representing the hydraulic resistance to fluid flow and the elastic response of the vessel, among others. The introduced model implementation can be more reusable and understandable for the general scientific community. PMID:25240104

  16. Regulation of the Apelinergic System and Its Potential in Cardiovascular Disease: Peptides and Small Molecules as Tools for Discovery.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sanju; Harris, Danni L; Maitra, Rangan; Runyon, Scott P

    2015-10-22

    Apelin peptides and the apelin receptor represent a relatively new therapeutic axis for the potential treatment of cardiovascular disease. Several reports suggest apelin receptor activation with apelin peptides results in cardioprotection as noted through positive ionotropy, angiogenesis, reduction of mean arterial blood pressure, and apoptosis. Considering the potential therapeutic benefit attainable through modulation of the apelinergic system, research is expanding to develop novel therapies that limit the inherent rapid degradation of endogenous apelin peptides and produce metabolically stable small molecule agonists and antagonists to more rigorously interrogate the apelin receptor system. This review details the structure-activity relationships for chemically modified apelin peptides and recent disclosures of small molecule agonists and antagonists and summarizes the peer reviewed and patented literature. Development of metabolically stable ligands of apelin receptor and their effects in various models over the coming years will hopefully lead to establishment of this receptor as a validated target for cardiovascular indications. PMID:26102594

  17. Significant associations between hemostatic/fibrinolytic systems and accumulation of cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese elementary schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lisheng; Horigome, Hitoshi; Kato, Yoshiaki; Kikuchi, Toshihiro; Nakahara, Satoko; Sumazaki, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the reference values of hemostatic/fibrinolytic markers and investigate their relationship with physical constitution and cardiovascular risk factors in a normal schoolchildren population. This study comprised 148 healthy Japanese children aged 9-10 years (males 73; females 75). We performed laboratory tests including blood levels of leptin, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), hemostatic and fibrinolytic markers [plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), coagulation factor VII (FVII), coagulation factor X (FX), fibrinogen (Fbg), protein C, protein S], as well as common biochemical markers in the morning after an overnight fast. We investigated the mean, 10th, 50th and 90th percentile values of these markers. All parameters were compared between two groups, that is those with body mass index (BMI) 90th percentile or higher and BMI less than 90th percentile, and between subgroups based on the number of cardiovascular risk factors. Multiple-linear regression was used to assess associations between these hematological parameters and the components related to metabolic syndrome (MetS). Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), uric acid, leptin, hs-CRP, and all hemostatic/fibrinolytic markers (PAI-1, FVII, FX, Fbg, protein C, protein S) tested were significantly higher in the group with BMI 90th percentile or higher, and increased with accumulation of cardiovascular risk factors. Multiple-linear regression analysis showed that these values were associated with one or more components related to MetS. Reference values of hemostatic/fibrinolytic markers in Japanese schoolchildren were obtained. Many hemostatic/fibrinolytic markers showed significant association with BMI and accumulation of cardiovascular risk factors in normal Japanese schoolchildren. PMID:25185676

  18. Telomeres and Telomerase in Cardiovascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Jih-Kai; Wang, Chao-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres are tandem repeat DNA sequences present at the ends of each eukaryotic chromosome to stabilize the genome structure integrity. Telomere lengths progressively shorten with each cell division. Inflammation and oxidative stress, which are implicated as major mechanisms underlying cardiovascular diseases, increase the rate of telomere shortening and lead to cellular senescence. In clinical studies, cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and hypertension have been associated with short leukocyte telomere length. In addition, low telomerase activity and short leukocyte telomere length have been observed in atherosclerotic plaque and associated with plaque instability, thus stroke or acute myocardial infarction. The aging myocardium with telomere shortening and accumulation of senescent cells limits the tissue regenerative capacity, contributing to systolic or diastolic heart failure. In addition, patients with ion-channel defects might have genetic imbalance caused by oxidative stress-related accelerated telomere shortening, which may subsequently cause sudden cardiac death. Telomere length can serve as a marker for the biological status of previous cell divisions and DNA damage with inflammation and oxidative stress. It can be integrated into current risk prediction and stratification models for cardiovascular diseases and can be used in precise personalized treatments. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of telomeres and telomerase in the aging process and their association with cardiovascular diseases. In addition, we discuss therapeutic interventions targeting the telomere system in cardiovascular disease treatments. PMID:27598203

  19. [Cardiovascular complications of obesity].

    PubMed

    Cascella, Teresa; Giallauria, Francesco; Tafuri, Domenico; Lombardi, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria; Vigorito, Carlo; Orio, Francesco

    2006-12-01

    Obesity is one of the major coronary risk factor representing an increasingly important worldwide health problem. The increased prevalence of obesity among younger population is likely to have long-term implications for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Obesity plays a central role in the insulin resistance syndrome and contributes to increase the risk of atherosclerotic CVD. The present review will examine the relationships among cardiovascular risk factors during the childhood-adolescence-adulthood transition. In fact, the relationship between obesity (especially visceral obesity) and CVD appears to develop at a relatively young age. The foremost physical consequence of obesity is atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and polycystic ovary syndrome represents an intriguing example of obesity-related cardiovascular complications affecting young women. PMID:17312846

  20. Characteristics and popular topics of latest researches into the effects of air particulate matter on cardiovascular system by bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaofeng; Guo, Xinbiao; Li, Haicun; An, Xinying; Zhao, Yingguang

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, many epidemiological and toxicological studies have investigated the adverse effects of air particulate matter (PM) on the cardiovascular system. However, it is difficult for the researchers to have a timely and effective overall command of the latest characteristics and popular topics in such a wide field. Different from the previous reviews, in which the research characteristics and trends are empirically concluded by experts, we try to have a comprehensive evaluation of the above topics for the first time by bibliometric analysis, a quantitative tool in information exploration. This study aims to introduce the bibliometric method into the field of PM and cardiovascular system. The articles were selected by searching PubMed/MEDLINE (from 2007 to 2012) using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms "particulate matter" and "cardiovascular system". A total of 935 eligible articles and 1895 MeSH terms were retrieved and processed by the software Thomson Data Analyzer (TDA). The bibliographic information and the MeSH terms of these articles were classified and analyzed to summarize the research characteristics. The top 200 high-frequency MeSH terms (the cumulative frequency percentage was 74.2%) were clustered for popular-topic conclusion. We summarized the characteristics of published articles, of researcher collaborations and of the contents. Ten clusters of MeSH terms are presented. Six popular topics are concluded and elaborated for reference. Our study presents an overview of the characteristics and popular topics in the field of PM and cardiovascular system in the past five years by bibliometric tools, which may provide a new perspective for future researchers. PMID:23480197

  1. Long-term regulation in the cardiovascular system - Cornerstone in the development of a composite physiological model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The present work discusses a model of the cardiovascular system and related subsystems capable of long-term simulations of the type desired for in-space hypogravic human physiological performance prediction. The discussion centers around the model of Guyton and modifications of it. In order to draw attention to the fluid handling capabilities of the model, one of several transfusion simulations performed is presented, namely, the isotonic saline transfusion simulation.

  2. [Reproducibility of the answers of various groups of cardiovascular patients in a standardized questionnaire, differentiated by age and gender].

    PubMed

    Adelt, R; Bohm, R; Heinemann, L; Günther, K H

    1978-10-15

    For the purpose of the valuation of a questionnaire developed by us for the anamnestic recognition of angiocardiopathies, which consists of 63 questions, a repeated interrogation was performed with 220 patients of different age and sex during 14 days. The average reproducibility of the yes/no-decisions was good and varied only slightly in the 8 groups of diseases (86.3--99.4%). The average degree of reproducibility referred to the sexes is nearly the same (94.7% and 95.5%, respectively). Referred to the age groups the highest reproducibility was established in the patients older than 60 years (95.7%) and the lowest in patients between 50 and 60 years (93.3%). PMID:735245

  3. Cardiovascular Deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.; Fritsch-Yelle, Janice M.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Wood, Margie L.; Brown, Troy E.; Fortner, G. William

    1999-01-01

    Spaceflight causes adaptive changes in cardiovascular function that may deleteriously affect crew health and safety. Over the last three decades, symptoms of cardiovascular changes have ranged from postflight orthostatic tachycardia and decreased exercise capacity to serious cardiac rhythm disturbances during extravehicular activities (EVA). The most documented symptom of cardiovascular dysfunction, postflight orthostatic intolerance, has affected a significant percentage of U.S. Space Shuttle astronauts. Problems of cardiovascular dysfunction associated with spaceflight are a concern to NASA. This has been particularly true during Shuttle flights where the primary concern is the crew's physical health, including the pilot's ability to land the Orbiter, and the crew's ability to quickly egress and move to safety should a dangerous condition arise. The study of astronauts during Shuttle activities is inherently more difficult than most human research. Consequently, sample sizes have been small and results have lacked consistency. Before the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP), there was a lack of normative data on changes in cardiovascular parameters during and after spaceflight. The EDOMP for the first time allowed studies on a large enough number of subjects to overcome some of these problems. There were three primary goals of the Cardiovascular EDOMP studies. The first was to establish, through descriptive studies, a normative data base of cardiovascular changes attributable to spaceflight. The second goal was to determine mechanisms of cardiovascular changes resulting from spaceflight (particularly orthostatic hypotension and cardiac rhythm disturbances). The third was to evaluate possible countermeasures. The Cardiovascular EDOMP studies involved parallel descriptive, mechanistic, and countermeasure evaluations.

  4. Towards patient-specific cardiovascular modeling system using the immersed boundary technique

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous research shows that the flow dynamics in the left ventricle (LV) reveal important information about cardiac health. This information can be used in early diagnosis of patients with potential heart problems. The current study introduces a patient-specific cardiovascular-modelling system (CMS) which simulates the flow dynamics in the LV to facilitate physicians in early diagnosis of patients before heart failure. Methods The proposed system will identify possible disease conditions and facilitates early diagnosis through hybrid computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation and time-resolved magnetic resonance imaging (4-D MRI). The simulation is based on the 3-D heart model, which can simultaneously compute fluid and elastic boundary motions using the immersed boundary method. At this preliminary stage, the 4-D MRI is used to provide an appropriate comparison. This allows flexible investigation of the flow features in the ventricles and their responses. Results The results simulate various flow rates and kinetic energy in the diastole and systole phases, demonstrating the feasibility of capturing some of the important characteristics of the heart during different phases. However, some discrepancies exist in the pulmonary vein and aorta flow rate between the numerical and experimental data. Further studies are essential to investigate and solve the remaining problems before using the data in clinical diagnostics. Conclusions The results show that by using a simple reservoir pressure boundary condition (RPBC), we are able to capture some essential variations found in the clinical data. Our approach establishes a first-step framework of a practical patient-specific CMS, which comprises a 3-D CFD model (without involving actual hemodynamic data yet) to simulate the heart and the 4-D PC-MRI system. At this stage, the 4-D PC-MRI system is used for verification purpose rather than input. This brings us closer to our goal of developing a practical patient

  5. Cardiovascular group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blomqvist, Gunnar

    1989-01-01

    As a starting point, the group defined a primary goal of maintaining in flight a level of systemic oxygen transport capacity comparable to each individual's preflight upright baseline. The goal of maintaining capacity at preflight levels would seem to be a reasonable objective for several different reasons, including the maintenance of good health in general and the preservation of sufficient cardiovascular reserve capacity to meet operational demands. It is also important not to introduce confounding variables in whatever other physiological studies are being performed. A change in the level of fitness is likely to be a significant confounding variable in the study of many organ systems. The principal component of the in-flight cardiovascular exercise program should be large-muscle activity such as treadmill exercise. It is desirable that at least one session per week be monitored to assure maintenance of proper functional levels and to provide guidance for any adjustments of the exercise prescription. Appropriate measurements include evaluation of the heart-rate/workload or the heart-rate/oxygen-uptake relationship. Respiratory gas analysis is helpful by providing better opportunities to document relative workload levels from analysis of the interrelationships among VO2, VCO2, and ventilation. The committee felt that there is no clear evidence that any particular in-flight exercise regimen is protective against orthostatic hypotension during the early readaptation phase. Some group members suggested that maintenance of the lower body muscle mass and muscle tone may be helpful. There is also evidence that late in-flight interventions to reexpand blood volume to preflight levels are helpful in preventing or minimizing postflight orthostatic hypotension.

  6. Method of propulsion of a ferromagnetic core in the cardiovascular system through magnetic gradients generated by an MRI system.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Jean-Baptiste; Beaudoin, Gilles; Martel, Sylvain

    2006-02-01

    This paper reports the use of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system to propel a ferromagnetic core. The concept was studied for future development of microdevices designed to perform minimally invasive interventions in remote sites accessible through the human cardiovascular system. A mathematical model is described taking into account various parameters such as the size of blood vessels, the velocities and viscous properties of blood, the magnetic properties of the materials, the characteristics of MRI gradient coils, as well as the ratio between the diameter of a spherical core and the diameter of the blood vessels. The concept of magnetic propulsion by MRI is validated experimentally by measuring the flow velocities that magnetized spheres (carbon steel 1010/1020) can withstand inside cylindrical tubes under the different magnetic forces created with a Siemens Magnetom Vision 1.5 T MRI system. The differences between the velocities predicted by the theoretical model and the experiments are approximately 10%. The results indicate that with the technology available today for gradient coils used in clinical MRI systems, it is possible to generate sufficient gradients to propel a ferromagnetic sphere in the larger sections of the arterial system. In other words, the results show that in the larger blood vessels where the diameter of the microdevices could be as large as a couple a millimeters, the few tens of mT/m of gradients required for displacement against the relatively high blood flow rate is well within the limits of clinical MRI systems. On the other hand, although propulsion of a ferromagnetic core with diameter of approximately 600 microm may be possible with existing clinical MRI systems, gradient amplitudes of several T/m would be required to propel a much smaller ferromagnetic core in small vessels such as capillaries and additional gradient coils would be required to upgrade existing MRI systems for operations at such a scale. PMID:16485758

  7. Influence of pneumoperitoneum and postural change on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems in dogs.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Tae; Okano, Shozo

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the influence of pneumoperitoneum#(PP) and postural change under inhalation anesthesia with isoflurane, which is routinely used in dogs, on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. As test animals, 6 adult beagles were used. To induce anesthesia, atropine, butorphanol and propofol were intravenously injected. Anesthesia was maintained with 1.3 MAC (1.7%) isoflurane. The following were the experiment conditions: I:E ratio, 1:1.9; tidal air exchange, 20 ml/kg; and ventilation frequency, 14 times/min. Respiration was regulated so that the PaCO2 was approximately 35 to 40 mmHg before the start of the experiment. PP with CO2 (intraperitoneal pressure 15 mmHg) and a postural change (15°C) was performed during the experiment. As parameters of circulatory kinetics, heart rate (HR), mean aortic pressure (MAP), mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP), central venous pressure (CVP), femoral venous pressure (FVP) and cardiac output (CO) were measured. As parameters of respiratory kinetics, airway pressure (PAW) and blood gas (BG) were measured. There were significant increases in HR, MAP, MPAP, CVP, FVP, CO, PAW and PaCO2 after PP in the horizontal position. There were significant increases in CVP, FVP, PAW and PaCO2 after PP in the Trendelenburg position. There were significant increases in the MPAP, CVP, FVP, PAW and PaCO2 after PP in the inverse Trendelenburg position. There was a significant difference in FVP after PP between the Trendelenburg position and inverse Trendelenburg position. The results of this experiment suggest that appropriate anesthesia control, such as changing the ventilation conditions after PP, is required for laparoscopic surgery under inhalation anesthesia with isoflurane. PMID:26027843

  8. Distribution and function of peripheral alpha-adrenoceptors in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Ruffolo, R R

    1985-05-01

    alpha-Adrenoceptors may be subdivided based on their anatomical distribution within the synapse. Presynaptic alpha-adrenoceptors are generally of the alpha 2-subtype and modulate neurotransmitter liberation via a negative feedback mechanism. Postsynaptic alpha-adrenoceptors are usually of the alpha 1-subtype and mediate the response of the effector organ. Although this "anatomical" subclassification is generally applicable, many exceptions exist. A more useful classification of alpha-adrenoceptor subtypes is based on a pharmacological characterization in which selective agonists and antagonists are used. Peripheral alpha-adrenoceptors are critical in the regulation of the cardiovascular system. Postsynaptic alpha-adrenoceptors in arteries and veins represent a mixed population of alpha 1/alpha 2-adrenoceptors, with both subtypes mediating vasoconstriction. In the peripheral arterial circulation, postsynaptic vascular alpha 1-adrenoceptors are found in the adrenergic neuroeffector junction, whereas postsynaptic vascular alpha 2-adrenoceptors are located extrajunctionally. In the venous circulation, it appears that alpha 2-adrenoceptors may be predominantly junctional, whereas alpha 1-adrenoceptors may be predominantly extrajunctional. It has been proposed that junctional alpha-adrenoceptors will respond predominantly to norepinephrine liberated from sympathetic neurons, whereas extrajunctional alpha-adrenoceptors likely respond to circulating catecholamines. The functional role of extrajunctional alpha-adrenoceptors may be more important in disease states such as hypertension and congestive heart failure where circulating levels of catecholamines may be high and contribute to the maintenance of elevated vascular resistance. alpha 2-Adrenoceptors are also associated with the intima and may play a role in the release of an endogenous relaxing factor from the endothelium.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2989947

  9. Validation of subject-specific cardiovascular system models from porcine measurements.

    PubMed

    Revie, James A; Stevenson, David J; Chase, J Geoffrey; Hann, Christopher E; Lambermont, Bernard C; Ghuysen, Alexandre; Kolh, Philippe; Shaw, Geoffrey M; Heldmann, Stefan; Desaive, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    A previously validated mathematical model of the cardiovascular system (CVS) is made subject-specific using an iterative, proportional gain-based identification method. Prior works utilised a complete set of experimentally measured data that is not clinically typical or applicable. In this paper, parameters are identified using proportional gain-based control and a minimal, clinically available set of measurements. The new method makes use of several intermediary steps through identification of smaller compartmental models of CVS to reduce the number of parameters identified simultaneously and increase the convergence stability of the method. This new, clinically relevant, minimal measurement approach is validated using a porcine model of acute pulmonary embolism (APE). Trials were performed on five pigs, each inserted with three autologous blood clots of decreasing size over a period of four to five hours. All experiments were reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of the Medical Faculty at the University of Liege, Belgium. Continuous aortic and pulmonary artery pressures (P(ao), P(pa)) were measured along with left and right ventricle pressure and volume waveforms. Subject-specific CVS models were identified from global end diastolic volume (GEDV), stroke volume (SV), P(ao), and P(pa) measurements, with the mean volumes and maximum pressures of the left and right ventricles used to verify the accuracy of the fitted models. The inputs (GEDV, SV, P(ao), P(pa)) used in the identification process were matched by the CVS model to errors <0.5%. Prediction of the mean ventricular volumes and maximum ventricular pressures not used to fit the model compared experimental measurements to median absolute errors of 4.3% and 4.4%, which are equivalent to the measurement errors of currently used monitoring devices in the ICU (∼5-10%). These results validate the potential for implementing this approach in the intensive care unit. PMID:22126892

  10. Porphyromonas gingivalis virulence factors and invasion of cells of the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Progulske-Fox, A; Kozarov, E; Dorn, B; Dunn, W; Burks, J; Wu, Y

    1999-10-01

    Our laboratory is interested in the genes and gene products involved in the interactions between Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) and the host. These interactions may occur in either the periodontal tissues or other non-oral host tissues such as those of the cardiovascular system. We have previously reported the cloning of several genes encoding hemagglutinins, surface proteins that interact with the host tissues, and are investigating their roles in the disease process. Primary among these is HagA, a very large protein with multiple functional groups that have significant sequence homology to protease genes of this species. Preliminary evidence indicates that an avirulent Salmonella typhimurium strain containing hagA is virulent in mice. These data indicate that HagA may be a key virulence factor of Pg. Additionally, we are investigating the invasion of primary human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) by Pg because of the recent epidemiological studies indicating a correlation between periodontal disease (PD) and coronary heart disease (CHD). We found that some, but not all, strains of Pg are able to invade these cells. Scanning electron microsopy of the infected HCAEC demonstrated that the invading organisms initially attached to the host cell surface as aggregates and by a "pedestal"-like structure. By transmission electronmicroscopy it could be seen that internalized bacteria were present within multimembranous compartments localized with rough endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, invasion of the HCAEC by Pg resulted in an increase in the degradation of long-lived cellular proteins. These data indicate that Pg are present within autophagosomes and may use components of the autophagic pathway as a means to survive intracellularly. However, Pg presence within autophagosomes in KB cells could not be observed or detected. It is therefore likely that Pg uses different invasive mechanisms for different host cells. This and the role of HagA in invasion is currently

  11. Acute exposure to Buenos Aires air particles (UAP-BA) induces local and systemic inflammatory response in middle-aged mice: A time course study.

    PubMed

    Orona, Nadia S; Ferraro, Sebastián A; Astort, Francisco; Morales, Celina; Brites, Fernando; Boero, Laura; Tiscornia, Gisela; Maglione, Guillermo A; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Yakisich, Sebastian; Tasat, Deborah R

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to air particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbimortality. However, PM doesn't affect equally to all people, being the old cohort the most susceptible and studied. We hypothesized that another specific life phase, the middle-aged subpopulation, may be negatively affected. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze in vivo the acute biological impact of two environmental particles, Urban Air Particles from Buenos Aires and Residual Oil Fly Ash, on the cardiorespiratory system of middle-aged mice, evaluating oxidative metabolism and inflammation. Both PM provoked a local and systemic inflammatory response, leading to a reduced alveolar area in the lung, an epicard inflammation in the heart, an increment of IL-6, and a reduction on PON 1 activity in serum of middle-aged animals. The positive correlation of local parameters with systemic markers of oxidative stress and inflammation could be responsible for associations of cardiovascular morbimortality in this subpopulation. PMID:26255684

  12. Physiological Antioxidative Network of the Bilirubin System in Aging and Age-Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Young; Park, Sang Chul

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress is detrimental to life process and is particularly responsible for aging and age-related diseases. Thus, most organisms are well equipped with a spectrum of biological defense mechanisms against oxidative stress. The major efficient antioxidative mechanism is the glutathione system, operating a redox cycling mechanism for glutathione utilization, which consists of glutathione and its peroxidase and reductase. However, this system is mainly effective for hydrophilic oxidants, while lipophilic oxidants require another scavenging system. Since many age-related pathological conditions are related to lipid peroxidation, especially in association with the aging process, the physiological role of the scavenging system for lipophilic oxidants should be considered. In this regard, the biliverdin to bilirubin conversion pathway, via biliverdin reductase (BVR), is suggested to be another major protective mechanism that scavenges lipophilic oxidants because of the lipophilic nature of bilirubin. The efficiency of this bilirubin system might be potentiated by operation of the intertwined bicyclic systems of the suggested redox metabolic cycle of biliverdin and bilirubin and the interactive control cycle of BVR and heme oxygenase. In order to combat oxidative stress, both antioxidative systems against hydrophilic and lipophilic oxidants are required to work cooperatively. In this regard, the roles of the bilirubin system in aging and age-related diseases are reassessed in this review, and their interacting networks are evaluated. PMID:22457648

  13. Modelling safety of multistate systems with ageing components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kołowrocki, Krzysztof; Soszyńska-Budny, Joanna

    2016-06-01

    An innovative approach to safety analysis of multistate ageing systems is presented. Basic notions of the ageing multistate systems safety analysis are introduced. The system components and the system multistate safety functions are defined. The mean values and variances of the multistate systems lifetimes in the safety state subsets and the mean values of their lifetimes in the particular safety states are defined. The multi-state system risk function and the moment of exceeding by the system the critical safety state are introduced. Applications of the proposed multistate system safety models to the evaluation and prediction of the safty characteristics of the consecutive "m out of n: F" is presented as well.

  14. Demographic and Epidemiologic Drivers of Global Cardiovascular Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Gregory A.; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Moran, Andrew E.; Barber, Ryan; Nguyen, Grant; Feigin, Valery L.; Naghavi, Mohsen; Mensah, George A.; Murray, Christopher J.L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Global deaths from cardiovascular disease are increasing as a result of population growth, the aging of populations, and epidemiologic changes in disease. Disentangling the effects of these three drivers on trends in mortality is important for planning the future of the health care system and benchmarking progress toward the reduction of cardiovascular disease. METHODS We used mortality data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013, which includes data on 188 countries grouped into 21 world regions. We developed three counterfactual scenarios to represent the principal drivers of change in cardiovascular deaths (population growth alone, population growth and aging, and epidemiologic changes in disease) from 1990 to 2013. Secular trends and correlations with changes in national income were examined. RESULTS Global deaths from cardiovascular disease increased by 41% between 1990 and 2013 despite a 39% decrease in age-specific death rates; this increase was driven by a 55% increase in mortality due to the aging of populations and a 25% increase due to population growth. The relative contributions of these drivers varied by region; only in Central Europe and Western Europe did the annual number of deaths from cardiovascular disease actually decline. Change in gross domestic product per capita was correlated with change in age-specific death rates only among upper-middle income countries, and this correlation was weak; there was no significant correlation elsewhere. CONCLUSIONS The aging and growth of the population resulted in an increase in global cardiovascular deaths between 1990 and 2013, despite a decrease in age-specific death rates in most regions. Only Central and Western Europe had gains in cardiovascular health that were sufficient to offset these demographic forces. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and others.) PMID:25830423

  15. Mechanistically linking age-related diseases and dietary carbohydrate via autophagy and the ubiquitin proteolytic systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epidemiological data indicate that consuming diets that deliver sugar to the blood rapidly (called high glycemic index, GI) is associated with enhanced risk for age-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cataract and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). These debilities...

  16. Role of the Sympathetic Nervous System in Stress-Mediated Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Hering, Dagmara; Lachowska, Kamila; Schlaich, Markus

    2015-10-01

    A high incidence of acute cardiovascular events and sudden cardiac death following unexpected acute emotional stress or a natural catastrophic disaster has been well-documented over the past decades. Chronic psychosocial factors have been shown to be directly linked to the development of hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Activation of various neurogenic pathways is an important mediator of acute and chronic stress-induced hypertension and heart disease. Heightened sympathetic activation has been shown to be a critical contributor linking psychogenic effects on cardiovascular regulation to serious and often fatal CV outcomes. Accordingly, several therapeutic approaches that attenuate autonomic imbalance via modulation of increased sympathetic outflow by either non-pharmacological or interventional means have been shown to alleviate clinical symptoms. Likewise stress reduction per se achieved with transcendental medicine has been linked to improved patient outcomes. Therapies that oppose adrenergic activity and/or have the potential to attenuate negative emotions are likely to reduce cardiovascular risk and its adverse consequences attributable to chronic mental stress. PMID:26318888

  17. HIV and coronary artery calcium score: comparison of the Hawaii Aging with HIV Cardiovascular Study and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Dominic; Young, Rebekah; Valcour, Nicole; Kronmal, Richard A.; Lum, Corey J.; Parikh, Nisha I.; Tracy, Russell P.; Budoff, Matthew; Shikuma, Cecilia M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the association of HIV, immunologic, and inflammatory factors on coronary artery calcium (CAC), a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods Cross-sectional study comparing baseline data of males from Hawaii Aging with HIV –Cardiovascular Study (HAHCS) with the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. The cohorts were pooled to determine effects of HIV on CAC and explore immunologic and inflammatory factors that may explain development of CAC in HIV. Multivariable regression models compared CAC prevalence in HAHCS with MESA adjusting for coronary heart disease (CHD) risk profiles. Results We studied 100 men from HAHCS and 2733 men from MESA. Positive CAC was seen in 58% HAHCS participants and 57% MESA participants. Mean CAC was 260.8 in HAHCS and 306.5 in MESA. Using relative risk (RR) regression, HAHCS participants had a greater risk (RR=1.20, P<0.05) of having positive CAC than MESA when adjusting for age, smoking status, diabetes, antihypertensive therapy, BMI, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol. Among participants with positive CAC, HIV infection was not associated with larger amounts of CAC. Among HAHCS participants, current HIV viral load, CD4, length of HIV, interleukin 6 (IL-6), fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP), and D-dimer were not associated with the presence or amount of CAC. Discussion HIV was independently associated with a positive CAC in men with increased likelihood occurring between 45 and 50 years of age. Current HIV viral load, CD4 count, length of HIV, and inflammatory markers were unrelated to either presence or amount of CAC. PMID:26038953

  18. Comparative Cost-Effectiveness of Conservative or Intensive Blood Pressure Treatment Guidelines in Adults Aged 35-74 Years: The Cardiovascular Disease Policy Model.

    PubMed

    Moise, Nathalie; Huang, Chen; Rodgers, Anthony; Kohli-Lynch, Ciaran N; Tzong, Keane Y; Coxson, Pamela G; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Goldman, Lee; Moran, Andrew E

    2016-07-01

    The population health effect and cost-effectiveness of implementing intensive blood pressure goals in high-cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk adults have not been described. Using the CVD Policy Model, CVD events, treatment costs, quality-adjusted life years, and drug and monitoring costs were simulated over 2016 to 2026 for hypertensive patients aged 35 to 74 years. We projected the effectiveness and costs of hypertension treatment according to the 2003 Joint National Committee (JNC)-7 or 2014 JNC8 guidelines, and then for adults aged ≥50 years, we assessed the cost-effectiveness of adding an intensive goal of systolic blood pressure <120 mm Hg for patients with CVD, chronic kidney disease, or 10-year CVD risk ≥15%. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios <$50 000 per quality-adjusted life years gained were considered cost-effective. JNC7 strategies treat more patients and are more costly to implement compared with JNC8 strategies. Adding intensive systolic blood pressure goals for high-risk patients prevents an estimated 43 000 and 35 000 annual CVD events incremental to JNC8 and JNC7, respectively. Intensive strategies save costs in men and are cost-effective in women compared with JNC8 alone. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50 000 per quality-adjusted life years gained, JNC8+intensive had the highest probability of cost-effectiveness in women (82%) and JNC7+intensive the highest probability of cost-effectiveness in men (100%). Assuming higher drug and monitoring costs, adding intensive goals for high-risk patients remained consistently cost-effective in men, but not always in women. Among patients aged 35 to 74 years, adding intensive blood pressure goals for high-risk groups to current national hypertension treatment guidelines prevents additional CVD deaths while saving costs provided that medication costs are controlled. PMID:27181996

  19. Investigations of the Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems on Board the International Space Station: Experiments Puls and Pneumocard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, V. M.; Baevsky, R. M.; Drescher, J.; Tank, J.

    parameters describing the results of the function of these systems like heart rate, arterial pressure, cardiac output, or breathing frequency, concentration of O2 and CO2 , etc. Missing significant changes of these parameters during weightlessness supports the hypothesis that adaptational and compensatory mechanisms are sufficient and guarantee cardiovascular homeostasis under changing environmental conditions. characteristic changes of the vegetative balance and of the activity of different regulatory elements at the brainstem and subcortical level. This changes guaranteed the adaptation to long term weightlessness. However, it remains unclear to what extent the different levels are involved. Moreover, the criteria describing the efficacy of cardiorespiratory interaction for the different functional states are not defined yet. The investigation of this problems is highly relevant in order to improve the medical control, especially if considering that the disruption of regulatory systems mostly precedes dangerous destruction of homeostasis. cardiovascular and respiratory function on Board the International Space Station (ISS) aiming to obtain new insights into the interaction between different regulatory elements. "Puls" is measures ECG, photoplethysmogram (PPG), and the pneumotachogram (PTG). The ECG is used to measure time series of R-R intervals and to analyse HRV. PPG is used to define the pulse wave velocity, phases of the cardiac cycle, and an estimate of the filling of finger vessels. The variability of these parameters is also calculated and compared to HRV. The analysis of the PTG allows to describe the interaction of the regulatory parameters of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Hence, an important feature of the experiment "Puls" is the investigation of regulatory mechanisms rather than of cardiovascular homeostasis. cardiography) and left ventricular contractility (seismocardiography) will be obtained. This expansion is of major importance

  20. Detection of Sequence-Specific Tyrosine Nitration of Manganese SOD and SERCA in Cardiovascular Disease and Aging

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Shanqin; Ying, Jia; Jiang, Bingbing; Guo, Wei; Adachi, Takeshi; Sharov, Victor; Lazar, Harold; Menzoian, James; Knyushko, Tanya V.; Bigelow, Diana J.; Schoneich, Christian; Cohen, Richard

    2006-06-01

    Nitration of protein tyrosine residues (nY) is a marker of oxidative stress and may alter the biological activity of the modified proteins. The aim of this study was to develop antibodies towards site-specific nY-modified proteins and to use histochemical and immunoblotting to demonstrate protein nitration in tissues. Affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies towards peptides with known nY sites in MnSOD nY-34 and of two adjacent nY in the sarcoplasmic endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA2 di-nY-294,295) were developed. Kidneys from rats infused with angiotensin II with known MnSOD nY and aorta from atherosclerotic rabbits and aging rat skeletal and cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum with known SERCA di-nY were used for positive controls. Staining for MnSOD nY-34 was most intense in distal renal tubules and collecting ducts. Staining of atherosclerotic aorta for SERCA2 di-nY was most intense in atherosclerotic plaques. Aging rat skeletal muscle and atherosclerotic aorta and cardiac atrium from human diabetic patients also stained positively. Staining was decreased by sodium dithionite that chemically reduces nitrotyrosine to aminotyrosine, and the antigenic nY-peptide blocked staining for each respective nY site, but not for the other. As previously demonstrated, immunoblotting failed to detect these modified proteins in whole tissue lysates, but did when the proteins were concentrated. Immunohistochemical staining for specific nY-modified tyrosine residues offers the ability to assess the effects of oxidant stress associated with pathological conditions on individual proteins whose function may be affected in specific tissue sites.

  1. Self-reported symptoms of chronic cough and breathlessness in working-age men in the city of Izhevsk, Russia: associations with cardiovascular disease risk factors and comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Sarah; Quint, Jennifer K; Vasiljev, Maxim; Leon, David A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Very little is known about the prevalence of respiratory symptoms or their associations with other health conditions in Russia. Methods Between 2008 and 2010, a sample of 983 men resident in Izhevsk, Russia, took part in a cross-sectional survey. Presence of respiratory symptoms was determined from self-report of chronic productive cough and breathlessness assessed using the British Medical Research Council (MRC) breathlessness scale. Self-reported physical and mental health were measured using the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). Hypertension was assessed from mean blood pressure measured at the health check and/or self-reported use of antihypertensive medication. Other comorbidities were assessed from self-report. Logistic regression models were fitted assessing the association between respiratory symptoms and comorbidities. Linear regression models were fitted to investigate the association between respiratory symptoms and self-reported health scores. All models were adjusted for age, education and smoking status. Results The age-standardised prevalence of cough and breathlessness was 20.9% (prevalence with breathlessness MRC grade 3 or above 3.7%). The majority of men with respiratory symptoms (87.3%) were current smokers. Cough and breathlessness were associated with substantially worse self-reported physical and mental health (test for trend with severity of breathlessness p<0.001). Those with chronic cough and grade 3 or above breathlessness had higher odds of having hypertension (OR 3.03; 95% CI 1.36 to 6.74), diabetes (OR 10.55; 95% CI 2.69 to 41.37), angina pectoris (OR 7.54; 95% CI 3.61 to 15.73), previous myocardial infarction (OR 7.61; 95% CI 2.10 to 27.4) and previous stroke (OR 6.61; 95% CI 1.75 to 23.34) compared with those without respiratory symptoms. Conclusions The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was high. Strong associations were found between respiratory symptoms and cardiovascular comorbidities. These are of

  2. Fetal Programming and Cardiovascular Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Barbara T.; Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira

    2016-01-01

    Low birth weight serves as a crude proxy for impaired growth during fetal life and indicates a failure for the fetus to achieve its full growth potential. Low birth weight can occur in response to numerous etiologies that include complications during pregnancy, poor prenatal care, parental smoking, maternal alcohol consumption or stress. Numerous epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrate that birth weight is inversely associated with blood pressure and coronary heart disease. Sex and age impact the developmental programming of hypertension. In addition, impaired growth during fetal life also programs enhanced vulnerability to a secondary insult. Macrosomia, which occurs in response to maternal obesity, diabetes and excessive weight gain during gestation, is also associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Yet, the exact mechanisms that permanently change the structure, physiology and endocrine health of an individual across their lifespan following altered growth during fetal life are not entirely clear. Transmission of increased risk from one generation to the next in the absence of an additional prenatal insult indicates an important role for epigenetic processes. Experimental studies also indicate that the sympathetic nervous system, the renin angiotensin system, increased production of oxidative stress and increased endothelin play an important role in the developmental programming of blood pressure in later life. Thus, this review will highlight how adverse influences during fetal life and early development program an increased risk for cardiovascular disease including high blood pressure and provide an overview of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the fetal origins of cardiovascular pathology. PMID:25880521

  3. Effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the cardiovascular system after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhangjian; Wang, Yun; Zhuo, Lin; Chen, Shi; Zhao, Lin; Luan, Xianguo; Wang, Haifang; Jia, Guang

    2015-12-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have been widely used in various consumer products, especially food and personal care products. Compared to the well-characterized adverse cardiovascular effect of inhaled ambient ultrafine particles, research on the health response to orally administrated TiO2 NPs is still limited. In our study, we performed an in vivo study in Sprague-Dawley rats to understand the cardiovascular effect of TiO2 NPs after oral intake. After daily gastrointestinal administration of TiO2 NPs at 0, 2, 10, 50 mg/kg for 30 and 90 days, heart rate (HR), blood pressure, blood biochemical parameters and histopathology of cardiac tissues was assessed to quantify cardiovascular damage. Mild and temporary reduction of HR and systolic blood pressure as well as an increase of diastolic blood pressure was observed after daily oral administration of TiO2 NPs for 30 days. Injury of cardiac function was observed after daily oral administration of TiO2 NPs for 90 days as reflected in decreased activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alpha-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH) and creatine kinase (CK). Increased white blood cells count (WBC) and granulocytes (GRN) in blood as well as increased concentrations of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in the serum indicated inflammatory response initiated by TiO2 NPs exposure. It was hypothesize that cardiac damage and inflammatory response are the possible mechanisms of the adverse cardiovascular effects induced by orally administrated TiO2 NPs. Data from our study suggested that even at low dose of TiO2 NPs can induce adverse cardiovascular effects after 30 days or 90 days of oral exposure, thus warranting concern for the dietary intake of TiO2 NPs for consumers. PMID:26387441

  4. Metabolic biomarkers for predicting cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Jana E; Brown, Jeremiah R

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac and peripheral vascular biomarkers are increasingly becoming targets of both research and clinical practice. As of 2008, cardiovascular-related medical care accounts for greater than 20% of all the economic costs of illness in the United States. In the age of burgeoning financial pressures on the entire health care system, never has it been more important to try to understand who is at risk for cardiovascular disease in order to prevent new events. In this paper, we will discuss the cost of cardiovascular disease to society, clarify the definition of and need for biomarkers, offer an example of a current biomarker, namely high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and finally examine the approval process for utilizing these in clinical practice. PMID:23386789

  5. Testosterone and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tambo, Amos; Roshan, Mohsin H.K.; Pace, Nikolai P.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease [CVD] is a leading cause of mortality accounting for a global incidence of over 31%. Atherosclerosis is the primary pathophysiology underpinning most types of CVD. Historically, modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors were suggested to precipitate CVD. Recently, epidemiological studies have identified emerging risk factors including hypotestosteronaemia, which have been associated with CVD. Previously considered in the realms of reproductive biology, testosterone is now believed to play a critical role in the cardiovascular system in health and disease. The actions of testosterone as they relate to the cardiac vasculature and its implication in cardiovascular pathology is reviewed. PMID:27014372

  6. [Neuromuscular system and aging: involutions and implications].

    PubMed

    Paillard, Thierry

    2013-12-01

    In aged human, the number of muscle fibers and motor units decreases. The remaining motor units lose their functionality (decrease of the discharge frequency, greater fluctuation of the discharge) particularly those which contain type II fibers. The renewal of intracellular proteins declines which creates a negative balance between the daily protein losses and the capacities to renew them. The activity of the protein kinase (Akt) that stimulates the synthesis of regulation proteins (mTOR, p70S6, IGFBP-5) declines whereas the factors of degradation of proteins (NF-kappa B) are activated. Besides, the process of activation and proliferation of satellite cells is affected and the production of anabolic hormones and local factors is decreased. After a strength training program, muscle hypertrophy is linked to the protein synthesis at the level of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms in older subjects. However, the transcription of the genes that code the MHC-I (slow form) increases and the transcription of the genes that code the MHC-II (fast form) decreases. Thus, the transition of the phenotype towards a slower form cannot be inverted by strength training during the advanced in age. Moreover, strength training enables to decrease the proportion of fibers containing MHC of hybrid form in the process of evolution. Hence, strength training can engender a stabilization of the muscular phenotype i.e. different isoforms of MHC. In addition, strength training counteracts the noxious effects mentioned above by generating muscular hypertrophy thanks to a reactive increase in the production of anabolic hormones. A program of aerobic training can induce an increase in the synthesis of ARN messengers coding isoforms related to the oxidative metabolism (MHC-I and to a lesser extent MHC-IIa) while the transcribed for the type MHC-IIx decrease. PMID:24333816

  7. Meeting report from the 2nd International Symposium on New Frontiers in Cardiovascular Research. Protecting the cardiovascular system from ischemia: between bench and bedside.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Fuentes, Hector A; Alba-Alba, Corina; Aragones, Julian; Bernhagen, Jürgen; Boisvert, William A; Bøtker, Hans E; Cesarman-Maus, Gabriela; Fleming, Ingrid; Garcia-Dorado, David; Lecour, Sandrine; Liehn, Elisa; Marber, Michael S; Marina, Nephtali; Mayr, Manuel; Perez-Mendez, Oscar; Miura, Tetsuji; Ruiz-Meana, Marisol; Salinas-Estefanon, Eduardo M; Ong, Sang-Bing; Schnittler, Hans J; Sanchez-Vega, Jose T; Sumoza-Toledo, Adriana; Vogel, Carl-Wilhelm; Yarullina, Dina; Yellon, Derek M; Preissner, Klaus T; Hausenloy, Derek J

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in basic cardiovascular research as well as their translation into the clinical situation were the focus at the last "New Frontiers in Cardiovascular Research meeting". Major topics included the characterization of new targets and procedures in cardioprotection, deciphering new players and inflammatory mechanisms in ischemic heart disease as well as uncovering microRNAs and other biomarkers as versatile and possibly causal factors in cardiovascular pathogenesis. Although a number of pathological situations such as ischemia-reperfusion injury or atherosclerosis can be simulated and manipulated in diverse animal models, also to challenge new drugs for intervention, patient studies are the ultimate litmus test to obtain unequivocal information about the validity of biomedical concepts and their application in the clinics. Thus, the open and bidirectional exchange between bench and bedside is crucial to advance the field of ischemic heart disease with a particular emphasis of understanding long-lasting approaches in cardioprotection. PMID:26667317

  8. Aging changes in the female reproductive system

    MedlinePlus

    ... flashes, moodiness, headaches, and trouble sleeping Problems with short-term memory Decrease in breast tissue Lower sex drive (libido) and sexual response Increased risk of bone loss ( osteoporosis ) Urinary system changes, such as frequency and ...

  9. The Clinical Performance of an Office-Based Risk Scoring System for Fatal Cardiovascular Diseases in North-East of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Malekzadeh, Reza; Poustchi, Hossein; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Ghodsi, Saeed; Malekzadeh, Fatemeh; Etemadi, Arash; Pourshams, Akram; Pharoah, Paul D.; Abnet, Christian C.; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Kamangar, Farin

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are becoming major causes of death in developing countries. Risk scoring systems for CVD are needed to prioritize allocation of limited resources. Most of these risk score algorithms have been based on a long array of risk factors including blood markers of lipids. However, risk scoring systems that solely use office-based data, not including laboratory markers, may be advantageous. In the current analysis, we validated the office-based Framingham risk scoring system in Iran. Methods The study used data from the Golestan Cohort in North-East of Iran. The following risk factors were used in the development of the risk scoring method: sex, age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, hypertension treatment, current smoking, and diabetes. Cardiovascular risk functions for prediction of 10-year risk of fatal CVDs were developed. Results A total of 46,674 participants free of CVD at baseline were included. Predictive value of estimated risks was examined. The resulting Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) was 0.774 (95% CI: 0.762-0.787) in all participants, 0.772 (95% CI: 0.753-0.791) in women, and 0.763 (95% CI: 0.747-0.779) in men. AUC was higher in urban areas (0.790, 95% CI: 0.766-0.815). The predicted and observed risks of fatal CVD were similar in women. However, in men, predicted probabilities were higher than observed. Conclusion The AUC in the current study is comparable to results of previous studies while lipid profile was replaced by body mass index to develop an office-based scoring system. This scoring algorithm is capable of discriminating individuals at high risk versus low risk of fatal CVD. PMID:26011607

  10. Cardiovascular modeling and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Kangas, L.J.; Keller, P.E.; Hashem, S.; Kouzes, R.T.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, a novel approach to modeling and diagnosing the cardiovascular system is introduced. A model exhibits a subset of the dynamics of the cardiovascular behavior of an individual by using a recurrent artificial neural network. Potentially, a model will be incorporated into a cardiovascular diagnostic system. This approach is unique in that each cardiovascular model is developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled variables and the variables of an individual at a given time are used for diagnosis. This approach also exploits sensor fusion to optimize the utilization of biomedical sensors. The advantage of sensor fusion has been demonstrated in applications including control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.

  11. The effects of exercise on blood flow with reference to the human cardiovascular system: a finite element study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sud, V. K.; Srinivasan, R. S.; Charles, J. B.; Bungo, M. W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a theoretical investigation into the effects of vasomotion on blood through the human cardiovascular system. The finite element method has been used to analyse the model. Vasoconstriction and vasodilation may be effected either through the action of the central nervous system or autoregulation. One of the conditions responsible for vasomotion is exercise. The proposed model has been solved and quantitative results of flows and pressures due to changing the conductances of specific networks of arterioles, capillaries and venules comprising the arms, legs, stomach and their combinations have been obtained.

  12. [Exercise and aging: regulation of mitochondrial function and redox system].

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Juan; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Jian-Kang

    2014-10-01

    Evidence shows that aging is closely related to mitochondrial decay and redox imbalance. With aging, both mitochondrial content and protein synthesis declined and free radicals, the by-products of mitochondrial metabolism and their oxidation to lipids, proteins and nuclear acids increased. The age-related declines in mitochondrial function and redox imbalance affect physical function, induce insulin resistance and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, thus, play a major role in regulation of life span. Therefore, mitochondrion may be the most important determinant of life span. Increasing evidence demonstrates that long-term aerobic exercise could prevent age-related diseases and improve life quality of aged people. Exercise may possibly stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis and phase II antioxidant defense system to regulate mitochondrial function and balance of redox system. Therefore, regular aerobic exercise may prevent age-related diseases, increase life quality and prolong life span through regulation of mitochondrial function and redox balance. PMID:25764789

  13. Kharkiv Meteor Radar System (the XX Age)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomiyets, S. V.

    2012-09-01

    Kharkiv meteor radar research are of historic value (Kolomiyets and Sidorov 2007). Kharkiv radar observations of meteors proved internationally as the best in the world, it was noted at the IAU General Assembly in 1958. In the 1970s Kharkiv meteor automated radar system (MARS) was recommended at the international level as a successful prototype for wide distribution. Until now, this radar system is one of the most sensitive instruments of meteor radars in the world for astronomical observations. In 2004 Kharkiv meteor radar system is included in the list of objects which compose the national property of Ukraine. Kharkiv meteor radar system has acquired the status of the important historical astronomical instrument in world history. Meteor Centre for researching meteors in Kharkiv is a analogue of the observatory and performs the same functions of a generator and a battery of special knowledge and skills (the world-famous studio). Kharkiv and the location of the instrument were brand points on the globe, as the place where the world-class meteor radar studies were carried out. They are inscribed in the history of meteor astronomy, in large letters and should be immortalized on a world-wide level.

  14. Reprint of: Musculoskeletal system in the old age and the demand for healthy ageing biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Collino, Sebastiano; Martin, François-Pierre; Karagounis, Leonidas G; Horcajada, Marie Noelle; Moco, Sofia; Franceschi, Claudio; Kussmann, Martin; Offord, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Population ageing has emerged as a major demographic trend worldwide due to improved health and longevity. This global ageing phenomenon will have a major impact on health-care systems worldwide due to increased morbidity and greater needs for hospitalization/institutionalization. As the ageing population increases worldwide, there is an increasing awareness not only of increased longevity but also of the importance of "healthy ageing" and "quality of life". Yet, the age related chronic inflammation is believed to be pathogenic with regards to its contribution to frailty and degenerative disorders. In particular, the frailty syndrome is increasingly being considered as a key risk indicator of adverse health outcomes. In addition, elderly may be also prone to be resistant to anabolic stimuli which is likely a key factor in the loss of skeletal muscle mass with ageing. Vital to understand these key biological processes is the development of biological markers, through system biology approaches, aiding at strategies for tailored therapeutic and personalized nutritional program. Overall aim is to prevent or attenuate decline of key physiological functions required to live an active, independent life. This review focus on core indicators of health and functions in older adults, where nutrition and tailored personalized programs could exhibit preventive roles, and where the aid of metabolomics technologies are increasingly displaying potential in revealing key molecular mechanisms/targets linked to specific ageing and/or healthy ageing processes. PMID:24662191

  15. Musculoskeletal system in the old age and the demand for healthy ageing biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Collino, Sebastiano; Martin, François-Pierre; Karagounis, Leonidas G; Horcajada, Marie Noelle; Moco, Sofia; Franceschi, Claudio; Kussmann, Martin; Offord, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Population ageing has emerged as a major demographic trend worldwide due to improved health and longevity. This global ageing phenomenon will have a major impact on health-care systems worldwide due to increased morbidity and greater needs for hospitalization/institutionalization. As the ageing population increases worldwide, there is an increasing awareness not only of increased longevity but also of the importance of "healthy ageing" and "quality of life". Yet, the age related chronic inflammation is believed to be pathogenic with regards to its contribution to frailty and degenerative disorders. In particular, the frailty syndrome is increasingly being considered as a key risk indicator of adverse health outcomes. In addition, elderly may be also prone to be resistant to anabolic stimuli which is likely a key factor in the loss of skeletal muscle mass with ageing. Vital to understand these key biological processes is the development of biological markers, through system biology approaches, aiding at strategies for tailored therapeutic and personalized nutritional program. Overall aim is to prevent or attenuate decline of key physiologica