Science.gov

Sample records for aging cohort study

  1. What Drives Teacher Engagement: A Study of Different Age Cohorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guglielmi, Dina; Bruni, Ilaria; Simbula, Silvia; Fraccaroli, Franco; Depolo, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing body of research on work engagement, little is known about what drives work engagement among different age cohorts. This study aims to investigate whether engagement varies across age cohorts and examines the job resources that foster teacher engagement. A questionnaire was distributed to 537 teachers who were employed in…

  2. Cohort profile: the lidA Cohort Study-a German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation.

    PubMed

    Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Peter, Richard; Rauch, Angela; Schröder, Helmut; Swart, Enno; Bender, Stefan; du Prel, Jean-Baptist; Ebener, Melanie; March, Stefanie; Trappmann, Mark; Steinwede, Jacob; Müller, Bernd Hans

    2014-12-01

    The lidA Cohort Study (German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation) was set up to investigate and follow the effects of work and work context on the physical and psychological health of the ageing workforce in Germany and subsequently on work participation. Cohort participants are initially employed people subject to social security contributions and born in either 1959 (n = 2909) or 1965 (n = 3676). They were personally interviewed in their homes in 2011 and will be visited every 3 years. Data collection comprises socio-demographic data, work and private exposures, work ability, work and work participation attitudes, health, health-related behaviour, personality and attitudinal indicators. Employment biographies are assessed using register data. Subjective health reports and physical strength measures are complemented by health insurance claims data, where permission was given. A conceptual framework has been developed for the lidA Cohort Study within which three confirmatory sub-models assess the interdependencies of work and health considering age, gender and socioeconomic status. The first set of the data will be available to the scientific community by 2015. Access will be given by the Research Data Centre of the German Federal Employment Agency at the Institute for Employment Research (http://fdz.iab.de/en.aspx).

  3. Cohort profile: The lidA Cohort Study—a German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation

    PubMed Central

    Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Peter, Richard; Rauch, Angela; Schröder, Helmut; Swart, Enno; Bender, Stefan; du Prel, Jean-Baptist; Ebener, Melanie; March, Stefanie; Trappmann, Mark; Steinwede, Jacob; Müller, Bernd Hans

    2014-01-01

    The lidA Cohort Study (German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation) was set up to investigate and follow the effects of work and work context on the physical and psychological health of the ageing workforce in Germany and subsequently on work participation. Cohort participants are initially employed people subject to social security contributions and born in either 1959 (n = 2909) or 1965 (n = 3676). They were personally interviewed in their homes in 2011 and will be visited every 3 years. Data collection comprises socio-demographic data, work and private exposures, work ability, work and work participation attitudes, health, health-related behaviour, personality and attitudinal indicators. Employment biographies are assessed using register data. Subjective health reports and physical strength measures are complemented by health insurance claims data, where permission was given. A conceptual framework has been developed for the lidA Cohort Study within which three confirmatory sub-models assess the interdependencies of work and health considering age, gender and socioeconomic status. The first set of the data will be available to the scientific community by 2015. Access will be given by the Research Data Centre of the German Federal Employment Agency at the Institute for Employment Research (http://fdz.iab.de/en.aspx). PMID:24618186

  4. [Cohort studies].

    PubMed

    Mathis, Stefan; Gartlehner, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    This article about cohort studies is part of a methods series about study designs and their critical evaluation by the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Health Technology assessment. This article aims to describe the theoretical concept of cohort studies and their typical characteristics. Furthermore, it strives to highlight advantages and disadvantages of this study type and to make suggestions for the critical evaluation of the significance and validity of cohort studies. The article gives an account about characteristics due to the observational design and ways of acquiring control groups. Problems of blurring results by selection bias and confounding are also discussed. Cohort studies are applied in situations where the effects of environmental exposures are measured and rare side effects are identified but randomised controlled studies did not show significant results because of limitations. They are also used to assess the incidence of a disease or a condition.

  5. Age, period, and cohort effects on pulmonary function in a 24-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Xu, X; Laird, N; Dockery, D W; Schouten, J P; Rijcken, B; Weiss, S T

    1995-03-15

    This paper proposes the use of two-factor models (age-period and age-cohort models) to estimate age, period, and cohort effects on pulmonary function by using the data collected in a 24-year longitudinal study in the Netherlands from 1965 to 1990. The analysis included 18,363 pulmonary function measurements on 6,148 subjects aged 20-54 years at the initial visit. The subjects were grouped into four birth cohorts (before 1923, 1923-1934, 1935-1946, and after 1946) and four survey periods (1965-1972, 1973-1978, 1979-1984, and 1985-1990). In the age-cohort model, the decrement in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) associated with a yearly increase in age was 28.3 +/- 3.7 ml/year for a man 176 cm tall and 16.0 +/- 1.9 ml/year for a woman 163 cm tall. The estimated acceleration of decline with aging was significant for both men (beta = -0.212; standard error = 0.079 ml) and women (beta = -0.346; standard error = 0.058 ml). Compared with that of the cohort born before 1923, the average level of FEV1 was estimated to increase by 156, 277, and 379 ml, respectively, for the three younger cohorts in men (p = 0.01) and by 133, 213, and 328 ml for the three younger cohorts in women (p < 0.01). In the age-period model, the estimated linear age effect on FEV1 was 36.2 +/- 4.2 ml/year for a man and 30.5 +/- 2.3 ml/year for a woman. The age quadratic term was significant for women, but not for men. Average FEV1 was estimated to be increased by 141, 169, and 250 ml, respectively, for the periods 1973-1978, 1979-1984, and 1985-1990 in men and by 131, 138, and 219 ml in women. These period effects were significant for both men and women. In summary, this study applied the two-factor models to estimate cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of aging on FEV1 and demonstrated significant period and cohort effects, which could be attributed in part to changes in air pollutants, respiratory infections, vaccinations, types of cigarettes, diet, and lifestyles over time.

  6. Risk of Developmental Delay Increases Exponentially as Gestational Age of Preterm Infants Decreases: A Cohort Study at Age 4 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerstjens, Jorien M.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Bocca-TJeertes, Inger F.; Bos, Arend F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of decreasing gestational age on the risk of developmental delay in various domains at age 4 years among children born at a wide range of gestational ages. Method: In a community-based cohort, the parents of 1439 preterm-born children (24 0/7 to 35 6/7wks) and 544 term-born children (38 0/7 to…

  7. Cohorts based on Decade of Death: No Evidence for Secular Trends Favoring Later Cohorts in Cognitive Aging and Terminal Decline in the AHEAD Study

    PubMed Central

    Hülür, Gizem; Infurna, Frank J.; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Studies of birth-year cohorts examined over the same age range often report secular trends favoring later-born cohorts, who are cognitively fitter and show less steep cognitive declines than earlier-born cohorts. However, there is initial evidence that those advantages of later-born cohorts do not carry into the last years of life, suggesting that pervasive mortality-related processes minimize differences that were apparent earlier in life. Elaborating this work from an alternative perspective on cohort differences, we compared rates of cognitive aging and terminal decline in episodic memory between cohorts based on the year participants had died, earlier (between 1993 and 1999) or later in historical time (between 2000 and 2010). Specifically, we compared trajectories of cognitive decline in two death-year cohorts of participants in the Asset and Health Dynamics among the Oldest Old (AHEAD) Study that were matched on age at death and education and controlled for a variety of additional covariates. Results revealed little evidence of secular trends favoring later cohorts. To the contrary, the cohort that died in the 2000s showed a less favorable trajectory of age-related memory decline than the cohort who died in the 1990s. In examinations of change in relation to time-to-death, the cohort dying in the 2000s experienced even steeper terminal declines than the cohort dying in the 1990s. We suggest that secular increases in “manufacturing” survival may exacerbate age- and mortality-related cognitive declines among the oldest old. PMID:23046001

  8. Cohort Differences in Cognitive Aging and Terminal Decline in the Seattle Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Hoppmann, Christiane; Willis, Sherry L.; Schaie, K. Warner

    2011-01-01

    Life span researchers have long been interested in how and why fundamental aspects of human ontogeny differ between cohorts of people who have lived through different historical epochs. When examined at the same age, later born cohorts are often cognitively and physically fitter than earlier born cohorts. Less is known, however, about cohort…

  9. The longitudinal urban cohort ageing study (LUCAS): study protocol and participation in the first decade

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We present concept, study protocol and selected baseline data of the Longitudinal Urban Cohort Ageing Study (LUCAS) in Germany. LUCAS is a long-running cohort study of community-dwelling seniors complemented by specific studies of geriatric patients or diseases. Aims were to (1) Describe individual ageing trajectories in a metropolitan setting, documenting changes in functional status, the onset of frailty, disability and need of care; (2) Find determinants of healthy ageing; (3) Assess long-term effects of specific health promotion interventions; (4) Produce results for health care planning for fit, pre-frail, frail and disabled elderly persons; (5) Set up a framework for embedded studies to investigate various hypotheses in specific subgroups of elderly. Methods/Design In 2000, twenty-one general practitioners (GPs) were recruited in the Hamburg metropolitan area; they generated lists of all their patients 60 years and older. Persons not terminally ill, without daily need of assistance or professional care were eligible. Of these, n = 3,326 (48 %) agreed to participate and completed a small (baseline) and an extensive health questionnaire (wave 1). In 2007/2008, a re-recruitment took place including 2,012 participants: 743 men, 1,269 women (647 deaths, 197 losses, 470 declined further participation). In 2009/2010 n = 1,627 returned the questionnaire (90 deaths, 47 losses, 248 declined further participation) resulting in a good participation rate over ten years with limited and quantified dropouts. Presently, follow-up data from 2007/2008 (wave 2) and 2009/2010 (wave 3) are available. Data wave 4 is due in 2011/2012, and the project will be continued until 2013. Information on survival and need of nursing care was collected continuously and cross-checked against official records. We used Fisher’s exact test and t-tests. The study served repeatedly to evaluate health promotion interventions and concepts. Discussion LUCAS shows that a cohort

  10. Age, education and dementia related deaths. The Norwegian Counties Study and The Cohort of Norway.

    PubMed

    Strand, Bjørn Heine; Langballe, Ellen Melbye; Rosness, Tor A; Bergem, Astrid Liv Mina; Engedal, Knut; Nafstad, Per; Tell, Grethe S; Ormstad, Heidi; Tambs, Kristian; Bjertness, Espen

    2014-10-15

    An inverse relationship between educational level and dementia has been reported in several studies. In this study we investigated the relationship between educational level and dementia related deaths for cohorts of people all born during 1915-39. The cohorts were followed up from adulthood or old age, taking into account possible confounders and mediating paths. Our study population comprised participants in Norwegian health examination studies in the period 1974-2002; The Counties Study and Cohort of Norway (CONOR). Dementia related deaths were defined as deaths with a dementia diagnosis on the death certificate and linked using the Cause of Death Registry to year 2012. The study included 90,843 participants, 2.06 million person years and 2440 dementia related deaths. Cox regression was used to assess the association between education and dementia related deaths. Both high and middle educational levels were associated with lower dementia related death risk compared to those with low education when follow-up started in adulthood (35-49 years, high versus low education: HR=0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-0.93; 50-69 years, high versus low education: HR=0.52, 95% CI 0.34-0.80). However, when follow-up started at old age (70-80 years) there was no significant association between education and dementia related death. Restricting the study population to those born during a five-year period 1925-29 (the birth cohort overlapping all three age groups), gave similar main findings. The protective effects found for both high and middle educational level compared to low education were robust to adjustment for cardiovascular health and life style factors, suggesting education to be a protective factor for dementia related death. Both high and middle educational levels were associated with decreased dementia related death risk compared with low educational level when follow-up started in adulthood, but no association was observed when follow-up started at old age.

  11. Factors Influencing Menarcheal Age: Results From the Cohort of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Gholami, Roya; Moslehi, Nazanin; Azizi, Feriedon

    2014-01-01

    Background: Menarche is considered as a milestone in the women’s reproductive life. Most existing studies on factors influencing menarcheal age had cross-sectional designs and their finding were controversial. Objectives: We aimed to determine some factors affecting the age at menarche in a cohort study with an average of ten-year follow-up; the study was conducted within the framework of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS). Materials and Methods: For the purpose of the present study, we recruited all the females aged 12 to 18 years participated in TLGS whose menarche had not begun at the initiation of the study, but occurred during their follow-up. The effect of premenarcheal status of various factors including socioeconomic and anthropometric parameters, physical activity, energy expenditure, and exposure to tobacco smoke on menarcheal age was explored. Results: The mean of age at menarche was 13.06 ± 1.24 years. There were significant statistical associations between age of the participants’ mothers at menarche (r = 0.66, P < 0.001), maternal education (r = -0.04, P = 0.002), and body mass index (BMI) before menarcheal (r = 0.25, P = 0.027) with age at menarche. There was no significant correlation between age at menarche, with either of maternal employment, premenarcheal physical activity, energy expenditure, and passive smoking. Conclusions: Among various factor influencing menarcheal age, premenarcheal BMI is modifiable, and considering its significance, could prevent early or late menarches. PMID:25237321

  12. Gestational age and newborn size according to parental social mobility: an intergenerational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gigante, Denise P; Horta, Bernardo L; Matijasevich, Alicia; Loret de Mola, Christian; Barros, Aluisio J D; Santos, Ina S; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2015-01-01

    Background We examined the associations between socioeconomic trajectories from birth to adulthood and gestational age and birth size in the next generation, using linked data from two population-based birth cohorts carried out in a Brazilian city. By comparing socioeconomic trajectories of mothers and fathers, we attempted to identify-specific effects of maternal and paternal socioeconomic trajectory on offspring birth weight, birth length, head circumference and gestational age at birth. Methods 2 population-based birth cohort studies were carried out in 1982 and 2004 in Pelotas (Brazil); 156 mothers and 110 fathers from the earlier cohort had children in 2004. Gestational age and birth length, weight and head circumference were measured. Analyses were carried out separately for mothers and fathers. Mediation analyses assessed the role of birth weight and adult body mass index (BMI). Results Among mothers, but not for fathers, childhood poverty was strongly associated with smaller size in the next generation (about 400 g in weight and 1.5 cm in height) and shorter gestations (about 2 weeks). Adult poverty did not play a role. For mothers, the associations with gestational age, birth length and weight—but not with head circumference—persisted after adjusting for maternal birth weight and for the height and weight of the grandmother. Maternal birth weight did not mediate the observed associations, but high maternal BMI in adulthood was partly responsible for the association with gestational age. Conclusions Strong effects of early poverty on gestational age and birth size in the next generation were observed among mothers, but not among fathers. These findings suggest a specific maternal effect of socioeconomic trajectory, and in particular of early poverty on offspring size and duration of pregnancy. PMID:26109560

  13. Is 27 really a dangerous age for famous musicians? Retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wolkewitz, Martin; Allignol, Arthur; Graves, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Objective To test the “27 club” hypothesis that famous musicians are at an increased risk of death at age 27. Design Cohort study using survival analysis with age as a time dependent exposure. Comparison was primarily made within musicians, and secondarily relative to the general UK population. Setting The popular music scene from a UK perspective. Participants Musicians (solo artists and band members) who had a number one album in the UK between 1956 and 2007 (n=1046 musicians, with 71 deaths, 7%). Main outcome measures Risk of death by age of musician, accounting for time dependent study entry and the number of musicians at risk. Risk was estimated using a flexible spline which would allow a bump at age 27 to appear. Results We identified three deaths at age 27 amongst 522 musicians at risk, giving a rate of 0.57 deaths per 100 musician years. Similar death rates were observed at ages 25 (rate=0.56) and 32 (0.54). There was no peak in risk around age 27, but the risk of death for famous musicians throughout their 20s and 30s was two to three times higher than the general UK population. Conclusions The 27 club is unlikely to be a real phenomenon. Fame may increase the risk of death among musicians, but this risk is not limited to age 27. PMID:22187325

  14. Variance Function Regression in Hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort Models: Applications to the Study of Self-Reported Health

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hui; Yang, Yang; Land, Kenneth C.

    2012-01-01

    Two long-standing research problems of interest to sociologists are sources of variations in social inequalities and differential contributions of the temporal dimensions of age, time period, and cohort to variations in social phenomena. Recently, scholars have introduced a model called Variance Function Regression for the study of the former problem, and a model called Hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort regression has been developed for the study of the latter. This article presents an integration of these two models as a means to study the evolution of social inequalities along distinct temporal dimensions. We apply the integrated model to survey data on subjective health status. We find substantial age, period, and cohort effects, as well as gender differences, not only for the conditional mean of self-rated health (i.e., between-group disparities), but also for the variance in this mean (i.e., within-group disparities)—and it is detection of age, period, and cohort variations in the latter disparities that application of the integrated model permits. Net of effects of age and individual-level covariates, in recent decades, cohort differences in conditional means of self-rated health have been less important than period differences that cut across all cohorts. By contrast, cohort differences of variances in these conditional means have dominated period differences. In particular, post-baby boom birth cohorts show significant and increasing levels of within-group disparities. These findings illustrate how the integrated model provides a powerful framework through which to identify and study the evolution of variations in social inequalities across age, period, and cohort temporal dimensions. Accordingly, this model should be broadly applicable to the study of social inequality in many different substantive contexts. PMID:22904570

  15. Investigation of risk factors for mortality in aged guide dogs: A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hoummady, S; Hua, J; Muller, C; Pouchelon, J L; Blondot, M; Gilbert, C; Desquilbet, L

    2016-09-15

    The overall median lifespan of domestic dogs has been estimated to 9-12 years, but little is known about risk factors for mortality in aged and a priori healthy dogs. The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to determine which characteristics are associated with mortality in aged and a priori healthy guide dogs, in a retrospective cohort study of 116 guide dogs followed from a systematic geriatric examination at the age of 8-10 years old. A geriatric grid collected the clinical data and usual biological parameters were measured at the time of examination. Univariate (Kaplan-Meier estimates) and multivariable (Cox proportional hazard model) survival analyses were used to assess the associations with time to all-cause death. The majority of dogs were Golden Retrievers (n=48) and Labrador Retrievers (n=27). Median age at geriatric examination was 8.9 years. A total of 76 dogs died during follow-up, leading to a median survival time from geriatric examination of 4.4 years. After adjustment for demographic and biological variables, an increased alanine amionotransferase level (adjusted Hazard Ratio (adjusted HR), 6.2; 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 2.0-19.0; P<0.01), presenting skin nodules (adjusted HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.0-3.4; P=0.04), and not being a Labrador Retriever (adjusted HR, 3.3; 95%CI, 1.4-10; P<0.01) were independently associated with a shorter time to death. This study documents independent associations of alanine aminotransferase level, skin nodules and breed with mortality in aged guide dogs. These results may be useful for preventive medical care when conducting a geriatric examination in working dogs. PMID:27616361

  16. Should Age-Period-Cohort Studies Return to the Methodologies of the 1970s?

    PubMed Central

    Masters, Ryan K.; Yang, Y. Claire; Powers, Daniel A.; Zheng, Hui; Land, Kenneth C.

    2015-01-01

    Social scientists have recognized the importance of age-period-cohort (APC) models for half a century, but have spent much of this time mired in debates about the feasibility of APC methods. Recently, a new class of APC methods based on modern statistical knowledge has emerged, offering potential solutions. In 2009, Reither, Hauser and Yang used one of these new methods – hierarchical APC (HAPC) modeling – to study how birth cohorts may have contributed to the U.S. obesity epidemic. They found that recent birth cohorts experience higher odds of obesity than their predecessors, but that ubiquitous period-based changes are primarily responsible for the rising prevalence of obesity. Although these findings have been replicated elsewhere, recent commentaries by Bell and Jones call them into question – along with the new class of APC methods. Specifically, Bell and Jones claim that new APC methods do not adequately address model identification and suggest that “solid theory” is often sufficient to remove one of the three temporal dimensions from empirical consideration. They also present a series of simulation models that purportedly show how the HAPC models estimated by Reither et al. (2009) could have produced misleading results. However, these simulation models rest on assumptions that there were no period effects, and associations between period and cohort variables and the outcome were perfectly linear. Those are conditions under which APC models should never be used. Under more tenable assumptions, our own simulations show that HAPC methods perform well, both in recovering the main findings presented by Reither et al. (2009) and the results reported by Bell and Jones. We also respond to critiques about model identification and theoretically-imposed constraints, finding little pragmatic support for such arguments. We conclude by encouraging social scientists to move beyond the debates of the 1970s and toward a deeper appreciation for modern APC

  17. Gestational Age and Neonatal Brain Microstructure in Term Born Infants: A Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Broekman, Birit F. P.; Wang, Changqing; Li, Yue; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Saw, Seang Mei; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Gluckman, Peter D.; Fortier, Marielle V.; Meaney, Michael J.; Qiu, Anqi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Understanding healthy brain development in utero is crucial in order to detect abnormal developmental trajectories due to developmental disorders. However, in most studies neuroimaging was done after a significant postnatal period, and in those studies that performed neuroimaging on fetuses, the quality of data has been affected due to complications of scanning during pregnancy. To understand healthy brain development between 37–41 weeks of gestational age, our study assessed the in utero growth of the brain in healthy term born babies with DTI scanning soon after birth. Methods A cohort of 93 infants recruited from maternity hospitals in Singapore underwent diffusion tensor imaging between 5 to 17 days after birth. We did a cross-sectional examination of white matter microstructure of the brain among healthy term infants as a function of gestational age via voxel-based analysis on fractional anisotropy. Results Greater gestational age at birth in term infants was associated with larger fractional anisotropy values in early developing brain regions, when corrected for age at scan. Specifically, it was associated with a cluster located at the corpus callosum (corrected p<0.001), as well as another cluster spanning areas of the anterior corona radiata, anterior limb of internal capsule, and external capsule (corrected p<0.001). Conclusions Our findings show variation in brain maturation associated with gestational age amongst ‘term’ infants, with increased brain maturation when born with a relatively higher gestational age in comparison to those infants born with a relatively younger gestational age. Future studies should explore if these differences in brain maturation between 37 and 41 weeks of gestational age will persist over time due to development outside the womb. PMID:25535959

  18. The Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index is associated with concurrent risk for neurocognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    MARQUINE, María J.; UMLAUF, Anya; ROONEY, Alexandra; FAZELI, Pariya L.; GOUAUX, Ben; WOODS, Steven Paul; LETENDRE, Scott L.; ELLIS, Ronald J.; GRANT, Igor; MOORE, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index is predictive of mortality, and combines age, traditional HIV biomarkers (HIV-1 plasma RNA and current CD4 count) and non-HIV biomarkers (indicators of renal and liver function, anemia, and Hepatitis C co-infection). We examined the association between the VACS Index and HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment (NCI). Design and Methods Participants included 601 HIV-infected adults enrolled in cohort studies at the UCSD HIV Neurobehavioral Research Program (Ages: 18-76 years; 88% male; 63% White; Median current CD4=364; 63% on antiretroviral therapy; AIDS=64%). Biomarkers used in calculating the VACS Index were measured in prospectively collected blood samples using conventional laboratory methods. NCI was defined using global and seven domain deficit scores. Results Higher VACS Index scores were associated with concurrent risk for global NCI (p<.001; OR=1.21, CI=1.12-1.32), even when adjusting for psychiatric comorbidities. This relation was statistically significant for most cognitive domains in adjusted models. Furthermore, the VACS Index predicted concurrent NCI beyond nadir CD4 and estimated duration of infection. Older age, lower hemoglobin and lower CD4 counts were the VACS components most strongly linked to NCI. Conclusions The findings extend prior research on the potential usefulness of the VACS Index in predicting HIV-associated outcomes to include NCI. Although the effect size was relatively small, our findings suggest that demographic information, HIV-disease factors, and common comorbidities might each play important roles in the clinical manifestation of cognitive impairment among HIV-infected individuals. Additional research is needed to determine if a more sensitive and specific index can be developed. PMID:24442225

  19. Delivery by caesarean section and risk of obesity in preschool age children: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Susanna Y; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Zera, Chloe A; Edwards, Janet W Rich; Oken, Emily; Weiss, Scott T; Gillman, Matthew W

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine whether delivery by caesarean section is a risk factor for childhood obesity. Design Prospective pre-birth cohort study (Project Viva). Setting Eight outpatient multi-specialty practices based in the Boston, Massachusetts area. Participants We recruited women during early pregnancy between 1999 and 2002, and followed their children after birth. We included 1255 children with body composition measured at 3 years of age. Main outcome measures Body mass index (BMI) z-score, obesity (BMI for age and sex ≥ 95th percentile), and sum of triceps + subscapular skinfold thicknesses, at 3 years of age. Results 284 children (22.6 percent) were delivered by caesarean section. At age 3, 15.7% of children delivered by caesarean section were obese, compared with 7.5% of children born vaginally. In multivariable logistic and linear regression models adjusting for maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, birth weight, and other covariates, birth by caesarean section was associated with a higher odds of obesity at age 3 (OR 2.10, 95%CI 1.36 to 3.23), higher mean BMI z-score (0.20 units, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.33), and higher sum of triceps + subscapular skinfold thicknesses (0.94 mm, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.51). Conclusions Infants delivered by caesarean section may be at increased risk of childhood obesity. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings and to explore mechanisms underlying this association. PMID:22623615

  20. Infant motor development and cognitive performance in early old age: the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Poranen-Clark, Taina; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Lahti, Jari; Räikkönen, Katri; Osmond, Clive; Rantanen, Taina; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G

    2015-06-01

    Motor development and cognitive development in childhood have been found to be fundamentally interrelated, but less is known about the association extending over the life course. The aim of this study was to examine the association between early motor development and cognitive performance in early old age. From men and women belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, who were born between 1934 and 1944 and resided in Finland in 1971, 1279 participated in cognitive performance tests (CogState®, version 3.0.5) between 2001 and 2006 at an average age of 64.2 years (SD 3.0). Of these, age at first walking extracted from child welfare clinic records was available for 398 participants. Longer reaction times in cognitive tasks measuring simple reaction time (SRT), choice reaction time (CRT), working memory (WM), divided attention (DA), and associated learning (AL) indicated poorer cognitive performance. Adjustment was made for sex, age at testing, father's occupational status and own highest attained education, and occupation in adulthood. Average age of learning to walk was 12.2 months (SD 2.1). After adjusting for covariates, earlier attainment of learning to walk was associated with shorter reaction times in cognitive performance tasks (SRT 10.32 % per month, 95 % CI 0.48-21.12, p = 0.039; CRT 14.17 % per month, 95 % CI 3.75-25.63, p = 0.007; WM 15.14 % per month, 95 % CI 4.95-26.32, p = 0.003). People who learned to walk earlier had better cognitive performance in early old age. The earlier attainment of motor skills may track over to early old age and possibly reflect greater cognitive reserve in older age. PMID:25929653

  1. Infant motor development and cognitive performance in early old age: the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Poranen-Clark, Taina; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Lahti, Jari; Räikkönen, Katri; Osmond, Clive; Rantanen, Taina; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G

    2015-06-01

    Motor development and cognitive development in childhood have been found to be fundamentally interrelated, but less is known about the association extending over the life course. The aim of this study was to examine the association between early motor development and cognitive performance in early old age. From men and women belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, who were born between 1934 and 1944 and resided in Finland in 1971, 1279 participated in cognitive performance tests (CogState®, version 3.0.5) between 2001 and 2006 at an average age of 64.2 years (SD 3.0). Of these, age at first walking extracted from child welfare clinic records was available for 398 participants. Longer reaction times in cognitive tasks measuring simple reaction time (SRT), choice reaction time (CRT), working memory (WM), divided attention (DA), and associated learning (AL) indicated poorer cognitive performance. Adjustment was made for sex, age at testing, father's occupational status and own highest attained education, and occupation in adulthood. Average age of learning to walk was 12.2 months (SD 2.1). After adjusting for covariates, earlier attainment of learning to walk was associated with shorter reaction times in cognitive performance tasks (SRT 10.32 % per month, 95 % CI 0.48-21.12, p = 0.039; CRT 14.17 % per month, 95 % CI 3.75-25.63, p = 0.007; WM 15.14 % per month, 95 % CI 4.95-26.32, p = 0.003). People who learned to walk earlier had better cognitive performance in early old age. The earlier attainment of motor skills may track over to early old age and possibly reflect greater cognitive reserve in older age.

  2. Undercontrolled Temperament at Age 3 Predicts Disordered Gambling at Age 32: A Longitudinal Study of a Complete Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Slutske, Wendy S.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the large, 30-year prospective Dunedin cohort study, we examined whether preexisting individual differences in childhood temperament predicted adulthood disordered gambling (a diagnosis covering the full continuum of gambling-related problems). A 90-min observational assessment at age 3 was used to categorize children into five temperament groups, including one primarily characterized by behavioral and emotional undercontrol. The children with undercontrolled temperament at 3 years of age were more than twice as likely to evidence disordered gambling at ages 21 and 32 than were children who were well-adjusted at age 3. These associations could not be explained by differences in childhood IQ or family socioeconomic status. Cleanly demonstrating the temporal relation between behavioral undercontrol and adult disordered gambling is an important step toward building more developmentally sensitive theories of disordered gambling and may put researchers in a better position to begin considering potential routes to disordered-gambling prevention through enhancing self-control and emotional regulation. PMID:22457426

  3. Early-Onset Thrombocytopenia in Small-For-Gestational-Age Neonates: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Fustolo-Gunnink, S F; Vlug, R D; Smits-Wintjens, V E H J; Heckman, E J; Te Pas, A B; Fijnvandraat, K; Lopriore, E

    2016-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia is a common finding in small for gestational age (SGA) neonates and is thought to result from a unique pathophysiologic mechanism related to chronic intrauterine hypoxia. Our objective was to estimate the incidence and severity of early-onset thrombocytopenia in SGA neonates, and to identify risk factors for thrombocytopenia. We performed a retrospective cohort study of all consecutive SGA neonates admitted to our ward and a control group of appropriate for gestational age (AGA) neonates matched for gestational age at birth. Main outcome measures were incidence and severity of thrombocytopenia, hematological and clinical risk factors for thrombocytopenia, and bleeding. A total of 330 SGA and 330 AGA neonates were included, with a mean gestational age at birth of 32.9 ± 4 weeks. Thrombocytopenia (<150x109/L) was found in 53% (176/329) of SGA neonates and 20% (66/330) of AGA neonates (relative risk (RR) 2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) [2.1, 3.4]). Severe thrombocytopenia (21-50x109/L) occurred in 25 neonates (8%) in the SGA and 2 neonates (1%) in the AGA group (RR 12.5, 95% CI [3.0, 52.5]). Platelet counts <20x109/L were not recorded. Within the SGA group, lower gestational age at birth (p = <0.01) and erythroblastosis (p<0.01) were independently associated with a decrease in platelet count. Platelet count was positively correlated with birth weight centiles. In conclusion, early-onset thrombocytopenia is present in over 50% of SGA neonates and occurs 2.7 times as often as in AGA neonates. Thrombocytopenia is seldom severe and is independently associated with lower gestational age at birth and erythroblastosis. PMID:27177157

  4. Mortality in Children Aged 0-9 Years: A Nationwide Cohort Study from Three Nordic Countries

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yongfu; Qin, Guoyou; Cnattingius, Sven; Gissler, Mika; Olsen, Jørn; Zhao, Naiqing; Li, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    Background Mortality in children under five years has been widely studied, whereas mortality at 5–9 years has received little attention. Using unique data from national registers in three Nordic countries, we aimed to characterize mortality directionality in children aged 0 to 9 years. Methods and Findings The cohort study included all children born in Denmark from 1973 to 2008 (n = 2,433,758), Sweden from 1973 to 2006 (n = 3,400,212), and a random sample of 89.3% of children born in Finland from 1987 to 2007 (n = 1,272,083). Children were followed from 0 to 9 years, and cumulative mortality and mortality rates were compared by age, gender, cause of death, and calendar periods. Among the 7,105,962 children, there were 48,299 deaths during study period. From 1981–1985 to 2001–2005, all-cause mortality rates were reduced by between 34% and 62% at different ages. Overall mortality rate ratio between boys and girls decreased from 1.25 to 1.21 with the most prominent reduction in children aged 5–9 years (from 1.59 to 1.19). Neoplasms, diseases of the nervous system and transport accidents were the most frequent cause of death after the first year of life. These three leading causes of death declined by 42% (from 6.2 to 3.6 per 100,000 person years), 43% (from 3.7 to 2.1) and 62% (from 3.9 to 1.5) in boys, and 25% (from 4.1 to 3.1 per 100000 person years), 42% (from 3.4 to 1.9) and 63% (from 3.0 to 1.1) in girls, respectively. Mortality from neoplasms was the highest in each age except infants when comparing cause-specific mortality, and half of deaths from diseases of the nervous system occurred in infancy. Mortality rate due to transport accidents increased with age and was highest in boys aged 5–9 years. Conclusions Mortality rate in children aged 0–9 years has been decreasing with diminished difference between genders over the past decades. Our results suggest the importance of further research on mortality by causes of neoplasms, and causes of transport

  5. Cohort Profile: The Montreal Neighbourhood Networks and Healthy Aging (MoNNET-HA) study

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Spencer; Buckeridge, David L; Dubé, Laurette

    2016-01-01

    The Montreal Neighbourhood Networks and Healthy Aging study was established: (i) to assess the added value in using formal network methods and instruments to measure social capital and its relationship to health; (ii) to determine whether older adults are more vulnerable to the effects of network and neighbourhood environments; and (iii) to examine longitudinally the relationship between social capital and health among adults in Montreal, Canada. The MoNNET-HA cohort consists of men and women aged 25 years and older, residing in the Montreal Metropolitan Area (MMA). Participants were recruited using a random stratified cluster sampling design with oversampling of adults older than 65 years. Initial MoNNET-HA study participants (n = 2707) were recruited for telephone interviews in the summer of 2008. Since 2008, participants were interviewed in the autumn of 2010 and the winter of 2013/2014. Data currently fall into five categories: (i) social network and social capital; (ii) psychosocial and psychological; (ii) socio-demographic and socioeconomic; (iv) health behaviours and conditions; and (v) neighbourhood environmental characteristics. Healthcare utilization data will be available for a subsample of participants. Upon funding, future work will measure anthropometric and metabolic health directly. Based on agreements with participants, external researchers should request access to data via collaborations with the study group. PMID:24984955

  6. Cohort Profile Update: The GAZEL Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Marcel; Leclerc, Annette; Zins, Marie

    2015-02-01

    The original GAZEL cohort was composed of 20 625 employees of the French national gas and electricity companies (15 011 male employees then aged 40 to 50 years and 5614 women between 35 and 50 years old) at its inception in 1989. A Cohort Profile article was published in 2007. By the end of 2013, participants were aged 60-75, and almost all of them retired during follow-up. Accordingly, the main focus of research in the past decade was devoted to the study of the persistent, long-term effects of occupational exposures after retirement; of the transition between professionally active life and retirement; and on determinants of early ageing. Accordingly, in addition to the health, behavioural and social data collected yearly since the beginning of the follow-up, new data were thus collected on cognitive complaints, cognitive and physical functioning, limitations in daily activities, time use and social relationships of retirees. This update presents the main findings of research within the GAZEL Cohort Study during the past 7 years. Any research group, in France or elsewhere, can submit a research proposal to work on the GAZEL cohort. To do this, interested researchers should contact one of the principal investigators of the GAZEL Cohort Study. PMID:25422284

  7. Australian women and income security for old age: A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rosenman, L S; Winocur, S

    1990-07-01

    Australian women constitute a majority of the aged population in Australia, and are more likely than men to be single in old age as well as dependent upon the means-tested Age Pension with no, or only limited, income supplementation from other sources such as occupational superannuation. Based upon research on a national sample of 1016 Australian women, aged across the adult life span, this paper reports age cohort patterns of work, family, and economic expectations for old age. While work and family patterns of Australian women are changing, the clear trend remains towards labour force withdrawal and part-time work for long periods while children are present in the home. The implications of these patterns for income security in old age are discussed. PMID:24390303

  8. Factors Associated With Age-related Hearing Impairment: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Moon, Il Joon; Byun, Hayoung; Woo, Sook-Young; Gwak, Geum-Youn; Hong, Sung Hwa; Chung, Won-Ho; Cho, Yang-Sun

    2015-10-01

    Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) is a complex degenerative disease in the elderly. As multiple factors interact during the development of ARHI, it is important to elucidate the major influencing factors to understand and prevent ARHI. We aimed to identify risk factors associated with the development of ARHI with a retrospective cohort from 2001 to 2010. The records of the adult subjects over 40 years of age who consecutively underwent a comprehensive health checkup including pure-tone audiometry at the Health Promotion Center were reviewed. During this period, 1560 subjects who underwent pure-tone audiometry more than twice, had no other otologic diseases, and were followed-up more than 2 years were included. A pure-tone average (PTA: 0.5, 1, 2, 4 kHz) was calculated. Development of ARHI was defined as a PTA at follow-up more than 10 dB greater than the baseline PTA. Times to the first development of ARHI were investigated. Overall, 12.7% of subjects developed ARHI within the first 4 years. High blood ionized calcium (hazard ratio [HR] 0.084), albumin (HR 0.239), systolic blood pressure (HR 0.577), thyroid hormone (T3) (HR 0.593), and alpha fetoprotein levels (HR 0.883) were associated with decreased hazard for the development of ARHI. In contrast, high blood high-density lipoprotein (HR 2.105), uric acid (HR 1.684), total protein (HR 1.423), and total bilirubin levels (HR 1.220) were potential risk factors for the development of ARHI. Development of ARHI is common among the aged population, and a variety of factors may interact during this process. The results of this study can be used for counseling of adults at high-risk of developing ARHI with regard to regular audiological check-up.

  9. Gestational Age at Birth and 'Body-Mind' Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Frances M; Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Kelleher, Cecily C; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate's physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000-2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children's general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent's general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32-36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%-6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2-2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies. PMID:26975048

  10. Gestational Age at Birth and ‘Body-Mind’ Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.; Kelleher, Cecily C.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate’s physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000–2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children’s general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent’s general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32–36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%–6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2–2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies. PMID:26975048

  11. Consumption of alcoholic beverages and cognitive decline at middle age: the Doetinchem Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Nooyens, Astrid C J; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Gelder, Boukje M; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Verschuren, W M Monique

    2014-02-01

    Accelerated cognitive decline increases the risk of dementia. Slowing down the rate of cognitive decline leads to the preservation of cognitive functioning in the elderly, who can live independently for a longer time. Alcohol consumption may influence the rate of cognitive decline. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the associations between the total consumption of alcoholic beverages and different types of alcoholic beverages and cognitive decline at middle age. In 2613 men and women of the Doetinchem Cohort Study, aged 43-70 years at baseline (1995-2002), cognitive function (global cognitive function and the domains memory, speed and flexibility) was assessed twice, with a 5-year time interval. In linear regression analyses, the consumption of different types of alcoholic beverages was analysed in relation to cognitive decline, adjusting for confounders. We observed that, in women, the total consumption of alcoholic beverages was inversely associated with the decline in global cognitive function over a 5-year period (P for trend = 0·02), while no association was observed in men. Regarding the consumption of different types of alcoholic beverages in men and women together, red wine consumption was inversely associated with the decline in global cognitive function (P for trend < 0·01) as well as memory (P for trend < 0·01) and flexibility (P for trend = 0·03). Smallest declines were observed at a consumption of about 1·5 glasses of red wine per d. No other types of alcoholic beverages were associated with cognitive decline. In conclusion, only (moderate) red wine consumption was consistently associated with less strong cognitive decline. Therefore, it is most likely that non-alcoholic substances in red wine are responsible for any cognition-preserving effects.

  12. Aging in the Context of Cohort Evolution and Mortality Selection

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hui

    2014-01-01

    This study examines historical patterns of aging through the perspectives of cohort evolution and mortality selection, where the former emphasizes the correlation across cohorts in the age dependence of mortality rates, and the latter emphasizes cohort change in the acceleration of mortality over the life course. In the analysis of historical cohort mortality data, I find support for both perspectives. The rate of demographic aging, or the rate at which mortality accelerates past age 70, is not fixed across cohorts; rather, it is affected by the extent of mortality selection at young and late ages. This causes later cohorts to have higher rates of demographic aging than earlier cohorts. The rate of biological aging, approximating the rate of the senescence process, significantly declined between the mid- and late-nineteenth century birth cohorts and stabilized afterward. Unlike the rate of demographic aging, the rate of biological aging is not affected by mortality selection earlier in the life course but rather by cross-cohort changes in young-age mortality, which cause lower rates of biological aging in old age among later cohorts. These findings enrich theories of cohort evolution and have implications for the study of limits on the human lifespan and evolution of aging. PMID:24889261

  13. The Impact of Streaming on Attainment at Age Seven: Evidence from the Millennium Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Samantha; Hallam, Sue

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between stream placement and the academic progress made by children in England in Year 2 of primary school, drawing on data from the longitudinal Millennium Cohort Study (MCS). The MCS is a sample of 19,000 children born across the UK around the turn of the century and their families. Academic progress was…

  14. Age-Related Changes of Intraocular Pressure in Elderly People in Southern China: Lingtou Eye Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xiaotong; Niu, Yong; Guo, Xinxing; Hu, Yin; Yan, William; He, Mingguang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To study age-related changes of intraocular pressure (IOP) and assess the cohort effect in both cross-sectional and longitudinal settings among elderly Chinese adults. Methods Participants were enrolled from the Lingtou Eye Cohort Study with Chinese government officials aged 40 years and older at baseline and received physical check-up and ocular examinations from 2010 to 2012. IOP was measured using a non-contact tonometer according to standardized protocols, as well as systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and body mass index (BMI). Participants who had attended IOP measurements in both 2010 and 2012 were included in this study. Cross-sectional association of IOP with age was assessed using multivariate liner regression analyses and based on the data of 2010. Longitudinal changes in IOP were assessed by paired t-test. Results A total of 3372 subjects were enrolled in the current analysis (2010 mean [SD] age, 61.9 [7.1] years; 60.2% men). The mean IOP in 2010 was 15.4±2.3 mmHg for women and 15.2±2.3 mmHg for men with an intersex difference (P = 0.029). Cross-sectional analysis showed that IOP was negatively associated with age (P = 0.003, β = -0.033 for women and P<0.001, β = -0.061 for men) adjusted for baseline SBP, DBP and BMI. Paired t-test suggested that IOP was higher in the year 2012 than 2010 in women (P = 0.006) but did not change significantly in men within 2 years (P = 0.345). In addition, the 2-year changes of IOP were not associated with age adjusted for baseline IOP in 2010 (P = 0.249). Conclusion Cross-sectional data suggests that IOP is lower in people with older age. Longitudinal data does not support such findings and thus the identified decreasing pattern with age in cross-sectional analysis is likely caused by cohort effects. PMID:26986222

  15. Lifecourse study of bone health at age 49–51 years: the Newcastle thousand families cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, M.; Birrell, F.; Francis, R.; Rawlings, D.; Tuck, S.; Parker, L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To quantify the direct and indirect effects of fetal (position in family, weight, and social class at birth), childhood (breast feeding, growth, infections, and social class in childhood, age at menarche), and adult life (social class, alcohol consumption, smoking, diet, reproductive history, exercise, hormone replacement therapy use), and adult size (height, weight) on bone health at age 49–51 years, as measured by bone mineral density, total scanned bone area of the hip and lumbar spine, and femoral neck shaft angle. Design: Follow up study of the Newcastle thousand families birth cohort established in 1947. Participants: 171 men and 218 women who attended for dual energy x ray absorptiometry scanning. Main results: Fetal life explained around 6% of variation in adult bone mineral density for men, but accounted for less than 1% for women. Adult lifestyle, including effects mediated through adult weight accounted for over 10% of variation in density for men and around 6% for women. Almost half of variation in bone area for men was explained by early life. However, most of this was mediated through achieved adult height and weight. In women, less than 5% of variation in bone area was accounted for by early life, after adjusting for adult size. Most of the variation in each of the indicators for both sexes was contributed either directly or indirectly by adult lifestyle and achieved adult height and weight. Conclusions: The effect of fetal life on bone health in adulthood seems to be mediated through achieved adult height. PMID:15911643

  16. Functional Activation during the Rapid Visual Information Processing Task in a Middle Aged Cohort: An fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Neale, Chris; Johnston, Patrick; Hughes, Matthew; Scholey, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP) task, a serial discrimination task where task performance believed to reflect sustained attention capabilities, is widely used in behavioural research and increasingly in neuroimaging studies. To date, functional neuroimaging research into the RVIP has been undertaken using block analyses, reflecting the sustained processing involved in the task, but not necessarily the transient processes associated with individual trial performance. Furthermore, this research has been limited to young cohorts. This study assessed the behavioural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) outcomes of the RVIP task using both block and event-related analyses in a healthy middle aged cohort (mean age = 53.56 years, n = 16). The results show that the version of the RVIP used here is sensitive to changes in attentional demand processes with participants achieving a 43% accuracy hit rate in the experimental task compared with 96% accuracy in the control task. As shown by previous research, the block analysis revealed an increase in activation in a network of frontal, parietal, occipital and cerebellar regions. The event related analysis showed a similar network of activation, seemingly omitting regions involved in the processing of the task (as shown in the block analysis), such as occipital areas and the thalamus, providing an indication of a network of regions involved in correct trial performance. Frontal (superior and inferior frontal gryi), parietal (precuenus, inferior parietal lobe) and cerebellar regions were shown to be active in both the block and event-related analyses, suggesting their importance in sustained attention/vigilance. These networks and the differences between them are discussed in detail, as well as implications for future research in middle aged cohorts. PMID:26488289

  17. Functional Activation during the Rapid Visual Information Processing Task in a Middle Aged Cohort: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Neale, Chris; Johnston, Patrick; Hughes, Matthew; Scholey, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP) task, a serial discrimination task where task performance believed to reflect sustained attention capabilities, is widely used in behavioural research and increasingly in neuroimaging studies. To date, functional neuroimaging research into the RVIP has been undertaken using block analyses, reflecting the sustained processing involved in the task, but not necessarily the transient processes associated with individual trial performance. Furthermore, this research has been limited to young cohorts. This study assessed the behavioural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) outcomes of the RVIP task using both block and event-related analyses in a healthy middle aged cohort (mean age = 53.56 years, n = 16). The results show that the version of the RVIP used here is sensitive to changes in attentional demand processes with participants achieving a 43% accuracy hit rate in the experimental task compared with 96% accuracy in the control task. As shown by previous research, the block analysis revealed an increase in activation in a network of frontal, parietal, occipital and cerebellar regions. The event related analysis showed a similar network of activation, seemingly omitting regions involved in the processing of the task (as shown in the block analysis), such as occipital areas and the thalamus, providing an indication of a network of regions involved in correct trial performance. Frontal (superior and inferior frontal gryi), parietal (precuenus, inferior parietal lobe) and cerebellar regions were shown to be active in both the block and event-related analyses, suggesting their importance in sustained attention/vigilance. These networks and the differences between them are discussed in detail, as well as implications for future research in middle aged cohorts. PMID:26488289

  18. The Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam: cohort update 2016 and major findings.

    PubMed

    Hoogendijk, Emiel O; Deeg, Dorly J H; Poppelaars, Jan; van der Horst, Marleen; Broese van Groenou, Marjolein I; Comijs, Hannie C; Pasman, H Roeline W; van Schoor, Natasja M; Suanet, Bianca; Thomése, Fleur; van Tilburg, Theo G; Visser, Marjolein; Huisman, Martijn

    2016-09-01

    The Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA) is an ongoing longitudinal study of older adults in the Netherlands, which started in 1992. LASA is focused on the determinants, trajectories and consequences of physical, cognitive, emotional and social functioning. The study is based on a nationally representative sample of older adults aged 55 years and over. The findings of the LASA study have been reported in over 450 publications so far (see www.lasa-vu.nl ). In this article we describe the background and the design of the LASA study, and provide an update of the methods. In addition, we provide a summary of the major findings from the period 2011-2015. PMID:27544533

  19. Ageing and Dementia in a Longitudinal Study of a Cohort with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Janet; Collins, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Background: A population sample of people with Down syndrome has been studied from infancy and has now been followed up again at age 47 years. Methods: Intelligence and language skills were tested and daily living skills assessed. Memory/cognitive deterioration was examined using two test instruments. Results: Scores on verbal tests of…

  20. Age, mode of conception, health service use and pregnancy health: a prospective cohort study of Australian women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is limited evidence about the ways in which maternal age and mode of conception interact with psychological, sociodemographic, health and health service factors in governing pregnancy health. The aim of this study was to establish in what ways maternal age and mode of conception are associated with, health behaviours, health service use and self-rated physical and mental health during pregnancy. Method A prospective cohort study was conducted in a collaboration between universities, infertility treatment services and public and private obstetric hospitals in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia,. Consecutive cohorts of nulliparous English-literate women at least 28 weeks pregnant who had conceived through ART (ARTC) or spontaneously (SC) in three age-groups: 20–30; 31–36 and at least 37 years were recruited. Data were obtained via structured individual telephone interviews and self-report postal questionnaires at recruitment and four months postpartum. Study-specific questions assessed: sociodemographic characteristics; reproductive health; health behaviours and health service use. Standardized instruments assessed physical health: SF 12 Physical Component Score (PCS) and mental health: SF12 Mental Component Score (MCS); State Trait Anxiety Inventory and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The main outcome measures were the SF 12 PCS, SF12 MCS scores and pregnancy-related hospital admissions. Results Of 1179 eligible women 791 (67%) participated, 27 had fertility treatment without oocyte retrieval and were excluded and 592/764 (78%) completed all pregnancy assessments. When other factors were controlled speaking a language other than English, having private health insurance and multiple gestation were associated with worse physical health and having private health insurance and better physical health were associated with better mental health. Pregnancy-related hospital admissions were associated with worse physical health and multiple gestation

  1. Age Related Macular Degeneration and Total Hip Replacement Due to Osteoarthritis or Fracture: Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chong, Elaine W; Wang, Yuanyuan; Robman, Liubov D; Aung, Khin Zaw; Makeyeva, Galina A; Giles, Graham G; Graves, Stephen; Cicuttini, Flavia M; Guymer, Robyn H

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is the leading cause of total hip replacement, accounting for more than 80% of all total hip replacements. Emerging evidence suggests that osteoarthritis has a chronic inflammatory component to its pathogenesis similar to age-related macular degeneration. We evaluated the association between age-related macular degeneration and total hip replacement as proxy for severe osteoarthritis or fractured neck of femur in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. 20,744 participants had complete data on both age-related macular degeneration assessed from colour fundus photographs taken during 2003-2007 and total hip replacement. Total hip replacements due to hip osteoarthritis and fractured neck of femur during 2001-2011 were identified by linking the cohort records to the Australian Orthopedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between age-related macular degeneration and risk of total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis and fracture separately, adjusted for confounders. There were 791 cases of total hip replacement for osteoarthritis and 102 cases of total hip replacement due to fractured neck of femur. After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, and grouped country of birth, intermediate age-related macular degeneration was directly associated with total hip replacement for osteoarthritis (odds ratio 1.22, 95% CI 1.00-1.49). Late age-related macular degeneration was directly associated with total hip replacement due to fractured neck of femur (odds ratio 5.21, 95% CI2.25-12.02). The association between intermediate age-related macular degeneration and an increased 10-year incidence of total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis suggests the possibility of similar inflammatory processes underlying both chronic diseases. The association of late age-related macular degeneration with an increased 10-year incidence of total hip replacement due to fractured neck of femur may be

  2. Age Related Macular Degeneration and Total Hip Replacement Due to Osteoarthritis or Fracture: Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chong, Elaine W; Wang, Yuanyuan; Robman, Liubov D; Aung, Khin Zaw; Makeyeva, Galina A; Giles, Graham G; Graves, Stephen; Cicuttini, Flavia M; Guymer, Robyn H

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is the leading cause of total hip replacement, accounting for more than 80% of all total hip replacements. Emerging evidence suggests that osteoarthritis has a chronic inflammatory component to its pathogenesis similar to age-related macular degeneration. We evaluated the association between age-related macular degeneration and total hip replacement as proxy for severe osteoarthritis or fractured neck of femur in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. 20,744 participants had complete data on both age-related macular degeneration assessed from colour fundus photographs taken during 2003-2007 and total hip replacement. Total hip replacements due to hip osteoarthritis and fractured neck of femur during 2001-2011 were identified by linking the cohort records to the Australian Orthopedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between age-related macular degeneration and risk of total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis and fracture separately, adjusted for confounders. There were 791 cases of total hip replacement for osteoarthritis and 102 cases of total hip replacement due to fractured neck of femur. After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, and grouped country of birth, intermediate age-related macular degeneration was directly associated with total hip replacement for osteoarthritis (odds ratio 1.22, 95% CI 1.00-1.49). Late age-related macular degeneration was directly associated with total hip replacement due to fractured neck of femur (odds ratio 5.21, 95% CI2.25-12.02). The association between intermediate age-related macular degeneration and an increased 10-year incidence of total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis suggests the possibility of similar inflammatory processes underlying both chronic diseases. The association of late age-related macular degeneration with an increased 10-year incidence of total hip replacement due to fractured neck of femur may be

  3. Age Related Macular Degeneration and Total Hip Replacement Due to Osteoarthritis or Fracture: Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Elaine W.; Wang, Yuanyuan; Robman, Liubov D.; Aung, Khin Zaw; Makeyeva, Galina A.; Giles, Graham G.; Graves, Stephen; Cicuttini, Flavia M.; Guymer, Robyn H.

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is the leading cause of total hip replacement, accounting for more than 80% of all total hip replacements. Emerging evidence suggests that osteoarthritis has a chronic inflammatory component to its pathogenesis similar to age-related macular degeneration. We evaluated the association between age-related macular degeneration and total hip replacement as proxy for severe osteoarthritis or fractured neck of femur in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. 20,744 participants had complete data on both age-related macular degeneration assessed from colour fundus photographs taken during 2003–2007 and total hip replacement. Total hip replacements due to hip osteoarthritis and fractured neck of femur during 2001–2011 were identified by linking the cohort records to the Australian Orthopedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between age-related macular degeneration and risk of total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis and fracture separately, adjusted for confounders. There were 791 cases of total hip replacement for osteoarthritis and 102 cases of total hip replacement due to fractured neck of femur. After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, and grouped country of birth, intermediate age-related macular degeneration was directly associated with total hip replacement for osteoarthritis (odds ratio 1.22, 95% CI 1.00–1.49). Late age-related macular degeneration was directly associated with total hip replacement due to fractured neck of femur (odds ratio 5.21, 95% CI2.25–12.02). The association between intermediate age-related macular degeneration and an increased 10-year incidence of total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis suggests the possibility of similar inflammatory processes underlying both chronic diseases. The association of late age-related macular degeneration with an increased 10-year incidence of total hip replacement due to fractured neck of femur

  4. The Vanderbilt Memory & Aging Project: Study Design and Baseline Cohort Overview

    PubMed Central

    Jefferson, Angela L.; Gifford, Katherine A.; Acosta, Lealani Mae Y.; Bell, Susan P.; Donahue, Manus J.; Davis, L. Taylor; Gottlieb, JoAnn; Gupta, Deepak K.; Hohman, Timothy J.; Lane, Elizabeth M.; Libon, David J.; Mendes, Lisa A.; Niswender, Kevin; Pechman, Kimberly R.; Rane, Swati; Ruberg, Frederick L.; Su, Yan Ru; Zetterberg, Henrik; Liu, Dandan

    2016-01-01

    Background Vascular health factors frequently co-occur with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A better understanding of how systemic vascular and cerebrovascular health intersects with clinical and pathological AD may inform prevention and treatment opportunities. Objective To establish the Vanderbilt Memory & Aging Project, a case-control longitudinal study investigating vascular health and brain aging, and describe baseline methodology and participant characteristics. Methods From September 2012 to November 2014, 335 participants age 60–92 were enrolled, including 168 individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, 73 ± 8 years, 41% female) and 167 age-, sex-, and race-matched cognitively normal controls (NC, 72 ± 7 years, 41% female). At baseline, participants completed a physical and frailty examination, fasting blood draw, neuropsychological assessment, echocardiogram, cardiac MRI, and brain MRI. A subset underwent 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and lumbar puncture for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection. Results As designed, participant groups were comparable for age (p = 0.31), sex (p = 0.95), and race (p = 0.65). MCI participants had greater Framingham Stroke Risk Profile scores (p = 0.008), systolic blood pressure values (p = 0.008), and history of left ventricular hypertrophy (p = 0.04) than NC participants. As expected, MCI participants performed worse on all neuropsychological measures (p-values<0.001), were more likely to be APOE ε4 carriers (p = 0.02), and had enhanced CSF biomarkers, including lower Aβ42 (p = 0.02), higher total tau (p = 0.004), and higher p-tau (p = 0.02) compared to NC participants. Conclusion Diverse sources of baseline and longitudinal data will provide rich opportunities to investigate pathways linking vascular and cerebrovascular health, clinical and pathological AD, and neurodegeneration contributing to novel strategies to delay or prevent cognitive decline. PMID:26967211

  5. Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants Predicts Telomere Length in Older Age: Results from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Iozzo, Patricia; Salonen, Minna K.; Kajantie, Eero; Airaksinen, Riikka; Kiviranta, Hannu; Rantakokko, Panu; Eriksson, Johan Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    As the population ages, the occurrence of chronic pathologies becomes more common. Leukocyte telomere shortening associates to ageing and age-related diseases. Recent studies suggest that environmental chemicals can affect telomere length. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are most relevant, since they are ingested with foods, and accumulate in the body for a long time. This longitudinal study was undertaken to test if circulating POPs predict telomere length and shortening in elderly people. We studied 1082 subjects belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (born 1934-1944), undergoing two visits (2001-2004 and 2011-2014). POPs (oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, p, p’-DDE, PCB 153, BDE 47, BDE 153) were analysed at baseline. Relative telomere length was measured twice, ’10 years apart, by quantitative real-time PCR. Oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and PCB-153 levels were significant predictors of telomere length and shortening. In men, we did not find a linear relationship between POPs exposure and telomere shortening. In women, a significant reduction across quartiles categories of oxychlordane and trans-nonachlor exposure was observed. Baseline characteristics of subjects in the highest POPs categories included higher levels of C-reactive protein and fasting glucose, and lower body fat percentage. This is one of few studies combining POPs and telomere length. Our results indicate that exposure to oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and PCB 153 predicts telomere attrition. This finding is important because concentrations of POPs observed here occur in contemporary younger people, and may contribute to an accelerated ageing.

  6. Retinal Vascular Fractal Dimension, Childhood IQ, and Cognitive Ability in Old Age: The Lothian Birth Cohort Study 1936

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Adele M.; MacGillivray, Thomas J.; Henderson, Ross D.; Ilzina, Lasma; Dhillon, Baljean; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cerebral microvascular disease is associated with dementia. Differences in the topography of the retinal vascular network may be a marker for cerebrovascular disease. The association between cerebral microvascular state and non-pathological cognitive ageing is less clear, particularly because studies are rarely able to adjust for pre-morbid cognitive ability level. We measured retinal vascular fractal dimension (Df) as a potential marker of cerebral microvascular disease. We examined the extent to which it contributes to differences in non-pathological cognitive ability in old age, after adjusting for childhood mental ability. Methods Participants from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 Study (LBC1936) had cognitive ability assessments and retinal photographs taken of both eyes aged around 73 years (n = 648). IQ scores were available from childhood. Retinal vascular Df was calculated with monofractal and multifractal analysis, performed on custom-written software. Multiple regression models were applied to determine associations between retinal vascular Df and general cognitive ability (g), processing speed, and memory. Results Only three out of 24 comparisons (two eyes × four Df parameters × three cognitive measures) were found to be significant. This is little more than would be expected by chance. No single association was verified by an equivalent association in the contralateral eye. Conclusions The results show little evidence that fractal measures of retinal vascular differences are associated with non-pathological cognitive ageing. PMID:25816017

  7. Adiposity, obesity, and arterial aging: longitudinal study of aortic stiffness in the Whitehall II cohort.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Eric J; Shipley, Martin J; Ahmadi-Abhari, Sara; Tabak, Adam G; McEniery, Carmel M; Wilkinson, Ian B; Marmot, Michael G; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimaki, Mika

    2015-08-01

    We sought to determine whether adiposity in later midlife is an independent predictor of accelerated stiffening of the aorta. Whitehall II study participants (3789 men; 1383 women) underwent carotid-femoral applanation tonometry at the mean age of 66 and again 4 years later. General adiposity by body mass index, central adiposity by waist circumference and waist:hip ratio, and fat mass percent by body impedance were assessed 5 years before and at baseline. In linear mixed models adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and mean arterial pressure, all adiposity measures were associated with aortic stiffening measured as increase in pulse wave velocity (PWV) between baseline and follow-up. The associations were similar in the metabolically healthy and unhealthy, according to Adult Treatment Panel-III criteria excluding waist circumference. C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels accounted for part of the longitudinal association between adiposity and PWV change. Adjusting for chronic disease, antihypertensive medication and risk factors, standardized effects of general and central adiposity and fat mass percent on PWV increase (m/s) were similar (0.14, 95% confidence interval: 0.05-0.24, P=0.003; 0.17, 0.08-0.27, P<0.001; 0.14, 0.05-0.22, P=0.002, respectively). Previous adiposity was associated with aortic stiffening independent of change in adiposity, glycaemia, and lipid levels across PWV assessments. We estimated that the body mass index-linked PWV increase will account for 12% of the projected increase in cardiovascular risk because of high body mass index. General and central adiposity in later midlife were strong independent predictors of aortic stiffening. Our findings suggest that adiposity is an important and potentially modifiable determinant of arterial aging. PMID:26056335

  8. Effect of tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy and preschool age on growth from birth to adolescence: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is strong evidence of an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and restriction of intrauterine growth, but the effects of this exposure on postnatal linear growth are not well defined. Furthermore, few studies have investigated the role of tobacco smoke exposure also after pregnancy on linear growth until adolescence. In this study we investigated the effect of maternal smoking exposure during pregnancy and preschool age on linear growth from birth to adolescence. Methods We evaluated a cohort of children born between 1994 and 1999 in Cuiabá, Brazil, who attended primary health clinics for vaccination between the years 1999 and 2000 (at preschool age) and followed-up after approximately ten years. Individuals were located in public and private schools throughout the country using the national school census. Height/length was measured, and length at birth was collected at maternity departments. Stature in childhood and adolescence was assessed using the height-for-age index sex-specific expressed as z-score from curves published by the World Health Organization. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking, during pregnancy and preschool age, and height of children assessed at birth, preschool and school age, adjusted for age of the children. Results We evaluated 2405 children in 1999–2000, length at birth was obtained from 2394 (99.5%), and 1716 at follow-up (71.4% of baseline), 50.7% of the adolescents were male. The z-score of height-for-age was lower among adolescents exposed to maternal smoking both during pregnancy and childhood (p < 0.01). Adjusting for age, sex, maternal height, maternal schooling, socioeconomic position at preschool age, and breastfeeding, children exposed to maternal smoking both during pregnancy and preschool age showed persistent lower height-for-age since birth to adolescence (coefficient: −0.32, p < 0.001) compared to non

  9. Lifetime Occupational Physical Activity and Musculoskeletal Aging in Middle-Aged Men and Women in Denmark: Retrospective Cohort Study Protocol and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Ole Steen; Reventlow, Susanne; Skov, Peder Georg; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Rubak, Tine Steen; Hansen, Åse Marie; Andersen, Lars L; Lund, Rikke; Osler, Merete; Christensen, Ulla; Avlund, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical function is essential for performing most aspects of daily life and musculoskeletal aging leads to a decline in physical function. The onset and rate of this process vary and are influenced by environmental, genetic, and hormonal factors. Although everyone eventually experiences musculoskeletal aging, it is beneficial to study the factors that influence the aging process in order to prevent disability. The role of occupational physical activity in the musculoskeletal aging process is unclear. In the past, hard physical work was thought to strengthen the worker, but current studies in this field fail to find a training effect in jobs with a high level of occupational physical activity. Objective The aim of this study is to examine the influence of lifetime occupational physical activity on physical function in midlife. The study follows the “occupational life-course perspective,” emphasizing the importance of occupational exposures accumulated throughout life on the musculoskeletal aging process taking socioeconomic and lifestyle factors into consideration. Methods This study is a retrospective cohort study including a cross-sectional measurement of physical function in 5000 middle-aged Danes. Data was obtained from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB) which is based on three existing Danish cohorts. Using questionnaire information about the five longest-held occupations, the job history was coded from the Danish version of the International Standard Classification of Occupations (D-ISCO 88) and a job exposure matrix containing information about occupational physical activity in Danish jobs was applied to the dataset. The primary outcomes are three tests of physical function: handgrip strength, balance, and chair rise. In the analyses, we will compare physical function in midlife according to accumulated exposure to high levels of occupational physical activity. Conclusions We have a unique opportunity to study the influence of

  10. Enjoyment of life and declining physical function at older ages: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Steptoe, Andrew; de Oliveira, Cesar; Demakakos, Panayotes; Zaninotto, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Background: Positive affective well-being (i.e., feelings of happiness and enjoyment) has been associated with longer survival and reduced incidence of serious illness. Our objective was to discover whether enjoyment of life also predicted a reduced risk of functional impairment over an 8-year period in a large population sample. Methods: We carried out a prospective analysis involving 3199 men and women aged 60 years or older from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Enjoyment of life was assessed by questionnaire. Outcomes were impairment in 2 or more activities of daily living and changes in gait speed on a walking test. Covariates included sociodemographic factors, baseline health, depressive symptoms, impairment of mobility and health behaviours. Results: Two or more impaired activities of daily living developed among 4.4%, 11.7% and 16.8% of participants in the high, medium and low enjoyment-of-life tertiles, respectively. After adjustment for covariates, the odds of impaired activities of daily living developing were 1.83 (95% confidence interval 1.13–2.96) in the low compared with high tertile. Gait speed after 8 years was also related to baseline enjoyment of life after adjustment for gait speed and other covariates at baseline (p < 0.001). We obtained similar results when we limited analyses to participants younger than 70 years at baseline. Interpretation: This is an observational study, so causal conclusions cannot be drawn. But our results provide evidence that reduced enjoyment of life may be related to the future disability and mobility of older people. PMID:24446463

  11. A healthy Nordic diet and physical performance in old age: findings from the longitudinal Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Männistö, Satu; Salonen, Minna K; Simonen, Mika; Kanerva, Noora; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero; Rantanen, Taina; Eriksson, Johan G

    2016-03-14

    Epidemiological studies have shown that a number of nutrients are associated with better physical performance. However, little is still known about the role of the whole diet, particularly a healthy Nordic diet, in relation to physical performance. Therefore, we examined whether a healthy Nordic diet was associated with measures of physical performance 10 years later. We studied 1072 participants from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Participants' diet was assessed using a validated 128-item FFQ at the mean age of 61 years, and a priori-defined Nordic diet score (NDS) was calculated. The score included Nordic fruits and berries, vegetables, cereals, PUFA:SFA and trans-fatty acids ratio, low-fat milk, fish, red and processed meat, total fat and alcohol. At the mean age of 71 years, participants' physical performance was measured using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT), and an overall SFT score was calculated. Women in the highest fourth of the NDS had on average 5 points higher SFT score compared with those in the lowest fourth (P for trend 0·005). No such association was observed in men. Women with the highest score had 17% better result in the 6-min walk test, 16% better arm curl and 20% better chair stand results compared with those with the lowest score (all P values<0·01). In conclusion, a healthy Nordic diet was associated with better overall physical performance among women and might help decrease the risk of disability in old age.

  12. A healthy Nordic diet and physical performance in old age: findings from the longitudinal Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Männistö, Satu; Salonen, Minna K; Simonen, Mika; Kanerva, Noora; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero; Rantanen, Taina; Eriksson, Johan G

    2016-03-14

    Epidemiological studies have shown that a number of nutrients are associated with better physical performance. However, little is still known about the role of the whole diet, particularly a healthy Nordic diet, in relation to physical performance. Therefore, we examined whether a healthy Nordic diet was associated with measures of physical performance 10 years later. We studied 1072 participants from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Participants' diet was assessed using a validated 128-item FFQ at the mean age of 61 years, and a priori-defined Nordic diet score (NDS) was calculated. The score included Nordic fruits and berries, vegetables, cereals, PUFA:SFA and trans-fatty acids ratio, low-fat milk, fish, red and processed meat, total fat and alcohol. At the mean age of 71 years, participants' physical performance was measured using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT), and an overall SFT score was calculated. Women in the highest fourth of the NDS had on average 5 points higher SFT score compared with those in the lowest fourth (P for trend 0·005). No such association was observed in men. Women with the highest score had 17% better result in the 6-min walk test, 16% better arm curl and 20% better chair stand results compared with those with the lowest score (all P values<0·01). In conclusion, a healthy Nordic diet was associated with better overall physical performance among women and might help decrease the risk of disability in old age. PMID:26785760

  13. Professional careers, work constraints, and age-related selection: a study on 21,000 wage-earners of four age cohorts in 1990 and 1995.

    PubMed

    Molinié, A F

    1999-01-01

    The French work force is aging, like that of many other European countries. Projections underscore that over the next 20 years there will be a dramatic increase in the working population over 45 years. Working conditions in France tend to increase the difficulties for aging workers: the work schedules are less stable, the constraints of work rhythms become greater, etc. We are interested in the age-related selection mechanisms that may stem from the confrontation of two evolutions, aging of operators and transformations in the work situations (Molinié & Volkoff, 1994). Most studies on this subject generally rely on observation of populations in different age groups at a given date. But the selection processes can only really be detected in a dynamic framework, by incorporating observations on the assignment of wage-earners of different ages into a study of professional careers. We have been able to formulate a quantitative approach of selection mechanisms, thanks to the Health, Work, and Ageing Survey ("ESTEV"), which was based on a random sample of 21,000 wage-earners followed-up by work physicians (400 in 1990, 1000 in 1995). Subjects, male and female, belonged to age groups of 5-year intervals, from 1938 to 1953. Each age cohort included about 3000 subjects for men, and about 2000 for women (Derriennic, Touranchet, & Volkoff, 1996). They were first interviewed in 1990, and again in 199 (percentage of subjects seen both times: 87%). The present study relies on 22 questions aimed at identifying the constraints or hardships that the surveyed workers have encountered in the course of their working life. In each case, the worker was asked whether he or she was presently exposed, was not now but had been exposed, or had never been exposed to the constraint.

  14. Longitudinal association of neighborhood variables with Body Mass Index in Dutch school-age children: The KOALA Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Swantje C; Sleddens, Ester F C; de Vries, Sanne I; Gubbels, Jessica; Thijs, Carel

    2015-06-01

    Changes in the neighborhood environment may explain part of the rapid increase in childhood overweight and obesity during the last decades. To date few theory-driven rather than data-driven studies have explored longitudinal associations between multiple neighborhood characteristics and child body weight development. We aimed to assess the relationship between physical, social and perceived safety related characteristics of the neighborhood and Body Mass Index (BMI) development in children during early school age, using a longitudinal design. We included an examination of moderating and confounding factors based on a conceptual model adapted from the EnRG framework (Environmental Research framework for weight Gain prevention) and empirical research. Analyses included 1887 children from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study followed from baseline age 4-5 years until 8-9 years. For children age 4-5 years, parents completed a questionnaire measuring characteristics of the neighborhood. Reliability and factor analyses were used to identify constructs for neighborhood characteristics. Linear regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between neighborhood constructs and BMI z-scores cross-sectionally at age 4-5 years and longitudinally using Generalized Estimating Equations with BMI z-scores over 5 repeated measurements until age 8-9 years. Fourteen constructs were identified and grouped in three domains including perceived physical, social, or safety related characteristics of the neighborhood. Cross-sectionally, a lower BMI z-score was associated with higher perceived physical attractiveness of the neighborhood environment (standardized regression coefficient (β) -0.078, 95% CI -0.123 to -0.034) and a higher level of social capital (β -0.142, -0.264 to -0.019). Longitudinally, similar associations were observed with potentially even stronger regression coefficients. This study suggests that BMI in children is mainly related to the modifiable physical

  15. Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants Predicts Telomere Length in Older Age: Results from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Iozzo, Patricia; Salonen, Minna K.; Kajantie, Eero; Airaksinen, Riikka; Kiviranta, Hannu; Rantakokko, Panu; Eriksson, Johan Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    As the population ages, the occurrence of chronic pathologies becomes more common. Leukocyte telomere shortening associates to ageing and age-related diseases. Recent studies suggest that environmental chemicals can affect telomere length. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are most relevant, since they are ingested with foods, and accumulate in the body for a long time. This longitudinal study was undertaken to test if circulating POPs predict telomere length and shortening in elderly people. We studied 1082 subjects belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (born 1934-1944), undergoing two visits (2001-2004 and 2011-2014). POPs (oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, p, p’-DDE, PCB 153, BDE 47, BDE 153) were analysed at baseline. Relative telomere length was measured twice, ’10 years apart, by quantitative real-time PCR. Oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and PCB-153 levels were significant predictors of telomere length and shortening. In men, we did not find a linear relationship between POPs exposure and telomere shortening. In women, a significant reduction across quartiles categories of oxychlordane and trans-nonachlor exposure was observed. Baseline characteristics of subjects in the highest POPs categories included higher levels of C-reactive protein and fasting glucose, and lower body fat percentage. This is one of few studies combining POPs and telomere length. Our results indicate that exposure to oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and PCB 153 predicts telomere attrition. This finding is important because concentrations of POPs observed here occur in contemporary younger people, and may contribute to an accelerated ageing. PMID:27699078

  16. The relationship of age and place of delivery with postpartum contraception prior to discharge in Mexico: A retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Darney, Blair G.; Sosa-Rubi, Sandra G.; Servan-Mori, Edson; Rodriguez, Maria I.; Walker, Dilys; Lozano, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To test the association of age (adolescents vs. older women) and place of delivery with receipt of immediate postpartum contraception in Mexico. Study design Retrospective cohort study, Mexico, nationally representative sample of women 12–39 years old at last delivery. We used multivariable logistic regression to test the association of self-reported receipt of postpartum contraception prior to discharge with age and place of delivery (public, employment based, private, or out of facility). We included individual and household-level confounders and calculated relative and absolute multivariable estimates of association. Results Our analytic sample included 7022 women (population, N = 9,881,470). Twenty percent of the population was 12–19 years old at last birth, 55% aged 20–29 and 25% 30–39 years old. Overall, 43% of women reported no postpartum contraceptive method. Age was not significantly associated with receipt of a method, controlling for covariates. Women delivering in public facilities had lower odds of receipt of a method (Odds Ratio = 0.52; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.40–0.68) compared with employment-based insurance facilities. We estimated 76% (95% CI = 74–78%) of adolescents (12–19 years) who deliver in employment-based insurance facilities leave with a method compared with 59% (95% CI = 56–62%) who deliver in public facilities. Conclusion Both adolescents and women ages 20–39 receive postpartum contraception, but nearly half of all women receive no method. Place of delivery is correlated with receipt of postpartum contraception, with lower rates in the public sector. Lessons learned from Mexico are relevant to other countries seeking to improve adolescent health through reducing unintended pregnancy. Implications Adolescents receive postpartum contraception as often as older women in Mexico, but half of all women receive no method. PMID:26828625

  17. Implications of Extending the ADHD Age-of-Onset Criterion to Age 12: Results from a Prospectively Studied Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polanczyk, Guilherme; Caspi, Avshalom; Houts, Renate; Kollins, Scott H.; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether including children with onset of symptoms between ages 7 and 12 years in the ADHD diagnostic category would: (a) increase the prevalence of the disorder at age 12, and (b) change the clinical and cognitive features, impairment profile, and risk factors for ADHD compared with findings in the literature based on the…

  18. High serum adiponectin levels predict incident falls among middle-aged and older adults: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cong; Momma, Haruki; Niu, Kaijun; Chujo, Masahiko; Otomo, Atsushi; Cui, Yufei; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective: adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone with anti-obesity and anti-diabetic properties. However, higher circulating adiponectin levels are related to poor muscle function and physical disability, which suggests a potential link between adiponectin and risk of falls. Nevertheless, no direct association between circulating adiponectin levels and incident fall risk has been reported. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum adiponectin levels and incident falls in a population of middle-aged and older adults. Design: a prospective cohort study. Setting: Oroshisho Center in Sendai City, Japan. Subjects: Japanese adults who were ≥45 years old (n = 430). Measurements: serum adiponectin levels were measured at baseline, and the subjects were divided into sex-specific tertiles. Data regarding a history of falls were collected via participant recall using a self-reported questionnaire. Incident falls were defined as falls that were experienced by people without a history of falls at baseline. Results: during the 2-year follow-up, 15.6% (67/430) of the subjects experienced an incident fall. In the univariate logistic regression analysis, incident falls were significantly more frequent across the increasing sex-specific serum adiponectin tertiles (P for trend = 0.008). Adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for incident falls were 2.31 (1.07–4.98) in the middle tertile and 3.61 (1.63–7.99) in the highest tertile; this risk was significantly higher than that for the lowest adiponectin tertile (P for trend = 0.002). Conclusions: the findings of this prospective cohort study indicate that higher serum adiponectin levels may be a predictor of incident falls. PMID:27013505

  19. Childhood Passive Smoking Exposure and Age at Menarche in Chinese Women Who Had Never Smoked: The Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    He, Yao; Jiang, Chaoqiang; Cheng, Kar Keung; Zhang, Weisen; Lam, Tai Hing

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined the associations between childhood passive smoking exposure and age at menarche in women who had never smoked in southern China. Methods Among 30,518 participants in Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (GBCS) from 2003-2008, 20,061 women who had never smoked and had complete outcome data were included. Childhood passive smoking exposure was defined as living with 1 or more smokers in the same household during childhood. Data on the number of smokers in the household and frequency of exposure (density and frequency) were also obtained. Age at menarche was measured as a continuous variable. Results 11,379 (56.7%) participants were exposed to passive smoking during childhood. Compared to those with no passive smoking exposure during childhood, those with exposure ≥5 days/week had menarche 0.19 year (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13-0.25) earlier on average. Those exposed to more than two smokers had menarche 0.38 year earlier (95% CI: 0.29-0.47). Childhood exposure was associated with early age at menarche (≤13 vs. >13 years), with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.34 (95% CI: 1.21-1.48) for high density, and 1.17 (95% CI: 1.09-1.26) for high frequency of exposure. Conclusion Childhood passive smoking exposure was associated with earlier age at menarche, with a dose-response relationship in Chinese women who had never smoked. If causal, the results support the promotion of smoking cessation in families with children, particularly young girls. PMID:26186646

  20. Association between Birth Interval and Cardiovascular Outcomes at 30 Years of Age: A Prospective Cohort Study from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Devakumar, D.; Hallal, P. C.; Horta, B. L.; Barros, F. C.; Wells, J. C. K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Birth interval is an important and potentially modifiable factor that is associated with child health. Whether an association exists with longer-term outcomes in adults is less well known. Methods Using the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study, the association of birth interval with markers of cardiovascular health at 30 years of age was examined. Multivariable linear regression was used with birth interval as a continuous variable and categorical variable, and effect modification by gender was explored. Results Birth interval and cardiovascular data were present for 2,239 individuals. With birth interval as a continuous variable, no association was found but stratification by gender tended to show stronger associations for girls. When compared to birth intervals of <18 months, as binary variable, longer intervals were associated with increases in height (1.6 cm; 95% CI: 0.5, 2.8) and lean mass (1.7 kg; 95% CI: 0.2, 3.2). No difference was seen with other cardiovascular outcomes. Conclusions An association was generally not found between birth interval and cardiovascular outcomes at 30 years of age, though some evidence existed for differences between males and females and for an association with height and lean mass for birth intervals of 18 months and longer. PMID:26890250

  1. Tracing the cigarette epidemic: an age-period-cohort study of education, gender and smoking using a pseudo-panel approach.

    PubMed

    Vedøy, Tord F

    2014-11-01

    This study examined if temporal variations in daily cigarette smoking and never smoking among groups with different levels of education fit the pattern proposed by the theory of diffusion of innovations (TDI), while taking into account the separate effects of age, period and birth cohort (APC). Aggregated data from nationally representative interview surveys from Norway from 1976 to 2010 was used to calculate probabilities of smoking using an APC approach in which the period variable was normalized to pick up short term cyclical effects. Results showed that educational differences in smoking over time were more strongly determined by birth cohort membership than variations in smoking behavior across the life course. The probability of daily smoking decreased faster across cohorts among higher compared to lower educated. In contrast, the change in probability of never having smoked across cohorts was similar in the two education groups, but stronger among men compared to women. Moreover, educational differences in both daily and never smoking increased among early cohorts and leveled off among late cohorts. The results emphasizes the importance of birth cohort for social change and are consistent with TDI, which posits that smoking behavior diffuse through the social structure over time.

  2. Sex differential for suicide among Austrian age cohorts.

    PubMed

    Etzersdorfer, E; Piribauer, F; Sonneck, G

    1996-04-01

    The suicide mortality data in Austria were studied over a period of four decades of continuous reporting. The data were studied for age, period and cohort effects. For the period 1951 to 1990 suicides among eight birth cohorts, born between 1932 and 1975, show a marked sex differential in time trends. Up to 1985, the rates increase in a constant manner for males in all age groups, in contrast to females. Results obtained using the Poisson regression models demonstrate a 35% (incidence rate ratio (IRR), 1.35%; 95% CI, 1.27-1.45) increased risk for male cohorts born later compared with those born earlier. The risk for later-born females was not increased (IRR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.91-1.17). Explanations such as improved living conditions for Austrian women remain tentative, however, as age, period and cohort effects cannot be separated as independent variables in the suicide mortality data available in Austria. PMID:8712021

  3. Genomic epidemiology of age-associated meningococcal lineages in national surveillance: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Dorothea M C; Lucidarme, Jay; Gray, Stephen J; Newbold, Lynne S; Ure, Roisin; Brehony, Carina; Harrison, Odile B; Bray, James E; Jolley, Keith A; Bratcher, Holly B; Parkhill, Julian; Tang, Christoph M; Borrow, Ray; Maiden, Martin C J

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is a worldwide health issue that is potentially preventable with vaccination. In view of its sporadic nature and the high diversity of Neisseria meningitidis, epidemiological surveillance incorporating detailed isolate characterisation is crucial for effective control and understanding the evolving epidemiology of IMD. The Meningitis Research Foundation Meningococcus Genome Library (MRF-MGL) exploits whole-genome sequencing (WGS) for this purpose and presents data on a comprehensive and coherent IMD isolate collection from England and Wales via the internet. We assessed the contribution of these data to investigating IMD epidemiology. Methods WGS data were obtained for all 899 IMD isolates available for England and Wales in epidemiological years 2010–11 and 2011–12. The data had been annotated at 1720 loci, analysed, and disseminated online. Information was also available on meningococcal population structure and vaccine (Bexsero, GlaxoSmithKline, Brentford, Middlesex, UK) antigen variants, which enabled the investigation of IMD-associated genotypes over time and by patients' age groups. Population genomic analyses were done with a hierarchical gene-by-gene approach. Findings The methods used by MRF-MGL efficiently characterised IMD isolates and information was provided in plain language. At least 20 meningococcal lineages were identified, three of which (hyperinvasive clonal complexes 41/44 [lineage 3], 269 [lineage 2], and 23 [lineage 23]) were responsible for 528 (59%) of IMD isolates. Lineages were highly diverse and showed evidence of extensive recombination. Specific lineages were associated with IMD in particular age groups, with notable diversity in the youngest and oldest individuals. The increased incidence of IMD from 1984 to 2010 in England and Wales was due to successive and concurrent epidemics of different lineages. Genetically, 74% of isolates were characterised as encoding group B capsules

  4. Prenatal and early life influences on epigenetic age in children: a study of mother–offspring pairs from two cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Simpkin, Andrew J.; Hemani, Gibran; Suderman, Matthew; Gaunt, Tom R.; Lyttleton, Oliver; Mcardle, Wendy L.; Ring, Susan M.; Sharp, Gemma C.; Tilling, Kate; Horvath, Steve; Kunze, Sonja; Peters, Annette; Waldenberger, Melanie; Ward-Caviness, Cavin; Nohr, Ellen A.; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Relton, Caroline L.; Smith, George Davey

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation-based biomarkers of aging are highly correlated with actual age. Departures of methylation-estimated age from actual age can be used to define epigenetic measures of child development or age acceleration (AA) in adults. Very little is known about genetic or environmental determinants of these epigenetic measures of aging. We obtained DNA methylation profiles using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips across five time-points in 1018 mother–child pairs from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Using the Horvath age estimation method, we calculated epigenetic age for these samples. AA was defined as the residuals from regressing epigenetic age on actual age. AA was tested for associations with cross-sectional clinical variables in children. We identified associations between AA and sex, birth weight, birth by caesarean section and several maternal characteristics in pregnancy, namely smoking, weight, BMI, selenium and cholesterol level. Offspring of non-drinkers had higher AA on average but this difference appeared to resolve during childhood. The associations between sex, birth weight and AA found in ARIES were replicated in an independent cohort (GOYA). In children, epigenetic AA measures are associated with several clinically relevant variables, and early life exposures appear to be associated with changes in AA during adolescence. Further research into epigenetic aging, including the use of causal inference methods, is required to better our understanding of aging. PMID:26546615

  5. Association of Aortic Stiffness With Cognition and Brain Aging in Young and Middle-Aged Adults: The Framingham Third Generation Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Pase, Matthew P; Himali, Jayandra J; Mitchell, Gary F; Beiser, Alexa; Maillard, Pauline; Tsao, Connie; Larson, Martin G; DeCarli, Charles; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Seshadri, Sudha

    2016-03-01

    Aortic stiffness is associated with cognitive decline and cerebrovascular disease late in life, although these associations have not been examined in young adults. Understanding the effects of aortic stiffness on the brain at a young age is important both from a pathophysiological and public health perspective. The aim of this study was to examine the cross-sectional associations of aortic stiffness with cognitive function and brain aging in the Framingham Heart Study Third Generation cohort (47% men; mean age, 46 years). Participants completed the assessment of aortic stiffness (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity), a neuropsychological test battery assessing multiple domains of cognitive performance and magnetic resonance imaging to examine subclinical markers of brain injury. In adjusted regression models, higher aortic stiffness was associated with poorer processing speed and executive function (Trail Making B-A; β±SE, -0.08±0.03; P<0.01), larger lateral ventricular volumes (β±SE, 0.09±0.03; P<0.01) and a greater burden of white-matter hyperintensities (β±SE, 0.09±0.03; P<0.001). When stratifying by age, aortic stiffness was associated with lateral ventricular volume in young adults (30-45 years), whereas aortic stiffness was associated with white-matter injury and cognition in midlife (45-65 years). In conclusion, aortic stiffness was associated with cognitive function and markers of subclinical brain injury in young to middle-aged adults. Prospective studies are needed to examine whether aortic stiffening in young adulthood is associated with vascular cognitive impairment later in life. PMID:26754644

  6. Stress resilience in adolescence and subsequent antidepressant and anxiolytic medication in middle aged men: Swedish cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hiyoshi, Ayako; Udumyan, Ruzan; Osika, Walter; Bihagen, Erik; Fall, Katja; Montgomery, Scott

    2015-06-01

    It is unclear whether psychological resilience to stress in adolescence represents a persistent characteristic relevant to the subsequent risk for depression and anxiety in later adulthood. We aimed to test whether low psychological stress resilience assessed in adolescence is associated with an increased risk of receiving medication for depression and anxiety in middle age. We utilized Swedish register-based cohort study. Men born between 1952 and 1956 (n = 175,699), who underwent compulsory assessment for military conscription in late adolescence were followed to examine subsequent risk of pharmaceutically-treated depression and anxiety in middle age, from 2006 to 2009 corresponding to ages between 50 and 58 years, using Cox regression. The associations of stress resilience with prescription of antidepressant and anxiolytics medication through potential mediating factors cognitive and physical function and adult socioeconomic factors were calculated. Low stress resilience was associated with elevated risks for antidepressant (hazard ratio (HR):1.5 (95% CI 1.4 1.6)) and anxiolytics (HR:2.4 (CI 2.0 2.7)) medication. Adjustment for measures of childhood living circumstances attenuated the associations somewhat. Around a third of association with low stress resilience, and a half of that with moderate resilience, was mediated through cognitive and physical function in adolescence and adult socioeconomic factors. The magnitude of the inverse association of higher cognitive function with antidepressant medication was eliminated among those with low stress resilience. These results indicate that low stress resilience in adolescence is associated with an increased risk for antidepressant and anxiolytics medication over 30 years later, in part mediated through developmental factors in adolescence and socioeconomic circumstances in adulthood, and low stress resilience can diminish or eliminate the inverse association of higher cognitive function with antidepressant

  7. Preconception Blood Pressure and Risk of Low Birth Weight and Small for Gestational Age: A Large Cohort Study in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Li, Zhiwen; Ye, Rongwei; Zhang, Le; Li, Hongtian; Zhu, Yibing; Li, Shun; Yang, Na; Liu, Jianmeng; Ren, Aiguo

    2016-10-01

    Our objective was to examine whether high blood pressure in the preconception period was associated with low birth weight (LBW) and small-for-gestational age (SGA) in Chinese women. Data were obtained from the China-US Collaborative Project for Neural Tube Defects Prevention, a large population-based cohort study. We included 43 718 singleton live births delivered at gestational ages of 28-45 weeks to women who were registered before pregnancy in 7 counties in southern China. Blood pressure was measured during registration by trained healthcare workers, and other health-related information was recorded prospectively. We used logistic regression to evaluate the associations between preconception blood pressure and the risk of LBW and SGA, adjusting for potential confounders. The prevalence of hypertension in the preconception study population was 4.62% (2019/43 718). The incidences of LBW and SGA were 2.33% and 5.05% for the hypertension group and 2.01% and 5.68% for the nonhypertension group. Compared with the nonhypertension group, the hypertension group did not show significantly increased risk for LBW overall (adjusted risk ratio =1.16, 95% confidence interval 0.86-1.57) or SGA (adjusted risk ratio =0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.73-1.09). When participants with normal blood pressure were used as the reference, the adjusted risk ratio of SGA for prehypertensive women was 1.13 (95% confidence interval 1.03-1.25). Our results do not support an association between hypertension or higher blood pressure before pregnancy and increased risk of LBW or SGA.

  8. Back injuries in a cohort of schoolchildren aged 6-12: A 2.5-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Franz, C; Jespersen, E; Rexen, C T; Leboeuf-Yde, C; Wedderkopp, N

    2016-08-01

    The aims of this prospective school cohort study were to describe the epidemiology of diagnosed back pain in childhood, classified as either nontraumatic or traumatic back injury, and to estimate the association with physical activity in different settings. Over 2.5 years, 1240 children aged 6-12 years were surveyed weekly using mobile text messages to ask about the presence or absence of back pain. Pain was clinically diagnosed and injuries were classified using the International Classification of Diseases version 10. Physical activity data were obtained from text messages and accelerometers. Of the 315 back injuries diagnosed, 186 injuries were nontraumatic and 129 were traumatic. The incidence rate ratio was 1.5 for a nontraumatic back injury compared with a traumatic injury. The overall estimated back injury incidence rate was 0.20 per 1000 physical activity units (95% confidence interval 0.18-0.23). The back injury incidence rates were higher for sports when exposure per 1000 physical activity units was taken into consideration and especially children horse-riding had a 40 times higher risk of sustaining a traumatic back injury compared to the risk during non-organized leisure time physical activity. However, the reasonably low injury incidence rates support the recommendations of children continuously being physically active. PMID:26130046

  9. Risk factors for metabolic syndrome in a cohort study in a north China urban middle-aged population.

    PubMed

    Strand, Mark A; Perry, Judy; Wang, Ping; Liu, Shuangfeng; Lynn, Henry

    2015-03-01

    As China undergoes urbanization, lifestyles and disease profiles are changing. In this study, metabolic syndrome (MetS) was discovered in 53.5% and 42.7% of men and women, respectively. In 3 age cohorts (44, 48, and 52 years), prevalence of MetS among women was 33.3%, 41.4%, and 50.8%, respectively (χ(2) = 10.27, P = .006), whereas among men it was 51.5%, 56.3%, and 52.3%, respectively (χ(2) = 0.46, P = .796). The component contributing to the presence of MetS was increased waist circumference, especially among women. MetS among men results from higher rates of elevated triglycerides, blood pressure, and blood glucose when compared with women. Risk factors for MetS included less than 60 minutes of exercise a week (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-2.4) and rarely consuming milk (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.2-2.3). Abstaining from or occasionally consuming alcohol (OR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.4-1.1) and having parents with no chronic disease (OR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.2-0.6) suggest increased protection against MetS.

  10. Genomic African and Native American Ancestry and Chagas Disease: The Bambui (Brazil) Epigen Cohort Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The influence of genetic ancestry on Trypanosoma cruzi infection and Chagas disease outcomes is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We used 370,539 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) to examine the association between individual proportions of African, European and Native American genomic ancestry with T. cruzi infection and related outcomes in 1,341 participants (aged ≥ 60 years) of the Bambui (Brazil) population-based cohort study of aging. Potential confounding variables included sociodemographic characteristics and an array of health measures. The prevalence of T. cruzi infection was 37.5% and 56.3% of those infected had a major ECG abnormality. Baseline T. cruzi infection was correlated with higher levels of African and Native American ancestry, which in turn were strongly associated with poor socioeconomic circumstances. Cardiomyopathy in infected persons was not significantly associated with African or Native American ancestry levels. Infected persons with a major ECG abnormality were at increased risk of 15-year mortality relative to their counterparts with no such abnormalities (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.80; 95% 1.41, 2.32). African and Native American ancestry levels had no significant effect modifying this association. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that African and Native American ancestry have no influence on the presence of major ECG abnormalities and had no influence on the ability of an ECG abnormality to predict mortality in older people infected with T. cruzi. In contrast, our results revealed a strong and independent association between prevalent T. cruzi infection and higher levels of African and Native American ancestry. Whether this association is a consequence of genetic background or differential exposure to infection remains to be determined. PMID:27182885

  11. Age and Gender Differences in Physical Capability Levels from Mid-Life Onwards: The Harmonisation and Meta-Analysis of Data from Eight UK Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Rachel; Hardy, Rebecca; Aihie Sayer, Avan; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Birnie, Kate; Cooper, Cyrus; Craig, Leone; Deary, Ian J.; Demakakos, Panayotes; Gallacher, John; McNeill, Geraldine; Martin, Richard M.; Starr, John M.; Steptoe, Andrew; Kuh, Diana

    2011-01-01

    Using data from eight UK cohorts participating in the Healthy Ageing across the Life Course (HALCyon) research programme, with ages at physical capability assessment ranging from 50 to 90+ years, we harmonised data on objective measures of physical capability (i.e. grip strength, chair rising ability, walking speed, timed get up and go, and standing balance performance) and investigated the cross-sectional age and gender differences in these measures. Levels of physical capability were generally lower in study participants of older ages, and men performed better than women (for example, results from meta-analyses (N = 14,213 (5 studies)), found that men had 12.62 kg (11.34, 13.90) higher grip strength than women after adjustment for age and body size), although for walking speed, this gender difference was attenuated after adjustment for body size. There was also evidence that the gender difference in grip strength diminished with increasing age,whereas the gender difference in walking speed widened (p<0.01 for interactions between age and gender in both cases). This study highlights not only the presence of age and gender differences in objective measures of physical capability but provides a demonstration that harmonisation of data from several large cohort studies is possible. These harmonised data are now being used within HALCyon to understand the lifetime social and biological determinants of physical capability and its changes with age. PMID:22114723

  12. Trajectories of Unhealthy Behaviors in Midlife and Risk of Disability at Older Ages in the Whitehall II Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sabia, Séverine; Dugravot, Aline; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Elbaz, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most of the evidence on the association between unhealthy behaviors and disability comes from studies in the elderly, where reverse causation and selection bias may distort associations; thus, studies based on midlife trajectories of health behaviors are needed. We examined the association of trajectories of four health behaviors (physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, smoking, alcohol), starting in midlife and over 20 years, with subsequent disability risk in early old age (range = 54–84 years) in the Whitehall II cohort study. Methods: Disability was assessed three times over 3 years. A hierarchical disability indicator was constructed; participants were considered disabled if they reported difficulties with mobility and instrumental activities of daily living or with mobility and instrumental and basic activities of daily living. Behavior trajectories were defined using group-based trajectory models. Multivariable generalized estimating equations logistic models were used to examine their independent associations with disability. Results: Of 6,825 participants, 19.2% reported being disabled at least once. In mutually adjusted models, participants with persistent inactivity or declining physical activity, recent ex- or current smokers, and persistent/recent abstainers or persistent heavy drinkers had a higher disability risk, whereas fruit and vegetable consumption was not associated with disability. Disability risk increased progressively with the number of unhealthy behavior trajectories: the odds ratio of disability for 2–3 unhealthy trajectories was 2.69 (95% confidence interval = 2.26–3.19); these associations remained after adjustment for a wide range of covariates. Conclusions: Unhealthy behavior trajectories in midlife are associated with greater disability risk later in life. PMID:27034508

  13. Brain cancer mortality in an agricultural and a metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a population-based, age-period-cohort study, 1996–2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals who live in rural areas are at greater risk for brain cancer, and pesticide exposure may contribute to this increased risk. The aims of this research were to analyze the mortality trends and to estimate the age-period-cohort effects on mortality rates from brain cancer in two regions in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods This descriptive study examined brain cancer mortality patterns in individuals of both sexes, >19 years of age, who died between 1996 and 2010. They were residents of a rural (Serrana) or a non-rural (Metropolitan) area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We estimated mortality trends using Joinpoint Regression analysis. Age-period-cohort models were estimated using Poisson regression analysis. Results The estimated annual percentage change in mortality caused by brain cancer was 3.8% in the Serrana Region (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.8–5.6) and -0.2% (95% CI: -1.2–0.7) in the Metropolitan Region. The results indicated that the relative risk was higher in the rural region for the more recent birth cohorts (1954 and later). Compared with the reference birth cohort (1945–49, Serrana Region), the relative risk was four times higher for individuals born between 1985 and 1989. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that there is an increasing trend in brain cancer mortality rates in the rural Serrana Region in Brazil. A cohort effect occurred in the birth cohorts born in this rural area after 1954. At the ecological level, different environmental factors, especially the use of pesticides, may explain regional disparities in the mortality patterns from brain cancers. PMID:24884498

  14. Excessive crying at 3 months of age and behavioural problems at 4 years age: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Iná S; Matijasevich, Alicia; Capilheira, Marcelo F; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Fernando C

    2015-01-01

    Background Excessive crying in early infancy has been associated with behavioural problems among preschool children from high income countries but studies in low income and middle income countries are scarce. Methods The 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort is a population-based study planned to enrol all live births occurring in Pelotas that year and comprises 4231 children who so far have been followed up at 3, 12, 24, 48 and 72 months of age. Several familial, maternal and child characteristics were gathered in every follow-up. At the 3-month follow-up, infants whose mothers perceived them as crying more than others of the same age were classified as ‘crying babies’. Child behavioural problems were assessed through the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) applied to the mother at the 48-month follow-up. Crude and adjusted ORs with 95% CIs were calculated by logistic regression. Results Prevalence of excessive crying at 3 months was 11.9% (10.9% to 13.0%). Among children with excessive crying at 3 months the proportion in the clinical range for CBCL total, internalising and externalising problems at 4 years of age was 31.2%, 12.9% and 37.5%, respectively, against 20.6%, 6.8% and 29.6%, respectively, among non-crying babies. After controlling for confounders crying babies presented increased risk of being in clinical range of CBCL total (OR=1.34; 1.03 to 1.74), internalising (OR=1.55; 1.09 to 2.21) and externalising problems (OR=1.29; 1.01 to 1.64) than infants without excessive crying. Conclusions Excessive crying in early infancy may represent one important risk factor for developing behavioural problems in later phases of early childhood. PMID:25700531

  15. Neighborhood conditions, diabetes, and risk of lower-body functional limitations among middle-aged African Americans: A cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The relationship between presence of diabetes and adverse neighborhood and housing conditions and their effect on functional decline is unclear. We examined the association of adverse neighborhood (block face) and housing conditions with incidence of lower-body functional limitations among persons with and those without diabetes using a prospective population-based cohort study of 563 African Americans 49-65 years of age at their 2000-2001 baseline interviews. Methods Participants were randomly sampled African Americans living in the St. Louis area (response rate: 76%). Physician-diagnosed diabetes was self reported at baseline interview. Lower-body functional limitations were self reported based on the Nagi physical performance scale at baseline and the three-year follow-up interviews. The external appearance of the block the respondent lived on and five housing conditions were rated by study interviewers. All analyses were done using propensity score methods to control for confounders. Results 109 (19.4%) of subjects experienced incident lower-body functional limitations at three-year follow-up. In adjusted analysis, persons with diabetes who lived on block faces rated as fair-poor on each of the five conditions had higher odds (7.79 [95% confidence interval: 1.36-37.55] to 144.6 [95% confidence interval: 4.45-775.53]) of developing lower-body functional limitations than the referent group of persons without diabetes who lived on block faces rated as good-excellent. At least 80 percent of incident lower-body functional limitations was attributable to the interaction between block face conditions and diabetes status. Conclusions Adverse neighborhood conditions appear to exacerbate the detrimental effects on lower-body functioning associated with diabetes. PMID:20507573

  16. Prenatal methylmercury exposure and language delay at three years of age in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Vejrup, Kristine; Schjølberg, Synnve; Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Kvalem, Helen Engelstad; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Alexander, Jan; Magnus, Per; Haugen, Margaretha

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal methylmercury (MeHg) exposure and its possible neurodevelopmental effects in susceptible children are of concern. Studies of MeHg exposure and negative health outcomes have shown conflicting results and it has been suggested that co-exposure to other contaminants and/or nutrients in fish may confound the effect of MeHg. Our objective was to examine the association between prenatal exposure to MeHg and language and communication development at three years, adjusting for intake of fish, n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) and co-exposure to dioxins and dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs). We used data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) collected between 2002 and 2008. The study sample consisted of 46,750 mother-child pairs. MeHg exposure was calculated from reported fish intake during pregnancy by a FFQ in mid-pregnancy. Children's language and communication skills were measured by maternal report on the Dale and Bishop grammar rating and the Ages and Stages communication scale (ASQ). We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using logistic regressions. Median MeHg exposure was 1.3μg/day, corresponding to 0.14μg/kgbw/week. An exposure level above the 90th percentile (>2.6μg/day, >0.29μg/kgbw/week) was defined as the high MeHg exposure. Results indicated an association between high MeHg exposure and unintelligible speech with an adjusted OR 2.22 (1.31, 3.72). High MeHg exposure was also associated with weaker communication skills adjusted OR 1.33 (1.03, 1.70). Additional adjustment for fish intake strengthened the associations, while adjusting for PCBs and n-3 LCPUFA from diet or from supplements had minor impact. In conclusion, significant associations were found between prenatal MeHg exposure above the 90th percentile and delayed language and communication skills in a generally low exposed population. PMID:27058928

  17. Cohort Profile Update: The 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Gigante, Denise P; Gonçalves, Helen; dos Santos Motta, JanainaVieira; Loret de Mola, Christian; Oliveira, Isabel O; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, we update the profile of the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study.In 1982, 5914 live births whose families lived in the urban are of Pelotas were enrolled in the cohort. In 2012–13, we tried to locate the whole original cohort; 3701 participants were interviewed who, added to the 325 known deaths, represented a follow-up rate of 68.1%. In contrast to the previous home interviews, in this wave all participants were invited to visit the research clinic to be interviewed and examined. The visit was carried out at a mean age of 30.2 years and mainly focused on four categories of outcomes: (i) mental health; (ii) body composition; (iii) precursors of complex chronic diseases; and (iv) human capital. Requests for collaboration by outside researchers are welcome. PMID:25733577

  18. Associations between age, cohort, and urbanization with systolic and diastolic blood pressure in China: a population-based study across 18 years

    PubMed Central

    ATTARD, Samantha M; HERRING, Amy H; ZHANG, Bing; DU, Shufa; POPKIN, Barry M; GORDON-LARSEN, Penny

    2015-01-01

    Objective Little is known about whether large-scale environmental changes, such as those seen with urbanization, are differentially associated with systolic versus diastolic blood pressure, and whether those changes vary by birth cohort. Methods We used data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, a population-based cohort study of Chinese adults (n=18,976; ages 18–70y) seen a maximum of 7 times over 1991–2009. We used hierarchical multivariable linear models to simultaneously estimate systolic and diastolic blood pressure as correlated outcomes over time, accounting for their physiologic, time-varying correlation. Main exposure variables were urbanicity, age, and birth cohort. Over 18 years of modernization, median systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased by 10 and 7 mm Hg, respectively. Results Our hierarchical model results suggest greater temporal increases in systolic and particularly diastolic blood pressure at lower versus higher urbanicity. At the same chronological age, for a 10-year difference in birth cohort (i.e., born in 1980s versus 1970s) the adjusted mean diastolic blood pressure was ~3mm Hg higher for the later birth cohort (p<0.001). Pulse pressure (calculated as model-predicted systolic minus diastolic blood pressure) was also higher at low versus high urbanicity. Conclusions These results suggest increased susceptibility of diastolic blood pressure (and thus peripheral vascular resistance) to environmental change, particularly in younger Chinese adults. Because diastolic blood pressure more strongly predicts cardiovascular disease risk in younger adulthood, hypertension-related health burden in China may increase over time. PMID:25668349

  19. Pre-conceptional intake of folic acid supplements is inversely associated with risk of preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age birth: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ju-Sheng; Guan, Yuhong; Zhao, Yimin; Zhao, Wei; Tang, Xuejuan; Chen, Hua; Xu, Meilong; Wu, Lingping; Zhu, Shanlin; Liu, Huijuan; Huang, Tao; Li, Duo

    2016-02-14

    Associations of folic acid supplementation with risk of preterm birth (PTB) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth were unclear for the Chinese populations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations in a large Chinese prospective cohort study: the Jiaxing Birth Cohort. In the Jiaxing Birth Cohort, 240 954 pregnant women visited local clinics or hospitals within their first trimester in Southeast China during 1999-2012. Information on anthropometric parameters, folic acid supplementation and other maternal characteristics were collected by in-person interviews during their first visit. Pregnancy outcomes were recorded during the follow-up of these participants. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the association of folic acid supplementation with pregnancy outcomes. The prevalence of folic acid supplementation was 24·9% in the cohort. The prevalence of PTB and SGA birth was 3·48 and 9·2%, respectively. Pre-conceptional folic acid supplementation was associated with 8% lower risk of PTB (relative risk (RR) 0·92; 95% CI 0·85, 1·00; P=0·04) and 19% lower risk of SGA birth (RR 0·81; 95% CI 0·70, 0·95; P=0·008), compared with non-users. Higher frequency of pre-conceptional folic acid use was associated with lower risk of PTB (P trend=0·032) and SGA birth (P trend=0·046). No significant association between post-conceptional initiation of folic acid supplementation and either outcome was observed. In conclusion, the present study suggests an association between pre-conceptional, but not post-conceptional, folic acid supplementation and lower risk of PTB and SGA birth in the Jiaxing Birth Cohort. Further research in other cohorts of large sample size is needed to replicate these findings.

  20. HIV and coronary artery calcium score: comparison of the Hawaii Aging with HIV Cardiovascular Study and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Dominic; Young, Rebekah; Valcour, Nicole; Kronmal, Richard A.; Lum, Corey J.; Parikh, Nisha I.; Tracy, Russell P.; Budoff, Matthew; Shikuma, Cecilia M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the association of HIV, immunologic, and inflammatory factors on coronary artery calcium (CAC), a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods Cross-sectional study comparing baseline data of males from Hawaii Aging with HIV –Cardiovascular Study (HAHCS) with the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. The cohorts were pooled to determine effects of HIV on CAC and explore immunologic and inflammatory factors that may explain development of CAC in HIV. Multivariable regression models compared CAC prevalence in HAHCS with MESA adjusting for coronary heart disease (CHD) risk profiles. Results We studied 100 men from HAHCS and 2733 men from MESA. Positive CAC was seen in 58% HAHCS participants and 57% MESA participants. Mean CAC was 260.8 in HAHCS and 306.5 in MESA. Using relative risk (RR) regression, HAHCS participants had a greater risk (RR=1.20, P<0.05) of having positive CAC than MESA when adjusting for age, smoking status, diabetes, antihypertensive therapy, BMI, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol. Among participants with positive CAC, HIV infection was not associated with larger amounts of CAC. Among HAHCS participants, current HIV viral load, CD4, length of HIV, interleukin 6 (IL-6), fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP), and D-dimer were not associated with the presence or amount of CAC. Discussion HIV was independently associated with a positive CAC in men with increased likelihood occurring between 45 and 50 years of age. Current HIV viral load, CD4 count, length of HIV, and inflammatory markers were unrelated to either presence or amount of CAC. PMID:26038953

  1. Antidepressant use and risk of cardiovascular outcomes in people aged 20 to 64: cohort study using primary care database

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Trevor; Morriss, Richard; Moore, Michael; Arthur, Antony; Hippisley-Cox, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess associations between different antidepressant treatments and rates of three cardiovascular outcomes (myocardial infarction, stroke or transient ischaemic attack, and arrhythmia) in people with depression. Design Cohort study. Setting UK general practices contributing to the QResearch primary care database. Participants 238 963 patients aged 20 to 64 years with a first diagnosis of depression between 1 January 2000 and 31 July 2011. Exposures Antidepressant class (tricyclic and related antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, other antidepressants), dose, duration of use, and commonly prescribed individual antidepressant drugs. Main outcome measures First diagnoses of myocardial infarction, stroke or transient ischaemic attack, and arrhythmia during five years’ follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios, adjusting for potential confounding variables. Results During five years of follow-up, 772 patients had a myocardial infarction, 1106 had a stroke or transient ischaemic attack, and 1452 were diagnosed as having arrhythmia. No significant associations were found between antidepressant class and myocardial infarction over five years’ follow-up. In the first year of follow-up, patients treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors had a significantly reduced risk of myocardial infarction (adjusted hazard ratio 0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.42 to 0.79) compared with no use of antidepressants; among individual drugs, fluoxetine was associated with a significantly reduced risk (0.44, 0.27 to 0.72) and lofepramine with a significantly increased risk (3.07, 1.50 to 6.26). No significant associations were found between antidepressant class or individual drugs and risk of stroke or transient ischaemic attack. Antidepressant class was not significantly associated with arrhythmia over five years’ follow-up, although the risk was significantly increased during the first 28 days of

  2. The natural course of eczema from birth to age 7 years and the association with asthma and allergic rhinitis: a population-based birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chian-Yin; Lin, Ming-Chih; Lin, Heng-Kuei; Lin, Ching-Heng; Fu, Lin-Shien; Fu, Yun-Chin

    2013-01-01

    Although "atopic march" is a popular concept, the relationship between eczema and subsequent asthma is far from clear. However, some cohort studies have shown the possibility of two different allergic phenotypes in those who present with early eczema in terms of their persistency. We checked the cohort data from 308,849 children born in 2000 in Taiwan, to evaluate the different courses of eczema and their relationships to subsequent asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR) at age 7 years. We examined the age prevalence of eczema, asthma, and AR up to 7 years of age. We grouped all cases according to their course of eczema, as well as wheezing, and determined the rates of asthma and AR at age 7 years. We checked the adjusted risk factors by multiple logistic regression model. We also examined the distributions of wheezing types in different eczema groups. We found the "atopic march" pattern of allergic diseases based on their age prevalence. Early eczema was associated with asthma and AR at the age of 7 years. Those with eczema symptoms persisting after 36 months of age had a higher risk than those with transient eczema. Early wheeze also contributed to asthma and AR later in childhood. In addition, late-onset eczema had a completely different wheeze distribution compared with other groups and also had a higher risk for asthma and AR than transient eczema. In conclusion, different eczema phenotypes could be found in this population-based cohort. This article emphasizes the special attention to the persistency and late-onset eczema in clinical practice.

  3. Distinct age and self-rated health crossover mortality effects for African Americans: Evidence from a national cohort study.

    PubMed

    Roth, David L; Skarupski, Kimberly A; Crews, Deidra C; Howard, Virginia J; Locher, Julie L

    2016-05-01

    The predictive effects of age and self-rated health (SRH) on all-cause mortality are known to differ across race and ethnic groups. African American adults have higher mortality rates than Whites at younger ages, but this mortality disparity diminishes with advancing age and may "crossover" at about 75-80 years of age, when African Americans may show lower mortality rates. This pattern of findings reflects a lower overall association between age and mortality for African Americans than for Whites, and health-related mechanisms are typically cited as the reason for this age-based crossover mortality effect. However, a lower association between poor SRH and mortality has also been found for African Americans than for Whites, and it is not known if the reduced age and SRH associations with mortality for African Americans reflect independent or overlapping mechanisms. This study examined these two mortality predictors simultaneously in a large epidemiological study of 12,181 African Americans and 17,436 Whites. Participants were 45 or more years of age when they enrolled in the national REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study between 2003 and 2007. Consistent with previous studies, African Americans had poorer SRH than Whites even after adjusting for demographic and health history covariates. Survival analysis models indicated statistically significant and independent race*age, race*SRH, and age*SRH interaction effects on all-cause mortality over an average 9-year follow-up period. Advanced age and poorer SRH were both weaker mortality risk factors for African Americans than for Whites. These two effects were distinct and presumably tapped different causal mechanisms. This calls into question the health-related explanation for the age-based mortality crossover effect and suggests that other mechanisms, including behavioral, social, and cultural factors, should be considered in efforts to better understand the age-based mortality

  4. Happiness and social determinants across age cohorts in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Chang, Wen-Chiung; Chong, Young-Sook; An, Jeong Shin

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine happiness and social determinants across age cohorts in Taiwan. The data were obtained from the 2011 Taiwan Social Change Survey (aged 18 +, n = 2,199). The social determinants of happiness included socioeconomic status and social connection. Happiness was not different across the age groups. Receiving less family support, less formal support, more social trust and more control over life were significant for the younger group. Being married and having more social participation were significant for the middle-aged. Receiving less family support and having a higher economic status were significant for the older group.

  5. Association of age with health-related quality of life in a cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: the Georgians Organized Against Lupus study

    PubMed Central

    Plantinga, Laura; Lim, S Sam; Bowling, C Barrett; Drenkard, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine whether older age was associated with lower health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and whether differential disease-related damage and activity explained these associations. Methods We used cross-sectional data on 684 patients with SLE aged ≥20 years from the Georgians Organized Against Lupus cohort to estimate the associations between age (categorised as 20–39, 40–59 and ≥60 years) and HRQOL (Short Form-12 norm-based domain and physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores), using multivariable linear regression. We then examined the effect of disease-related damage and activity on these associations. Results The mean age of the cohort was 48.2±13.1 years (range, 20–88 years), with 28.0%, 52.9% and 19.1% of participants being aged 20–39, 40–59 and ≥60 years, respectively; 79.0% were African-American and 93.7% were female. The mean PCS score was 39.3 (41.8, 38.7 and 37.4 among those aged 20–39, 40–59 and ≥60 years, respectively), while the mean MCS score was 44.3 (44.2, 43.8 and 46.1, respectively). In general, lower physical but not mental HRQOL scores were associated with older age. With adjustment, older ages (40–59 and ≥60, respectively, vs 20–39) remained associated (β (95% CI)) with lower PCS (−2.53 (−4.58 to −0.67) and −3.57 (−6.19 to −0.96)) but not MCS (0.47 (−1.46 to 2.41) and 1.20 (−1.52 to 3.92)) scores. Associations of age with HRQOL domain and summary scores were not substantially changed by further adjustment for disease-related damage and/or activity. Conclusions Nearly one in five participants in this large, predominantly African-American cohort of patients with SLE was at least 60 years old. The associations of older age with lower physical, but not mental, HRQOL were independent of accumulated SLE damage and current SLE activity. The results suggest that studies of important geriatric

  6. Extending Employment beyond the Pensionable Age: A Cohort Study of the Influence of Chronic Diseases, Health Risk Factors, and Working Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Virtanen, Marianna; Oksanen, Tuula; Batty, G. David; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Salo, Paula; Elovainio, Marko; Pentti, Jaana; Lybäck, Katinka; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika

    2014-01-01

    Background In response to the economic consequences of ageing of the population, governments are seeking ways with which people might work into older age. We examined the association of working conditions and health with extended employment (defined as >6 months beyond the pensionable age) in a cohort of older, non-disabled employees who have reached old-age retirement. Methods A total of 4,677 Finnish employees who reached their old-age pensionable date between 2005 and 2011 (mean age 59.8 years in 2005, 73% women) had their survey responses before pensionable age linked to national health and pension registers, resulting in a prospective cohort study. Results In all, 832 participants (17.8%) extended their employment by more than 6 months beyond the pensionable date. After multivariable adjustment, the following factors were associated with extended employment: absence of diagnosed mental disorder (OR 1.25, 95% confidence interval = 1.01–1.54) and psychological distress (OR 1.68; 1.35–2.08) and of the work characteristics, high work time control (OR 2.31; 1.88–2.84). The projected probability of extended employment was 21.3% (19.5–23.1) among those free of psychiatric morbidity and with high work time control, while the corresponding probability was only 9.2% (7.4–11.4) among those with both psychiatric morbidity and poor work time control. The contribution of chronic somatic diseases was modest. Conclusions In the present study, good mental health in combination with the opportunity to control work time seem to be key factors in extended employment into older age. In addition, high work time control might promote work life participation irrespective of employees' somatic disease status. PMID:24586372

  7. Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy Reduces the Risk of Stunting in Children Less Than 2 Years of Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Nisar, Yasir Bin; Dibley, Michael J.; Aguayo, Victor M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. A retrospective cohort study design was used, in which a pooled cohort of 5235 most recent live births 2 years prior to interview from three Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2011) was analysed. The primary outcome was stunting in children age <2 years. The main exposure variable was antenatal IFA supplementation. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. In our sample, 31% and 10% of Nepalese children age <2 years were stunted and severely stunted, respectively. The adjusted relative risk of being stunted was 14% lower in children whose mothers used IFA supplements compared to those whose mothers did not use (aRR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77–0.97). Additionally, the adjusted relative risk of being stunted was significantly reduced by 23% when antenatal IFA supplementation was started ≤6 months with ≥90 IFA supplements used during pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64–0.92). Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. The greatest impact on the risk reduction of child stunting was when IFA supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used. PMID:26828515

  8. Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy Reduces the Risk of Stunting in Children Less Than 2 Years of Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Nepal.

    PubMed

    Nisar, Yasir Bin; Dibley, Michael J; Aguayo, Victor M

    2016-01-27

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. A retrospective cohort study design was used, in which a pooled cohort of 5235 most recent live births 2 years prior to interview from three Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2011) was analysed. The primary outcome was stunting in children age <2 years. The main exposure variable was antenatal IFA supplementation. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. In our sample, 31% and 10% of Nepalese children age <2 years were stunted and severely stunted, respectively. The adjusted relative risk of being stunted was 14% lower in children whose mothers used IFA supplements compared to those whose mothers did not use (aRR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77-0.97). Additionally, the adjusted relative risk of being stunted was significantly reduced by 23% when antenatal IFA supplementation was started ≤6 months with ≥90 IFA supplements used during pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64-0.92). Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. The greatest impact on the risk reduction of child stunting was when IFA supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used.

  9. National Trends in Main Causes of Hospitalization: A Multi-Cohort Register Study of the Finnish Working-Age Population, 1976–2010

    PubMed Central

    Kouvonen, Anne; Koskinen, Aki; Varje, Pekka; Kokkinen, Lauri; De Vogli, Roberto; Väänänen, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Background The health transition theory argues that societal changes produce proportional changes in causes of disability and death. The aim of this study was to identify long-term changes in main causes of hospitalization in working-age population within a nation that has experienced considerable societal change. Methodology National trends in all-cause hospitalization and hospitalizations for the five main diagnostic categories were investigated in the data obtained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. The seven-cohort sample covered the period from 1976 to 2010 and consisted of 3,769,356 randomly selected Finnish residents, each cohort representing 25% sample of population aged 18 to 64 years. Principal Findings Over the period of 35 years, the risk of hospitalization for cardiovascular diseases and respiratory diseases decreased. Hospitalization for musculoskeletal diseases increased whereas mental and behavioral hospitalizations slightly decreased. The risk of cancer hospitalization decreased marginally in men, whereas in women an upward trend was observed. Conclusions/Significance A considerable health transition related to hospitalizations and a shift in the utilization of health care services of working-age men and women took place in Finland between 1976 and 2010. PMID:25379723

  10. Mortality risk attributable to smoking, hypertension and diabetes among English and Brazilian older adults (The ELSA and Bambui cohort ageing studies)

    PubMed Central

    Marmot, Michael G.; Demakakos, Panayotes; Vaz de Melo Mambrini, Juliana; Peixoto, Sérgio Viana; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    Background: The main aim of this study was to quantify and compare 6-year mortality risk attributable to smoking, hypertension and diabetes among English and Brazilian older adults. This study represents a rare opportunity to approach the subject in two different social and economic contexts. Methods: Data from the data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) and the Bambuí Cohort Study of Ageing (Brazil) were used. Deaths in both cohorts were identified through mortality registers. Risk factors considered in this study were baseline smoking, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Both age–sex adjusted hazard ratios and population attributable risks (PAR) of all-cause mortality and their 95% confidence intervals for the association between risk factors and mortality were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Participants were 3205 English and 1382 Brazilians aged 60 years and over. First, Brazilians showed much higher absolute risk of mortality than English and this finding was consistent in all age, independently of sex. Second, as a rule, hazard ratios for mortality to smoking, hypertension and diabetes showed more similarities than differences between these two populations. Third, there was strong difference among English and Brazilians on attributable deaths to hypertension. Conclusions: The findings indicate that, despite of being in more recent transitions, the attributable deaths to one or more risk factors was twofold among Brazilians relative to the English. These findings call attention for the challenge imposed to health systems to prevent and treat non-communicable diseases, particularly in populations with low socioeconomic level. PMID:26666869

  11. Do socioeconomic factors shape weight and obesity trajectories over the transition from midlife to old age? Results from the French GAZEL cohort study123

    PubMed Central

    Sabia, Séverine; Stringhini, Silvia; Kivimaki, Mika; Westerlund, Hugo; Vahtera, Jussi; Guéguen, Alice; Zins, Marie; Goldberg, Marcel; Nabi, Hermann; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2010-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a contemporary epidemic that does not affect all age groups and sections of society equally. Objective: The objective was to examine socioeconomic differences in trajectories of body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) and obesity between the ages of 45 and 65 y. Design: A total of 13,297 men and 4532 women from the French GAZEL (Gaz de France Electricité de France) cohort study reported their height in 1990 and their weight annually over the subsequent 18 y. Changes in BMI and obesity between ages 45 and 49 y, 50 and 54 y, 55 and 59 y, and 60 and 65 y as a function of education and occupational position (at age 35 y) were modeled by using linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations. Results: BMI and obesity rates increased between the ages of 45 and 65 y. In men, BMI was higher in unskilled workers than in managers at age 45 y; this difference in BMI increased from 0.82 (95% CI: 0.66, 0.99) at 45 y to 1.06 (95% CI: 0.85, 1.27) at 65 y. Men with a primary school education compared with those with a high school degree at age 45 y had a 0.75 (95% CI: 0.51, 1.00) higher BMI, and this difference increased to 1.32 (95% CI: 1.03,1.62) at age 65 y. Obesity rates were 3.35% and 7.68% at age 45 y and 9.52% and 18.10% at age 65 y in managers and unskilled workers, respectively; the difference in obesity increased by 4.25% (95% CI: 1.87, 6.52). A similar trend was observed in women. Conclusions: Weight continues to increase in the transition between midlife and old age; this increase is greater in lower socioeconomic groups. PMID:20484455

  12. Short Sleep Duration in the First Years of Life and Obesity/Overweight at Age 4 Years: A Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Halal, Camila S.E.; Matijasevich, Alicia; Howe, Laura D.; Santos, Iná S.; Barros, Fernando C.; Nunes, Magda L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether short sleep duration from the first year of life influenced weight at an early age. Study design During 2004, children born in Pelotas, Brazil, were enrolled in a cohort study. Sleeping habits during the previous 2 weeks were assessed, and the children were weighed and measured at 1-, 2-, and 4-year follow-ups. Overweight and obesity at 4 years were defined according to World Health Organization z-scores for body mass index for age. Short sleep duration was defined as fewer than 10 hours of sleep per night at any follow-up. Results Out of the 4263 live births, 4231 were recruited. The prevalence of short sleep duration at any follow-up from 1-4 years of age was 10.1%. At 4 years of age, 201 children were obese (5.3%), and 302 (8%) were overweight. Among short sleepers, the prevalence ratio for overweight/obesity after adjusting for maternal and children's characteristics was 1.32 (1.03; 1.70). Conclusions Children who slept for fewer than 10 hours per night at any follow-up from 1-4 years of age were more likely to be overweight or obese at 4 years of age, despite their sociodemographic and sleep characteristics. PMID:26541426

  13. Dental Caries in High-Risk School-Aged African-American Children in Alabama: A Six-Year Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghazal, Tariq S.; Levy, Steven M.; Childers, Noel K.; Broffitt, Barbara A.; Caplan, Daniel J; Warren, John J.; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Kolker, Justine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prevalence and incidence of dental caries in school-aged African-American children who received semi-annual fluoride varnish applications. Methods A cohort of six-year-old high caries-risk African-American children (n=98) was recruited in Uniontown, Alabama and followed for six years. Oral examinations were done annually by three trained/calibrated dentists. Tooth surfaces with cavitated caries, missing due to caries and with filled surfaces were recorded, using WHO criteria. Also, as part of the study, children received periodic oral health instruction, fluoride varnish applications and referral to dentists starting at baseline. Results The person-level prevalence of dmfs/DMFS was: 61.2 percent at mean age 5.9 (n=98, mean dmfs/DMFS=11.6); 63.8 percent at age 6.7 (n=80, mean dmfs/DMFS=13.2); 70.6 percent at age 7.8 (n=68, mean dmfs/DMFS=14.2); 65.7 percent at age 8.8 (n=68, mean dmfs/DMFS=11.8); 55.6 percent at age 9.7 (n=63, mean dmfs/DMFS=8.8); 40.3 percent at age 10.7 (n=62, mean dmfs/DMFS=3.4); and 37.1 percent at age 11.7 (n=62, mean dmfs/DMFS=2.3). The six-year person-level incidence of dmfs/DMFS was 32.3 percent (mean dmfs/DMFS=1.6) from age 5.9 to age 11.7 (n=62). Conclusion In spite of the oral health education and fluoride varnish applications, there was substantial new dental caries in this high-risk sample. Additional studies evaluating risk factors for caries development are ongoing. PMID:27306247

  14. Genome-wide Studies of Verbal Declarative Memory in Nondemented Older People: The Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Debette, Stéphanie; Ibrahim Verbaas, Carla A.; Bressler, Jan; Schuur, Maaike; Smith, Albert; Bis, Joshua C.; Davies, Gail; Wolf, Christiane; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Chibnik, Lori B.; Yang, Qiong; deStefano, Anita L.; de Quervain, Dominique J.F.; Srikanth, Velandai; Lahti, Jari; Grabe, Hans J.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Priebe, Lutz; Yu, Lei; Karbalai, Nazanin; Hayward, Caroline; Wilson, James F.; Campbell, Harry; Petrovic, Katja; Fornage, Myriam; Chauhan, Ganesh; Yeo, Robin; Boxall, Ruth; Becker, James; Stegle, Oliver; Mather, Karen A.; Chouraki, Vincent; Sun, Qi; Rose, Lynda M.; Resnick, Susan; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Kirin, Mirna; Wright, Alan F.; Jonsdottir, Maria K.; Au, Rhoda; Becker, Albert; Amin, Najaf; Nalls, Mike A.; Turner, Stephen T.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Oostra, Ben; Windham, Gwen; Coker, Laura H.; Zhao, Wei; Knopman, David S.; Heiss, Gerardo; Griswold, Michael E.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Vitart, Veronique; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Zgaga, Lina; Rudan, Igor; Polasek, Ozren; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Schofield, Peter; Choi, Seung Hoan; Tanaka, Toshiko; An, Yang; Perry, Rodney T.; Kennedy, Richard E.; Sale, Michèle M.; Wang, Jing; Wadley, Virginia G.; Liewald, David C.; Ridker, Paul M.; Gow, Alan J.; Pattie, Alison; Starr, John M.; Porteous, David; Liu, Xuan; Thomson, Russell; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Assareh, Arezoo A.; Kochan, Nicole A.; Widen, Elisabeth; Palotie, Aarno; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Eriksson, Johan G.; Vogler, Christian; van Swieten, John C.; Shulman, Joshua M.; Beiser, Alexa; Rotter, Jerome; Schmidt, Carsten O.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Nöthen, Markus M.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Attia, John; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Amouyel, Philippe; Dartigues, Jean-François; Amieva, Hélène; Räikkönen, Katri; Garcia, Melissa; Wolf, Philip A.; Hofman, Albert; Longstreth, W.T.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; DeJager, Philip L.; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Schmidt, Reinhold; Breteler, Monique M.B.; Teumer, Alexander; Lopez, Oscar L.; Cichon, Sven; Chasman, Daniel I.; Grodstein, Francine; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Tzourio, Christophe; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Bennett, David A.; Ikram, Arfan M.; Deary, Ian J.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Launer, Lenore; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Seshadri, Sudha; Mosley, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Memory performance in older persons can reflect genetic influences on cognitive function and dementing processes. We aimed to identify genetic contributions to verbal declarative memory in a community setting. METHODS We conducted genome-wide association studies for paragraph or word list delayed recall in 19 cohorts from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium, comprising 29,076 dementia-and stroke-free individuals of European descent, aged ≥45 years. Replication of suggestive associations (p < 5 × 10−6) was sought in 10,617 participants of European descent, 3811 African-Americans, and 1561 young adults. RESULTS rs4420638, near APOE, was associated with poorer delayed recall performance in discovery (p = 5.57 × 10−10) and replication cohorts (p = 5.65 × 10−8). This association was stronger for paragraph than word list delayed recall and in the oldest persons. Two associations with specific tests, in subsets of the total sample, reached genome-wide significance in combined analyses of discovery and replication (rs11074779 [HS3ST4], p = 3.11 × 10−8, and rs6813517 [SPOCK3], p = 2.58 × 10−8) near genes involved in immune response. A genetic score combining 58 independent suggestive memory risk variants was associated with increasing Alzheimer disease pathology in 725 autopsy samples. Association of memory risk loci with gene expression in 138 human hippocampus samples showed cis-associations with WDR48 and CLDN5, both related to ubiquitin metabolism. CONCLUSIONS This largest study to date exploring the genetics of memory function in ~ 40,000 older individuals revealed genome-wide associations and suggested an involvement of immune and ubiquitin pathways. PMID:25648963

  15. Serum Folate Shows an Inverse Association with Blood Pressure in a Cohort of Chinese Women of Childbearing Age: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Minxue; Tan, Hongzhuan; Zhou, Shujin; Retnakaran, Ravi; Smith, Graeme N.; Davidge, Sandra T.; Trasler, Jacquetta; Walker, Mark C.; Wen, Shi Wu

    2016-01-01

    Background It has been reported that higher folate intake from food and supplementation is associated with decreased blood pressure (BP). The association between serum folate concentration and BP has been examined in few studies. We aim to examine the association between serum folate and BP levels in a cohort of young Chinese women. Methods We used the baseline data from a pre-conception cohort of women of childbearing age in Liuyang, China, for this study. Demographic data were collected by structured interview. Serum folate concentration was measured by immunoassay, and homocysteine, blood glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol were measured through standardized clinical procedures. Multiple linear regression and principal component regression model were applied in the analysis. Results A total of 1,532 healthy normotensive non-pregnant women were included in the final analysis. The mean concentration of serum folate was 7.5 ± 5.4 nmol/L and 55% of the women presented with folate deficiency (< 6.8 nmol/L). Multiple linear regression and principal component regression showed that serum folate levels were inversely associated with systolic and diastolic BP, after adjusting for demographic, anthropometric, and biochemical factors. Conclusions Serum folate is inversely associated with BP in non-pregnant women of childbearing age with high prevalence of folate deficiency. PMID:27182603

  16. Smoking, sex, risk factors and abdominal aortic aneurysms: a prospective study of 18 782 persons aged above 65 years in the Southern Community Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Jahangir, Eiman; Lipworth, Loren; Edwards, Todd L; Kabagambe, Edmond K; Mumma, Michael T; Mensah, George A; Fazio, Sergio; Blot, William J; Sampson, Uchechukwu K A

    2015-01-01

    Background Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a leading cause of death in the USA. We evaluated the incidence and predictors of AAA in a prospectively followed cohort. Methods We calculated age-adjusted AAA incidence rates (IR) among 18 782 participants aged ≥65 years in the Southern Community Cohort Study who received Medicare coverage from 1999–2012, and assessed predictors of AAA using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, overall and stratified by sex, adjusting for demographic, lifestyle, socioeconomic, medical and other factors. HRs and 95% CIs were calculated for AAA in relation to factors ascertained at enrolment. Results Over a median follow-up of 4.94 years, 281 cases were identified. Annual IR was 153/100 000, 401, 354 and 174 among blacks, whites, men and women, respectively. AAA risk was lower among women (HR 0.48, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.65) and blacks (HR 0.51, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.69). Smoking was the strongest risk factor (former: HR 1.91, 95% CI 1.27 to 2.87; current: HR 5.55, 95% CI 3.67 to 8.40), and pronounced in women (former: HR 3.4, 95% CI 1.83 to 6.31; current: HR 9.17, 95% CI 4.95 to 17). A history of hypertension (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.01) and myocardial infarction or coronary artery bypass surgery (HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.37 to 2.63) was negatively associated, whereas a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 (HR 0.72; 95% CI 0.53 to 0.98) was protective. College education (HR 0.6, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.97) and black race (HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.67) were protective among men. Conclusions Smoking is a major risk factor for incident AAA, with a strong and similar association between men and women. Further studies are needed to evaluate benefits of ultrasound screening for AAA among women smokers. PMID:25563744

  17. Early life factors in relation to cardiovascular risk and cardiovascular disease in old age in Bergen: a Norwegian retrospective cohort study based on the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK)

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Robert; Knapstad, Marit; Øverland, Simon; Mykletun, Arnstein

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives The fetal origins of adult disease hypothesis describes associations found for fetal or early-life exposures with cardiovascular risk and disease in adulthood. The extension or not of these associations into old age has received less attention. We investigated if maternal health and family circumstances were associated with cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in late life and discuss results in light of possible selection effects and measurement error. Design A retrospective cohort study based on community survey. We examined 224 possible associations between anthropometric measures, maternal health information and family socioeconomic status at birth versus CVD and CVD-related risk factors 72–74 years later. Participants Of 3341 participants in a community survey of people aged 72–74 years, we were able to trace birth records from a historical archive in a broadly representative subsample of 480. Setting Bergen, Norway Main outcome measures Established cardiovascular risk factors and indicators of CVD. Results Only 11 (4.9%) of these associations were found to be statistically significant, and no strong or consistent patterns in the associations between exposures and outcomes were found. Conclusions There was little evidence in this relatively elderly sample for an association between early life factors and CVD outcomes of clinical or public health relevance. Further research is required to confirm the extent to which a diminution of early life influences into old age, if genuine, can be accounted for by selective mortality, systematic bias or by dilution of effects due to competing risk factors. PMID:25057406

  18. Interpersonal trust: An age-period-cohort analysis revisited.

    PubMed

    Clark, April K; Eisenstein, Marie A

    2013-03-01

    Building on the previous work of Robinson and Jackson(1), this study addresses the extent to which interpersonal trust in America is changing due to age, period, or cohort effects (APC). The importance of APC in explaining variations in trust stems from the understanding that the specific source of change can have important - albeit different and possibly, negative - consequences on society. Moreover, 3years after the previous study concluded, the country experienced the largest concerted terrorist attacks on US soil. Little is known about how the attacks affected the dynamics of interpersonal trust relative to the processes of birth, aging, and historical change - such an investigation has important implications for our understanding of the sources and consequences of interpersonal trust. Two analysis techniques for disentangling APC effects are used: constrained generalized linear models and intrinsic estimator models. The results show that while period effects are an important contributor to declining trust, the attacks exert little influence over one's decision to trust others. Also, the investigation provides further confirmation that trust in others has fallen dramatically in the US with the scarcity being led by individuals coming of age in the late 1940s, after which, trust falls with each successive cohort. If this trend continues, through the process of cohort replacement, we will become a society of "distrusters".

  19. Work and disability at the age of 30 years. A sociomedical study of a birth-cohort from Bergen. VI. Education, intellectual ability and occupation.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, D; Kinge, F O

    1979-01-01

    The relationships between occupation, education and intellectual ability at 30 years of age are analysed with particular reference to type of school attended at the age of 14 years. Data utilized are derived from interviews, psychological tests, local files of various schools, and journals of the National Services for Mentally Retarded. The study comprises all live births in the year 1940 of mothers then residing in Bergen, a total of 1570 persons. A sample was taken from this cohort after stratification according to type of school attended at age 14 years. The sample was supplemented with persons who had either attended Special Schools for the educable Mentally Retarded (EMR) or received care from the Services for the Mentally Retarded (SMR). The final sample consisted of 262 persons. A relationship was found for both sexes between type of school attended at the age of 14 years and level of general education at the age of 30. For men, both occupational training acquired and intellecutal ability at 30 years were also clearly related to type of school attended at age 14 years. The test performance of the male group was superior to that of the female group. Differing careers in the two sexes may provide a clue as to the reason underlying this finding. PMID:524079

  20. Work and disability at the age of 30 years. A sociomedical study of a birth-cohort from Bergen. V. Social background and recruitment to the school system.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, D; Kinge, F O

    1979-01-01

    The basis of the present study is a cohort of 1570 persons, all live births in 1940 of mothers then residing in Bergen. This birth-control was followed up in the compulsory school system at the age of 14 years. Information from the "parsons' lists" (birth registers) was gathered concerning the parents' social background, while facts about the students' recruitment to the compulsory school system in Bergen were obtained from the local files of the various schools and the files of The National Services for the Mentally Retarded. For the purpose of collecting more detailed information, a sample was taken from the birthcohort. This sample was formed on the basis of a stratification of the cohort according to type of school attended at 14 years of age. By supplementing the group comprising persons attending Special Schools for the Educable Mentally Retarded and the group including persons cared for by the National Services for the Mentally Retarded, a total sample of 262 persons was reached. It is found that recruitment to the school system varies considerably with socio-economic background. Children of higher officials were highly over-represented in Junior High School, while children of workers were noticeably under-represented at this type of school. Children of workers were over-represented in Continuation School, Elementary School classes for slow learners and Special Schools for the educable mentally retarded. However, a proportionally very similar representation of the social groups in the services for the mentally retarded was found.

  1. IQ in Childhood and the Metabolic Syndrome in Middle Age: Extended Follow-Up of the 1946 British Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Marcus; Black, Stephanie; Mishra, Gita; Gale, Catharine R.; Deary, Ian J.; Batty, David G.

    2009-01-01

    IQ in early adulthood has been inversely associated with risk of the metabolic syndrome in midlife. We tested this association in the British 1946 birth cohort, which assessed IQ at age eight years and ascertained the metabolic syndrome at age 53 years based on modified (non-fasting blood) ATPIII criteria. Childhood IQ was inversely associated…

  2. The relation of ambulatory heart rate with all-cause mortality among middle-aged men: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Korshøj, Mette; Lidegaard, Mark; Kittel, France; Van Herck, Koen; De Backer, Guy; De Bacquer, Dirk; Holtermann, Andreas; Clays, Els

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between average 24-hour ambulatory heart rate and all-cause mortality, while adjusting for resting clinical heart rate, cardiorespiratory fitness, occupational and leisure time physical activity as well as classical risk factors. A group of 439 middle-aged male workers free of baseline coronary heart disease from the Belgian Physical Fitness Study was included in the analysis. Data were collected by questionnaires and clinical examinations from 1976 to 1978. All-cause mortality was collected from the national mortality registration with a mean follow-up period of 16.5 years, with a total of 48 events. After adjustment for all before mentioned confounders in a Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, a significant increased risk for all-cause mortality was found among the tertile of workers with highest average ambulatory heart rate compared to the tertile with lowest ambulatory heart rate (Hazard ratio = 3.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.22-8.44). No significant independent association was found between resting clinic heart rate and all-cause mortality. The study indicates that average 24-hour ambulatory heart rate is a strong predictor of all-cause mortality independent from resting clinic heart rate, cardiorespiratory fitness, occupational and leisure time physical activity and other classical risk factors among healthy middle-aged workers.

  3. Midlife muscle strength and human longevity up to age 100 years: a 44-year prospective study among a decedent cohort.

    PubMed

    Rantanen, Taina; Masaki, Kamal; He, Qimei; Ross, G Webster; Willcox, Bradley J; White, Lon

    2012-06-01

    We studied prospectively the midlife handgrip strength, living habits, and parents' longevity as predictors of length of life up to becoming a centenarian. The participants were 2,239 men from the Honolulu Heart Program/Honolulu-Asia Aging Study who were born before the end of June 1909 and who took part in baseline physical assessment in 1965-1968, when they were 56-68 years old. Deaths were followed until the end of June 2009 for 44 years with complete ascertainment. Longevity was categorized as centenarian (≥100 years, n = 47), nonagenarian (90-99 years, n = 545), octogenarian (80-89 years, n = 847), and ≤79 years (n = 801, reference). The average survival after baseline was 20.8 years (SD = 9.62). Compared with people who died at the age of ≤79 years, centenarians belonged 2.5 times (odds ratio (OR) = 2.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.23-5.10) more often to the highest third of grip strength in midlife, were never smokers (OR = 5.75 95% CI = 3.06-10.80), had participated in physical activity outside work (OR = 1.13 per daily hour, 95% CI = 1.02-1.25), and had a long-lived mother (≥80 vs. ≤60 years, OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.06-5.01). Associations for nonagenarians and octogenarians were parallel, but weaker. Multivariate modeling showed that mother's longevity and offspring's grip strength operated through the same or overlapping pathway to longevity. High midlife grip strength and long-lived mother may indicate resilience to aging, which, combined with healthy lifestyle, increases the probability of extreme longevity.

  4. The influence of age, gender and socio-economic status on multimorbidity patterns in primary care. first results from the multicare cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Multimorbidity is a phenomenon with high burden and high prevalence in the elderly. Our previous research has shown that multimorbidity can be divided into the multimorbidity patterns of 1) anxiety, depression, somatoform disorders (ADS) and pain, and 2) cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. However, it is not yet known, how these patterns are influenced by patient characteristics. The objective of this paper is to analyze the association of socio-demographic variables, and especially socio-economic status with multimorbidity in general and with each multimorbidity pattern. Methods The MultiCare Cohort Study is a multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study of 3.189 multimorbid patients aged 65+ randomly selected from 158 GP practices. Data were collected in GP interviews and comprehensive patient interviews. Missing values have been imputed by hot deck imputation based on Gower distance in morbidity and other variables. The association of patient characteristics with the number of chronic conditions is analysed by multilevel mixed-effects linear regression analyses. Results Multimorbidity in general is associated with age (+0.07 chronic conditions per year), gender (-0.27 conditions for female), education (-0.26 conditions for medium and -0.29 conditions for high level vs. low level) and income (-0.27 conditions per logarithmic unit). The pattern of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders shows comparable associations with a higher coefficient for gender (-1.29 conditions for female), while multimorbidity within the pattern of ADS and pain correlates with gender (+0.79 conditions for female), but not with age or socioeconomic status. Conclusions Our study confirms that the morbidity load of multimorbid patients is associated with age, gender and the socioeconomic status of the patients, but there were no effects of living arrangements and marital status. We could also show that the influence of patient characteristics is dependent on the

  5. Prenatal and childhood growth and physical performance in old age--findings from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study 1934-1944.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Johan G; Osmond, Clive; Perälä, Mia-Maria; Salonen, Minna K; Simonen, Mika; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero; Rantanen, Taina; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B

    2015-12-01

    Health in adulthood is in part a consequence of development and growth taking place during sensitive periods in early life. It has not been explored previously whether early growth is associated with physical performance in old age from a life course perspective taking into account health-related behavior, biological risk factors, and early life experiences. At a mean age of 71 years, physical performance was assessed using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT) in 1078 individuals belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. We used multiple linear regression analysis to assess the association between the SFT physical fitness scores and individual life course measurements. Several adult characteristics were associated with physical performance including socioeconomic status, lifestyle factors, and adult anthropometry. Higher birth weight and length were associated with better physical performance, even after adjusting for potential confounders (all p values <0.05). The strongest individual association between life course measurements and physical performance in old age was found for adult body fat percentage. However, prenatal growth was independently associated with physical performance seven decades later. These findings suggest that physical performance in old age is at least partly programmed in early life.

  6. Prenatal and childhood growth and physical performance in old age--findings from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study 1934-1944.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Johan G; Osmond, Clive; Perälä, Mia-Maria; Salonen, Minna K; Simonen, Mika; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero; Rantanen, Taina; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B

    2015-12-01

    Health in adulthood is in part a consequence of development and growth taking place during sensitive periods in early life. It has not been explored previously whether early growth is associated with physical performance in old age from a life course perspective taking into account health-related behavior, biological risk factors, and early life experiences. At a mean age of 71 years, physical performance was assessed using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT) in 1078 individuals belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. We used multiple linear regression analysis to assess the association between the SFT physical fitness scores and individual life course measurements. Several adult characteristics were associated with physical performance including socioeconomic status, lifestyle factors, and adult anthropometry. Higher birth weight and length were associated with better physical performance, even after adjusting for potential confounders (all p values <0.05). The strongest individual association between life course measurements and physical performance in old age was found for adult body fat percentage. However, prenatal growth was independently associated with physical performance seven decades later. These findings suggest that physical performance in old age is at least partly programmed in early life. PMID:26499818

  7. Body weight: implications for the prevention of coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes mellitus in a cohort study of middle aged men.

    PubMed Central

    Shaper, A. G.; Wannamethee, S. G.; Walker, M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the body mass index associated with the lowest morbidity and mortality. DESIGN: Prospective study of a male cohort. SETTING: One general practice in each of 24 British towns. SUBJECTS: 7735 men aged 40-59 years at screening. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause death rate, heart attacks, and stroke (fatal and non-fatal) and development of diabetes, or any of these outcomes (combined end point) over an average follow up of 14.8 years. RESULTS: There were 1271 deaths from all causes, 974 heart attacks, 290 strokes, and 245 new cases of diabetes mellitus. All cause mortality was increased only in men with a body mass index (kg/m2) < 20 and in men with an index > or = 30. However, risk of cardiovascular death, heart attack, and diabetes increased progressively from an index of < 20 even after age, smoking, social class, alcohol consumption, and physical activity were adjusted for. For the combined end point the lowest risks were seen for an index of 20.0-23.9. In never smokers and former smokers, deaths from any cause rose progressively from an index of 20.0-21.9 and for the combined end point, from 20.0-23.9. Age adjusted levels of a wide range of cardiovascular risk factors rose or fell progressively from an index < 20. CONCLUSION: A healthy body mass index in these middle aged British men seems to be about 22. PMID:9158466

  8. Age, Period and Cohort Effects on Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwadel, Philip; Stout, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Researchers hypothesize that social capital in the United States is not just declining, but that it is declining across "generations" or birth cohorts. Testing this proposition, we examine changes in social capital using age-period-cohort intrinsic estimator models. Results from analyses of 1972-2010 General Social Survey data show (1) that…

  9. Association between childhood obesity and use of regular medications in the UK: longitudinal cohort study of children aged 5–11 years

    PubMed Central

    Solmi, Francesca; Morris, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Increasing rates of childhood obesity have been suggested as a possible cause for the increasing prevalence of chronic conditions among adults and children. Few studies have examined whether obese children are more likely to use medications than normal weight children. We investigate this association in the UK. Design A panel study with repeated observations at ages 5, 7 and 11. Setting A general population sample drawn from the Millennium Cohort Study, a UK-based birth cohort. Participants A sample of 9667 children. Primary and secondary outcome measures Our primary outcomes were crude and adjusted probabilities of taking any regular medications and the number of medications among overweight and obese children compared with normal weight children. Our secondary outcome was the distribution of medication use by therapeutic classification across body mass index (BMI) groups. Results Obese children were more likely to use any medication (marginal effect (ME)=0.02, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.03) and to use more medications (ME=0.08, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.12) than normal weight children. Obese children used more medications for respiratory conditions than those of other BMI groups. Conclusions Obese children are more likely to use regular medications and have comorbid conditions, even at young ages. This suggests that the cost of prescriptions should be considered when evaluating the economic burden of childhood obesity and that preventative strategies to reduce childhood obesity could be cost-effective in the short as well as in the long term. While more research is needed, both clinicians and policymakers should be aware of these findings when planning prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:26033945

  10. Rising inequality in mortality among working-age men and women in Sweden: a national registry-based repeated cohort study, 1990–2007

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Naoki; Rostila, Mikael; Yngwe, Monica Åberg

    2014-01-01

    Background In the past two decades, health inequality has persisted or increased in states with comprehensive welfare. Methods We conducted a national registry-based repeated cohort study with a 3-year follow-up between 1990 and 2007 in Sweden. Information on all-cause mortality in all working-age Swedish men and women aged between 30 and 64 years was collected. Data were subjected to temporal trend analysis using joinpoint regression to statistically confirm the trajectories observed. Results Among men, age-standardised mortality rate decreased by 38.3% from 234.9 to 145 (per 100 000 population) over the whole period in the highest income quintile, whereas the reduction was only 18.3% (from 774.5 to 632.5) in the lowest quintile. Among women, mortality decreased by 40% (from 187.4 to 112.5) in the highest income group, but increased by 12.1% (from 280.2 to 314.2) in the poorest income group. Joinpoint regression identified that the differences in age-standardised mortality between the highest and the lowest income quintiles decreased among men by 18.85 annually between 1990 and 1994 (p trend=0.02), whereas it increased later, with a 2.88 point increase per year (p trend <0.0001). Among women, it continuously increased by 9.26/year (p trend <0.0001). In relative terms, age-adjusted mortality rate ratios showed a continuous increase in both genders. Conclusions Income-based inequalities among working-age male and female Swedes have increased since the late 1990s, whereas in absolute terms the increase was less remarkable among men. Structural and behavioural factors explaining this trend, such as the economic recession in the early 1990s, should be studied further. PMID:25143429

  11. Riyadh Mother and Baby Multicenter Cohort Study: The Cohort Profile

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeil, Samia; Alzeidan, Rasmieh; Elawad, Mamoun; Tabassum, Rabeena; Hansoti, Shehnaz; Magzoup, Mohie Edein; Al-Kadri, Hanan; Elsherif, Elham; Al-Mandil, Hazim; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer; Zakaria, Nasria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effects of non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity, on the mother and the infant. Methods A multicentre cohort study was conducted in three hospitals in the city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. All Saudi women and their babies who delivered in participating hospitals were eligible for recruitment. Data on socio-demographic characteristics in addition to the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy were collected. The cohort demographic profile was recorded and the prevalence of maternal conditions including gestational diabetes, pre-gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and obesity were estimated. Findings The total number of women who delivered in participating hospitals during the study period was 16,012 of which 14,568 women participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 29 ± 5.9 years and over 40% were university graduates. Most of the participants were housewives, 70% were high or middle income and 22% were exposed to secondhand smoke. Of the total cohort, 24% were married to a first cousin. More than 68% of the participants were either overweight or obese. The preterm delivery rate was 9%, while 1.5% of the deliveries were postdate. The stillbirth rate was 13/1000 live birth. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 24% and that of pre-gestational diabetes was 4.3%. The preeclampsia prevalence was 1.1%. The labour induction rate was 15.5% and the cesarean section rate was 25%. Conclusion Pregnant women in Saudi Arabia have a unique demographic profile. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in pregnancy are among the highest in the world. PMID:26937965

  12. Perinatal Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Atopy at 1 Year of Age in a Multi-Center Canadian Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Ryan W.; Becker, Allan; Brook, Jeffrey R.; Mandhane, Piush; Scott, James A.; Sears, Malcolm R.; Subbarao, Padmaja; Takaro, Tim K.; Turvey, Stuart E.; Brauer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background The role of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure in the development of allergic sensitization in children is unclear, and few birth cohort studies have incorporated spatiotemporal exposure assessment. Objectives We aimed to examine the association between TRAP and atopy in 1-year-old children from an ongoing national birth cohort study in four Canadian cities. Methods We identified 2,477 children of approximately 1 year of age with assessment of atopy for inhalant (Alternaria, Der p, Der f, cat, dog, cockroach) and food-related (milk, eggs, peanuts, soy) allergens. Exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was estimated from city-specific land use regression models accounting for residential mobility and temporal variability in ambient concentrations. We used mixed models to examine associations between atopy and exposure during pregnancy and the first year of life, including adjustment for covariates (maternal atopy, socioeconomic status, pets, mold, nutrition). We also conducted analyses stratified by time-location patterns, daycare attendance, and modeled home ventilation. Results Following spatiotemporal adjustment, TRAP exposure after birth increased the risk for development of atopy to any allergens [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) per 10 μg/m3 NO2 = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.41], but not during pregnancy (aOR = 1.02; 95% CI: 0.86, 1.22). This association was stronger among children not attending daycare (aOR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.28, 2.01) compared with daycare attendees (aOR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.81, 1.28). Trends to increased risk were also found for food (aOR = 1.17; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.47) and inhalant allergens (aOR = 1.28; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.76). Conclusion Using refined exposure estimates that incorporated temporal variability and residential mobility, we found that traffic-related air pollution during the first year of life was associated with atopy. Citation Sbihi H, Allen RW, Becker A, Brook JR, Mandhane P, Scott JA, Sears MR, Subbarao P, Takaro TK, Turvey SE

  13. Introduction of complementary feeding before 4months of age increases the risk of childhood overweight or obesity: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Wu, Yuanjue; Xiong, Guoping; Chao, Tingting; Jin, Qiu; Liu, Rui; Hao, Liping; Wei, Sheng; Yang, Nianhong; Yang, Xuefeng

    2016-08-01

    The association between the age at introduction of complementary feeding and the risk of overweight or obesity during childhood has been hotly debated, but the result remains uncertain. This meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies attempted to evaluate this association, as well as provide evidence for infant feeding recommendations. The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were systematically searched for relevant original articles published prior to March 1, 2015 that met predefined inclusion criteria. The pooled relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using fix-effect or random-effect models, which were chosen based on heterogeneity among studies. Ten articles consisting of 13 studies, where 8 measured being overweight as an outcome and 5 measured being obese, were included in this meta-analysis. There were a total of 63,605 participants and 11,900 incident cases in the overweight studies, and 56,136 individuals and 3246 incident cases in the obese studies. The pooled results revealed that introducing complementary foods before 4months of age compared to at 4 to 6months was associated with an increased risk of being overweight (RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.06-1.31) or obese (RR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.07-1.64) during childhood. No significant relationship was observed between delaying introduction of complementary foods after 6months of age, and being overweight (RR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.90-1.13) or obese (RR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.91-1.14) during childhood. The results of this study suggest that the introduction of complementary foods to infants before 4months of age should be avoided to protect against childhood obesity. PMID:27440530

  14. Introduction of complementary feeding before 4months of age increases the risk of childhood overweight or obesity: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Wu, Yuanjue; Xiong, Guoping; Chao, Tingting; Jin, Qiu; Liu, Rui; Hao, Liping; Wei, Sheng; Yang, Nianhong; Yang, Xuefeng

    2016-08-01

    The association between the age at introduction of complementary feeding and the risk of overweight or obesity during childhood has been hotly debated, but the result remains uncertain. This meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies attempted to evaluate this association, as well as provide evidence for infant feeding recommendations. The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were systematically searched for relevant original articles published prior to March 1, 2015 that met predefined inclusion criteria. The pooled relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using fix-effect or random-effect models, which were chosen based on heterogeneity among studies. Ten articles consisting of 13 studies, where 8 measured being overweight as an outcome and 5 measured being obese, were included in this meta-analysis. There were a total of 63,605 participants and 11,900 incident cases in the overweight studies, and 56,136 individuals and 3246 incident cases in the obese studies. The pooled results revealed that introducing complementary foods before 4months of age compared to at 4 to 6months was associated with an increased risk of being overweight (RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.06-1.31) or obese (RR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.07-1.64) during childhood. No significant relationship was observed between delaying introduction of complementary foods after 6months of age, and being overweight (RR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.90-1.13) or obese (RR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.91-1.14) during childhood. The results of this study suggest that the introduction of complementary foods to infants before 4months of age should be avoided to protect against childhood obesity.

  15. The Association of Childhood Intelligence with Mortality Risk from Adolescence to Middle Age: Findings from the Aberdeen Children of the 1950s Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, D. A.; Lawlor, D. A.; Clark, H.; Batty, G. D.; Macintyre, S.

    2009-01-01

    There is growing evidence that childhood IQ is inversely associated with mortality in later life. However, the specificity of this association in terms of causes of death, whether it is continuous over the whole range of IQ scores and whether it is the same according to age and sex is not clear. In a large cohort (N = 11,603) of a complete…

  16. Maternal Continuing Folic Acid Supplementation after the First Trimester of Pregnancy Increased the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sufang; Ge, Xing; Zhu, Beibei; Xuan, Yujie; Huang, Kun; Rutayisire, Erigene; Mao, Leijing; Huang, Sanhuan; Yan, Shuangqin; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-01-01

    Supplementation with folic acid (FA) was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW). This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma'anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC) that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma'anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy). Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births were live-born infants that were <10th percentile of birth weight, and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births were live-born infants that were ≥90th percentile of birth weight according to nomograms based on gender and gestational age from the latest standards. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effects of FA supplement consumption in the second/third trimester of pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04)). This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn's gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To confirm these

  17. Maternal Continuing Folic Acid Supplementation after the First Trimester of Pregnancy Increased the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sufang; Ge, Xing; Zhu, Beibei; Xuan, Yujie; Huang, Kun; Rutayisire, Erigene; Mao, Leijing; Huang, Sanhuan; Yan, Shuangqin; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-01-01

    Supplementation with folic acid (FA) was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW). This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma’anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC) that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma’anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy). Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births were live-born infants that were <10th percentile of birth weight, and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births were live-born infants that were ≥90th percentile of birth weight according to nomograms based on gender and gestational age from the latest standards. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effects of FA supplement consumption in the second/third trimester of pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04)). This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn’s gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To confirm these

  18. Depressive Symptoms on the Geriatric Depression Scale and Suicide Deaths in Older Middle-aged Men: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Prospective evaluations of the associations between depressive symptoms and suicide deaths have been mainly performed in high-risk populations, such as individuals with psychiatric disorders or histories of self-harm. The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine whether more severe depressive symptoms assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) were associated with a greater risk of death from suicide in a general-risk population. Methods: A total of 113 478 men from the Korean Veterans Health Study (mean age, 58.9 years) who participated in a postal survey in 2004 were followed up for suicide mortality until 2010. Results: Over 6.4 years of follow-up, 400 men died by suicide (56.7 deaths per 100 000 person-years). More severe depressive symptoms were associated with greater risk of suicide death (p for trend <0.001). The unadjusted hazard ratios (HRs) in comparison to the absence of depression were 2.18 for mild depression, 2.13 for moderate depression, 3.33 for severe depression, and 3.67 for extreme depression. After adjusting for potential confounders, men with a potential depressive disorder had an approximate 90% higher mortality from suicide (adjusted HR, 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38 to 2.68; p<0.001) than men without depression. Each five-point increase in the GDS score was associated with a higher risk of death by suicide (adjusted HR, 1.22; p<0.001). The value of the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of GDS scores for suicide deaths was 0.61 (95% CI, 0.58 to 0.64). Conclusions: Depressive symptoms assessed using the GDS were found to be a strong independent predictor of future suicide. However, the estimate of relative risk was weaker than would be expected based on retrospective psychological autopsy studies. PMID:27255076

  19. Educational level, prevalence of hysterectomy, and age at amenorrhoea: a cross-sectional analysis of 9536 women from six population-based cohort studies in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hysterectomy prevalence has been shown to vary by education level. Hysterectomy influences age at amenorrhoea. The aim of this study was to examine these associations in Germany within population-based data sets. Methods Baseline assessments in six population-based cohorts took place from 1997 through 2006 and included 9,548 women aged 20–84 years. All studies assessed hysterectomy history, school and professional degrees. Degrees were categorized into three levels each. Adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated. Results Prevalences were higher in West Germany than East Germany, increased by age, and leveled off starting at 55–64 years. The age- and study-adjusted prevalence ratio (lowest versus highest school level) was 2.61 (95% CI: 1.28-5.30), 1.48 (95% CI: 1.21-1.81), and 1.01 (95% CI: 0.80-1.28) for women aged 20–45, 45–64, and 65 and more years respectively. The estimated adjusted prevalence ratios per one unit decrement of the educational qualification score (range 1 = lowest, 8 = highest) were 1.29 (95% CI: 1.02-1.64), 1.08 (95% CI: 1.04-1.12), and 0.98 (95% CI: 0.93-1.03) for women aged 20–44, 45–64, and 65–84 years respectively. Age at amenorrhoea was on average 6.2 years lower (43.5 years versus 49.7 years) among women with a history of hysterectomy than those without. Conclusions Lower educational level was associated with a higher hysterectomy prevalence among women aged 20–64 years. Several mediators associated with educational level and hysterectomy including women’s disease risk, women’s treatment preference, and women’s access to uterus-preserving treatment may explain this association. At population level, hysterectomy decreases the age of amenorrhoea on average by 6.2 years. PMID:24433474

  20. Labour and Neonatal Outcome in Small for Gestational Age Babies Delivered Beyond 36+0 Weeks: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Boers, K. E.; van der Post, J. A. M.; Mol, Ben W. J.; van Lith, J. M. M.; Scherjon, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Small for gestational age (SGA) is associated with increased neonatal morbidity and mortality. At present, evidence on whether these pregnancies should be managed expectantly or by induction is lacking. To get insight in current policy we analysed data of the National Dutch Perinatal Registry (PRN). Methods. We used data of all nulliparae between 2000 and 2005 with a singleton in cephalic presentation beyond 36+0 weeks, with a birth weight below the 10th percentile. We analysed two groups of pregnancies: (I) with isolated SGA and (II) with both SGA and hypertensive disorders. Onset of labour was related to route of delivery and neonatal outcome. Results. Induction was associated with a higher risk of emergency caesarean section (CS), without improvement in neonatal outcome. For women with isolated SGA the relative risk of emergency CS after induction was 2.3 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 2.1 to 2.5) and for women with both SGA and hypertensive disorders the relative risk was 2.7 (95% CI 2.3 to 3.1). Conclusion. Induction in pregnancies complicated by SGA at term is associated with a higher risk of instrumental deliveries without improvement of neonatal outcome. Prospective studies are needed to determine the best strategy in suspected IUGR at term. PMID:21490789

  1. Metals exposure and risk of small-for-gestational age birth in a Canadian birth cohort: The MIREC study

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Shari; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Fisher, Mandy; Fraser, William D.; Ettinger, Adrienne; King, Will

    2015-07-15

    Background: Lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic are some of the most common toxic metals to which Canadians are exposed. The effect of exposure to current low levels of toxic metals on fetal growth restriction is unknown. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine relationships between exposure to lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic during pregnancy, and risk of small for gestational age (SGA) birth. Methods: Lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic levels were measured in blood samples from the first and third trimesters in 1835 pregnant women from across Canada. Arsenic species in first trimester urine were also assessed. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using log binomial multivariate regression. Important covariates including maternal age, parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, and smoking, were considered in the analysis. An exploratory analysis was performed to examine potential effect modification of these relationships by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GSTP1 and GSTO1 genes. Results: No association was found between blood lead, cadmium or arsenic and risk for SGA. We observed an increased risk for SGA for the highest compared to the lowest tertile of exposure for mercury (>1.6 µg/L, RR=1.56.; 95% CI=1.04–2.58) and arsenobetaine (>2.25 µg/L, RR=1.65; 95% CI=1.10–2.47) after adjustment for the effects of parity and smoking. A statistically significant interaction was observed in the relationship between dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) levels in urinary arsenic and SGA between strata of GSTO1 A104A (p for interaction=0.02). A marginally significant interaction was observed in the relationship between blood lead and SGA between strata of GSTP1 A114V (p for interaction=0.06). Conclusions: These results suggest a small increase in risk for SGA in infants born to women exposed to mercury and arsenic. Given the conflicting evidence in the literature this warrants further investigation in other pregnant populations. - Highlights: • Metals

  2. Endometrial cancer in relation to coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption: a prospective cohort study among middle-aged women in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sandin, Sven; Lof, Marie; Oh, Jin-Kyoung; Inoue, Manami; Shimazu, Taichi; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Adami, Hans-Olov

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to add to prospective data on the possible inverse association between coffee consumption and endometrial cancer risk, already supported by several case-control studies. Coffee and tea consumption and possible confounding factors were assessed among 42,270 women aged 30-49 years at enrollment in 1991-1992 in the Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort study, with complete follow-up through 2009. We calculated caffeine intake per day; Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate multivariable relative risks (mRR) for endometrial cancer with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). One hundred forty-four endometrial cancers were diagnosed during follow-up. Women with and without endometrial cancer had a similar mean daily coffee consumption (549 vs. 547 g), tea consumption (104 vs. 115 g), and caffeine intake (405 vs. 406 mg). Compared to those consuming <2 cups of coffee per day, women consuming >3 cups had a mRR of 1.56 (95% CI: 0.94-2.59; P for trend = 0.17). Compared with the lowest tertile of caffeine intake, the highest tertile had a mRR of 1.32 (95% CI: 0.87-1.99; P for trend = 0.27). Our study provides no convincing evidence of an association between coffee consumption, tea consumption, or caffeine intake and endometrial cancer risk among middle-aged women. PMID:25181598

  3. Whole-Genome Sequencing of a Healthy Aging Cohort.

    PubMed

    Erikson, Galina A; Bodian, Dale L; Rueda, Manuel; Molparia, Bhuvan; Scott, Erick R; Scott-Van Zeeland, Ashley A; Topol, Sarah E; Wineinger, Nathan E; Niederhuber, John E; Topol, Eric J; Torkamani, Ali

    2016-05-01

    Studies of long-lived individuals have revealed few genetic mechanisms for protection against age-associated disease. Therefore, we pursued genome sequencing of a related phenotype-healthy aging-to understand the genetics of disease-free aging without medical intervention. In contrast with studies of exceptional longevity, usually focused on centenarians, healthy aging is not associated with known longevity variants, but is associated with reduced genetic susceptibility to Alzheimer and coronary artery disease. Additionally, healthy aging is not associated with a decreased rate of rare pathogenic variants, potentially indicating the presence of disease-resistance factors. In keeping with this possibility, we identify suggestive common and rare variant genetic associations implying that protection against cognitive decline is a genetic component of healthy aging. These findings, based on a relatively small cohort, require independent replication. Overall, our results suggest healthy aging is an overlapping but distinct phenotype from exceptional longevity that may be enriched with disease-protective genetic factors. VIDEO ABSTRACT. PMID:27114037

  4. IQ in childhood and atherosclerosis in middle-age: 40 Year follow-up of the Newcastle Thousand Families Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Beverly A.; Batty, G. David; Gale, Catharine R.; Deary, Ian J.; Parker, Louise; Pearce, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is a known precursor to coronary heart disease (CHD) and other relevant health outcomes such as stroke and cognitive impairment. In addition, higher childhood intelligence has been associated with lower risk of coronary heart disease events in later life, although the mechanisms of effect are unclear. We therefore examined the association between childhood intelligence and atherosclerosis using carotid IMT as a marker of the atherosclerotic process. Approach Participants were 412 members of the Newcastle Thousand Families Study, a prospective cohort study of all 1142 births in the city of Newcastle in May and June 1947, who took an IQ test and English and arithmetic tests at age 11 years. Study members participated in a medical examination and lifestyle assessment at age 49–51 years during which IMT was measured using ultrasound techniques. Results Individuals with higher childhood IQ score had a lower mean IMT in middle-age. A standard deviation higher score in childhood overall IQ was associated with a 0.053 mm (95% CI −0.102, −0.004) lower IMT in men and a 0.039 mm (95% CI −0.080, −0.002) lower IMT in women. Similar levels of association were found for the English and arithmetic tests. After adjustment for a range of covariates including education, the size of effect was undiminished in men but increased in women. Conclusions In the present study, higher childhood IQ scores were associated with a lower degree of atherosclerosis by middle-age. PMID:24267233

  5. Childhood Risk Factors for Lifetime Anorexia Nervosa by Age 30 Years in a National Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, Dasha E.; Viner, Russell M.

    2009-01-01

    Whether previously identified childhood risk factors for anorexia nervosa (AN) predict self-reported lifetime AN by age 30 is examined. The cohort confirmed four risk and two protective factors out of the 22 suggested risk factors. The study used data from the 1970 British Cohort Study.

  6. Caring for an aging society: cohort values and eldercare services.

    PubMed

    Karner, T X

    2001-01-01

    Understanding the impact of cohort values is important in trying to project future aging service needs. The cultural characteristics of cohorts yet to reach the age of 65 are compared with those already "old," with specific focus on the Baby Boomers. Aging policies (and available services) reflect the cultural notions of age and aging held as normative during the historical era in which they are enacted. Previous research into lifestyle preferences, consumer practices, and key characteristics is drawn upon to investigate the values of Baby Boomers in light of their projected needs for eldercare services. Cohort research and generational marketing practices offer a promising foundation for exploring how best to develop, target, and deliver aging services that most effectively utilize our social resources.

  7. What Makes You Stronger: Age and Cohort Differences in Personal Growth after Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pudrovska, Tetyana

    2012-01-01

    Using two waves of the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States, I compare changes in personal growth over a 10-year period among cancer survivors and individuals without cancer. Moreover, I examine joint effects of age and cohort on personal growth after a cancer diagnosis. The theoretical framework of this study integrates impairment, resilience, and thriving perspectives. Findings reveal that, although personal growth declines with age for all individuals regardless of cohort and cancer status, cancer slows the decline in personal growth with age in 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s birth cohorts, yet accelerates the age-related decline in the 1920s cohort. I argue that a sociological perspective can enhance our understanding of the interplay of developmental and socio-cultural influences on psychological adjustment to cancer. Seemingly idiosyncratic psychological reactions to cancer partly reflect macro-level processes represented by cohort differences. PMID:20943589

  8. Early Father Involvement and Subsequent Child Behaviour at Ages 3, 5 and 7 Years: Prospective Analysis of the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kroll, Mary E.; Carson, Claire; Redshaw, Maggie; Quigley, Maria A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Fathers are increasingly involved in care of their babies and young children. We assessed the association of resident fathers’ involvement with subsequent behaviour of their children, examining boys and girls separately. Methods We used longitudinal data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study for children born in 2000–2001, divided into three separate analysis periods: ages 9 months to 3 years, 3 to 5 years, and 5 to 7 years. By exploratory factor analysis of self-reported attitudes and engagement in caring activities, we derived composite measures of various types of father involvement at 9 months, 3 and 5 years. Where possible we created equivalent measures of mother involvement. Child behaviour was assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), which was completed by the mother when the child was aged 3, 5 and 7 years. We estimated gender-specific odds ratios for behaviour problems per quintile of father involvement, using separate logistic regression models for boys and girls in each analysis period. We controlled for a wide range of potential confounders: characteristics of the child (temperament and development at 9 months, and illness and exact age at outcome), equivalent mother involvement where appropriate, and factors related to socioeconomic status, household change, and parental well-being, where statistically significant. Results Paternal positive parenting beliefs at age 9 months and increased frequency of creative play at age 5 years were significantly associated with lower risk of subsequent behaviour problems (SDQ total difficulties) in both boys and girls (p<0.05), odds ratios ranging between 0.81 and 0.89 per quintile of involvement. No associations were observed for other composite measures of caring activity by the father at 9 months, 3 years or 5 years. Conclusion Quality of parenting, rather than the division of routine care between parents, was associated with child behavioural outcomes. PMID:27654635

  9. Country of origin, age at migration and risk of cutaneous melanoma: a migrant cohort study of 1,100,000 Israeli men.

    PubMed

    Levine, Hagai; Afek, Arnon; Shamiss, Ari; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Astman, Nadav; Keinan-Boker, Lital; Mimouni, Daniel; Kark, Jeremy D

    2013-07-15

    Cutaneous melanoma (CM) is a common cancer with increasing incidence in many parts of the world where light-skinned populations live. We conducted a large-scale nationally representative migrant cohort study to assess country of origin and age at migration as predictors of CM, controlling for possible confounders. Data on 1,086,569 Israeli Jewish males, who underwent a general health examination before compulsory military service at ages 16-19 between the years 1967-2005, were linked to Israel National Cancer Registry to obtain incident CM up to 2006. Cox proportional hazards was used to model time to event. Overall, 1562 incident cases were detected during 19.3 million person-years of follow-up. Origin was a strong independent predictor of CM. Incidence was higher for European (hazard ratio [HR] = 4.08, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.55-4.67) and Israeli origin (HR = 2.92, 95% CI: 2.25-3.79) compared to N. African/Asian origin, adjusted for year of birth, years of education, residential socio-economic position, rural residence and body surface area (or height). Among those of European origin, the adjusted risk was significantly lower for those who immigrated after the age of 10 years (HR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.45-0.73) but not for younger ages (HR = 1.02, 95% CI 0.84-1.23) compared to Israeli born. The high rates of CM among men of European origin and the almost twofold lower risk among those immigrating after age 10 provide solid support for the deleterious role of childhood sun exposure as a risk factor for melanoma. These findings will serve in directing public health and research efforts.

  10. Adolescents’ physical activity trends over the years: a three-cohort study based on the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Portuguese survey

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Adilson; Gaspar de Matos, Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Objective Many young people do not practise enough physical activity (PA) to benefit their health. The three-cohort study aimed to investigate the prevalence of PA and understand the trends between 2002 and 2010, using a representative sample of Portuguese adolescents. Design, setting and participants The participants were 8483 adolescents (4067 boys, 4416 girls) who participated in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Portuguese survey in 2002, 2006 and 2010. Design, setting and participants A questionnaire was used to collect data of PA. Analyses were run separately for boys and girls. Results Boys aged 15–17 reported practising 3.5±1.9 times a week in 2002, 3.9±1.9 times a week in 2006 and 3.8±1.9 times a week in 2010, with a significant increase from 2002 to 2006/2010 (p<0.05). PA practice during the past 7 days decreased from 4.2±2.1 to 3.9+1.9 between 2002 and 2006 (p<0.001) and also decreased from 4.4±2.1 to 3.8±1.9 between 2006 and 2010 (p<0.001). Among girls, PA practices during the past 7 days declined significantly from 3.5±1.9 to 2.7±1.7 between 2002 and 2006 (p<0.001), and from 3.3±1.9 to 2.9±1.7 between 2006 and 2010 (p<0.001). Conclusions The study points to age as a factor related to diminished PA participation. The study also revealed that the prevalence of PA has decreased over the years for the same age groups. PMID:25287105

  11. Influence of social support on cognitive change and mortality in old age: results from the prospective multicentre cohort study AgeCoDe

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Social support has been suggested to positively influence cognition and mortality in old age. However, this suggestion has been questioned due to inconsistent operationalisations of social support among studies and the small number of longitudinal studies available. This study aims to investigate the influence of perceived social support, understood as the emotional component of social support, on cognition and mortality in old age as part of a prospective longitudinal multicentre study in Germany. Methods A national subsample of 2,367 primary care patients was assessed twice over an observation period of 18 months regarding the influence of social support on cognitive function and mortality. Perceived social support was assessed using the 14-item version of the FSozU, which is a standardised and validated questionnaire of social support. Cognition was tested by the neuropsychological test battery of the Structured Interview for the Diagnosis of Dementia (SIDAM). The influence of perceived support on cognitive change was analysed by multivariate ANCOVA; mortality was analysed by multivariate logistic and cox regression. Results Sample cognitive change (N = 1,869): Mean age was 82.4 years (SD 3.3) at the beginning of the observation period, 65.9% were female, mean cognition was 49 (SD 4.4) in the SIDAM. Over the observation period cognitive function declined in 47.2% by a mean of 3.4 points. Sample mortality (N = 2,367): Mean age was 82.5 years (SD 3.4), 65.7% were female and 185 patients died during the observation period. Perceived social support showed no longitudinal association with cognitive change (F = 2.235; p = 0.135) and mortality (p = 0.332; CI 0.829-1.743). Conclusions Perceived social support did not influence cognition and mortality over an 18 months observation period. However, previous studies using different operationalisations of social support and longer observation periods indicate that such an influence may exist. This influence is

  12. Relation Between Serum Total Cholesterol Level and Cardiovascular Disease Stratified by Sex and Age Group: A Pooled Analysis of 65 594 Individuals From 10 Cohort Studies in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nagasawa, Sin-ya; Okamura, Tomonori; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Yamada, Michiko; Watanabe, Makoto; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2012-01-01

    Background The relation between serum total cholesterol (TC) and cardiovascular disease in women and in the elderly is unclear, especially in Asian populations. Methods and Results We examined this relation in the largest-scale pooled analysis of the Japanese population, the Evidence for Cardiovascular Prevention from Observational Cohorts in Japan (EPOCH-JAPAN) study. A total of 65 594 participants who were 40 to 89 years of age and did not have a past history of cardiovascular disease were examined. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios for death from total stroke, cerebral infarction, intracranial cerebral hemorrhage, or coronary heart disease. The mean follow-up period was 10.1 years, with the number of deaths from total stroke, cerebral infarction, cerebral hemorrhage, and coronary heart disease being 875, 457, 212, and 374, respectively. The participants were divided into 2 age groups: middle-aged (40 to 69 years; mean age 55 years) and elderly (70 to 89 years; mean age 75 years). In men, the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for coronary heart disease in the highest TC category (≥6.21 mmol/L) compared with the lowest category (<4.14 mmol/L) were 2.52 (95% confidence interval: 1.15–5.07) in middle-aged participants and 2.77 (1.09–7.03) in elderly participants. In women, the hazard ratios of the highest TC category (≥6.72 mmol/L) compared with the lowest category (<4.66 mmol/L) were 3.20 (1.44–7.09) in middle-aged participants and 1.02 (0.42–2.49) in elderly participants. TC levels were not associated with cerebral infarction in any age or sex group and were associated negatively with total stroke and cerebral hemorrhage. Conclusion High serum TC levels are associated with coronary heart disease in middle-aged Japanese men and women, but evidence in elderly Japanese individuals is still limited. PMID:23316288

  13. Changes in sobriety in the Swedish population over three decades: age, period or cohort effects?

    PubMed Central

    Ahacic, Kozma; Kennison, Robert F; Kåreholt, Ingemar

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study aimed to examine age, cohort and period trends in alcohol abstinence. Design Two surveys, the Level of Living Survey collected in 1968, 1974, 1981, 1990 and 2000, and the Swedish Panel Study of the Oldest Old (SWEOLD) collected in 1992 and 2002, were studied with graphical depictions of cross-sectional and longitudinal data presented over time and over age. Cross-sectional 10-year age group differences, time-lag differences between waves and within-cohort differences between waves for 10-year birth cohorts were examined. Logistic regression models were applied to confirm the observed patterns. Setting The samples were representative of the Swedish population. Participants Participants ranged in age from 18 to 75 (n = 5000 per wave), and 77+ at later waves (n = 500). Measurements Alcohol abstinence was determined by asking ‘Do you ever drink wine, beer, or spirits?’, where a ‘no’ response indicated abstinence. Findings Decreases in abstinence rates were observed from 1968 to 2000/02. While cross-sectional analysis indicated increased abstinence with advancing age, the longitudinal analysis suggested otherwise. Inspection of cohort differences revealed little change within cohorts and large differences between cohorts; abstinence rates declined in later-born cohorts up to the 1940s birth cohorts; stability was observed in cohorts born since the 1940s. Logistic regression models indicated that neither age nor period were significant (P > 0.05) predictors of abstinence when cohort (P < 0.001) was included. Conclusion Decreasing proportions of total alcohol abstainers in Sweden from 1968 to 2000 appear to be attributable primarily to decreases in successive cohorts rather than drinkers becoming abstainers. PMID:22008293

  14. Pregnancy hypertensive disease and risk of dementia and cardiovascular disease in women aged 65 years or older: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Cnattingius, S; Åkerud, H; Wikström, J; Pedersen, N L; Wikström, A-K

    2016-01-01

    Objective The primary aim was to study pregnancy hypertensive disease and subsequent risk of dementia. The second aim was to study if the increased risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and stroke after pregnancy hypertensive disease persist in an elderly population. Design Cohort study. Setting Sweden. Population or sample 3232 women 65 years or older (mean 71 years) at inclusion. Methods Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to calculate risks of dementia, CVD and/or stroke for women exposed to pregnancy hypertensive disease. Exposure data were collected from an interview at inclusion during the years 1998–2002. Outcome data were collected from the National Patient Register and Cause of Death Register from the year of inclusion until the end of 2010. Age at inclusion was set as a time-dependent variable, and adjustments were made for body mass index, education and smoking. Main outcome measures Dementia, CVD, stroke. Results During the years of follow-up, 7.6% of the women exposed to pregnancy hypertensive disease received a diagnosis of dementia, compared with 7.4% among unexposed women (HR 1.19; 95% CI 0.79 to 1.73). The corresponding rates for CVD were 22.9% for exposed women and 19.0% for unexposed women (HR 1.29; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.61), and for stroke 13.4% for exposed women and 10.7% for unexposed women (HR 1.36; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.81). Conclusions There was no increased risk of dementia after self-reported pregnancy hypertensive disease in our cohort. We found that the previously reported increased risk of CVD and stroke after pregnancy hypertensive disease persists in an older population. PMID:26801467

  15. Environmental exposure to lead and children's intelligence at the age of seven years. The Port Pirie Cohort Study

    SciTech Connect

    Baghurst, P.A.; McMichael, A.J.; Wigg, N.R.; Vimpani, G.V.; Robertson, E.F.; Roberts, R.J.; Tong, S.L. )

    1992-10-29

    Exposure to lead in early childhood is thought to result in delayed neuropsychological development. As yet there is little longitudinal evidence to establish whether these effects persist into later childhood. The authors measured IQ scores in 494 seven-year-old children from the lead-smelting community of Port Pirie, Australia, in whom developmental deficits associated with elevated blood lead concentrations had already been reported at the ages of two and four years. Exposure to lead was estimated from the lead concentrations in maternal blood samples drawn antenatally and at delivery and from blood samples drawn from the children at birth (umbilical-cord blood), at the ages of 6 and 15 months and 2 years, and annually thereafter. Data relating to known covariates of child development were collected systematically for each child throughout the first seven years of life. The authors found inverse relations between IQ at the age of seven years and both antenatal and postnatal blood lead concentrations. After adjustment by multiple regression for sex, parents' level of education, maternal age at delivery, parents' smoking status, socioeconomic status, quality of the home environment, maternal IQ, birth weight, birth order, feeding method (breast, bottle, or both), duration of breast-feeding, and whether the child's natural parents were living together, the relation with lead exposure was still evident for postnatal blood samples, particularly within the age range of 15 months to 4 years. For an increase in blood lead concentration from 10 micrograms per deciliter (0.48 mumol per liter) to 30 micrograms per deciliter (1.45 mumol per liter), expressed as the average of the concentrations at 15 months and 2, 3, and 4 years, the estimated reduction in the IQ of the children was in the range of 4.4 points (95 percent confidence interval, 2.2 to 6.6) to 5.3 points (95 percent confidence interval, 2.8 to 7.8).

  16. A cohort study of developmental polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in relation to post-vaccination antibody response at 6-months of age

    SciTech Connect

    Jusko, Todd A.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Paige Lawrence, B.; Palkovicova, Lubica; Nemessanyi, Tomas; Drobna, Beata; Fabisikova, Anna; Kocan, Anton; Sonneborn, Dean; Jahnova, Eva; Kavanagh, Terrance J.; Trnovec, Tomas; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2010-05-15

    Background: Extensive experimental data in animals indicate that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy leads to changes in offspring immune function during the postnatal period. Whether developmental PCB exposure influences immunologic development in humans has received little study. Methods: The study population was 384 mother-infant pairs recruited from two districts of eastern Slovakia for whom prospectively collected maternal, cord, and 6-month infant blood specimens were available. Several PCB congeners were measured in maternal, cord, and 6-month infant sera by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Concentrations of IgG-specific anti-haemophilus influenzae type b, tetanus toxoid, and diphtheria toxoid were assayed in 6-month infant sera using ELISA methods. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the relation between maternal, cord, and 6-month infant PCB concentrations and the antibody concentrations evaluated at 6-months of age. Results: Overall, there was little evidence of an association between infant antibody concentrations and PCB measures during the pre- and early postnatal period. In addition, our results did not show specificity in terms of associations limited to a particular developmental period (e.g. pre- vs. postnatal), a particular antibody, or a particular PCB congener. Conclusions: At the PCB concentrations measured in this cohort, which are high relative to most human populations today, we did not detect an association between maternal or early postnatal PCB exposure and specific antibody responses at 6-months of age.

  17. Trends of stomach cancer mortality in Eastern Asia in 1950-2004: comparative study of Japan, Hong Kong and Singapore using age, period and cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masahiro; Ma, Enbo; Tanaka, Hideo; Ioka, Akiko; Nakahara, Toshitaka; Takahashi, Hideto

    2012-02-15

    To characterize the temporal trends of stomach cancer mortality in Eastern Asia and to better interpret the causes of the trends, we performed age, period and cohort analysis (APC analysis) on the mortality rates in Japan, Hong Kong and Singapore during 1950-2004, as well as the rates in the US as a control population. For the APC analysis, Holford's approach was used to avoid the identification problem. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) decreased consistently in all four areas during the observation period in both males and females. Japan had the highest ASMR in both sexes, followed by Singapore, Hong Kong and the US, but the differences in ASMR among the four areas diminished with time. The results of APC analysis suggested that the decreasing mortality rates in Eastern Asia were caused by the combination of decreasing cohort effect since the end of the 1800s and decreasing period effect from the 1950s. The US showed similar results, but its decreases in the period and cohort effect preceded those of Eastern Asia. Possible causes for the decrease in the cohort effect include improvement in the socioeconomic conditions during childhood and a decrease in the prevalence of H. pylori infection, while possible causes for the decrease in the period effect include a decrease in dietary salt intake and improvements in cancer detection and treatment. These findings may help us to predict future changes in the mortality rates of stomach cancer. PMID:21425256

  18. Trends of stomach cancer mortality in Eastern Asia in 1950-2004: comparative study of Japan, Hong Kong and Singapore using age, period and cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masahiro; Ma, Enbo; Tanaka, Hideo; Ioka, Akiko; Nakahara, Toshitaka; Takahashi, Hideto

    2012-02-15

    To characterize the temporal trends of stomach cancer mortality in Eastern Asia and to better interpret the causes of the trends, we performed age, period and cohort analysis (APC analysis) on the mortality rates in Japan, Hong Kong and Singapore during 1950-2004, as well as the rates in the US as a control population. For the APC analysis, Holford's approach was used to avoid the identification problem. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) decreased consistently in all four areas during the observation period in both males and females. Japan had the highest ASMR in both sexes, followed by Singapore, Hong Kong and the US, but the differences in ASMR among the four areas diminished with time. The results of APC analysis suggested that the decreasing mortality rates in Eastern Asia were caused by the combination of decreasing cohort effect since the end of the 1800s and decreasing period effect from the 1950s. The US showed similar results, but its decreases in the period and cohort effect preceded those of Eastern Asia. Possible causes for the decrease in the cohort effect include improvement in the socioeconomic conditions during childhood and a decrease in the prevalence of H. pylori infection, while possible causes for the decrease in the period effect include a decrease in dietary salt intake and improvements in cancer detection and treatment. These findings may help us to predict future changes in the mortality rates of stomach cancer.

  19. Behavioral Sexual Dimorphism in School-Age Children and Early Developmental Exposure to Dioxins and PCBs: A Follow-Up Study of the Duisburg Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ranft, Ulrich; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Kasper-Sonnenberg, Monika; Fürst, Peter; Krämer, Ursula; Seitner, Gabriele; Wilhelm, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background: Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants that have been characterized as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Objectives: Within the Duisburg birth cohort study, we studied associations of prenatal exposure to PCDD/Fs and PCBs with parent-reported sexually dimorphic behavior in children. Methods: We measured lipid-based and WHO2005-TEQ (toxic equivalents established in 2005 by the World Health Organization)–standardized PCDD/Fs and PCBs in maternal blood samples and in early breast milk using gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. At the child’s age of 6–8 years, parents (mostly mothers) reported sex-typical characteristics, preferred toys, and play activities using the Pre-School Activities Inventory (PSAI), which was used to derive feminine, masculine, and difference (feminine – masculine) scores. We estimated exposure–outcome associations using multivariate linear regression. A total of 91–109 children were included in this follow-up. Results: Mean blood levels of summed WHO2005-TEQ–standardized dioxins (ΣPCDD/Fs) were 14.5 ± 6.4 pg/g blood lipids, and ΣPCBs were 6.9 ± 3.8 pg/g blood lipids, with similar values for milk lipids. Regression analyses revealed some highly significant interactions between sex and exposure—such as for ΣPCBs in milk, pronounced positive (boys: β = 3.24; CI = 1.35, 5.14) or negative (girls: β = –3.59; CI = –1.10, –6.08) associations with reported femininity. Less pronounced and mostly insignificant but consistent associations were found for the masculinity score, positive for boys and negative for girls. Conclusions: Given our results and the findings of previous studies, we conclude that there is sufficient evidence that these EDCs modify behavioral sexual dimorphism in children, presumably by interacting with the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis. Citation: Winneke G, Ranft U

  20. Infant adiposity at birth and early postnatal weight gain predict increased aortic intima-media thickness at 6 weeks of age: a population-derived cohort study.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, Kate; Burgner, David; Carlin, John B; Skilton, Michael R; Cheung, Michael; Dwyer, Terence; Vuillermin, Peter; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise

    2016-03-01

    Infant body composition and postnatal weight gain have been implicated in the development of adult obesity and cardiovascular disease, but there are limited prospective data regarding the association between infant adiposity, postnatal growth and early cardiovascular parameters. Increased aortic intima-media thickness (aortic IMT) is an intermediate phenotype of early atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between weight and adiposity at birth, postnatal growth and aortic IMT. The Barwon Infant Study (n=1074 mother-infant pairs) is a population-derived birth cohort. Infant weight and other anthropometry were measured at birth and 6 weeks of age. Aortic IMT was measured by trans-abdominal ultrasound at 6 weeks of age (n=835). After adjustment for aortic size and other factors, markers of adiposity including increased birth weight (β=19.9 μm/kg, 95%CI 11.1, 28.6; P<0.001) and birth skinfold thickness (β=6.9 μm/mm, 95%CI 3.3, 10.5; P<0.001) were associated with aortic IMT at 6 weeks. The association between birth skinfold thickness and aortic IMT was independent of birth weight. In addition, greater postnatal weight gain was associated with increased aortic IMT, independent of birth weight and age at time of scan (β=11.3 μm/kg increase, 95%CI 2.2, 20.3; P=0.01). Increased infant weight and adiposity at birth, as well as increased early weight gain, were positively associated with aortic IMT. Excessive accumulation of adiposity during gestation and early infancy may have adverse effects on cardiovascular risk.

  1. Infant adiposity at birth and early postnatal weight gain predict increased aortic intima-media thickness at 6 weeks of age: a population-derived cohort study.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, Kate; Burgner, David; Carlin, John B; Skilton, Michael R; Cheung, Michael; Dwyer, Terence; Vuillermin, Peter; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise

    2016-03-01

    Infant body composition and postnatal weight gain have been implicated in the development of adult obesity and cardiovascular disease, but there are limited prospective data regarding the association between infant adiposity, postnatal growth and early cardiovascular parameters. Increased aortic intima-media thickness (aortic IMT) is an intermediate phenotype of early atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between weight and adiposity at birth, postnatal growth and aortic IMT. The Barwon Infant Study (n=1074 mother-infant pairs) is a population-derived birth cohort. Infant weight and other anthropometry were measured at birth and 6 weeks of age. Aortic IMT was measured by trans-abdominal ultrasound at 6 weeks of age (n=835). After adjustment for aortic size and other factors, markers of adiposity including increased birth weight (β=19.9 μm/kg, 95%CI 11.1, 28.6; P<0.001) and birth skinfold thickness (β=6.9 μm/mm, 95%CI 3.3, 10.5; P<0.001) were associated with aortic IMT at 6 weeks. The association between birth skinfold thickness and aortic IMT was independent of birth weight. In addition, greater postnatal weight gain was associated with increased aortic IMT, independent of birth weight and age at time of scan (β=11.3 μm/kg increase, 95%CI 2.2, 20.3; P=0.01). Increased infant weight and adiposity at birth, as well as increased early weight gain, were positively associated with aortic IMT. Excessive accumulation of adiposity during gestation and early infancy may have adverse effects on cardiovascular risk. PMID:26666445

  2. Is Old Age Depressing? Growth Trajectories and Cohort Variations in Late-Life Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yang

    2007-01-01

    Findings in previous research on the association of old age and depression are inconsistent due to a confounding of age changes and cohort differences. Using data from an accelerated longitudinal design from the National Institute of Aging Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly, this study addresses three questions: (1)…

  3. Dietary Intake of Trans Fatty Acids in Children Aged 4–5 in Spain: The INMA Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Alexander; Gimenez-Monzo, Daniel; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Maria; Garcia-de-la-Hera, Manuela; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Tardon, Adonina; Santa Marina, Loreto; Irazabal, Amaia; Romaguera, Dora; Guxens, Mònica; Julvez, Jordi; Llop, Sabrina; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Vioque, Jesus

    2016-01-01

    Trans fatty acid (TFA) intake has been identified as a health hazard in adults, but data on preschool children are scarce. We analyzed the data from the Spanish INMA Project to determine the intake of total, industrial and natural TFA, their main sources and the associated socio-demographic and lifestyle factors in children aged 4–5 (n = 1793). TFA intake was estimated using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire, and multiple linear regression was used to explore associated factors. The mean daily intakes of total, industrial and natural TFA were 1.36, 0.60, and 0.71 g/day, respectively. Ten percent of the children obtained >1% of their energy intake from TFA. The main sources of industrial TFA were fast food, white bread and processed baked goods. Milk, red and processed meat and processed baked goods were the main sources of natural TFA. Having parents from countries other than Spain was significantly associated with higher natural TFA (in mg/day) intake (β 45.5) and television viewing was significantly associated with higher industrial TFA intake (β 18.3). Higher fruits and vegetables intake was significantly associated with lower intakes of all TFAs, whereas higher sweetened beverages intake was significantly associated with lower total and natural TFA intake. Thus, total and industrial TFA intake was associated with less healthy food patterns and lifestyles in Spanish preschool children. PMID:27735864

  4. Maternal serum cadmium level during pregnancy and its association with small for gestational age infants: a population-based birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Liu, Lu; Hu, Yong-Fang; Hao, Jia-Hu; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Su, Pu-Yu; Fu, Lin; Yu, Zhen; Zhang, Gui-Bin; Wang, Lei; Tao, Fang-Biao; Xu, De-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    The association between maternal cadmium (Cd) exposure during pregnancy and the increased risk of fetal growth restriction (FGR) remains controversial. The present study evaluated the association between maternal serum Cd level and risk of small for gestational age (SGA) infants in a Chinese population. The present study analyzed a subsample of the C-ABCS cohort that recruited 3254 eligible mother-and-singleton-offspring pairs. Maternal serum Cd level during pregnancy was measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The rate and odds ratio (OR) for SGA infant were calculated. The rate for SGA infant was 10.6% among subjects with H-Cd (≥1.06 μg/L), significantly higher than 7.5% among subjects with L-Cd (<1.06 μg/L). OR was 1.45 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.90; P = 0.007) among subjects with H-Cd. Adjusted OR for SGA infants was 1.43 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.88; P = 0.007) among subjects with H-Cd. Taken together, we observe the fact that maternal Cd exposure at middle gestational stage, elevates the risk of SGA in contrast to early gestational stage. The present results might be interesting and worth more discussing, and guarantee to further studies. PMID:26934860

  5. Cohort profile: The Isle of Man Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Goodfellow, Stephanie A; Rolfe, Edna M; Golding, Jean

    2013-10-01

    The Isle of Man is a self-governing British Crown Dependency situated equidistantly from England, Scotland and Ireland. In 1991, its population of ∼75,000 comprised ∼50% indigenous Manx and 50% immigrants, mainly from the surrounding countries. It was invited to join the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood. The aim of the study was to enrol all pregnant women resident on the Island with an expected date of delivery in the 18-month period of January 1991-June 1992. A total of 1314 livebirths formed the eligible cohort. Questionnaires were completed by mothers and their partners during pregnancy and subsequently at 6 weeks, 6 months, 18 months, 3, 5, 7 and 15/16 years. Hands-on examination of the children occurred at age 7 years, when biological samples were collected. Teachers completed questionnaires at 7 and 15 years; medical records were extracted for the obstetric and childhood periods. Response rates varied from >80% from teachers and children at 15 years to only 23% from partners when their children were aged 7 years. Selected data sets are available to collaborators, although many of the data need funds for further collaboration. PMID:23095165

  6. Association between cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and respiratory tract infections in the first 6 months of age in a Korean population: a birth cohort study (COCOA)

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Youn Ho; Yu, Jinho; Kim, Kyung Won; Ahn, Kangmo; Hong, Seo-Ah; Lee, Eun; Yang, Song-I; Jung, Young-Ho; Kim, Hyung Young; Seo, Ju-Hee; Kwon, Ji-Won; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Kim, Hyo-Bin; Shim, Jung Yeon; Kim, Woo Kyung; Song, Dae Jin; Lee, So-Yeon; Lee, Soo Young; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Suh, Dong In; Yang, Hyeon-Jong; Kim, Bong Sung; Choi, Suk-Joo; Oh, Soo-Young; Kwon, Ja-Young; Lee, Kyung-Ju; Park, Hee Jin; Lee, Pil Ryang; Won, Hye-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies suggest that the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in cord blood may show an inverse association with respiratory tract infections (RTI) during childhood. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of 25(OH)D concentrations in cord blood on infant RTI in a Korean birth cohort. Methods The levels of 25(OH)D in cord blood obtained from 525 Korean newborns in the prospective COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases were examined. The primary outcome variable of interest was the prevalence of RTI at 6-month follow-up, as diagnosed by pediatricians and pediatric allergy and pulmonology specialists. RTI included acute nasopharyngitis, rhinosinusitis, otitis media, croup, tracheobronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia. Results The median concentration of 25(OH)D in cord blood was 32.0 nmol/L (interquartile range, 21.4 to 53.2). One hundred and eighty neonates (34.3%) showed 25(OH)D concentrations less than 25.0 nmol/L, 292 (55.6%) showed 25(OH)D concentrations of 25.0-74.9 nmol/L, and 53 (10.1%) showed concentrations of ≥75.0 nmol/L. Adjusting for the season of birth, multivitamin intake during pregnancy, and exposure to passive smoking during pregnancy, 25(OH)D concentrations showed an inverse association with the risk of acquiring acute nasopharyngitis by 6 months of age (P for trend=0.0004). Conclusion The results show that 89.9% of healthy newborns in Korea are born with vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency (55.6% and 34.3%, respectively). Cord blood vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in healthy neonates is associated with an increased risk of acute nasopharyngitis by 6 months of age. More time spent outdoors and more intensified vitamin D supplementation for pregnant women may be needed to prevent the onset of acute nasopharyngitis in infants. PMID:24244212

  7. Short-Term Changes in Postoperative Cognitive Function in Children Aged 5 to 12 Years Undergoing General Anesthesia: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Aun, Cindy S T; McBride, Catherine; Lee, Anna; Lau, Angel S C; Chung, Raymond C K; Yeung, Chung Kwong; Lai, Kelly Y C; Gin, Tony

    2016-04-01

    Due to the neurotoxicity effects of general anesthesia (GA) and sedatives found in animal studies, there is a general recommendation to avoid nonurgent surgical procedures requiring anesthesia in children younger than 3 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of anesthesia-related postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) on the first day (Day 1) and at 6 weeks after elective noncardiac surgery in school-age children.This was a prospective cohort study of 118 children undergoing GA and 126 age-matched controls of school children aged 5 to 12 years. All children were given a panel of 4 neuropsychological assessments (Hong Kong List Learning for verbal memory, Visual Matching for processing speed, Visual Memory, and General Comprehension Skill from the Hong Kong Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children). The primary outcome was the incidence of POCD on Day 1 and at 6 weeks after surgery. POCD was defined as when at least 2 of the 4 cognitive function tests showed individual Z-scores ≤-1.96 or a combined Z-score ≤-1.96.Using the combined Z-score definition, the incidence of POCD in the GA group on Day 1 and at 6 weeks were 5.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.1-10.3) and 3.4% (95% CI: 1.1-8.0), respectively. No POCD was found using the other definition. The incidences of decline and improvement in neuropsychological tests were similar between groups over time except for a higher risk in visual matching impairment in the anesthesia group (11.9%) versus control group (1.6%) on Day 1 (P < 0.01). The adjusted relative risk ratio of postoperative cognitive decline to improvement between groups on Day 1 and at 6 weeks were 0.85 (95% CI: 0.10-7.05) and 0.45 (95% CI: 0.04-4.84), respectively. The observed risk of POCD is assumed to apply to current drugs and techniques used in GA.In conclusion, the incidence of POCD was low. GA was associated with a transient effect on visual matching. When using the widely accepted Z-score definitions and

  8. Seasonal variation in musculoskeletal extremity injuries in school children aged 6–12 followed prospectively over 2.5 years: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Jespersen, Eva; Holst, René; Franz, Claudia; Rexen, Christina T; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The type and level of physical activity in children vary over seasons and might thus influence the injury patterns. However, very little information is available on the distribution of injuries over the calendar year. This study aims to describe and analyse the seasonal variation in extremity injuries in children. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting 10 public schools in the municipality of Svendborg, Denmark. Participants A total of 1259 school children aged 6–12 years participating in the Childhood Health, Activity, and Motor Performance School Study Denmark. Methods School children were surveyed each week during 2.5 school-years. Musculoskeletal injuries were reported by parents answering automated mobile phone text questions (SMS-Track) on a weekly basis and diagnosed by clinicians. Data were analysed for prevalence and incidence rates over time with adjustments for gender and age. Results Injuries in the lower extremities were reported most frequently (n=1049). There was a significant seasonal variation in incidence and prevalence for lower extremity injuries and for lower and upper extremity injuries combined (n=1229). For the upper extremities (n=180), seasonal variation had a significant effect on the risk of prevalence. Analysis showed a 46% increase in injury incidence and a 32% increase in injury prevalence during summer relative to winter for lower and upper extremity injuries combined. Conclusions There are clear seasonal differences in the occurrence of musculoskeletal extremity injuries among children with almost twice as high injury incidence and prevalence estimates during autumn, summer and spring compared with winter. This suggests further research into the underlying causes for seasonal variation and calls for preventive strategies to be implemented in order to actively prepare and supervise children before and during high-risk periods. PMID:24401728

  9. Macronutrient intake in advanced age: Te Puāwaitanga o Ngā Tapuwae Kia ora Tonu, Life and Living in Advanced Age: A Cohort Study in New Zealand (LiLACS NZ).

    PubMed

    Wham, Carol; Teh, Ruth; Moyes, Simon A; Rolleston, Anna; Muru-Lanning, Marama; Hayman, Karen; Adamson, Ashley; Kerse, Ngaire

    2016-09-01

    As part of the 12-month follow-up of the longitudinal cohort study, Life and Living in Advanced Age: A Cohort Study in New Zealand, dietary intake was assessed in 216 Māori and 362 non-Māori octogenarians using repeat 24-h multiple pass recalls. Energy and macronutrient intakes were calculated, and food items reported were allocated to food groups used in the New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey (NZANS). Intakes were compared with the nutrient reference values (NRV) for Australia and New Zealand. The median BMI was higher for Māori (28·3 kg/m2) than for non-Māori (26·2 kg/m2) P=0·007. For Māori, median energy intake was 7·44 MJ/d for men and 6·06 MJ/d for women with 16·3 % energy derived from protein, 43·3 % from carbohydrate and 38·5 % from fat. Median energy intake was 7·91 and 6·26 MJ/d for non-Māori men and women, respectively, with 15·4 % of energy derived from protein, 45 % from carbohydrate and 36·7 % from fat. For both ethnic groups, bread was the top contributor to energy and carbohydrate intakes. Protein came from beef and veal, fish and seafood, bread, milk and poultry with the order differing by ethnic groups and sex. Fat came mainly from butter and margarine. Energy-adjusted protein was higher for Māori than non-Māori (P=0·049). For both ethnic groups, the median energy levels were similar, percent carbohydrate tended to be lower and percent fat higher compared with adults aged >70 years in NZANS. These unique cross-sectional data address an important gap in our understanding of dietary intake in this growing section of our population and highlight lack of age-appropriate NRV. PMID:27546175

  10. Trends in the incidence and mortality of multiple births by socioeconomic deprivation and maternal age in England: population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lucy K; Manktelow, Bradley N; Draper, Elizabeth S; Boyle, Elaine M; Johnson, Samantha J; Field, David J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate temporal trends in multiple birth rates and associated stillbirth and neonatal mortality by socioeconomic deprivation and maternal age in England. Design Population cohort study. Setting England. Participants All live births and stillbirths (1 January 1997 to 31 December 2008). Main outcome measures Multiple maternity rate, stillbirth and neonatal death rate by year of birth, decile of socioeconomic deprivation and maternal age. Results The overall rate of multiple maternities increased over time (+0.64% per annum 95% CI (0.47% to 0.81%)) with an increase in twin maternities (+0.85% per annum 95% CI (0.67% to 1.0%)) but a large decrease in triplet and higher order maternities (−8.32% per annum 95% CI (−9.39% to −7.25%)). Multiple maternities were significantly lower in the most deprived areas, and this was most evident in the older age groups. Women over 40 years of age from the most deprived areas had a 34% lower rate of multiple births compared with similar aged women from the most deprived areas (rate ratio (RR) 0.66 95% CI (0.61 to 0.73)). Multiple births remain at substantially higher risk of neonatal mortality (RR 6.30 95% CI (6.07 to 6.53)). However, for stillbirths, while twins remain at higher risk, this has decreased over time (1997–2000: RR 2.89 (2.69 to 3.10); 2005–2008: RR 2.22 95% CI (2.06 to 2.40)). Socioeconomic inequalities existed in mortality for singletons and multiple births. Conclusions This period has seen increasing rates of twin pregnancies and decreasing rates of higher order births which have coincided with changes in recommendations regarding assisted reproductive techniques. Socioeconomic differences in multiple births may reflect differential access to these treatments. Improved monitoring of multiple pregnancies is likely to have led to the reductions in stillbirths over this time. PMID:24699461

  11. Predictors (0-10 Months) of Psychopathology at Age 1 1/2 Years--A General Population Study in the Copenhagen Child Cohort CCC 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skovgaard, A. M.; Olsen, E. M.; Christiansen, E.; Houmann, T.; Landorph, S. L.; Jorgensen, T.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies of mental health problems in the first years of life are few. This study aims to investigate infancy predictors of psychopathology in the second year of life. Methods: A random general population sample of 210 children from the Copenhagen Child Birth Cohort CCC 2000 was investigated by data from National Danish…

  12. Twenty-year dynamics of hypertension in Iranian adults: age, period, and cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mostafa; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Baikpour, Masoud; Rafei, Ali; Fayaz, Mohammad; Heshmat, Ramin; Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Asgari, Fereshteh; Etemad, Koorosh; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi; Mohammad, Kazem

    2015-12-01

    Hypertension is a well-known health problem all over the world. Many studies have assessed its prevalence and associated risk factors, but all were cross-sectional and did not evaluate the trend of hypertension through all three different temporal dimensions including age, period, and cohort. So, we aimed to assess the 20-year dynamics of hypertension via the age-period-cohort model. Data from 74,155 subjects aged 25-60 years gathered through five national health surveys (1990-91, 1999, 2003, 2007, and 2011) were used in this study. The age-period-cohort effect on hypertension was analyzed using the intrinsic estimator model. The prevalence of hypertension increased with age for both genders except for males in 2003 and 2011 periods with drops of 3.5% for ages 55-60 and 8.1% for ages 50-60, respectively. As for the period effect, the prevalence of hypertension was almost constant in all age groups for both genders from 1990-1999. The cohort-based prevalence of hypertension showed a declining trend in all cohorts for females except for 2011 in birth cohort of 1950-1955 which remains stationary. The trend of prevalence for males also follows a decreasing trend except for periods of 2003, 2007, and 2011; birth cohorts of 1945-1949, 1975-1980, and 1950-1960 increase by 3.5%, 1.9%, and 8.1%, respectively. The age effect on the prevalence of hypertension showed an almost monotonic increasing trend. The period effect increased the total prevalence of hypertension from 1992 to 1997. The cohort effect also showed a monotonic decrease in hypertension prevalence except for a few discrepancies. PMID:26481410

  13. High alcohol consumption in middle aged adults is associated with poorer cognitive performance only in the low socioeconomic group. Results from the GAZEL cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sabia, Séverine; Guéguen, Alice; Berr, Claudine; Berkman, Lisa; Ankri, Joël; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2010-01-01

    Aims To examine the association of alcohol consumption over 10 years with cognitive performance in different socioeconomic groups. Design Prospective cohort study, the French GAZEL study. Setting France. Participants Employees of France’s national electricity and gas company. Measurements Alcohol intake was assessed annually, beginning in 1992, using questions on frequency and quantity of alcoholic beverages consumed in a week; used to define mean consumption and trajectory of alcohol intake over 10 years. Cognitive performance among participants aged ≥55 years (N=4073) was assessed in 2002–2004 using the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), a measure of psychomotor speed, attention and reasoning. Occupational position at age 35 and education were used as the markers of socioeconomic position. Findings All analyses were stratified by socioeconomic position. In the low occupational group, participants consuming a mean of more than 21 drinks per week had 2.1 points lower (95% CI: −3.9, −0.3) DSST score compared to those consuming 4–14 drinks per week. In participants with primary school education, the corresponding difference was 3.6 points (95% CI: −7.1,−0.0). No association between alcohol consumption and cognitive performance was observed in the intermediate and high socioeconomic groups, defined using either occupation or education. Analysis of trajectories of alcohol consumption showed that in the low socioeconomic groups large increase or decrease in alcohol consumption was associated with lower cognitive scores compared to stable consumption. Conclusions Our results suggest that high alcohol consumption is associated with poorer cognitive performance only in the low socioeconomic group, possibly due to greater cognitive reserve in the higher socioeconomic groups. PMID:20840170

  14. Socioeconomic Position, But Not African Genomic Ancestry, Is Associated With Blood Pressure in the Bambui-Epigen (Brazil) Cohort Study of Aging.

    PubMed

    Lima-Costa, M Fernanda; Mambrini, Juliana Vaz de Mello; Leite, Maria Lea Corrêa; Peixoto, Sérgio Viana; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo; Loyola Filho, Antônio Ignácio de; Gouveia, Mateus H; Leal, Thiago P; Pereira, Alexandre Costa; Macinko, James; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo

    2016-02-01

    The study objective is to examine the role of African genome origin on baseline and 11-year blood pressure trajectories in community-based ethnoracially admixed older adults in Brazil. Data come from 1272 participants (aged ≥60 years) of the Bambui cohort study of aging during 11 years of follow-up. Outcome measures were systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and hypertension control. Potential confounding variables were demographic characteristics, socioeconomic position (schooling and household income), and health indicators (smoking, sedentary lifestyle, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, waist circumference, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases), including antihypertensive drug use. We used 370 539 single-nucleotide polymorphisms to estimate each individual's African, European, and Native American trihybrid ancestry proportions. Median African, European, and Native American ancestry were 9.6%, 84.0%, and 5.3%, respectively. Among those with African ancestry, 59.4% came from East and 40.6% from West Africa. Baseline systolic and diastolic blood pressure, controlled hypertension, and their respective trajectories, were not significantly (P>0.05) associated with level (in quintiles) of African genomic ancestry. Similar results were found for West and East African subcontinental origins. Lower schooling level (<4 years versus higher) showed a significant and positive association with systolic blood pressure (Adjusted β=2.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.85-4.99). Lower monthly household income per capita (

  15. Targeted sequencing in candidate genes for atrial fibrillation: The Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Targeted Sequencing Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Honghuang; Sinner, Moritz F.; Brody, Jennifer A.; Arking, Dan E.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Rienstra, Michiel; Lubitz, Steven A.; Magnani, Jared W.; Sotoodehnia, Nona; McKnight, Barbara; McManus, David D.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Bis, Joshua C.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Muzny, Donna; Kovar, Christie L.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Gupta, Mayetri; Folsom, Aaron R.; Kääb, Stefan; Heckbert, Susan R.; Alonso, Alvaro; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Benjamin, Emelia J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common genetic variants that predispose to atrial fibrillation (AF). It is unclear whether rare and low-frequency variants in genes implicated by such GWAS confer additional risk of AF. Objective To study the association of genetic variants with AF at GWAS top loci. Methods In the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Targeted Sequencing Study, we selected and sequenced 77 target gene regions from GWAS loci of complex diseases or traits, including 4 genes hypothesized to be related to AF (PRRX1, CAV1, CAV2, and ZFHX3). Sequencing was performed in participants with (n = 948) and without (n = 3330) AF from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, the Cardiovascular Health Study, the Framingham Heart Study, and the Massachusetts General Hospital. Results One common variant (rs11265611; P = 1.70 × 10−6) intronic to IL6R (interleukin-6 receptor gene) was significantly associated with AF after Bonferroni correction (odds ratio 0.70; 95% confidence interval 0.58–0.85). The variant was not genotyped or imputed by prior GWAS, but it is in linkage disequilibrium (r2 = .69) with the single-nucleotide polymorphism, with the strongest association with AF so far at this locus (rs4845625). In the rare variant joint analysis, damaging variants within the PRRX1 region showed significant association with AF after Bonferroni correction (P = .01). Conclusions We identified 1 common single-nucleotide polymorphism and 1 gene region that were significantly associated with AF. Future sequencing efforts with larger sample sizes and more comprehensive genome coverage are anticipated to identify additional AF-related variants. PMID:24239840

  16. Hyperuricemia Is an Independent Risk Factor for New Onset Micro-Albuminuria in a Middle-Aged and Elderly Population: A Prospective Cohort Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hung-Yu; Lee, Pei-Hsien; Lei, Chen-Chou; Tung, Chun-Wu; Hsu, Yung-Chien; Huang, Tung-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Background Hyperuricemia is now regarded as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Micro-albuminuria is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease. We hypothesized that elevated serum uric acid (UA) is associated with development of micro-albuminuria in the general population. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a community-based prospective cohort study. A total of 1862 subjects from southern Taiwan, all older than 40 years, were screened and 993 of these participants without micro-albuminuria were followed for 4 years. Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio was measured two times per year. A multiple linear regression model indicated that serum UA was independently associated with ln(ACR) after adjustment for 8 factors (age, sex, and 6 metabolic metrics) (β = 0.194, p<0.01). Logistic regression analysis indicated that each 1 mg/dL increase of UA was associated with a 1.42-fold increased risk of micro-albuminuria after adjustment for the same 8 factors (OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.27–1.59, p<0.01). A Cox regression model using subjects with serum UA less than 5 mg/dL as reference group indicated higher hazard ratios (HRs) only found in subjects with serum UA more than 7 mg/dL (HR = 3.54, 95% CI: 2.11–5.93, p<0.01) and not in subjects with serum UA of 5 to 7 mg/dL (HR = 1.30, 95% CI: 0.82–2.07, p = 0.15). Conclusion Hyperuricemia is significantly associated with micro-albuminuria in middle-aged and elderly males and females from a general population in Taiwan. Elevated serum UA is an independent predictor for development of micro-albuminuria in this population. PMID:23637835

  17. Incidence and Mortality Trends in German Women with Breast Cancer Using Age, Period and Cohort 1999 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Berkemeyer, Shoma; Lemke, Dorothea; Hense, Hans Werner

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal analysis investigates period (P), often as years. Additional scales of time are age (A) and birth cohort (C) Aim of our study was to use ecological APC analysis for women breast cancer incidence and mortality in Germany. Nation-wide new cases and deaths were obtained from Robert Koch Institute and female population from federal statistics, 1999–2008. Data was stratified into ten 5-years age-groups starting 20–24 years, ten birth cohorts starting 1939–43, and two calendar periods 1999–2003 and 2004–2008. Annual incidence and mortality were calculated: cases to 100,000 women per year. Data was analyzed using glm and apc packages of R. Breast cancer incidence and mortality increased with age. Secular rise in breast cancer incidence and decline in mortality was observed for period1999-2008. Breast cancer incidence and mortality declined with cohorts; cohorts 1950s showed highest incidence and mortality. Age-cohort best explained incidence and mortality followed by age-period-cohort with overall declining trends. Declining age-cohort mortality could be probable. Declining age-cohort incidence would require future biological explanations or rendered statistical artefact. Cohorts 1949–1958 could be unique in having highest incidence and mortality in recent time or future period associations could emerge relatively stronger to cohort to provide additional explanation of temporal change over cohorts. PMID:26933878

  18. A genome-wide association study for venous thromboembolism: the extended cohorts for heart and aging research in genomic epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium.

    PubMed

    Tang, Weihong; Teichert, Martina; Chasman, Daniel I; Heit, John A; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Li, Guo; Pankratz, Nathan; Leebeek, Frank W; Paré, Guillaume; de Andrade, Mariza; Tzourio, Christophe; Psaty, Bruce M; Basu, Saonli; Ruiter, Rikje; Rose, Lynda; Armasu, Sebastian M; Lumley, Thomas; Heckbert, Susan R; Uitterlinden, André G; Lathrop, Mark; Rice, Kenneth M; Cushman, Mary; Hofman, Albert; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Glazer, Nicole L; Pankow, James S; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Amouyel, Philippe; Bis, Joshua C; Bovill, Edwin G; Kong, Xiaoxiao; Tracy, Russell P; Boerwinkle, Eric; Rotter, Jerome I; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Loth, Daan W; Stricker, Bruno H Ch; Ridker, Paul M; Folsom, Aaron R; Smith, Nicholas L

    2013-07-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common, heritable disease resulting in high rates of hospitalization and mortality. Yet few associations between VTE and genetic variants, all in the coagulation pathway, have been established. To identify additional genetic determinants of VTE, we conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) among individuals of European ancestry in the extended cohorts for heart and aging research in genomic epidemiology (CHARGE) VTE consortium. The discovery GWAS comprised 1,618 incident VTE cases out of 44,499 participants from six community-based studies. Genotypes for genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were imputed to approximately 2.5 million SNPs in HapMap and association with VTE assessed using study-design appropriate regression methods. Meta-analysis of these results identified two known loci, in F5 and ABO. Top 1,047 tag SNPs (P ≤ 0.0016) from the discovery GWAS were tested for association in an additional 3,231 cases and 3,536 controls from three case-control studies. In the combined data from these two stages, additional genome-wide significant associations were observed on 4q35 at F11 (top SNP rs4253399, intronic to F11) and on 4q28 at FGG (rs6536024, 9.7 kb from FGG; P < 5.0 × 10(-13) for both). The associations at the FGG locus were not completely explained by previously reported variants. Loci at or near SUSD1 and OTUD7A showed borderline yet novel associations (P < 5.0 × 10(-6) ) and constitute new candidate genes. In conclusion, this large GWAS replicated key genetic associations in F5 and ABO, and confirmed the importance of F11 and FGG loci for VTE. Future studies are warranted to better characterize the associations with F11 and FGG and to replicate the new candidate associations.

  19. Prenatal Exposure to Phthalate Esters and Behavioral Syndromes in Children at 8 Years of Age: Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Yin-Ju; Ku, Hsiu-Ying; Su, Pen-Hua; Chen, Suh-Jen; Chen, Hsiao-Yen; Liao, Pao-Chi; Chen, Wei-J.

    2014-01-01

    , Chen HY, Liao PC, Chen WJ, Wang SL. 2015. Prenatal exposure to phthalate esters and behavioral syndromes in children at 8 years of age: Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study. Environ Health Perspect 123:95–100; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307154 PMID:25280125

  20. Changing predictors of self-rated health: Disentangling age and cohort effects.

    PubMed

    Spuling, Svenja M; Wurm, Susanne; Tesch-Römer, Clemens; Huxhold, Oliver

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that some predictors of self-rated health (SRH) become more important with age, while others become less important. Although based on cross-sectional data, these findings are often interpreted as age-related changes in evaluation criteria. However, results could be due to cohort effects as well. We attempted to disentangle age and cohort effects by combining and comparing cross-sectional and longitudinal data from a large-scale longitudinal survey. The sample consisted of 2,982 community-dwelling participants from 2 measurement occasions of the German Ageing Survey ages 40-81 years at baseline. Multigroup latent regression models were used to examine whether associations between various predictors and SRH differed between age groups and whether they changed over time. Comparisons of cross-sectional age differences in SRH-predictor associations and longitudinal age changes in the same associations allow the identification of cohort effects. Number of chronic conditions showed a constant negative association with SRH independently of age and cohort. In contrast, the association between SRH and all other predictors (physical functioning, exercise, life satisfaction, depressive symptoms, and positive affect) changed longitudinally, pointing to an age effect. Prediction of SRH by depressive symptoms and positive affect showed an additional cohort effect: The negative associations between depressive symptoms and SRH and the positive associations between positive affect and SRH were stronger among younger cohorts. The findings provide not only longitudinal support for previous cross-sectional studies, but also show the impact of historical change: Emotional facets of psychological well-being increase in relevance for SRH across cohorts.

  1. COSMIC (Cohort Studies of Memory in an International Consortium): An international consortium to identify risk and protective factors and biomarkers of cognitive ageing and dementia in diverse ethnic and sociocultural groups

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A large number of longitudinal studies of population-based ageing cohorts are in progress internationally, but the insights from these studies into the risk and protective factors for cognitive ageing and conditions like mild cognitive impairment and dementia have been inconsistent. Some of the problems confounding this research can be reduced by harmonising and pooling data across studies. COSMIC (Cohort Studies of Memory in an International Consortium) aims to harmonise data from international cohort studies of cognitive ageing, in order to better understand the determinants of cognitive ageing and neurocognitive disorders. Methods/Design Longitudinal studies of cognitive ageing and dementia with at least 500 individuals aged 60 years or over are eligible and invited to be members of COSMIC. There are currently 17 member studies, from regions that include Asia, Australia, Europe, and North America. A Research Steering Committee has been established, two meetings of study leaders held, and a website developed. The initial attempts at harmonising key variables like neuropsychological test scores are in progress. Discussion The challenges of international consortia like COSMIC include efficient communication among members, extended use of resources, and data harmonisation. Successful harmonisation will facilitate projects investigating rates of cognitive decline, risk and protective factors for mild cognitive impairment, and biomarkers of mild cognitive impairment and dementia. Extended implications of COSMIC could include standardised ways of collecting and reporting data, and a rich cognitive ageing database being made available to other researchers. COSMIC could potentially transform our understanding of the epidemiology of cognitive ageing, and have a world-wide impact on promoting successful ageing. PMID:24195705

  2. Spinal pain in adolescents: prevalence, incidence, and course: a school-based two-year prospective cohort study in 1,300 Danes aged 11–13

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The severity and course of spinal pain is poorly understood in adolescents. The study aimed to determine the prevalence and two-year incidence, as well as the course, frequency, and intensity of pain in the neck, mid back, and low back (spinal pain). Methods This study was a school-based prospective cohort study. All 5th and 6th grade students (11–13 years) at 14 schools in the Region of Southern Denmark were invited to participate (N = 1,348). Data were collected in 2010 and again two years later, using an e-survey completed during school time. Results The lifetime prevalence of spinal pain was 86% and 89% at baseline and follow-up, respectively. A group of 13.6% (95% CI: 11.8, 15.6) at baseline and 19.5% (95% CI: 17.1, 22.0) at follow-up reported that they had pain frequently. The frequency of pain was strongly associated with the intensity of pain, i.e., the majority of the participants reported their pain as relatively infrequent and of low intensity, whereas the participants with frequent pain also experienced pain of higher intensity. The two-year incidence of spinal pain varied between 40% and 60% across the physical locations. Progression of pain from one to more locations and from infrequent to more frequent was common over the two-year period. Conclusions Spinal pain is common at the age of 11–15 years, but some have more pain than others. The pain is likely to progress, i.e., to more locations, higher frequency, and higher pain intensity over a two-year period. PMID:24885549

  3. Fetal and Childhood Exposure to Phthalate Diesters and Cognitive Function in Children Up to 12 Years of Age: Taiwanese Maternal and Infant Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Han-Bin; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Su, Pen-Hua; Huang, Po-Chin; Sun, Chien-Wen; Wang, Chien-Jen; Chen, Hsiao-Yen; Hsiung, Chao A; Wang, Shu-Li

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the association between environmental phthalate exposure and children's neurocognitive development. This longitudinal study examined cognitive function in relation to pre-and postnatal phthalate exposure in children 2-12 years old. We recruited 430 pregnant women in their third trimester in Taichung, Taiwan from 2001-2002. A total of 110, 79, 76, and 73 children were followed up at ages 2, 5, 8, and 11, respectively. We evaluated the children's cognitive function at four different time points using the Bayley and Wechsler tests for assessing neurocognitive functions and intelligence (IQ). Urine samples were collected from mothers during pregnancy and from children at each follow-up visit. They were analyzed for seven metabolite concentrations of widely used phthalate esters. These esters included monomethyl phthalate, monoethyl phthalate, mono-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, and three metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, namely, mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate. We constructed a linear mixed model to examine the relationships between the phthalate metabolite concentrations and the Bayley and IQ scores. We found significant inverse associations between the children's levels of urinary mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate and the sum of the three metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and their IQ scores (β = -1.818; 95% CI: -3.061, -0.574, p = 0.004 for mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate; β = -1.575; 95% CI: -3.037, -0.113, p = 0.035 for the sum of the three metabolites) after controlling for maternal phthalate levels and potential confounders. We did not observe significant associations between maternal phthalate exposure and the children's IQ scores. Children's but not prenatal phthalate exposure was associated with decreased cognitive development in the young children. Large-scale prospective cohort studies are needed to confirm these findings in

  4. Cohort profile: the Spanish WORKing life Social Security (WORKss) cohort study

    PubMed Central

    López Gómez, María Andrée; Durán, Xavier; Zaballa, Elena; Sanchez-Niubo, Albert; Delclos, George L; Benavides, Fernando G

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The global economy is changing the labour market and social protection systems in Europe. The effect of both changes on health needs to be monitored in view of an ageing population and the resulting increase in prevalence of chronic health conditions. The Spanish WORKing life Social Security (WORKss) cohort study provides unique longitudinal data to study the impact of labour trajectories and employment conditions on health, in terms of sickness absence, permanent disability and death. Participants The WORKss cohort originated from the Continuous Working Life Sample (CWLS) generated by the General Directorate for the Organization of the Social Security in Spain. The CWLS contains a 4% representative sample of all individuals in contact with the Social Security system. The WORKss cohort exclusively includes individuals with a labour trajectory from 1981 or later. In 2004, the cohort was initiated with 1 022 779 Social Security members: 840 770 (82.2%) contributors and 182 009 (17.8%) beneficiaries aged 16 and older. Findings to date The WORKss cohort includes demographic characteristics, chronological data about employment history, retirement, permanent disability and death. These data make possible the measurement of incidence of permanent disability, the number of potential years of working life lost, and the number of contracts and inactive periods with the Social Security system. The WORKss cohort was linked to temporary sickness absence registries to study medical diagnoses that lead to permanent disability and consequently to an earlier exit from the labour market in unhealthy conditions. Future plans Thanks to its administrative source, the WORKss cohort study will continue follow-up in the coming years, keeping the representativeness of the Spanish population affiliated to the Social Security system. The linkage between the WORKss cohort and temporary sickness absence registries is envisioned to continue. Future plans include the linkage of

  5. Utilizing Genetic Predisposition Score in Predicting Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Incidence: A Community-based Cohort Study on Middle-aged Koreans.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye Yin; Choi, Hyung Jin; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2015-08-01

    Contribution of genetic predisposition to risk prediction of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was investigated using a prospective study in middle-aged adults in Korea. From a community cohort of 6,257 subjects with 8 yr' follow-up, genetic predisposition score with subsets of 3, 18, 36 selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (genetic predisposition score; GPS-3, GPS-18, GPS-36) in association with T2DM were determined, and their effect was evaluated using risk prediction models. Rs5215, rs10811661, and rs2237892 were in significant association with T2DM, and hazard ratios per risk allele score increase were 1.11 (95% confidence intervals: 1.06-1.17), 1.09 (1.01-1.05), 1.04 (1.02-1.07) with GPS-3, GPS-18, GPS-36, respectively. Changes in AUC upon addition of GPS were significant in simple and clinical models, but the significance disappeared in full clinical models with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). For net reclassification index (NRI), significant improvement observed in simple (range 5.1%-8.6%) and clinical (3.1%-4.4%) models were no longer significant in the full models. Influence of genetic predisposition in prediction ability of T2DM incidence was no longer significant when HbA1c was added in the models, confirming HbA1c as a strong predictor for T2DM risk. Also, the significant SNPs verified in our subjects warrant further research, e.g. gene-environmental interaction and epigenetic studies.

  6. The impact of ethnicity/race on the association between the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index and neurocognitive function among HIV-infected persons.

    PubMed

    Marquine, M J; Sakamoto, M; Dufour, C; Rooney, A; Fazeli, P; Umlauf, A; Gouaux, B; Franklin, D; Ellis, R; Letendre, S; Cherner, M; Heaton, R K; Grant, I; Moore, D J

    2016-08-01

    The Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index was developed as a risk index for health outcomes in HIV, and it has been consistently associated with mortality. It shows a significant, yet relatively weak, association with neurocognitive impairment, and little is known about its utility among ethnic/racial minority groups. We examined whether the association between the VACS Index and neurocognition differed by ethnic/racial group. Participants included 674 HIV-infected individuals (369 non-Hispanic whites, 111 non-Hispanic blacks, and 194 Hispanics). Neurocognitive function was assessed via a comprehensive battery. Scaled scores for each neurocognitive test were averaged to calculate domain and global neurocognitive scores. Models adjusting for demographics and HIV disease characteristics not included in the VACS Index showed that higher VACS Index scores (indicating poorer health) were significantly associated with worse global neurocognition among non-Hispanic whites. This association was comparable in non-Hispanic blacks, but nonsignificant among Hispanics (with similar results for English and Spanish speaking). We obtained comparable findings in analyses adjusting for other covariates (psychiatric and medical comorbidities and lifestyle factors). Analyses of individual neurocognitive domains showed similar results in learning and delayed recall. For other domains, there was an effect of the VACS Index and no significant interactions with race/ethnicity. Different components of the VACS Index were associated with global neurocognition by race/ethnicity. In conclusion, the association between the VACS Index and neurocognitive function differs by ethnic/racial group. Identifying key indicators of HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment by ethnic/racial group might play an important role in furthering our understanding of the biomarkers of neuroAIDS. PMID:26679535

  7. Carotid Intima-Media Thickness at Age 30, Birth Weight, Accelerated Growth during Infancy and Breastfeeding: A Birth Cohort Study in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Linhares, Rogério da Silva; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; de Barros, Fernando Celso Lopes Fernandes; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) at age 30 and birth characteristics, growth during infancy, and breastfeeding duration, among subjects who have been prospectively followed since birth. Methods and Results In 1982, all births in the city of Pelotas, southern Brazil, were identified and those children (n = 5,914) whose families lived in the urban area of the city have been followed and evaluated at several time points. The cohort participants were evaluated in 2012–13, and IMT was measured at the posterior wall of the right and left common carotid arteries in longitudinal planes using ultrasound imaging. We obtained valid IMT measurements for 3,188 individuals. Weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) at age 2 years, weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) at age 4, height-for-age z-score (HAZ) at 4 years, WAZ at age 4 and relative conditional weight at 4 years were positively associated with IMT, even after controlling for confounding variables. The beta-coefficient associated with ≥1 s.d. WAZ at age 2 (compared to those with a <–1 s.d.) was 3.62 μm (95% CI 0.86 to 6.38). The beta-coefficient associated with ≥1 s.d. WHZ at 4 (in relation to <–1 s.d) was 3.83 μm (95% CI 0.24 to 7.42). For HAZ at 4, the beta-coefficient for ≥1 s.d. in relation to <–1 s.d. was 4.19 μm (95% CI 1.14 to 7.25). For WAZ at 4, the beta-coefficient associated with ≥1 s.d. in relation to <–1 s.d. was 4.28 μm (95% CI 1.59 to 6.97). The beta-coefficient associated with conditional weight gain at age 2–4 was 1.26 μm (95% CI 0.49 to 2.02). Conclusion IMT at age 30 was positively associated with WAZ at age 2 years, WHZ at age 4, HAZ at age 4, WAZ at age 4 and conditional weight gain at age 4 years. PMID:25611747

  8. Sex and age differences in the effect of obesity on incidence of hypertension in the Japanese population: A large historical cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Misuzu; Hata, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Elevated risk of death from any cause and stroke associated with high body mass index (BMI) values decline with aging. However, it is not clear whether the effect of obesity on the incidence of hypertension varies by sex or age. Cox regression analyses were performed using a large historical cohort composed of 6803 men and 22,800 women. In the final model, which included the main effect (sex, age, and BMI), all two-way interactions (sex*age, sex*BMI, and age*BMI), a three-way interaction (sex*age*BMI), and adjusted variables determined by backward elimination, the three-way interaction and two of the two-way interactions (age*sex and age*BMI) were not significant; the remaining two-way interaction between sex and BMI was significant (P = .016). In the next step, the effect of BMI on the incidence of hypertension stratified by sex was evaluated. Hazard ratios (HRs) were significantly higher for BMI 27.0 to <29.0 and ≥29.0 kg/m(2) than for the HR for BMI 21.0 to <23.0 kg/m(2) in women (HR, 1.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32-1.59 and HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.29-1.65, respectively), but not in men (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.98-1.33 and HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.77-1.32, respectively). The effect of obesity on the incidence of hypertension is stronger in women than in men.

  9. Small-for-gestational age and large-for-gestational age thresholds to predict infants at risk of adverse delivery and neonatal outcomes: are current charts adequate? An observational study from the Born in Bradford cohort

    PubMed Central

    Norris, T; Johnson, W; Farrar, D; Tuffnell, D; Wright, J; Cameron, N

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Construct an ethnic-specific chart and compare the prediction of adverse outcomes using this chart with the clinically recommended UK-WHO and customised birth weight charts using cut-offs for small-for-gestational age (SGA: birth weight <10th centile) and large-for-gestational age (LGA: birth weight >90th centile). Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Born in Bradford (BiB) study, UK. Participants 3980 White British and 4448 Pakistani infants with complete data for gestational age, birth weight, ethnicity, maternal height, weight and parity. Main outcome measures Prevalence of SGA and LGA, using the three charts and indicators of diagnostic utility (sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC)) of these chart-specific cut-offs to predict delivery and neonatal outcomes and a composite outcome. Results In White British and Pakistani infants, the prevalence of SGA and LGA differed depending on the chart used. Increased risk of SGA was observed when using the UK-WHO and customised charts as opposed to the ethnic-specific chart, while the opposite was apparent when classifying LGA infants. However, the predictive utility of all three charts to identify adverse clinical outcomes was poor, with only the prediction of shoulder dystocia achieving an AUROC>0.62 on all three charts. Conclusions Despite being recommended in national clinical guidelines, the UK-WHO and customised birth weight charts perform poorly at identifying infants at risk of adverse neonatal outcomes. Being small or large may increase the risk of an adverse outcome; however, size alone is not sensitive or specific enough with current detection to be useful. However, a significant amount of missing data for some of the outcomes may have limited the power needed to determine true associations. PMID:25783424

  10. Lead exposure and the central auditory processing abilities and cognitive development of urban children: the Cincinnati Lead Study cohort at age 5 years

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, K.N.; Succop, P.A.; Berger, O.G.; Keith, R.W. )

    1992-01-01

    This analysis examined the relationship between lead exposure as registered in whole blood (PbB) and the central auditory processing abilities and cognitive developmental status of the Cincinnati cohort (N = 259) at age 5 years. Although the effects were small, higher prenatal, neonatal, and postnatal PbB levels were associated with poorer central auditory processing abilities on the Filtered Word Subtest of the SCAN (a screening test for auditory processing disorders). Higher postnatal PbB levels were associated with poorer performance on all cognitive developmental subscales of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC). However, following adjustment for measures of the home environment and maternal intelligence, few statistically or near statistically significant associations remained. Our findings are discussed in the context of the related issues of confounding and the detection of weak associations in high risk populations.

  11. The Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES) project--design, population and data harmonization of a large-scale, international study.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, Paolo; Bobak, Martin; Borsch-Supan, Axel; Brenner, Hermann; Eriksson, Sture; Grodstein, Fran; Jansen, Eugene; Jenab, Mazda; Juerges, Hendrik; Kampman, Ellen; Kee, Frank; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Park, Yikyung; Tjonneland, Anne; van Duijn, Cornelia; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wolk, Alicja; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Bamia, Christina; Trichopoulou, Antonia

    2014-12-01

    There is a public health demand to prevent health conditions which lead to increased morbidity and mortality among the rapidly-increasing elderly population. Data for the incidence of such conditions exist in cohort studies worldwide, which, however, differ in various aspects. The Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES) project aims at harmonizing data from existing major longitudinal studies for the elderly whilst focussing on cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, cancer, fractures and cognitive impairment in order to estimate their prevalence, incidence and cause-specific mortality, and identify lifestyle, socioeconomic, and genetic determinants and biomarkers for the incidence of and mortality from these conditions. A survey instrument assessing ageing-related conditions of the elderly will be also developed. Fourteen cohort studies participate in CHANCES with 683,228 elderly (and 150,210 deaths), from 23 European and three non-European countries. So far, 287 variables on health conditions and a variety of exposures, including biomarkers and genetic data have been harmonized. Different research hypotheses are investigated with meta-analyses. The results which will be produced can help international organizations, governments and policy-makers to better understand the broader implications and consequences of ageing and thus make informed decisions.

  12. Corporal Punishment and Child Behavioural and Cognitive Outcomes through 5?Years of Age: Evidence from a Contemporary Urban Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Michael J.; Nicklas, Eric; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and determinants of spanking of children at 3?years of age and the associations between spanking and externalizing behaviour and receptive verbal ability at age 5?years. Overall, we find maternal spanking rates of 55.2% and paternal rates of 43.2% at age 3?years. Mothers facing greater stress and those who…

  13. Age-period-cohort analysis of smoking prevalence among young adults in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Smoking prevalence among Korean men in their thirties is substantially high (approximately 50%). An in-depth analysis of smoking trends among young adults in their twenties is necessary to devise antismoking policies for the next 10 years. This study aimed to identify the contributions of age, period, and birth cohort effects on smoking prevalence in young adults. METHODS: Subjects comprised 181,136 adults (83,947 men: 46.3%; 97,189 women: 53.7%) aged 19 to 30 years from the 2008-2013 Korea Community Health Survey. Smoking prevalence adjusted with reference to the 2008 population was applied to the age-period-cohort (APC) model to identify the independent effects of each factor. RESULTS: For men, smoking prevalence rapidly escalated among subjects aged 19 to 22 years and slowed down among those aged 23 to 30 years, declined during 2008 to 2010 but stabilized during 2011 to 2013, and declined in birth cohorts prior to 1988 but stabilized in subjects born after 1988. However, in APC models, smoking prevalence increased with age in the 1988 to 1991 birth cohort. In this birth cohort, smoking prevalence at age 19 to 20 years was approximately 24% but increased to 40% when the subjects turned 23 to 24 years. For women, smoking prevalence was too low to generate consistent results. CONCLUSIONS: Over the past six years and in recent birth cohorts, smoking prevalence in adults aged 19 to 30 years has declined and is stable. Smoking prevalence should be more closely followed as it remains susceptible to an increase depending on antismoking policies or social conditions. PMID:27197740

  14. Social Withdrawal Behaviour at One Year of Age Is Associated with Delays in Reaching Language Milestones in the EDEN Mother-Child Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Guedeney, Antoine; Forhan, Anne; de Agostini, Maria; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Heude, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between social withdrawal behaviour at one year and motor and language milestones. Materials and Methods One-year old children from the EDEN French population-based birth cohort study (Study on the pre- and postnatal determinants of the child’s development and prospective health Birth Cohort Study) were included. Social withdrawal at one year was assessed by trained midwives using the Alarm Distress BaBy (ADBB) scale. Midwives concurrently examined infants’ motor and language milestones. Parents reported on child’s psychomotor and language milestones, during the interview with the midwife. Results After adjusting for potential confounding factors, social withdrawal behaviour was significantly associated with concurrent delays in motor and language milestones assessed by the midwife or the parents. Discussion Higher scores on social withdrawal behaviour as assessed with the ADBB were associated with delays in reaching language milestones, and to a lesser extent with lower motor ability scores. Taking the contribution of social withdrawal behaviour into account may help understand the unfolding of developmental difficulties in children. PMID:27391482

  15. Rheumatic Heart Disease-Attributable Mortality at Ages 5–69 Years in Fiji: A Five-Year, National, Population-Based Record-Linkage Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Tom; Kado, Joseph; Miller, Anne E.; Ward, Brenton; Heenan, Rachel; Colquhoun, Samantha M.; Bärnighausen, Till W.; Mirabel, Mariana; Bloom, David E.; Bailey, Robin L.; Tukana, Isimeli N.; Steer, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is considered a major public health problem in developing countries, although scarce data are available to substantiate this. Here we quantify mortality from RHD in Fiji during 2008–2012 in people aged 5–69 years. Methods and Findings Using 1,773,999 records derived from multiple sources of routine clinical and administrative data, we used probabilistic record-linkage to define a cohort of 2,619 persons diagnosed with RHD, observed for all-cause mortality over 11,538 person-years. Using relative survival methods, we estimated there were 378 RHD-attributable deaths, almost half of which occurred before age 40 years. Using census data as the denominator, we calculated there were 9.9 deaths (95% CI 9.8–10.0) and 331 years of life-lost (YLL, 95% CI 330.4–331.5) due to RHD per 100,000 person-years, standardised to the portion of the WHO World Standard Population aged 0–69 years. Valuing life using Fiji’s per-capita gross domestic product, we estimated these deaths cost United States Dollar $6,077,431 annually. Compared to vital registration data for 2011–2012, we calculated there were 1.6-times more RHD-attributable deaths than the number reported, and found our estimate of RHD mortality exceeded all but the five leading reported causes of premature death, based on collapsed underlying cause-of-death diagnoses. Conclusions Rheumatic heart disease is a leading cause of premature death as well as an important economic burden in this setting. Age-standardised death rates are more than twice those reported in current global estimates. Linkage of routine data provides an efficient tool to better define the epidemiology of neglected diseases. PMID:26371755

  16. Age-related differences in suicidality between young people and older adults with depression: data from a nationwide depression cohort study in Korea (the CRESCEND study).

    PubMed

    Seo, Ho-Jun; Song, Hoo Rim; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Kim, Jung-Bum; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Jun, Tae-Youn

    2015-01-01

    This study compared young people and older adults with depression to identify differences in suicidality between these groups. A total of 1003 patients with moderate to severe depression (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HDRS] score ≥14) were recruited from a national sample of 18 hospitals. Of the patients included in this study, 103 (10.3%) were placed in the younger group (age <25years) and 900 (89.7%) were placed in the older group (age ≥25years). Suicide-related variables and predictive factors associated with significant suicidal ideation were compared between the two groups. Regardless of the severity of depression, subjects in the younger group were more likely than were those in the older group to report significant suicidal ideation (scores ≥6 on the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation [SSI-B], 79.6 vs. 53.7%, respectively; p<0.001), have had a suicide attempt at the current episode (4.9 vs. 1.6%, respectively; p=0.037), and have a history of suicide attempts (43.7 vs. 19.4%, respectively; p<0.001). Logistic regression models revealed that, in contrast to the predictive factors in the older group, subjects in the younger group were more affected by their history of suicide attempts (OR [95% CI]: 12.4, [1.5-99.1]; p=0.018) and depressive episodes (OR [95% CI]: 13.0, [1.6-104.0]; p=0.016). Also in contrast to the older group, an increase in HDRS score was not identified as a possible precipitating factor of significant suicidal ideation in younger subjects. The present findings demonstrate that suicidality in depressed young people was more severe than in older adults, but that suicidality was not correlated with the severity of depression. These data suggest that close attention should be paid to young people even in mild or moderate depression.

  17. Materialism across the life span: An age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Esther D T; Pieters, Rik G M

    2016-09-01

    This research examined the development of materialism across the life span. Two initial studies revealed that (a) lay beliefs were that materialism declines with age and (b) previous research findings also implied a modest, negative relationship between age and materialism. Yet, previous research has considered age only as a linear control variable, thereby precluding the possibility of more intricate relationships between age and materialism. Moreover, prior studies have relied on cross-sectional data and thus confound age and cohort effects. To improve on this, the main study used longitudinal data from 8 waves spanning 9 years of over 4,200 individuals (16 to 90 years) to examine age effects on materialism while controlling for cohort and period effects. Using a multivariate multilevel latent growth model, it found that materialism followed a curvilinear trajectory across the life span, with the lowest levels at middle age and higher levels before and after that. Thus, in contrast to lay beliefs, materialism increased in older age. Moreover, age effects on materialism differed markedly between 3 core themes of materialism: acquisition centrality, possession-defined success, and acquisition as the pursuit of happiness. In particular, acquisition centrality and possession-defined success were higher at younger and older age. Independent of these age effects, older birth cohorts were oriented more toward possession-defined success, whereas younger birth cohorts were oriented more toward acquisition centrality. The economic downturn since 2008 led to a decrease in acquisition as the pursuit of happiness and in desires for personal growth, but to an increase in desires for achievement. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27560768

  18. Materialism across the life span: An age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Esther D T; Pieters, Rik G M

    2016-09-01

    This research examined the development of materialism across the life span. Two initial studies revealed that (a) lay beliefs were that materialism declines with age and (b) previous research findings also implied a modest, negative relationship between age and materialism. Yet, previous research has considered age only as a linear control variable, thereby precluding the possibility of more intricate relationships between age and materialism. Moreover, prior studies have relied on cross-sectional data and thus confound age and cohort effects. To improve on this, the main study used longitudinal data from 8 waves spanning 9 years of over 4,200 individuals (16 to 90 years) to examine age effects on materialism while controlling for cohort and period effects. Using a multivariate multilevel latent growth model, it found that materialism followed a curvilinear trajectory across the life span, with the lowest levels at middle age and higher levels before and after that. Thus, in contrast to lay beliefs, materialism increased in older age. Moreover, age effects on materialism differed markedly between 3 core themes of materialism: acquisition centrality, possession-defined success, and acquisition as the pursuit of happiness. In particular, acquisition centrality and possession-defined success were higher at younger and older age. Independent of these age effects, older birth cohorts were oriented more toward possession-defined success, whereas younger birth cohorts were oriented more toward acquisition centrality. The economic downturn since 2008 led to a decrease in acquisition as the pursuit of happiness and in desires for personal growth, but to an increase in desires for achievement. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Methodological aspects of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Victora, Cesar Gomes; Araújo, Cora Luiza Pavin; Menezes, Ana Maria Batista; Hallal, Pedro Curi; Vieira, Maria de Fátima; Neutzling, Marilda Borges; Gonçalves, Helen; Valle, Neiva Cristina; Lima, Rosangela Costa; Anselmi, Luciana; Behague, Dominique; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Barros, Fernando Celso

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the main methodological aspects of a cohort study, with emphasis on its recent phases, which may be relevant to investigators planning to carry out similar studies. In 1993, a population based study was launched in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. All 5,249 newborns delivered in the city’s hospitals were enrolled, and sub-samples were visited at the ages of one, three and six months and of one and four years. In 2004-5 it was possible to trace 87.5% of the cohort at the age of 10-12 years. Sub-studies are addressing issues related to oral health, psychological development and mental health, body composition, and ethnography. Birth cohort studies are essential for investigating the early determinants of adult disease and nutritional status, yet few such studies are available from low and middle-income countries where these determinants may differ from those documented in more developed settings. PMID:16410981

  20. Decreasing Sports Activity with Increasing Age? Findings from a 20-Year Longitudinal and Cohort Sequence Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breuer, Christoph; Wicker, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    According to cross-sectional studies in sport science literature, decreasing sports activity with increasing age is generally assumed. In this paper, the validity of this assumption is checked by applying more effective methods of analysis, such as longitudinal and cohort sequence analyses. With the help of 20 years' worth of data records from the…

  1. Access to Resources in Different Age-Cohorts: Implications for Activity Level, Loneliness, and Life Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmberg, Bo

    This thesis uses a resource theoretical approach to study and analyze social psychological phenomena in different age-cohorts. Resources are seen as any asset the person has access to in a certain situation. Access to resources are crucial to meet the demands of the surrounding environment. When the resources are sufficient to cope with the…

  2. Comment: Distinguishing Cohort Effects from Age*Period Effects on Non-Marital Fertility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Steve

    2009-01-01

    In the article "Cohort Effects on Non-marital Fertility," in this issue of "Social Forces," Jean Stockard employs a novel strategy for disentangling cohort, period, and age effects on the non-marital fertility ratio. In a model with fixed-effect controls for age and for time period, the author documents evidence for three cohort-specific factors…

  3. Cohort Profile: The Limache, Chile, birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia; Zumelzú, Elinor; Rona, Roberto J

    2014-01-01

    The Limache cohort was set up to assess the programming and life course events hypotheses in relation to cardiovascular risk factors and chronic respiratory conditions, especially asthma, in the context of an unprecedented economic growth in Chile. The cohort was a representative sample of 1232 participants born between 1974 and 1978 in the hospital of Limache. The study includes data collected at birth, during the 1st year of life, at 22 to 28 years (collected between 2000 and 2002) and at 32 to 38 years (collected between 2010 and 2012). The data collected include anthropometric measurements at birth, 1st year of life and in adulthood, socio-economic and demographic data, lifestyle information including smoking, alcohol consumption and food intake, respiratory symptoms, lung function, broncho-reactivity to methacholine and skin prick reaction to eight allergens, measurement of cardiovascular risk factors and information on common mental health, mainly in the most recent study. The principal researchers welcome collaborative projects, especially those that will compare similar data sets in other settings [E-mail: hamigo@med.uchile.cl]. PMID:24366489

  4. Cohort profile: The Limache, Chile, birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia; Zumelzú, Elinor; Rona, Roberto J

    2014-08-01

    The Limache cohort was set up to assess the programming and life course events hypotheses in relation to cardiovascular risk factors and chronic respiratory conditions, especially asthma, in the context of an unprecedented economic growth in Chile. The cohort was a representative sample of 1232 participants born between 1974 and 1978 in the hospital of Limache. The study includes data collected at birth, during the 1st year of life, at 22 to 28 years (collected between 2000 and 2002) and at 32 to 38 years (collected between 2010 and 2012). The data collected include anthropometric measurements at birth, 1st year of life and in adulthood, socio-economic and demographic data, lifestyle information including smoking, alcohol consumption and food intake, respiratory symptoms, lung function, broncho-reactivity to methacholine and skin prick reaction to eight allergens, measurement of cardiovascular risk factors and information on common mental health, mainly in the most recent study. The principal researchers welcome collaborative projects, especially those that will compare similar data sets in other settings. PMID:24366489

  5. A Study of Group Dynamics in Educational Leadership Cohort and Non-Cohort Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlee, Bobbie J.; Karanxha, Zorka

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine group dynamics of educational leadership students in cohorts and make comparisons with the group dynamics characteristics of non-cohort students. Cohorts have emerged as dynamic and adaptive entities with attendant group dynamic processes that shape collective learning and action. Cohort (n=42) and…

  6. Small-for-gestational age and its association with maternal blood glucose, body mass index and stature: a perinatal cohort study among Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Junhong; Hay, John; Liu, Gongshu; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Jing; Liu, Huihuan; Yang, Xilin; Liu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine whether maternal low blood glucose (BG), low body mass index (BMI) and small stature have a joint effect on the risk of delivery of a small-for-gestational age (SGA) infant. Design Women from a perinatal cohort were followed up from receiving perinatal healthcare to giving birth. Setting Beichen District, Tianjin, China between June 2011 and October 2012. Participants 1572 women aged 19–39 years with valid values of stature, BMI and BG level at gestational diabetes mellitus screening (gestational weeks 24–28), glucose challenge test <7.8 mmol/L and singleton birth (≥37 weeks’ gestation). Main outcome measures SGA was defined as birth weight <10th centile for gender separated gestational age of Tianjin singletons. Results 164 neonates (10.4%) were identified as SGA. From multiple logistic regression models, the ORs (95% CI) of delivery of SGA were 0.84 (0.72 to 0.98), 0.61 (0.49 to 0.74) and 0.64 (0.54 to 0.76) for every 1 SD increase in maternal BG, BMI and stature, respectively. When dichotomises, maternal BG (<6.0 vs ≥6.0 mmol/L), BMI (<24 vs ≥24 kg/m2) and stature (<160.0 vs ≥160.0 cm), those with BG, BMI and stature all in the lower categories had ∼8 times higher odds of delivering an SGA neonate (OR (95% CI) 8.01 (3.78 to 16.96)) relative to the reference that had BG, BMI and stature all in the high categories. The odds for an SGA delivery among women who had any 2 variables in the lower categories were ∼2–4 times higher. Conclusions Low maternal BG is associated with an increased risk of having an SGA infant. The risk of SGA is significantly increased when the mother is also short and has a low BMI. This may be a useful clinical tool to identify women at higher risk for having an SGA infant at delivery. PMID:27633632

  7. Age-Dependent Sex Difference of the Incidence and Mortality of Status Epilepticus: A Twelve Year Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Cheung-Ter; Sheu, Shew-Meei; Tsai, Ching-Fang; Wong, Yi-Sin; Chen, Solomon Chih-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is a serious neurologic emergency associated with a significant mortality. The objective of this study is to investigate its epidemiology in terms of age- and sex-specific incidences and mortality. By using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database during 2000 to 2011, we identified hospitalized patients with a discharged diagnosis of SE and calculated the incidence and in-hospital mortality of SE with respect to age and sex. The overall incidence of SE was 4.61 per 100,000 person-years, which displayed a “J-shaped” distribution by age with a little higher under the age of 5 and highest over 60 years. The male-to-female rate ratio was 1.57 and it demonstrated a “mountain-shape” across ages with the peak at 45 to 49 years old. The in-hospital mortality was significantly lower in males (7.38%) than in females (11.12%) with an odds ratio of 0.64 (95% CI 0.56-0.72). Notably, the in-hospital mortality for females increased rapidly after the age of 40 to 45 years. The multivariate analysis found males had a significantly lower risk of mortality than females after, but not before, 45 years of age with an odds ratio of 0.56 (95% CI 0.49-0.65). Sex and age are crucial factors associated with the incidence and in-hospital mortality of SE. The females over 45 years of age have a higher risk of occurrence and mortality from SE. The underlying mechanism deserves further study. PMID:25826701

  8. Corporal punishment and child behavioral and cognitive outcomes through 5 years-of-age: Evidence from a contemporary urban birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Michael J; Nicklas, Eric; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and determinants of spanking of children at 3 years-of-age, and the associations between spanking and externalizing behavior and receptive verbal ability at age 5. Overall, we find maternal spanking rates of 55.2% and paternal rates of 43.2% at age 3. Mothers facing greater stress and those who spanked earlier are more likely to spank at age 3, whereas those who report a supportive partner during pregnancy and those who were not U.S. born were less likely to spank. Mothers and fathers in communities where spanking was more normative were more likely to spank. Fathers were less likely to spank daughters at age 3. Frequent maternal spanking at age 3 was associated with externalizing behavior and receptive vocabulary at age 5, controlling for an array of ecological risks, earlier behavior, and verbal capacity. Taking advantage of the large and diverse sample we explored potential interactions and found no evidence that race, parental warmth, normativeness, or child gender moderated the association between spanking and externalizing or receptive vocabulary. These findings add to the literature on negative consequences associated with a widely endorsed parenting practice, and highlight the need for research that explores alternative effective discipline practices and addresses parent questions of what else they could, or even should, be doing.

  9. Childhood Predictors of Use and Costs of Antidepressant Medication by Age 24 Years: Findings from the Finnish Nationwide 1981 Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyllenberg, David; Sourander, Andre; Niemela, Solja; Helenius, Hans; Sillanmaki, Lauri; Ristkari, Terja; Piha, Jorma; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Tamminen, Tuula; Moilanen, Irma; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prior studies on antidepressant use in late adolescence and young adulthood have been cross-sectional, and prospective associations with childhood psychiatric problems have not been examined. The objective was to study the association between childhood problems and lifetime prevalence and costs of antidepressant medication by age 24…

  10. The stability of intelligence from age 11 to age 90 years: the Lothian birth cohort of 1921.

    PubMed

    Deary, Ian J; Pattie, Alison; Starr, John M

    2013-12-01

    As a foundation for studies of human cognitive aging, it is important to know the stability of individual differences in cognitive ability across the life course. Few studies of cognitive ability have tested the same individuals in youth and old age. We examined the stability and concurrent and predictive validity of individual differences in the same intelligence test administered to the same individuals (the Lothian Birth Cohort of 1921, N = 106) at ages 11 and 90 years. The correlation of Moray House Test scores between age 11 and age 90 was .54 (.67 when corrected for range restriction). This is a valuable foundation for estimating the extent to which cognitive-ability differences in very old age are accounted for by the lifelong stable trait and by the causes of cognitive change across the life course. Moray House Test scores showed strong concurrent and predictive validity with "gold standard" cognitive tests at ages 11 and 90.

  11. Age, time, and cohort effects on functional status and self-rated health in elderly men.

    PubMed Central

    Hoeymans, N; Feskens, E J; van den Bos, G A; Kromhout, D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated age-related changes in functional status and self-rated health in elderly men, taking into account changes over time and differences between birth cohorts. METHODS: The Zutphen Elderly Study is a longitudinal study of men born in the Netherlands between 1900 and 1920. Functional status and self-rated health were measured in 513 men in 1990, in 381 men in 1993, and in 340 men in 1995. Age, time, and cohort effects were analyzed in a mixed longitudinal model. RESULTS: Longitudinal analyses showed that during 5 years of follow-up, the proportion of men without disabilities decreased from 53% to 39%, whereas the percentage who rated themselves as healthy decreased from 50% to 35%. Cross-sectional analyses confirmed changes in functional status, suggesting an age effect. Time-series analyses confirmed changes in self-rated health, suggesting a time effect. No birth-cohort effects were found. CONCLUSIONS: Functional status deteriorates with age, whereas self-rated health is not related to age in men aged 70 years and older. The observed 5-year decline in self-rated health seemed to be due to a secular trend. PMID:9357342

  12. Etiological Role and Repeated Infections of Sapovirus among Children Aged Less than 2 Years in a Cohort Study in a Peri-urban Community of Peru.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaofang; Jahuira, Helena; Gilman, Robert H; Alva, Alicia; Cabrera, Lilia; Okamoto, Michiko; Xu, Hang; Windle, Henry J; Kelleher, Dermot; Varela, Marco; Verastegui, Manuela; Calderon, Maritza; Sanchez, Gerardo; Sarabia, Vanessa; Ballard, Sarah B; Bern, Caryn; Mayta, Holger; Crabtree, Jean E; Cama, Vitaliano; Saito, Mayuko; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-06-01

    Human sapovirus has been shown to be one of the most important etiologies in pediatric patients with acute diarrhea. However, very limited data are available about the causative roles and epidemiology of sapovirus in community settings. A nested matched case-control study within a birth cohort study of acute diarrhea in a peri-urban community in Peru from 2007 to 2010 was conducted to investigate the attributable fraction (AF) and genetic diversity of sapovirus. By quantitative reverse transcription-real-time PCR (qPCR) sapovirus was detected in 12.4% (37/299) of diarrheal and 5.7% (17/300) of nondiarrheal stools (P = 0.004). The sapovirus AF (7.1%) was higher in the second year (13.2%) than in the first year (1.4%) of life of children. Ten known genotypes and one novel cluster (n = 5) within four genogroups (GI, GII, GIV, and GV) were identified by phylogenetic analysis of a partial VP1 gene. Further sequence analysis of the full VP1 gene revealed a possible novel genotype, tentatively named GII.8. Notably, symptomatic reinfections with different genotypes within the same (n = 3) or different (n = 5) genogroups were observed in eight children. Sapovirus exhibited a high attributable burden for acute gastroenteritis, especially in the second year of life, of children in a Peruvian community. Further large-scale studies are needed to understand better the global burden, genetic diversity, and repeated infections of sapovirus.

  13. Etiological Role and Repeated Infections of Sapovirus among Children Aged Less than 2 Years in a Cohort Study in a Peri-urban Community of Peru.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaofang; Jahuira, Helena; Gilman, Robert H; Alva, Alicia; Cabrera, Lilia; Okamoto, Michiko; Xu, Hang; Windle, Henry J; Kelleher, Dermot; Varela, Marco; Verastegui, Manuela; Calderon, Maritza; Sanchez, Gerardo; Sarabia, Vanessa; Ballard, Sarah B; Bern, Caryn; Mayta, Holger; Crabtree, Jean E; Cama, Vitaliano; Saito, Mayuko; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-06-01

    Human sapovirus has been shown to be one of the most important etiologies in pediatric patients with acute diarrhea. However, very limited data are available about the causative roles and epidemiology of sapovirus in community settings. A nested matched case-control study within a birth cohort study of acute diarrhea in a peri-urban community in Peru from 2007 to 2010 was conducted to investigate the attributable fraction (AF) and genetic diversity of sapovirus. By quantitative reverse transcription-real-time PCR (qPCR) sapovirus was detected in 12.4% (37/299) of diarrheal and 5.7% (17/300) of nondiarrheal stools (P = 0.004). The sapovirus AF (7.1%) was higher in the second year (13.2%) than in the first year (1.4%) of life of children. Ten known genotypes and one novel cluster (n = 5) within four genogroups (GI, GII, GIV, and GV) were identified by phylogenetic analysis of a partial VP1 gene. Further sequence analysis of the full VP1 gene revealed a possible novel genotype, tentatively named GII.8. Notably, symptomatic reinfections with different genotypes within the same (n = 3) or different (n = 5) genogroups were observed in eight children. Sapovirus exhibited a high attributable burden for acute gastroenteritis, especially in the second year of life, of children in a Peruvian community. Further large-scale studies are needed to understand better the global burden, genetic diversity, and repeated infections of sapovirus. PMID:27076657

  14. Age as a determinant for dissemination of seasonal and pandemic influenza: an open cohort study of influenza outbreaks in Östergötland County, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Timpka, Toomas; Eriksson, Olle; Spreco, Armin; Gursky, Elin A; Strömgren, Magnus; Holm, Einar; Ekberg, Joakim; Dahlström, Orjan; Valter, Lars; Eriksson, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of the occurrence and comparative timing of influenza infections in different age groups is important for developing community response and disease control measures. This study uses data from a Scandinavian county (population 427.000) to investigate whether age was a determinant for being diagnosed with influenza 2005-2010 and to examine if age was associated with case timing during outbreaks. Aggregated demographic data were collected from Statistics Sweden, while influenza case data were collected from a county-wide electronic health record system. A logistic regression analysis was used to explore whether case risk was associated with age and outbreak. An analysis of variance was used to explore whether day for diagnosis was also associated to age and outbreak. The clinical case data were validated against case data from microbiological laboratories during one control year. The proportion of cases from the age groups 10-19 (p<0.001) and 20-29 years old (p<0.01) were found to be larger during the A pH1N1 outbreak in 2009 than during the seasonal outbreaks. An interaction between age and outbreak was observed (p<0.001) indicating a difference in age effects between circulating virus types; this interaction persisted for seasonal outbreaks only (p<0.001). The outbreaks also differed regarding when the age groups received their diagnosis (p<0.001). A post-hoc analysis showed a tendency for the young age groups, in particular the group 10-19 year olds, led outbreaks with influenza type A H1 circulating, while A H3N2 outbreaks displayed little variations in timing. The validation analysis showed a strong correlation (r = 0.625;p<0.001) between the recorded numbers of clinically and microbiologically defined influenza cases. Our findings demonstrate the complexity of age effects underlying the emergence of local influenza outbreaks. Disentangling these effects on the causal pathways will require an integrated information infrastructure for data

  15. Evolution of obesity prevalence in France: an age-period-cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    Diouf, Ibrahima; Charles, Marie Aline; Ducimetière, Pierre; Basdevant, Arnaud; Eschwege, Evelyne; Heude, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Background A rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity has been reported in France since 1990. We investigated the impact of birth cohort on the changes in obesity prevalence after taking into account age and survey period. Methods We analyzed data from four national surveys in 1997, 2000, 2003 and 2006. For each survey, self-reported data on weight and height were recorded on mailed questionnaires sent to a sample of 20 000 households, representative of the French population. Obesity was defined according to WHO criteria, BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. We modeled the prevalence of obesity using logistic regression with age, cohort and period as explanatory variables. As these variables are linearly dependent, only nonlinear effects can be estimated uniquely and interpreted, after including specific chosen constraints in the models. Results There was a progressive increase in the prevalence of obesity between 1997 and 2006, attributable either to a period or to a cohort effect. There was a substantial departure from a linear trend for the cohort effect only, which appeared to be stronger in women: there was an acceleration in the prevalence of obesity with birth cohort for individuals born after the mid-1960s, in both sexes. Conclusions Our results are consistent with previous studies in other countries. Compared with older generations, men and women born in the late 1960s may have been subject to early exposures that increased their lifelong susceptibility to obesity. PMID:20375843

  16. Testing Persistence of Cohort Effects in the Epidemiology of Suicide: an Age-Period-Cohort Hysteresis Model

    PubMed Central

    Chauvel, Louis; Leist, Anja K.; Ponomarenko, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Birth cohort effects in suicide rates are well established, but to date there is no methodological approach or framework to test the temporal stability of these effects. We use the APC-Detrended (APCD) model to robustly estimate intensity of cohort effects identifying non-linear trends (or ‘detrended’ fluctuations) in suicide rates. The new APC-Hysteresis (APCH) model tests temporal stability of cohort effects. Analysing suicide rates in 25 WHO countries (periods 1970–74 to 2005–09; ages 20–24 to 70–79) with the APCD method, we find that country-specific birth cohort membership plays an important role in suicide rates. Among 25 countries, we detect 12 nations that show deep contrasts among cohort-specific suicide rates including Italy, Australia and the United States. The APCH method shows that cohort fluctuations are not stable across the life course but decline in Spain, France and Australia, whereas they remain stable in Italy, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. We discuss the Spanish case with elevated suicide mortality of cohorts born 1965–1975 which declines with age, and the opposite case of the United States, where the identified cohort effects of those born around 1960 increase smoothly, but statistically significant across the life course. PMID:27442027

  17. Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of Thyroid Cancer Incidence in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chang-Mo; Jung, Kyu-Won; Won, Young-Joo; Shin, Aesun; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Lee, Jin-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose South Korea has the highest incidence rate of thyroid cancer in the world, and the incidence rate continues to increase. The aim of this study was to determine the age-period-cohort effects on the incidence of thyroid cancer in Korea. Materials and Methods Using the Korean National Cancer registry database, age-standardized incidence rates and annual percent changes (APCs) in thyroid cancer according to sex and histologic type were analyzed between 1997 and 2011. Age-period-cohort models were applied using an intrinsic estimator method according to sex. Results In both men and women, the incidence of thyroid cancer showed a sharp increase from 1997 through 2011. Among the histologic types, papillary carcinoma showed the greatest increase, with APCs of 25.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22.7% to 27.5%) in men and 23.7% (95% CI, 21.9% to 25.5%) in women, whereas anaplastic carcinoma did not show a significant increase in either sex. An increase in overall thyroid cancer incidence over time was observed in all birth cohorts. An age-period-cohort model indicated a steeply increasing period effect, which increased prominently from 1997 to 2011 in both men and women. The age effect showed an inverted U-shaped trend. The cohort effect tended to show a slight increase or remain constant from 1952 to 1977, followed by a decrease. Conclusion The period effect can explain the sharp increase in thyroid cancer incidence, strongly suggesting the role of thyroid screening. PMID:25672579

  18. Discontinuation of anti-hypertensive drugs increases 11-year cardiovascular mortality risk in community-dwelling elderly (the Bambuí Cohort Study of Ageing)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypertension remains a major public health problem whose management is hampered by poor persistence with pharmacological therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between discontinuing antihypertensive drugs (AHDs) and the risk of cardiovascular mortality in the elderly. Methods A population-based prospective cohort study of all of the ≥60-year-old residents in Bambuí city (Brazil) enrolled 1606 subjects (92.2%), of whom 1494 (93.0%) were included in this study. The use of AHDs was ascertained annually in a real-clinical context, and time-varying AHD exposure was categorised as non-use, current use or stopped. The predicted cardiovascular mortality rates were estimated using interval Poisson models for ungrouped person-time data, taking into account current levels of systolic blood pressure (BP). Results The overall adjusted cardiovascular mortality risk ratio of AHD stoppers vs current users was 3.12 (95% CI: 2.35-4.15). There was a significant interaction with BP levels: the association between discontinuing AHDs and the risk of cardiovascular mortality was stronger at higher systolic BP levels. The estimates of the risk of cardiovascular mortality over the follow-up period were similar in AHD users and non-users, for whom AHDs were never prescribed. Conclusion Discontinuing AHDs increases the risk of cardiovascular mortality in the elderly. Misconceptions about symptoms or drug-related adverse effects could underlie a subject’s decision to discontinue AHDs. Greater attention should be paid to the choice of AHDs and informative action. PMID:25030357

  19. Age, Birth Cohorts, and Drinking: An Illustration of the Hazards of Inferring Effects from Cohort Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Norval D.

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes problems in the use of cohort data as illustrated by cohort data on drinking alcoholic beverages taken from American national surveys conducted during the late 1950s, late 1960s, and late 1970s. Researchers are cautioned that all available "side information" should be considered before statistical cohort models are tested. (Author/RC)

  20. The Association between Cognitive Ability across the Lifespan and Health Literacy in Old Age: The Lothian Birth Cohort 1936

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Catherine; Johnson, Wendy; Wolf, Michael S.; Deary, Ian J.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and four participants in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 study took a validated IQ-type test at age 11 years and a battery of cognitive tests at age 70 years. Three tests of health literacy were completed at age 72 years; the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM), the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults…

  1. Review of Cohort Studies for Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Baek, Ji Hyun; Ahn, Yong-Min; Kim, Se Joo; Ha, Tae Hyun; Cha, Boseok; Moon, Eunsoo; Kang, Hee-Ju; Ryu, Vin; Cho, Chul-Hyun; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Kiwon

    2016-01-01

    This paper aimed to review currently available cohort studies of subjects with mood disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Using the PubMed and KoreaMed databases, we reviewed eight major cohort studies. Most studies recruited participants with MDD and BD separately, so direct comparison of factors associated with diagnostic changes was difficult. Regular and frequent follow-up evaluations utilizing objective mood ratings and standardized evaluation methods in a naturalistic fashion are necessary to determine detailed clinical courses of mood disorders. Further, biological samples should also be collected to incorporate clinical findings in the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. An innovative cohort study that can serve as a platform for translational research for treatment and prevention of mood disorders is critical in determining clinical, psychosocial, neurobiological and genetic factors associated with long-term courses and consequences of mood disorders in Korean patients. PMID:27247592

  2. Cohort Profile: The Manitoba Follow-up Study (MFUS).

    PubMed

    Tate, Robert B; Cuddy, T Edward; Mathewson, Francis A L

    2015-10-01

    The Manitoba Follow-up Study (MFUS) is Canada's longest running study of cardiovascular disease and ageing. The MFUS cohort consists of 3983 men recruited from the Royal Canadian Air Force at the end of World War II. At entry to the study, 1 July 1948, their mean age was 31 years, with 90% between ages 20 and 39 years. All study members were free of clinical evidence of ischaemic heart disease. The protocol of MFUS was to obtain routine medical examinations from these men at regular intervals over time. The research goal of the study was to examine the role that any abnormalities detected on routine electrocardiograms from apparently healthy men might play in the prediction of subsequent diagnoses of cardiovascular disease. Over the course of 65 years, about 35% of the cohort has documented evidence of ischaemic heart disease. The research focus was expanded in 1996 to explore the roles of physical, mental and social functioning in support of healthy and successful ageing. On 1 July 2013, 429 original cohort members were alive with a mean age of 92 years. Collaborative research with others outside the in-house team is welcomed.

  3. Brain-Science Based Cohort Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koizumi, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a number of human cohort studies based on the concept of brain-science and education. These studies assess the potential effects of new technologies on babies, children and adolescents, and test hypotheses drawn from animal and genetic case studies to see if they apply to people. A flood of information, virtual media,…

  4. Association between maternal age at childbirth and child and adult outcomes in the offspring: a prospective study in five low-income and middle-income countries (COHORTS collaboration)

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Caroline H D; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Osmond, Clive; Restrepo-Mendez, Maria Clara; Victora, Cesar; Martorell, Reynaldo; Stein, Aryeh D; Sinha, Shikha; Tandon, Nikhil; Adair, Linda; Bas, Isabelita; Norris, Shane; Richter, Linda M

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Both young and advanced maternal age is associated with adverse birth and child outcomes. Few studies have examined these associations in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) and none have studied adult outcomes in the offspring. We aimed to examine both child and adult outcomes in five LMICs. Methods In this prospective study, we pooled data from COHORTS (Consortium for Health Orientated Research in Transitioning Societies)—a collaboration of five birth cohorts from LMICs (Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa), in which mothers were recruited before or during pregnancy, and the children followed up to adulthood. We examined associations between maternal age and offspring birthweight, gestational age at birth, height-for-age and weight-for-height Z scores in childhood, attained schooling, and adult height, body composition (body-mass index, waist circumference, fat, and lean mass), and cardiometabolic risk factors (blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose concentration), along with binary variables derived from these. Analyses were unadjusted and adjusted for maternal socioeconomic status, height and parity, and breastfeeding duration. Findings We obtained data for 22 188 mothers from the five cohorts, enrolment into which took place at various times between 1969 and 1989. Data for maternal age and at least one outcome were available for 19 403 offspring (87%). In unadjusted analyses, younger (≤19 years) and older (≥35 years) maternal age were associated with lower birthweight, gestational age, child nutritional status, and schooling. After adjustment, associations with younger maternal age remained for low birthweight (odds ratio [OR] 1·18 (95% CI 1·02–1·36)], preterm birth (1·26 [1·03–1·53]), 2-year stunting (1·46 [1·25–1·70]), and failure to complete secondary schooling (1·38 [1·18–1·62]) compared with mothers aged 20–24 years. After adjustment, older maternal age remained

  5. Parity, Age at First Birth, and Risk of Death from Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Brian K; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2015-08-05

    We undertook this study to examine whether there exists an association between parity and age at first birth and risk of death from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Our sample included a total of 1,292,462 women who had a first and singleton childbirth between 1 January 1978 and 31 December 1987. We followed each subject from their first childbirth to 31 December 2009, and determined their vital status by merging natality data with Taiwan's national death certificate database. Hazard ratios (HR) of death from NHL associated with parity and age at first birth were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. In all, 412 NHL deaths were recorded during 34,980,246 person-years of follow-up. NHL mortality rate was 1.18 cases per 100,000 person-years. Older age at first birth (>23 vs. ≤23 years) was linked to an increased risk of death from NHL (adjusted HR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.13-1.75). Controlling for age at first birth, the adjusted HR were 0.74 (95% CI = 0.55-0.98) for women with 2 births, and 0.71 (95% CI = 0.53-0.95) for women with 3 births or more, respectively, when compared with women with only 1 birth. A statistically significant downward trend in the adjusted HR for NHL death was detected with increasing parity (p for trend = 0.05). The HR of death from NHL was decreased by 7% (HR = 0.93; 95% CI = 0.87-0.99) for each additional parity. Our findings are consistent with reproductive factors (parity and early age at first birth) conferring a protective effect against the risk of NHL death.

  6. Cohort studies in health sciences librarianship

    PubMed Central

    Eldredge, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Question: What are the key characteristics of the cohort study design and its varied applications, and how can this research design be utilized in health sciences librarianship? Data Sources: The health, social, behavioral, biological, library, earth, and management sciences literatures were used as sources. Study Selection: All fields except for health sciences librarianship were scanned topically for either well-known or diverse applications of the cohort design. The health sciences library literature available to the author principally for the years 1990 to 2000, supplemented by papers or posters presented at annual meetings of the Medical Library Association. Data Extraction: A narrative review for the health, social, behavioral, biological, earth, and management sciences literatures and a systematic review for health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000, with three exceptions, were conducted. The author conducted principally a manual search of the health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000 as part of this systematic review. Main Results: The cohort design has been applied to answer a wide array of theoretical or practical research questions in the health, social, behavioral, biological, and management sciences. Health sciences librarianship also offers several major applications of the cohort design. Conclusion: The cohort design has great potential for answering research questions in the field of health sciences librarianship, particularly evidence-based librarianship (EBL), although that potential has not been fully explored. PMID:12398244

  7. Age, baseline kidney function, and medication exposure are associated with declines in creatinine clearance on PrEP: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Glidden, David; Mayer, Kenneth; Schechter, Mauro; Buchbinder, Susan; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Hosek, Sybil; Casapia, Martin; Guanira, Juan; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Louie, Alexander; Horng, Howard; Benet, Leslie Z.; Liu, Albert; Grant, Robert

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Background As pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) for the prevention of HIV infection enters a phase of global roll-out, strategies to maintain effectiveness, but minimize adverse effects, merit close consideration. The aim of this study was to evaluate rates and predictors of renal toxicity in a large open-label study of PrEP to help provide guidance on safety monitoring with this important prevention strategy. Methods The iPrEx open-label-extension (OLE) study (NCT00458393) enrolled HIV-negative MSM/transgender participants from three previous PrEP trials from Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, South Africa, Thailand, and the U.S into an open-label PrEP study. There were no restrictions on current renal function for enrollment into iPrEx OLE.. Creatinine clearance (CrCl) on PrEP was estimated every 12 weeks and in a subset, hair samples were collected for measuring tenofovir (TFV)/FTC concentrations via liquid-chromatography/tandem-mass-spectrometry. Change in CrCl from baseline was calculated and predictors identified. Findings Baseline characteristics of participants in iPrEx-OLE (n=1224; 7475 person-visits) and its hair substudy (n=220; 1114 person-visits) were similar. Over 72 weeks (median), the average decline in CrCl was −2·9% (p<0.0001), but declines were significantly greater for those starting PrEP at older ages (−4·2% (95% CI −2·8%, −5·5%), baseline age 40–50 years; −4·9% (−3·1%, −6·8%), age ≥50). Besides age, baseline CrCl of <90ml/min in multivariate models predicted renal decline. There was a monotonic relationship between percent decrease in CrCl and number of doses of TDF/FTC taken per week as estimated by hair levels (p 0.008). Interpretation With the global roll-out of PrEP, our analysis suggests that the frequency of safety monitoring may differ by age group and that pharmacologic measures of adherence can additionally monitor for toxicities. Funding NIH PMID:27658870

  8. Risk of Malignant Neoplasms of Kidney and Bladder in a Cohort Study of the Diabetic Population in Taiwan With Age, Sex, and Geographic Area Stratifications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua-Fen; Chen, Shwe-Winn; Chang, Ya-Hui; Li, Chung-Yi

    2015-09-01

    Diabetes has been reported to increase the risk of malignant neoplasms of kidney and bladder, but the studies' results are still inconclusive. Age, sex, and geographical area-specific incidence and relative risks of above neoplasms are also scarce in the literature. We prospectively investigated the age, sex, geographical area-specific incidence and relative risks of kidney and bladder neoplasms in diabetic population of Taiwan. Diabetic patients (n = 615,532) and age- and sex-matched controls (n = 614,871) were linked to inpatient claims (2000-2008) to identify the admissions for malignant neoplasm of kidney (International Classification of Diagnosis, 9th version, Clinical Modification: 189) and bladder (International Classification of Diagnosis, 9th version, Clinical Modification: 188). The person-year approach with Poisson assumption was used to evaluate the incidence density. We also estimated the age, sex, and geographical area-specific relative risks of above malignancy in relation to diabetes with Cox proportional hazard regression model. The overall incidence density of malignant neoplasm of kidney for diabetic men and women were 3.87 and 4.28 per 10,000 patient-years, respectively; the corresponding figures for malignant neoplasm of bladder were 5.73 and 3.25 per 10,000 patient-years. Compared with the controls, diabetic men were at significantly increased hazards of kidney (covariate adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-1.46) and bladder aHR: 1.13, 95% CI 1.04-1.23). Diabetic women, on the contrary, only experienced significantly elevated hazard of kidney neoplasm (aHR: 1.14, 95% CI 1.04-1.26). Diabetic men aged >65 years showed the most significantly increased hazard of developing neoplasm of kidney (aHR: 1.40) and bladder (aHR: 1.13). The most significantly increased hazard of kidney neoplasm was noted for women diabetic patients aged >65 years. There was also a significant interactive effect of geographic area

  9. Gender as a Moderator of the Relation Between Age Cohort and Three-Dimensional Wisdom in Iranian Culture.

    PubMed

    Cheraghi, Fereshte; Kadivar, Parvin; Ardelt, Monika; Asgari, Ali; Farzad, Valiollah

    2015-07-01

    This study examined whether gender moderated the association between age cohort and the cognitive, reflective, and compassionate dimensions of wisdom, using an Iranian sample of 439 adults from three age cohorts: young (18-34), middle-aged (35-54), and older (55 and above). Results indicated that the interaction effect between gender and age cohort was significant for three-dimensional wisdom and all three wisdom dimensions. Compared with younger women and older men, older women tended to have less education and to score lower on the cognitive wisdom dimension, but they had similar average scores as older men on the compassionate wisdom dimension. Overall, the association between age and wisdom was only positive for men, due mainly to the positive relation between age and the reflective and compassionate wisdom dimensions for men after adjusting for education. The results are interpreted with reference to generation gaps, socialization of men versus women, and life experiences and opportunities. PMID:26610721

  10. Gender as a Moderator of the Relation Between Age Cohort and Three-Dimensional Wisdom in Iranian Culture.

    PubMed

    Cheraghi, Fereshte; Kadivar, Parvin; Ardelt, Monika; Asgari, Ali; Farzad, Valiollah

    2015-07-01

    This study examined whether gender moderated the association between age cohort and the cognitive, reflective, and compassionate dimensions of wisdom, using an Iranian sample of 439 adults from three age cohorts: young (18-34), middle-aged (35-54), and older (55 and above). Results indicated that the interaction effect between gender and age cohort was significant for three-dimensional wisdom and all three wisdom dimensions. Compared with younger women and older men, older women tended to have less education and to score lower on the cognitive wisdom dimension, but they had similar average scores as older men on the compassionate wisdom dimension. Overall, the association between age and wisdom was only positive for men, due mainly to the positive relation between age and the reflective and compassionate wisdom dimensions for men after adjusting for education. The results are interpreted with reference to generation gaps, socialization of men versus women, and life experiences and opportunities.

  11. Cohort study analysis with a FORTRAN computer program.

    PubMed

    Coleman, M; Douglas, A; Hermon, C; Peto, J

    1986-03-01

    We describe the analysis of cohort study data with a standard FORTRAN program which should run on most computers. It provides a summary measure of the mortality (or incidence) rate ratio between the study cohort and some standard population, based either on person-years at risk or on proportional mortality, and adjusted for age, sex and calendar period; a test of the statistical significance of the ratio; and a set of observed death rates in the study cohort. Results may also be produced in a form suitable for use with GLIM. The analysis may be subdivided into a range of time intervals since each subject was first exposed to risk. The program provides for movement of subjects between different 'level-of-exposure' subgroups within the cohort, and for various methods of censoring. It allows considerable flexibility in data management, and is available with complete documentation and a worked example. The program should enable epidemiologists with little computing experience to carry out formal analysis of cohort studies.

  12. Obesity and Life Expectancy with and without Diabetes in Adults Aged 55 Years and Older in the Netherlands: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ligthart, Symen; Peeters, Anna; Hofman, Albert; Nusselder, Wilma; Franco, Oscar H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Limited evidence exists regarding the effect of excess weight on years lived with and without diabetes. We aimed to determine the association of overweight and obesity with the number of years lived with and without diabetes in a middle-aged and elderly population. Methods and Findings The study included 6,499 individuals (3,656 women) aged 55 y and older from the population-based Rotterdam Study. We developed a multistate life table to calculate life expectancy for individuals who were normal weight, overweight, and obese and the difference in years lived with and without diabetes. For life table calculations, we used prevalence, incidence rate, and hazard ratios (HRs) for three transitions (healthy to diabetes, healthy to death, and diabetes to death), stratifying by body mass index (BMI) at baseline and adjusting for confounders. During a median follow-up of 11.1 y, we observed 697 incident diabetes events and 2,192 overall deaths. Obesity was associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes (HR: 2.13 [p < 0.001] for men and 3.54 [p < 0.001] for women). Overweight and obesity were not associated with mortality in men and women with or without diabetes. Total life expectancy remained unaffected by overweight and obesity. Nevertheless, men with obesity aged 55 y and older lived 2.8 (95% CI −6.1 to −0.1) fewer y without diabetes than normal weight individuals, whereas, for women, the difference between obese and normal weight counterparts was 4.7 (95% CI −9.0 to −0.6) y. Men and women with obesity lived 2.8 (95% CI 0.6 to 6.2) and 5.3 (95% CI 1.6 to 9.3) y longer with diabetes, respectively, compared to their normal weight counterparts. Since the implications of these findings could be limited to middle-aged and older white European populations, our results need confirmation in other populations. Conclusions Obesity in the middle aged and elderly is associated

  13. Age, period, and cohort effects on maternal mortality: a linear logit model.

    PubMed

    Tu, E J; Chuang, J L

    1983-01-01

    This analysis was aimed at disentangling the age, period, and cohort effects on the decline in maternal mortality in the 1917-77 period in New York State. New York maternal mortality rates were consistentley lower than US rates from 191-56, but fell considerably more slowly than national rates since 1957. Cohort analysis can potentially provide separate measures of age, period, and cohort effects by use of linear ligit models. Comparison of various age-period-cohort linear logit models on the logits of maternal mortality rates indicated that period and age effects are the dominant influences on maternal mortality. Cohortship did not make a significant contribution after age and period were already in the model. Age parameter results suggest that the 20-24 year age group faces the lowest maternal mortality risk, and risk increases rapidly with age after age 30 years. The infuctuation in the residuals for the 40-44 year age group is slightly higher due to the stochastic variation in diminishing small numbers of maternal deaths and pregnancies in this group. In addition, adding the period dimension after adjustment for age had a greater impact than adding the cohort dimension after adjustment for age. The implication of these findings is that, as a set, changes in temporal variables that cut across cohorts seem to be more important than those variables that distinguish cohorts.

  14. Dyspareunia in the Context of Psychopathology, Personality Traits, and Coping Resources: Results From a Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Study From Age 30 to 50.

    PubMed

    Leeners, Brigitte; Hengartner, Michael P; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Rössler, Wulf; Angst, Jules

    2015-08-01

    Although dyspareunia has a major impact on sexual and general wellbeing, there are few data on the longitudinal development of its prevalence in representative study groups. Therefore, it was the aim of the present study to fill this gap by evaluating the prevalence of dyspareunia in a representative sample at age 30, 35, 41, and 50. Additional aims were to determine the association between dyspareunia, psychopathological covariates, personality characteristics, and coping resources. Semi-structured interviews with single-item questions on sexual problems in general as well as dyspareunia were used to gain information on 1-year as well as long-time prevalence rates. Psychopathological covariates were explored with the SCL-90-R. The Freiburger Personality Inventory (Freiburger Persönlichkeits Inventar, FPI) assessed personality characteristics. Scales of sense of mastery and self-esteem were used to investigate coping resources. Twelve months prevalence of dyspareunia varied between 4.5 and 6.4 % with a mean of 5.6 % and a long-time risk of 19.3 %. No relation between age and the prevalence rates was found. Dyspareunia was related to psychopathological covariates, especially depression. With respect to personality traits as measured with the FPI only nervousness showed a significant association with dyspareunia, whereas coping resources were unrelated. As dyspareunia is experienced by about 20 % of all women, it represents a frequent sexual problem. Therefore, assessment of dyspareunia should be integrated into primary care of women at any age and diagnostic as well as therapeutic strategies should be based on physiological and psychological factors.

  15. A cohort study on the mortality of firefighters.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, E S

    1990-01-01

    This study was set up to investigate the effect of exposure to combustion effluents on the chronic health of firefighters. A cohort of firefighters was followed up through 10 years with regard to cause specific mortality. Comparisons were made with another cohort of civil servants and salaried employees in physically demanding jobs. After a latency of five years, an excess mortality from cancer was seen for persons aged 30 to 74 (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 173, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 104-270). A significant increase in lung cancer was seen in the group aged 60 to 74 (SMR 317, 95% CI 117-691), whereas non-pulmonary cancer was significantly increased in the group aged 30 to 49 (SMR 575, 95% CI 187-1341). It is concluded that inhalation of carcinogenic and toxic compounds during firefighting may constitute an occupational cancer risk. An extended use of respiratory protective equipment is advocated. PMID:2271386

  16. Multiple Trajectories of Successful Aging of Older and Younger Cohorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Jones, Bobby L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to apply group-based trajectory analysis to identify multiple successful aging trajectories by multiple indicators and to examine the factors related to successful aging among the elderly population in Taiwan. Design and Methods: Nation-representative longitudinal data collected from 1993 to 2007 and…

  17. Cohort Survival and Withdrawal Study District Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shainline, Michael

    At the completion of the 1986-87 school year, the Albuquerque (New Mexico) Public Schools (APS) conducted a cohort survival and withdrawal study to follow-up 5,976 students who had begun the ninth grade within the district in 1983-84. Current records were matched with those from the 1983-84 school year to determine whether members of the…

  18. Utility of clinical parameters to identify HIV infection in infants below ten weeks of age in South Africa: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background As HIV-infected infants have high mortality, the World Health Organization now recommends initiating antiretroviral therapy as early as possible in the first year of life. However, in many settings, laboratory diagnosis of HIV in infants is not readily available. We aimed to develop a clinical algorithm for HIV presumptive diagnosis in infants < 10 weeks old using screening data from the Children with HIV Early Antiretroviral therapy (CHER) study in South Africa. HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected exposed infants < 10 weeks of age were identified through Vertical Transmission Prevention programs. Clinical and laboratory data were systematically recorded, groups were compared using Kruskal-Wallis, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Fisher's exact tests. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were compiled using combinations of clinical findings. Results 417 HIV-infected and 125 HIV-exposed, uninfected infants, median age 46 days (IQR 38-55), were included. The median CD4 percentage in HIV-infected infants was 34 (IQR 28-41)%. HIV-infected infants had lower weight-for-age, more lymphadenopathy, oral thrush, and hepatomegaly than exposed uninfected infants (Adjusted Odds Ratio 0.51, 8.8, 5.6 and 23.5 respectively; p < 0.001 for all). Sensitivity of individual signs was low (< 20%) but specificity high (98-100%). If any one of oral thrush, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, diaper dermatitis, weight < 50th centile are present, sensitivity for HIV infection amongst HIV-exposed infants was 86%. These algorithms performed similarly when used to predict severe immune suppression. Conclusions A combination of physical findings is helpful in identifying infants most likely to be HIV-infected. This may inform management algorithms and provide guidance for focused laboratory testing in some settings, and should be further validated in these settings and elsewhere. PMID:22103994

  19. Birth Weight, Growth and Feeding Pattern in Early Infancy Predict Overweight/Obesity Status at Two Years of Age: A Birth Cohort Study of Chinese Infants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianduan; Himes, John H.; Guo, Yuan; Jiang, Jingxiong; Yang, Liu; Lu, Qiaozhen; Ruan, Haiyan; Shi, Shuhua

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the early determinants of overweight and obesity status at age two years. Methods A total of 1098 healthy neonates (563 boys and 535 girls) were involved in this community-based prospective study in China. Data on body weight and length were collected at birth, the 3rd and 24th month. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on social demography and feeding patterns of children, etc. Three multivariable logistic regression models were employed to make various comparisons of weight status, i.e., model 1 (obesity vs. non-obesity), model 2 (combined overweight and obesity vs. normal weight, and model 3 (obesity, overweight and normal weight). Results Prevalences of overweight/obesity (95th >BMI ≥85th p and BMI ≥95th p, referring to WHO BMI standards) at 2 years of age are 15.8%/11.2% for boys and 12.9%/9.0% for girls, respectively. Being born with macrosomia (OR: 1.80–1.88), relatively greater BMI increment in the first 3 months (OR: 1.15–1.16) and bottle emptying by encouragement at age two (OR: 1.30–1.57) were found in all three models to be significant risk factors for higher BMI status at 2 years. Pre-pregnancy maternal BMI (OR: 1.09–1.12), paternal BMI (OR: 1.06), and mixed breastfeeding (OR: 1.54–1.57) or formula feeding (OR: 1.90–1.93) in the first month were identified as significant in models 2 and 3. Child-initiated bottle emptying at age two was observed to increase the risk of obesity by 1.31 times but only in model 1. Conclusion Fetal and early postnatal growth and feeding pattern appear to have significant impacts on early childhood overweight and obesity status independent of parental BMI. Policy-based and multidisciplinary approaches to promote breastfeeding and enhancement of feeding skills of care takers may be promising intervention strategies. PMID:23755127

  20. Cognitive Ageing in Great Britain in the New Century: Cohort Differences in Episodic Memory

    PubMed Central

    Tampubolon, Gindo

    2015-01-01

    Background Dementias in high income countries are set to be the third major burden of disease even as older people are increasingly required to think for themselves how to provide for their lives in retirement. Meanwhile the period of older age continues to extend with increase in life expectancy. This challenge demands an understanding of how cognition changes over an extended period in later life. But studying cognitive ageing in the population faces a difficulty from the fact that older respondents are liable to leave (attrite) before study completion. This study tested three hypotheses: trajectories of cognitive ageing in Britain show an improvement beyond the age of 50; and they are lifted by secular improvement in cognition across cohorts; lastly they are susceptible to distortion due to attrition. Methods and Findings Using the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, this paper studied trajectories of episodic memory of Britons aged 50–89 from 2002 to 2013 (N = 5931). Using joint models the analysis found that levels of episodic memory follow a curvilinear shape, not a steady decline, in later life. The findings also revealed secular improvement in cognitive ageing such that as a cohort is being replaced episodic memory levels in the population improve. The analysis lastly demonstrated that failure to simultaneously model attrition can produce distorted pictures of cognitive ageing. Conclusion Old age in this century is not necessarily a period dominated by cognitive decline. In identifying behavioural factors associated with better cognitive ageing, such as social connections of traditional and online kinds, the paper raises possibilities of mustering an adequate response to the cognition challenge. PMID:26713627

  1. Incident Comorbidities and All-Cause Mortality among Five-Year Survivors of Stage I and II Breast Cancer Diagnosed at Age 65 or Older: A Prospective Matched Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Jennifer H.; Thwin, Soe Soe; Lash, Timothy L.; Buist, Diana S.M.; Field, Terry S.; Haque, Reina; Pawloski, Pamala A.; Petersen, Hans V.; Prout, Marianne N.; Quinn, Virginia P.; Yood, Marianne Ulcickas; Silliman, Rebecca A.; Geiger, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Five-year breast cancer survivors, diagnosed after 65 years of age, may develop more incident comorbidities than similar populations free of cancer. We investigated if older breast cancer survivors have a similar comorbidity burden 6–15 years after cancer diagnosis to matched women free of breast cancer at start of follow-up and if incident comorbidities are associated with all-cause mortality. Methods In this prospective cohort study, 1,361 older five-year early stage breast cancer survivors diagnosed between 1990 and 1994 and 1,361 age- and health system-matched women were followed for ten years. Adjudicated medical record review captured prevalent and incident comorbidities during follow-up or until death as collected from the National Death Index. Results Older five-year breast cancer survivors did not acquire incident comorbidities more often than matched women free of breast cancer in the subsequent 10 years (HR=1.0, 95%CI: 0.93,1.1). Adjusted for cohort membership, women with incident comorbidities had a higher mortality rate than those without incident comorbidities (HR=4.8, 95%CI: 4.1,5.6). A breast cancer history continued to be a hazard for mortality 6–15 years after diagnosis (HR=1.3, 95%CI: 1.1,1.4). Conclusions We found that older breast cancer survivors who developed comorbidities had an increased all-cause mortality rate even after adjusting for age and prevalent comorbidity burden. Additionally, survivors acquire comorbidities at a rate similar to older women free of breast cancer. These results highlight the association between comorbidity burden and long-term mortality risk among older breast cancer survivors and their need for appropriate oncology and primary care follow-up. PMID:24939060

  2. Ethnic differences in infant feeding practices and their relationship with BMI at 3 years of age - results from the Born in Bradford birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Santorelli, Gillian; Fairley, Lesley; Petherick, Emily S; Cabieses, Baltica; Sahota, Pinki

    2014-05-28

    The present study aimed to explore previously unreported ethnic differences in infant feeding practices during the introduction of solid foods, accounting for maternal and birth factors, and to determine whether these feeding patterns are associated with BMI at 3 years of age. An observational study using Poisson regression was carried out to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and infant feeding practices and linear regression was used to investigate the relationship between feeding practices and BMI at 3 years of age in a subsample of 1327 infants in Bradford. It was found that compared with White British mothers, mothers of Other ethnicities were less likely to replace breast milk with formula milk before introducing solid foods (adjusted relative risk (RR) - Pakistani: 0·76 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·91), Other South Asian: 0·58 (95 % CI 0·39, 0·86), and Other ethnicities: 0·50 (95 % CI 0·34, 0·73)). Pakistani and Other South Asian mothers were less likely to introduce solid foods early ( < 17 weeks) (adjusted RR - Pakistani: 0·92 (95 % CI 0·87, 0·96) and Other South Asian: 0·87 (95 % CI 0·81, 0·93)). Other South Asian mothers and mothers of Other ethnicities were more likely to continue breast-feeding after introducing solid foods (adjusted RR - 1·72 (95 % CI 1·29, 2·29) and 2·12 (95 % CI 1·60, 2·81), respectively). Pakistani and Other South Asian infants were more likely to be fed sweetened foods (adjusted RR - 1·18 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·23) and 1·19 (95 % CI 1·10, 1·28), respectively) and Pakistani infants were more likely to consume sweetened drinks (adjusted RR 1·72 (95 % CI 1·15, 2·57)). No association between infant feeding practices and BMI at 3 years was observed. Although ethnic differences in infant feeding practices were found, there was no association with BMI at 3 years of age. Interventions targeting infant feeding practices need to consider ethnicity to identify which populations are failing to follow

  3. Depressive symptoms and other risk factors predicting suicide in middle-aged men: a prospective cohort study among Korean Vietnam War veterans.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Hong, Jae-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Background. Few studies have prospectively examined whether depressive symptoms and other risk factors are associated with a higher risk of suicide death in individuals other than high-risk populations such as psychiatric patients and individuals with self-harm histories. The purpose of the study is to prospectively examine whether depressive symptoms assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) are associated with greater risk of suicide death and whether depressive symptoms and other risk factors are independent predictors of suicide in general-risk populations. Another aim is to evaluate the sensitivity of the BDI for predicting suicide death. Methods. 10,238 Korean Vietnam War veterans (mean age: 56.3 years) who participated in two surveys in 2001 were followed up for suicide mortality over 7.5 years. Results. 41 men died by suicide. Severely depressed participants had a higher adjusted hazard ratio (aHR = 3.4; 95% CI [1.5-7.7]) of suicide than non-to-moderately depressed ones. Higher suicide risk was associated with more severe depressive symptoms (p for trend = 0.009). After adjustment for depressive symptoms and other factors, very poor health, low education, and past drinking were associated with higher suicide risk, while good health, body mass index, and marital status were not associated with suicide. The sensitivity at the cut-off score of 31 for detecting suicide was higher during the earlier 3.5 years of the follow-up (75%; 95% CI [50-90]) than during the latter 4 years (60%; 95% CI [41-76]). Conclusions. Depressive symptoms are a strong independent predictor and very poor health, low education, and drinking status may be independent predictors of future suicide. The BDI may have acceptable diagnostic properties as a risk assessment tool for identifying people with depression and suicidal potential among middle-aged men.

  4. Depressive symptoms and other risk factors predicting suicide in middle-aged men: a prospective cohort study among Korean Vietnam War veterans

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Background. Few studies have prospectively examined whether depressive symptoms and other risk factors are associated with a higher risk of suicide death in individuals other than high-risk populations such as psychiatric patients and individuals with self-harm histories. The purpose of the study is to prospectively examine whether depressive symptoms assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) are associated with greater risk of suicide death and whether depressive symptoms and other risk factors are independent predictors of suicide in general-risk populations. Another aim is to evaluate the sensitivity of the BDI for predicting suicide death. Methods. 10,238 Korean Vietnam War veterans (mean age: 56.3 years) who participated in two surveys in 2001 were followed up for suicide mortality over 7.5 years. Results. 41 men died by suicide. Severely depressed participants had a higher adjusted hazard ratio (aHR = 3.4; 95% CI [1.5–7.7]) of suicide than non-to-moderately depressed ones. Higher suicide risk was associated with more severe depressive symptoms (p for trend = 0.009). After adjustment for depressive symptoms and other factors, very poor health, low education, and past drinking were associated with higher suicide risk, while good health, body mass index, and marital status were not associated with suicide. The sensitivity at the cut-off score of 31 for detecting suicide was higher during the earlier 3.5 years of the follow-up (75%; 95% CI [50–90]) than during the latter 4 years (60%; 95% CI [41–76]). Conclusions. Depressive symptoms are a strong independent predictor and very poor health, low education, and drinking status may be independent predictors of future suicide. The BDI may have acceptable diagnostic properties as a risk assessment tool for identifying people with depression and suicidal potential among middle-aged men. PMID:26157634

  5. Depressive symptoms and other risk factors predicting suicide in middle-aged men: a prospective cohort study among Korean Vietnam War veterans.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Hong, Jae-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Background. Few studies have prospectively examined whether depressive symptoms and other risk factors are associated with a higher risk of suicide death in individuals other than high-risk populations such as psychiatric patients and individuals with self-harm histories. The purpose of the study is to prospectively examine whether depressive symptoms assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) are associated with greater risk of suicide death and whether depressive symptoms and other risk factors are independent predictors of suicide in general-risk populations. Another aim is to evaluate the sensitivity of the BDI for predicting suicide death. Methods. 10,238 Korean Vietnam War veterans (mean age: 56.3 years) who participated in two surveys in 2001 were followed up for suicide mortality over 7.5 years. Results. 41 men died by suicide. Severely depressed participants had a higher adjusted hazard ratio (aHR = 3.4; 95% CI [1.5-7.7]) of suicide than non-to-moderately depressed ones. Higher suicide risk was associated with more severe depressive symptoms (p for trend = 0.009). After adjustment for depressive symptoms and other factors, very poor health, low education, and past drinking were associated with higher suicide risk, while good health, body mass index, and marital status were not associated with suicide. The sensitivity at the cut-off score of 31 for detecting suicide was higher during the earlier 3.5 years of the follow-up (75%; 95% CI [50-90]) than during the latter 4 years (60%; 95% CI [41-76]). Conclusions. Depressive symptoms are a strong independent predictor and very poor health, low education, and drinking status may be independent predictors of future suicide. The BDI may have acceptable diagnostic properties as a risk assessment tool for identifying people with depression and suicidal potential among middle-aged men. PMID:26157634

  6. Cardiovascular Health Metrics and All-cause and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Among Middle-aged Men in Korea: The Seoul Male Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Young; Ko, Young-Jin; Rhee, Chul Woo; Park, Byung-Joo; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Bae, Jong-Myon; Shin, Myung-Hee; Lee, Moo-Song; Li, Zhong Min

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study estimated the association of cardiovascular health behaviors with the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in middle-aged men in Korea. Methods In total, 12 538 men aged 40 to 59 years were enrolled in 1993 and followed up through 2011. Cardiovascular health metrics defined the following lifestyle behaviors proposed by the American Heart Association: smoking, physical activity, body mass index, diet habit score, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose. The cardiovascular health metrics score was calculated as a single categorical variable, by assigning 1 point to each ideal healthy behavior. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratio of cardiovascular health behavior. Population attributable risks (PARs) were calculated from the significant cardiovascular health metrics. Results There were 1054 total and 171 CVD deaths over 230 690 person-years of follow-up. The prevalence of meeting all 7 cardiovascular health metrics was 0.67%. Current smoking, elevated blood pressure, and high fasting blood glucose were significantly associated with all-cause and CVD mortality. The adjusted PARs for the 3 significant metrics combined were 35.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 21.7 to 47.4) and 52.8% (95% CI, 22.0 to 74.0) for all-cause and CVD mortality, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratios of the groups with a 6-7 vs. 0-2 cardiovascular health metrics score were 0.42 (95% CI, 0.31 to 0.59) for all-cause mortality and 0.10 (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.29) for CVD mortality. Conclusions Among cardiovascular health behaviors, not smoking, normal blood pressure, and recommended fasting blood glucose levels were associated with reduced risks of all-cause and CVD mortality. Meeting a greater number of cardiovascular health metrics was associated with a lower risk of all-cause and CVD mortality. PMID:24349653

  7. Low Birth Weight, Small for Gestational Age and Preterm Births before and after the Economic Collapse in Iceland: A Population Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Eiríksdóttir, Védís Helga; Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey; Bjarnadóttir, Ragnheiður Ingibjörg; Kaestner, Robert; Cnattingius, Sven; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur Anna

    2013-01-01

    Objective Infants born small for gestational age (SGA) or preterm have increased rates of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Stressful events have been suggested as potential contributors to preterm birth (PB) and low birth weight (LBW). We studied the effect of the 2008 economic collapse in Iceland on the risks of adverse birth outcomes. Study design The study population constituted all Icelandic women giving birth to live-born singletons from January 1st 2006 to December 31st 2009. LBW infants were defined as those weighing <2500 grams at birth, PB infants as those born before 37 weeks of gestation and SGA as those with a birth weight for gestational age more than 2 standard deviations (SD's) below the mean according to the Swedish fetal growth curve. We used logistic regression analysis to estimate odds ratios [OR] and corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals [95% CI] of adverse birth outcomes by exposure to calendar time of the economic collapse, i.e. after October 6th 2008. Results Compared to the preceding period, we observed an increased adjusted odds in LBW-deliveries following the collapse (aOR = 1.24, 95% CI [1.02, 1.52]), particularly among infants born to mothers younger than 25 years (aOR = 1.85, 95% CI [1.25, 2.72]) and not working mothers (aOR = 1.61, 95% CI [1.10, 2.35]). Similarly, we found a tendency towards higher incidence of SGA-births (aOR = 1.14, 95% CI [0.86, 1.51]) particularly among children born to mothers younger than 25 years (aOR = 1.87, 95% CI [1.09, 3.23]) and not working mothers (aOR = 1.86, 95% CI [1.09, 3.17]). No change in risk of PB was observed. The increase of LBW was most distinct 6–9 months after the collapse. Conclusion The results suggest an increase in risk of LBW shortly after the collapse of the Icelandic national economy. The increase in LBW seems to be driven by reduced fetal growth rate rather than shorter gestation. PMID:24324602

  8. Allergen sensitization linked to climate and age, not to intermittent-persistent rhinitis in a cross-sectional cohort study in the (sub)tropics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergen exposure leads to allergen sensitization in susceptible individuals and this might influence allergic rhinitis (AR) phenotype expression. We investigated whether sensitization patterns vary in a country with subtropical and tropical regions and if sensitization patterns relate to AR phenotypes or age. Methods In a national, cross-sectional study AR patients (2-70 y) seen by allergists underwent blinded skin prick testing with a panel of 18 allergens and completed a validated questionnaire on AR phenotypes. Results 628 patients were recruited. The major sensitizing allergen was house dust mite (HDM) (56%), followed by Bermuda grass (26%), ash (24%), oak (23%) and mesquite (21%) pollen, cat (22%) and cockroach (21%). Patients living in the tropical region were almost exclusively sensitized to HDM (87%). In the central agricultural zones sensitization is primarily to grass and tree pollen. Nationwide, most study subjects had perennial (82.2%), intermittent (56.5%) and moderate-severe (84.7%) AR. Sensitization was not related to the intermittent-persistent AR classification or to AR severity; seasonal AR was associated with tree (p < 0.05) and grass pollen sensitization (p < 0.01). HDM sensitization was more frequent in children (0-11 y) and adolescents (12-17 y) (subtropical region: p < 0.0005; tropical region p < 0.05), but pollen sensitization becomes more important in the adult patients visiting allergists (Adults vs children + adolescents for tree pollen: p < 0.0001, weeds: p < 0.0005). Conclusions In a country with (sub)tropical climate zones SPT sensitization patterns varied according to climatological zones; they were different from those found in Europe, HDM sensitization far outweighing pollen allergies and Bermuda grass and Ash pollen being the main grass and tree allergens, respectively. Pollen sensitization was related to SAR, but no relation between sensitization and intermittent-persistent AR or AR severity

  9. Differentiation of Period, Age, and Cohort Effects on Drug Use 1976-1986. Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper Series, Paper 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Patrick M.; And Others

    Conducted as part of the Monitoring the Future project, this study used a cohort-sequential design to examine period, age, and cohort effects on substance use among American youth between the ages of 18 and 28 from the high school classes of 1976 to 1986. This manuscript supersedes Paper 14 in the series which reported on American youth from 18-24…

  10. Ageing, retirement and changes in vegetable consumption in France: findings from the prospective GAZEL cohort.

    PubMed

    Plessz, Marie; Guéguen, Alice; Goldberg, Marcel; Czernichow, Sébastien; Zins, Marie

    2015-09-28

    The aim of this study was to describe the change in vegetable consumption with ageing and the transition to retirement. Study subjects were the participants of the GAZEL prospective cohort (Gaz and Électricité de France) aged 40-49 years at inclusion in 1989 who retired between 1991 and 2008 (12,942 men and 2739 women). Four FFQ were completed from 1990 to 2009. We used multiple imputation by chained equations in order to avoid dropping incomplete cases. The OR for eating vegetables everyday was estimated as a function of ageing, retirement status and the place of lunch before retirement through generalised estimating equations. Analyses were stratified by sex, and models were adjusted for confounders, including current spousal status. In 1990, 17.7% of men and 31% of women reported eating vegetables daily. The odds of consuming vegetables everyday increased with ageing for both men and women. The usual place of lunch was home for less than half the sample before retirement and for almost every respondent after retirement. For those who changed their place of lunch, the association between being retired and the odds of eating vegetables daily was positive and significant. We found that, in this cohort, vegetable consumption increased with ageing. Retirement had an indirect effect on vegetable consumption mediated by changes in the place of lunch.

  11. Neighbourhood socioeconomic inequalities in incidence of acute myocardial infarction: a cohort study quantifying age- and gender-specific differences in relative and absolute terms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic status has a profound effect on the risk of having a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Information on socioeconomic inequalities in AMI incidence across age- gender-groups is lacking. Our objective was to examine socioeconomic inequalities in the incidence of AMI considering both relative and absolute measures of risk differences, with a particular focus on age and gender. Methods We identified all patients with a first AMI from 1997 to 2007 through linked hospital discharge and death records covering the Dutch population. Relative risks (RR) of AMI incidence were estimated by mean equivalent household income at neighbourhood-level for strata of age and gender using Poisson regression models. Socioeconomic inequalities were also shown within the stratified age-gender groups by calculating the total number of events attributable to socioeconomic disadvantage. Results Between 1997 and 2007, 317,564 people had a first AMI. When comparing the most deprived socioeconomic quintile with the most affluent quintile, the overall RR for AMI was 1.34 (95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.32 – 1.36) in men and 1.44 (95 % CI: 1.42 – 1.47) in women. The socioeconomic gradient decreased with age. Relative socioeconomic inequalities were most apparent in men under 35 years and in women under 65 years. The largest number of events attributable to socioeconomic inequalities was found in men aged 45–74 years and in women aged 65–84 years. The total proportion of AMIs that was attributable to socioeconomic inequalities in the Dutch population of 1997 to 2007 was 14 % in men and 18 % in women. Conclusions Neighbourhood socioeconomic inequalities were observed in AMI incidence in the Netherlands, but the magnitude across age-gender groups depended on whether inequality was expressed in relative or absolute terms. Relative socioeconomic inequalities were high in young persons and women, where the absolute burden of AMI was low. Absolute

  12. Barriers to and Facilitators of Compliance with Clinic-Based Cervical Cancer Screening: Population-Based Cohort Study of Women Aged 23-60 Years

    PubMed Central

    Östensson, Ellinor; Alder, Susanna; Elfström, K. Miriam; Sundström, Karin; Zethraeus, Niklas; Arbyn, Marc; Andersson, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to identify possible barriers to and facilitators of cervical cancer screening by (a) estimating time and travel costs and other direct non-medical costs incurred in attending clinic-based cervical cancer screening, (b) investigating screening compliance and reasons for noncompliance, (c) determining women’s knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV), its relationship to cervical cancer, and HPV and cervical cancer prevention, and (d) investigating correlates of HPV knowledge and screening compliance. Materials and Methods 1510 women attending the clinic-based cervical cancer screening program in Stockholm, Sweden were included. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, time and travel costs and other direct non-medical costs incurred in attending (e.g., indirect cost of time needed for the screening visit, transportation costs, child care costs, etc.), mode(s) of travel, time, distance, companion’s attendance, HPV knowledge, and screening compliance were obtained via self-administered questionnaire. Results Few respondents had low socioeconomic status. Mean total time and travel costs and direct non-medical cost per attendance, including companion (if any) were €55.6. Over half (53%) of the respondents took time off work to attend screening (mean time 147 minutes). A large portion (44%) of the respondents were noncompliant (i.e., did not attend screening within 1 year of the initial invitation), 51% of whom stated difficulties in taking time off work. 64% of all respondents knew that HPV vaccination was available; only 34% knew it was important to continue to attend screening following vaccination. Age, education, and income were the most important correlates of HPV knowledge and compliance; and additional factors associated with compliance were time off work, accompanying companion and HPV knowledge. Conclusion Time and travel costs and other direct non-medical costs for clinic-based screening can be considerable, may affect the cost

  13. Educational expansion and the education gradient in health: A hierarchical age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Delaruelle, Katrijn; Buffel, Veerle; Bracke, Piet

    2015-11-01

    Researchers have recently been investigating the temporal variation in the educational gradient in health. While there is abundant literature concerning age trajectories, theoretical knowledge about cohort differences is relatively limited. Therefore, in analogy with the life course perspective, we introduce two contrasting cohort-specific hypotheses. The diminishing health returns hypothesis predicts a decrease in educational disparities in health across cohorts. By contrast, the cohort accretion hypothesis suggests that the education-health gap will be more pronounced among younger cohorts. To shed light on this, we perform a hierarchical age-period-cohort analysis (HAPC), using data from a subsample of individuals between 25 and 85 years of age (N = 232,573) from 32 countries in the European Social Survey (six waves: 2002-2012). The analysis leads to three important conclusions. First, we observe a widening health gap between different educational levels over the life course. Second, we find that these educational differences in the age trajectories of health seem to strengthen with each successive birth cohort. However, the two age-related effects disappear when we control for employment status, household income, and family characteristics. Last, when adjusting for these mediators, we reveal evidence to support the diminishing health returns hypothesis, implying that it is primarily the direct association between education and health that decreases across cohorts. This finding raises concerns about potential barriers to education being a vehicle for empowerment and the promotion of health. PMID:26458119

  14. Educational expansion and the education gradient in health: A hierarchical age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Delaruelle, Katrijn; Buffel, Veerle; Bracke, Piet

    2015-11-01

    Researchers have recently been investigating the temporal variation in the educational gradient in health. While there is abundant literature concerning age trajectories, theoretical knowledge about cohort differences is relatively limited. Therefore, in analogy with the life course perspective, we introduce two contrasting cohort-specific hypotheses. The diminishing health returns hypothesis predicts a decrease in educational disparities in health across cohorts. By contrast, the cohort accretion hypothesis suggests that the education-health gap will be more pronounced among younger cohorts. To shed light on this, we perform a hierarchical age-period-cohort analysis (HAPC), using data from a subsample of individuals between 25 and 85 years of age (N = 232,573) from 32 countries in the European Social Survey (six waves: 2002-2012). The analysis leads to three important conclusions. First, we observe a widening health gap between different educational levels over the life course. Second, we find that these educational differences in the age trajectories of health seem to strengthen with each successive birth cohort. However, the two age-related effects disappear when we control for employment status, household income, and family characteristics. Last, when adjusting for these mediators, we reveal evidence to support the diminishing health returns hypothesis, implying that it is primarily the direct association between education and health that decreases across cohorts. This finding raises concerns about potential barriers to education being a vehicle for empowerment and the promotion of health.

  15. [Application of cohort study in cancer prevention and control].

    PubMed

    Dai, Min; Bai, Yana; Pu, Hongquan; Cheng, Ning; Li, Haiyan; He, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Cancer control is a long-term work. Cancer research and intervention really need the support of cohort study. In the recent years, more and more cohort studies on cancer control were conducted in China along with the increased ability of scientific research in China. Since 2010, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, collaborated with Lanzhou University and the Worker' s Hospital of Jinchuan Group Company Limited, have carried out a large-scale cohort study on cancer, which covered a population of more than 50 000 called " Jinchang cohort". Since 2012, a National Key Public Health Project, "cancer screening in urban China" , has been conducted in Jinchang, which strengthened the Jinchang cohort study. Based on the Jinchang cohort study, historical cohort study, cross-sectional study and prospective cohort study have been conducted, which would provide a lot of evidence for the cancer control in China.

  16. Birth cohort differences in fluid cognition in old age: comparisons of trends in levels and change trajectories over 30 years in three population-based samples.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Peter; Thorvaldsson, Valgeir; Skoog, Ingmar; Gudmundsson, Pia; Johansson, Boo

    2015-03-01

    Later-born cohorts of older adults tend to outperform earlier born on fluid cognition (i.e., Flynn effect) when measured at the same chronological ages. We investigated cohort differences in level of performance and rate of change across three population-based samples born in 1901, 1906, and 1930, drawn from the Gerontological and Geriatric Population Studies in Gothenburg, Sweden (H70), and measured on tests of logical reasoning and spatial ability at ages 70, 75, and 79 years. Estimates from multiple-group latent growth curve models (LGCM) revealed, in line with previous studies, substantial differences in level of performance where later-born cohorts outperformed earlier born cohorts. Somewhat surprisingly, later-born cohorts showed, on average, a steeper decline than the earlier-born cohort. Gender and education only partially accounted for observed cohort trends. Men outperformed women in the 1906 and 1930 cohorts but no difference was found in the 1901 cohort. More years of education was associated with improved performance in all three cohorts. Our findings confirm the presence of birth cohort effects also in old age but indicate a faster rate of decline in later-born samples. Potential explanations for these findings are discussed.

  17. Socio-Economic Achievements of Individuals Born Very Preterm at the Age of 27 to 29 Years: A Nationwide Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathiasen, Rene; Hansen, Bo M.; Anderson, Anne-Marie Nybo; Greisen, Gorm

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To describe the socio economic achievement of individuals born very preterm (VPT) at the age of 27 to 29 years. Method: Demographic and social data were extracted from national registers for all individuals born between 1974 and 1976 in Denmark (n = 208 656). Of these, 203 283 individuals were alive in 2006. We compared VPT individuals…

  18. Symptoms of Generalised Anxiety disorder but not Panic Disorder at age 15 increase the risk of depression at 18 in the ALSPAC cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Simon J C; Pearson, Rebecca; Stapinski, Lexine; Bould, Helen; Christmas, David M; Button, Katherine S; Skapinakis, Petros; Lewis, Glyn; Evans, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Background Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and Panic Disorder (PD) differ in their biology and co-morbidities. We hypothesised that GAD but not PD symptoms at 15 are associated with depression diagnosis at 18. Methods Using longitudinal data from the ALSPAC birth cohort we examined relations of GAD and PD symptoms (measured by DAWBA) at 15 to depression at 18 (by CIS-R) using logistic regression. We excluded adolescents already depressed at 15 and adjusted for social class, maternal education, birth order, gender, alcohol intake and smoking. We repeated these analyses following multiple imputation for missing data. Results In the sample with complete data (n=2835), high and moderate GAD symptoms in adolescents not depressed at 15, were associated with increased risk of depression at 18 both in unadjusted analyses and adjusting for PD symptoms at 15 and the above potential confounders. The adjusted OR for depression at 18 in adolescents with high relative to low GAD scores was 5.2 [95% C.I. 3.0 - 9.1; overall p<0.0001]. There were no associations between PD symptoms and depression at 18 in any model (high relative to low PD scores, adjusted OR= 1.3 [95% C.I. 0.3 - 4.8], overall p=0.737). Missing data imputation strengthened the relations of GAD symptoms with depression (high relative to low GAD scores, OR= 6.2, [95% C.I. 3.9 - 9.9]) but those for PD became weaker. Conclusion Symptoms of GAD but not PD at 15 are associated with depression at 18. Clinicians should be aware that adolescents with GAD symptoms may develop depression. PMID:26315278

  19. Developmental Models for Time of Testing x Cohort x Grade (Age) Research Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John Delane

    Missing data for a given cohort of students in a longitudinal study occurs for at least two reasons: either the student has moved or otherwise become unavailable for testing, or the cohort was not in the testing range at a given testing time. A developmental sampling for time of testing x cohort x grade research plan of testing is used to…

  20. Cohort Profile: LifeLines, a three-generation cohort study and biobank.

    PubMed

    Scholtens, Salome; Smidt, Nynke; Swertz, Morris A; Bakker, Stephan J L; Dotinga, Aafje; Vonk, Judith M; van Dijk, Freerk; van Zon, Sander K R; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Stolk, Ronald P

    2015-08-01

    The LifeLines Cohort Study is a large population-based cohort study and biobank that was established as a resource for research on complex interactions between environmental, phenotypic and genomic factors in the development of chronic diseases and healthy ageing. Between 2006 and 2013, inhabitants of the northern part of The Netherlands and their families were invited to participate, thereby contributing to a three-generation design. Participants visited one of the LifeLines research sites for a physical examination, including lung function, ECG and cognition tests, and completed extensive questionnaires. Baseline data were collected for 167 729 participants, aged from 6 months to 93 years. Follow-up visits are scheduled every 5 years, and in between participants receive follow-up questionnaires. Linkage is being established with medical registries and environmental data. LifeLines contains information on biochemistry, medical history, psychosocial characteristics, lifestyle and more. Genomic data are available including genome-wide genetic data of 15 638 participants. Fasting blood and 24-h urine samples are processed on the day of collection and stored at -80 °C in a fully automated storage facility. The aim of LifeLines is to be a resource for the national and international scientific community. Requests for data and biomaterials can be submitted to the LifeLines Research Office [LLscience@umcg.nl].

  1. Childhood Parasomnias and Psychotic Experiences at Age 12 Years in a United Kingdom Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Helen L.; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Thompson, Andrew; Lewis, Glyn; Zammit, Stanley; Wolke, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine associations between specific parasomnias and psychotic experiences in childhood. Design: Birth cohort study. Information on the presence of frequent nightmares in children was obtained prospectively from mothers during multiple assessments conducted when children were aged between 2.5 and 9 y. Children were interviewed at age 12 y about nightmares, night terrors, sleepwalking, and psychotic experiences (delusions, hallucinations, and thought interference) occurring in the previous 6 mo. Setting: Assessments were completed in participants' homes or a University clinic within the UK. Patients or Participants: There were 6,796 children (3,462 girls, 50.9%) who completed the psychotic experiences interview. Measurements and Results: Children who were reported by their mothers as experiencing frequent nightmares between 2.5 and 9 y of age were more likely to report psychotic experiences at age 12 y, regardless of sex, family adversity, emotional or behavioral problems, IQ and potential neurological problems (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16, [95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.00, 1.35], P = 0.049). Children reporting any of the parasomnias at age 12 y also had higher rates of concurrent psychotic experiences than those without such sleeping problems, when adjusting for all confounders (OR = 3.62 [95% CI = 2.57, 5.11], P < 0.001). Difficulty getting to sleep and night waking were not found to be associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 y when controlling for confounders. Conclusion: Nightmares and night terrors, but not other sleeping problems, in childhood were associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 years. These findings tentatively suggest that arousal and rapid eye movement forms of sleep disorder might be early indicators of susceptibility to psychotic experiences. Citation: Fisher HL; Lereya ST; Thompson A; Lewis G; Zammit S; Wolke D. Childhood parasomnias and psychotic experiences at age 12 years in a United Kingdom birth cohort

  2. Genotype × Cohort Interaction on Completed Fertility and Age at First Birth

    PubMed Central

    Briley, Daniel A.; Harden, K. Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2014-01-01

    Microevolutionary projections use empirical estimates of genetic covariation between physical or psychological phenotypes and reproductive success to forecast changes in the population distributions of those phenotypes over time. The validity of these projections depends on relatively consistent heritabilities of fertility-relevant outcomes and consistent genetic covariation between fertility and other physical or psychological phenotypes across generations. However, well-documented, rapidly changing mean trends in the level and timing of fertility may have been accompanied by differences in the genetic mechanisms of fertility. Using a sample of 933 adult twin pairs from the Midlife Development in the United States study, we demonstrate that genetic influences on completed fertility and age at first birth were trivial for the 1920 to 1935 birth cohort, but rose substantially for the 1936 to 1955 birth cohort. For the 1956 to 1970 birth cohort, genetic influences on completed fertility, but not age at first birth, persisted. Because the heritability of fertility is subject to change dynamically with the social context, it is difficult to project selection pressures or the rate at which selection will occur. PMID:25491394

  3. Social Origin and Graduation Age: A Cohort Comparison of Danish University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klausen, Trond Beldo

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates whether social origin has an impact on graduation age among university students. A large number of social background factors are applied on a large data set of 4 successive cohorts of Danish university graduates born 1960-1975. These are cohorts for whom university attendance increased steeply. Contrary to recent findings…

  4. Criminal offending among males and females between ages 15 and 30 in a population-based nationwide 1981 birth cohort: results from the FinnCrime Study.

    PubMed

    Elonheimo, Henrik; Gyllenberg, David; Huttunen, Jukka; Ristkari, Terja; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Sourander, André

    2014-12-01

    We describe the epidemiology of crime between ages 15 and 30 in a population-based sample. We received police register data for 5405 males and females, representing the children born in Finland in 1981. We classified crimes into drug, violent, property, traffic, drunk driving, and sexual crimes, excluding minor traffic offenses. Of males, 60% and of females, 25% were registered for offending. For males, prevalence peaked in late adolescence, while for females, there was no peak age. Offending frequency remained stable for male offenders but was lower among adolescent female offenders. All crime types overlapped each other. Crime accumulated: 1% committed 34% of male and 56% of female offenses. In conclusion, the adolescent peak in offending reflects peaking prevalence among males, not females, nor frequency of offending among offenders. The crime problem is focused on two key groups: late adolescent males and the few males and females in whom crime concentrates. PMID:25285642

  5. Twin's Birth-Order Differences in Height and Body Mass Index From Birth to Old Age: A Pooled Study of 26 Twin Cohorts Participating in the CODATwins Project.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Sung, Joohon; Hopper, John L; Ooki, Syuichi; Heikkilä, Kauko; Aaltonen, Sari; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Saudino, Kimberly J; Cutler, Tessa L; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Harris, Jennifer R; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Aslan, Anna K Dahl; Tynelius, Per; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert; Rebato, Esther; Rose, Richard J; Goldberg, Jack H; Rasmussen, Finn; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2016-04-01

    We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited evidence was found that birth order influenced variances of height or BMI. The results were similar among boys and girls and also in MZ and DZ twins. Overall, the differences in height and BMI between first- and second-born twins were modest even in early childhood, while adjustment for birth weight reduced the birth order differences but did not remove them for BMI. PMID:26996222

  6. Antioxidant vitamin intake and mortality: the Leisure World Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Paganini-Hill, Annlia; Kawas, Claudia H; Corrada, María M

    2015-01-15

    To assess the relationship between antioxidant vitamin intake and all-cause mortality in older adults, we examined these associations using data from the Leisure World Cohort Study, a prospective study of residents of the Leisure World retirement community in Laguna Hills, California. In the early 1980s, participants (who were aged 44-101 years) completed a postal survey, which included details on use of vitamin supplements and dietary intake of foods containing vitamins A and C. Age-adjusted and multivariate-adjusted (for factors related to mortality in this cohort—smoking, alcohol intake, caffeine consumption, exercise, body mass index, and histories of hypertension, angina, heart attack, stroke, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer) hazard ratios for death were calculated using Cox regression for 8,640 women and 4,983 men (median age at entry, 74 years). During follow-up (1981-2013), 13,104 participants died (median age at death, 88 years). Neither dietary nor supplemental intake of vitamin A or vitamin C nor supplemental intake of vitamin E was significantly associated with mortality after multivariate adjustment. A compendium that summarizes previous findings of cohort studies evaluating vitamin intake and mortality is provided. Attenuation in the observed associations between mortality and antioxidant vitamin use after adjustment for confounders in our study and in previous studies suggests that such consumption identifies persons with other mortality-associated lifestyle and health risk factors. PMID:25550360

  7. Antioxidant vitamin intake and mortality: the Leisure World Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Paganini-Hill, Annlia; Kawas, Claudia H; Corrada, María M

    2015-01-15

    To assess the relationship between antioxidant vitamin intake and all-cause mortality in older adults, we examined these associations using data from the Leisure World Cohort Study, a prospective study of residents of the Leisure World retirement community in Laguna Hills, California. In the early 1980s, participants (who were aged 44-101 years) completed a postal survey, which included details on use of vitamin supplements and dietary intake of foods containing vitamins A and C. Age-adjusted and multivariate-adjusted (for factors related to mortality in this cohort—smoking, alcohol intake, caffeine consumption, exercise, body mass index, and histories of hypertension, angina, heart attack, stroke, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer) hazard ratios for death were calculated using Cox regression for 8,640 women and 4,983 men (median age at entry, 74 years). During follow-up (1981-2013), 13,104 participants died (median age at death, 88 years). Neither dietary nor supplemental intake of vitamin A or vitamin C nor supplemental intake of vitamin E was significantly associated with mortality after multivariate adjustment. A compendium that summarizes previous findings of cohort studies evaluating vitamin intake and mortality is provided. Attenuation in the observed associations between mortality and antioxidant vitamin use after adjustment for confounders in our study and in previous studies suggests that such consumption identifies persons with other mortality-associated lifestyle and health risk factors.

  8. A cohort study of bacteremic pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Guillamet, Cristina Vazquez; Vazquez, Rodrigo; Noe, Jonas; Micek, Scott T.; Kollef, Marin H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bacteremic pneumonia is usually associated with greater mortality. However, risk factors associated with hospital mortality in bacteremic pneumonia are inadequately described. The study was a retrospective cohort study, conducted in Barnes-Jewish Hospital (2008–2015). For purposes of this investigation, antibiotic susceptibility was determined according to ceftriaxone susceptibility, as ceftriaxone represents the antimicrobial agent most frequently recommended for hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia as opposed to nosocomial pneumonia. Two multivariable analyses were planned: the first model included resistance to ceftriaxone as a variable, whereas the second model included the various antibiotic-resistant species (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacteriaceae). In all, 1031 consecutive patients with bacteremic pneumonia (mortality 37.1%) were included. The most common pathogens associated with infection were S aureus (34.1%; methicillin resistance 54.0%), Enterobacteriaceae (28.0%), P aeruginosa (10.6%), anaerobic bacteria (7.3%), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (5.6%). Compared with ceftriaxone-susceptible pathogens (46.8%), ceftriaxone-resistant pathogens (53.2%) were significantly more likely to receive inappropriate initial antibiotic treatment (IIAT) (27.9% vs 7.1%; P < 0.001) and to die during hospitalization (41.5% vs 32.0%; P = 0.001). The first logistic regression analysis identified IIAT with the greatest odds ratio (OR) for mortality (OR 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5–3.2, P < 0.001). Other independent predictors of mortality included age, mechanical ventilation, immune suppression, prior hospitalization, prior antibiotic administration, septic shock, comorbid conditions, and severity of illness. In the second multivariable analysis that included the antibiotic-resistant species, IIAT was still associated with excess mortality, and P aeruginosa infection was

  9. The impact of cannabis use on age of onset and clinical characteristics in first-episode psychotic patients. Data from the Psychosis Incident Cohort Outcome Study (PICOS).

    PubMed

    Tosato, Sarah; Lasalvia, Antonio; Bonetto, Chiara; Mazzoncini, Rodolfo; Cristofalo, Doriana; De Santi, Katia; Bertani, Mariaelena; Bissoli, Sarah; Lazzarotto, Lorenza; Marrella, Giovanna; Lamonaca, Dario; Riolo, Rosanna; Gardellin, Francesco; Urbani, Anna; Tansella, Michele; Ruggeri, Mirella

    2013-04-01

    Cannabis use is frequent among first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and has been associated with several clinical features. This study aimed in an FEP sample to determine whether cannabis use is associated with (1) a higher level of positive symptoms, a lower level of depression and a better premorbid adjustment, (2) an earlier age of onset, and a better premorbid IQ. The study was conducted within the framework of the Psychosis Incident Cohort Outcome Study (PICOS), a multisite collaborative research on FEP patients who attended the psychiatric services in Veneto Region, Italy. Standardized instruments were used to collect sociodemographic, clinical, and drug use data. A total of 555 FEP patients met the inclusion criteria, 517 of whom received an ICD-10 diagnosis of psychosis; 397 (55% males; mean age: 32 yrs ± 9.5) were assessed. Out of these, 311 patients agreed to be interviewed on drug and alcohol misuse; 20.3% was positive for drug misuse: cannabis (19.0%), cocaine (3.9%), and hallucinogens (3.9%). Cannabis use was not associated with a higher level of positive symptoms, but correlated with less severe depressive symptoms. No relationship was observed between premorbid adjustment or IQ and cannabis use. FEP patients who used cannabis had an earlier age of onset than abstinent patients, even after adjusting for gender and diagnosis. Our results suggest a possible causal role of cannabis in triggering psychosis in certain vulnerable subjects. Particular attention must be paid to this behaviour, because reducing cannabis use can delay or prevent some cases of psychosis.

  10. Birth-cohort trends in older-age functional disability and their relationship with socio-economic status: Evidence from a pooling of repeated cross-sectional population-based studies for the UK.

    PubMed

    Morciano, Marcello; Hancock, Ruth M; Pudney, Stephen E

    2015-07-01

    We examine birth-cohort trends behind recent changes in the prevalence of functional disability in the older population living in private households in the United Kingdom (UK). By using three different socio-economic indicators available in the nationally representative cross-sectional data on older individuals interviewed between 2002 and 2012 in the Family Resource Survey (FRS) (96,733 respondents), we investigate the extent to which the overall trends have been more favourable among more advantaged than disadvantaged socioeconomic groups. Compared to the cohort of people born in 1924, successive cohorts of older men have lower odds of having at least one functional difficulty (FD), whereas no significant trend was found for women. Among people with at least one FD, however, the number of disabilities increases for each successive cohort of older women (incidence rate ratio 1.027, 95% confidence interval 1.023 to 1.031, P < 0.001) and men (incidence rate ratio 1.028, 95% confidence interval 1.024 to 1.033, P < 0.001). By allowing interactions between birth cohort and SES indicators, a significant increasing cohort trend in the number of reported FDs was found among older men and women at lower SES, whereas an almost stable pattern was observed at high SES. Our results suggest that the overall slightly increasing birth-cohort trend in functional difficulties observed among current cohorts of older people in the UK hides underlying increases among low SES individuals and a relative small reduction among high SES individuals. Further studies are needed to understand the causes of such trends and to propose appropriate interventions. However, if the SES differentials in trends in FDs observed in the past continue, this could have important implications for the future costs of the public system of care and support for people with care needs.

  11. Cohort Profile: Recruitment cohorts in the neuropsychological substudy of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Becker, James T; Kingsley, Lawrence A; Molsberry, Samantha; Reynolds, Sandra; Aronow, Aaron; Levine, Andrew J; Martin, Eileen; Miller, Eric N; Munro, Cynthia A; Ragin, Ann; Sacktor, Ned; Selnes, Ola A

    2015-01-01

    The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) is one of the largest and longest running studies of the natural and treated history of HIV disease. The Neuropsychological (NP) substudy was begun in 1988 following reports of significant adverse neurological consequences of HIV disease, including dementia. The goal was to characterize the neuropsychological deficits among individuals with HIV disease, and track the natural history of the neurological complications over time. There were three distinct MACS recruitment stages that focused on different groups of HIV-infected men, or men at risk for infection. Initially, a subcohort was evaluated semi-annually with NP tests but, beginning in 2005, the entire group of MACS participants have had NP examinations biannually, unless closer follow-up was warranted. The participants complete a battery of NP tests, and are classified as either normal, mildly or severely impaired using the Antinori criteria for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND). Additional behavioural data, including mood state and psychoactive substance use, are recorded as part of the main MACS data collection. The MACS public data set (PDS) has been available since 1994 and includes baseline and 6-monthly follow-up data. Beginning in October 1995, the PDS has been released annually with new releases superseding previous versions. PMID:24771276

  12. Is herpes zoster an additional complication in old age alongside comorbidity and multiple medications? Results of the post hoc analysis of the 12-month longitudinal prospective observational ARIZONA cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Gisèle; Gavazzi, Gaëtan; Gaillat, Jacques; Paccalin, Marc; Bloch, Karine; Bouhassira, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the burden of comorbidity, polypharmacy and herpes zoster (HZ), an infectious disease, and its main complication post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) in young (50–70 years of age: 70−) and old (≥70 years of age: 70+) patients. Design Post hoc analysis of the results of the 12-month longitudinal prospective multicentre observational ARIZONA cohort study. Settings and participants The study took place in primary care in France from 20 November 2006 to 12 September 2008. Overall, 644 general practitioners (GPs) collected data from 1358 patients aged 50 years or more with acute eruptive HZ. Outcome measures Presence of HZ-related pain or PHN (pain persisting >3 months) was documented at day 0 and at months 3, 6, and 12. To investigate HZ and PHN burden, pain, quality of life (QoL) and mood were self-assessed using validated questionnaires (Zoster Brief Pain Inventory, 12-item Short-Form health survey and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, respectively). Results As compared with younger patients, older patients more frequently presented with comorbidities, more frequently took analgesics and had poorer response on all questionnaires, indicating greater burden, at inclusion. Analgesics were more frequently prescribed to relieve acute pain or PHN in 70+ than 70− patients. Despite higher levels of medication prescription, poorer pain relief and poorer response to all questionnaires were reported in 70+ than 70− patients. Conclusions Occurrence of HZ and progression to PHN adds extra burden on top of pharmacological treatment and impaired quality of life, especially in older patients who already have health problems to cope with in everyday life. PMID:26892790

  13. Temporal Trends of Suicide Mortality in Mainland China: Results from the Age-Period-Cohort Framework

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenkun; Wang, Jinyao; Bao, Junzhe; Gao, Xudong; Yu, Chuanhua; Xiang, Huiyun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the long-term trends of suicide mortality in China. We implemented the age-period-cohort (APC) framework, using data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Our results showed that the net drift of suicide mortality was −4.727% (95% CI: −4.821% to −4.634%) per year for men and −6.633% (95% CI: −6.751% to −6.515%) per year for women, and the local drift values were below 0 in all age groups (p < 0.01 for all) for both sexes during the period of 1994–2013. Longitudinal age curves indicated that, in the same birth cohort, suicide death risk increased rapidly to peak at the life stage of 20–24 years old and 15–24 years old for men and women, respectively, and then showed a decelerated decline, followed by a rise thereafter after 54 years old for men and a slight one after 69 years old for women. The estimated period and cohort RRs were found to show similar monotonic downward patterns (significantly with p < 0.01 for all) for both sexes, with more quickly decreasing for women than for men during the whole period. The decreasing trend of suicide was likely to be related to the economic rapid growth, improvements in health care, enhancement on the level of education, and increasing awareness of suicide among the public in China. In addition, fast urbanization and the effective control of pesticides and rodenticides might be the special reasons behind these trends we observed in this study. PMID:27527195

  14. Temporal Trends of Suicide Mortality in Mainland China: Results from the Age-Period-Cohort Framework.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenkun; Wang, Jinyao; Bao, Junzhe; Gao, Xudong; Yu, Chuanhua; Xiang, Huiyun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the long-term trends of suicide mortality in China. We implemented the age-period-cohort (APC) framework, using data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Our results showed that the net drift of suicide mortality was -4.727% (95% CI: -4.821% to -4.634%) per year for men and -6.633% (95% CI: -6.751% to -6.515%) per year for women, and the local drift values were below 0 in all age groups (p < 0.01 for all) for both sexes during the period of 1994-2013. Longitudinal age curves indicated that, in the same birth cohort, suicide death risk increased rapidly to peak at the life stage of 20-24 years old and 15-24 years old for men and women, respectively, and then showed a decelerated decline, followed by a rise thereafter after 54 years old for men and a slight one after 69 years old for women. The estimated period and cohort RRs were found to show similar monotonic downward patterns (significantly with p < 0.01 for all) for both sexes, with more quickly decreasing for women than for men during the whole period. The decreasing trend of suicide was likely to be related to the economic rapid growth, improvements in health care, enhancement on the level of education, and increasing awareness of suicide among the public in China. In addition, fast urbanization and the effective control of pesticides and rodenticides might be the special reasons behind these trends we observed in this study. PMID:27527195

  15. Data linkage in an established longitudinal cohort: the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study.

    PubMed

    Mountain, Jenny A; Nyaradi, Anett; Oddy, Wendy H; Glauert, Rebecca A; de Klerk, Nick H; Straker, Leon M; Stanley, Fiona J

    2016-01-01

    The Western Australian Data Linkage System is one of a few comprehensive, population-based data linkage systems worldwide, creating links between information from different sources relating to the same individual, family, place or event, while maintaining privacy. The Raine Study is an established cohort study with more than 2000 currently active participants. Individual consent was obtained from participants for information in publicly held databases to be linked to their study data. A waiver of consent was granted where it was impracticable to obtain consent. Approvals to link the datasets were obtained from relevant ethics committees and data custodians. The Raine Study dataset was subsequently linked to academic testing data collected by the Western Australian Department of Education. Examination of diet and academic performance showed that children who were predominantly breastfed for at least 6 months scored higher academically at age 10 than children who were breastfed for less than 6 months. A further study found that better diet quality at ages 1, 2 and 3 years was associated with higher academic scores at ages 10 and 12 years. Examination of nutritional intake at 14 years of age found that a better dietary pattern was associated with higher academic performance. The detailed longitudinal data collected in the Raine Study allowed for adjustment for multiple covariates and confounders. Data linkage reduces the burden on cohort participants by providing additional information without the need to contact participants. It can give information on participants who have been lost to follow-up; provide or complement missing data; give the opportunity for validation studies comparing recall of participants with administrative records; increase the population sample of studies by adding control participants from the general population; and allow for the adjustment of multiple covariates and confounders. The Raine Study dataset is extensive and detailed, and can be

  16. Cohort study of atypical pressure ulcers development.

    PubMed

    Jaul, Efraim

    2014-12-01

    Atypical pressure ulcers (APU) are distinguished from common pressure ulcers (PU) with both unusual location and different aetiology. The occurrence and attempts to characterise APU remain unrecognised. The purpose of this cohort study was to analyse the occurrence of atypical location and the circumstances of the causation, and draw attention to the prevention and treatment by a multidisciplinary team. The cohort study spanned three and a half years totalling 174 patients. The unit incorporates two weekly combined staff meetings. One concentrates on wound assessment with treatment decisions made by the physician and nurse, and the other, a multidisciplinary team reviewing all patients and coordinating treatment. The main finding of this study identified APU occurrence rate of 21% within acquired PU over a three and a half year period. Severe spasticity constituted the largest group in this study and the most difficult to cure wounds, located in medial aspects of knees, elbows and palms. Medical devices caused the second largest occurrence of atypical wounds, located in the nape of the neck, penis and nostrils. Bony deformities were the third recognisable atypical wound group located in shoulder blades and upper spine. These three categories are definable and time observable. APU are important to be recognisable, and can be healed as well as being prevented. The prominent role of the multidisciplinary team is primary in identification, prevention and treatment. PMID:23374746

  17. Cohort study of atypical pressure ulcers development.

    PubMed

    Jaul, Efraim

    2014-12-01

    Atypical pressure ulcers (APU) are distinguished from common pressure ulcers (PU) with both unusual location and different aetiology. The occurrence and attempts to characterise APU remain unrecognised. The purpose of this cohort study was to analyse the occurrence of atypical location and the circumstances of the causation, and draw attention to the prevention and treatment by a multidisciplinary team. The cohort study spanned three and a half years totalling 174 patients. The unit incorporates two weekly combined staff meetings. One concentrates on wound assessment with treatment decisions made by the physician and nurse, and the other, a multidisciplinary team reviewing all patients and coordinating treatment. The main finding of this study identified APU occurrence rate of 21% within acquired PU over a three and a half year period. Severe spasticity constituted the largest group in this study and the most difficult to cure wounds, located in medial aspects of knees, elbows and palms. Medical devices caused the second largest occurrence of atypical wounds, located in the nape of the neck, penis and nostrils. Bony deformities were the third recognisable atypical wound group located in shoulder blades and upper spine. These three categories are definable and time observable. APU are important to be recognisable, and can be healed as well as being prevented. The prominent role of the multidisciplinary team is primary in identification, prevention and treatment.

  18. A Social Portrait of Age Cohorts in Post-Soviet Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beliaeva, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    The social changes that have taken place in the past fifteen years have had a powerful effect on the life trajectories and social expectations of people in different age groups in Russia. For the most part there are two terms that are used to identify these groups: age cohort (or age group) and generation. But the use of these terms in…

  19. [Lessons from the Hokkaido COPD cohort study].

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Masaharu; Makita, Hironi

    2016-05-01

    Hokkaido COPD cohort study is a carefully-designed, well-conducted, prospective observational 10 year-long study, which ended early in 2015. We have obtained a number of clinically-relevant novel findings, some of which are as follows. Severity of emphysema was highly varied even in those individuals whose airflow limitation is comparable. The annual change in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) over 5 years was also widely varied with normal distribution among the subjects under appropriate treatment. Some patients maintained their pulmonary function for a long time, and others showed a rapid decline. Emphysema severity, but not pulmonary function, was independently associated with such an inter-subject variation in the annual decline in FEV1. When we explored any biomarkers for predicting the FEV1 decline, a lower leptin/adiponectin ratio alone emerged as an explanatory parameter for the rapid decline, and this was also confirmed in an independent Danish cohort study of different ethnicity. Monitoring of quality of life (QOL), using SGRQ scores, also provided interesting observations. The annual change in total score reflected that of FEV1 decline during the follow-up period. However, activity component in QOL deteriorated in almost all the subjects, while symptom component rather improved in many of the patients under appropriate treatment. PMID:27254960

  20. AN AGE-PERIOD-COHORT ANALYSIS OF CANCER INCIDENCE AMONG THE OLDEST OLD

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Heidi A.; Smith, Ken R.; Stroup, Antoinette M.; Harrell, C. Janna

    2014-01-01

    Separating and understanding the effects of age, period, and cohort on major health conditions in the population over eighty-five, the oldest-old, will lead to better population projections of morbidity and mortality. We used age-period-cohort (APC) analyses to describe the simultaneous effects of age, period and cohort on cancer incidence rates in an attempt to understand the population dynamics underlying their patterns. Data from the Utah Cancer Registry (UCR), the US Census, the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillence Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program were used to generate age-specific estimates of cancer incidence for ages 65–99 from 1973–2002 for Utah. Our results showed increasing cancer incidence rates up to the 85–89 age group followed by declines for ages 90–99 when not confounded by the distinct influence of period and cohort effects. We found significant period and cohort effects, suggesting the role of environmental mechanisms in cancer incidence trends between the ages of 85 and 100. PMID:25396304

  1. Evaluating the Impact of Early Years Educational Reform in Wales to Age Seven: The Potential Use of the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Chris; Joshi, Heather; Wright, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Early years education has received considerable attention in recent years, particularly as a result of longitudinal studies that demonstrate the importance of the first few years in a child's development and educational experience. In 2004, a new approach to early years education, the Foundation Phase, was introduced in Wales. This is a major…

  2. A genome-wide association study for venous thromboembolism: the extended Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Pankratz, Nathan; Leebeek, Frank W.; Paré, Guillaume; de Andrade, Mariza; Tzourio, Christophe; Psaty, Bruce M.; Basu, Saonli; Ruiter, Rikje; Rose, Lynda; Armasu, Sebastian M.; Lumley, Thomas; Heckbert, Susan R.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Lathrop, Mark; Rice, Kenneth M.; Cushman, Mary; Hofman, Albert; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Glazer, Nicole L.; Pankow, James S.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.; Amouyel, Philippe; Bis, Joshua C.; Bovill, Edwin G.; Kong, Xiaoxiao; Tracy, Russell P.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Rotter, Jerome I.; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Loth, Daan W.

    2014-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common, heritable disease resulting in high rates of hospitalization and mortality. Yet few associations between VTE and genetic variants, all in the coagulation pathway, have been established. To identify additional genetic determinants of VTE, we conducted a 2-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) among individuals of European ancestry in the extended CHARGE VTE consortium. The discovery GWAS comprised 1,618 incident VTE cases out of 44,499 participants from six community-based studies. Genotypes for genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were imputed to ~2.5 million SNPs in HapMap and association with VTE assessed using study-design appropriate regression methods. Meta-analysis of these results identified two known loci, in F5 and ABO. Top 1,047 tag SNPs (p≤0.0016) from the discovery GWAS were tested for association in an additional 3,231 cases and 3,536 controls from three case-control studies. In the combined data from these two stages, additional genome-wide significant associations were observed on 4q35 at F11 (top SNP rs4253399, intronic to F11) and on 4q28 at FGG (rs6536024, 9.7 kb from FGG) (p<5.0×10−13 for both). The associations at the FGG locus were not completely explained by previously reported variants. Loci at or near SUSD1 and OTUD7A showed borderline yet novel associations (p<5.0×10-6) and constitute new candidate genes. In conclusion, this large GWAS replicated key genetic associations in F5 and ABO, and confirmed the importance of F11 and FGG loci for VTE. Future studies are warranted to better characterize the associations with F11 and FGG and to replicate the new candidate associations. PMID:23650146

  3. ERα Variants Affect Age at Onset of Alzheimer's Disease in a Multiethnic Female Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Janicki, S.C.; Park, N.; Cheng, R.; Clark, L.N.; Lee, J. H.; Schupf, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Few studies of gene variants that affect estrogen activity investigate their association with age at onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in women of different ethnicities. We investigated the influence of ESR1 polymorphisms on age at onset of AD in a multiethnic cohort of women. Methods Among 1,436 women participating in the Washington Heights Inwood Columbia Aging Project (WHICAP), association with age at AD onset was assessed for 41 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the ESR1 gene using Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for presence of an APOE ε4 allele, years of education, and body mass index (BMI). Results Six SNPs in self-identified White women were protectively associated with delayed age of AD onset in this self-identified group, including the two restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) PvuII (rs2234693) and XbaI (rs9340799) (HR range 0.420 – 0.483). Two separate SNPs were found to affect age of AD onset in self-identified Black women. Conclusions ESR1 polymorphisms affect age of onset for AD in women, and risk alleles vary by ethnicity. These effects are possibly due to different linkage disequilibrium patterns or differences in comorbid environmental or cultural risk factors mediating SNP effect on risk for AD. PMID:24732579

  4. Genome-Wide Gene Expression in relation to Age in Large Laboratory Cohorts of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Kimberly A.; Gardner, Kylee; Pashaj, Anjeza; Carlson, Darby J.; Yu, Fang; Eudy, James D.; Zhang, Chi; Harshman, Lawrence G.

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a complex process characterized by a steady decline in an organism's ability to perform life-sustaining tasks. In the present study, two cages of approximately 12,000 mated Drosophila melanogaster females were used as a source of RNA from individuals sampled frequently as a function of age. A linear model for microarray data method was used for the microarray analysis to adjust for the box effect; it identified 1,581 candidate aging genes. Cluster analyses using a self-organizing map algorithm on the 1,581 significant genes identified gene expression patterns across different ages. Genes involved in immune system function and regulation, chorion assembly and function, and metabolism were all significantly differentially expressed as a function of age. The temporal pattern of data indicated that gene expression related to aging is affected relatively early in life span. In addition, the temporal variance in gene expression in immune function genes was compared to a random set of genes. There was an increase in the variance of gene expression within each cohort, which was not observed in the set of random genes. This observation is compatible with the hypothesis that D. melanogaster immune function genes lose control of gene expression as flies age. PMID:26090231

  5. Age-specific mortality trends in France and Italy since 1900: period and cohort effects.

    PubMed

    Caselli, G; Vallin, J; Vaupel, J W; Yashin, A

    1987-11-01

    The age/sex-specific mortality trends of France and Italy were studied over the 1899-1979 period in as much detail as possible in an effort to distinguish between cohort effects and those related to period changes. Complete series of mortality data by individual years of age and calendar years were available from 1869 to 1979 for Italy and from 1899 to 1982 for France. For both countries, these data include the military and civil deaths not registered in vital statistics during the war periods. They cover each national territory as defined by its present boundaries. The graphical representation method of mortality surfaces, elaborated by Vaupel, Gambill, and Yashin (1985), was adopted. The age/sex-specific mortality patterns of France and Italy have not followed the same trends, and the differences observed today are not those of 100 years ago. The mean death probabilities for the 1975-79 period were used to illustrate the age-specific patterns of mortality. Although infant mortality was higher in Italy than in France, the death probabilities at ages 1-15 for both sexes were roughly the same for both countries. At ages 15-23, they were much higher in France than in Italy, and they remained considerably higher in France up to age 55. From then on, the sexes differ: for males, the 2 countries showed similar patterns, whereas for females the probabilities were noticeably higher for France. The situation was very different for both countries at the beginning of the century. For both sexes, higher mortality was observed in Italy not only during infancy but throughout childhood and the adolescent years up to age 15. The 2 countries showed similar patterns from 15-25. Above age 25, the 2 countries had similar patterns for females, whereas male mortality was higher in France right up to the old age groups. Such differences in the age-specific mortality trends depend in part on a different development of health and social conditions but also may be due to factors concerning

  6. Increased Acquired Cholesteatoma Risk in Patients with Osteoporosis: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tang-Chuan; Lin, Che-Chen; Lin, Chia-Der; Chung, Hsiung-Kwang; Wang, Ching-Yuang; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Objective Clinically, we found the increased incidence of acquired colesteatoma in the patients with osteoporosis. In this study, we used a retrospective cohort to examine this association and to investigate the possible mechanism. Methods We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study by using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). We identified an osteoporosis cohort comprising 37 124 patients newly diagnosed with osteoporosis aged 20 years or older. Patients in the comparison cohort had no history of osteoporosis and were frequency matched with the patients in the osteoporosis cohort according to sex, age, and index year. Results The acquired cholesteatoma incidence rates for the osteoporosis and comparison cohorts were 1.12 and 0.83 per 1000 person-years, respectively. After we adjusted for confounding factors, the osteoporosis cohort exhibited a 1.32-fold increased acquired cholesteatoma risk relative to the comparison cohort (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11–1.57). In addition, patients with no history of otitis media (HR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.11–1.59), cancer (HR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.12–1.60), or COPD (HR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.05–1.52) in the osteoporosis cohort exhibited an increased risk of subsequent acquired cholesteatoma relative to those in the comparison cohort. Conclusions Our cohort study indicated that patients with osteoporosis had a 1.31-fold increased acquired cholesteatoma risk relative to the comparison cohort. This risk was further increased in patients with comorbid otitis media. Hence, we recommend that otolaryngologists evaluate the condition of the middle ear of patients with osteoporosis. PMID:26171780

  7. Snoring during Pregnancy and Delivery Outcomes: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Louise M.; Bullough, Alexandra S.; Owusu, Jocelynn T.; Tremblay, Kimberley A.; Brincat, Cynthia A.; Chames, Mark C.; Kalbfleisch, John D.; Chervin, Ronald D.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective: This cohort study examined the impact of maternal snoring on key delivery outcomes such as mode of delivery, infant birth centile, and small-for-gestational age. Design: Cohort study. Setting: A large tertiary medical center. Patients or Participants: Pregnant women in their third trimester were recruited between March 2007 and December 2010. Measurements and Results: Women were screened for habitual snoring, as a known marker for sleep disordered breathing. Outcome data were obtained from medical records following delivery and birth centiles were calculated. Of 1,673 women, a total of 35% reported habitual snoring (26% with pregnancy-onset snoring and 9% with chronic snoring). After adjusting for confounders, chronic snoring was associated with small-forgestational age (OR 1.65, 95%CI 1.02-2.66, P = 0.041) and elective cesarean delivery (OR 2.25, 95%CI 1.22-4.18, P = 0.008). Pregnancy-onset snoring was associated with emergency cesarean delivery (OR 1.68, 95%CI 1.22-2.30, P = 0.001). Conclusion: Maternal snoring during pregnancy is a risk factor for adverse delivery outcomes including cesarean delivery and small-for-gestational age. Screening pregnant women for symptoms of SDB may provide an early opportunity to identify women at risk of poor delivery outcomes. Clinical Trials Registration: Identifier: NCT01030003. Citation: O'Brien LM; Bullough AS; Owusu JT; Tremblay KA; Brincat CA; Chames MC; Kalbfleisch JD; Chervin RD. Snoring during pregnancy and delivery outcomes: a cohort study. SLEEP 2013;36(11):1625-1632. PMID:24179294

  8. Age 2: Findings from the 2-Year-Old Follow-Up of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). E.D. TAB. NCES 2006-043

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Gail M.; Flanagan, Kristin Denton

    2006-01-01

    This E.D. TAB is the first report produced using data from the second round of data collection for the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a study of a nationally representative sample of children born in the year 2001. The report provides descriptive information about these children when they were about 2 years old. It…

  9. Does area deprivation modify the association between exposure to a nitrate and low-dose atrazine metabolite mixture in drinking water and small for gestational age? A historic cohort study.

    PubMed

    Limousi, F; Albouy-Llaty, M; Carles, C; Dupuis, A; Rabouan, S; Migeot, V

    2014-04-01

    Birth weight may be influenced by environmental and socio-economic factors that could interact. The main objective of our research was to investigate whether area deprivation may modify the association between drinking water exposure to a mixture of atrazine metabolites and nitrates during the second trimester of pregnancy and prevalence of small for gestational age (SGA) neonates. We conducted a historic cohort study in Deux-Sèvres, France between 2005 and 2010, using birth records, population census and regularly performed drinking water withdrawals at community water systems. Exposure to an atrazine metabolite/nitrate mixture in drinking water was divided into six classes according to the presence or absence of atrazine metabolites and to the terciles of nitrate concentrations in each trimester of pregnancy. We used a logistic regression to model the association between SGA and mixture exposure at the second trimester while taking into account the area deprivation measured by the Townsend index as an effect modifier and controlling for the usual confounders. We included 10,784 woman-neonate couples. The risk of SGA when exposed to second tercile of nitrate without atrazine metabolites was significantly greater in women living in less deprived areas (OR = 2.99; 95 % CI (1.14, 7.89)), whereas it was not significant in moderately and more deprived areas. One of the arguments used to explain this result is the presence of competing risk factors in poorer districts.

  10. A study of common Mendelian disease carriers across ageing British cohorts: meta-analyses reveal heterozygosity for alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency increases respiratory capacity and height

    PubMed Central

    North, Teri-Louise; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Cooper, Cyrus; Deary, Ian J; Gallacher, John; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Martin, Richard M; Pattie, Alison; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Starr, John M; Wong, Andrew; Kuh, Diana; Rodriguez, Santiago; Day, Ian N M

    2016-01-01

    Background Several recessive Mendelian disorders are common in Europeans, including cystic fibrosis (CFTR), medium-chain-acyl-Co-A-dehydrogenase deficiency (ACADM), phenylketonuria (PAH) and alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (SERPINA1). Methods In a multicohort study of >19 000 older individuals, we investigated the relevant phenotypes in heterozygotes for these genes: lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC)) for CFTR and SERPINA1; cognitive measures for ACADM and PAH; and physical capability for ACADM, PAH and SERPINA1. Results Findings were mostly negative but lung function in SERPINA1 (protease inhibitor (PI) Z allele, rs28929474) showed enhanced FEV1 and FVC (0.13 z-score increase in FEV1 (p=1.7×10−5) and 0.16 z-score increase in FVC (p=5.2×10−8)) in PI-MZ individuals. Height adjustment (a known, strong correlate of FEV1 and FVC) revealed strong positive height associations of the Z allele (1.50 cm increase in height (p=3.6×10−10)). Conclusions The PI-MZ rare (2%) SNP effect is nearly four times greater than the ‘top’ common height SNP in HMGA2. However, height only partially attenuates the SERPINA1-FEV1 or FVC association (around 50%) and vice versa. Height SNP variants have recently been shown to be positively selected collectively in North versus South Europeans, while the Z allele high frequency is localised to North Europe. Although PI-ZZ is clinically disadvantageous to lung function, PI-MZ increases both height and respiratory function; potentially a balanced polymorphism. Partial blockade of PI could conceivably form part of a future poly-therapeutic approach in very short children. The notion that elastase inhibition should benefit patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may also merit re-evaluation. PI is already a therapeutic target: our findings invite a reconsideration of the optimum level in respiratory care and novel pathway potential for development of agents for the

  11. South Yorkshire Cohort: a 'cohort trials facility' study of health and weight - Protocol for the recruitment phase

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Growing levels of both obesity and chronic disease in the general population pose a major public health problem. In the UK, an innovative 'health and weight' cohort trials facility, the 'South Yorkshire Cohort', is being built in order to provide robust evidence to inform policy, commissioning and clinical decisions in this field. This protocol reports the design of the facility and outlines the recruitment phase methods. Method/Design The South Yorkshire Cohort health and weight study uses the cohort multiple randomised controlled trial design. This design recruits a large observational cohort of patients with the condition(s) of interest which then provides a facility for multiple randomised controlled trials (with large representative samples of participants, long term outcomes as standard, increased comparability between each trial conducted within the cohort and increased efficiency particularly for trials of expensive interventions) as well as ongoing information as to the natural history of the condition and treatment as usual. This study aims to recruit 20,000 participants to the population based South Yorkshire Cohort health and weight research trials facility. Participants are recruited by invitation letters from their General Practitioners. Data is collected using postal and/or online patient self completed Health Questionnaires. NHS numbers will be used to facilitate record linkage and access to routine data. Participants are eligible if they are: aged 16 - 85 years, registered with one of 40 practices in South Yorkshire, provide consent for further contact from the researchers and to have their information used to look at the benefit of health treatments. The first wave of data is being collected during 2010/12 and further waves are planned at 2 - 5 year intervals for the planned 20 year duration of the facility. Discussion The South Yorkshire Cohort combines the strengths of the standard observational, longitudinal cohort study design with

  12. Trajectories of gambling problems from mid-adolescence to age 30 in a general population cohort.

    PubMed

    Carbonneau, René; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E

    2015-12-01

    Studies of gambling starting before adulthood in the general population are either cross-sectional, based on the stability of these behaviors between 2 time points, or cover a short developmental period. The present study aimed at investigating the developmental trajectories of gambling problems across 3 key periods of development, mid-adolescence, early adulthood, and age 30, in a mixed-gender cohort from the general population. Using a semiparametric mixture model, trajectories were computed based on self-reports collected at ages 15 (N = 1,882), 22 (N = 1,785), and 30 (N = 1,358). Two distinct trajectories were identified: 1 trajectory including males and females who were unlikely to have experienced gambling problems across the 15-year period, and 1 trajectory including participants likely to have experienced at least 1 problem over the last 12 months at each time of assessment. Participants following a high trajectory were predominantly male, participated frequently in 3 to 4 different gambling activities, and were more likely to report substance use and problems related to their alcohol and drug consumption at age 30. Thus, gambling problems in the general population are already observable at age 15 in a small group of individuals, who maintain some level of these problems through early adulthood, before moderately but significantly desisting by age 30, while also experiencing other addictive behaviors and related problems. PMID:26168229

  13. Vision and Intelligence at Age 83 in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Ross D.; Allerhand, Michael; Patton, Niall; Pattie, Alison; Gow, Alan J.; Dhillon, Baljean; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which visual function, measured as near and distant visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, is correlated with concurrently measured cognitive function and prior intellectual ability was investigated in a narrow age range group known as the Lothian Birth Cohort of 1921 (LBC1921). Participants were aged approximately 83 years at the…

  14. Herpes zoster infection increases the risk of peripheral arterial disease: A nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Te-Yu; Yang, Fu-Chi; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung; Lo, Hsin-Yi; Yang, Tse-Yen

    2016-08-01

    Varicella-zoster virus infection can cause meningoencephalitis, myelitis, ocular disorders, and vasculopathy. However, no study has investigated the association between herpes zoster (HZ) and peripheral arterial disease (PAD).We identified newly diagnosed HZ from the Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database recorded during 2000 to 2010, with a follow-up period extending until December 31, 2011. In addition, we included a comparison cohort that was randomly frequency-matched with the HZ cohort according to age, sex, and index year. We analyzed the risk of PAD with respect to sex, age, and comorbidities by using Cox proportional-hazards regression models.In total, 35,391 HZ patients and 141,556 controls were enrolled in this study. The risk of PAD was 13% increased in the HZ cohort than in the comparison cohort after adjustment for age, sex, and comorbidities. The Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed that the risk of PAD was significantly higher in the HZ cohort than in the non-HZ cohort (P < 0.001).This nationwide population-based cohort study revealed a higher risk of PAD in patients with HZ infection than in those without the infection. Careful follow-up and aggressive treatment is recommended for patients with HZ to reduce the risk of PAD. PMID:27583856

  15. The millennium Cohort Study: a 21-year prospective cohort study of 140,000 military personnel.

    PubMed

    Gray, Gregory C; Chesbrough, Karen B; Ryan, Margaret A K; Amoroso, Paul; Boyko, Edward J; Gackstetter, Gary D; Hooper, Tomoko I; Riddle, James R

    2002-06-01

    Does military service, in particular operational deployment, result in a higher risk of chronic illness among military personnel and veterans? The Millennium Cohort Study, the largest Department of Defense prospective cohort study ever conducted, will attempt to answer this question. The probability-based sample of 140,000 military personnel will be surveyed every 3 years during a 21-year period. The first questionnaire, scheduled for release in summer 2001, will be sent to 30,000 veterans who have been deployed to southwest Asia, Bosnia, or Kosovo since August 1997 and 70,000 veterans who have not been deployed to these conflict areas. Twenty thousand new participants will be added to the group in each of the years 2004 and 2007 to complete the study population of 140,000. The participants will have the option of completing the study questionnaire either on the paper copy received in the mail or through the World Wide Web-based version, which is available at www.MillenniumCohort.org. This will be one of the first prospective studies ever to offer such an option. The initial survey instrument will collect data regarding demographic characteristics, self-reported medical conditions and symptoms, and health-related behaviors. Validated instruments will be incorporated to capture self-assessed physical and mental functional status (Short Form for Veterans), psychosocial assessment (Patient Health Questionnaire), and post-traumatic stress disorder (Patient Checklist-17). Information obtained from the survey responses will be linked with other military databases, including data on deployment, occupation, vaccinations, health care utilization, and disability. In addition to revealing changes in veterans' health status over time, the Millennium Cohort Study will serve as a data repository, providing a solid foundation upon which additional epidemiological studies may be constructed.

  16. Relationship between socioeconomic status and asthma: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hancox, R; Milne, B; Taylor, D; Greene, J; Cowan, J; Flannery, E; Herbison, G; McLachlan, C; Poulton, R; Sears, M

    2004-01-01

    Background: There is conflicting information about the relationship between asthma and socioeconomic status, with different studies reporting no, positive, or inverse associations. Most of these studies have been cross sectional in design and have relied on subjective markers of asthma such as symptoms of wheeze. Many have been unable to control adequately for potential confounding factors. Methods: We report a prospective cohort study of approximately 1000 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972–3. This sample has been assessed regularly throughout childhood and into adulthood, with detailed information collected on asthma symptoms, lung function, airway responsiveness, and atopy. The prevalence of these in relation to measures of socioeconomic status were analysed with and without controls for potential confounding influences including parental history of asthma, smoking, breast feeding, and birth order using cross sectional time series models. Results: No consistent association was found between childhood or adult socioeconomic status and asthma prevalence, lung function, or airway responsiveness at any age. Having asthma made no difference to educational attainment or socioeconomic status by age 26. There were trends to increased atopy in children from higher socioeconomic status families consistent with previous reports. Conclusions: Socioeconomic status in childhood had no significant impact on the prevalence of asthma in this New Zealand born cohort. Generalisation of these results to other societies should be done with caution, but our results suggest that the previously reported associations may be due to confounding. PMID:15115861

  17. Does a hospital admission in old age denote the beginning of life with a compromised health-related quality of life? A longitudinal study of men and women aged 65 years and above participating in the Stockholm Public Health Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Karampampa, Korinna; Frumento, Paolo; Ahlbom, Anders; Modig, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to analyse how hospitalisation after the age of 60 affected individuals' health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The main hypothesis was that a hospital admission in old age can be seen as a proxy of ill health and possibly as a health divider, separating life into a healthy and an unhealthy part. The extent to which this is true depends on which disease individuals face and how functional ability and HRQoL are affected. Settings This was a longitudinal study, based on an older cohort of individuals who participated in the Stockholm Public Health Cohort (SPHC) survey in 2006; the survey took place in Stockholm, Sweden. Information regarding hospitalisations and deaths, which is available through Swedish administrative registers, was linked to the survey from the National Patient Register and Cause of Death Register. Participants 2101 individuals, 65+ years old at inclusion, with no previous hospitalisations at baseline (2006), were followed for 4 years until 2010 (end of follow-up). Primary and secondary outcome measures HRQoL was assessed through a utility index derived from the EuroQol 5D questionnaire, at baseline and at 2010. The change in HRQoL after admission(s) to the hospital was estimated as the difference between the 2010 and 2006 levels using linear regression, also considering several covariates. Results A single hospitalisation did not reduce individuals' HRQoL, either for men or women. On the other hand, multiple any-cause hospitalisations reduced HRQoL between 3.2% and 6.5%. When looking into hospitalisations for specific causes, such as hip fractures, a decrease in HRQoL was observed as well; however, conclusions regarding this were impeded by the small sample size. Conclusions Hospital admissions in old age may indicate a shift from a healthy life to a life of compromised health when considering their frequency and cause over a period of time. PMID:27401358

  18. Cohort study of silicon carbide production workers.

    PubMed

    Infante-Rivard, C; Dufresne, A; Armstrong, B; Bouchard, P; Thériault, G

    1994-12-01

    Silicon carbide is produced by a chemical reaction at high temperature between free crystalline silica and petroleum coke. The process generates airborne fibers and fibrogenic dusts such as alpha-quartz and cristobalite, which are also potentially carcinogenic. The authors report that this is the first cohort study in this industry. The study was carried out among 585 Québec silicon carbide production workers who had worked at any time from 1950 to 1980. Follow-up was to December 31, 1989, and 167 deaths were observed. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for all causes of death was 1.05 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.90-1.23); for nonmalignant respiratory diseases it was 2.03 (95% CI 1.21-3.22); and for lung cancer it was 1.69 (95% CI 1.09-2.52). Controlling for smoking status using a Cox regression analysis, the risk for nonmalignant respiratory diseases and for lung cancer increased with exposure to total dust; in the highest exposure category, rate ratios (RR) were 4.08 (95% CI 1.11-14.96) for nonmalignant respiratory diseases and 1.67 (95% CI 0.57-4.83) for lung cancer. Results were in the expected direction, but the power of the study was low, because of small sample size and use of cumulative total dust as the exposure variable, which may be a poor indicator of lung irritants and other potential carcinogens in this industry, notably silicon carbide ceramic fibers.

  19. Global teaching and training initiatives for emerging cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Jessica K; Santoyo-Vistrain, Rocío; Havelick, David; Cohen, Amy; Kalyesubula, Robert; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo O; Mattsson, Jens G; Adami, Hans-Olov; Dalal, Shona

    2012-09-01

    A striking disparity exists across the globe, with essentially no large-scale longitudinal studies ongoing in regions that will be significantly affected by the oncoming non-communicable disease epidemic. The successful implementation of cohort studies in most low-resource research environments presents unique challenges that may be aided by coordinated training programs. Leaders of emerging cohort studies attending the First World Cohort Integration Workshop were surveyed about training priorities, unmet needs and potential cross-cohort solutions to these barriers through an electronic pre-workshop questionnaire and focus groups. Cohort studies representing India, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa, Sweden, Tanzania and Uganda described similar training needs, including on-the-job training, data analysis software instruction, and database and bio-bank management. A lack of funding and protected time for training activities were commonly identified constraints. Proposed solutions include a collaborative cross-cohort teaching platform with web-based content and interactive teaching methods for a range of research personnel. An international network for research mentorship and idea exchange, and modifying the graduate thesis structure were also identified as key initiatives. Cross-cohort integrated educational initiatives will efficiently meet shared needs, catalyze the development of emerging cohorts, speed closure of the global disparity in cohort research, and may fortify scientific capacity development in low-resource settings.

  20. Global teaching and training initiatives for emerging cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Jessica K; Santoyo-Vistrain, Rocío; Havelick, David; Cohen, Amy; Kalyesubula, Robert; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo O; Mattsson, Jens G; Adami, Hans-Olov; Dalal, Shona

    2012-09-01

    A striking disparity exists across the globe, with essentially no large-scale longitudinal studies ongoing in regions that will be significantly affected by the oncoming non-communicable disease epidemic. The successful implementation of cohort studies in most low-resource research environments presents unique challenges that may be aided by coordinated training programs. Leaders of emerging cohort studies attending the First World Cohort Integration Workshop were surveyed about training priorities, unmet needs and potential cross-cohort solutions to these barriers through an electronic pre-workshop questionnaire and focus groups. Cohort studies representing India, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa, Sweden, Tanzania and Uganda described similar training needs, including on-the-job training, data analysis software instruction, and database and bio-bank management. A lack of funding and protected time for training activities were commonly identified constraints. Proposed solutions include a collaborative cross-cohort teaching platform with web-based content and interactive teaching methods for a range of research personnel. An international network for research mentorship and idea exchange, and modifying the graduate thesis structure were also identified as key initiatives. Cross-cohort integrated educational initiatives will efficiently meet shared needs, catalyze the development of emerging cohorts, speed closure of the global disparity in cohort research, and may fortify scientific capacity development in low-resource settings. PMID:23856451

  1. Cardiovascular mortality of cockpit crew in Germany: cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zeeb, H; Langner, I; Blettner, M

    2003-06-01

    Pilots and other cockpit crew in civil aviation are regularly screened for medical problems that could influence their work performance. Fitness particularly in terms of cardiovascular health is of major importance for this group. While previous studies had shown a low cardiovascular mortality risk of pilots, there is conflicting evidence concerning the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in this group. We investigated the cardiovascular mortality of German cockpit crew in a retrospective cohort study. A cohort that included all cockpit crew employed for two German airlines (n=6061) from 1960-1997 was compiled. We calculated the Standardised Mortality Ratio (SMR) and 95% confidence intervals as the ratio of observed and expected numbers of cardiovascular deaths with the German general population as comparison. The influence of age, age at hire and employment duration were analysed in stratified and regression analyses. Overall mortality from cardiovascular causes among cockpit crew was reduced. For mortality from all cardiovascular causes we found an SMR of 0.5(95% CI 0.3-0.6), for acute myocardial infarction the SMR was 0.4 (95% CI 0.3-0.7). Cockpit crew taking up employment at age 30 or later had a more than twofold cardiovascular mortality risk compared with those beginning employment earlier, but there was no risk gradient with duration of employment. Overall, cockpit crew has a relatively low cardiovascular mortality to which a low smoking prevalence and an early detection of cardiovascular health problems are likely to contribute. Cockpit crew employed before age 30 has the lowest cardiovascular mortality risk.

  2. Physical performance limitations in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort.

    PubMed

    Ness, Kirsten K; Hudson, Melissa M; Ginsberg, Jill P; Nagarajan, Rajaram; Kaste, Sue C; Marina, Neyssa; Whitton, John; Robison, Leslie L; Gurney, James G

    2009-05-10

    Physical performance limitations are one of the potential long-term consequences following diagnosis and treatment for childhood cancer. The purpose of this review is to describe the risk factors for and the participation restrictions that result from physical performance limitations among childhood cancer survivors who participated in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Articles previously published from the CCSS cohort related to physical performance limitations were reviewed and the results summarized. Our review showed that physical performance limitations are prevalent among childhood cancer survivors and may increase as they age. Host-based risk factors for physical disability include an original diagnosis of bone tumor, brain tumor, or Hodgkin's disease; female sex; and an income less than $20,000 per year. Treatment-based risk factors include radiation and treatment with a combination of alkylating agents and anthracyclines. Musculoskeletal, neurologic, cardiac, pulmonary, sensory, and endocrine organ system dysfunction also increase the risk of developing a physical performance limitation. In summary, monitoring of physical performance limitations in an aging cohort of childhood cancer survivors is important and will help determine the impact of physical performance limitations on morbidity, mortality, and caregiver burden. In addition, in developing restorative and preventive interventions for childhood cancer survivors, we must take into account the special needs of survivors with physical disability to optimize their health and enhance participation in daily living activities. PMID:19332713

  3. Exceptional Brain Aging in a Rural Population-Based Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Jeffrey; Michael, Yvonne; Calvert, James; Leahy, Marjorie; Crawford, Debbie; Kramer, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Context: The 2000 US Census identified 50,454 Americans over the age of 100. Increased longevity is only of benefit if accompanied by maintenance of independence and quality of life. Little is known about the prevalence of dementia and other disabling conditions among rural centenarians although this information is important to clinicians caring…

  4. Studying aging in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    He, Ying; Jasper, Heinrich

    2014-06-15

    Drosophila melanogaster represents one of the most important genetically accessible model organisms for aging research. Studies in flies have identified single gene mutations that influence lifespan and have characterized endocrine signaling interactions that control homeostasis systemically. Recent studies have focused on the effects of aging on specific tissues and physiological processes, providing a comprehensive picture of age-related tissue dysfunction and the loss of systemic homeostasis. Here we review methodological aspects of this work and highlight technical considerations when using Drosophila to study aging and age-related diseases.

  5. The Burden of Aging: A Theoretical Framework for Understanding the Shifting Balance of Caregiving and Care Receiving as Cohorts Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhlenberg, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Develops a theoretical framework that explicates factors determining the level of care given and care received by cohorts moving through different stages of later life. Specifies four proximate determinants of caregiving and three proximate determinants of care receiving. Focuses on social changes that could reduce the burden of aging. (RJM)

  6. Effects of socioeconomic status on physical and mental health of hemodialysis patients in Japan: differences by age, period, and cohort

    PubMed Central

    Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Shimizu, Yumiko; Kumagai, Tamaki; Sugisaki, Hiroaki; Ohira, Seiji; Shinoda, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Study purpose Whether or not socioeconomic status (SES)-related differences in the health of hemodialysis patients differ by age, period, and birth cohort remains unclear. We examined whether SES-related gaps in physical and mental health change with age, period, and birth cohort for hemodialysis patients. Methods Data were obtained from repeated cross-sectional surveys conducted in 1996, 2001, 2006, and 2011, with members of a national patients’ association as participants. We used raking adjustment to create a database which had similar characteristics to the total sample of dialysis patients in Japan. SES was assessed using family size-adjusted income levels. We divided patients into three groups based on their income levels: below the first quartile, over the second quartile and under the third quartile, and over the fourth quartile. We used the number of dialysis complications as a physical health indicator and depressive symptoms as a mental health indicator. We used a cross-classified random-effects model that estimated fixed effects of age categories and period as level-1 factors, and random effects of birth cohort as level-2 factors. Results Relative risk of dialysis complications in respondents below the first quartile compared with ones over the fourth quartile was reduced in age categories >60 years. Mean differences in depressive symptoms between respondents below the first quartile and ones over the fourth quartile peaked in the 50- to 59-year-old age group, and were reduced in age groups >60 years. In addition, mean differences varied across periods, widening from 1996 to 2006. There were no significant birth cohort effects on income differences for dialysis complications or depressive symptoms. Conclusion The number of dialysis complications and depressive symptoms in dialysis patients were affected by income differences, and the degree of these differences changed with age category and period. PMID:27471405

  7. Evaluating factors associated with uncontrolled hypertension: Isfahan cohort study, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Alireza; Pourheidar, Behrouz; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Moezzi, Masoumeh; Mousavi, Mehdi; Hajiannejad, Alireza; Bidram, Peyman; Gharipour, Mojgan; Shirani, Shahin; Golshahi, Jafar; Boshtam, Mansoureh; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hypertension (HTN) considers as one of the most common risk factors, which potentially raises the risk of cardiovascular disease. Regarding high prevalence of HTN among Iranian population this study designed to examine a range of socio-demographic and clinical variables to determine the association with failure to achieve blood pressure control in a cohort of hypertensive subjects. METHODS This retrospective cohort study is a part of Isfahan cohort study which carried out on adults aged 35 years old or more. Subjects with confirmed HTN entered in this sub-study. For all subjects questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, clinical data and lifestyle behavior completed by trained nurses. Uncontrolled HTN was defined as systolic and diastolic blood pressure more than 140/90 in the presence or absent of pharmacological treatment. RESULTS The prevalence of uncontrolled men was significantly higher than controlled in both 2001 and 2007 (P < 0.001). A significant association was found between sex and control of blood pressure: compared with women, being men [odds ratio (OR) = 2.31; 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.64-3.24] was significantly associated with uncontrolled HTN in 2001 and (OR = 2.38; 95% CI = 1.78-3.18). Among lifestyle behaviors, tendency for more consumption of salty foods increased the risk of uncontrolled HTN in 2001 by 1.73 times [OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.20-2.50, (P = 0.003)]. Patients who were naive to mono-therapy without considering the type of antihypertensive drug were found to be associated with uncontrolled blood pressure (OR = 0.14; 95 % CI =0.1-0.2). CONCLUSION Uncontrolled HTN was sex, marital status, diabetes, tendency to salty foods and medication adherence. Assessment of them presence of these risk factors is warranted to recommend an aggressive HTN management with the goal of reducing excessive risk of cardiovascular events caused by uncontrolled HTN. PMID:25815021

  8. The Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort Study: Design and Baseline Results

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Jean; Chen, Vincent; Perry, Cheryl; Oswald, John; Willmorth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort (MACC) Study is a population-based, longitudinal study that enrolled 3636 youth from Minnesota and 605 youth from comparison states age 12 to 16 years in 2000–2001. Participants have been surveyed by telephone semi-annually about their tobacco-related attitudes and behaviors. The goals of the study are to evaluate the effects of the Minnesota Youth Tobacco Prevention Initiative and its shutdown on youth smoking patterns, and to better define the patterns of development of tobacco use in adolescents. A multilevel sample was constructed representing individuals, local jurisdictions and the entire state, and data are collected to characterize each of these levels. This paper presents the details of the multilevel study design. We also provide baseline information about MACC participants including demographics and tobacco-related attitudes and behaviors. This paper describes smoking prevalence at the local level, and compares MACC participants to the state as a whole. PMID:21360063

  9. Time trend and age-period-cohort effect on kidney cancer mortality in Europe, 1981–2000

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Farinós, Napoleón; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    Background The incorporation of diagnostic and therapeutic improvements, as well as the different smoking patterns, may have had an influence on the observed variability in renal cancer mortality across Europe. This study examined time trends in kidney cancer mortality in fourteen European countries during the last two decades of the 20th century. Methods Kidney cancer deaths and population estimates for each country during the period 1981–2000 were drawn from the World Health Organization Mortality Database. Age- and period-adjusted mortality rates, as well as annual percentage changes in age-adjusted mortality rates, were calculated for each country and geographical region. Log-linear Poisson models were also fitted to study the effect of age, death period, and birth cohort on kidney cancer mortality rates within each country. Results For men, the overall standardized kidney cancer mortality rates in the eastern, western, and northern European countries were 20, 25, and 53% higher than those for the southern European countries, respectively. However, age-adjusted mortality rates showed a significant annual decrease of -0.7% in the north of Europe, a moderate rise of 0.7% in the west, and substantial increases of 1.4% in the south and 2.0% in the east. This trend was similar among women, but with lower mortality rates. Age-period-cohort models showed three different birth-cohort patterns for both men and women: a decrease in mortality trend for those generations born after 1920 in the Nordic countries, a similar but lagged decline for cohorts born after 1930 in western and southern European countries, and a continuous increase throughout all birth cohorts in eastern Europe. Similar but more heterogeneous regional patterns were observed for period effects. Conclusion Kidney cancer mortality trends in Europe showed a clear north-south pattern, with high rates on a downward trend in the north, intermediate rates on a more marked rising trend in the east than in the

  10. Health Disparities in Ischaemic Heart Disease Mortality in Hungary From 1970 to 2010: An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gero, Krisztina; Eshak, Ehab S.; Ma, Enbo; Takahashi, Hideto; Noda, Hiroyuki; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to examine long-term trends in rates of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) mortality, a leading cause of mortality in Hungary. The study examined the effects of age, period, and cohort on IHD mortality rates and compared mortality rates between the capital (Budapest) and non-capital counties. Methods Data on IHD deaths and population censuses were obtained from the Hungarian Central Statistical Office. Age-period-cohort analysis utilized nine age-group classes for ages 40 to 84 years, eight time periods from 1970 to 2009, and 16 birth cohorts from 1886 to 1969. Results Age-adjusted IHD mortality rates for men and for women generally increased from 1970 to 1993 and from 1980 to 1999, respectively, decreasing thereafter for both sexes. IHD mortality rates for men and for women from Budapest were lower from 1991 and from 1970, respectively, than corresponding rates in non-capital counties, with the difference increasing after 1999. Age had a more significant influence on mortality rates for women than for men. The period effect increased from 1972 to 1982 and decreased thereafter for men, while the period effect decreased consistently for women from 1972 to 2007. The decline in period effect for both sexes was larger for individuals from the capital than for those from non-capital counties. The cohort effect for both sexes declined from birth years 1890 to 1965, with a steeper decline for individuals from the capital than for those from non-capital counties. Conclusions The findings indicate a need for programs in Hungary for IHD prevention, especially for non-capital counties. PMID:25986153

  11. Thiazolidinediones and Parkinson Disease: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Connolly, John G; Bykov, Katsiaryna; Gagne, Joshua J

    2015-12-01

    Thiazolidinediones, a class of medications indicated for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, reduce inflammation and have been shown to provide a therapeutic benefit in animal models of Parkinson disease. We examined the association between treatment with thiazolidinediones and the onset of Parkinson disease in older individuals. We performed a cohort study of 29,397 Medicare patients enrolled in state pharmaceutical benefits programs who initiated treatment with thiazolidinediones or sulfonylureas during the years 1997 through 2005 and had no prior diagnosis of Parkinson disease. New users of thiazolidinediones were propensity score matched to new users of sulfonylureas and followed to determine whether they were diagnosed with Parkinson disease. We used Cox proportional hazards models to compare time to diagnosis of Parkinson disease in the propensity score-matched populations. To assess the association with duration of use, we performed several analyses that required longer continuous use of medications. In the primary analysis, thiazolidinedione users had a hazard ratio for a diagnosis of Parkinson disease of 1.09 (95% confidence interval: 0.71, 1.66) when compared with sulfonylurea users. Increasing the duration-of-use requirements to 10 months did not substantially change the association; the hazard ratios ranged from 1.00 (95% confidence interval: 0.49, 2.05) to 1.17 (95% confidence interval: 0.60, 2.25). Thiazolidinedione use was not associated with a longer time to diagnosis of Parkinson disease than was sulfonylurea use, regardless of duration of exposure.

  12. The Korean Gastric Cancer Cohort Study: Study Protocol and Brief Results of a Large-Scale Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Bang Wool; Kim, Young-Woo; Nam, Byung-Ho; Ryu, Keun Won; Jeong, Hyun-Yong; Park, Young-Kyu; Lee, Young-Joon; Yang, Han-Kwang; Yu, Wansik; Yook, Jeong-Hwan; Song, Geun Am; Youn, Sei-Jin; Kim, Heung Up; Noh, Sung-Hoon; Park, Sung Bae; Yang, Doo-Hyun; Kim, Sung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to establish a large-scale database of patients with gastric cancer to facilitate the development of a national-cancer management system and a comprehensive cancer control policy. Materials and Methods An observational prospective cohort study on gastric cancer was initiated in 2010. A total of 14 cancer centers throughout the country and 152 researchers were involved in this study. Patient enrollment began in January 2011, and data regarding clinicopathological characteristics, life style-related factors, quality of life, as well as diet diaries were collected. Results In total, 4,963 patients were enrolled until December 2014, and approximately 5% of all Korean patients with gastric cancer annually were included. The mean age was 58.2±11.5 years, and 68.2% were men. The number of patients in each stage was as follows: 3,394 patients (68.4%) were in stage IA/B; 514 patients (10.4%), in stage IIA/B; 469 patients (9.5%), in stage IIIA/B/C; and 127 patients (2.6%), in stage IV. Surgical treatment was performed in 3,958 patients (79.8%), endoscopic resection was performed in 700 patients (14.1%), and 167 patients (3.4%) received palliative chemotherapy. The response rate for the questionnaire on the quality of life was 95%; however, diet diaries were only collected for 27% of patients. Conclusions To provide comprehensive information on gastric cancer for patients, physicians, and government officials, a large-scale database of Korean patients with gastric cancer was established. Based on the findings of this cohort study, an effective cancer management system and national cancer control policy could be developed. PMID:27752396

  13. Investing in Prospective Cohorts for Etiologic Study of Occupational Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Blair, A.; Hines, C.J.; Thomas, K.W.; Alavanja, M.C.R.; Beane Freeman, L.E.; Hoppin, J.A.; Kamel, F.; Lynch, C.F.; Lubin, J.H.; Silverman, D.T.; Whelan, E.; Zahm, S. H.; Sandler, D. P.

    2015-01-01

    Prospective cohorts have played a major role in understanding the contribution of diet, physical activity, medical conditions, and genes to the development of many diseases, but have not been widely used for occupational exposures. Studies in agriculture are an exception. We draw upon our experience using this design to study agricultural workers to identify conditions that might foster use of prospective cohorts to study other occupational settings. Prospective cohort studies are perceived by many as the strongest epidemiologic design. It allows updating of information on exposure and other factors, collection of biologic samples before disease diagnosis for biomarker studies, assessment of effect modification by genes, lifestyle, and other occupational exposures, and evaluation of a wide range of health outcomes. Increased use of prospective cohorts would be beneficial in identifying hazardous exposures in the workplace. Occupational epidemiologists should seek opportunities to initiate prospective cohorts to investigate high priority, occupational exposures. PMID:25603935

  14. Increased Risk of Herpes Zoster Following Dermatomyositis and Polymyositis: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shin-Yi; Lin, Cheng-Li; Wong, Ying-Chi; Yang, Tse-Yen; Kuo, Chien-Feng; Cheng, Jiung-Mou; Wang, Jyh-Seng; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-07-01

    This study explored the possible association between dermatomyositis or polymyositis (DM or PM) and the subsequent risk of herpes zoster (HZ). We used data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI) system to address the research topic. The exposure cohort comprised 2023 patients with new diagnoses of DM or PM. Each patient was frequency matched according to age, sex, index year, and comorbidities including diabetes, renal disease, obesity, malignancy, rheumatoid arthritis, immunodeficiency virus infection, autoimmune disease not elsewhere classified, mixed connective tissue disease, or vasculitis with 4 participants from the general population who did not have a history of HZ (control cohort). Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was conducted to estimate the relationship between DM or PM and the risk of subsequent HZ. The incidence of HZ in the exposure and control cohorts was 35.8 and 7.01 per 1000 person-years, respectively. The exposure cohort had a significantly higher overall risk of subsequent HZ than did the control cohort (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 3.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.18-4.77). The risk of HZ in patients with DM or PM in whichever stratification (including sex, age, and comorbidity) was also higher than that of the control cohort. The findings from this population-based retrospective cohort study suggest that DM or PM is associated with an increased risk of subsequent HZ. A synergistic effect was observed between DM or PM and one of the comorbidities. PMID:26181551

  15. A mortality cohort study of seamen in Italy.

    PubMed

    Rapiti, E; Turi, E; Forastiere, F; Borgia, P; Comba, P; Perucci, C A; Axelson, O

    1992-01-01

    A total of 2,208 male subjects, enrolled as merchant marine seamen at the Civitavecchia (Italy) harbor from 1936 to 1975 were followed up through 1989 in order to evaluate their mortality experience. Available information about the number of sailings made it possible to divide subjects into two subgroups: 948 workers with at least one sailing (cohort A) and 1,260 with no reported sailing (cohort B). Fewer than expected overall deaths were observed in both cohorts (cohort A: SMR = 0.83; cohort B: SMR = 0.81), mainly due to a lower mortality from circulatory, respiratory, and digestive diseases. Lung cancer deaths were significantly increased in cohort A (O = 30, SMR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.15-2.44), whereas no excess was observed in cohort B (O = 6, SMR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.21-1.26). Among subjects employed aboard ship, a trend in SMRs for lung cancer increasing with duration of employment was observed. Furthermore, three neoplasms of other parts of the respiratory system (including one mesothelioma) were detected in cohort A (SMR = 5.87), and one in cohort B. The study substantiates an increased risk of respiratory cancer among subjects with an occupational history of sailing; past exposure to asbestos and to other environmental carcinogens aboard could be implicated.

  16. A mortality cohort study of seamen in Italy.

    PubMed

    Rapiti, E; Turi, E; Forastiere, F; Borgia, P; Comba, P; Perucci, C A; Axelson, O

    1992-01-01

    A total of 2,208 male subjects, enrolled as merchant marine seamen at the Civitavecchia (Italy) harbor from 1936 to 1975 were followed up through 1989 in order to evaluate their mortality experience. Available information about the number of sailings made it possible to divide subjects into two subgroups: 948 workers with at least one sailing (cohort A) and 1,260 with no reported sailing (cohort B). Fewer than expected overall deaths were observed in both cohorts (cohort A: SMR = 0.83; cohort B: SMR = 0.81), mainly due to a lower mortality from circulatory, respiratory, and digestive diseases. Lung cancer deaths were significantly increased in cohort A (O = 30, SMR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.15-2.44), whereas no excess was observed in cohort B (O = 6, SMR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.21-1.26). Among subjects employed aboard ship, a trend in SMRs for lung cancer increasing with duration of employment was observed. Furthermore, three neoplasms of other parts of the respiratory system (including one mesothelioma) were detected in cohort A (SMR = 5.87), and one in cohort B. The study substantiates an increased risk of respiratory cancer among subjects with an occupational history of sailing; past exposure to asbestos and to other environmental carcinogens aboard could be implicated. PMID:1621694

  17. Acetaminophen Poisoning and Risk of Acute Pancreatitis: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sy-Jou; Lin, Chin-Sheng; Hsu, Chin-Wang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether acetaminophen poisoning is associated with a higher risk of acute pancreatitis. We conducted a retrospective cohort study by using the longitudinal population-based database of Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI) program between 2000 and 2011. The acetaminophen cohort comprised patients aged ≥ 20 years with newly identified acetaminophen poisoning (N = 2958). The comparison cohort comprised randomly selected patients with no history of acetaminophen poisoning. The acetaminophen and comparison cohorts were frequency matched by age, sex, and index year (N = 11,832) at a 1:4 ratio. Each patient was followed up from the index date until the date an acute pancreatitis diagnosis was made, withdrawal from the NHI program, or December 31, 2011. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to determine the effects of acetaminophen on the risk of acute pancreatitis.The risk of acute pancreatitis was 3.11-fold higher in the acetaminophen cohort than in the comparison cohort (11.2 vs 3.61 per 10,000 person-years), with an adjusted hazard ratio of 2.40 (95% confidence interval, 1.29-4.47). The incidence rate was considerably high in patients who were aged 35 to 49 years, men, those who had comorbidities, and within the first year of follow-up.Acetaminophen poisoning is associated with an increased risk of acute pancreatitis. Additional prospective studies are necessary to verify how acetaminophen poisoning affects the risk of acute pancreatitis.

  18. Time trend and age-period-cohort effects on gastric cancer incidence in Zaragoza and Navarre, Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Aragonés, N; Pollán, M; López-Abente, G; Ruiz, M; Vergara, A; Moreno, C; Moreo, P; Ardanaz, E

    1997-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe time trends in gastric cancer incidence in Zaragoza and Navarre, and to investigate time period and birth cohort as determinants of such trends. DESIGN: Cases from two registries were grouped into five year intervals and the following were calculated: age specific and sex specific incidence rates, and the male to female ratio. Log linear models including age, period of diagnosis, and birth cohort were fitted. SETTING: The Zaragoza Cancer Registry covers the province of Zaragoza, which has a population of 824,776 (403,755 men and 421,021 women). The Navarre Cancer Registry covers the province of Navarre which has 512,512 inhabitants (254,786 men and 257,726 women). In both cases population figures were based on the late census. PATIENTS: These comprised incident cases of gastric cancer reported to the Zaragoza Cancer Registry in 1963-87 and to the Navarre Cancer Registry in 1973-87. MAIN RESULTS: Navarre registered higher adjusted and cumulative rates than Zaragoza for both sexes. In both provinces, there were relative declines in the rates for men and women of 3% and 4% respectively per year. In Zaragoza, the risk of developing stomach cancer fell in generations born between 1888 and 1933, and rose in subsequent birth cohorts in both sexes, while in Navarre the cohort effect showed an approximately linear risk for both sexes. Both provinces recorded increases in risk associated with cohorts born between 1933 and 1943. CONCLUSION: The incidence rates of gastric cancer fell in both Zaragoza and Navarre. The reason for the greater incidence of gastric cancer in Navarre remains unknown. Trends in rates seem to be mainly linked to birth cohort. Increases in risk in generations born after 1933 may be ascribable to nutritional deficiencies in the early years of life. PMID:9328549

  19. Cohort profile: the Finnish Medication and Alzheimer's disease (MEDALZ) study

    PubMed Central

    Tolppanen, Anna-Maija; Taipale, Heidi; Koponen, Marjaana; Lavikainen, Piia; Tanskanen, Antti; Tiihonen, Jari; Hartikainen, Sirpa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the Medicine use and Alzheimer's disease (MEDALZ) study is to investigate the changes in medication and healthcare service use among persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of medications in this group. This is important, because the number of persons with AD is rapidly growing and even though they are a particularly vulnerable patient group, the number of representative, large-scale studies with adequate follow-up time is limited. Participants MEDALZ contains all residents of Finland who received a clinically verified diagnosis of AD between 2005 and 2011 and were community-dwelling at the time of diagnosis (N=70 719). The diagnosis is based on the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCS-ADRDA) and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for Alzheimer's disease. The cohort contains socioeconomic data (education, occupational status and taxable income, 1972–2012) and causes of death (2005–2012), data from the prescription register (1995–2012), the special reimbursement register (1972–2012) and the hospital discharge register (1972–2012). Future updates are planned. The average age was 80.1 years (range 34.5–104.6 years). The majority of cohort (65.2%) was women. Currently, the average length of follow-up after AD diagnosis is 3.1 years and altogether 26 045 (36.8%) persons have died during the follow-up. Findings Altogether 53% of the cohort had used psychotropic drugs within 1 year after AD diagnoses. The initiation rate of for example, benzodiazepines and related drugs and antidepressants began to increase already before AD diagnosis. Future plans We are currently assessing if these, and other commonly used medications are related to adverse events such as death, hip fractures, head injuries and pneumonia. PMID:27412109

  20. Advances in Disentangling Age, Cohort, and Time Effects: No Quadrature of the Circle, but a Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masche, J. Gowert; van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.

    2004-01-01

    Based on Schaie's (1965) general developmental model, various data-driven and theory-based approaches to the exploration and disentangling of age, cohort, and time effects on human behavior have emerged. This paper presents and discusses an advancement of data-driven interpretations that stresses parsimony when interpreting the results of…

  1. Age, Period, and Cohort Effects in Psychological Distress in the United States and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Nicholson, Ryan; Kinley, Jolene; Raposo, Sarah; Stein, Murray B.; Goldner, Elliot M.; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-01-01

    Although treatment utilization for depression and anxiety symptoms has increased substantially in the United States and elsewhere, it remains unclear whether the underlying population distribution of psychological distress is changing over time. We estimated age, period, and cohort effects using data from 2 countries over more than 20 years, including National Health Interview Surveys from 1997 to 2010 (n = 447,058) and Canadian Community Health Surveys from 2000 to 2007 (n = 125,306). Psychological distress was measured with the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. By period, both countries showed the highest levels of psychological distress in 2001 and the lowest levels in 2007. By age, psychological distress was highest in adolescence and during the late 40s and early 50s. By cohort, Canadian Community Health Survey results indicated a decreasing cohort effect among those born in 1922–1925 through 1935–1939 (β = −0.36, 95% confidence interval: −0.45, −0.27) and then a continuously increasing cohort effect during the remainder of the 20th century through 1989–1992 (β = 0.49, 95% confidence interval: 0.38, 0.61). The National Health Interview Survey data captured earlier-born cohorts and indicated an increased cohort effect for the earliest born (for 1912–1914, β = 0.44, 95% confidence interval: 0.26, 0.61). In sum, individuals in the oldest and more recently born birth cohorts have higher mean psychological distress symptoms compared with those born in midcentury, underscoring the importance of a broad, population-level lens for conceptualizing mental health. PMID:24692432

  2. Low-dose diclofenac, naproxen, and ibuprofen cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gutthann, S; García-Rodríguez, L A; Duque-Oliart, A; Varas-Lorenzo, C

    1999-07-01

    The risk of a newly diagnosed episode of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, acute liver and renal failure, agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, severe skin disorders, and anaphylaxis was examined within 30 days after the first prescription for a low dose of diclofenac, naproxen, or ibuprofen in a cohort in the United Kingdom. We identified 22,146 persons using diclofenac (< or = 75 mg), 46,919 using naproxen (< or = 750 mg), and 54,830 using ibuprofen (< or = 1200 mg). Age, gender, and comorbidity were similar in the three cohorts. Overall 64 potential cases were identified, and 20 were confirmed by medical record review. Incidence rates (95% CI) of upper gastrointestinal bleeding/10,000 people using diclofenac, naproxen, and ibuprofen were 1.8 (0.5-4.6), 2.3 (1.2-4.2), and 0.4 (0.04-1.3), respectively. There were three cases of hepatic injury, one with naproxen and two with ibuprofen. Although low, the incidence of gastrointestinal toxicity remains the main serious adverse event for all study drugs.

  3. Estimation of Error Components in Cohort Studies: A Cross-Cohort Analysis of Dutch Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keuning, Jos; Hemker, Bas

    2014-01-01

    The data collection of a cohort study requires making many decisions. Each decision may introduce error in the statistical analyses conducted later on. In the present study, a procedure was developed for estimation of the error made due to the composition of the sample, the item selection procedure, and the test equating process. The math results…

  4. An age-period-cohort analysis of cancer incidence among the oldest old, Utah 1973-2002.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Heidi A; Smith, Ken R; Stroup, Antoinette M; Harrell, C Janna

    2015-01-01

    We used age-period-cohort (APC) analyses to describe the simultaneous effects of age, period, and cohort on cancer incidence rates in an attempt to understand the population dynamics underlying their patterns among those aged 85+. Data from the Utah Cancer Registry (UCR), the US Census, the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), and the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) programme were used to generate age-specific estimates of cancer incidence at ages 65-99 from 1973 to 2002 for Utah. Our results showed increasing cancer incidence rates up to the 85-89 age group followed by declines at ages 90-99 when not confounded by the separate influences of period and cohort effects. We found significant period and cohort effects, suggesting the role of environmental mechanisms in cancer incidence trends between the ages of 85 and 100.

  5. Parylene C Aging Studies.

    SciTech Connect

    Achyuthan, Komandoor; Sawyer, Patricia Sue.; Mata, Guillermo Adrian; White II, Gregory Von; Bernstein, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Parylene C is used in a device because of its conformable deposition and other advantages. Techniques to study Parylene C aging were developed, and "lessons learned" that could be utilized for future studies are the result of this initial study. Differential Scanning Calorimetry yielded temperature ranges for Parylene C aging as well as post-deposition treatment. Post-deposition techniques are suggested to improve Parylene C performance. Sample preparation was critical to aging regimen. Short-term (%7E40 days) aging experiments with free standing and ceramic-supported Parylene C films highlighted "lessons learned" which stressed further investigations in order to refine sample preparation (film thickness, single sided uniform coating, machine versus laser cutting, annealing time, temperature) and testing issues ("necking") for robust accelerated aging of Parylene C.

  6. The Gulf War era multiple sclerosis cohort: age and incidence rates by race, sex and service.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Mitchell T; Culpepper, William J; Coffman, Parisa; Pulaski, Sarah; Maloni, Heidi; Mahan, Clare M; Haselkorn, Jodie K; Kurtzke, John F

    2012-06-01

    We characterize here a new nationwide incident cohort of multiple sclerosis from the US military-veteran population. This cohort provides an update to the only other US nationwide incidence study of multiple sclerosis performed during the 1970s. Medical records and data from the Department of Defense and Department of Veterans Affairs for cases of multiple sclerosis who served in the military between 1990, the start of the Gulf War era, and 2007 and who were service-connected for this disorder by the Department of Veterans Affairs from 1990 on, were reviewed. A total of 2691 patients were confirmed as having multiple sclerosis: 2288 definite, 190 possible, 207 clinically isolated syndrome and six neuromyelitis optica. Overall racial categories were White, Black and other, which included all Hispanics. There were 1278 White males and 556 females; 360 Black males and 296 females; and 200 others, 153 (77%) of whom were Hispanic. Mean age at onset of 30.7 years did not differ significantly by race or sex. Age at onset was 17-50 years in 99%, the same age range as 99% of the military. Average annual age specific (age 17-50 years) incidence rates per 100 000 for the entire series were 9.6 with 95% confidence interval of 9.3-10.0. Rates for Blacks were highest at 12.1 with confidence interval 11.2-13.1, Whites were 9.3 (interval 8.9-9.8) and others 6.9 (interval 6.0-7.9). For 83 Hispanics defined for 2000-07, the rate was 8.2 (interval 6.5-10.1). Much smaller numbers gave rates of 3.3 for Asian/Pacific Islanders and 3.1 for native Americans. Rates by sex for Whites were 7.3 and 25.8 male and female, respectively, for Blacks 8.4 and 26.3, and for Hispanics 6.6 and 17.0. Rates by service were high for Air Force (10.9) and Army (10.6), medium for Navy (9.1) and Coast Guard (7.9), and low for Marines (5.3). Relative risk of multiple sclerosis was 3.39 female:male and 1.27 Black:White. These new findings indicate that females of all races now have incidence rates for multiple

  7. The Gulf War era multiple sclerosis cohort: age and incidence rates by race, sex and service.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Mitchell T; Culpepper, William J; Coffman, Parisa; Pulaski, Sarah; Maloni, Heidi; Mahan, Clare M; Haselkorn, Jodie K; Kurtzke, John F

    2012-06-01

    We characterize here a new nationwide incident cohort of multiple sclerosis from the US military-veteran population. This cohort provides an update to the only other US nationwide incidence study of multiple sclerosis performed during the 1970s. Medical records and data from the Department of Defense and Department of Veterans Affairs for cases of multiple sclerosis who served in the military between 1990, the start of the Gulf War era, and 2007 and who were service-connected for this disorder by the Department of Veterans Affairs from 1990 on, were reviewed. A total of 2691 patients were confirmed as having multiple sclerosis: 2288 definite, 190 possible, 207 clinically isolated syndrome and six neuromyelitis optica. Overall racial categories were White, Black and other, which included all Hispanics. There were 1278 White males and 556 females; 360 Black males and 296 females; and 200 others, 153 (77%) of whom were Hispanic. Mean age at onset of 30.7 years did not differ significantly by race or sex. Age at onset was 17-50 years in 99%, the same age range as 99% of the military. Average annual age specific (age 17-50 years) incidence rates per 100 000 for the entire series were 9.6 with 95% confidence interval of 9.3-10.0. Rates for Blacks were highest at 12.1 with confidence interval 11.2-13.1, Whites were 9.3 (interval 8.9-9.8) and others 6.9 (interval 6.0-7.9). For 83 Hispanics defined for 2000-07, the rate was 8.2 (interval 6.5-10.1). Much smaller numbers gave rates of 3.3 for Asian/Pacific Islanders and 3.1 for native Americans. Rates by sex for Whites were 7.3 and 25.8 male and female, respectively, for Blacks 8.4 and 26.3, and for Hispanics 6.6 and 17.0. Rates by service were high for Air Force (10.9) and Army (10.6), medium for Navy (9.1) and Coast Guard (7.9), and low for Marines (5.3). Relative risk of multiple sclerosis was 3.39 female:male and 1.27 Black:White. These new findings indicate that females of all races now have incidence rates for multiple

  8. The Generation R Study: design and cohort update 2010

    PubMed Central

    van Duijn, Cock M.; van der Heijden, Albert J.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Moll, Henriëtte A.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Tiemeier, Henning; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Hofman, Albert

    2010-01-01

    The Generation R Study is a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life until young adulthood. The study is designed to identify early environmental and genetic causes of normal and abnormal growth, development and health during fetal life, childhood and adulthood. The study focuses on four primary areas of research: (1) growth and physical development; (2) behavioural and cognitive development; (3) diseases in childhood; and (4) health and healthcare for pregnant women and children. In total, 9,778 mothers with a delivery date from April 2002 until January 2006 were enrolled in the study. General follow-up rates until the age of 4 years exceed 75%. Data collection in mothers, fathers and preschool children included questionnaires, detailed physical and ultrasound examinations, behavioural observations, and biological samples. A genome wide association screen is available in the participating children. Regular detailed hands on assessment are performed from the age of 5 years onwards. Eventually, results forthcoming from the Generation R Study have to contribute to the development of strategies for optimizing health and healthcare for pregnant women and children. PMID:20967563

  9. Intellectual Disability in a Birth Cohort: Prevalence, Etiology, and Determinants at the Age of 4 Years

    PubMed Central

    Karam, Simone M.; Barros, Aluísio J.D.; Matijasevich, Alícia; dos Santos, Iná S.; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Fernando; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Félix, Têmis M.; Riegel, Mariluce; Maluf, Sharbel W.; Giugliani, Roberto; Black, Maureen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Intellectual disability (ID), characterized by impairments in intellectual function and adaptive behavior, affects 1-3% of the population. Many studies investigated its etiology, but few are cohort studies in middle-income countries. Aims To estimate prevalence, etiology, and factors related to ID among children prospectively followed since birth in a Southern Brazilian city (Pelotas). Methods In 2004, maternity hospitals were visited daily and births were identified. Live-born infants (n = 4,231) whose family lived in the urban area have been followed for several years. At the age of 2 and 4 years, performances in development and intelligence tests were evaluated using the Battelle Developmental Inventory and Wechsler Intelligence Scale, respectively. Children considered as having developmental delay were invited to attend a genetic evaluation. Results At 4 years of age, the prevalence of ID was 4.5%, and the etiology was classified into 5 groups: environmental (44.4%), genetic (20.5%), idiopathic (12.6%), neonatal sequelae (13.2%), other diseases (9.3%). Most children presented impairment in two or more areas of adaptive behavior. There was no difference in prenatal care attendance or maternal schooling among the groups. Conclusion For about 40% of children, ID was attributed to nonbiological factors, suggesting that the rate may be reduced with appropriate interventions early in life. PMID:27595410

  10. Risk factors for suspected developmental delay at age 2 years in a Brazilian birth cohort.

    PubMed

    de Moura, Danilo R; Costa, Jaderson C; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio J D; Matijasevich, Alicia; Halpern, Ricardo; Dumith, Samuel; Karam, Simone; Barros, Fernando C

    2010-05-01

    Many children are at risk of not achieving their full potential for development. Epidemiological studies have the advantage of being able to identify a number of associated factors potentially amenable to intervention. Our purpose was to identify risk factors for suspected developmental delay (SDD) at age 2 years among all children born in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, in 2004. This study was part of the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort. The Battelle Screening Developmental Inventory (BSDI) was administered to cohort children at age 2 years. A hierarchical model of determination for SDD with confounder adjustment was built including maternal sociodemographic, reproductive and gestational characteristics, as well as child and environmental characteristics. Multivariable analysis was carried out using Poisson regression. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] were calculated. In the results, 3.3% of the 3869 children studied screened positive for SDD. After confounder control, children more likely to show SDD were: those with positive BSDI at age 12 months (PR = 5.51 [3.59, 8.47]); with 5-min Apgar <7 (PR = 3.52 [1.70, 7.27]); with mothers who had <4 years of schooling (PR = 3.35 [1.98, 5.66]); from social classes D and E (PR = 3.00 [1.45, 6.19]); with a history of gestational diabetes (PR = 2.77 [1.34, 5.75]); born <24 months after the last sibling (PR = 2.46 [1.42, 4.27]); were not told child stories in the preceding week (PR 2.28 [1.43, 3.63]); did not have children's literature at home (PR = 2.08 [1.27, 3.39]); with low birthweight (PR = 1.75 [1.00, 3.07]); were born preterm (PR = 1.74 [1.07, 2.81]); with <6 antenatal care appointments (PR = 1.70 [1.07, 2.68]); with history of hospitalisation (PR = 1.65 [1.09, 2.50]); and of male sex (PR = 1.43 [1.00, 2.04]). These risk factors may constitute potential targets for intervention by public policies and may provide help to paediatricians in preventing developmental delay.

  11. Increased Risk of Acute Kidney Injury following Pneumococcal Pneumonia: A Nationwide Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Te-Yu; Chen, Yu-Guang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Pneumococcal disease leads to renal complications ranging from persistent proteinuria to end-stage renal disease. Studies on the association between pneumococcal pneumonia (PP) and acute kidney injury (AKI) are scant. This study assessed the relationship between PP and risk of AKI. Methods This nationwide population-based cohort study examined data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for the period 2000–2011. We identified inpatients with newly diagnosed PP according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes. In addition, we selected a comparison cohort from inpatient claims without the diagnosis of PP that was randomly frequency-matched with the PP cohort according to age, sex, index year and comorbidities. We analyzed the risks of AKI by using Cox proportional hazards regression models, adjusted for sex, age, and comorbidities. Results A total of 10,069 patients with PP and 10,069 controls were enrolled in this study. After adjustments for age, sex, and comorbidities, patients with PP had a 1.11-fold risk of developing AKI compared with the comparison cohort. Conclusion This study indicates that AKI risks are higher in patients with PP compared with the comparison cohort. Careful follow-up observation and aggressive treatment are necessary for patients with PP to reduce the risk of AKI. PMID:27362355

  12. Exposure of Preschool-Age Greek Children (RHEA Cohort) to Bisphenol A, Parabens, Phthalates, and Organophosphates.

    PubMed

    Myridakis, Antonis; Chalkiadaki, Georgia; Fotou, Marianna; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda; Stephanou, Euripides G

    2016-01-19

    Phthalate esters (PEs), bisphenol A (BPA), and parabens (PBs), which are used in numerous consumer products, are known for their endocrine disrupting properties. Organophosphate chemicals (OPs), which form the basis of the majority of pesticides, are known for their neurotoxic activity in humans. All of these chemicals are associated with health problems to which children are more susceptible. Once they enter the human body, PEs, BPA, PBs, and OPs are metabolized and/or conjugated and finally excreted via urine. Hence, human exposure to these substances is examined through a determination of the urinary concentrations of their metabolites. This study assessed the exposure of Greek preschool-age children to PEs, BPA, PBs, and OPs by investigating the urinary levels of seven PEs metabolites, six PBs, BPA, and six dialkyl phosphate metabolites in five-hundred samples collected from 4-year-old children, subjects of the "RHEA" mother-child cohort in Crete, Greece. Daily intake of endocrine disruptors, calculated for 4 year old children, was lower than the corresponding daily intake for 2.5 year old children, which were determined in an earlier study of the same cohort. In some cases the daily intake levels exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) values and the EFSA Reference Doses (RfD) (e.g., for di-2-ethyl-hexyl phthalate, 3.6% and 1% of the children exceeded RfD and TDi, respectively). Exposure was linked to three main sources: PEs-BPA to plastic, PBs-diethyl phthalate to personal hygiene products, and OPs to food. PMID:26654094

  13. Exposure of Preschool-Age Greek Children (RHEA Cohort) to Bisphenol A, Parabens, Phthalates, and Organophosphates.

    PubMed

    Myridakis, Antonis; Chalkiadaki, Georgia; Fotou, Marianna; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda; Stephanou, Euripides G

    2016-01-19

    Phthalate esters (PEs), bisphenol A (BPA), and parabens (PBs), which are used in numerous consumer products, are known for their endocrine disrupting properties. Organophosphate chemicals (OPs), which form the basis of the majority of pesticides, are known for their neurotoxic activity in humans. All of these chemicals are associated with health problems to which children are more susceptible. Once they enter the human body, PEs, BPA, PBs, and OPs are metabolized and/or conjugated and finally excreted via urine. Hence, human exposure to these substances is examined through a determination of the urinary concentrations of their metabolites. This study assessed the exposure of Greek preschool-age children to PEs, BPA, PBs, and OPs by investigating the urinary levels of seven PEs metabolites, six PBs, BPA, and six dialkyl phosphate metabolites in five-hundred samples collected from 4-year-old children, subjects of the "RHEA" mother-child cohort in Crete, Greece. Daily intake of endocrine disruptors, calculated for 4 year old children, was lower than the corresponding daily intake for 2.5 year old children, which were determined in an earlier study of the same cohort. In some cases the daily intake levels exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) values and the EFSA Reference Doses (RfD) (e.g., for di-2-ethyl-hexyl phthalate, 3.6% and 1% of the children exceeded RfD and TDi, respectively). Exposure was linked to three main sources: PEs-BPA to plastic, PBs-diethyl phthalate to personal hygiene products, and OPs to food.

  14. Sample Design and Cohort Selection in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    LaVange, Lisa M.; Kalsbeek, William; Sorlie, Paul D.; Avilés-Santa, Larissa M.; Kaplan, Robert C.; Barnhart, Janice; Liu, Kiang; Giachello, Aida; Lee, David J.; Ryan, John; Criqui, Michael H.; Elder, John P.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE The Hispanic Community Health Study (HCHS)/Study of Latinos (SOL) is a multi-center, community based cohort study of Hispanic/Latino adults in the United States. A diverse participant sample is required that is both representative of the target population and likely to remain engaged throughout follow-up. The choice of sample design, its rationale, and benefits and challenges of design decisions are described in this paper. METHODS The study design calls for recruitment and follow-up of a cohort of 16,000 Hispanics/Latinos aged 18-74 years, with 62.5% (10,000) over 44 years of age and adequate subgroup sample sizes to support inference by Hispanic/Latino background. Participants are recruited in community areas surrounding four field centers in the Bronx, Chicago, Miami, and San Diego. A two-stage area probability sample of households is selected with stratification and over-sampling incorporated at each stage to provide a broadly diverse sample, offer efficiencies in field operations, and ensure that the target age distribution is obtained. CONCLUSIONS Embedding probability sampling within this traditional, multi-site cohort study design enables competing research objectives to be met. However, the use of probability sampling requires developing solutions to some unique challenges in both sample selection and recruitment, as described here. PMID:20609344

  15. Use of an age-period-cohort model to reveal the impact of cigarette smoking on trends in twentieth-century adult cohort mortality in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Michael; Di Cesare, Mariachiara

    2012-11-01

    We use an age-period-cohort (APC) model to estimate the contribution of smoking-related mortality to cohort changes in adult mortality in Britain since 1950. We show that lung cancer and overall mortality can be satisfactorily modelled using cohort relative risk and a fixed age pattern. The results of the model suggest that smoking by itself can account for a substantial fraction of change in cohort mortality for those born around the first half of the twentieth century. In particular, smoking provides an explanation for the higher-than-average improvement in the mortality of both males and females born around 1930. Our confidence in the correctness of the results of the models is strengthened by the fact that they are very similar to those of the Peto-Lopez and Preston-Glei-Wilmoth models that estimate the contribution of smoking-related to overall mortality.

  16. Monitoring by Parents and Hypothesized Male-Female Differences in Evidence from a Nationally Representative Cohort Re-sampled from Age 12 to 17 Years: An Exploratory Study Using a "Mutoscope" Approach.

    PubMed

    Seedall, Ryan B; Anthony, James C

    2015-07-01

    The link between adept parental monitoring (PM) and later positive behavioral and health outcomes already has motivated intervention trials, but questions remain about which specific facets and mechanisms of PM make a difference. Our current research questions concern fundamental male-female differences in PM facets as manifest in a US cohort, re-sampled each year at age 12 through 17 years during an interval from 2004 to 2009. We hypothesized emergence, by mid-adolescence, of a specific male-female difference in a "limit time with friends" (LTF) facet of adept PM, with overall PM levels held constant. The data, arranged using a "mutoscope" approach, are from six successive nationally representative independent cross-sectional sample surveys of the cohort, with each adolescent measured only once, via a multi-item PM module nested within the larger survey. Estimates and tests of male-female differences are from a "multiple indicators, multiple causes" latent structure model appropriate for complex survey data. In evidence consistent with the advance hypothesis and with PM level held constant via the model, the LTF facet generally was more relaxed for boys as compared to girls, in a difference that emerged by mid-adolescence, possibly due to greater LTF constraints for girls at mid-adolescence. This research adds to the knowledge base about male-female similarities and differences in facets of PM. As a specific PM facet, LTF might function as a mechanism suitable for deliberate intervention and as a possible specific target in "micro-trials" of new prevention research. We acknowledge limitations such as omitted variables, including social media effects, not measured in this investigation's national surveys, but of potential importance in future research on peer influence as might have more distal parenting determinants.

  17. Asthma and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Nationwide Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested an association between asthma and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the temporal relationship was not determined. Using a nationwide population-based prospective case-control cohort study (1:4, age-/gender-matched), we hypothesized that asthma in infanthood or early…

  18. Social and Behavioural Outcomes in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Ginny; Golding, Jean; Norwich, Brahm; Emond, Alan; Ford, Tamsin; Steer, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare social and behavioural outcomes between children formally diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with those of children who displayed autistic traits at preschool age, but remained undiagnosed as teenagers. Method: A secondary analysis of data from a birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

  19. Very Early Predictors of Conduct Problems and Crime: Results from a National Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Joseph; Irving, Barrie; Farrington, David P.; Colman, Ian; Bloxsom, Claire A. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Longitudinal research has produced a wealth of knowledge about individual, family, and social predictors of crime. However, nearly all studies have started after children are age 5, and little is known about earlier risk factors. Methods: The 1970 British Cohort Study is a prospective population survey of more than 16,000 children born…

  20. Head Start and Urban Children's School Readiness: A Birth Cohort Study in 18 Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

    2011-01-01

    We used longitudinal data from a birth cohort study, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, to investigate the links between Head Start and school readiness in a large and diverse sample of urban children at age 5 (N = 2,803; 18 cities). We found that Head Start attendance was associated with enhanced cognitive ability and social…

  1. Beyond height and weight: a programme of school nurse assessed skinfold measurements from white British and South Asian origin children aged 4–5 years within the Born in Bradford cohort study

    PubMed Central

    West, Jane; Santorelli, Gillian; Lennon, Laura; O'Connell, Kathy; Corkett, John; Wright, John; Brierley, Shirley; Whincup, Peter; Cameron, Noel; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the feasibility, reliability and additional information gained from collecting additional body fatness measures (beyond height and weight) from UK reception year children. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Bradford, UK. Participants 2458 reception year children participating in the Born in Bradford (BiB) cohort study. Main outcome measures The feasibility and reliability of subscapular and triceps skinfold measurements and differences in adiposity between ethnic groups. Results Of those children who were matched to their school, 91% had a subscapular skinfold measurement and 92% had a triceps skinfold measurement recorded. Reliability was generally over 90% for all measurers and both measurements. Pakistani children were slightly taller but weighed less and had lower triceps skinfold thickness (mean difference −1.8 mm, 95% CI −2.1 to −1.4 mm) but higher subscapular (mean difference 0.1 mm, 95% CI −0.1 to 0.4 mm) than white British children. Conclusions We have shown that it is feasible for school nurses to collect skinfold measurements in a similar way to the height and weight measurements collected from reception year children for the National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP), and that these measurements are reliable. It is important for healthcare practice to acknowledge ethnic-specific risk and these additional measurements can provide important information to examine population-level risk in populations with large proportions of South Asian children. PMID:26610758

  2. Pneumoconiosis increases the risk of congestive heart failure: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Yen, Chia-Ming; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Ming-Chia; Chen, Huei-Yong; Lu, Nan-Han; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between pneumoconiosis and congestive heart failure (CHF).We collected data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. The study sample comprised 8923 patients with pneumoconiosis and 35,692 nonpneumoconiosis controls enrolled from 2000 to 2011. Patients were followed up until the end of 2011 to evaluate the incidence of CHF. The risk of CHF was analyzed using Cox proportional hazard regression models, and the analysis accounted for factors such as sex, age, comorbidities, and air pollutants (μg/m).The overall incidence of CHF was higher in the pneumoconiosis cohort (15.7 per 1000 person-y) than in the nonpneumoconiosis cohort (11.2 per 1000 person-y), with a crude hazard ratio (HR) of 1.40 (P < 0.001). The HR for CHF was 1.38-fold greater in the pneumoconiosis cohort than in the nonpneumoconiosis cohort (P < 0.001) after the model was adjusted for age, sex, various comorbidities, and air pollutants (μg/m). The relative risk for CHF in the sex-specific pneumoconiosis cohort compared with the nonpneumoconiosis cohort was significant for men (adjusted HR = 1.40, 95% confidence interval = 1.21-1.62, P < 0.001). The incidence density rates of CHF increased with age; pneumoconiosis patients had a higher relative risk of CHF for all age group.Patients with pneumoconiosis were at higher risk for developing CHF than patients in the nonpneumoconiosis cohort, particularly in cases with coexisting coronary artery disease, hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  3. Pneumoconiosis increases the risk of congestive heart failure: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Yen, Chia-Ming; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Ming-Chia; Chen, Huei-Yong; Lu, Nan-Han; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between pneumoconiosis and congestive heart failure (CHF).We collected data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. The study sample comprised 8923 patients with pneumoconiosis and 35,692 nonpneumoconiosis controls enrolled from 2000 to 2011. Patients were followed up until the end of 2011 to evaluate the incidence of CHF. The risk of CHF was analyzed using Cox proportional hazard regression models, and the analysis accounted for factors such as sex, age, comorbidities, and air pollutants (μg/m).The overall incidence of CHF was higher in the pneumoconiosis cohort (15.7 per 1000 person-y) than in the nonpneumoconiosis cohort (11.2 per 1000 person-y), with a crude hazard ratio (HR) of 1.40 (P < 0.001). The HR for CHF was 1.38-fold greater in the pneumoconiosis cohort than in the nonpneumoconiosis cohort (P < 0.001) after the model was adjusted for age, sex, various comorbidities, and air pollutants (μg/m). The relative risk for CHF in the sex-specific pneumoconiosis cohort compared with the nonpneumoconiosis cohort was significant for men (adjusted HR = 1.40, 95% confidence interval = 1.21-1.62, P < 0.001). The incidence density rates of CHF increased with age; pneumoconiosis patients had a higher relative risk of CHF for all age group.Patients with pneumoconiosis were at higher risk for developing CHF than patients in the nonpneumoconiosis cohort, particularly in cases with coexisting coronary artery disease, hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:27336897

  4. Effect of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus on the Risk of Incident Respiratory Failure: A National Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Jun-Jun; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Chen, Jiunn-Horng; Hsu, Wu-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We conducted a nationwide cohort study to investigate the relationship between systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the risk of incident respiratory failure. Methods From the National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified 11 533 patients newly diagnosed with SLE and 46 132 controls without SLE who were randomly selected through frequency-matching according to age, sex, and index year. Both cohorts were followed until the end of 2011 to measure the incidence of incident respiratory failure, which was compared between the 2 cohorts through a Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Results The adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of incident respiratory failure was 5.80 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.15–6.52) for the SLE cohort after we adjusted for sex, age, and comorbidities. Both men (aHR = 3.44, 95% CI = 2.67–4.43) and women (aHR = 6.79, 95% CI = 5.93–7.77) had a significantly higher rate of incident respiratory failure in the SLE cohort than in the non-SLE cohort. Both men and women aged <35 years (aHR = 31.2, 95% CI = 21.6–45.2), 35–65 years; (aHR = 6.19, 95% CI = 5.09–7.54) and ≥65 years (aHR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.92–2.87) had a higher risk of incident respiratory failure in the SLE cohort. Moreover, the risk of incident respiratory failure was higher in the SLE cohort than the non-SLE cohort, for subjects with (aHR = 2.65, 95% CI = 2.22–3.15) or without (aHR = 9.08, 95% CI = 7.72–10.7) pre-existing comorbidities. In the SLE cohort, subjects with >24 outpatient visits and hospitalizations per year had a higher incident respiratory failure risk (aHR = 21.7, 95% CI = 18.0–26.1) compared with the non-SLE cohort. Conclusion Patients with SLE are associated with an increased risk of incident respiratory failure, regardless of their age, sex, and pre-existing comorbidities; especially medical services with higher frequency. PMID:27654828

  5. Life-course and cohort trajectories of mental health in the UK, 1991-2008--a multilevel age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Bell, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    There is ongoing debate regarding the shape of life-course trajectories in mental health. Many argue the relationship is U-shaped, with mental health declining with age to mid-life, then improving. However, I argue that these models are beset by the age-period-cohort (APC) identification problem, whereby age, cohort and year of measurement are exactly collinear and their effects cannot be meaningfully separated. This means an apparent life-course effect could be explained by cohorts. This paper critiques two sets of literature: the substantive literature regarding life-course trajectories in mental health, and the methodological literature that claims erroneously to have 'solved' the APC identification problem statistically (e.g. using Yang and Land's Hierarchical APC-HAPC-model). I then use a variant of the HAPC model, making strong but justified assumptions that allow the modelling of life-course trajectories in mental health (measured by the General Health Questionnaire) net of any cohort effects, using data from the British Household Panel Survey, 1991-2008. The model additionally employs a complex multilevel structure that allows the relative importance of spatial (households, local authority districts) and temporal (periods, cohorts) levels to be assessed. Mental health is found to increase throughout the life-course; this slows at mid-life before worsening again into old age, but there is no evidence of a U-shape--I argue that such findings result from confounding with cohort processes (whereby more recent cohorts have generally worse mental health). Other covariates were also evaluated; income, smoking, education, social class, urbanity, ethnicity, gender and marriage were all related to mental health, with the latter two in particular affecting life-course and cohort trajectories. The paper shows the importance of understanding APC in life-course research generally, and mental health research in particular. PMID:25215933

  6. Life-course and cohort trajectories of mental health in the UK, 1991-2008--a multilevel age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Bell, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    There is ongoing debate regarding the shape of life-course trajectories in mental health. Many argue the relationship is U-shaped, with mental health declining with age to mid-life, then improving. However, I argue that these models are beset by the age-period-cohort (APC) identification problem, whereby age, cohort and year of measurement are exactly collinear and their effects cannot be meaningfully separated. This means an apparent life-course effect could be explained by cohorts. This paper critiques two sets of literature: the substantive literature regarding life-course trajectories in mental health, and the methodological literature that claims erroneously to have 'solved' the APC identification problem statistically (e.g. using Yang and Land's Hierarchical APC-HAPC-model). I then use a variant of the HAPC model, making strong but justified assumptions that allow the modelling of life-course trajectories in mental health (measured by the General Health Questionnaire) net of any cohort effects, using data from the British Household Panel Survey, 1991-2008. The model additionally employs a complex multilevel structure that allows the relative importance of spatial (households, local authority districts) and temporal (periods, cohorts) levels to be assessed. Mental health is found to increase throughout the life-course; this slows at mid-life before worsening again into old age, but there is no evidence of a U-shape--I argue that such findings result from confounding with cohort processes (whereby more recent cohorts have generally worse mental health). Other covariates were also evaluated; income, smoking, education, social class, urbanity, ethnicity, gender and marriage were all related to mental health, with the latter two in particular affecting life-course and cohort trajectories. The paper shows the importance of understanding APC in life-course research generally, and mental health research in particular.

  7. Estimating life expectancy using an age-cohort model in Taiwan.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, W C; Hsieh, R L

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Life expectation is a valuable summary index in public health and actuarial science. The life expectancies published in the vital statistics, however, are derived from the "current" rather than from the "cohort" life table. The former is based on a strong assumption of constant mortality in the population, whereas the latter calls for a recording of the mortality experience of a group of individuals, which is often an impossible task. Thus, a method of calculating cohort life expectancy without actual follow up is much needed. METHODS: Estimation of cohort life expectancy was based on an age-cohort model. Mortality data for the male population in Taiwan from 1951 to 1990 are used to illustrate the methodology. RESULTS: The increment of life expectancy over time in Taiwan is actually steeper than was previously thought using the current life table technique. CONCLUSIONS: The method is easy to implement and the data required are the usual age and period cross classified mortality data. It warrants further investigation. PMID:8762391

  8. Bidirectional Association between Asthma and Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Two Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cheng-Li; Wei, Chang-Ching; Chen, Chia-Hung; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a demonstrated association between asthma and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In this study, we examined the bidirectional association between asthma and IBS using a nationwide database. Methods We conducted two retrospective cohort studies using data obtained from the National Health Insurance of Taiwan. Study 1 included 29,648 asthma patients newly diagnosed between 2000 and 2010. Study 2 included 29,875 IBS patient newly diagnosed between 2000 and 2010. For each study, four subjects without asthma and IBS were selected, respectively, frequency-matched by sex, age, and the diagnosis date. All four cohorts were followed up until the end of 2011 to estimate incident IBS for Study 1 and incident asthma for study 2. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model after controlling for sex, age and comorbidities. Results The incidence of IBS was 1.89 times higher in the asthma cohort than in the comparison cohort (8.26 vs. 4.36 per 1,000 person-years), with an aHR of 1.57 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.47–1.68]. The aHRs remained significant in all subgroups measured by sex, age and the presence of comorbidities. In contrast, the incidence of asthma was 1.76 times higher in the IBS cohort than the comparison cohort (7.09 vs. 4.03 per 1,000 person-years), with an aHR of 1.54 (95% CI = 1.44−1.64). Similarly, aHRs remained significant in all subgroups measured by sex, age and the presence of comorbidities. Conclusion The present study suggests a bidirectional association between asthma and IBS. Atopy could be a shared pathophysiology underlying this association, deserving a further investigation. PMID:27093172

  9. Length velocity acceleration at 9 months of age in a representative birth cohort of Dutch infants.

    PubMed

    Van den Broeck, J; Brand, R; Massa, G; Herngreen, W P; Wit, J M

    2000-01-01

    According to the ICP (infancy-childhood-puberty) growth model, statural growth can be divided into three partially superimposed components assumed to represent different physiologic mechanisms. This model predicts a sudden acceleration of length velocity (LV) at the onset of the childhood component around 9 months. The existence of such an infancy-childhood growth spurt has not yet been firmly corroborated by epidemiological studies. In the present study length measurements were made at the target ages of 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 24 months in a birth cohort of 2034 infants. In order to check whether length growth showed a continuous smooth pattern, different mathematical models were fitted to the individual growth curves. The models included Count and Guo functions, 5th order polynomial and combinations of 5th order polynomial with the logarithmic term of the Count function and the square root term of the Guo function. We showed that in boys and girls there is a small but systematic lack of fit of the mathematical modeling, due to a sudden acceleration of LV around 9 months. In addition there was an increase in variation of attained length at this age. Comparison of unbalanced ANOVA models with and without addition of dummy variables for the target ages confirmed that there was an acceleration around 9 months that, if corrected for, leads to a significantly improved model fit (likelihood ratio test p < 0.0001). In absolute terms of LV, the misfit at 9 months was not greater than 0.5 cm/year on average. We conclude that the results of this study support the existence of a late infancy growth spurt. In our opinion, however, the magnitude of the phenomenon does not legitimate construction and use of discontinuous growth references such as the ICP reference.

  10. Cardiorespiratory fitness of males and females of northern Finland birth cohort of 1966 at age 31.

    PubMed

    Tammelin, T; Näyhä, S; Rintamäki, H

    2004-10-01

    This study aimed to measure cardiorespiratory fitness of about 9000 males and females at age 31, to produce the reference values and relate them to the level of physical activity and body mass index (BMI). Study population was the Northern Finland birth cohort of 1966. At age 31, 8786 persons responded to a postal inquiry including questions about physical activity and 5497 of them also performed a step test. A sample of 123 persons performed a maximal exercise test with direct measurement of peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)). This was done to develop VO(2peak) prediction models on the basis of heart rate after a step test, BMI and frequency of brisk physical activity. These models were used to calculate VO(2peak) for the whole study population. Mean VO(2peak) +/- standard deviation was 43.0 +/- 4.6 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) in 4071 males and 34.3 +/- 4.3 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) in 4367 females. A graded dose-response relationship was observed in males and females between the frequency of participation in brisk exercise and VO(2peak). Similar dose-response relationship was also observed in overweight and obese persons, although the level of VO(2peak) was lower in persons with increased BMI. At age 31, very low levels of VO(2peak) seemed to be associated with a combination of infrequent participation in brisk exercise and increased BMI. These reference values can be used in the interpretation of fitness test results and in physical activity counselling.

  11. Clustering of substance use and sexual risk behaviour in adolescence: analysis of two cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Sweeting, Helen; Haw, Sally

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The authors aimed to examine whether changes in health risk behaviour rates alter the relationships between behaviours during adolescence, by comparing clustering of risk behaviours at different time points. Design Comparison of two cohort studies, the Twenty-07 Study (‘earlier cohort’, surveyed in 1987 and 1990) and the 11-16/16+ Study (‘later cohort’, surveyed 1999 and 2003). Setting Central Clydeside Conurbation around Glasgow City. Participants Young people who participated in the Twenty-07 and 11-16/16+ studies at ages 15 and 18–19. Primary and secondary outcomes measures The authors analysed data on risk behaviours in both early adolescence (started smoking prior to age 14, monthly drinking and ever used illicit drugs at age 15 and sexual intercourse prior to age 16) and late adolescence (age 18–19, current smoking, excessive drinking, ever used illicit drugs and multiple sexual partners) by gender and social class. Results Drinking, illicit drug use and risky sexual behaviour (but not smoking) increased between the earlier and later cohort, especially among girls. The authors found strong associations between substance use and sexual risk behaviour during early and late adolescence, with few differences between cohorts, or by gender or social class. Adjusted ORs for associations between each substance and sexual risk behaviour were around 2.00. The only significant between-cohort difference was a stronger association between female early adolescent smoking and early sexual initiation in the later cohort. Also, relationships between illicit drug use and both early sexual initiation and multiple sexual partners in late adolescence were significantly stronger among girls than boys in the later cohort. Conclusions Despite changes in rates, relationships between adolescent risk behaviours remain strong, irrespective of gender and social class. This indicates a need for improved risk behaviour prevention in young people, perhaps through a

  12. Cohort Profile: The Yorkshire Health Study.

    PubMed

    Green, Mark A; Li, Jessica; Relton, Clare; Strong, Mark; Kearns, Benjamin; Wu, Mengjun; Bissell, Paul; Blackburn, Joanna; Cooper, Cindy; Goyder, Elizabeth; Loban, Amanda; Smith, Christine

    2016-06-01

    The Yorkshire Health Study is a longitudinal observational regional health study collecting health information on the residents from the Yorkshire and Humberside region in England. The second wave of data collection is currently under way. The study aims to inform National Health Service (NHS) and local authority health-related decision making in Yorkshire, with wider implications from findings as well. The first wave contains records for 27 806 individuals (2010-12), aged between 16 and 85, from one part of Yorkshire (South Yorkshire), with the second wave expanding data collection to the whole of the Yorkshire and Humberside region. Data were collected on current and long-standing health, health care usage and health-related behaviours, with a particular focus on weight and weight management. The majority of individuals have also given consent for record linkage with routine clinical data, allowing the linking to disease diagnosis, medication use and health care usage. The study encourages researchers to utilize the sample through the embedding of randomized controlled trials, other controlled trials and qualitative studies. To access the anonymized data or use the sample to recruit participants to studies, researchers should contact Clare Relton (c.relton@sheffield.ac.uk). PMID:25011455

  13. Calciphylaxis in peritoneal dialysis patients: a single center cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanchen; Corapi, Kristin M; Luongo, Maria; Thadhani, Ravi; Nigwekar, Sagar U

    2016-01-01

    Background Calciphylaxis is a rare but devastating condition in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Most research in the field of calciphylaxis is focused on hemodialysis (HD) patients; however, data on calciphylaxis incidence, risk factors, and mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients are limited. Methods In this cohort study, we examined data from adult patients who initiated PD for ESRD management at our institute’s PD unit from January 2001 to December 2015. Associations with the development of calciphylaxis were examined for clinical, laboratory, and medication exposures. Incidence of calciphylaxis and mortality in PD patients who developed calciphylaxis were analyzed. Treatments administered to treat calciphylaxis in PD patients were summarized. Results In this cohort of 63 patients, 7 patients developed calciphylaxis (incidence rate: 9.0 per 1,000 patient-years). Median age of PD patients who developed calciphylaxis was 50 years, 57% were white, 71% females, and 71% were previously on HD. Female sex, obesity, HD as a prior dialysis modality, recurrent hypotension, elevated time-averaged serum phosphorous levels, reduced time-averaged serum albumin levels, and warfarin therapy were associated with increased calciphylaxis risk in univariate logistic regression analyses. Intravenous sodium thiosulfate was administered in 57% of PD patients who developed calciphylaxis. One-year mortality in PD patients who developed calciphylaxis was 71% despite multimodal treatment including sodium thiosulfate, hyperbaric oxygen, cinacalcet, and wound debridement. Conclusion Calciphylaxis is a rare but frequently fatal condition in PD patients. Our study provides critical early insights into calciphylaxis incidence, risk factors, and prognosis in PD patients. Sample size and characteristics of patients included in our study limit generalizability to overall PD population and warrant examination in larger independent studies.

  14. Calciphylaxis in peritoneal dialysis patients: a single center cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanchen; Corapi, Kristin M; Luongo, Maria; Thadhani, Ravi; Nigwekar, Sagar U

    2016-01-01

    Background Calciphylaxis is a rare but devastating condition in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Most research in the field of calciphylaxis is focused on hemodialysis (HD) patients; however, data on calciphylaxis incidence, risk factors, and mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients are limited. Methods In this cohort study, we examined data from adult patients who initiated PD for ESRD management at our institute’s PD unit from January 2001 to December 2015. Associations with the development of calciphylaxis were examined for clinical, laboratory, and medication exposures. Incidence of calciphylaxis and mortality in PD patients who developed calciphylaxis were analyzed. Treatments administered to treat calciphylaxis in PD patients were summarized. Results In this cohort of 63 patients, 7 patients developed calciphylaxis (incidence rate: 9.0 per 1,000 patient-years). Median age of PD patients who developed calciphylaxis was 50 years, 57% were white, 71% females, and 71% were previously on HD. Female sex, obesity, HD as a prior dialysis modality, recurrent hypotension, elevated time-averaged serum phosphorous levels, reduced time-averaged serum albumin levels, and warfarin therapy were associated with increased calciphylaxis risk in univariate logistic regression analyses. Intravenous sodium thiosulfate was administered in 57% of PD patients who developed calciphylaxis. One-year mortality in PD patients who developed calciphylaxis was 71% despite multimodal treatment including sodium thiosulfate, hyperbaric oxygen, cinacalcet, and wound debridement. Conclusion Calciphylaxis is a rare but frequently fatal condition in PD patients. Our study provides critical early insights into calciphylaxis incidence, risk factors, and prognosis in PD patients. Sample size and characteristics of patients included in our study limit generalizability to overall PD population and warrant examination in larger independent studies. PMID:27698566

  15. Age-Period-Cohort Models in Cancer Surveillance Research: Ready for Prime Time?

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Philip S.; Anderson, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Standard descriptive methods for the analysis of cancer surveillance data include canonical plots based on the lexis diagram, directly age-standardized rates (ASR), estimated annual percentage change (EAPC), and joinpoint regression. The age-period-cohort (APC) model has been used less often. Here, we argue that it merits much broader use. Firstly, we describe close connections between estimable functions of the model parameters and standard quantities such as the ASR, EAPC, and joinpoints. Estimable functions have the added value of being fully adjusted for period and cohort effects, and generally more precise. Secondly, the APC model provides the descriptive epidemiologist with powerful new tools, including rigorous statistical methods for comparative analyses and the ability to project the future burden of cancer. We illustrate these principles using invasive female breast cancer incidence in the United States, but these concepts apply equally well to other cancer sites for incidence or mortality. PMID:21610223

  16. Etiology of atopy in infancy: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kummeling, Ischa; Thijs, Carel; Penders, John; Snijders, Bianca E P; Stelma, Foekje; Reimerink, Johan; Koopmans, Marion; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Huber, Machteld; Jansen, Margje C J F; de Bie, Rob; van den Brandt, Piet A

    2005-12-01

    The aim of the KOALA Birth Cohort Study in the Netherlands is to identify factors that influence the clinical expression of atopic disease with a main focus on lifestyle (e.g., anthroposophy, vaccinations, antibiotics, dietary habits, breastfeeding and breast milk composition, intestinal microflora composition, infections during the first year of life, and gene-environment interaction). The recruitment of pregnant women started in October 2000. First, participants with 'conventional lifestyles' (n = 2343) were retrieved from an ongoing prospective cohort study (n = 7020) on pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain. In addition, pregnant women (n = 491) with 'alternative lifestyles' with regard to child rearing practices, dietary habits (organic, vegetarian), vaccination schemes and/or use of antibiotics, were recruited through organic food shops, anthroposophic doctors and midwives, Steiner schools, and dedicated magazines. All participants were enrolled between 14 and 18 wk of gestation and completed an intake questionnaire on family history of atopy and infant care intentions. Documentation of other relevant variables started in the pregnant mother and covered the first and third trimester as well as early childhood by repeated questionnaires at 14-18, 30, and 34 wk of gestation and 3, 7, 12, and 24 months post-partum. A subgroup of participants, including both conventional and alternative lifestyles, was asked to consent to maternal blood sampling, breast milk and a faecal sample of the infant at 1 month post-partum, capillary blood at age 1 yr, venous blood and observation of manifestation of atopic dermatitis during home visits at the age of 2 yr (using the UK working party criteria and the severity scoring of atopic dermatitis index), and buccal swabs for DNA isolation from child-parent trios. From the start, ethical approval and informed consent procedures included gene-environment interaction studies. Follow-up at 3 and 7 months post-partum was completed with

  17. An age, period and cohort analysis of pleural cancer mortality in Europe.

    PubMed

    La Vecchia, C; Decarli, A; Peto, J; Levi, F; Tomei, F; Negri, E

    2000-06-01

    Death certification data from pleural cancer in eight European countries providing data to the World Health Organization database over the period 1970-1994 were analysed using a log-linear Poisson model to disentangle the effects of age, birth cohort and period of death. The age effect reached values between 10 and 15/100,000 males at age 80-84 in most countries, except Hungary (6.7), Switzerland (18.0), France (20.6) and the Netherlands (36.5). Cohort effects were steadily and appreciably upwards in all countries up to the generations born in 1940 or 1945, and levelled off for the 1950 cohort, except in Hungary, where persistent rises were observed. Thus, most rises in pleural cancer mortality in Europe were on a cohort of birth basis. Since most pleural cases were asbestos-related mesotheliomas, and since asbestos has an early-stage effect on subsequent mesothelioma risk, exposure early in life is important for determining the subsequent mesothelioma risk of each generation. Consequently, the data indicate that the peak mortality from pleural cancer in most western European countries will be reached in the first decades of the 21st century, i.e. around 2010-2020, when the generations born between 1940 and 1950 will reach the peak age for mesothelioma incidence and mortality. This contrasts with US data, where the peak of pleural cancer incidence has been reached at the end of the 20th century, and reflects a delay in adopting adequate prevention measures since the 1940-1945 generations entered the workforce in the 1960s, when cancer risk from asbestos exposure was already recognized.

  18. Early child care and obesity at 12 months of age in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Neelon, Sara E Benjamin; Andersen, Camilla Schou; Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W; Sørensen, Thorkild IA

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Evidence suggests that the child care environment may be more obesogenic than the family home, and previous studies have found that child care use may be associated with obesity in children. Few studies, however, have focused on child care during infancy, which may be an especially vulnerable period. This study examined child care use in infancy and weight status at 12 months of age in a country where paid maternity leave is common and early child care is not as prevalent as in other developed countries. Subjects/Methods We studied 27821 children born to mothers participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC), a longitudinal study of pregnant women enrolled between 1997 and 2002, who were also included in the Childcare Database, a national record of child care use in Denmark. The exposure was days in child care from birth to 12 months. The outcomes were sex-specific body mass index (BMI) z-score and overweight/obesity (BMI ≥85th percentile based on the World Health Organization classification) at 12 months. We conducted multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses examining child care use and weight outcomes. Results A total of 17721 (63.7%) children attended child care during their first year of life. After adjustment for potential confounders, a 30-day increment of child care was associated with a modestly higher BMI z-score at 12 months (0.03 units; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.05; p=0.003). Similarly, child care use was associated with increased odds of being overweight/obese at 12 months of age (OR 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.10; p=0.047). Conclusions Child care in the first year of life was associated with slightly higher weight at 12 months, suggesting that child care settings may be important targets for obesity prevention in infancy. PMID:25233894

  19. Canadian family physicians' decision to collaborate: age, period and cohort effects.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Sisira; Devlin, Rose Anne; Thind, Amardeep; Chu, Man-Kee

    2012-11-01

    One of the core primary care reform initiatives seen across provinces in Canada is the introduction of inter-professional primary healthcare teams in which family physicians are encouraged to collaborate with other health professionals. Although a higher proportion of physicians are collaborating with various health professionals now compared to the previous decade, a substantial number of physicians still do not work in a collaborative setting. The objective of this paper is to examine the age, period and cohort effects of Canadian family physicians' decisions to collaborate with seven types of health professionals: specialists, nurse practitioners, nurses, dieticians, physiotherapists, psychologists and occupational therapists. To this end, this paper employs a multivariate probit model consisting of seven equations and a cross-classified fixed-effects strategy to explain the collaborative decisions of family physicians. Utilizing three cross-sectional physician surveys from Canada over the 2001-2007 period, cohorts are defined over five-year intervals according to their year of graduation from medical school. We find that newer cohorts of physicians are more likely to collaborate with dieticians, physiotherapists, psychologists and occupational therapists; newer female cohorts are more likely to collaborate with nurses while newer male cohorts are less likely to collaborate with nurses but more likely to collaborate with specialists. Older physicians are more likely to collaborate with specialists, physiotherapists, psychologists, and occupational therapists; the age effect for nurses is U-shaped for male physicians while it is inverse U-shaped for females. Family physicians are collaborating more with all seven health professionals in 2004 and 2007 compared to 2001. Belonging to a group practice has a largely positive influence on collaborations; and being paid by a fee-for-service remuneration scheme exerts a negative influence on collaboration, ceteris

  20. Aragon workers’ health study – design and cohort description

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Spain, a Mediterranean country with relatively low rates of coronary heart disease, has a high prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and is experiencing a severe epidemic of overweight/obesity. We designed the Aragon Workers’ Health Study (AWHS) to characterize the factors associated with metabolic abnormalities and subclinical atherosclerosis in a middle aged population in Spain free of clinical cardiovascular disease. The objective of this paper is to describe the study design, aims and baseline characteristics of participants in the AWHS. Methods/Design Longitudinal cohort study based on the annual health exams of 5,400 workers of a car assembly plant in Figueruelas (Zaragoza, Spain). Study participants were recruited during a standardized clinical exam in 2009–2010 (participation rate 95.6%). Study participants will undergo annual clinical exams and laboratory assays, and baseline and triennial collection of biological materials for biobanking and cardiovascular imaging exams (carotid, femoral and abdominal ultrasonography, coronary calcium score, and ankle-arm blood pressure index). Participants will be followed-up for 10 years. Results The average (SD) age, body mass index, and waist circumference were 49.3 (8.7) years, 27.7 (3.6) kg/m2 and 97.2 (9.9) cm, respectively, among males (N = 5,048), and 40.8 (11.6) years, 24.4 (3.8) kg/m2, and 81.9 (9.9) cm, among females (N = 351). The prevalence of overweight, obesity, current smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes were 55.0, 23.1, 37.1, 40.3, 75.0, and 7.4%, respectively, among males, and 23.7, 8.3, 45.0, 12.1, 59.5, and 0.6%, respectively, among females. In the initial 587 study participants who completed all imaging exams (94.5% male), the prevalence of carotid plaque, femoral plaque, coronary calcium score >1 to 100, and coronary calcium score >100 was 30.3, 56.9, 27.0, and 8.8%, respectively. 67.7% of study participants had at least one plaque in

  1. Cohort Profile: The Shanghai Men’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Xiao-Ou; Li, Honglan; Yang, Gong; Gao, Jing; Cai, Hui; Takata, Yumie; Zheng, Wei; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2015-01-01

    The Shanghai Men’s Health Study (SMHS) is a population-based cohort study of 61 480 men aged 40–74 years, launched in 2002 in urban Shanghai to investigate the contribution of lifestyle/environmental factors and genetic susceptibility to cancer and other non-communicable diseases (NCDs). At baseline, trained interviewers collected detailed information on personal and dietary habits, occupational/medical history and physical activity, and took anthropometric measurements (response rate: 74%). Blood, urine and DNA were collected from 75%, 89% and 89% of participants, respectively. The cohort has been followed up through a combination of in-person surveys every 3–4 years and annual record linkage with cancer and vital statistics registries. Response rates for in-person follow-up surveys were over 91% and coverage for mortality nearly 100%. SMHS participants have a high smoking rate (58.6%) and moderate alcohol-drinking rate (29.3%), but low obesity rate (2.6%). They have a low calorie intake from fat (16.2% of total calorie intake) and protein (16.4%), high calorie intake from carbohydrates (67.4%), and high intake of soy food, cruciferous vegetables and fish (156.5, 110.6 and 51.7 g/day, respectively). With its unique exposure pattern and wealth of data and biological samples, the SMHS is well positioned for long-term research into NCD aetiology and prognosis. Information about accessing the SMHS resources can be found at: http://www.mc.vanderbilt.edu/swhs-smhs/. PMID:25733578

  2. Asthma–Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases Overlap Syndrome Increases the Risk of Incident Tuberculosis: A National Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Jun-Jun; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The association between asthma–chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) overlap syndrome (ACOS) and tuberculosis (TB) has yet to be studied. Methods The newly diagnosed TB patients (age > 20 y) treated from January 2000 to December 2008 were included (ACOS cohort, n = 10 751; non-ACOS cohort, n = 42 966). The non-ACOS cohort involved patients with confirmed absence of ACOS. We calculated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for TB in the ACOS and non-ACOS cohorts by using poisson regression analysis. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to determine the adjusted HR (aHR) for TB in the ACOS cohort compared with the non-ACOS cohort. Results The aHR for TB was 2.41 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.19–2.66) in the ACOS cohort. The TB risk was significantly higher in the ACOS cohort than in the non-ACOS cohort when stratified by age, sex, comorbidities, and atopy. Within the ACOS cohort, the aHR was higher among patients receiving SABAs+SAMAs, LABAs+LAMAs, and ICSs (aHR [95% CI]: 3.06 [2.75–3.41], 3.68 [2.93–4.61], and 2.79 [1.25–6.22], respectively; all P < .05). Furthermore, patients with more than 15 outpatient visits and hospitalizations per year demonstrated the highest aHR (8.09; 95% CI, 6.85–9.56). Conclusions ACOS cohort potentially develop incident TB, regardless of the age,sex, comorbidities and atopy; even without receiving the inhalers.This risk is higher, especially in the ACOS cohort have a high frequency of medical services or receiving the inhalers such as SABAs+SAMAs, LABAs+LAMAs and ICSs. PMID:27448309

  3. Critical Pertussis Illness in Children, A Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Berger, John T.; Carcillo, Joseph A.; Shanley, Thomas P.; Wessel, David L.; Clark, Amy; Holubkov, Richard; Meert, Kathleen L.; Newth, Christopher J.L.; Berg, Robert A.; Heidemann, Sabrina; Harrison, Rick; Pollack, Murray; Dalton, Heidi; Harvill, Eric; Karanikas, Alexia; Liu, Teresa; Burr, Jeri S.; Doctor, Allan; Dean, J. Michael; Jenkins, Tammara L.; Nicholson, Carol E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Pertussis persists in the United States despite high immunization rates. The present report characterizes the presentation and acute course of critical pertussis by quantifying demographic data, laboratory findings, clinical complications, and critical care therapies required among children requiring admission to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Eight PICUs comprising the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network and 17 additional PICUs across the United States. Patients Eligible patients had laboratory confirmation of pertussis infection, were < 18 years of age, and died in the PICU or were admitted to the PICU for at least 24 hours between June 2008 and August 2011. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results 127 patients were identified. Median age was 49 days, and 105 (83%) patients were < 3 months of age. Fifty-five (43%) required mechanical ventilation. Twelve (9.4%) died during initial hospitalization. Pulmonary hypertension was found in 16 patients (12.5%), and was present in 75% of patients who died, compared with 6% of survivors (p< 0.001). Median white blood cell count (WBC) was significantly higher in those requiring mechanical ventilation (p<0.001), those with pulmonary hypertension (p<0.001) and non-survivors (p<0.001). Age, sex and immunization status did not differ between survivors and non-survivors. Fourteen patients received leukoreduction therapy (exchange transfusion (12), leukopheresis (1) or both (1)). Survival benefit was not apparent. Conclusions Pulmonary hypertension may be associated with mortality in pertussis critical illness. Elevated WBC is associated with the need for mechanical ventilation, pulmonary hypertension, and mortality risk. Research is indicated to elucidate how pulmonary hypertension, immune responsiveness, and elevated WBC contribute to morbidity and mortality

  4. Neonatal bleeding in haemophilia: a European cohort study.

    PubMed

    Richards, M; Lavigne Lissalde, G; Combescure, C; Batorova, A; Dolan, G; Fischer, K; Klamroth, R; Lambert, T; Lopez-Fernandez, M; Pérez, R; Rocino, A; Fijnvandraat, K

    2012-02-01

    Birth is the first haemostatic challenge for a child with haemophilia. Our aim was to examine the association between perinatal risk factors and major neonatal bleeding in infants with haemophilia. This observational cohort study in 12 European haemophilia treatment centres (HTC) incorporated 508 children with haemophilia A or B, born between 1990 and 2008. Risk factors for bleeding were analysed by univariate analysis. Head bleeds occurred in 18 (3·5%) children within the first 28 d of life, including three intraparenchymal bleeds, one subdural haematoma and 14 cephalohaematomas. Intra-cranial bleeds were associated with long-term neurological sequelae in two (0·4%) cases; no deaths occurred. Assisted delivery (forceps/vacuum) was the only risk factor for neonatal head bleeding [Odds Ratio (OR) 8·84: 95% confidence interval (CI) 3·05-25·61]. Mild haemophilia and maternal awareness of her haemophilia carrier status seemed to be protective (OR 0·24; 95%CI 0·05-1·05 and OR 0·34; 95%CI 0·10-1·21, respectively), but due to the low number of events this was not statistically significant. We found no association between neonatal head bleeding and country, maternal age, parity, gestational age or presence of HTC. Maternal awareness of carrier status protected against assisted delivery (unadjusted OR 0·37; 95%CI 0·15-0·90; adjusted OR 0·47 (95%CI 0·18-1·21). PMID:22146054

  5. Mild pediatric traumatic brain injury: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fay, G C; Jaffe, K M; Polissar, N L; Liao, S; Martin, K M; Shurtleff, H A; Rivara, J M; Winn, H R

    1993-09-01

    Using a prospective, cohort design, we investigated whether children with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) differed from individually matched controls on measures of intellectual, neuropsychological, academic, and "real world" functioning. Subjects included children between the ages of 6 and 15 years who sustained mild, moderate, and severe closed head injuries and were consecutively identified on presentation to the emergency departments of two regional, university medical centers. One hundred twenty-nine children were eligible for enrollment. Seventeen refused enrollment. Fifty-nine of the 112 enrolled children were classified as mildly injured. Six of these children dropped out, leaving 53 mildly injured cases for analysis. Individually matched controls from the classroom of the injured cases were identified based on age, gender, and premorbid academic achievement and behavior. Assessment measures included standardized intellectual, neuropsychological, and academic measures. Also, parent and teacher questionnaires, measuring social, educational, domestic, and community living skills were used. Among 51 outcome variables only five were significantly associated with injury at initial or 1-year testing after adjusting for multiple comparisons. However, these five associations were either very weak or implausible. Results from this study suggest that mild TBI produces virtually no clinically significant long-term deficits in intellectual, neuropsychological, academic, or "real world" functioning. PMID:8379832

  6. Stuttering, Temperament, and Anxiety: Data from a Community Cohort Ages 2-4 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Ukoumunne, Obioha; Block, Susan; Reilly, Sheena

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether and when temperament differences, including precursors of anxiety, emerge before onset and during stuttering development. Method: The authors prospectively studied temperament characteristics of a community cohort of children who stutter (N = 183) and children in the control group (N =…

  7. Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort Studies in Korea: Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Won; Cheon, Jae Hee; Kim, You Sun; Kim, Joo Sung; Han, Dong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is defined as a chronic and relapsing inflammatory disorder of the intestine. Intestinal inflammation in IBD has been proposed to be attributable to the interplay between microbial, genetic, environmental, and immunological factors. The incidence and prevalence rates of IBD are rapidly increasing apparently in other parts of the world, with dramatic increases especially in East Asia. Generally, cohort studies are useful for estimating the incidence, prevalence, natural course, prognosis, and risk factors of diseases. In particular, cohort studies performed in Western countries have well described the prevalence, risk factors, and natural course of IBD and investigated its genetic pathophysiology. However, the outcomes of IBD cohort studies performed in Korea are not as persuasive as those of Western studies because of the relatively low prevalence of IBD and short follow-up periods of the cohorts in Korea. Despite this critical limitation, members of the Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases have demonstrated outstanding results. Some unique features of IBD patients in Korea are well demonstrated, such as thiopurine-induced leukopenia or risks of opportunistic tuberculosis infection in patients receiving tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors. In this review, the present authors summarized the key points of the results of the cohort studies performed in Korea and explored future perspectives. PMID:26130995

  8. Cumulative Expenditures under the DI, SSI, Medicare, and Medicaid Programs for a Cohort of Disabled Working-Age Adults

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Gerald F; Rupp, Kalman

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate cumulative DI, SSI, Medicare, and Medicaid expenditures from initial disability benefit award to death or age 65. Data Sources Administrative records for a cohort of new CY2000 DI and SSI awardees aged 18–64. Study Design Actual expenditures were obtained for 2000–2006/7. Subsequent expenditures were simulated using a regression-adjusted Markov process to assign individuals to annual disability benefit coverage states. Program expenditures were simulated conditional on assigned benefit coverage status. Estimates reflect present value of expenditures at initial award in 2000 and are expressed in constant 2012 dollars. Expenditure estimates were also updated to reflect benefit levels and characteristics of new awardees in 2012. Data Collection We matched records for a 10 percent nationally representative sample. Principal Findings Overall average cumulative expenditures are $292,401 through death or age 65, with 51.4 percent for cash benefits and 48.6 percent for health care. Expenditures are about twice the average for individuals first awarded benefits at age 18–30. Overall average expenditures increased by 10 percent when updated for a simulated 2012 cohort. Conclusions Data on cumulative expenditures, especially combined across programs, are useful for evaluating the long-term payoff of investments designed to modify entry to and exit from the disability rolls. PMID:25109322

  9. Concrete containment aging study

    SciTech Connect

    Pachner, J.; Tai, T.M.; Naus, D.

    1994-04-01

    In 1989, IAEA initiated a pilot study on the management of aging of nuclear power plant components. The Phase I and II studies of concrete containment are discussed. With the data base, plant owners will be able to review and enhance their existing programs. IAEA will analyze data provided by participating plants and the report is scheduled to be released by late 1994 (final report release mid-1995).

  10. Cohort Profile: Sympathetic activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans (SABPA) prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Malan, Leoné; Hamer, Mark; Frasure-Smith, Nancy; Steyn, Hendrik S; Malan, Nicolaas T

    2015-01-01

    Adapting to an over-demanding stressful urban environment may exhaust the psychophysiological resources to cope with these demands, and lead to sympathetic nervous system dysfunction. The evidence that an urban-dwelling lifestyle may be detrimental to the cardiometabolic health of Africans motivated the design of the Sympathetic activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in African Prospective cohort study. We aimed to determine neural mechanistic pathways involved in emotional distress and vascular remodelling. The baseline sample included 409 teachers representing a bi-ethnic sex cohort from South Africa. The study was conducted in 2008–09 and repeated after 3-year follow-up in 2011–12, with an 87.8% successful follow-up rate. Seasonal changes were avoided and extensive clinical assessments were performed in a well-controlled setting. Data collection included sociodemographics, lifestyle habits, psychosocial battery and genetic analysis, mental stress responses mimicking daily life stress (blood pressure and haemostatic, cardiometabolic, endothelial and stress hormones). Target organ damage was assessed in the brain, heart, kidney, blood vessels and retina. A unique highly phenotyped cohort is presented that can address the role of a hyperactive sympathetic nervous system and neural response pathways contributing to the burden of cardiometabolic diseases in Africans. PMID:25344943

  11. Cohort Profile: The Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) Study.

    PubMed

    O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Dugas, Erika N; Brunet, Jennifer; DiFranza, Joseph; Engert, James C; Gervais, Andre; Gray-Donald, Katherine; Karp, Igor; Low, Nancy C; Sabiston, Catherine; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Tyndale, Rachel F; Auger, Nathalie; Auger, Nathalie; Mathieu, Belanger; Tracie, Barnett; Chaiton, Michael; Chenoweth, Meghan J; Constantin, Evelyn; Contreras, Gisèle; Kakinami, Lisa; Labbe, Aurelie; Maximova, Katerina; McMillan, Elizabeth; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Pabayo, Roman; Roy-Gagnon, Marie-Hélène; Tremblay, Michèle; Wellman, Robert J; Hulst, Andraeavan; Paradis, Gilles

    2015-10-01

    The Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) study is a prospective cohort investigation of 1294 students recruited in 1999-2000 from all grade 7 classes in a convenience sample of 10 high schools in Montreal, Canada. Its primary objectives were to study the natural course and determinants of cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence in novice smokers. The main source of data was self-report questionnaires administered in class at school every 3 months from grade 7 to grade 11 (1999-2005), for a total of 20 survey cycles during high school education. Questionnaires were also completed after graduation from high school in 2007-08 and 2011-12 (survey cycles 21 and 22, respectively) when participants were aged 20 and 24 years on average, respectively. In addition to its primary objectives, NDIT has embedded studies on obesity, blood pressure, physical activity, team sports, sedentary behaviour, diet, genetics, alcohol use, use of illicit drugs, second-hand smoke, gambling, sleep and mental health. Results to date are described in 58 publications, 20 manuscripts in preparation, 13 MSc and PhD theses and 111 conference presentations. Access to NDIT data is open to university-appointed or affiliated investigators and to masters, doctoral and postdoctoral students, through their primary supervisor (www.nditstudy.ca). PMID:25022274

  12. Cohort Profile: The Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) Study

    PubMed Central

    O’Loughlin, Jennifer; Dugas, Erika N; Brunet, Jennifer; DiFranza, Joseph; Engert, James C; Gervais, Andre; Gray-Donald, Katherine; Karp, Igor; Low, Nancy C; Sabiston, Catherine; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Tyndale, Rachel F; Auger, Nathalie; Barnett, Tracie; Mathieu, Bélanger; Chaiton, Michael; Chenoweth, Meghan J; Constantin, Evelyn; Contreras, Gisèle; Kakinami, Lisa; Labbe, Aurélie; Maximova, Katerina; McMillan, Elizabeth; O’Loughlin, Erin K; Pabayo, Roman; Roy-Gagnon, Marie-Hélène; Tremblay, Michèle; Wellman, Robert J; van Hulst, Andraea; Paradis, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    The Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) study is a prospective cohort investigation of 1294 students recruited in 1999–2000 from all grade 7 classes in a convenience sample of 10 high schools in Montreal, Canada. Its primary objectives were to study the natural course and determinants of cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence in novice smokers. The main source of data was self-report questionnaires administered in class at school every 3 months from grade 7 to grade 11 (1999–2005), for a total of 20 survey cycles during high school education. Questionnaires were also completed after graduation from high school in 2007–08 and 2011–12 (survey cycles 21 and 22, respectively) when participants were aged 20 and 24 years on average, respectively. In addition to its primary objectives, NDIT has embedded studies on obesity, blood pressure, physical activity, team sports, sedentary behaviour, diet, genetics, alcohol use, use of illicit drugs, second-hand smoke, gambling, sleep and mental health. Results to date are described in 58 publications, 20 manuscripts in preparation, 13 MSc and PhD theses and 111 conference presentations. Access to NDIT data is open to university-appointed or affiliated investigators and to masters, doctoral and postdoctoral students, through their primary supervisor (www.nditstudy.ca). PMID:25022274

  13. Cohort Profile: The Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) Study.

    PubMed

    O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Dugas, Erika N; Brunet, Jennifer; DiFranza, Joseph; Engert, James C; Gervais, Andre; Gray-Donald, Katherine; Karp, Igor; Low, Nancy C; Sabiston, Catherine; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Tyndale, Rachel F; Auger, Nathalie; Auger, Nathalie; Mathieu, Belanger; Tracie, Barnett; Chaiton, Michael; Chenoweth, Meghan J; Constantin, Evelyn; Contreras, Gisèle; Kakinami, Lisa; Labbe, Aurelie; Maximova, Katerina; McMillan, Elizabeth; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Pabayo, Roman; Roy-Gagnon, Marie-Hélène; Tremblay, Michèle; Wellman, Robert J; Hulst, Andraeavan; Paradis, Gilles

    2015-10-01

    The Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) study is a prospective cohort investigation of 1294 students recruited in 1999-2000 from all grade 7 classes in a convenience sample of 10 high schools in Montreal, Canada. Its primary objectives were to study the natural course and determinants of cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence in novice smokers. The main source of data was self-report questionnaires administered in class at school every 3 months from grade 7 to grade 11 (1999-2005), for a total of 20 survey cycles during high school education. Questionnaires were also completed after graduation from high school in 2007-08 and 2011-12 (survey cycles 21 and 22, respectively) when participants were aged 20 and 24 years on average, respectively. In addition to its primary objectives, NDIT has embedded studies on obesity, blood pressure, physical activity, team sports, sedentary behaviour, diet, genetics, alcohol use, use of illicit drugs, second-hand smoke, gambling, sleep and mental health. Results to date are described in 58 publications, 20 manuscripts in preparation, 13 MSc and PhD theses and 111 conference presentations. Access to NDIT data is open to university-appointed or affiliated investigators and to masters, doctoral and postdoctoral students, through their primary supervisor (www.nditstudy.ca).

  14. Risk factors for seabather's eruption: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S; Hlady, W G; Malecki, J M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A prospective cohort study was performed to identify risk factors for seabather's eruption. METHODS: Study participants were recruited at four beaches in Palm Beach County, Florida, during three weekends of May and June 1993. Participants were interviewed by telephone after 48 hours regarding medical history, beach activities, development of rashes, and use of possible preventive measures. RESULTS: Seabather's eruption, defined by the occurrence of a rash within two days of exposure to seawater, was reported by 114 (16%) of 735 respondents. The strongest predictor of seabather's eruption was a past history of the condition. Children less than 16 years of age were also at increased risk, as were surfers. Showering with one's bathing suit off was a useful protective measure. CONCLUSION: The study's findings suggest that when the seasonal risk of seabather's eruption is present, children, people with a history of seabather's eruption, and surfers are at greatest risk. During the sea lice season, seabathers can minimize their risk by showering with their bathing suits off after seabathing. Length of the time spent in water was not significantly associated with seabather's eruption. PMID:9018290

  15. Protocol of the PSYCHOTSH study: association between neonatal thyroid stimulating hormone concentration and intellectual, psychomotor and psychosocial development at 4–5 year of age: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Several European countries, including Belgium, still suffer from mild iodine deficiency. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration in whole blood measured at birth has been proposed as an indicator of maternal iodine status during the last trimester of pregnancy. It has been shown that mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy may affect the neurodevelopment of the offspring. In several studies, elevated TSH levels at birth were associated with suboptimal cognitive and psychomotor outcomes among young children. This paper describes the protocol of the PSYCHOTSH study aiming to assess the association between neonatal TSH levels and intellectual, psychomotor and psychosocial development of 4–5 year old children. The results could lead to a reassessment of the recommended cut-off levels of 5 > mU/L used for monitoring iodine status of the population. Methods In total, 380 Belgian 4–5 year old preschool children from Brussels and Wallonia with a neonatal blood spot TSH concentration between 0 and 15 mU/L are included in the study. For each sex and TSH-interval (0–1, 1–2, 2–3, 3–4, 4–5, 5–6, 6–7, 7–8, 8–9 and 9–15 mU/L), 19 newborns were randomly selected from all newborns screened by the neonatal screening centre in Brussels in 2008–2009. Infants with congenital hypothyroidism, low birth weight and prematurity were excluded from the study. Neonatal TSH concentration was measured by the Autodelphia method in dried blood spots, collected by heel stick on filter paper 3 to 5 days after birth. Cognitive abilities and psychomotor development are assessed using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - third edition - and the Charlop-Atwell Scale of Motor coordination. Psychosocial development is measured using the Child Behaviour Check List for age 1½ to 5 years old. In addition, several socioeconomic, parental and child confounding factors are assessed. Conclusions This study aims to clarify the effect of

  16. Cohort Profile Update: The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    PubMed

    Magnus, Per; Birke, Charlotte; Vejrup, Kristine; Haugan, Anita; Alsaker, Elin; Daltveit, Anne Kjersti; Handal, Marte; Haugen, Margaretha; Høiseth, Gudrun; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Paltiel, Liv; Schreuder, Patricia; Tambs, Kristian; Vold, Line; Stoltenberg, Camilla

    2016-04-01

    This is an update of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) cohort profile which was published in 2006. Pregnant women attending a routine ultrasound examination were initially invited. The first child was born in October 1999 and the last in July 2009. The participation rate was 41%. The cohort includes more than 114 000 children, 95 000 mothers and 75 000 fathers. About 1900 pairs of twins have been born. There are approximately 16 400 women who participate with more than one pregnancy. Blood samples were obtained from both parents during pregnancy and from mothers and children (umbilical cord) after birth. Samples of DNA, RNA, whole blood, plasma and urine are stored in a biobank. During pregnancy, the mother responded to three questionnaires and the father to one. After birth, questionnaires were sent out when the child was 6 months, 18 months and 3 years old. Several sub-projects have selected participants for in-depth clinical assessment and exposure measures. The purpose of this update is to explain and describe new additions to the data collection, including questionnaires at 5, 7, 8 and 13 years as well as linkages to health registries, and to point to some findings and new areas of research. Further information can be found at [www.fhi.no/moba-en]. Researchers interested in collaboration and access to the data can complete an electronic application available on the MoBa website above.

  17. Cohort profile: LifeLines DEEP, a prospective, general population cohort study in the northern Netherlands: study design and baseline characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Tigchelaar, Ettje F; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Dekens, Jackie A M; Hermes, Gerben; Baranska, Agnieszka; Mujagic, Zlatan; Swertz, Morris A; Muñoz, Angélica M; Deelen, Patrick; Cénit, Maria C; Franke, Lude; Scholtens, Salome; Stolk, Ronald P; Wijmenga, Cisca; Feskens, Edith J M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There is a critical need for population-based prospective cohort studies because they follow individuals before the onset of disease, allowing for studies that can identify biomarkers and disease-modifying effects, and thereby contributing to systems epidemiology. Participants This paper describes the design and baseline characteristics of an intensively examined subpopulation of the LifeLines cohort in the Netherlands. In this unique subcohort, LifeLines DEEP, we included 1539 participants aged 18 years and older. Findings to date We collected additional blood (n=1387), exhaled air (n=1425) and faecal samples (n=1248), and elicited responses to gastrointestinal health questionnaires (n=1176) for analysis of the genome, epigenome, transcriptome, microbiome, metabolome and other biological levels. Here, we provide an overview of the different data layers in LifeLines DEEP and present baseline characteristics of the study population including food intake and quality of life. We also describe how the LifeLines DEEP cohort allows for the detailed investigation of genetic, genomic and metabolic variation for a wide range of phenotypic outcomes. Finally, we examine the determinants of gastrointestinal health, an area of particular interest to us that can be addressed by LifeLines DEEP. Future plans We have established a cohort of which multiple data levels allow for the integrative analysis of populations for translation of this information into biomarkers for disease, and which will offer new insights into disease mechanisms and prevention. PMID:26319774

  18. Interprofessional education in aged-care facilities: Tensions and opportunities among undergraduate health student cohorts.

    PubMed

    Annear, Michael; Walker, Kim; Lucas, Peter; Lo, Amanda; Robinson, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    This article examines the reflective discourses of medical, nursing, and paramedic students participating in interprofessional education (IPE) activities in the context of aged-care clinical placements. The intent of the research is to explore how students engage with their interprofessional colleagues in an IPE assessment and care planning activity and elucidate how students configure their role as learners within the context of a non-traditional aged-care training environment. Research participants included cohorts of volunteer medical (n = 61), nursing (n = 46), and paramedic (n = 20) students who were on clinical placements at two large teaching aged-care facilities in Tasmania, Australia, over a period of 18 months. A total of 39 facilitated focus group discussions were undertaken with cohorts of undergraduate student volunteers from three health professions between February 2013 and October 2014. Thematic analysis of focus group transcripts was assisted by NVIVO software and verified through secondary coding and member checking procedures. With an acceptable level of agreement across two independent coders, four themes were identified from student focus group transcripts that described the IPE relations and perceptions of the aged-care environment. Emergent themes included reinforcement of professional hierarchies, IPE in aged care perceived as mundane and extraneous, opportunities for reciprocal teaching and learning, and understanding interprofessional roles. While not all students can be engaged with IPE activities in aged care, our evidence suggests that within 1 week of clinical placements there is a possibility to develop reciprocal professional relations, affirm a positive identity within a collaborative healthcare team, and support the health of vulnerable older adults with complex care needs. These important clinical learnings support aged-care-based IPE as a potentially powerful context for undergraduate learning in the 21st Century. PMID

  19. Interprofessional education in aged-care facilities: Tensions and opportunities among undergraduate health student cohorts.

    PubMed

    Annear, Michael; Walker, Kim; Lucas, Peter; Lo, Amanda; Robinson, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    This article examines the reflective discourses of medical, nursing, and paramedic students participating in interprofessional education (IPE) activities in the context of aged-care clinical placements. The intent of the research is to explore how students engage with their interprofessional colleagues in an IPE assessment and care planning activity and elucidate how students configure their role as learners within the context of a non-traditional aged-care training environment. Research participants included cohorts of volunteer medical (n = 61), nursing (n = 46), and paramedic (n = 20) students who were on clinical placements at two large teaching aged-care facilities in Tasmania, Australia, over a period of 18 months. A total of 39 facilitated focus group discussions were undertaken with cohorts of undergraduate student volunteers from three health professions between February 2013 and October 2014. Thematic analysis of focus group transcripts was assisted by NVIVO software and verified through secondary coding and member checking procedures. With an acceptable level of agreement across two independent coders, four themes were identified from student focus group transcripts that described the IPE relations and perceptions of the aged-care environment. Emergent themes included reinforcement of professional hierarchies, IPE in aged care perceived as mundane and extraneous, opportunities for reciprocal teaching and learning, and understanding interprofessional roles. While not all students can be engaged with IPE activities in aged care, our evidence suggests that within 1 week of clinical placements there is a possibility to develop reciprocal professional relations, affirm a positive identity within a collaborative healthcare team, and support the health of vulnerable older adults with complex care needs. These important clinical learnings support aged-care-based IPE as a potentially powerful context for undergraduate learning in the 21st Century.

  20. Herbal Medicines and Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Rasekhjahromi, Athar; Alipour, Farzaneh; Maalhagh, Mehrnoosh; Sobhanian, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to assess the association between herbal medication and OHSS. Methods. This retrospective cohort study was conducted with 101 polycystic ovary syndrome patients. 66 patients took conventional pharmacological medications and 35 took herbal medications. Data were analyzed by statistical test including Fisher's Exact and binominal logistic regression. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results. Of the 101 females, 53 were married and 48 were single. There was no significant association between the groups in marriage. No significant association was found in mean age between the two groups (23.9 ± 5.8 years in the control group versus 26.3 ± 6.7 years in the case group). There was a significant difference between the two groups .After adding the dependent (OHSS prevalence) and independent (marriage and group) variables into the model, the Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed suitability. Variances analyzed with this model ranged between 29.4% and 40.7%. Conclusion. The indiscriminate use of herbs is correlated with OHSS. Because patients increasingly consume herbs, they should be aware of potential side effects. However, appropriate dosages of herbs could be obtained for use instead of conventional treatments, which often have side effects. PMID:27688772

  1. Cohort Profile: Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study (APCAPS)

    PubMed Central

    Kinra, Sanjay; Radha Krishna, KV; Kuper, Hannah; Rameshwar Sarma, KV; Prabhakaran, Poornima; Gupta, Vipin; Walia, Gagandeep Kaur; Bhogadi, Santhi; Kulkarni, Bharati; Kumar, Aniket; Aggarwal, Aastha; Gupta, Ruby; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, K Srinath; Davey Smith, George; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Ebrahim, Shah

    2014-01-01

    The Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study (APCAPS) was originally established to study the long-term effects of early-life undernutrition on risk of cardiovascular disease. Its aims were subsequently expanded to include trans-generational influences of other environmental and genetic factors on chronic diseases in rural India. It builds on the Hyderabad Nutrition Trial (HNT) conducted in 1987–90 to compare the effects on birthweight of a protein-calorie supplement for pregnant women and children. The index children of HNT and their mothers were retraced and examined in 2003–05, and the children re-examined as young adults aged 18–21 years in 2009–10. The cohort was expanded to include both parents and siblings of the index children in a recently completed follow-up conducted in 2010–12 (N = ∼6225 out of 10 213 participants). Recruitment of the remaining residents of these 29 villages (N = ∼55 000) in Ranga Reddy district of Andhra Pradesh is now under way. Extensive data on socio-demographic, lifestyle, medical, anthropometric, physiological, vascular and body composition measures, DNA, stored plasma, and assays of lipids and inflammatory markers on APCAPS participants are available. Details of how to access these data are available from the corresponding author. PMID:24019421

  2. Late mortality after sepsis: propensity matched cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Osterholzer, John J; Langa, Kenneth M; Angus, Derek C; Iwashyna, Theodore J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether late mortality after sepsis is driven predominantly by pre-existing comorbid disease or is the result of sepsis itself. Deign Observational cohort study. Setting US Health and Retirement Study. Participants 960 patients aged ≥65 (1998-2010) with fee-for-service Medicare coverage who were admitted to hospital with sepsis. Patients were matched to 777 adults not currently in hospital, 788 patients admitted with non-sepsis infection, and 504 patients admitted with acute sterile inflammatory conditions. Main outcome measures Late (31 days to two years) mortality and odds of death at various intervals. Results Sepsis was associated with a 22.1% (95% confidence interval 17.5% to 26.7%) absolute increase in late mortality relative to adults not in hospital, a 10.4% (5.4% to 15.4%) absolute increase relative to patients admitted with non-sepsis infection, and a 16.2% (10.2% to 22.2%) absolute increase relative to patients admitted with sterile inflammatory conditions (P<0.001 for each comparison). Mortality remained higher for at least two years relative to adults not in hospital. Conclusions More than one in five patients who survives sepsis has a late death not explained by health status before sepsis. PMID:27189000

  3. Golestan cohort study of oesophageal cancer: feasibility and first results

    PubMed Central

    Pourshams, A; Saadatian-Elahi, M; Nouraie, M; Malekshah, A F; Rakhshani, N; Salahi, R; Yoonessi, A; Semnani, S; Islami, F; Sotoudeh, M; Fahimi, S; Sadjadi, A R; Nasrollahzadeh, D; Aghcheli, K; Kamangar, F; Abnet, C C; Saidi, F; Sewram, V; Strickland, P T; Dawsey, S M; Brennan, P; Boffetta, P; Malekzadeh, R

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the incidence of oesophageal cancer (EC) in the Golestan province of North-East Iran, we invited 1349 rural and urban inhabitants of Golestan province aged 35–80 to undergo extensive lifestyle interviews and to provide biological samples. The interview was repeated on a subset of 130 participants to assess reliability of questionnaire and medical information. Temperature at which tea was consumed was measured on two occasions by 110 subjects. Samples of rice, wheat and sorghum were tested for fumonisin contamination. An active follow-up was carried out after 6 and 12 months. A total of 1057 subjects (610 women and 447 men) participated in this feasibility study (78.4% participation rate). Cigarette smoking, opium and alcohol use were reported by 163 (13.8%), 93 (8.8%) and 39 (3.7%) subjects, respectively. Tobacco smoking was correlated with urinary cotinine (κ=0.74). Most questionnaire data had κ >0.7 in repeat measurements; tea temperature measurement was reliable (κ=0.71). No fumonisins were detected in the samples analysed. During the follow-up six subjects were lost (0.6%), two subjects developed EC (one dead, one alive); in all, 13 subjects died (with cause of death known for 11, 84.6%). Conducting a cohort study in Golestan is feasible with reliable information obtained for suspected risk factors; participants can be followed up for EC incidence and mortality. PMID:15597107

  4. Herbal Medicines and Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Rasekhjahromi, Athar; Hosseinpoor, Masoumeh; Alipour, Farzaneh; Maalhagh, Mehrnoosh; Sobhanian, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to assess the association between herbal medication and OHSS. Methods. This retrospective cohort study was conducted with 101 polycystic ovary syndrome patients. 66 patients took conventional pharmacological medications and 35 took herbal medications. Data were analyzed by statistical test including Fisher's Exact and binominal logistic regression. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results. Of the 101 females, 53 were married and 48 were single. There was no significant association between the groups in marriage. No significant association was found in mean age between the two groups (23.9 ± 5.8 years in the control group versus 26.3 ± 6.7 years in the case group). There was a significant difference between the two groups .After adding the dependent (OHSS prevalence) and independent (marriage and group) variables into the model, the Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed suitability. Variances analyzed with this model ranged between 29.4% and 40.7%. Conclusion. The indiscriminate use of herbs is correlated with OHSS. Because patients increasingly consume herbs, they should be aware of potential side effects. However, appropriate dosages of herbs could be obtained for use instead of conventional treatments, which often have side effects. PMID:27688772

  5. Herbal Medicines and Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Rasekhjahromi, Athar; Alipour, Farzaneh; Maalhagh, Mehrnoosh; Sobhanian, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to assess the association between herbal medication and OHSS. Methods. This retrospective cohort study was conducted with 101 polycystic ovary syndrome patients. 66 patients took conventional pharmacological medications and 35 took herbal medications. Data were analyzed by statistical test including Fisher's Exact and binominal logistic regression. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results. Of the 101 females, 53 were married and 48 were single. There was no significant association between the groups in marriage. No significant association was found in mean age between the two groups (23.9 ± 5.8 years in the control group versus 26.3 ± 6.7 years in the case group). There was a significant difference between the two groups .After adding the dependent (OHSS prevalence) and independent (marriage and group) variables into the model, the Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed suitability. Variances analyzed with this model ranged between 29.4% and 40.7%. Conclusion. The indiscriminate use of herbs is correlated with OHSS. Because patients increasingly consume herbs, they should be aware of potential side effects. However, appropriate dosages of herbs could be obtained for use instead of conventional treatments, which often have side effects.

  6. Herbal Medicines and Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Rasekhjahromi, Athar; Hosseinpoor, Masoumeh; Alipour, Farzaneh; Maalhagh, Mehrnoosh; Sobhanian, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to assess the association between herbal medication and OHSS. Methods. This retrospective cohort study was conducted with 101 polycystic ovary syndrome patients. 66 patients took conventional pharmacological medications and 35 took herbal medications. Data were analyzed by statistical test including Fisher's Exact and binominal logistic regression. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results. Of the 101 females, 53 were married and 48 were single. There was no significant association between the groups in marriage. No significant association was found in mean age between the two groups (23.9 ± 5.8 years in the control group versus 26.3 ± 6.7 years in the case group). There was a significant difference between the two groups .After adding the dependent (OHSS prevalence) and independent (marriage and group) variables into the model, the Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed suitability. Variances analyzed with this model ranged between 29.4% and 40.7%. Conclusion. The indiscriminate use of herbs is correlated with OHSS. Because patients increasingly consume herbs, they should be aware of potential side effects. However, appropriate dosages of herbs could be obtained for use instead of conventional treatments, which often have side effects.

  7. The safety of field tubal sterilization: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Siswosudarmo, R

    1991-01-01

    A cohort study on female sterilization has been carried out to compare the safety of field-based procedures with hospital-based procedures. A total of 217 women were recruited, consisting of 103 field-based and 114 hospital-based acceptors. Married and healthy women 20-45 years of age, having at least two living children, not obese, no history of major abdominal surgery, no signs of acute pelvic inflammatory disease, and no contraindication to ketamin were included in the study. Women with severe pelvic adhesions encountered during surgery were excluded from the study. The ambulatory procedure was used for all acceptors except those who were sterilized in hospital immediately after delivery. They were asked to come to th Sarjito Hospital (hospital-based) or Puskesmas (primary health care center or field-based), after fasting the night before. Ketamin, 50-100 mg, was used intravenously for general anesthesia. Minilaparotomy followed by the Pomeroy method was used for standard female tubal sterilization. Tetracycline, 3 x 500 mg was given for five days prophylactically. Follow-up was carried out one and six weeks after the day of operation. Data were processed with an IBM-compatible PC, using version 3.0 SPSS program. Students t-test, chi-square test and relative risk (95% confidence limit (CL)) were used for statistical analysis. Both groups were comparable in terms of age, parity, body weight, and body height. The duration of operation in the field was somewhat longer than that in the hospital, i.e. 24.58 vs 21.14 minutes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Functional capacity of people with early osteoarthritis: a comparison between subjects from the cohort hip and cohort knee (CHECK) and healthy ageing workers

    PubMed Central

    van Ittersum, M. W.; Groothoff, J. W.; Oostveen, J. C. M.; Oosterveld, F. G. J.; van der Schans, C. P.; Soer, R.; Reneman, M. F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) increases, but the impact of the disorder on peoples’ functional capacity is not known. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare self-reported health status and functional capacity of subjects with early OA of hip and/or knee to reference data of healthy working subjects and to assess whether this capacity is sufficient to meet physical job demands. Methods Self-reported health status and functional capacity of 93 subjects from the Cohort Hip and Cohort Knee (CHECK) were measured using the Short-Form 36 Health Survey and 6 tests of the Work Well Systems Functional Capacity Evaluation. Results were compared with reference data from 275 healthy workers, using t-tests. To compare the functional capacity with job demands, the proportions of subjects with OA performing lower than the p5 of reference data were calculated. Results Compared to healthy workers, the subjects (mean age 56) from CHECK at baseline reported a significantly worse physical health status, whereas the women (n = 78) also reported a worse mental health status. On the FCE female OA subjects performed significantly lower than their healthy working counterparts on all 6 tests. Male OA subjects performed lower than male workers on 3 tests. A substantial proportion of women demonstrated functional capacities that could be considered insufficient to perform jobs with low physical demands. Conclusions Functional capacity and self-reported health of subjects with early OA of the hips and knees were worse compared to healthy ageing workers. A substantial proportion of female subjects did not meet physical job demands. PMID:20490537

  9. Cohort profile of the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study at final follow-up.

    PubMed

    Tamakoshi, Akiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Koji; Sakata, Kiyomi; Mori, Mitsuru; Kikuchi, Shogo; Iso, Hiroyasu; Sakauchi, Fumio; Motohashi, Yutaka; Tsuji, Ichiro; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Mikami, Haruo; Kurosawa, Michiko; Hoshiyama, Yoshiharu; Tanabe, Naohito; Tamakoshi, Koji; Wakai, Kenji; Tokudome, Shinkan; Hashimoto, Shuji; Wada, Yasuhiko; Kawamura, Takashi; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Miki, Tsuneharu; Date, Chigusa; Kurozawa, Yoichi; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Shibata, Akira; Okamoto, Naoyuki; Shio, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk (JACC Study) was established in the late 1980s to evaluate the risk impact of lifestyle factors and levels of serum components on human health. During the 20-year follow-up period, the results of the study have been published in almost 200 original articles in peer-reviewed English-language journals. However, continued follow-up of the study subjects became difficult because of the retirements of principal researchers, city mergers throughout Japan in the year 2000, and reduced funding. Thus, we decided to terminate the JACC Study follow-up at the end of 2009. As a final point of interest, we reviewed the population registry information of survivors. A total of 207 (0.19%) subjects were ineligible, leaving 110 585 eligible participants (46 395 men and 64 190 women). Moreover, errors in coding date of birth and sex were found in 356 (0.32%) and 59 (0.05%) cases, respectively, during routine follow-up and final review. Although such errors were unexpected, their impact is believed to be negligible because of the small numbers relative to the large total study population. Here, we describe the final cohort profile at the end of the JACC Study along with selected characteristics of the participants and their status at the final follow-up. Although follow-up of the JACC Study participants is finished, we will continue to analyze and publish study results.

  10. A clinical research analytics toolkit for cohort study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yiqin; Zhu, Yu; Sun, Xingzhi; Tao, Ying; Zhang, Shuo; Xu, Linhao; Pan, Yue

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a clinical informatics toolkit that can assist physicians to conduct cohort studies effectively and efficiently. The toolkit has three key features: 1) support of procedures defined in epidemiology, 2) recommendation of statistical methods in data analysis, and 3) automatic generation of research reports. On one hand, our system can help physicians control research quality by leveraging the integrated knowledge of epidemiology and medical statistics; on the other hand, it can improve productivity by reducing the complexities for physicians during their cohort studies.

  11. Patterns and effectiveness of bortezomib use according to age in the VESUVE cohort.

    PubMed

    Grelaud, Angela; Fourrier-Réglat, Annie; Fitoussi, Olivier; Facon, Thierry; Jové, Jérémy; Bénichou, Jacques; Robinson, Philip; Marit, Gérald; Rouyer, Magali; Moore, Nicholas; Noize, Pernelle

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutical options for older multiple myeloma patients have been improved with the advent of new drugs, yet there is a lack of observational data for such patients. To address this issue, an age-stratified analysis of the VESUVE cohort of bortezomib users was performed. Among the 779 patients included in the analysis, 358 (46%) were aged ≤ 65 years, 282 (36%) were between 65-75 years and 139 (18%) were more than 75 years old. There were few significant differences in treatment parameters across age groups; notably, older patients received a lower dose of bortezomib and more frequently experienced general or administration site conditions, metabolism or nutrition disorders and cardiac disorders. Overall best response rate and progression-free survival were similar across age groups. Taken together, these results indicate that older patients do benefit from bortezomib and that tailored treatment in real-life clinical practice does not compromise effectiveness.

  12. Mortality of breast cancer in Taiwan, 1971-2010: temporal changes and an age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Ho, M-L; Hsiao, Y-H; Su, S-Y; Chou, M-C; Liaw, Y-P

    2015-01-01

    The current paper describes the age, period and cohort effects on breast cancer mortality in Taiwan. Female breast cancer mortality data were collected from the Taiwan death registries for 1971-2010. The annual percentage changes, age- standardised mortality rates (ASMR) and age-period-cohort model were calculated. The mortality rates increased with advancing age groups when fixing the period. The percentage change in the breast cancer mortality rate increased from 54.79% at aged 20-44 years, to 149.78% in those aged 45-64 years (between 1971-75 and 2006-10). The mortality rates in the 45-64 age group increased steadily from 1971 to 1975 and 2006-10. The 1951 birth cohorts (actual birth cohort; 1947-55) showed peak mortalities in both the 50-54 and 45-49 age groups. We found that the 1951 birth cohorts had the greatest mortality risk from breast cancer. This might be attributed to the DDT that was used in large amounts to prevent deaths from malaria in Taiwan. However, future researches require DDT data to evaluate the association between breast cancer and DDT use. PMID:25020211

  13. Mortality of breast cancer in Taiwan, 1971-2010: temporal changes and an age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Ho, M-L; Hsiao, Y-H; Su, S-Y; Chou, M-C; Liaw, Y-P

    2015-01-01

    The current paper describes the age, period and cohort effects on breast cancer mortality in Taiwan. Female breast cancer mortality data were collected from the Taiwan death registries for 1971-2010. The annual percentage changes, age- standardised mortality rates (ASMR) and age-period-cohort model were calculated. The mortality rates increased with advancing age groups when fixing the period. The percentage change in the breast cancer mortality rate increased from 54.79% at aged 20-44 years, to 149.78% in those aged 45-64 years (between 1971-75 and 2006-10). The mortality rates in the 45-64 age group increased steadily from 1971 to 1975 and 2006-10. The 1951 birth cohorts (actual birth cohort; 1947-55) showed peak mortalities in both the 50-54 and 45-49 age groups. We found that the 1951 birth cohorts had the greatest mortality risk from breast cancer. This might be attributed to the DDT that was used in large amounts to prevent deaths from malaria in Taiwan. However, future researches require DDT data to evaluate the association between breast cancer and DDT use.

  14. Investing in Prospective Cohorts for Etiologic Study of Occupational Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prospective cohorts have played a major role in understanding the role of diet, physical activity, medical conditions, and genes in the development of many diseases, but have not been widely used in the study of occupational exposures. Studies in agriculture are an exception. W...

  15. Menstrual Pattern following Tubal Ligation: A Historical Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sadatmahalleh, Shahideh Jahanian; Ziaei, Saeideh; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Mohamadi, Eesa

    2016-01-01

    Background Tubal ligation (TL) is recommended for women who have completed their family planning. The existence of the menstrual disorders following this procedure has been the subject of debate for decades. This study was conducted to identify the relationship between tubal ligation and menstrual disorders. Materials and Methods A historical cohort study was carried out on 140 women undergoing tubal ligation (TL group) and on 140 women using condom as the main contraceptive method (Non-TL group). They aged between 20 and 40 years and were selected from a health care center in Rudsar, Guilan Province, Iran, during 2013-2014. The two groups were comparable in demographic characteristics, obstetrical features and menstrual bleeding pattern using a routine questionnaire. A validated pictorial blood loss assessment chart (PBLAC) was also used to measure the menstrual blood loss. Results Women with TL had more menstrual irregularity than those without TL (24.3 vs. 10%, P=0.002). Women with TL had more polymenorrhea (9.3 vs. 1.4%, P=0.006), hypermenorrhea (12.1 vs. 2.1%, P=0.002), menorrhagia (62.9 vs. 22.1%, P<0.0001) and menometrorrhagia (15.7 vs. 3.6%, P=0.001) than those without TL. There is a significant difference in the PBLAC score between women with and without TL (P<0.0001). According to logistic regression, age odds ratio [(OR=1.08, con- fidence interval (CI):1.07-1.17, P=0.03)], TL (OR=5.95, CI:3.45-10.26, P<0.0001) and cesarean section (OR=2.72, CI:1.49-4.97, P=0.001) were significantly associated with menorrhagia. Conclusion We found significant differences in menstrual disorders between women with and without TL. Therefore, women should be informed by the health providers regarding the advantages and disadvantages of TL before the procedures. PMID:26985334

  16. Exposure to vinyl chloride monomer: report on a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Laplanche, A; Clavel, F; Contassot, J C; Lanouziere, C

    1987-10-01

    In 1980 a prospective exposed/non-exposed cohort study was initiated in France by the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM U 287) to evaluate the association between mortality and cancer morbidity and occupational exposure to vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). Eleven hundred VCM exposed subjects and 1100 VCM non-exposed controls matched for age (+/- 2 years), plant, and physician were included and followed up over a five year period for vital, health, and occupational status. The percentages of deaths observed among the exposed (1.8%) and non-exposed subjects (1.6%) did not differ. Eighteen (1.6%) and 15 (1.4%) cases of cancer were reported among exposed and non-exposed subjects, respectively (NS). One case of angiosarcoma of the liver occurred among the exposed group; six cases of lung cancer occurred among exposed subjects and two among non-exposed subjects (NS). The percentage of diseases of the circulatory system was higher (p less than 0.02) in the exposed group than in the non-exposed group: this difference was explained mainly by the high incidence of Raynaud's disease (p less than 0.006). The percentages of diseases of the respiratory system did not differ between the two groups.

  17. Exposure to vinyl chloride monomer: report on a cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Laplanche, A; Clavel, F; Contassot, J C; Lanouziere, C

    1987-01-01

    In 1980 a prospective exposed/non-exposed cohort study was initiated in France by the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM U 287) to evaluate the association between mortality and cancer morbidity and occupational exposure to vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). Eleven hundred VCM exposed subjects and 1100 VCM non-exposed controls matched for age (+/- 2 years), plant, and physician were included and followed up over a five year period for vital, health, and occupational status. The percentages of deaths observed among the exposed (1.8%) and non-exposed subjects (1.6%) did not differ. Eighteen (1.6%) and 15 (1.4%) cases of cancer were reported among exposed and non-exposed subjects, respectively (NS). One case of angiosarcoma of the liver occurred among the exposed group; six cases of lung cancer occurred among exposed subjects and two among non-exposed subjects (NS). The percentage of diseases of the circulatory system was higher (p less than 0.02) in the exposed group than in the non-exposed group: this difference was explained mainly by the high incidence of Raynaud's disease (p less than 0.006). The percentages of diseases of the respiratory system did not differ between the two groups. PMID:3676124

  18. Cohort Profile: The International Collaboration of Incident HIV and Hepatitis C in Injecting Cohorts (InC3) Study

    PubMed Central

    Grebely, Jason; Morris, Meghan D; Rice, Thomas M; Bruneau, Julie; Cox, Andrea L; Kim, Arthur Y; McGovern, Barbara H; Shoukry, Naglaa H; Lauer, Georg; Maher, Lisa; Lloyd, Andrew R; Hellard, Margaret; Prins, Maria; Dore, Gregory J; Page, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    The International Collaboration of Incident HIV and Hepatitis C in Injecting Cohorts (InC3) Study is an international multi-cohort project of pooled biological and behavioural data from nine prospective cohorts of people who inject drugs (PWID). InC3 brings together researchers from Australia, Canada, USA and the Netherlands with expertise in epidemiology, biostatistics, clinical and behavioural sciences, virology and immunology to investigate research questions relevant to hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV outcomes. InC3 was established to: (i) create a merged multi-cohort study of pooled data from well-characterized cohorts of PWID with prospective data on HIV and HCV infections, with a particular focus on HCV; (ii) facilitate new studies not possible within individual cohorts; and (iii) bring together researchers across disciplines to answer a broad range of research questions. Study cohorts identify acute HCV cases through follow-up of high-risk HCV antibody–negative PWID or through clinical referral networks. To date, data from 1986 to 2010 have been received from all contributing cohorts, with 821 HCV-infected and 1216 HCV-uninfected participants (overall, n = 2037). Data collected include demographics, host genetics, HCV ribonucleic acid testing, alanine aminotransferase testing, HIV/hepatitis B virus testing, HCV therapy, loss to follow-up and mortality. Potential collaborators should contact the InC3 PI Dr Kimberley Page (kPage@psg.ucsf.edu) for further information. PMID:23203695

  19. Epilepsy in adults with mitochondrial disease: A cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Devine, Helen E.; Gorman, Grainne S.; Schaefer, Andrew M.; Horvath, Rita; Ng, Yi; Nesbitt, Victoria; Lax, Nichola Z.; McFarland, Robert; Cunningham, Mark O.; Taylor, Robert W.; Turnbull, Douglass M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence and progression of epilepsy in adult patients with mitochondrial disease. Methods We prospectively recruited a cohort of 182 consecutive adult patients attending a specialized mitochondrial disease clinic in Newcastle upon Tyne between January 1, 2005 and January 1, 2008. We then followed this cohort over a 7‐year period, recording primary outcome measures of occurrence of first seizure, status epilepticus, stroke‐like episode, and death. Results Overall prevalence of epilepsy in the cohort was 23.1%. Mean age of epilepsy onset was 29.4 years. Prevalence varied widely between genotypes, with several genotypes having no cases of epilepsy, a prevalence of 34.9% in the most common genotype (m.3243A>G mutation), and 92.3% in the m.8344A>G mutation. Among the cohort as a whole, focal seizures, with or without progression to bilateral convulsive seizures, was the most common seizure type. Conversely, all of the patients with the m.8344A>G mutation and epilepsy experienced myoclonic seizures. Patients with the m.3243A>G mutation remain at high risk of developing stroke‐like episodes (1.16% per year). However, although the standardized mortality ratio for the entire cohort was high (2.86), this ratio did not differ significantly between patients with epilepsy (2.96) and those without (2.83). Interpretation Epilepsy is a common manifestation of mitochondrial disease. It develops early in the disease and, in the case of the m.3243A>G mutation, often presents in the context of a stroke‐like episode or status epilepticus. However, epilepsy does not itself appear to contribute to the increased mortality in mitochondrial disease. Ann Neurol 2015;78:949–957 PMID:26381753

  20. Comorbid Depression and Heart Failure: A Community Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Mair, Frances S.; Roger, Véronique L.; Weston, Susan A.; Jiang, Ruoxiang; Chamberlain, Alanna M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between depression and clinical outcomes in heart failure (HF) in a community cohort. Patients and Methods HF patients in Minnesota, United States completed depression screening using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) between 1st Oct 2007 and 1st Dec 2011; patients with PHQ-9≥5 were labelled “depressed”. We calculated the risk of death and first hospitalization within 2 years using Cox regression. Results were adjusted for 10 commonly used prognostic factors (age, sex, systolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, serum sodium, ejection fraction, blood urea nitrogen, brain natriuretic peptide, presence of diabetes and ischaemic aetiology). Area under the curve (AUC), integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) and net reclassification improvement (NRI) compared depression as a predictor against the aforementioned factors. Results 425 patients (mean age 74, 57.6% males) were included in the study; 179 (42.1%) had PHQ-9≥5. The adjusted hazard ratio of death was 2.02 (95% CI 1.34–3.04) and of hospitalization was 1.42 (95% CI 1.13–1.80) for those with compared to those without depression. Adding depression to the models did not appreciably change the AUC but led to statistically significant improvements in both the IDI (p = 0.001 and p = 0.005 for death and hospitalization, respectively) and NRI (for death and hospitalization, 35% (p = 0.002) and 27% (p = 0.007) were reclassified correctly, respectively). Conclusion Depression is frequent among community patients with HF and associated with increased risk of hospitalizations and death. Risk prediction for death and hospitalizations in HF patients can be improved by considering depression. PMID:27362359

  1. Psychosocial work environment and antidepressant medication: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Bonde, Jens Peter E; Munch-Hansen, Torsten; Wieclaw, Joanna; Westergaard-Nielsen, Niels; Agerbo, Esben

    2009-01-01

    Background Adverse psychosocial work environments may lead to impaired mental health, but it is still a matter of conjecture if demonstrated associations are causal or biased. We aimed at verifying whether poor psychosocial working climate is related to increase of redeemed subscription of antidepressant medication. Methods Information on all antidepressant drugs (AD) purchased at pharmacies from 1995 through 2006 was obtained for a cohort of 21,129 Danish public service workers that participated in work climate surveys carried out during the period 2002–2005. Individual self-reports of psychosocial factors at work including satisfaction with the work climate and dimensions of the job strain model were obtained by self-administered questionnaires (response rate 77,2%). Each employee was assigned the average score value for all employees at his/her managerial work unit [1094 units with an average of 18 employees (range 3–120)]. The risk of first-time AD prescription during follow-up was examined according to level of satisfaction and psychosocial strain by Cox regression with adjustment for gender, age, marital status, occupational status and calendar year of the survey. Results The proportion of employees that received at least one prescription of ADs from 1995 through 2006 was 11.9% and prescriptions rose steadily from 1.50% in 1996 to the highest level 6.47% in 2006. ADs were prescribed more frequent among women, middle aged, employees with low occupational status and those living alone. None of the measured psychosocial work environment factors were consistently related to prescription of antidepressant drugs during the follow-up period. Conclusion The study does not indicate that a poor psychosocial work environment among public service employees is related to prescription of antidepressant pharmaceuticals. These findings need cautious interpretation because of lacking individual exposure assessments. PMID:19635130

  2. Exposure Assessment in Cohort Studies of Childhood Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Arrandale, Victoria H.; Brauer, Michael; Brook, Jeffrey R.; Brunekreef, Bert; Gold, Diane R.; London, Stephanie J.; Miller, J. David; Özkaynak, Halûk; Ries, Nola M.; Sears, Malcolm R.; Silverman, Frances S.; Takaro, Tim K.

    2011-01-01

    Background The environment is suspected to play an important role in the development of childhood asthma. Cohort studies are a powerful observational design for studying exposure–response relationships, but their power depends in part upon the accuracy of the exposure assessment. Objective The purpose of this paper is to summarize and discuss issues that make accurate exposure assessment a challenge and to suggest strategies for improving exposure assessment in longitudinal cohort studies of childhood asthma and allergies. Data synthesis Exposures of interest need to be prioritized, because a single study cannot measure all potentially relevant exposures. Hypotheses need to be based on proposed mechanisms, critical time windows for effects, prior knowledge of physical, physiologic, and immunologic development, as well as genetic pathways potentially influenced by the exposures. Modifiable exposures are most important from the public health perspective. Given the interest in evaluating gene–environment interactions, large cohort sizes are required, and planning for data pooling across independent studies is critical. Collection of additional samples, possibly through subject participation, will permit secondary analyses. Models combining air quality, environmental, and dose data provide exposure estimates across large cohorts but can still be improved. Conclusions Exposure is best characterized through a combination of information sources. Improving exposure assessment is critical for reducing measurement error and increasing power, which increase confidence in characterization of children at risk, leading to improved health outcomes. PMID:21081299

  3. DRINKING WATER ARSENIC IN UTAH: A COHORT MORTALITY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The association of drinking water arsenic and mortality outcome was investigated in a cohort of residents from Millard County, Utah. Median drinking water arsenic concentrations for selected study towns ranged from 14 to 166 ppb and were from public and private samples collected ...

  4. Increased risk of herpes zoster in children with cancer: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiao-Chuan; Chao, Yu-Hua; Wu, Kang-Hsi; Yen, Ting-Yu; Hsu, Yu-Lung; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsueh; Wei, Hsiu-Mei; Wu, Jhong-Lin; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Hwang, Kao-Pin; Peng, Ching-Tien; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Li, Tsai-Chung

    2016-07-01

    Herpes zoster is rare in healthy children, but immunocompromised persons have an increased risk of herpes zoster and severe diseases. Considering the very limited information on herpes zoster in children with cancer, we performed a nationwide population-based cohort study to estimate the incidence of herpes zoster in children with cancer and to explore the association between the 2 diseases.Data were obtained from the National Health Research Institutes Database in Taiwan. A total of 4432 children with newly diagnosed cancer between 2000 and 2007 were identified as the cancer cohort, and 17,653 children without cancer frequency-matched by sex and age at entry were considered the noncancer cohort. The association between herpes zoster and childhood cancer was determined.Children with cancer had a higher risk of herpes zoster. The incidence rate of herpes zoster was higher in the cancer cohort than in the noncancer cohort (20.7 vs 2.4 per 10,000 person-years; IRR = 8.6; 95% CI = 4.8-15.6). The cumulative incidence was significantly higher in the cancer cohort (P < 0.0001). Leukemia, lymphoma, and solid tumor were all associated with the increased risk, and leukemia had the highest magnitude of strength of association.This nationwide population-based cohort study demonstrated that children with cancer were associated with an increased risk of herpes zoster. In addition to early antiviral treatment, vaccination with heat-treated zoster vaccine or adjuvanted subunit vaccine could be an appropriate policy to decrease the incidence in children with cancer. PMID:27472677

  5. Increased risk of herpes zoster in children with cancer: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiao-Chuan; Chao, Yu-Hua; Wu, Kang-Hsi; Yen, Ting-Yu; Hsu, Yu-Lung; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsueh; Wei, Hsiu-Mei; Wu, Jhong-Lin; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Hwang, Kao-Pin; Peng, Ching-Tien; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Li, Tsai-Chung

    2016-07-01

    Herpes zoster is rare in healthy children, but immunocompromised persons have an increased risk of herpes zoster and severe diseases. Considering the very limited information on herpes zoster in children with cancer, we performed a nationwide population-based cohort study to estimate the incidence of herpes zoster in children with cancer and to explore the association between the 2 diseases.Data were obtained from the National Health Research Institutes Database in Taiwan. A total of 4432 children with newly diagnosed cancer between 2000 and 2007 were identified as the cancer cohort, and 17,653 children without cancer frequency-matched by sex and age at entry were considered the noncancer cohort. The association between herpes zoster and childhood cancer was determined.Children with cancer had a higher risk of herpes zoster. The incidence rate of herpes zoster was higher in the cancer cohort than in the noncancer cohort (20.7 vs 2.4 per 10,000 person-years; IRR = 8.6; 95% CI = 4.8-15.6). The cumulative incidence was significantly higher in the cancer cohort (P < 0.0001). Leukemia, lymphoma, and solid tumor were all associated with the increased risk, and leukemia had the highest magnitude of strength of association.This nationwide population-based cohort study demonstrated that children with cancer were associated with an increased risk of herpes zoster. In addition to early antiviral treatment, vaccination with heat-treated zoster vaccine or adjuvanted subunit vaccine could be an appropriate policy to decrease the incidence in children with cancer.

  6. Construction and Characterization of a Population-Based Cohort to Study the Association of Anesthesia Exposure with Neurodevelopmental Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Danqing; Flick, Randall P.; Gleich, Stephen J.; Scanlon, Maura M.; Zaccariello, Michael J.; Colligan, Robert C.; Katusic, Slavica K.; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Hanson, Andrew C.; Buenvenida, Shonie L.; Wilder, Robert T.; Sprung, Juraj; Warner, David O.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to general anesthesia at an early age has been associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in both animal and human studies, but some of these studies employed anesthetic agents that are no longer in clinical use. In this manuscript, we describe the methods used to construct a new population-based study cohort to study the association between early anesthetic exposure and subsequent neurodevelopmental outcomes. A birth cohort of all children born in Olmsted County, MN from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 2000 was identified. For each, school enrollment status in the Independent School District (ISD) 535 at age 5 or 6 and all episodes of anesthetic exposure before age 3 were identified. A study cohort was created by matching children enrolled in ISD 535 based on the propensity of receiving general anesthesia. Three analyses were performed to characterize the study cohort by comparing the birth and parental information, comorbidities, and socioeconomic status. The first analysis compared the characteristics of birth cohort children who were and were not enrolled in ISD 535. The second analysis evaluated the success of the propensity matching schemes in creating groups of children that were similar in measured characteristics except for anesthesia exposure. The third analysis compared the characteristics of children with anesthesia exposures who were and were not included in the final cohort based on propensity matching. Results of these analyses demonstrate only slight differences among the comparison groups, and therefore these are unlikely to compromise our future analysis of anesthetic exposure and neurodevelopmental outcomes. PMID:27167371

  7. Childhood Mental Ability and Adult Alcohol Intake and Alcohol Problems: The 1970 British Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Deary, Ian J.; Schoon, Ingrid; Emslie, Carol; Hunt, Kate; Gale, Catharine R.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the potential relation of mental ability test scores at age 10 years with alcohol problems and alcohol intake at age 30 years. Methods. We used data from a prospective observational study involving 8170 members of a birth cohort from Great Britain born in 1970. Data included mental ability scores at age 10 years and responses to inquiries about alcohol intake and problems at age 30 years. Results. After adjustment for potential mediating and confounding factors, cohort members with higher childhood mental ability scores had an increased prevalence of problem drinking in adulthood. This association was stronger among women (odds ratio [OR]1 SD increase in ability = 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.16, 1.64) than men (OR1 SD increase in ability = 1.17; CI = 1.04, 1.28; P for interaction = .004). Childhood mental ability was also related to a higher average intake of alcohol and to drinking more frequently. Again, these gradients were stronger among women than among men. Conclusions. In this large-scale cohort study, higher childhood mental ability was related to alcohol problems and higher alcohol intake in adult life. These unexpected results warrant examination in other studies. PMID:18235070

  8. The German National Cohort: aims, study design and organization.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    The German National Cohort (GNC) is a joint interdisciplinary endeavour of scientists from the Helmholtz and the Leibniz Association, universities, and other research institutes. Its aim is to investigate the causes for the development of major chronic diseases, i.e. cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative/-psychiatric diseases, musculoskeletal diseases, respiratory and infectious diseases, and their pre-clinical stages or functional health impairments. Across Germany, a random sample of the general population will be drawn by 18 regional study centres, including a total of 100,000 women and 100,000 men aged 20-69 years. The baseline assessments include an extensive interview and self-completion questionnaires, a wide range of medical examinations and the collection of various biomaterials. In a random subgroup of 20 % of the participants (n = 40,000) an intensified examination ("Level 2") programme will be performed. In addition, in five of the 18 study centres a total of 30,000 study participants will take part in a magnetic resonance imaging examination programme, and all of these participants will also be offered the intensified Level 2 examinations. After 4-5 years, all participants will be invited for a re-assessment. Information about chronic disease endpoints will be collected through a combination of active follow-up (including questionnaires every 2-3 years) and record linkages. The GNC is planned for an overall duration of 25-30 years. It will provide a major, central resource for population-based epidemiology in Germany, and will help to identify new and tailored strategies for early detection, prediction, and primary prevention of major diseases.

  9. Outcomes the Ontario Bariatric Network: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Fady; Doumouras, Aristithes G.; Gmora, Scott; Anvari, Mehran; Hong, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bariatric surgery centres of excellence are relatively new in Canada and were first started in Ontario in 2009. This study presents short-term outcomes of Canada's largest bariatric collaborative, from Ontario, during its first 3 years. Methods: We performed a population-based cohort study that included all patients (age ≥ 18) who received a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or sleeve gastrectomy for the purpose of weight loss from March 2009 to April 2012 within Ontario. Data were derived from the Canadian Institute for Health Information Discharge Abstract and Hospital Morbidity Databases. Primary outcomes included short-term overall complication rate, reoperation rate, anastomotic leak rate and death. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for overall complications. A median odds ratio (OR) was used to compare risk-adjusted complication rates across centres of excellence. Results: A total of 5007 procedures (91.7% Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, 8.3% sleeve gastrectomy) were performed during the 3-year study period, with an overall complication rate of 11.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.8%-12.6%). The leak rate was 0.84% (95% CI 0.61%-1.13%), the reoperation rate was 4.6% (95% CI 4.0%-5.2%) and mortality was 0.16% (95% CI 0.07%-0.31%). Male sex, chronic kidney disease and osteoarthritis were identified as risk factors for overall complications (p value < 0.05). The median ORs across centres of excellence, calculated for both overall complications and reoperation rate, were 1.76 and 1.49, respectively. Interpretation: Bariatric surgery within Ontario has similar short-term outcomes to those of other major world centres. The variability of outcomes within centres of excellence highlights areas for program quality improvement. PMID:27730102

  10. Measuring Postgraduate Cohort Throughput: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, P.

    2008-01-01

    The need to improve the success rate of students in South African universities is widely regarded as a national priority. Measuring this success is, however, more difficult. Although the NPHE sets some benchmarks for system performance, there is currently no indicator set for longitudinal student performance. This article reports on a study done…

  11. Predictors of Obesity in a Cohort of Children Enrolled in WIC as Infants and Retained to 3 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Chiasson, M A; Scheinmann, R; Hartel, D; McLeod, N; Sekhobo, J; Edmunds, L S; Findley, S

    2016-02-01

    This longitudinal study of children enrolled as infants in the New York State (NYS) Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) examined predictors of obesity (body mass index ≥ 95th percentile) at 3 years of age. NYS WIC administrative data which included information from parent interviews and measured heights and weights for children were used. All 50,589 children enrolled as infants in WIC between July to December 2008 and July to December 2009 and retained in WIC through age three were included. At 3 years of age, 15.1% of children were obese. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that children of mothers who received the Full Breastfeeding Food Package when their infant was enrolled in WIC (adjusted OR = 0.52) and children with ≤2 h screen time daily at age 3 (adjusted OR = 0.88) were significantly less likely to be obese (p < 0.001) controlling for race/ethnicity, birth weight, and birthplace. In this cohort of NYS WIC participants, maternal receipt of the Full Breastfeeding Food Package (a surrogate measure of exclusive breastfeeding) is associated with lower levels of obesity in their children at age 3. The relationships between participation in WIC, exclusive breastfeeding, and obesity prevention merit further study.

  12. Hormone use for menopausal symptoms and risk of breast cancer. A Danish cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ewertz, M; Mellemkjaer, L; Poulsen, A H; Friis, S; Sørensen, H T; Pedersen, L; McLaughlin, J K; Olsen, J H

    2005-04-11

    Numerous studies and meta-analyses have shown that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for menopausal symptoms increases the risk of developing breast cancer, estimated to be 2.3% for each year of use. The influence of different oestrogen-progestin regimens has still not been fully evaluated. Using longitudinal data from the population-based prescription database of the county of North Jutland, Denmark, and the Danish Cancer Registry, we examined the risk of developing breast cancer in relation to HRT in a cohort of 78,380 women aged 40-67 years from 1989 to 2002. A total of 1462 cases of breast cancer were identified during a mean follow-up of 10 years. Use of HRT did not increase the risk of breast cancer in women aged 40-49 years. Restricting the cohort to 48,812 women aged 50 years or more at entry, of whom 15 631 were HRT users, we found an increased risk associated with current use of HRT (relative risk 1.61, 95% confidence interval 1.38-1.88). The risk increased with increasing duration of use and decreased with time since last HRT prescription, reaching unity after 5 years. No material risk difference was observed among the various HRT-regimens. This population-based cohort study provides further confirmation that HRT increases the risk of developing breast cancer in women aged 50 years or more.

  13. What do we know about the nutritional status of the very old? Insights from three cohorts of advanced age from the UK and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Hill, Tom R; Mendonça, Nuno; Granic, Antoneta; Siervo, Mario; Jagger, Carol; Seal, Chris J; Kerse, Ngaire; Wham, Carol; Adamson, Ashley J; Mathers, John C

    2016-08-01

    Very old people (referred to as those aged 85 years and over) are the fastest growing age segment of many Western societies owing to the steady rise of life expectancy and decrease in later life mortality. In the UK, there are now more than 1·5 million very old people (2·5 % of total population) and the number is projected to rise to 3·3 million or 5 % over the next 20 years. Reduced mobility and independence, financial constraints, higher rates of hospitalisation, chronic diseases and disabilities, changes in body composition, taste perception, digestion and absorption of food all potentially influence either nutrient intake or needs at this stage of life. The nutritional needs of the very old have been identified as a research priority by the British Nutrition Foundation's Task Force report, Healthy Ageing: The Role of Nutrition and Lifestyle. However, very little is known about the dietary habits and nutritional status of the very old. The Newcastle 85+ study, a cohort of more than 1000 85-year olds from the North East of England and the Life and Living in Advanced Age study (New Zealand), a bicultural cohort study of advanced ageing of more than 900 participants from the Bay of Plenty and Rotorua regions of New Zealand are two unique cohort studies of ageing, which aim to assess the spectrum of health in the very old as well as examine the associations of health trajectories and outcomes with biological, clinical and social factors as each cohort ages. The nutrition domain included in both studies will help to fill the evidence gap by identifying eating patterns, and measures of nutritional status associated with better, or worse, health and wellbeing. This review will explore some of this ongoing work.

  14. What do we know about the nutritional status of the very old? Insights from three cohorts of advanced age from the UK and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Hill, Tom R; Mendonça, Nuno; Granic, Antoneta; Siervo, Mario; Jagger, Carol; Seal, Chris J; Kerse, Ngaire; Wham, Carol; Adamson, Ashley J; Mathers, John C

    2016-08-01

    Very old people (referred to as those aged 85 years and over) are the fastest growing age segment of many Western societies owing to the steady rise of life expectancy and decrease in later life mortality. In the UK, there are now more than 1·5 million very old people (2·5 % of total population) and the number is projected to rise to 3·3 million or 5 % over the next 20 years. Reduced mobility and independence, financial constraints, higher rates of hospitalisation, chronic diseases and disabilities, changes in body composition, taste perception, digestion and absorption of food all potentially influence either nutrient intake or needs at this stage of life. The nutritional needs of the very old have been identified as a research priority by the British Nutrition Foundation's Task Force report, Healthy Ageing: The Role of Nutrition and Lifestyle. However, very little is known about the dietary habits and nutritional status of the very old. The Newcastle 85+ study, a cohort of more than 1000 85-year olds from the North East of England and the Life and Living in Advanced Age study (New Zealand), a bicultural cohort study of advanced ageing of more than 900 participants from the Bay of Plenty and Rotorua regions of New Zealand are two unique cohort studies of ageing, which aim to assess the spectrum of health in the very old as well as examine the associations of health trajectories and outcomes with biological, clinical and social factors as each cohort ages. The nutrition domain included in both studies will help to fill the evidence gap by identifying eating patterns, and measures of nutritional status associated with better, or worse, health and wellbeing. This review will explore some of this ongoing work. PMID:27165559

  15. Medical Graduates, Tertiary Hospitals, and Burnout: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Parr, Justin M.; Pinto, Nigel; Hanson, Martin; Meehan, Ashlea; Moore, Peter T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Burnout among junior doctors can affect patient care. We conducted a longitudinal cohort study designed to explore the incidence of burnout in medical interns and to examine the changes in burnout during the course of the intern year. Methods: Interns were recruited at two tertiary hospitals in Brisbane, Australia (n=180). Participants completed surveys at four time points during their internship year. All interns (100%) completed the baseline survey during their orientation. Response rates were 85%, 88%, and 79%, respectively, at 5-week, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up. Results: Interns reported high levels of personal and work-related burnout throughout the year that peaked at 6 months with mean scores of 42.53 and 41.81, respectively. Increases of 5.1 points (confidence interval [CI] 2.5,7.7; P=0.0001) and 3.5 points (CI 1.3,5.6; P=0.0015) were seen at 6 months for personal and work-related burnout, respectively. The mean score for patient-related burnout at 12 months was 25.57, and this number had increased significantly by 5.8 points (CI 3.2,8.5; P<0.0001) throughout the year. Correlation with demographic variables (age, sex) were found. The total incidence of burnout was 55.9%. Conclusion: Our study showed that burnout is a common problem among interns. The high incidence of burnout demonstrates the need for appropriate strategies to prevent adverse effects on doctors' quality of life and on the quality of care patients receive. PMID:27046399

  16. Age, Cohort and Perceived Age Discrimination: Using the Life Course to Assess Self-Reported Age Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Gilbert C.; Pavalko, Eliza K.; Long, J. Scott

    2007-01-01

    Self-reported discrimination is linked to diminished well-being, but the processes generating these reports remain poorly understood. Employing the life course perspective, this paper examines the correspondence between expected age preferences for workers and perceived age discrimination among a nationally representative sample of 7,225 working…

  17. Risk of Nephrotic Syndrome following Enteroviral Infection in Children: A Nationwide Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jiun-Nong; Lin, Cheng-Li; Yang, Chi-Hui; Lin, Ming-Chia; Lai, Chung-Hsu; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Nephrotic syndrome is a common chronic illness encountered during childhood. Infections have been identified as a cause of nephrotic syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between enteroviral infection and nephrotic syndrome. Methods A nationwide retrospective cohort study was conducted by analyzing data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Children aged <18 years with enteroviral infection were enrolled. Non-enterovirus-infected children were randomly selected as the comparison cohort. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of nephrotic syndrome. Methods This study included 280,087 enterovirus-infected children and 280,085 non-enterovirus-infected children. The mean age of the enterovirus-infected children was 2.38 years, and 53.7% of these children were boys. The overall incidence densities of nephrotic syndrome for enterovirus- and non-enterovirus-infected children were 2.65 and 2.21 per 10,000 person-years, respectively. The enterovirus-infected cohort had a higher cumulative incidence of nephrotic syndrome than did the non-enterovirus-infected cohort (log-rank test, p = 0.01). Multivariable analyses revealed that children with enteroviral infection were significantly associated with an increased risk of nephrotic syndrome compared with those without enteroviral infection (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.04–1.39; p = 0.01), particularly in children infected with coxsackievirus. Subgroup analyses revealed that enterovirus-infected girls, children of blue-collar workers, and children without allergies had a higher risk of nephrotic syndrome than did children in the non-enterovirus-infected cohort. Conclusion This study revealed a significant association between enteroviral infection and nephrotic syndrome. Additional studies elucidating the role and pathogenesis of enterovirus in nephrotic syndrome are warranted. PMID:27508414

  18. Decisions, decisions: analysis of age, cohort, and time of testing on framing of risky decision options.

    PubMed

    Mayhorn, Christopher B; Fisk, Arthur D; Whittle, Justin D

    2002-01-01

    Decision making in uncertain environments is a daily challenge faced by adults of all ages. Framing decision options as either gains or losses is a common method of altering decision-making behavior. In the experiment reported here, benchmark decision-making data collected in the 1970s by Tversky and Kahneman (1981, 1988) were compared with data collected from current samples of young and older adults to determine whether behavior was consistent across time. Although differences did emerge between the benchmark and the present samples, the effect of framing on decision behavior was relatively stable. The present findings suggest that adults of all ages are susceptible to framing effects. Results also indicated that apparent age differences might be better explained by an analysis of cohort and time-of-testing effects. Actual or potential applications of this research include an understanding of how framing might influence the decision-making behavior of people of all ages in a number of applied contexts, such as product warning interactions and medical decision scenarios.

  19. Is the clinical course of HIV-1 changing? Cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Sinicco, A.; Fora, R.; Raiteri, R.; Sciandra, M.; Bechis, G.; Calvo, M. M.; Gioannini, P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the clinical course of HIV infection has changed from 1985 to 1995. DESIGN: Cohort Study. SETTING: Infectious disease clinic. SUBJECTS: 285 patients recruited from September 1985 to January 1995 with < or = 12 months between the dates of their last seronegative and first seropositive test result and with first follow up visit in the six months after seroconversion and at least 12 months' follow up. Patients were grouped according to the date of seroconversion. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Time to CD4 cell count of < 500, 400, and 200 x 10(6) cells/l, and clinical outcome defining AIDS; variation in cell count per day between consecutive visits, and ratio between this variation and time from estimated date of seroconversion at each visit. RESULTS: The groups were similar in age, number with acute primary HIV infection, CD4 cell count at intake, and cell count at the beginning of antiretroviral treatment; they differed in sex ratio, risk factors for HIV, probability of CD4 cell decline to < 500, 400, and 200 x 10(6) cells/l. and risk of developing AIDS. Acute infection, seroconversion after December 1989, and serum beta 2 microglobulin > 296 nmol/l were independent predictors of poor clinical course. The speed of CD4 cell decline, expressed as cell variation divided by the number of days between consecutive visits, increased with more recent seroconversion (P = 0.02). Ratio between the speed of CD4 cell decline and time from estimated date of seroconversion at each visit was also higher in the patients who seroconverted after December 1989. CONCLUSIONS: The faster disease progression and the higher speed of CD4 cell decline at early stages in the patients with recently acquired HIV infection suggest changes in the clinical course of HIV infection. PMID:9154026

  20. Genetic causes of intellectual disability in a birth cohort: A population‐based study

    PubMed Central

    Riegel, Mariluce; Segal, Sandra L.; Félix, Têmis M.; Barros, Aluísio J. D.; Santos, Iná S.; Matijasevich, Alicia; Giugliani, Roberto; Black, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Intellectual disability affects approximately 1–3% of the population and can be caused by genetic and environmental factors. Although many studies have investigated the etiology of intellectual disability in different populations, few studies have been performed in middle‐income countries. The present study estimated the prevalence of genetic causes related to intellectual disability in a cohort of children from a city in south Brazil who were followed from birth. Children who showed poor performance in development and intelligence tests at the ages of 2 and 4 were included. Out of 4,231 liveborns enrolled in the cohort, 214 children fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A diagnosis was established in approximately 90% of the children evaluated. Genetic causes were determined in 31 of the children and 19 cases remained unexplained even after extensive investigation. The overall prevalence of intellectual disability in this cohort due to genetic causes was 0.82%. Because this study was nested in a cohort, there were a large number of variables related to early childhood and the likelihood of information bias was minimized by collecting information with a short recall time. This study was not influenced by selection bias, allowing identification of intellectual disability and estimation of the prevalence of genetic causes in this population, thereby increasing the possibility of providing appropriate management and/or genetic counseling. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25728503

  1. Trends in patterns of dengue transmission over four years of a pediatric cohort study in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Balmaseda, Angel; Standish, Katherine; Mercado, Juan Carlos; Matute, Juan Carlos; Tellez, Yolanda; Saborío, Saira; Hammond, Samantha N.; Nuñez, Andrea; Avilés, William; Henn, Matthew R.; Holmes, Edward C.; Gordon, Aubree; Coloma, Josefina; Kuan, Guillermina; Harris, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Background Dengue is the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral disease in humans and a major urban public health problem worldwide. Methods A prospective cohort study of ~3,800 children initially aged 2-9 years old was established in Managua, Nicaragua, in 2004 to study the natural history of dengue transmission in an urban pediatric population. Blood samples from healthy subjects were collected annually prior to the dengue season, and identification of dengue cases occurred via enhanced passive surveillance at the study health center. Results Over the first four years of the study, seroprevalence of anti-dengue virus (DENV) antibodies increased from 22-40% in the 2-year-old cohort and 90-95% in the 9-year-old cohort. The incidence of symptomatic dengue cases and the ratio of inapparent to symptomatic DENV infection varied substantially year-to-year. The switch in dominant transmission from DENV-1 to DENV-2 was accompanied by an increase in disease severity but, paradoxically, a decrease in transmission. Phylogeographic analysis of full-length DENV-2 sequences revealed strong geographic clustering of dengue cases. Conclusions This large-scale cohort study of dengue in the Americas demonstrates year-to-year variation of dengue within a pediatric population, revealing expected patterns in transmission while highlighting the impact of interventions, climate, and viral evolution. PMID:19929380

  2. Race and incarceration in an aging cohort of Vietnam veterans in treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    PubMed

    Coker, Kendell L; Rosenheck, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Cross sectional studies have addressed the incarceration of Vietnam veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but no studies have examined changes in incarceration as they age. This study examines patterns of incarceration among Vietnam veterans treated in specialized veterans affairs (VA) intensive PTSD programs over time. Data was drawn from admission data from the initial episode of treatment of Caucasian and African American Vietnam veterans entering VA specialized intensive PTSD programs between 1993 and 2011 (N = 31,707). Bivariate correlations and logistic regression were used to examine associations among race and incarceration over time and the potentially confounding influence of demographic and clinical covariates on this relationship. Rates of reported incarceration declined from 63 to 43%. Over time, African American veterans were 34% more likely than Caucasian veterans to have a lifetime history of incarceration while interaction analysis showed steeper declines for Caucasians than African Americans. Rates of incarceration among these Vietnam veterans declined as they aged. Furthermore, African American veterans were substantially more likely than Caucasian veterans to have been incarcerated and showed less decline as the cohort aged. While reduced, needs for clinical PTSD services remain among aging combat veterans.

  3. Parity, age at first birth, and risk of death from asthma: evidence from a cohort in taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Cheng; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2014-06-11

    This study was undertaken to examine whether there is an association between age at first birth and parity and risk of asthma death. The study cohort consisted of 1,292,462 women in Taiwan who had a first live birth between 1 January 1978 and 31 December 1987. We tracked each woman from the date of their first childbirth to 31 December 2009, and their vital status was ascertained by linking records with the computerized mortality database. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios of death from asthma associated with parity and age at first birth. A trend of increasing risk of asthma death was seen with increasing age at first birth. The adjusted hazard ratio was 0.75 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.53-1.08) among women with two live births and 0.53 (95% CI = 0.36-0.78) among those with three or more births, compared with women who had one live birth. There was a significant decreasing trend in adjusted hazard ratios of asthma death with increasing parity. This study is the first to provide evidences to support an association between reproductive factors (parity and early age at first birth) and the risk of asthma death.

  4. Systematic review of birth cohort studies in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Alasdair; Rudan, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Aim In sub-Saharan Africa, unacceptably high rates of mortality amongst women and children continue to persist. The emergence of research employing new genomic technologies is advancing knowledge on cause of disease. This review aims to identify birth cohort studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa and to consider their suitability as a platform to support genetic epidemiological studies. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted to identify birth cohort studies in sub-Saharan Africa across the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, AFRO and OpenSIGLE. A total of 8110 papers were retrieved. Application of inclusion/exclusion criteria retained only 189 papers, of which 71 met minimum quality criteria and were retained for full text analysis. Results The search revealed 28 birth cohorts: 14 of which collected biological data, 10 collected blood samples and only one study collected DNA for storage. These studies face many methodological challenges: notably, high rates of attrition and lack of funding for several rounds of study follow up. Population-based ‘biobanks’ have emerged as a major approach to harness genomic technologies in health research and yet the sub-Saharan African region still awaits large scale birth cohort biobanks collecting DNA and associated health and lifestyle data. Conclusion Investment in this field, together with related endeavours to foster and develop research capacity for these studies, may lead to an improved understanding of the determinants of intrauterine growth and development, birth outcomes such as prematurity and low birth weight, the links between maternal and infant health, survival of infectious diseases in the first years of life, and response to vaccines and antibiotic treatment. PMID:23198102

  5. Vegetable and fruit consumption and risks of colon and rectal cancer in a prospective cohort study: The Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Voorrips, L E; Goldbohm, R A; van Poppel, G; Sturmans, F; Hermus, R J; van den Brandt, P A

    2000-12-01

    The relation between vegetable and fruit consumption and colorectal cancer risk was comprehensively assessed in the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer using a validated 150-item food frequency questionnaire. After 6.3 years of follow-up (1986-1992), over 1,000 incident cases of colorectal cancer were registered. Using case-cohort analysis, the authors calculated rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for age, alcohol intake, and family history of colorectal cancer. For colon cancer, no statistically significant associations with total vegetable intake or total fruit intake were found. However, among women, an inverse association was observed with vegetables and fruits combined (for the highest quintile vs. the lowest, the rate ratio was 0.66 (95% confidence interval: 0.44, 1.01)). Brassica vegetables and cooked leafy vegetables showed inverse associations for both men and women. Among women and, to a lesser extent, among men, inverse associations were stronger for distal colonic tumors than for proximal colonic tumors. For rectal cancer, no statistically significant associations were found for vegetable consumption or fruit consumption or for specific groups of vegetables and fruits; only Brassica vegetables showed a positive association in women. As in other cohort studies, the observed inverse relation between vegetable and fruit consumption and occurrence of colorectal cancer was less strong than relations reported in case-control studies.

  6. Who theorizes age? The "socio-demographic variables" device and age-period-cohort analysis in the rhetoric of survey research.

    PubMed

    Rughiniș, Cosima; Humă, Bogdana

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we argue that quantitative survey-based social research essentializes age, through specific rhetorical tools. We outline the device of 'socio-demographic variables' and we discuss its argumentative functions, looking at scientific survey-based analyses of adult scientific literacy, in the Public Understanding of Science research field. 'Socio-demographics' are virtually omnipresent in survey literature: they are, as a rule, used and discussed as bundles of independent variables, requiring little, if any, theoretical and measurement attention. 'Socio-demographics' are rhetorically effective through their common-sense richness of meaning and inferential power. We identify their main argumentation functions as 'structure building', 'pacification', and 'purification'. Socio-demographics are used to uphold causal vocabularies, supporting the transmutation of the descriptive statistical jargon of 'effects' and 'explained variance' into 'explanatory factors'. Age can also be studied statistically as a main variable of interest, through the age-period-cohort (APC) disambiguation technique. While this approach has generated interesting findings, it did not mitigate the reductionism that appears when treating age as a socio-demographic variable. By working with age as a 'socio-demographic variable', quantitative researchers convert it (inadvertently) into a quasi-biological feature, symmetrical, as regards analytical treatment, with pathogens in epidemiological research.

  7. Who theorizes age? The "socio-demographic variables" device and age-period-cohort analysis in the rhetoric of survey research.

    PubMed

    Rughiniș, Cosima; Humă, Bogdana

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we argue that quantitative survey-based social research essentializes age, through specific rhetorical tools. We outline the device of 'socio-demographic variables' and we discuss its argumentative functions, looking at scientific survey-based analyses of adult scientific literacy, in the Public Understanding of Science research field. 'Socio-demographics' are virtually omnipresent in survey literature: they are, as a rule, used and discussed as bundles of independent variables, requiring little, if any, theoretical and measurement attention. 'Socio-demographics' are rhetorically effective through their common-sense richness of meaning and inferential power. We identify their main argumentation functions as 'structure building', 'pacification', and 'purification'. Socio-demographics are used to uphold causal vocabularies, supporting the transmutation of the descriptive statistical jargon of 'effects' and 'explained variance' into 'explanatory factors'. Age can also be studied statistically as a main variable of interest, through the age-period-cohort (APC) disambiguation technique. While this approach has generated interesting findings, it did not mitigate the reductionism that appears when treating age as a socio-demographic variable. By working with age as a 'socio-demographic variable', quantitative researchers convert it (inadvertently) into a quasi-biological feature, symmetrical, as regards analytical treatment, with pathogens in epidemiological research. PMID:26568224

  8. Circulating Cathelicidin Concentrations in a Cohort of Healthy Children: Influence of Age, Body Composition, Gender and Vitamin D Status.

    PubMed

    Stukes, Taylor M; Shary, Judith R; Wei, Wei; Ebeling, Myla D; Dezsi, Kaleena B; Shary, Frank S; Forestieri, Nina E; Hollis, Bruce W; Wagner, Carol L

    2016-01-01

    Cathelicidin is an antimicrobial peptide whose circulating levels are related to vitamin D status in adults. This study sought to determine if circulating cathelicidin concentrations in healthy children are related to the age of the child, body composition and vitamin D status at birth and at the time of the study visit. Blood samples were obtained during yearly visits from 133 children, ages 2-7, whose mothers had participated in a pregnancy vitamin D supplementation RCT. Radioimmunoassay and ELISA were performed to analyze 25(OH)D and cathelicidin, respectively. Statistical analyses compared cathelicidin concentrations with concentrations of 25(OH)D at various time points (maternal levels throughout pregnancy, at birth, and child's current level); and with race/ethnicity, age, gender, BMI, percent fat, and frequency of infections using Student's t-test, χ2, Wilcoxon ranked-sum analysis, and multivariate regression. The cohort's median cathelicidin concentration was 28.1 ng/mL (range: 5.6-3368.6) and did not correlate with 25(OH)D, but was positively correlated with advancing age (ρ = 0.236 & p = 0.005, respectively). Forty patients evaluated at two visits showed an increase of 24.0 ng/mL in cathelicidin from the first visit to the next (p<0.0001). Increased age and male gender were correlated with increased cathelicidin when controlling for race/ethnicity, percent fat, and child's current 25(OH)D concentration (p = 0.028 & p = 0.047, respectively). This study demonstrated that as children age, the concentration of cathelicidin increases. Furthermore, male gender was significantly associated with increased cathelicidin concentrations. The lack of association between vitamin D status and cathelicidin in this study may be due to the narrow range in observed 25(OH)D values and warrants additional studies for further observation. PMID:27152524

  9. Lifetime overweight and obesity and body composition in adulthood: the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Callo, Gabriela; Gigante, Denise Pretucci; Barros, Fernando C; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the association between overweight/obesity at different moments in the life cycle and body composition in early adulthood. Data were used from the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study, which has followed live born children of families residing in the urban area of Pelotas at different ages. At 30 years of age, 3,701 cohort members were interviewed and body composition was assessed using Bod Pod, 2,219 cohort members had at least one weight and height measurement taken in the three periods (childhood, adolescence, and adulthood), 24% never presented overweight, and 68.6% were never classified as obese. Elevated body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat at 30 years of age were associated with individuals classified as overweight in all three periods or in adolescence and adulthood, while those with overweight/obesity only in childhood or adolescence showed mean BMI and percent body fat similar to those who had never presented overweight/obesity. The results indicate the benefit of early interruption of overweight/obesity.

  10. Weekly miscarriage rates in a community-based prospective cohort study in rural western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Dellicour, Stephanie; Aol, George; Ouma, Peter; Yan, Nicole; Bigogo, Godfrey; Hamel, Mary J; Burton, Deron C; Oneko, Martina; Breiman, Robert F; Slutsker, Laurence; Feikin, Daniel; Kariuki, Simon; Odhiambo, Frank; Stergachis, Andreas; Laserson, Kayla F; ter Kuile, Feiko O; Desai, Meghna

    2016-01-01

    Objective Information on adverse pregnancy outcomes is important to monitor the impact of public health interventions. Miscarriage is a challenging end point to ascertain and there is scarce information on its rate in low-income countries. The objective was to estimate the background rate and cumulative probability of miscarriage in rural western Kenya. Design This was a population-based prospective cohort. Participants and setting Women of childbearing age were followed prospectively to identify pregnancies and ascertain their outcomes in Siaya County, western Kenya. The cohort study was carried out in 33 adjacent villages under health and demographic surveillance. Outcome measure Miscarriage. Results Between 2011 and 2013, among 5536 women of childbearing age, 1453 pregnancies were detected and 1134 were included in the analysis. The cumulative probability was 18.9%. The weekly miscarriage rate declined steadily with increasing gestation until approximately 20 weeks. Known risk factors for miscarriage such as maternal age, gravidity, occupation, household wealth and HIV infection were confirmed. Conclusions This is the first report of weekly miscarriage rates in a rural African setting in the context of high HIV and malaria prevalence. Future studies should consider the involvement of community health workers to identify the pregnancy cohort of early gestation for better data on the actual number of pregnancies and the assessment of miscarriage. PMID:27084287

  11. Hypnotics' association with mortality or cancer: a matched cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Robert D; Kline, Lawrence E

    2012-01-01

    Objectives An estimated 6%–10% of US adults took a hypnotic drug for poor sleep in 2010. This study extends previous reports associating hypnotics with excess mortality. Setting A large integrated health system in the USA. Design Longitudinal electronic medical records were extracted for a one-to-two matched cohort survival analysis. Subjects Subjects (mean age 54 years) were 10 529 patients who received hypnotic prescriptions and 23 676 matched controls with no hypnotic prescriptions, followed for an average of 2.5 years between January 2002 and January 2007. Main outcome measures Data were adjusted for age, gender, smoking, body mass index, ethnicity, marital status, alcohol use and prior cancer. Hazard ratios (HRs) for death were computed from Cox proportional hazards models controlled for risk factors and using up to 116 strata, which exactly matched cases and controls by 12 classes of comorbidity. Results As predicted, patients prescribed any hypnotic had substantially elevated hazards of dying compared to those prescribed no hypnotics. For groups prescribed 0.4–18, 18–132 and >132 doses/year, HRs (95% CIs) were 3.60 (2.92 to 4.44), 4.43 (3.67 to 5.36) and 5.32 (4.50 to 6.30), respectively, demonstrating a dose–response association. HRs were elevated in separate analyses for several common hypnotics, including zolpidem, temazepam, eszopiclone, zaleplon, other benzodiazepines, barbiturates and sedative antihistamines. Hypnotic use in the upper third was associated with a significant elevation of incident cancer; HR=1.35 (95% CI 1.18 to 1.55). Results were robust within groups suffering each comorbidity, indicating that the death and cancer hazards associated with hypnotic drugs were not attributable to pre-existing disease. Conclusions Receiving hypnotic prescriptions was associated with greater than threefold increased hazards of death even when prescribed <18 pills/year. This association held in separate analyses for several commonly used

  12. Mysid Population Responses to Resource Limitation Differ from those Predicted by Cohort Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of anthropogenic stressors on animal populations are often evaluated by assembling vital rate responses from isolated cohort studies into a single demographic model. However, models constructed from cohort studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions be...

  13. The Dynamic Relationship Between Physical Function and Cognition in Longitudinal Aging Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Clouston, Sean A. P.; Brewster, Paul; Kuh, Diana; Richards, Marcus; Cooper, Rachel; Hardy, Rebecca; Rubin, Marcie S.; Hofer, Scott M.

    2013-01-01

    On average, older people remember less and walk more slowly than do younger persons. Some researchers argue that this is due in part to a common biologic process underlying age-related declines in both physical and cognitive functioning. Only recently have longitudinal data become available for analyzing this claim. We conducted a systematic review of English-language research published between 2000 and 2011 to evaluate the relations between rates of change in physical and cognitive functioning in older cohorts. Physical functioning was assessed using objective measures: walking speed, grip strength, chair rise time, flamingo stand time, and summary measures of physical functioning. Cognition was measured using mental state examinations, fluid cognition, and diagnosis of impairment. Results depended on measurement type: Change in grip strength was more strongly correlated with mental state, while change in walking speed was more strongly correlated with change in fluid cognition. Examining physical and cognitive functioning can help clinicians and researchers to better identify individuals and groups that are aging differently and at different rates. In future research, investigators should consider the importance of identifying different patterns and rates of decline, examine relations between more diverse types of measures, and analyze the order in which age-related declines occur. PMID:23349427

  14. Weight for gestational age and metabolically healthy obesity in adults from the Haguenau cohort

    PubMed Central

    Matta, Joane; Carette, Claire; Levy Marchal, Claire; Bertrand, Julien; Pétéra, Mélanie; Zins, Marie; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Comte, Blandine; Czernichow, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Background An obesity subphenotype, named ‘metabolically healthy obese’ (MHO) has been recently defined to characterise a subgroup of obese individuals with less risk for cardiometabolic abnormalities. To date no data are available on participants born with small weight for gestational age (SGA) and the risk of metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUHO). Objective Assess the risk of MUHO in SGA versus appropriate for gestational age (AGA) adult participants. Methods 129 young obese individuals (body mass index ≥30 kg/m²) from data of an 8-year follow-up Haguenau cohort (France), were identified out of 1308 participants and were divided into 2 groups: SGA (n=72) and AGA (n=57). Metabolic characteristics were analysed and compared using unpaired t-test. The HOMA-IR index was determined for the population and divided into quartiles. Obese participants within the first 3 quartiles were considered as MHO and those in the fourth quartile as MUHO. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% CI for being MUHO in SGA versus AGA participants were computed. Results The SGA-obese group had a higher risk of MUHO versus the AGA-obese group: RR=1.27 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.6) independently of age and sex. Conclusions In case of obesity, SGA might confer a higher risk of MUHO compared with AGA. PMID:27580829

  15. Cohort Profile: The Hawai’i Family Study of Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Onoye, Jane MM; Hishinuma, Earl S; McArdle, John J; Zonderman, Alan B; Takeshita, Junji

    2014-01-01

    Intergenerational longitudinal studies over the lifespan provide valuable information for understanding the contexts and dynamic relations among cognition, family and health in adults and the elderly. The Hawai‘i Family Study of Cognition (HFSC), initiated in the early 1970s, included a cohort of over 6500 individuals representing over 1800 families of parents and their offspring. The HFSC gathered data on cognitive, personality, biological and other psychosocial variables, and provided novel information on the nature of cognitive abilities, especially on family issues. Some families were reassessed with short-term retesting in the 1970s. A select sample of offspring and their siblings and spouses were re-measured in the 1980s. Decades later, a 40-year follow-up of the original HFSC cohort was facilitated by the availability of contemporary tracking and tracing methods and internet-based testing. A subgroup of the original HFSC participants was re-contacted and retested on contemporary cognitive as well as socio-demographic and health measures. In this paper, we describe the original HFSC cohort and the design and methodology of the re-contact and retest studies of the HFSC, plans for expanding the re-contact and retesting, as well as directions for future research and collaborations. The Principal Investigator may be contacted for more information regarding the application, review and approval process for data access requests from qualified individuals outside the project. PMID:24639439

  16. Cohort profile: the Hawai'i Family Study of Cognition.

    PubMed

    Onoye, Jane M M; Hishinuma, Earl S; McArdle, John J; Zonderman, Alan B; Bumanglag, R Janine; Takeshita, Junji

    2014-12-01

    Intergenerational longitudinal studies over the lifespan provide valuable information for understanding the contexts and dynamic relations among cognition, family and health in adults and the elderly. The Hawai'i Family Study of Cognition (HFSC), initiated in the early 1970s, included a cohort of over 6500 individuals representing over 1800 families of parents and their offspring. The HFSC gathered data on cognitive, personality, biological and other psychosocial variables, and provided novel information on the nature of cognitive abilities, especially on family issues. Some families were reassessed with short-term retesting in the 1970s. A select sample of offspring and their siblings and spouses were re-measured in the 1980s. Decades later, a 40-year follow-up of the original HFSC cohort was facilitated by the availability of contemporary tracking and tracing methods and internet-based testing. A subgroup of the original HFSC participants was re-contacted and retested on contemporary cognitive as well as socio-demographic and health measures. In this paper, we describe the original HFSC cohort and the design and methodology of the re-contact and retest studies of the HFSC, plans for expanding the re-contact and retesting, as well as directions for future research and collaborations. The Principal Investigator may be contacted for more information regarding the application, review and approval process for data access requests from qualified individuals outside the project.

  17. High Risk of Depressive Disorders in Patients With Gout: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Changchien, Te-Chang; Yen, Yung-Chieh; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Ming-Chia; Liang, Ji-An; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-12-01

    Metabolic abnormalities are common in patients with depressive disorders. However, the relationship between gout and depression is unclear. We explored the causal relationship among gout, antigout medication, and the associated risk of incidental depressive disorders.In this nationwide cohort study, we sampled data from the National Health Insurance Research Database to recruit 34,050 patients with gout as the gout cohort and 68,100 controls (without gout) as the nongout cohort. Our primary endpoint was the diagnosis of depressive disorders during follow-up. The overall study population was followed up until depression diagnosis, withdrawal from the NHI program, or the end of the study. The differences in demographic and clinical characteristics between both cohorts were determined using the Chi-square test for categorical variables and the t-test for continuous variables. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to examine the effect of gout on the risk of depression, represented using the hazard ratio with the 95% confidence interval.Patients with gout exhibited a higher risk of depressive disorders than controls did. The risk of depressive disorders increased with age and was higher in female patients and those with hypertension, stroke, and coronary artery disease. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug and prednisolone use was associated with a reduced risk of depression. Patients with gout who had received antigout medication exhibited a reduced risk of depressive disorders compared with nongout patients.Our findings support that gout increases the risk of depressive disorders, and that antigout medication use reduces the risk.

  18. A cohort mortality study among gas generator utility workers.

    PubMed

    Blot, W J; Fryzek, J P; Henderson, B E; Sadler, C J; McLaughlin, J K

    2000-02-01

    An earlier cohort study tracked the mortality experience through 1988 of male employees at five utility companies in the United States. Workers employed by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) were part of that study, but results for PG&E employees overall or for those involved in gas generator plant operations where hexavalent chromium compounds were used in open and closed systems from the 1950s to early 1980s were not reported. To evaluate risk of lung cancer and other diseases, a cohort of 51,899 PG&E male workers was followed for mortality from 1971 through 1997. Observed numbers of deaths were compared with those expected based on rates in the general California population, with standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) calculated for the total cohort and for subsets defined by potential for gas generator plant exposure. A total of 10,591 deaths were observed, a number significantly less than expected (SMR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.87 to 0.91). No significant excesses of total or specific cancers were observed, with SMR typically near or below 1.0. Lung cancer mortality in the entire cohort was close to expected (SMR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.92 to 1.05), with no excess detected among persons who worked (SMR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.35 to 1.60) or trained (SMR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.12 to 1.67) at gas generator facilities. Furthermore, risk of lung cancer did not increase with increasing duration of employment or time since hire. The study thus provides no evidence that occupational exposures at PG&E facilities resulted in increased risk of lung cancer or any other cause of death. The results indicate that any chromium exposures were of insufficient magnitude to result in increased risk of lung cancer.

  19. Long-Term Mortality in Patients Diagnosed with Meningococcal Disease: A Danish Nationwide Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Roed, Casper; Omland, Lars Haukali; Engsig, Frederik Neess; Skinhoj, Peter; Obel, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Background In contrast to the case fatality rate of patients diagnosed with meningococcal disease (MD) the long-term mortality in these patients is poorly documented. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a nationwide, population-based cohort study including all Danish patients diagnosed with MD from 1977 through 2006 and alive one year after diagnosis. Data was retrieved from the Danish National Hospital Register, the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish Register of Causes of Death. For each patient four age- and gender-matched individuals were identified from the population cohort. The siblings of the MD patients and of the individuals from the population cohort were identified. We constructed Kaplan-Meier survival curves and used Cox regression analysis, cumulative incidence function and subdistribution hazard regression to estimate mortality rate ratios (MRR) and analyze causes of death. We identified 4,909 MD patients, 19,636 individuals from the population cohort, 8,126 siblings of MD patients and 31,140 siblings of the individuals from the population cohort. The overall MRR for MD patients was 1.27 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12–1.45), adjusted MRR, 1.21 (95% CI, 1.06–1.37). MD was associated with increased risk of death due to nervous system diseases (MRR 3.57 (95% CI, 1.82–7.00). No increased mortality due to infections, neoplasms or cardiovascular diseases was observed. The MRR for siblings of MD patients compared with siblings of the individuals from the population cohort was 1.17 (95% CI, 0.92–1.48). Conclusions Patients surviving the acute phase of MD have increased long-term mortality, but the excess risk of death is small and stems mainly from nervous system diseases. PMID:20300639

  20. A Cohort Study on Meniscal Lesions among Airport Baggage Handlers.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte; Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker; Alkjær, Tine; Koblauch, Henrik; Simonsen, Erik Bruun; Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Thygesen, Lau Caspar

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal lesions are common and may contribute to the development of knee arthrosis. A few case-control and cross-sectional studies have identified knee-straining work as risk factors for meniscal lesions, but exposure-response relations and the role of specific exposures are uncertain, and previous results may be sensitive to reporting and selection bias. We examined the relation between meniscal lesions and cumulative exposure to heavy lifting in a prospective register-based study with complete follow-up and independent information on exposure and outcome. We established a cohort of unskilled men employed at Copenhagen Airport or in other companies in the metropolitan Copenhagen area from 1990 to 2012 (the Copenhagen Airport Cohort). The cohort at risk included 3,307 airport baggage handlers with heavy lifting and kneeling or squatting work tasks and 63,934 referents with a similar socioeconomic background and less knee-straining work. Baggage handlers lifted suitcases with an average weight of approximately 15 kg, in total approximately five tonnes during a 9-hour workday. The cohort was followed in the National Patient Register and Civil Registration System. The outcome was a first time hospital diagnosis or surgery of a meniscal lesion. Baggage handlers had a higher incidence of meniscal lesions than the referents. Within baggage handlers spline regression showed that the incidence rate ratio was 1.91 (95% confidence interval: 1.29-2.84) after five years as a baggage handler and then decreased slowly to reach unity after approximately 30 years, adjusted for effects of potential confounders. This relation between baggage handling and meniscal lesions was present for work on the apron which involves lifting in a kneeling or squatting position, but not in the baggage hall, which only involves lifting in standing positions. The results support that long-term heavy lifting in a kneeling or squatting position is a risk factor for the development of symptomatic

  1. A Cohort Study on Meniscal Lesions among Airport Baggage Handlers

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte; Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker; Alkjær, Tine; Koblauch, Henrik; Simonsen, Erik Bruun; Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Thygesen, Lau Caspar

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal lesions are common and may contribute to the development of knee arthrosis. A few case-control and cross-sectional studies have identified knee-straining work as risk factors for meniscal lesions, but exposure-response relations and the role of specific exposures are uncertain, and previous results may be sensitive to reporting and selection bias. We examined the relation between meniscal lesions and cumulative exposure to heavy lifting in a prospective register-based study with complete follow-up and independent information on exposure and outcome. We established a cohort of unskilled men employed at Copenhagen Airport or in other companies in the metropolitan Copenhagen area from 1990 to 2012 (the Copenhagen Airport Cohort). The cohort at risk included 3,307 airport baggage handlers with heavy lifting and kneeling or squatting work tasks and 63,934 referents with a similar socioeconomic background and less knee-straining work. Baggage handlers lifted suitcases with an average weight of approximately 15 kg, in total approximately five tonnes during a 9-hour workday. The cohort was followed in the National Patient Register and Civil Registration System. The outcome was a first time hospital diagnosis or surgery of a meniscal lesion. Baggage handlers had a higher incidence of meniscal lesions than the referents. Within baggage handlers spline regression showed that the incidence rate ratio was 1.91 (95% confidence interval: 1.29–2.84) after five years as a baggage handler and then decreased slowly to reach unity after approximately 30 years, adjusted for effects of potential confounders. This relation between baggage handling and meniscal lesions was present for work on the apron which involves lifting in a kneeling or squatting position, but not in the baggage hall, which only involves lifting in standing positions. The results support that long-term heavy lifting in a kneeling or squatting position is a risk factor for the development of symptomatic

  2. A Cohort Study on Meniscal Lesions among Airport Baggage Handlers.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte; Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker; Alkjær, Tine; Koblauch, Henrik; Simonsen, Erik Bruun; Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Thygesen, Lau Caspar

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal lesions are common and may contribute to the development of knee arthrosis. A few case-control and cross-sectional studies have identified knee-straining work as risk factors for meniscal lesions, but exposure-response relations and the role of specific exposures are uncertain, and previous results may be sensitive to reporting and selection bias. We examined the relation between meniscal lesions and cumulative exposure to heavy lifting in a prospective register-based study with complete follow-up and independent information on exposure and outcome. We established a cohort of unskilled men employed at Copenhagen Airport or in other companies in the metropolitan Copenhagen area from 1990 to 2012 (the Copenhagen Airport Cohort). The cohort at risk included 3,307 airport baggage handlers with heavy lifting and kneeling or squatting work tasks and 63,934 referents with a similar socioeconomic background and less knee-straining work. Baggage handlers lifted suitcases with an average weight of approximately 15 kg, in total approximately five tonnes during a 9-hour workday. The cohort was followed in the National Patient Register and Civil Registration System. The outcome was a first time hospital diagnosis or surgery of a meniscal lesion. Baggage handlers had a higher incidence of meniscal lesions than the referents. Within baggage handlers spline regression showed that the incidence rate ratio was 1.91 (95% confidence interval: 1.29-2.84) after five years as a baggage handler and then decreased slowly to reach unity after approximately 30 years, adjusted for effects of potential confounders. This relation between baggage handling and meniscal lesions was present for work on the apron which involves lifting in a kneeling or squatting position, but not in the baggage hall, which only involves lifting in standing positions. The results support that long-term heavy lifting in a kneeling or squatting position is a risk factor for the development of symptomatic

  3. Abdominal Cystic Echinococcosis Treated with Albendazole. A Pediatric Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Moroni, Samanta; Moscatelli, Guillermo; Bournissen, Facundo García; González, Nicolás; Ballering, Griselda; Freilij, Héctor; Salgueiro, Fabián; Altcheh, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cystic echinococcosis is endemic in Argentina. The standard pharmacological treatment for the disease is albendazole, but surgery is a common alternative. Even though primary infection occurs mainly in the pediatric population, the optimal therapeutic option in pediatrics is not clearly defined and few pediatric cohorts with cystic echinococcosis treated with albendazole have been described to date. Objective To describe therapeutic response to albendazole in a cohort of pediatric patients with abdominal cystic echinococcosis. Population and Methods Patients (0–18 years old) with abdominal cystic echinococcosis who were treated with albendazole between January 1998 and August 2013. Diagnosis of abdominal cystic echinococcosis was made by ultrasound. All patients received albendazole, 10–15 mg/kg/day. Epidemiological data, symptoms, number, location and outcome of the cysts, serology and treatment received were analyzed. The parameter used to assess treatment response was cyst changes evaluated by ultrasound follow up using the WHO-IWGE classification. Results A total of 28 patients (with 46 abdominal cysts) were included in the cohort. Mean age at enrolment was 9.4 years and mean duration of follow-up, 23.8 months. All patients resided in rural areas and had had contact with dogs. The asymptomatic form of the disease was the most common presentation. All patients received albendazole (mean duration: 142.5 days), with low incidence of adverse events. Albendazole had a positive effect on most of the cysts. Surgery was performed in 13 patients. Conclusion Trea