Science.gov

Sample records for aging initial review

  1. Dry aging of beef; Review.

    PubMed

    Dashdorj, Dashmaa; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Younghoon; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relative humidity of 75 to 80 %. However there are various opinions on dry aging procedures and purveyors of such products are passionate about their programs. Recently, there has been an increased interest in dry aging process by a wider array of purveyors and retailers in the many countries. Dry aging process is very costly because of high aging shrinkage (6 to15 %), trims loss (3 to 24 %), risk of contamination and the requirement of highest grades meat with. The packaging in highly moisture-permeable bag may positively impact on safety, quality and shelf stability of dry aged beef. The key effect of dry aging is the concentration of the flavor that can only be described as "dry-aged beef". But the contribution of flavor compounds of proteolysis and lipolysis to the cooked dry aged beef flavor is not fully known. Also there are limited scientific studies of aging parameters on the quality and palatability of dry aged beef. PMID:27200180

  2. Resilience in aging: literature review.

    PubMed

    Fontes, Arlete Portella; Neri, Anita Liberalesso

    2015-05-01

    Psychological resilience is comprised of an adaptive functioning standard before the current and accumulated risks of life. Furthermore, it has a comprehensive range of psychological resources which are essential to overcome adversities, such as personal competences, self-beliefs and interpersonal control which interact with the social networks support. The objectives are to show the concepts of psychological resilience in elderly, relative to dominant theoretical models and the main data about psychological resilience in aging, found in an international and Brazilian review from 2007 to 2013. The descriptors "resilience, psychological resilience and aging", "resiliência e envelhecimento, velhice e velho", were used in PubMed, PsychInfo, SciELO and Pepsic databases. Fifty three international and eleven national articles were selected. The international articles were classified in four categories: psychological and social coping resources, emotional regulation before stressing experiences, successful resilience and aging and correlates, and resilience measures. The Brazilian articles were grouped in three: psychological and social resources, resilience in carers and theory review. Articles on psychological resources and on emotional regulation prevailed as key factors associated with psychological resilience in aging. PMID:26017950

  3. Resilience in aging: literature review.

    PubMed

    Fontes, Arlete Portella; Neri, Anita Liberalesso

    2015-05-01

    Psychological resilience is comprised of an adaptive functioning standard before the current and accumulated risks of life. Furthermore, it has a comprehensive range of psychological resources which are essential to overcome adversities, such as personal competences, self-beliefs and interpersonal control which interact with the social networks support. The objectives are to show the concepts of psychological resilience in elderly, relative to dominant theoretical models and the main data about psychological resilience in aging, found in an international and Brazilian review from 2007 to 2013. The descriptors "resilience, psychological resilience and aging", "resiliência e envelhecimento, velhice e velho", were used in PubMed, PsychInfo, SciELO and Pepsic databases. Fifty three international and eleven national articles were selected. The international articles were classified in four categories: psychological and social coping resources, emotional regulation before stressing experiences, successful resilience and aging and correlates, and resilience measures. The Brazilian articles were grouped in three: psychological and social resources, resilience in carers and theory review. Articles on psychological resources and on emotional regulation prevailed as key factors associated with psychological resilience in aging.

  4. Prevalence of and interventions for sarcopenia in ageing adults: a systematic review. Report of the International Sarcopenia Initiative (EWGSOP and IWGS)

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso J.; Landi, Francesco; Schneider, Stéphane M.; Zúñiga, Clemente; Arai, Hidenori; Boirie, Yves; Chen, Liang-Kung; Fielding, Roger A.; Martin, Finbarr C.; Michel, Jean-Pierre; Sieber, Cornel; Stout, Jeffrey R.; Studenski, Stephanie A.; Vellas, Bruno; Woo, Jean; Zamboni, Mauro; Cederholm, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    Objective: to examine the clinical evidence reporting the prevalence of sarcopenia and the effect of nutrition and exercise interventions from studies using the consensus definition of sarcopenia proposed by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP). Methods: PubMed and Dialog databases were searched (January 2000–October 2013) using pre-defined search terms. Prevalence studies and intervention studies investigating muscle mass plus strength or function outcome measures using the EWGSOP definition of sarcopenia, in well-defined populations of adults aged ≥50 years were selected. Results: prevalence of sarcopenia was, with regional and age-related variations, 1–29% in community-dwelling populations, 14–33% in long-term care populations and 10% in the only acute hospital-care population examined. Moderate quality evidence suggests that exercise interventions improve muscle strength and physical performance. The results of nutrition interventions are equivocal due to the low number of studies and heterogeneous study design. Essential amino acid (EAA) supplements, including ∼2.5 g of leucine, and β-hydroxy β-methylbutyric acid (HMB) supplements, show some effects in improving muscle mass and function parameters. Protein supplements have not shown consistent benefits on muscle mass and function. Conclusion: prevalence of sarcopenia is substantial in most geriatric settings. Well-designed, standardised studies evaluating exercise or nutrition interventions are needed before treatment guidelines can be developed. Physicians should screen for sarcopenia in both community and geriatric settings, with diagnosis based on muscle mass and function. Supervised resistance exercise is recommended for individuals with sarcopenia. EAA (with leucine) and HMB may improve muscle outcomes. PMID:25241753

  5. Taking Initiative in the Age of Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Josh; Morgan, Melanie; Ortiz, Anna Victoria; Anderson, Lindsey B.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment is an increasingly important part of communication pedagogy, not just for periodic accreditation reviews but for ongoing justifications for resources and course design. This project relates the story of how another college at our university prompted us to prove that our Science Writing and Presentation course really delivered what it…

  6. Initial Aging Studies of Unfilled VCE

    SciTech Connect

    Letant, S E; Herberg, J L; Wilson, T S; Alviso, C T; Chinn, S C; Maxwell, R S

    2008-10-09

    This report presents initial data on the effects of temperature, oxygen, and radiation on the chemical and structural properties of newly formulated, unfilled VCE. This initial effort focused on a pristine sample, and a replicate sample irradiated in air at a dose of 25MR. Thermal degradation was investigated by performing Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), and radiation-induced degradation was investigated using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Solid Phase MicroExtraction--Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS), as well as various Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques including: {sup 13}C, {sup 13}C {sup 1}H cross polarization (CP), and {sup 1}H magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR.

  7. Review Of Internet Health Information Quality Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Dzenowagis, Joan

    2001-01-01

    Background The massive growth of health information on the Internet; the global nature of the Internet; the seismic shift taking place in the relationships of various actors in this arena, and the absence of real protection from harm for citizens who use the Internet for health purposes are seen to be real problems. One response to many of these problems has been the burgeoning output of codes of conduct by numerous organizations trying to address quality of health information. Objectives Review the major self-regulatory initiatives in the English-speaking world to develop quality and ethical standards for health information on the Internet. Compare and analyze the approaches taken by the different initiatives. Clarify the issues around the development and enforcement of standards. Methods Quality initiatives selected meet one or more of the following criteria: Self-regulatory. A reasonable constituency. Diversity (eg, of philosophy, approach and process)-to achieve balance and wide representation, and to illustrate and compare different approaches. Historic value. A wider reach than a national audience, except when its reach is a significant sector of the Internet health information industry. The initiatives were compared in 3 ways: (1) Analysis and comparison of: key concepts, mechanism, or approach. Analysis of: the obligations that a provider has to meet to comply with the given initiative, the intended beneficiaries of that initiative, and the burdens imposed on different actors. These burdens are described in terms of their effect on the long-term sustainability and maintenance of the initiative by its developers. Analysis of the enforcement mechanisms. (2) Analysis and comparison by type of sponsoring organization, the reach of the initiative, and the sources of funding of the initiative or the sponsoring organization. (3) How the various initiatives fall under 1 of 3 key mechanisms and comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of these key mechanisms

  8. CASL Validation Data: An Initial Review

    SciTech Connect

    Nam Dinh

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to establish a comprehensive view of “data” needed for supporting implementation of the Consortium of Advanced Simulation of LWRs (CASL). Insights from this review (and its continual refinement), together with other elements developed in CASL, should provide the foundation for developing the CASL Validation Data Plan (VDP). VDP is instrumental to the development and assessment of CASL simulation tools as predictive capability. Most importantly, to be useful for CASL, the VDP must be devised (and agreed upon by all participating stakeholders) with appropriate account for nature of nuclear engineering applications, the availability, types and quality of CASL-related data, and novelty of CASL goals and its approach to the selected challenge problems. The initial review (summarized on the January 2011 report version) discusses a broad range of methodological issues in data review and Validation Data Plan. Such a top-down emphasis in data review is both needed to see a big picture on CASL data and appropriate when the actual data are not available for detailed scrutiny. As the data become available later in 2011, a revision of data review (and regular update) should be performed. It is expected that the basic framework for review laid out in this report will help streamline the CASL data review in a way that most pertinent to CASL VDP.

  9. State solar initiatives. Volume 1: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koontz, R.; Neuendorffer, J.; Green, B.; Gordon, N.; Myring, G.; Perwin, E.; Poster, B.; Small, D.; Myring, L.

    1981-09-01

    The impacts of solar energy programs undertaken in California, Florida, New Mexico, Minnesota, and New York are reviewed. Initiatives were explored: information outreach activities; consumer protection programs including standards, testing, certification, warranties, licensing, and consumer complaint offices; and tax credits and rebates. The experience in these five states is analyzed and conclusions and recommendations that will assist state governments in improving or launching their own programs are presented.

  10. 40 CFR 155.50 - Initiate a pesticide's registration review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initiate a pesticide's registration...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS REGISTRATION STANDARDS AND REGISTRATION REVIEW Registration Review Procedures § 155.50 Initiate a pesticide's registration review. The Agency will initiate a pesticide's registration review...

  11. 40 CFR 155.50 - Initiate a pesticide's registration review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Initiate a pesticide's registration...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS REGISTRATION STANDARDS AND REGISTRATION REVIEW Registration Review Procedures § 155.50 Initiate a pesticide's registration review. The Agency will initiate a pesticide's registration review...

  12. 40 CFR 155.50 - Initiate a pesticide's registration review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Initiate a pesticide's registration...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS REGISTRATION STANDARDS AND REGISTRATION REVIEW Registration Review Procedures § 155.50 Initiate a pesticide's registration review. The Agency will initiate a pesticide's registration review...

  13. 40 CFR 155.50 - Initiate a pesticide's registration review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Initiate a pesticide's registration...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS REGISTRATION STANDARDS AND REGISTRATION REVIEW Registration Review Procedures § 155.50 Initiate a pesticide's registration review. The Agency will initiate a pesticide's registration review...

  14. 40 CFR 155.50 - Initiate a pesticide's registration review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Initiate a pesticide's registration...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS REGISTRATION STANDARDS AND REGISTRATION REVIEW Registration Review Procedures § 155.50 Initiate a pesticide's registration review. The Agency will initiate a pesticide's registration review...

  15. Invited review: aging and human temperature regulation.

    PubMed

    Kenney, W Larry; Munce, Thayne A

    2003-12-01

    This mini-review focuses on the effects of aging on human temperature regulation. Although comprehensive reviews have been published on this topic (Kenney WL. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1997, p. 41-76; Pandolf KB. Exp Aging Res 17: 189-204, 1991; Van Someren EJ, Raymann RJ, Scherder EJ, Daanen HA, and Swaab DF. Ageing Res Rev 1: 721-778, 2002; and Young AJ. Exp Aging Res 17: 205-213, 1991), this mini-review concisely summarizes the present state of knowledge about human temperature regulation and aging in thermoneutral conditions, as well as during hypo- and hyperthermic challenges. First, we discuss age-related effects on baseline body core temperature and phasing rhythms of the circadian temperature cycle. We then examine the altered physiological responses to cold stress that result from aging, including attenuated peripheral vasoconstriction and reduced cold-induced metabolic heat production. Finally, we present the age-related changes in sweating and cardiovascular function associated with heat stress. Although epidemiological evidence of increased mortality among older adults from hypo- and hyperthermia exists, this outcome does not reflect an inability to thermoregulate with advanced age. In fact, studies that have attempted to separate the effects of chronological age from concurrent factors, such as fitness level, body composition, and the effects of chronic disease, have shown that thermal tolerance appears to be minimally compromised by age.

  16. Review of wire chamber aging

    SciTech Connect

    Va'Vra, J.

    1986-02-01

    This paper makes an overview of the wire chamber aging problems as a function of various chamber design parameters. It emphasizes the chemistry point of view and many examples are drawn from the plasma chemistry field as a guidance for a possible effort in the wire chamber field. The paper emphasizes the necessity of variable tuning, the importance of purity of the wire chamber environment, as well as it provides a practical list of presently known recommendations. In addition, several models of the wire chamber aging are qualitatively discussed. The paper is based on a summary talk given at the Wire Chamber Aging Workshop held at LBL, Berkeley on January 16-17, 1986. Presented also at Wire Chamber Conference, Vienna, February 25-28, 1986. 74 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. Initial aging phenomena in copper-chromium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzuki, H.; Motohiro, K.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of quenching and aging temperatures on the initial aging curves of Cu-Cr alloy were examined mainly by means of electrical resistivity measurements. Three Cu-Cr alloy specimens having 0.24, 0.74, and 1.0% Cr were solution-treated at 950-1050 C, quenched into ice-water, and subsequently aged at 300-500 C. The results were as follows: (1) At the very early stage of aging (within about 30 sec), an abrupt decrease of resistivity with lowering aging tempratures. (T sub A) and rising solution temperatures (T sub S) was observed at (T sub A) up to about 400 C. In contrast, a transient increase of resistivity with rising T sub A and lowering T sub S was observed at T sub A from about 450 to 500 C. These phenomena seem to be caused by a rapid formation of solute clusters and the reversion of clusters formed during quenching, which are enhanced by quenched-in vacancies, respectively. (2) The amount of precipitation increased at the latter stage of aging with rising T sub S and T sub A as generally expected, where T sub S was not so high as to form secondary defects. (3) As a result, the initial aging phenomena in Cr-Cr alloy were revealed to be complicated against expectations. This was considered to be due to the migration energy of vacancies so larger in Cu-base.

  18. Lessons learned from a Canadian province-wide age-friendly initiative: the Age-Friendly Manitoba Initiative.

    PubMed

    Menec, Verena H; Novek, Sheila; Veselyuk, Dawn; McArthur, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The Age-Friendly Manitoba Initiative was launched in 2008. A formative evaluation we conducted in 2011 with 44 participating rural and urban communities demonstrates considerable progress, with virtually all communities having formed an Age-Friendly Committee and conducting a community assessment to identify priorities for action. The majority of communities implemented one or more age-friendly projects. Major barriers to becoming age-friendly identified by participants included lack of funding; lack of capacity, particularly in small communities; and lack of leadership or direction. The study highlights the importance of strong leadership at all levels of government (municipal, provincial, federal); the need to support communities, particularly rural ones, as they try to become more age-friendly; and the importance of ongoing promotion of age-friendliness locally and more broadly (e.g., provincially).

  19. 48 CFR 15.606-1 - Receipt and initial review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Receipt and initial review. 15.606-1 Section 15.606-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Unsolicited Proposals 15.606-1 Receipt and initial review. (a) Before initiating...

  20. 48 CFR 15.606-1 - Receipt and initial review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Receipt and initial review. 15.606-1 Section 15.606-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Unsolicited Proposals 15.606-1 Receipt and initial review. (a) Before initiating...

  1. 48 CFR 15.606-1 - Receipt and initial review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Receipt and initial review. 15.606-1 Section 15.606-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Unsolicited Proposals 15.606-1 Receipt and initial review. (a) Before initiating...

  2. Principal Leadership in China: An Initial Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Allan; Hu, Rongkun; Qian, Haiyan

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on Chinese principalship written in English and Chinese between 1998 and 2008. The first sections discuss the rationale for the research, the review process, and the state of education research in mainland China. The review findings are presented as a set of core patterns and contributory subpatterns, which flow…

  3. 10 CFR 473.22 - Initial review by manager.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Initial review by manager. 473.22 Section 473.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION AUTOMOTIVE PROPULSION RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Review and Certification of Grants, Cooperative Agreements, Contracts, and Projects § 473.22 Initial review by manager....

  4. 10 CFR 473.22 - Initial review by manager.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Initial review by manager. 473.22 Section 473.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION AUTOMOTIVE PROPULSION RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Review and Certification of Grants, Cooperative Agreements, Contracts, and Projects § 473.22 Initial review by manager....

  5. 10 CFR 473.22 - Initial review by manager.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Initial review by manager. 473.22 Section 473.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION AUTOMOTIVE PROPULSION RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Review and Certification of Grants, Cooperative Agreements, Contracts, and Projects § 473.22 Initial review by manager....

  6. 10 CFR 473.22 - Initial review by manager.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Initial review by manager. 473.22 Section 473.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION AUTOMOTIVE PROPULSION RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Review and Certification of Grants, Cooperative Agreements, Contracts, and Projects § 473.22 Initial review by manager....

  7. 10 CFR 473.22 - Initial review by manager.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Initial review by manager. 473.22 Section 473.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION AUTOMOTIVE PROPULSION RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Review and Certification of Grants, Cooperative Agreements, Contracts, and Projects § 473.22 Initial review by manager....

  8. The Social Ecology of Adolescent-Initiated Parent Abuse: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jun Sung; Kral, Michael J.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Allen-Meares, Paula

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an ecological framework for understanding adolescent-initiated parent abuse. We review research on adolescent-initiated parent abuse, identifying sociodemographic characteristics of perpetrators and victims (e.g., gender, age, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status [SES]). Bronfenbrenner's [1] ecological systems theory is…

  9. 48 CFR 315.606-1 - Receipt and initial review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Receipt and initial review. 315.606-1 Section 315.606-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Unsolicited Proposals 315.606-1 Receipt and initial review. (d) OPDIVs shall not...

  10. 48 CFR 315.606-1 - Receipt and initial review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Receipt and initial review. 315.606-1 Section 315.606-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Unsolicited Proposals 315.606-1 Receipt and initial review. (d) OPDIVs shall not...

  11. ARCC Teacher Compensation Initiative: Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia Regional Comprehensive Center, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In February 2014, the Tennessee State Board of Education (SBE) requested that the Appalachia Regional Comprehensive Center (ARCC) provide assistance to the SBE's Basic Education Program (BEP) Review Committee. The SBE requested additional information on the use and effectiveness of market-based teacher compensation and market-based incentives by…

  12. Aging and Synaptic Plasticity: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Bergado, Jorge A.; Almaguer, William

    2002-01-01

    Aging affects all systems, but the brain seems to be particularly vulnerable to the action of negative, age-dependent factors. A gradual loss of memory functions is one of the earliest and most widespread consequences of brain aging. The causes for such impairment are still unclear. Long-term potentiation (LTP) is one form of neural plasticity, which has been proposed as the cellular correlate for memory. LTP is affected by aging, and such alteration might be causally related to memory dysfunction. In the present paper, we review the evidence sustaining the existence of a causal link between cognitive and LTP impairments, as well as the possible mechanisms involved. New results indicate a possible involvement of a deficient reinforcement of LTP by affective influences. PMID:12959152

  13. Aging and the Body: A Review*

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Laura Hurd; Korotchenko, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we examine the existing sociocultural research and theory concerned with the aging body. In particular, we review the body image and embodiment literatures and discuss what is known about how older adults perceive and experience their aging bodies. We analyse how body image is shaped by age, culture, ethnicity, gender, health status, sexual preference, and social class. Additionally, we critically elucidate the embodiment literature as it pertains to illness experiences, sexuality, the everyday management of the aging body, appearance work, and embodied identity. By outlining the key findings, theoretical debates, and substantive discrepancies within the body image and embodiment research and theory, we identify gaps in the literature and forecast future, much-needed avenues of investigation. PMID:24976674

  14. Aging and Family Life: A Decade Review

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, Merril; Giarrusso, Roseann

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we summarize and critically evaluate the major empirical, conceptual, and theoretical directions that studies of aging families have taken during the first decade of the 21st century. The field has benefited from an expanded perspective based on four overarching themes: (a) complexity in emotional relations, (b) diversity in family structures and households, (c) interdependence of family roles and functions, and (d) patterns and outcomes of caregiving. Although research on aging families has advanced theory and applied innovative statistical techniques, the literature has fallen short in fully representing diverse populations and in applying the broadest set of methodological tools available. We discuss these and other frontier areas of scholarship in light of the aging of baby boomers and their families. PMID:22930600

  15. Reversing the aging stromal phenotype prevents carcinoma initiation.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Davina A; Travers, Jeffrey B; Machado, Christiane; Somani, Ally-Khan; Spandau, Dan F

    2011-04-01

    The accumulation of senescent stromal cells in aging tissue changes the local microenvironment from normal to a state similar to chronic inflammation. This inflammatory microenvironment can stimulate the proliferation of epithelial cells containing DNA mutations which can ultimately lead to cancer. Using geriatric skin as a model, we demonstrated that senescent fibroblasts also alter how epithelial keratinocytes respond to genotoxic stress, due to the silencing of IGF-1 expression in geriatric fibroblasts. These data indicate that in addition to promoting epithelial tumor growth, senescent fibroblasts also can promote carcinogenic initiation. We hypothesized that commonly used therapeutic stromal wounding therapies can reduce the percentage of senescent fibroblasts and consequently prevent the formation of keratinocytes proliferating with DNA mutations following acute genotoxic (UVB) stress. Sun-protected skin on the lower back of geriatric human volunteers was wounded by dermabrasion and the skin was allowed to heal for three months. In geriatric skin, we found that dermabrasion wounding decreases the proportion of senescent fibroblasts found in geriatric dermis, increases the expression of IGF-1, and restores the appropriate UVB response to epidermal keratinocytes in geriatric skin. Therefore, dermal rejuvenation therapies may play a significant role in preventing the initiation of skin cancer in geriatric patients. PMID:21515933

  16. Reversing the aging stromal phenotype prevents carcinoma initiation.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Davina A; Travers, Jeffrey B; Machado, Christiane; Somani, Ally-Khan; Spandau, Dan F

    2011-04-01

    The accumulation of senescent stromal cells in aging tissue changes the local microenvironment from normal to a state similar to chronic inflammation. This inflammatory microenvironment can stimulate the proliferation of epithelial cells containing DNA mutations which can ultimately lead to cancer. Using geriatric skin as a model, we demonstrated that senescent fibroblasts also alter how epithelial keratinocytes respond to genotoxic stress, due to the silencing of IGF-1 expression in geriatric fibroblasts. These data indicate that in addition to promoting epithelial tumor growth, senescent fibroblasts also can promote carcinogenic initiation. We hypothesized that commonly used therapeutic stromal wounding therapies can reduce the percentage of senescent fibroblasts and consequently prevent the formation of keratinocytes proliferating with DNA mutations following acute genotoxic (UVB) stress. Sun-protected skin on the lower back of geriatric human volunteers was wounded by dermabrasion and the skin was allowed to heal for three months. In geriatric skin, we found that dermabrasion wounding decreases the proportion of senescent fibroblasts found in geriatric dermis, increases the expression of IGF-1, and restores the appropriate UVB response to epidermal keratinocytes in geriatric skin. Therefore, dermal rejuvenation therapies may play a significant role in preventing the initiation of skin cancer in geriatric patients.

  17. 16 CFR 5.65 - Review of initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review of initial decision. 5.65 Section 5.65 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Disciplinary Actions Concerning Postemployment Conflict of Interest § 5.65 Review...

  18. Fingerprint composition and aging: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Cadd, Samuel; Islam, Meez; Manson, Peter; Bleay, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    Fingerprints have a key role in criminal investigations and are the most commonly used form of evidence worldwide. Significant gaps remain however, in the understanding of fingerprint chemistry, including enhancement reaction mechanisms and the effect of environmental variables and time on composition. Determining the age of a fingerprint is also a relatively unexplored area. A successful method, with reliable and quantitative estimates, would have numerous advantages. Previous unreliable methods have predominantly focused on enhancement success based on physical and chemical changes. This review explores variations in composition due to donor characteristics and environmental variables, and identifies gaps for further research. We also present a qualitative and quantitative summary of the effect of time on composition. Kinetics are presented where known, with summary schematics for reaction mechanisms. Previous studies exploring methods for determining the age of a fingerprint are also discussed, including their advantages and disadvantages. Lastly we propose a potentially more accurate and reliable methodology for determining fingerprint age based on quantitative kinetic changes to the composition of a fingerprint over time.

  19. Promoting Successful Cognitive Aging: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Daffner, Kirk R.

    2010-01-01

    Promoting successful cognitive aging is a topic of major importance to individuals and the field of public health. This review presents a coherent framework not only for evaluating factors, protective activities, and enhancing agents that have already been proposed, but also ones that will be put forward in the future. The promotion of successful cognitive aging involves the dual goals of preventing loss of information processing capacity and cognitive reserve, and enhancing brain capacity and cognitive reserve. Four major lines of evidence are available for evaluating whether a proposed factor promotes successful cognitive aging: 1) epidemiologic/cohort studies; 2) animal/basic science studies; 3) human “proof-of-concept” studies; and 4) human intervention studies. Each line of evidence has advantages and limitations that will be discussed. Through illustrative examples, we trace the ways in which each method informs us about the potential value of several proposed factors. Currently, lines of converging evidence allow the strongest case to be made for physical and cognitively stimulating activities. Although epidemiological data seem to favor the use of statins to lower the risk of dementia, more definitive recommendations await further randomized controlled studies. There is presently no clear evidence that antioxidants or Ginkgo biloba promote successful cognitive aging. The impact of resveratrol, fish oil, and a long list of other proposed agents needs to be determined. Clinicians remain well-positioned to identify and aggressively treat vascular risk factors, diabetes, sleep disorders, and other conditions that may reduce brain capacity, and to encourage activities that can build cognitive reserve. PMID:20308777

  20. Macro-level Age Norms for the Timing of Sexual Initiation and Adolescents’ Early Sexual Initiation in 17 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; de Looze, Margaretha; Ma, Ping; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Farhat, Tilda; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Ehlinger, Virginie; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Currie, Candace; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between country-level age norms for sexual initiation timing and early sexual initiation (ESI) among adolescent boys and girls. Methods Nationally-representative data from 17 countries that participated in the 2006/07 European Social Survey (ESS-3, n=33,092) and the 2005/06 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study (HBSC, n=27,702) were analyzed. Age norms were measured as the average country-level response to an item asking the age at which ESS respondents believed someone is too young to have sexual intercourse. HBSC respondents (aged 14-16) self-reported age at sexual initiation which we defined as early (<15 years) or not (≥15 years or no initiation). Control variables included age, family affluence, perceived socioeconomic status, family living arrangement, substance use, school attachment, and country-level legal age of consent. Multivariable three-level logistic models with random intercepts were run separately by sex. Results In multivariable analyses, higher overall age norms were associated with reduced likelihood of ESI among girls (AOR 0.60, 95% CI 0.45-0.79); associations with ESI were stronger for parent cohort (ages 31-65) norms (AOR 0.37, 95% CI 0.23-0.58) than for peer cohort (ages 15-20) norms (AOR 0.60, 95% CI 0.49-0.74). For boys, overall norms were also significantly negatively associated with ESI (AOR 0.68, 95% CI 0.46-0.99), as were parent cohort norms (AOR 0.66, 95% CI 0.45-0.96). Peer cohort norms were not significantly related to boys’ ESI. Conclusion Macro-level cultural norms may impact adolescents’ sexual initiation timing. Research exploring the sexual health outcomes of early initiators in countries with contrasting age norms is warranted. PMID:24508092

  1. 48 CFR 2015.606-1 - Receipt and initial review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Receipt and initial review. 2015.606-1 Section 2015.606-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Unsolicited Proposals 2015.606-1 Receipt...

  2. 48 CFR 2015.606-1 - Receipt and initial review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Receipt and initial review. 2015.606-1 Section 2015.606-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Unsolicited Proposals 2015.606-1 Receipt...

  3. 48 CFR 2015.606-1 - Receipt and initial review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Receipt and initial review. 2015.606-1 Section 2015.606-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Unsolicited Proposals 2015.606-1 Receipt...

  4. 48 CFR 2015.606-1 - Receipt and initial review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Receipt and initial review. 2015.606-1 Section 2015.606-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Unsolicited Proposals 2015.606-1 Receipt...

  5. 29 CFR 801.69 - Procedures for initiating review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for initiating review. 801.69 Section 801.69 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS APPLICATION OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 Administrative Proceedings Modification...

  6. 29 CFR 801.69 - Procedures for initiating review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Procedures for initiating review. 801.69 Section 801.69 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS APPLICATION OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 Administrative Proceedings Modification...

  7. 29 CFR 801.69 - Procedures for initiating review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Procedures for initiating review. 801.69 Section 801.69 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS APPLICATION OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 Administrative Proceedings Modification...

  8. 29 CFR 801.69 - Procedures for initiating review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Procedures for initiating review. 801.69 Section 801.69 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS APPLICATION OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 Administrative Proceedings Modification...

  9. 29 CFR 801.69 - Procedures for initiating review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Procedures for initiating review. 801.69 Section 801.69 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS APPLICATION OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 Administrative Proceedings Modification...

  10. 42 CFR 456.233 - Initial continued stay review date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Initial continued stay review date. 456.233 Section 456.233 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Mental...

  11. 42 CFR 456.233 - Initial continued stay review date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Initial continued stay review date. 456.233 Section 456.233 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Mental...

  12. 42 CFR 456.233 - Initial continued stay review date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Initial continued stay review date. 456.233 Section 456.233 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Mental...

  13. West Antarctic Ice Sheet Initiative. Volume 2: Discipline Reviews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, Robert A. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Seven discipline review papers are presented on the state of the knowledge of West Antarctica and opinions on how that knowledge must be increased to predict the future behavior of this ice sheet and to assess its potential to collapse, rapidly raising the global sea level. These are the goals of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Initiative (WAIS).

  14. 48 CFR 2015.606-1 - Receipt and initial review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Division of Contracts and Property Management shall be responsible for controlling reproduction and... initial review. (a) The Division of Contracts and Property Management shall acknowledge receipt of an... The Division of Contracts and Property Management. The letter will provide an estimated date for...

  15. 42 CFR 456.233 - Initial continued stay review date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... assigns the initial continued stay review date within 1 working day after the mental hospital is notified... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Mental Hospitals... must provide that— (a) When a recipient is admitted to the mental hospital under admission...

  16. Age at Time of Initial Sexual Intercourse and Health of Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Lara, Lúcia A S; Abdo, Carmita H N

    2016-10-01

    Adolescence is characterized by marked changes in the body, psychology, and sexual behavior due to increasing production of hormones. In this review we aimed to assess the effect of age at the time of first sexual intercourse (sexarche) on the health of adolescent girls, and identify factors that might protect against early initiation of sexual relations in girls. The PubMed, Lilacs, and Google Scholar databases were searched for clinical trials, comparative studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, cohort studies, multicenter studies, observational studies, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews published up to December 2014 on this theme. The search terms were: "sexual debut," "coitarche," "sexarche," and "young people," "adolescent," "unplanned pregnancy," "adolescent contraception," and "STDs." Data were extracted from 28 studies and 41 references were used to introduce the theme and to support the discussion. Sexarche has been occurring in increasingly younger girls. A young age at sexarche can lead to subsequent risky sexual behavior. Girls who have sexarche when they are 14 years old or younger are less likely to use contraception on this occasion, take more time before they start using contraception in subsequent sexual relations, are more likely to have several sex partners, have a higher risk for depression, have lower self-esteem and more episodes of repentance, and have a higher risk for a sexually transmitted disease and cervical cancer. Girls with low educational, socioeconomic, and cultural status, little parental monitoring, parental separation, and absence of religiosity tend to experience sexarche at a younger age. Adolescent girls who postpone sexarche until they are 16 years old are physically and psychologically healthier than those who have sexarche at a younger age. This suggests that providing adolescent girls with appropriate education about sexual relations might reduce the negative effect of sexual relations at a young age.

  17. Age at Time of Initial Sexual Intercourse and Health of Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Lara, Lúcia A S; Abdo, Carmita H N

    2016-10-01

    Adolescence is characterized by marked changes in the body, psychology, and sexual behavior due to increasing production of hormones. In this review we aimed to assess the effect of age at the time of first sexual intercourse (sexarche) on the health of adolescent girls, and identify factors that might protect against early initiation of sexual relations in girls. The PubMed, Lilacs, and Google Scholar databases were searched for clinical trials, comparative studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, cohort studies, multicenter studies, observational studies, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews published up to December 2014 on this theme. The search terms were: "sexual debut," "coitarche," "sexarche," and "young people," "adolescent," "unplanned pregnancy," "adolescent contraception," and "STDs." Data were extracted from 28 studies and 41 references were used to introduce the theme and to support the discussion. Sexarche has been occurring in increasingly younger girls. A young age at sexarche can lead to subsequent risky sexual behavior. Girls who have sexarche when they are 14 years old or younger are less likely to use contraception on this occasion, take more time before they start using contraception in subsequent sexual relations, are more likely to have several sex partners, have a higher risk for depression, have lower self-esteem and more episodes of repentance, and have a higher risk for a sexually transmitted disease and cervical cancer. Girls with low educational, socioeconomic, and cultural status, little parental monitoring, parental separation, and absence of religiosity tend to experience sexarche at a younger age. Adolescent girls who postpone sexarche until they are 16 years old are physically and psychologically healthier than those who have sexarche at a younger age. This suggests that providing adolescent girls with appropriate education about sexual relations might reduce the negative effect of sexual relations at a young age

  18. Workforce and Economic Vitality Issue Paper. Aging Initiative: Project 2030.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Human Services, St. Paul.

    A public policy study in Minnesota, conducted as part of Project 2030, looked at the impacts of the aging of the baby boom generation on the work force and the economic vitality of the state by the year 2030. The study found the following general trends affecting the work force and economic vitality and noted the relation of each to the aging…

  19. The Developmental Progression of Age 14 Behavioral Disinhibition, Early Age of Sexual Initiation, and Subsequent Sexual Risk-Taking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Samek, Diana R.; Iacono, William G.; Keyes, Margaret A.; Epstein, Marina; Bornovalova, Marina A.; McGue, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Background Research has demonstrated a consistent relationship between early sexual experience and subsequent sexual risk-taking behaviors. We hypothesized that this relationship is due to a general predisposition towards behavioral disinhibition (BD), and that relationships among BD, early sex, and subsequent risky sexual behavior may be influenced by common genetic influences for males and common environmental influences for females. Methods A prospective sample of 1,512 same-sex adolescent twins (50.2% female) was used. Adolescent BD was measured by clinical symptom counts of conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and self-reported delinquent behavior (age 14). Age of sexual initiation was defined as first age of consensual oral or penetrative sex (mean age ~17). Adult risky sexual behavior was defined by sexual behaviors under the influence of drugs and alcohol and number of casual sexual partners in the past year (age 24). Results Multivariate analyses showed evidence for substantial common genetic variance among age 14 BD, age at sexual initiation, and adult risky sexual behavior for males, but not females. There was no significant difference in the degree of common environmental influence on these variables for females compared to males. Notably, age of sexual initiation was not significantly correlated with age 24 risky sexual behavior for females. Conclusion The relationship between early sex and later risky sex can be better understood through a general liability towards BD, which is influenced primarily by genetic factors for males. The association between age 14 BD and age of sexual initiation was influenced through a combination of genetic and environmental factors for females; however, age of sexual initiation does not appear to be a salient predictor of adult women’s sexual risk-taking behavior. Findings suggest that prevention programs aimed at reducing sexual risk behavior might target youth exhibiting BD by age 14, particularly males

  20. Redefining Book Reviews for the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Deirdre; Leahy, Margaret; McCormack, Ciaran

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a pilot study conducted in Ireland to examine the effectiveness of an online book review project. The project focused on the production of book reviews by primary school children in the form of digital video. The videos created were uploaded to a password protected website, which was available to the schools…

  1. OH-initiated heterogeneous aging of highly oxidized organic aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, Sean H.; Nah, Theodora; Daumit, Kelly E.; Smith, Jared D.; Leone, Stephen R.; Kolb, Charles E.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Kroll, Jesse H.

    2011-12-05

    The oxidative evolution (“aging”) of organic species in the atmosphere is thought to have a major influence on the composition and properties of organic particulate matter, but remains poorly understood, particularly for the most oxidized fraction of the aerosol. Here we measure the kinetics and products of the heterogeneous oxidation of highly oxidized organic aerosol, with an aim of better constraining such atmospheric aging processes. Submicron particles composed of model oxidized organics—1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (C{sub 8}H{sub 10}O{sub 8}), citric acid (C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 7}), tartaric acid (C{sub 4}H{sub 6}O{sub 6}), and Suwannee River fulvic acid—were oxidized by gas-phase OH in a flow reactor, and the masses and elemental composition of the particles were monitored as a function of OH exposure. In contrast to our previous studies of less-oxidized model systems (squalane, erythritol, and levoglucosan), particle mass did not decrease significantly with heterogeneous oxidation. Carbon content of the aerosol always decreased somewhat, but this mass loss was approximately balanced by an increase in oxygen content. The estimated reactive uptake coefficients of the reactions range from 0.37 to 0.51 and indicate that such transformations occur at rates corresponding to 1-2 weeks in the atmosphere, suggesting their importance in the atmospheric lifecycle of organic particulate matter.

  2. Olfaction and Aging: A Mini-Review.

    PubMed

    Attems, Johannes; Walker, Lauren; Jellinger, Kurt A

    2015-01-01

    Decreased olfactory function is very common in the older population, being present in >50% of individuals aged between 65 and 80 years and in 62-80% of those >80 years of age. Smell dysfunction significantly influences physical well-being, quality of life, nutritional status as well as everyday safety and is associated with increased mortality. Multiple factors contribute to age-related olfactory sensory loss, including nasal engorgement, cumulative damage of the olfactory epithelium from environmental insults, a reduction in mucosal metabolizing enzymes, sensory loss of receptor cells to odorants, and changes in neurotransmitter and neuromodulator systems. In addition, structural and functional abnormalities of the olfactory epithelium, olfactory bulb, central olfactory cortex, and basic olfactory circuitry, which are related to the neuronal expression of aberrant proteins in these areas, may result in olfactory sensory impairment in aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Impaired odour identification is associated with a decrease in cognitive abilities and memory decline. A reduction in the sense of smell is considered to potentially represent an early and important warning of neurodegenerative disorders, particularly of Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, and, in mild cognitive impairment, olfactory impairment may herald progression to dementia. Further investigations of the potential role of olfactory dysfunction in the early diagnosis and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases are warranted. PMID:25968962

  3. Olfaction and Aging: A Mini-Review.

    PubMed

    Attems, Johannes; Walker, Lauren; Jellinger, Kurt A

    2015-01-01

    Decreased olfactory function is very common in the older population, being present in >50% of individuals aged between 65 and 80 years and in 62-80% of those >80 years of age. Smell dysfunction significantly influences physical well-being, quality of life, nutritional status as well as everyday safety and is associated with increased mortality. Multiple factors contribute to age-related olfactory sensory loss, including nasal engorgement, cumulative damage of the olfactory epithelium from environmental insults, a reduction in mucosal metabolizing enzymes, sensory loss of receptor cells to odorants, and changes in neurotransmitter and neuromodulator systems. In addition, structural and functional abnormalities of the olfactory epithelium, olfactory bulb, central olfactory cortex, and basic olfactory circuitry, which are related to the neuronal expression of aberrant proteins in these areas, may result in olfactory sensory impairment in aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Impaired odour identification is associated with a decrease in cognitive abilities and memory decline. A reduction in the sense of smell is considered to potentially represent an early and important warning of neurodegenerative disorders, particularly of Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, and, in mild cognitive impairment, olfactory impairment may herald progression to dementia. Further investigations of the potential role of olfactory dysfunction in the early diagnosis and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases are warranted.

  4. Neuropsychological Sex Differences Associated with Age of Initiated Use Among Young Adult Cannabis Users

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Natania A.; Schuster, Randi Melissa; Mermelstein, Robin J.; Gonzalez, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Earlier initiation of cannabis use is associated with poorer neuropsychological functioning across several domains. Given well-documented sex differences in neuromaturation during adolescence, initiation of cannabis use during this time may affect neuropsychological functioning differently for males and females. Method In the current study, we examined sex differences in the relationship between age of initiated cannabis use and neuropsychological performance after controlling for amount of lifetime cannabis use in 44 male and 25 female young adult cannabis users. Results We found that an earlier age of initiated use was related to poorer episodic memory, especially immediate recall, in females, but not in males. On the other hand, we found that, surprisingly, an earlier age of initiated use was associated with better decision-making overall. However, exploratory analyses found sex-specific factors associated with decision-making and age of initiated use, specifically that ADHD symptoms in females may drive the relationship between an earlier age of initiated use and better decision-making. Further, an earlier age of initiated use was associated with less education, a lower IQ, and fewer years of mother’s education for females, but more lifetime cannabis use for males. Conclusions Taken together, our findings suggest there are sex-differences in the associations between age of initiated cannabis use and neuropsychological functioning. The current study provides preliminary evidence that males and females may have different neuropsychological vulnerabilities that place them at risk for initiating cannabis use and continued cannabis use, highlighting the importance of examining the impact of cannabis on neuropsychological functioning separately for males and females. PMID:25832823

  5. Standardization Initiatives in the (eco)toxicogenomics Domain: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Norman; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Fostel, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide readers with a resource of different ongoing standardization efforts within the ‘omics’ (genomic, proteomics, metabolomics) and related communities, with particular focus on toxicological and environmental applications. The review includes initiatives within the research community as well as in the regulatory arena. It addresses data management issues (format and reporting structures for the exchange of information) and database interoperability, highlighting key objectives, target audience and participants. A considerable amount of work still needs to be done and, ideally, collaboration should be optimized and duplication and incompatibility should be avoided where possible. The consequence of failing to deliver data standards is an escalation in the burden and cost of data management tasks. PMID:18629184

  6. 77 FR 28393 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... Prevent Prescription Drug Overdoses, FOA CE12-007, initial review. In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of... to ``Research to Prevent Prescription Drug Overdoses, FOA CE12-007, initial review.'' Contact...

  7. 77 FR 21778 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... among High Risk Female Teens, FOA DP12- 001, initial review. In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the... among High Risk Female Teens, FOA DP12-001, initial review.'' Contact Person For More Information:...

  8. 77 FR 28392 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... Motor Vehicle Injury Research, FOA CE12-006, initial review. In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the...-related Motor Vehicle Injury Research, FOA CE12-006, initial review.'' Contact Person for More...

  9. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report XI, Volume IV. Critical review of the design basis. [Critical review

    SciTech Connect

    1981-05-01

    Report XI, Technical Audit, is a compendium of research material used during the Initial Effort in making engineering comparisons and decisions. Volumes 4 and 5 of Report XI present those studies which provide a Critical Review of the Design Basis. The Critical Review Report, prepared by Intercontinental Econergy Associates, Inc., summarizes findings from an extensive review of the data base for the H-Coal process design. Volume 4 presents this review and assessment, and includes supporting material; specifically, Design Data Tabulation (Appendix A), Process Flow Sheets (Appendix B), and References (Appendix C). Volume 5 is a continuation of the references of Appendix C. Studies of a proprietary nature are noted and referenced, but are not included in these volumes. They are included in the Limited Access versions of these reports and may be reviewed by properly cleared personnel in the offices of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc.

  10. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report XI, Volume V. Critical review of the design basis. [Critical review

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Report XI, Technical Audit, is a compendium of research material used during the Initial Effort in making engineering comparisons and decisions. Volumes 4 and 5 of Report XI present those studies which provide a Critical Review of the Design Basis. The Critical Review Report, prepared by Intercontinental Econergy Associates, Inc., summarizes findings from an extensive review of the data base for the H-Coal process design. Volume 4 presents this review and assessment, and includes supporting material; specifically, Design Data Tabulation (Appendix A), Process Flow Sheets (Appendix B), and References (Appendix C). Volume 5 is a continuation of the references of Appendix C. Studies of a proprietary nature are noted and referenced, but are not included in these volumes. They are included in the Limited Access versions of these reports and may be reviewed by properly cleared personnel in the offices of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc.

  11. Double Barreled Wet Colostomy: Initial Experience and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Salgado-Cruz, Luis; Espin-Basany, Eloy; Vallribera-Valls, Francesc; Sanchez-Garcia, Jose; Jimenez-Gomez, Luis Miguel; Marti-Gallostra, Marc; Garza-Maldonado, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Background. Pelvic exenteration and multivisceral resection in colorectal have been described as a curative and palliative intervention. Urinary tract reconstruction in a pelvic exenteration is achieved in most cases with an ileal conduit of Bricker, although different urinary reservoirs have been described. Methods. A retrospective and observational study of six patients who underwent a pelvic exenteration and urinary tract reconstruction with a double barreled wet colostomy (DBWC) was done, describing the preoperative diagnosis, the indication for the pelvic exenteration, the complications associated with the procedure, and the followup in a period of 5 years. A literature review of the case series reported of the technique was performed. Results. Six patients had a urinary tract reconstruction with the DBWC technique, 5 male patients and one female patient. Age range was from 20 to 77 years, with a medium age 53.6 years. The most frequent complication presented was a pelvic abscess in 3 patients (42.85%); all complications could be resolved with a conservative treatment. Conclusion. In the group of our patients with pelvic exenteration and urinary tract reconstruction with a DBWC, it is a safe procedure and well tolerated by the patients, and most of the complications can be resolved with conservative treatment. PMID:25574498

  12. 75 FR 70949 - Proposed Information Collection for the Evaluation of the Aging Worker Initiative; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... submissions of responses. III. Current Actions Type of Review: New. Agency: Employment and Training... Initiative; Comment Request AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... of the grants, document the types of interventions, assess attributes of these treatments,...

  13. Age, interpersonal attraction, and social interaction. A review and assessment.

    PubMed

    Webb, L; Delaney, J J; Young, L R

    1989-03-01

    This essay reviews over 40 extant research reports on attraction and aging. The review indicated that (a) perceived agreement in attitude tends to neutralize young adults' general perception of older adults as unattractive, (b) elders prefer to associate with middle-aged and older adults more than they desire to associate with younger adults, regardless of the relative physical attraction of the target individuals, and (c) elders' marital satisfaction appears to be related to perceived physical attractiveness of the husband, not the wife. The authors provide critique and analysis of the research methods employed in the reviewed studies. Avenues for further research are identified.

  14. 40 CFR 22.30 - Appeal from or review of initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Appeal from or review of initial.../TERMINATION OR SUSPENSION OF PERMITS Appeals and Administrative Review § 22.30 Appeal from or review of initial decision. (a) Notice of appeal. (1) Within 30 days after the initial decision is served, any...

  15. 40 CFR 22.30 - Appeal from or review of initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Appeal from or review of initial.../TERMINATION OR SUSPENSION OF PERMITS Appeals and Administrative Review § 22.30 Appeal from or review of initial decision. (a) Notice of appeal. (1) Within 30 days after the initial decision is served, any...

  16. 40 CFR 22.30 - Appeal from or review of initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Appeal from or review of initial.../TERMINATION OR SUSPENSION OF PERMITS Appeals and Administrative Review § 22.30 Appeal from or review of initial decision. (a) Notice of appeal. (1) Within 30 days after the initial decision is served, any...

  17. 40 CFR 22.30 - Appeal from or review of initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Appeal from or review of initial.../TERMINATION OR SUSPENSION OF PERMITS Appeals and Administrative Review § 22.30 Appeal from or review of initial decision. (a) Notice of appeal. (1) Within 30 days after the initial decision is served, any...

  18. 40 CFR 22.30 - Appeal from or review of initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appeal from or review of initial.../TERMINATION OR SUSPENSION OF PERMITS Appeals and Administrative Review § 22.30 Appeal from or review of initial decision. (a) Notice of appeal. (1) Within 30 days after the initial decision is served, any...

  19. The Arkansas Aging Initiative: An Innovative Approach for Addressing the Health of Older Rural Arkansans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beverly, Claudia J.; McAtee, Robin E.; Chernoff, Ronni; Davis, Gwynn V.; Jones, Susan K.; Lipschitz, David A.

    2007-01-01

    The Donald W. Reynolds Institute on Aging at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences in Little Rock is addressing one of the most pressing policy issues facing the United States: how to care for the burgeoning number of older adults. In 2001, the Institute created the Arkansas Aging Initiative, which established seven satellite centers on…

  20. Is Age Kinder to the Initially More Able?: Yes, and No

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gow, Alan J.; Johnson, Wendy; Mishra, Gita; Richards, Marcus; Kuh, Diana; Deary, Ian J.

    2012-01-01

    Although a number of analyses have addressed whether initial cognitive ability level is associated with age-related cognitive decline, results have been inconsistent. Latent growth curve modeling was applied to two aging cohorts, extending previous analyses with a further wave of data collection, or as a more appropriate analytical methodology…

  1. Ages at Initiation of Cigarette Smoking and Quit Attempts among Women: A Generation Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morabia, Alfredo; Costanza, Michael C.; Bernstein, Martine S.; Rielle, Jean-Charles

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether age at initiation of regular smoking and likelihood of quitting smoking through age 35 years would differ among younger and older women. Data from annual population-based surveys of residents of Geneva, Switzerland, indicated that young female smokers had a higher propensity to quit than older women. There were no differences…

  2. Basin-Scale Opportunity Assessment Initiative Background Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Saulsbury, Bo; Geerlofs, Simon H.; Cada, Glenn F; Bevelhimer, Mark S

    2010-10-01

    As called for in the March 24, 2010, Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Hydropower, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), environmental stakeholders, and the hydropower industry are collaborating to identify opportunities to simultaneously increase electricity generation and improve environmental services in river basins of the United States. New analytical tools provide an improved ability to understand, model, and visualize environmental and hydropower systems. Efficiencies and opportunities that might not be apparent in site-by-site analyses can be revealed through assessments at the river-basin scale. Information from basin-scale assessments could lead to better coordination of existing hydropower projects, or to inform siting decisions (e.g., balancing the removal of some dams with the construction of others), in order to meet renewable energy production and environmental goals. Basin-scale opportunity assessments would inform energy and environmental planning and address the cumulative effects of hydropower development and operations on river basin environmental quality in a way that quantifies energy-environment tradeoffs. Opportunity assessments would create information products, develop scenarios, and identify specific actions that agencies, developers, and stakeholders can take to locate new sustainable hydropower projects, increase the efficiency and environmental performance of existing projects, and restore and protect environmental quality in our nation's river basins. Government agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGO) have done significant work to understand and assess opportunities for both hydropower and environmental protection at the basin scale. Some initiatives have been successful, others less so, and there is a need to better understand the legacy of work on which this current project can build. This background literature review is intended to

  3. The ethical review of health care quality improvement initiatives: findings from the field.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Holly A; Pronovost, Peter J; Faden, Ruth R; Kass, Nancy E; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2010-08-01

    Questions have been raised about whether and how health care quality improvement (QI) initiatives ought to be reviewed to address possible ethical issues associated with them. These questions have focused primarily on whether some QI initiatives meet the regulatory criteria for human subject research and should therefore be regulated and reviewed as such. Based on surveys of health care system professionals conducting QI initiatives and hospital CEOs, this issue brief finds that QI initiatives are routinely reviewed by a variety of internal mechanisms prior to implementation, although rarely through an institutional review board or another independent body charged specifically with ethical oversight of QI initiatives. Further research, the authors say, is needed to achieve a better understanding of how review mechanisms for QI initiatives are structured, including information on who reviews these activities, how they are reviewed, and whether such processes include an ethical assessment of the proposed QI initiative.

  4. Combined effects of maternal age and parity on successful initiation of exclusive breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Kitano, Naomi; Nomura, Kyoko; Kido, Michiko; Murakami, Keiko; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Ueno, Masami; Sugimoto, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Maternal age at first childbirth has increased in most developed countries in the past 20 years. The purpose of this study is to investigate effects of maternal age at delivery and parity on successful initiation of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). This retrospective study investigated 1193 singleton dyads with vaginal-delivered at 37–42 gestational weeks during January and December in 2011 at one large “Baby-Friendly” certified hospital in Japan. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to evaluate individual and combined effects of maternal age and parity on successful initiation of EBF after adjusted for pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, pregnancy complications, mothers' underlying illness, smoking and alcohol drinking habits, gestational week at delivery, child's sex and nurturing support from grandparents. Success rates of EBF at one month after child delivery was 69.4% in primiparous aged ≥ 35 (group A: n = 284), 73.5% in multiparous aged ≥ 35 (group B: n = 268), 74.3% in primiparous aged < 35 (group C: n = 432), and 82.3% in multiparous aged < 35 (group D: n = 209). Older maternal age and primiparous became independently associated with EBF initiation. The combined effect for successful initiation of EBF was the lowest in group A referent to group D both at discharge and at one month (odds ratio (OR) 5.9, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.0–11.9, and OR 2.2, 95% CI: 1.4–3.4, respectively). Primiparous mothers in late child-bearing aged 35 years or older are at the greatest risk of EBF initiation. PMID:26844198

  5. NSF Geosciences Initiatives and Plans Reviewed at Advisory Committee Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-10-01

    In its semiannual meeting on 6-7 October, the U.S. National Science Foundation's (NSF) Advisory Committee for Geosciences (GEO) reviewed GEO initiatives, programs, and plans, including the GEO directorate's fast and significant response to support research related to various aspects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico through Rapid Response Research (RAPID) awards and other measures. An undercurrent during the meeting was concern about workload stress among GEO staff. Assistant director of geosciences Tim Killeen noted that the proposed budget for fiscal year (FY) 2011, which began on 1 October, would increase directorate funding 7.4% over FY 2010, if the budget is approved by Congress. A continuing resolution in Congress maintains FY 2010 funding levels until at least 3 December. Killeen said NSF's budget request for FY 2012 has been submitted to the White House Office of Management and Budget, adding that although he cannot discuss details of that budget yet, GEO Vision, a long­range strategy document for the directorate released in October 2009, “is reflected in our thinking going forward.”

  6. [AGING AND OSTEOARTHRITIS. CHRONIC NONSPECIFIC INFLAMMATION AS A LINK BETWEEN AGING AND OSTEOARTHRITIS (REVIEW)].

    PubMed

    Mendel, O I; Luchihina, L V; Mendel, W

    2015-01-01

    This article presents review on the processes underlying aging and the most common age-associated diseases. Special attention is given to the role of chronic nonspecific inflammation. Based on the literature data it was demonstrated that aging and osteoarthritis have the same basic molecular and cellular mechanisms, among which general are cascades intracellular transcription chronic nonspecific inflammation and metabolic disturbances plays an important role. It is concluded that the process of normal aging is not a disease, but makes the human body, and particularly the musculoskeletal system, susceptible to age-associated changes. Number of changes in the human body that accompany the aging process, and play a role in the development and progression of OA, are potentially reversible, regardless of age (eg, chronic non-specific inflammation), and can be considered as a possible entry points for the effective prevention and complex therapy of OA in elderly people.

  7. Age at HPV Vaccine Initiation and Completion among US Adolescent Girls: Trend from 2008 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mahbubur; McGrath, Christine J.; Hirth, Jacqueline M.; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the trend of provider-verified HPV vaccine initiation (≥1 dose) and completion (≥3 doses) among adolescent girls at the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended age (11-12 years). Methods We analyzed National Immunization Survey of Teens 2008-2012 data and examined the trend of provider-verified HPV vaccine initiation and completion among <13 year old girls. Results Data on age at HPV vaccine initiation and completion were available for 24,466 and 15,972 girls, respectively. The weighted proportion of girls who initiated the vaccine at <13 years of age was 14.1%, 24.1%, 35.9%, 47.7% and 55.9% in 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively (p for trend <.001). The similar trend was also observed for mean age at HPV vaccine initiation and completion (p <.001). Conclusions Additional efforts are needed to increase HPV vaccine uptake among adolescent girls as only half of them receive this vaccine at ACIP recommended age. PMID:25529289

  8. Optimal loading dose for the initiation of warfarin: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Selection of the right warfarin dose at the outset of treatment is not straightforward, and current evidence is lacking to determine the optimal strategy for initiation of therapy. Methods We included randomized controlled trials in patients commencing anticoagulation with warfarin, comparing different loading dose or different regimens. We searched Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and the NHS Health Economics Database up to June 2009. Primary outcomes were time to stable INR and adverse events. We summarised results as proportion of INRs in range from date of initiation and compared dichotomous outcomes using relative risks (RR) and calculated 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results We included 11 studies of 1,340 patients newly initiated on warfarin. In two studies that used single INR measures, a loading dose of 10 mg compared to 5 mg led to more patients in range on day five. However, in two studies which measured two consecutive INRs, a loading dose of 10 mg compared to 5 mg did not lead to more patients in range on day five (RR = 0.86, 95% CI, 0.62 to 1.19, p = 0.37). Patients receiving a 2.5 mg initiation does took longer to achieve the therapeutic range, whilst those receiving a calculated initiation dose achieved target range 0.8 days quicker (4.2 days vs. 5 days, p = 0.007). More elderly patients receiving an age adjusted dose achieved a stable INR compared to the Fennerty protocol (48% vs. 22% p = 0.02) and significantly fewer patients on the age adjusted regimens had high out-of-range INRs. Two studies report no significant differences between genotype guided and 5 mg or 10 mg initiation doses and in the one significant genotype study the control group INRs were significantly lower than expected. Conclusion Our review findings suggest there is still considerable uncertainty between a 10 mg and a 5 mg loading dose for initiation of warfarin. In the elderly, lower initiation doses or age adjusted doses are more appropriate, leading to less

  9. 17 CFR 10.105 - Review by Commission on its own initiative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Review by Commission on its... COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Appeals to the Commission; Settlements § 10.105 Review by Commission on its own initiative. The Commission may on its own initiative, within 30 days after the initial decision has...

  10. Using CD4 Percentage and Age to Optimize Pediatric Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Warshaw, Meredith G.; Miller, William C.; Castro, Hannah; Fiscus, Susan A.; Harper, Lynda M.; Harrison, Linda J.; Klein, Nigel J.; Lewis, Joanna; Melvin, Ann J.; Tudor-Williams, Gareth; McKinney, Ross E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Quantifying pediatric immunologic recovery by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation at different CD4 percentage (CD4%) and age thresholds may inform decisions about timing of treatment initiation. METHODS: HIV-1-infected, HAART-naive children in Europe and the Americas were followed from 2002 through 2009 in PENPACT-1. Data from 162 vertically infected children, with at least World Health Organization “mild” immunosuppression and CD4% <10th percentile, were analyzed for improvement to a normal CD4% (≥10th percentile) within 4 years after HAART initiation. Data from 209 vertically infected children, regardless of immune status, were analyzed for CD4% outcomes at 4 years and viral failure within 4 years. RESULTS: Seventy-two percent of baseline immunosuppressed children recovered to normal within 4 years. Compared with “severe” immunosuppression, more children with “mild” immunosuppression (difference 36%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 22% to 49%) or “advanced” immunosuppression (difference 20.8%, 95% CI: 5.8% to 35.9%) recovered a normal CD4%. For each 5-year increase in baseline age, the proportion of children achieving a normal CD4% declined by 19% (95% CI: 11% to 27%). Combining baseline CD4% and age effects resulted in >90% recovery when initiating HAART with “mild” immunosuppression at any age or “advanced” immunosuppression at age <3 years. Baseline CD4% effects became greater with increasing age (P = .02). At 4 years, most immunologic benefits were still significant but diminished. Viral failure was highest in infancy (56%) and adolescence (63%). CONCLUSIONS: Initiating HAART at higher CD4% and younger ages maximizes potential for immunologic recovery. Guidelines should weigh immunologic benefits against long-term risks. PMID:25266426

  11. 76 FR 47149 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review: Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... of Antidumping Duty Orders, 76 FR 41761 (July 15, 2011). The Department is not initiating Sunset... International Trade Administration Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review: Correction AGENCY: Import... five-year reviews (``Sunset Reviews'') of certain antidumping and countervailing duty...

  12. 47 CFR 1.276 - Appeal and review of initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Appeal and review of initial decision. 1.276 Section 1.276 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Hearing Proceedings Review Proceedings § 1.276 Appeal and review of initial decision. (a)(1) Within 30 days after the date on which public release of...

  13. 47 CFR 1.276 - Appeal and review of initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Appeal and review of initial decision. 1.276 Section 1.276 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Hearing Proceedings Review Proceedings § 1.276 Appeal and review of initial decision. (a)(1) Within 30 days after the date on which public release of...

  14. The social ecology of adolescent-initiated parent abuse: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jun Sung; Kral, Michael J; Espelage, Dorothy L; Allen-Meares, Paula

    2012-06-01

    This article provides an ecological framework for understanding adolescent-initiated parent abuse. We review research on adolescent-initiated parent abuse, identifying sociodemographic characteristics of perpetrators and victims (e.g., gender, age, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status [SES]). Bronfenbrenner's [1] ecological systems theory is applied, which examines the risk and protective factors for adolescent-initiated parent abuse within micro- (maltreatment, domestic violence, parenting behavior and disciplinary strategies), meso- (peer influence), exo- (media influence), macro- (gender role socialization), and chronosystem (change in family structure) levels. Findings from our review suggest that older and White children are significantly more likely to abuse their parents. Females are selective in the target of their aggression, while males target family members in general. Mothers are significantly more likely to be abused than fathers. However, researchers also report variations in the association between SES and parent abuse. Domestic violence and child maltreatment are risk factors, while findings on parenting behavior and disciplinary strategies are mixed. Peer influence, exposure to media violence, gender role socialization, and change in family structure can potentially increase the risk of parent abuse. Practice and research implications are also discussed. An ecological systems framework allows for an examination of how various contexts interact and influence parent abuse behavior, and can provide needed directions for further research.

  15. Management of Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Clinical Practice: Initiation, Maintenance, and Discontinuation of Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Pearse A.; Tufail, Adnan; Patel, Praveen J.

    2011-01-01

    Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of irreversible visual loss in elderly populations. In recent years, pharmacological inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), via intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (Lucentis) or bevacizumab (Avastin), has offered the first opportunity to improve visual outcomes in patients diagnosed with this disorder. In this paper, we provide recommendations on how bevacizumab and ranibizumab may be best applied in current clinical practice, with an emphasis on their underlying pharmacology and efficacy. In addition, we review current guidelines for the initiation, maintenance, and discontinuation of anti-VEGF therapies, as well as emerging treatment strategies and future directions in the field. PMID:22174995

  16. 76 FR 18766 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... Research and Surveillance in Epilepsy, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) DP11- 003, initial review. In... received in response to ``Epidemiologic Research and Surveillance in Epilepsy FOA DP11-003, initial...

  17. 78 FR 6329 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... Treatments and Services Provided to People with ] Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), FOA DD13-002, initial... with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), FOA DD13-002, initial review.'' Contact Person for...

  18. 17 CFR 10.102 - Review of initial decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of appeal—(1) In general. Any party to a proceeding may appeal to the Commission an initial decision... party. The appeal shall be initiated by serving and filing with the Proceedings Clerk a notice of appeal... commercial carrier, the time within which the party served may file a notice of appeal shall be increased...

  19. 17 CFR 10.102 - Review of initial decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of appeal—(1) In general. Any party to a proceeding may appeal to the Commission an initial decision... party. The appeal shall be initiated by serving and filing with the Proceedings Clerk a notice of appeal... commercial carrier, the time within which the party served may file a notice of appeal shall be increased...

  20. 17 CFR 10.102 - Review of initial decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of appeal—(1) In general. Any party to a proceeding may appeal to the Commission an initial decision... party. The appeal shall be initiated by serving and filing with the Proceedings Clerk a notice of appeal... commercial carrier, the time within which the party served may file a notice of appeal shall be increased...

  1. 17 CFR 10.102 - Review of initial decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of appeal—(1) In general. Any party to a proceeding may appeal to the Commission an initial decision... party. The appeal shall be initiated by serving and filing with the Proceedings Clerk a notice of appeal... commercial carrier, the time within which the party served may file a notice of appeal shall be increased...

  2. 28 CFR 79.14 - Proof of initial exposure prior to age 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proof of initial exposure prior to age 21. 79.14 Section 79.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims Relating to Leukemia § 79.14 Proof...

  3. 28 CFR 79.14 - Proof of initial exposure prior to age 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proof of initial exposure prior to age 21. 79.14 Section 79.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims Relating to Leukemia § 79.14 Proof...

  4. 28 CFR 79.14 - Proof of initial exposure prior to age 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of initial exposure prior to age 21. 79.14 Section 79.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims Relating to Leukemia § 79.14 Proof...

  5. 28 CFR 79.14 - Proof of initial exposure prior to age 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proof of initial exposure prior to age 21. 79.14 Section 79.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims Relating to Leukemia § 79.14 Proof...

  6. 28 CFR 79.14 - Proof of initial exposure prior to age 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proof of initial exposure prior to age 21. 79.14 Section 79.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims Relating to Leukemia § 79.14 Proof...

  7. 77 FR 19018 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ... Public Health Research in South Africa, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) GH12- 004, initial review... applications received in response to ``Conducting Public Health Research in South Africa, FOA...

  8. 77 FR 25180 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... Research on Moderate Acute Malnutrition in Humanitarian Emergencies, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA... Malnutrition in Humanitarian Emergencies, FOA GH12-006, initial review.'' Contact Person for More...

  9. 76 FR 18555 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... of Vaccines and Immunization Policies, Programs, and Practices, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA... Immunization Policies, Programs, and Practices, FOA IP11-007, initial review.'' Contact Person for...

  10. Aging techniques for deep vein thrombosis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dharmarajah, B; Sounderajah, V; Rowland, S P; Leen, E L S; Davies, A H

    2015-03-01

    Deep vein thrombosis is common with an incidence of 1 in 1000. Acute thrombus removal for extensive proximal deep vein thrombosis using catheter-directed techniques highlights the need for accurate assessment of thrombus age. This systematic review summarises experimental and clinical evidence of imaging techniques for aging deep vein thrombosis. Ultrasound elastography and magnetic resonance imaging were highlighted as the most studied imaging modalities. Elastography was shown to distinguish between acute and chronic clots, despite demonstrating difficulty in accurate aging of clots older than 10 days in rat models. Elastography is noted as a feasible adjunct to current first-line imaging for deep vein thrombosis using duplex ultrasonography. Combinations of magnetic resonance imaging techniques can identify acute, sub-acute and chronic thrombi using endogenous contrast agents and provide objective standardisation of the diagnostic process, with reduced onus upon operator dependency. Further validation is required of these novel imaging techniques prior to clinical implementation for deep vein thrombosis aging.

  11. 15 CFR 930.131 - Review initiated by the Secretary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Appeal to the Secretary for Review Related to the Objectives of the Act and National Security Interests § 930.131 Review... federal license or permit activity, or a federal assistance activity, is consistent with the objectives...

  12. Age at the time of sulfonylurea initiation influences treatment outcomes in KCNJ11-related neonatal diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Thurber, Brian W.; Carmody, David; Tadie, Elizabeth C.; Pastore, Ashley N.; Dickens, Jazzmyne T.; Wroblewski, Kristen E.; Naylor, Rochelle N.; Philipson, Louis H.; Greeley, Siri Atma W.

    2015-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Individuals with heterozygous activating mutations of the KCNJ11 gene encoding a subunit of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP) can usually be treated with oral sulfonylurea (SU) pills in lieu of insulin injections. The aim of this study was to test our hypothesis that younger age at the time of initiation of SU therapy is correlated with lower required doses of SU therapy, shorter transition time and decreased likelihood of requiring additional diabetes medications. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study using data on 58 individuals with neonatal diabetes due to KCNJ11mutations identified through the University of Chicago Monogenic Diabetes Registry (http://monogenicdiabetes.uchicago.edu/registry). We assessed the influence of age at initiation of SU therapy on treatment outcomes. Results HbA1c fell from an average of 8.5% (69 mmol/mol) before transition to 6.2% (44 mmol/mol) after SU therapy (p < 0.001). Age of initiation of SU correlated with the dose (mg kg−1 day−1) of SU required at follow-up (r = 0.80, p < 0.001). Similar associations were observed across mutation subtypes. Ten participants required additional glucose-lowering medications and all had initiated SU at age 13 years or older. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusions/interpretation Earlier age at initiation of SU treatment is associated with improved response to SU therapy. Declining sensitivity to SU may be due to loss of beta cell mass over time in those treated with insulin. Our data support the need for early genetic diagnosis and appropriate personalised treatment in all cases of neonatal diabetes. PMID:25877689

  13. Nutrition initiatives in the context of population aging: where does the United States stand?

    PubMed

    Chalé, Angela; Unanski, Amanda G; Liang, Raymond Y

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the earliest segment of the baby boom generation turned 65 years of age. This event marks the beginning of a new phase of growth of the older adult population in the United States and is in line with what is referred to worldwide as "population aging." By 2030, older adults will comprise 20% of the U.S. population. With the impending increase in the older adult population, the United States is unprepared to handle the accompanying social and economic impact of growing rates of age-related diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. These diseases have nutritional determinants and, as such, they signify the need for effective preventive nutrition initiatives to address population aging in the United States. Comparatively, the European Union (EU) is projected to reach an older adult population of 24% by 2030. In this special article we evaluate nutrition initiatives for older adults in the United States and also examine nutrition initiatives in the European Union in search of an ideal model. However, we found that available data for EU initiatives targeted at population aging were limited. We conclude by offering the proposal of a physician-based model that establishes the primary care physician as the initiator of nutrition screening, education, referrals, and follow-up for the older adult population in the United States as a long-term goal. Apropos of the immediate future, we consider barriers that underscore the establishment of a physician-based model and suggest objectives that are attainable. Although the data are limited for the European Union, this model may serve to guide management of chronic diseases with a nutritional component in economies similar to the United States worldwide. PMID:22335437

  14. 33 CFR 154.804 - Review, certification, and initial inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., property, and the environment if an accident were to occur; and (4) If a quantitative failure analysis is... quantitative failure analysis. (e) The certifying entity must conduct all initial inspections and witness...

  15. 42 CFR 456.128 - Initial continued stay review date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... care appraisal norms, such as those developed by abstracting services or third party payors, to assign... statistically valid data on duration of stay in hospitals for patients whose characteristics, such as age...

  16. 76 FR 33366 - New Jail Planning Initiative; Review and Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... pages 29268-29271. ``Notice''--Two corrections have been made to this solicitation. First, NIC has..., NIC has deleted the following review criteria listed under Applicant Organization and Project...

  17. Pharmacotherapy in the ageing patient: The impact of age per se (A review).

    PubMed

    Singh, Shamsher; Bajorek, Beata

    2015-11-01

    A literature search was carried out to review the influence of 'ageing' on pharmacotherapeutic decision-making, specifically how 'age' is defined and considered in the utilisation of medication. Embase, Medline, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and Google scholar were canvassed in a three-tiered search according to pre-established inclusion criteria. In tier 1, a total of 22 studies were identified highlighting the underutilisation of medication in elderly patients, with a particular focus on warfarin. Four studies highlighted an age-bias in medication-prescribing for elderly patients, specifically in relation to medicines for rheumatoid arthritis, angina, and hypertension. Tier 2 identified diverse definitions for 'elderly', including biological age, chronological age, physiological age, as well as various descriptions of 'elderly' in clinical trials and guidelines. Finally, medication optimisation tools were identified through the third tier, emphasising the use of chronological age to describe the 'elderly'. Old age influences pharmacotherapeutic decision-making at various levels, however, what complicates the situation is the absence of a comprehensive definition of 'elderly'. Clinical recommendations need to be based more on objective factors known to affect medication effectiveness and safety.

  18. Smoking and Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Review and Update

    PubMed Central

    Velilla, Sara; García-Medina, José Javier; García-Layana, Alfredo; Pons-Vázquez, Sheila; Pinazo-Durán, M. Dolores; Gómez-Ulla, Francisco; Arévalo, J. Fernando; Díaz-Llopis, Manuel; Gallego-Pinazo, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the main socioeconomical health issues worldwide. AMD has a multifactorial etiology with a variety of risk factors. Smoking is the most important modifiable risk factor for AMD development and progression. The present review summarizes the epidemiological studies evaluating the association between smoking and AMD, the mechanisms through which smoking induces damage to the chorioretinal tissues, and the relevance of advising patients to quit smoking for their visual health. PMID:24368940

  19. Computationally Modeling Lipid Metabolism and Aging: A Mini-review

    PubMed Central

    Mc Auley, Mark T.; Mooney, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in biology is to improve the understanding of the mechanisms which underpin aging and how these affect health. The need to better understand aging is amplified by demographic changes, which have caused a gradual increase in the global population of older people. Aging western populations have resulted in a rise in the prevalence of age-related pathologies. Of these diseases, cardiovascular disease is the most common underlying condition in older people. The dysregulation of lipid metabolism due to aging impinges significantly on cardiovascular health. However, the multifaceted nature of lipid metabolism and the complexities of its interaction with aging make it challenging to understand by conventional means. To address this challenge computational modeling, a key component of the systems biology paradigm is being used to study the dynamics of lipid metabolism. This mini-review briefly outlines the key regulators of lipid metabolism, their dysregulation, and how computational modeling is being used to gain an increased insight into this system. PMID:25750699

  20. DNA methylation age of blood predicts future onset of lung cancer in the women's health initiative.

    PubMed

    Levine, Morgan E; Hosgood, H Dean; Chen, Brian; Absher, Devin; Assimes, Themistocles; Horvath, Steve

    2015-09-01

    Lung cancer is considered an age-associated disease, whose progression is in part due to accumulation of genomic instability as well as age-related decline in system integrity and function. Thus even among individuals exposed to high levels of genotoxic carcinogens, such as those found in cigarette smoke, lung cancer susceptibility may vary as a function of individual differences in the rate of biological aging. We recently developed a highly accurate candidate biomarker of aging based on DNA methylation (DNAm) levels, which may prove useful in assessing risk of aging-related diseases, such as lung cancer. Using data on 2,029 females from the Women's Health Initiative, we examined whether baseline measures of "intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration" (IEAA) predicted subsequent lung cancer incidence. We observed 43 lung cancer cases over the nearly twenty years of follow-up. Results showed that standardized measures of IEAA were significantly associated with lung cancer incidence (HR: 1.50, P=3.4x10-3). Furthermore, stratified Cox proportional hazard models suggested that the association may be even stronger among older individuals (70 years or above) or those who are current smokers. Overall, our results suggest that IEAA may be a useful biomarker for evaluating lung cancer susceptibility from a biological aging perspective. PMID:26411804

  1. 78 FR 9926 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

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  3. The influences of age on olfaction: a review

    PubMed Central

    Doty, Richard L.; Kamath, Vidyulata

    2014-01-01

    Decreased olfactory function is very common in the older population, being present in over half of those between the ages of 65 and 80 years and in over three quarters of those over the age of 80 years. Such dysfunction significantly influences physical well-being and quality of life, nutrition, the enjoyment of food, as well as everyday safety. Indeed a disproportionate number of the elderly die in accident gas poisonings each year. As described in this review, multiple factors contribute to such age-related loss, including altered nasal engorgement, increased propensity for nasal disease, cumulative damage to the olfactory epithelium from viral and other environmental insults, decrements in mucosal metabolizing enzymes, ossification of cribriform plate foramina, loss of selectivity of receptor cells to odorants, changes in neurotransmitter and neuromodulator systems, and neuronal expression of aberrant proteins associated with neurodegenerative disease. It is now well established that decreased smell loss can be an early sign of such neurodegenerative diseases as Alzheimer's disease and sporadic Parkinson's disease. In this review we provide an overview of the anatomy and physiology of the aging olfactory system, how this system is clinically evaluated, and the multiple pathophysiological factors that are associated with its dysfunction. PMID:24570664

  4. The influences of age on olfaction: a review.

    PubMed

    Doty, Richard L; Kamath, Vidyulata

    2014-01-01

    Decreased olfactory function is very common in the older population, being present in over half of those between the ages of 65 and 80 years and in over three quarters of those over the age of 80 years. Such dysfunction significantly influences physical well-being and quality of life, nutrition, the enjoyment of food, as well as everyday safety. Indeed a disproportionate number of the elderly die in accident gas poisonings each year. As described in this review, multiple factors contribute to such age-related loss, including altered nasal engorgement, increased propensity for nasal disease, cumulative damage to the olfactory epithelium from viral and other environmental insults, decrements in mucosal metabolizing enzymes, ossification of cribriform plate foramina, loss of selectivity of receptor cells to odorants, changes in neurotransmitter and neuromodulator systems, and neuronal expression of aberrant proteins associated with neurodegenerative disease. It is now well established that decreased smell loss can be an early sign of such neurodegenerative diseases as Alzheimer's disease and sporadic Parkinson's disease. In this review we provide an overview of the anatomy and physiology of the aging olfactory system, how this system is clinically evaluated, and the multiple pathophysiological factors that are associated with its dysfunction.

  5. Learning and Teaching Initiative Grants: 2012-2013. A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Jon; Kennedy, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    The "Learning and Teaching Initiative Grants" scheme has funded about 120 projects with an "eLearning" focus during the past three years. Project leaders from twenty-nine completed 2012/2013 projects were interviewed with an aim of ascertaining innovative ideas that were successful, and unsuccessful, and exploring ways in which…

  6. State Scholars Initiative in Review: Promising Practices and Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In response to the demands of the changing economy and the business community's need for better-educated, more highly skilled workers, the U.S. Department of Education, through the Office of Vocational and Adult Education (OVAE), developed the State Scholars Initiative (SSI), which encourages students to take a rigorous course of study in high…

  7. Cutaneous wound healing in aging small mammals: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Joo; Mustoe, Thomas; Clark, Richard A F

    2015-01-01

    As the elderly population grows, so do the clinical and socioeconomic burdens of nonhealing cutaneous wounds, the majority of which are seen among persons over 60 years of age. Human studies on how aging effects wound healing will always be the gold standard, but studies have ethical and practical hurdles. Choosing an animal model is dictated by costs and animal lifespan that preclude large animal use. Here, we review the current literature on how aging effects cutaneous wound healing in small animal models and, when possible, compare healing across studies. Using a literature search of MEDLINE/PubMed databases, studies were limited to those that utilized full-thickness wounds and compared the wound-healing parameters of wound closure, reepithelialization, granulation tissue fill, and tensile strength between young and aged cohorts. Overall, wound closure, reepithelialization, and granulation tissue fill were delayed or decreased with aging across different strains of mice and rats. Aging in mice was associated with lower tensile strength early in the wound healing process, but greater tensile strength later in the wound healing process. Similarly, aging in rats was associated with lower tensile strength early in the wound healing process, but no significant tensile strength difference between young and old rats later in healing wounds. From studies in New Zealand White rabbits, we found that reepithelialization and granulation tissue fill were delayed or decreased overall with aging. While similarities and differences in key wound healing parameters were noted between different strains and species, the comparability across the studies was highly questionable, highlighted by wide variability in experimental design and reporting. In future studies, standardized experimental design and reporting would help to establish comparable study groups, and advance the overall knowledge base, facilitating the translatability of animal data to the human clinical condition.

  8. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review*

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age. PMID:27192519

  9. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto de; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-04-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age. PMID:27192519

  10. A brief review of the problem of lightning initiation and a hypothesis of initial lightning leader formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Danyal; Bailey, Matthew; Beasley, William H.; Hallett, John

    2008-09-01

    A brief review of hypothesized mechanisms of lightning initiation is presented, with the suggestion that these mechanisms provide an incomplete picture of lightning initiation. This is followed by two ideas: (1) a combination of previously hypothesized lightning initiation mechanisms as a means for local intensification of the thundercloud electric field, and (2) a process for the formation of a hot lightning leader channel that is analogous to the space leader phase of the laboratory negative stepped leader. Thundercloud electric field observations have consistently yielded peak values that are an order of magnitude weaker than the dielectric strength of air. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain how lightning can initiate in such weak electric fields, including hydrometeor-initiated positive streamers and cosmic ray-initiated runaway breakdown. The historically favored positive streamer mechanisms are problematic due to requiring electric fields two to three times larger than peak observed fields. The recently favored runaway breakdown mechanisms appear capable of developing in conditions comparable to peak observed fields although it is not clear how these diffuse discharges can lead to creation of a lightning leader. This paper proposes a solution whereby runaway breakdown and hydrometeor-initiated positive streamer systems serve to locally intensify the electric field. Following this local field intensification, it is hypothesized that formation of the initial lightning leader channel is analogous to the formation of a space leader in a laboratory negative stepped leader.

  11. Evaluation of the Mental Healthiness Aging Initiative: community program to promote awareness about mental health and aging issues.

    PubMed

    Zanjani, Faika; Kruger, Tina; Murray, Deborah

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the Mental Healthiness Aging Initiative, designed to promote community awareness and knowledge about mental health and aging issues. This study occurred during 2007-2009 in 67 of 120 counties in Kentucky. A rural region (11 counties) received the intervention, consisting of focus groups, Extension Agent training, and television-based social marketing campaign. Partial-intervention counties (29 counties) received only the television-based social marketing campaign. The control counties (27 counties) received no intervention activities. Results indicated that the intervention counties agreed more with being able to assist elder adults with a potential mental illness. Also, the intervention counties understood the risk of consuming alcohol and medications better, but had a poorer recognition of drinking problems in elder adults. These findings need to be considered within study limitations, such as measurement error, degree of intervention exposure, and regional differences across intervention groups. The study demonstrates that community interventions on mental health awareness and knowledge are feasible within majority rural regions, with Extension Agents being gatekeepers, for promoting positive messages about mental health and aging issues. PMID:21234684

  12. Evaluation of the Mental Healthiness Aging Initiative: community program to promote awareness about mental health and aging issues.

    PubMed

    Zanjani, Faika; Kruger, Tina; Murray, Deborah

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the Mental Healthiness Aging Initiative, designed to promote community awareness and knowledge about mental health and aging issues. This study occurred during 2007-2009 in 67 of 120 counties in Kentucky. A rural region (11 counties) received the intervention, consisting of focus groups, Extension Agent training, and television-based social marketing campaign. Partial-intervention counties (29 counties) received only the television-based social marketing campaign. The control counties (27 counties) received no intervention activities. Results indicated that the intervention counties agreed more with being able to assist elder adults with a potential mental illness. Also, the intervention counties understood the risk of consuming alcohol and medications better, but had a poorer recognition of drinking problems in elder adults. These findings need to be considered within study limitations, such as measurement error, degree of intervention exposure, and regional differences across intervention groups. The study demonstrates that community interventions on mental health awareness and knowledge are feasible within majority rural regions, with Extension Agents being gatekeepers, for promoting positive messages about mental health and aging issues.

  13. Aging and the neuroeconomics of decision making: A review.

    PubMed

    Brown, Stephen B R E; Ridderinkhof, K Richard

    2009-12-01

    Neuroeconomics refers to a combination of paradigms derived from neuroscience, psychology, and economics for the study of decision making and is an area that has received considerable scientific attention in the recent literature. Using realistic laboratory tasks, researchers seek to study the neurocognitive processes underlying economic decision making and outcome-based decision learning, as well as individual differences in these processes and the social and affective factors that modulate them. To this point, one question has remained largely unanswered: What happens to decision-making processes and their neural substrates during aging? After all, aging is associated with neurocognitive change, which may affect outcome-based decision making. In our study, we use the subjective expected utility model-a well-established decision-making model in economics-as a descriptive framework. After a short survey of the brain areas and neurotransmitter systems associated with outcome-based decision making-and of the effects of aging thereon-we review a number of decision-making studies. Their general data pattern indicates that the decision-making process is changed by age: The elderly perform less efficiently than younger participants, as demonstrated, for instance, by the smaller total rewards that the elderly acquire in lab tasks. These findings are accounted for in terms of age-related deficiencies in the probability and value parameters of the subjective expected utility model. Finally, we discuss some implications and suggestions for future research.

  14. Can Aging in Place Be Cost Effective? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Graybill, Erin M.; McMeekin, Peter; Wildman, John

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the Study To systematically review cost, cost-minimization and cost-effectiveness studies for assisted living technologies (ALTs) that specifically enable older people to ‘age in place’ and highlight what further research is needed to inform decisions regarding aging in place. Design People aged 65+ and their live-in carers (where applicable), using an ALT to age in place at home opposed to a community-dwelling arrangement. Methods Studies were identified using a predefined search strategy on two key economic and cost evaluation databases NHS EED, HEED. Studies were assessed using methods recommended by the Campbell and Cochrane Economic Methods Group and presented in a narrative synthesis style. Results Eight eligible studies were identified from North America spread over a diverse geographical range. The majority of studies reported the ALT intervention group as having lower resource use costs than the control group; though the low methodological quality and heterogeneity of the individual costs and outcomes reported across studies must be considered. Implications The studies suggest that in some cases ALTs may reduce costs, though little data were identified and what there were was of poor quality. Methods to capture quality of life gains were not used, therefore potential effects on health and wellbeing may be missed. Further research is required using newer developments such as the capabilities approach. High quality studies assessing the cost-effectiveness of ALTs for ageing in place are required before robust conclusion on their use can be drawn. PMID:25058505

  15. OH-Initiated Oxidation of m-Xylene on Black Carbon Aging.

    PubMed

    Guo, Song; Hu, Min; Lin, Yun; Gomez-Hernandez, Mario; Zamora, Misti L; Peng, Jianfei; Collins, Donald R; Zhang, Renyi

    2016-08-16

    Laboratory experiments are conducted to investigate aging of size-classified black carbon (BC) particles from OH-initiated oxidation of m-xylene. The variations in the particle size, mass, effective density, morphology, optical properties, hygroscopicity, and activation as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are simultaneously measured by a suite of aerosol instruments, when BC particles are exposed to the oxidation products of the OH-m-xylene reactions. The BC aging is governed by the coating thickness (Δrve), which is correlated to the reaction time and initial concentrations of m-xylene and NOx. For an initial diameter of 100 nm and Δrve = 44 nm, the particle size and mass increase by a factor of 1.5 and 10.4, respectively, and the effective density increases from 0.43 to 1.45 g cm(-3) due to organic coating and collapsing of the BC core. The BC particles are fully converted from a highly fractal to nearly spherical morphology for Δrve = 30 nm. The scattering, absorption, and single scattering albedo of BC particles are enhanced accordingly with organic coating. The critical supersaturation for CCN activation is reduced to 0.1% with Δrve = 44 nm. The results imply that the oxidation of m-xylene exhibits larger impacts in modifying the BC particle properties than those for the OH-initiated oxidation of isoprene and toluene. PMID:27384756

  16. Role of OH-initiated oxidation of isoprene in aging of combustion soot.

    PubMed

    Khalizov, Alexei F; Lin, Yun; Qiu, Chong; Guo, Song; Collins, Don; Zhang, Renyi

    2013-03-01

    We have investigated the contribution of OH-initiated oxidation of isoprene to the atmospheric aging of combustion soot. The experiments were conducted in a fluoropolymer chamber on size-classified soot aerosols in the presence of isoprene, photolytically generated OH, and nitrogen oxides. The evolution in the mixing state of soot was monitored from simultaneous measurements of the particle size and mass, which were used to calculate the particle effective density, dynamic shape factor, mass fractal dimension, and coating thickness. When soot particles age, the increase in mass is accompanied by a decrease in particle mobility diameter and an increase in effective density. Coating material not only fills in void spaces, but also causes partial restructuring of fractal soot aggregates. For thinly coated aggregates, the single scattering albedo increases weakly because of the decreased light absorption and practically unchanged scattering. Upon humidification, coated particles absorb water, leading to an additional compaction. Aging transforms initially hydrophobic soot particles into efficient cloud condensation nuclei at a rate that increases in the presence of nitrogen oxides. Our results suggest that ubiquitous biogenic isoprene plays an important role in aging of anthropogenic soot, shortening its atmospheric lifetime and considerably altering its impacts on air quality and climate.

  17. Role of OH-initiated oxidation of isoprene in aging of combustion soot.

    PubMed

    Khalizov, Alexei F; Lin, Yun; Qiu, Chong; Guo, Song; Collins, Don; Zhang, Renyi

    2013-03-01

    We have investigated the contribution of OH-initiated oxidation of isoprene to the atmospheric aging of combustion soot. The experiments were conducted in a fluoropolymer chamber on size-classified soot aerosols in the presence of isoprene, photolytically generated OH, and nitrogen oxides. The evolution in the mixing state of soot was monitored from simultaneous measurements of the particle size and mass, which were used to calculate the particle effective density, dynamic shape factor, mass fractal dimension, and coating thickness. When soot particles age, the increase in mass is accompanied by a decrease in particle mobility diameter and an increase in effective density. Coating material not only fills in void spaces, but also causes partial restructuring of fractal soot aggregates. For thinly coated aggregates, the single scattering albedo increases weakly because of the decreased light absorption and practically unchanged scattering. Upon humidification, coated particles absorb water, leading to an additional compaction. Aging transforms initially hydrophobic soot particles into efficient cloud condensation nuclei at a rate that increases in the presence of nitrogen oxides. Our results suggest that ubiquitous biogenic isoprene plays an important role in aging of anthropogenic soot, shortening its atmospheric lifetime and considerably altering its impacts on air quality and climate. PMID:23379649

  18. Pediatric Biopharmaceutical Classification System: Using Age-Appropriate Initial Gastric Volume.

    PubMed

    Shawahna, Ramzi

    2016-05-01

    Development of optimized pediatric formulations for oral administration can be challenging, time consuming, and financially intensive process. Since its inception, the biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS) has facilitated the development of oral drug formulations destined for adults. At least theoretically, the BCS principles are applied also to pediatrics. A comprehensive age-appropriate BCS has not been fully developed. The objective of this work was to provisionally classify oral drugs listed on the latest World Health Organization's Essential Medicines List for Children into an age-appropriate BCS. A total of 38 orally administered drugs were included in this classification. Dose numbers were calculated using age-appropriate initial gastric volume for neonates, 6-month-old infants, and children aging 1 year through adulthood. Using age-appropriate initial gastric volume and British National Formulary age-specific dosing recommendations in the calculation of dose numbers, the solubility classes shifted from low to high in pediatric subpopulations of 12 years and older for amoxicillin, 5 years, 12 years and older for cephalexin, 9 years and older for chloramphenicol, 3-4 years, 9-11 and 15 years and older for diazepam, 18 years and older (adult) for doxycycline and erythromycin, 8 years and older for phenobarbital, 10 years and older for prednisolone, and 15 years and older for trimethoprim. Pediatric biopharmaceutics are not fully understood where several knowledge gaps have been recently emphasized. The current biowaiver criteria are not suitable for safe application in all pediatric populations.

  19. Pediatric Biopharmaceutical Classification System: Using Age-Appropriate Initial Gastric Volume.

    PubMed

    Shawahna, Ramzi

    2016-05-01

    Development of optimized pediatric formulations for oral administration can be challenging, time consuming, and financially intensive process. Since its inception, the biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS) has facilitated the development of oral drug formulations destined for adults. At least theoretically, the BCS principles are applied also to pediatrics. A comprehensive age-appropriate BCS has not been fully developed. The objective of this work was to provisionally classify oral drugs listed on the latest World Health Organization's Essential Medicines List for Children into an age-appropriate BCS. A total of 38 orally administered drugs were included in this classification. Dose numbers were calculated using age-appropriate initial gastric volume for neonates, 6-month-old infants, and children aging 1 year through adulthood. Using age-appropriate initial gastric volume and British National Formulary age-specific dosing recommendations in the calculation of dose numbers, the solubility classes shifted from low to high in pediatric subpopulations of 12 years and older for amoxicillin, 5 years, 12 years and older for cephalexin, 9 years and older for chloramphenicol, 3-4 years, 9-11 and 15 years and older for diazepam, 18 years and older (adult) for doxycycline and erythromycin, 8 years and older for phenobarbital, 10 years and older for prednisolone, and 15 years and older for trimethoprim. Pediatric biopharmaceutics are not fully understood where several knowledge gaps have been recently emphasized. The current biowaiver criteria are not suitable for safe application in all pediatric populations. PMID:26935428

  20. Relaxation and physical aging in network glasses: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micoulaut, Matthieu

    2016-06-01

    Recent progress in the description of glassy relaxation and aging are reviewed for the wide class of network-forming materials such as GeO2, Ge x Se1-x , silicates (SiO2-Na2O) or borates (B2O3-Li2O), all of which have an important usefulness in domestic, geological or optoelectronic applications. A brief introduction of the glass transition phenomenology is given, together with the salient features that are revealed both from theory and experiments. Standard experimental methods used for the characterization of the slowing down of the dynamics are reviewed. We then discuss the important role played by aspects of network topology and rigidity for the understanding of the relaxation of the glass transition, while also permitting analytical predictions of glass properties from simple and insightful models based on the network structure. We also emphasize the great utility of computer simulations which probe the dynamics at the molecular level, and permit the calculation of various structure-related functions in connection with glassy relaxation and the physics of aging which reveal the non-equilibrium nature of glasses. We discuss the notion of spatial variations of structure which leads to the concept of ‘dynamic heterogeneities’, and recent results in relation to this important topic for network glasses are also reviewed.

  1. Relaxation and physical aging in network glasses: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micoulaut, Matthieu

    2016-06-01

    Recent progress in the description of glassy relaxation and aging are reviewed for the wide class of network-forming materials such as GeO2, Ge x Se1‑x , silicates (SiO2–Na2O) or borates (B2O3–Li2O), all of which have an important usefulness in domestic, geological or optoelectronic applications. A brief introduction of the glass transition phenomenology is given, together with the salient features that are revealed both from theory and experiments. Standard experimental methods used for the characterization of the slowing down of the dynamics are reviewed. We then discuss the important role played by aspects of network topology and rigidity for the understanding of the relaxation of the glass transition, while also permitting analytical predictions of glass properties from simple and insightful models based on the network structure. We also emphasize the great utility of computer simulations which probe the dynamics at the molecular level, and permit the calculation of various structure-related functions in connection with glassy relaxation and the physics of aging which reveal the non-equilibrium nature of glasses. We discuss the notion of spatial variations of structure which leads to the concept of ‘dynamic heterogeneities’, and recent results in relation to this important topic for network glasses are also reviewed.

  2. Fingermark initial composition and aging using Fourier transform infrared microscopy (μ-FTIR).

    PubMed

    Girod, Aline; Xiao, Linda; Reedy, Brian; Roux, Claude; Weyermann, Céline

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated fingermark residues using Fourier transform infrared microscopy (μ-FTIR) in order to obtain fundamental information about the marks' initial composition and aging kinetics. This knowledge would be an asset for fundamental research on fingermarks, such as for dating purposes. Attenuated total reflection (ATR) and single-point reflection modes were tested on fresh fingermarks. ATR proved to be better suited and this mode was subsequently selected for further aging studies. Eccrine and sebaceous material was found in fresh and aged fingermarks and the spectral regions 1000-1850cm(-1) and 2700-3600cm(-1) were identified as the most informative. The impact of substrates (aluminium and glass slides) and storage conditions (storage in the light and in the dark) on fingermark aging was also studied. Chemometric analyses showed that fingermarks could be grouped according to their age regardless of the substrate when they were stored in an open box kept in an air-conditioned laboratory at around 20°C next to a window. On the contrary, when fingermarks were stored in the dark, only specimens deposited on the same substrate could be grouped by age. Thus, the substrate appeared to influence aging of fingermarks in the dark. Furthermore, PLS regression analyses were conducted in order to study the possibility of modelling fingermark aging for potential fingermark dating applications. The resulting models showed an overall precision of ±3 days and clearly demonstrated their capability to differentiate older fingermarks (20 and 34 days old) from newer ones (1, 3, 7 and 9 days old) regardless of the substrate and lighting conditions. These results are promising from a fingermark dating perspective. Further research is required to fully validate such models and assess their robustness and limitations in uncontrolled casework conditions. PMID:26254626

  3. Actinic Mask Inspection at the ALS Initial Design Review

    SciTech Connect

    Barty, A; Chapman, H; Sweeney, D; Levesque, R; Bokor, J; Gullikson, E; Jong, S; Liu, Y; Yi, M; Denbeaux, G; Goldberg, K; Naulleau, P; Denham, P; Rekawa, S; Baston, P; Tackaberry, R; Barale, P

    2003-03-05

    This report is the first milestone report for the actinic mask blank inspection project conducted at the VNL, which forms sub-section 3 of the Q1 2003 mask blank technology transfer program at the VNL. Specifically this report addresses deliverable 3.1.1--design review and preliminary tool design. The goal of this project is to design an actinic mask inspection tool capable of operating in two modes: high-speed scanning for the detection of multilayer defects (inspection mode), and a high-resolution aerial image mode in which the image emulates the imaging illumination conditions of a stepper system (aerial image or AIM mode). The purpose and objective of these two modes is as follows: (1) Defect inspection mode--This imaging mode is designed to scan large areas of the mask for defects EUV multilayer coatings. The goal is to detect the presence of multilayer defects on a mask blank and to store the co-ordinates for subsequent review in AIM mode, thus it is not essential that the illumination and imaging conditions match that of a production stepper. Potential uses for this imaging mode include: (a) Correlating the results obtained using actinic inspection with results obtained using other non-EUV defect inspection systems to verify that the non-EUV scanning systems are detecting all critical defects; (b) Gaining sufficient information to associate defects with particular processes, such as various stages of the multilayer deposition or different modes of operation of the deposition tool; and (c) Assessing the density and EUV impact of surface and multilayer anomalies. Because of the low defect density achieved using current multilayer coating technology it is necessary to be able to efficiently scan large areas of the mask in order to obtain sufficient statistics for use in cross-correlation experiments. Speed of operation as well as sensitivity is therefore key to operation in defect inspection mode. (2) Aerial Image Microscope (AIM) mode--In AIM mode the tool is

  4. Red meat consumption and healthy ageing: A review.

    PubMed

    Kouvari, Matina; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2016-02-01

    According to World Health Organization older individuals is the fastest growing age-group around the globe, thanks to the tremendous improvements in medical and pharmaceutical therapies, as well as in quality of life. Unfortunately, this raise in life span is accompanied by significant increase in disease burden, and consequent economical costs. Lifestyle modifications and effective prevention strategies have shown considerable benefits as regards the development of age-oriented chronic diseases. Among lifestyle factors, nutrition is a key component for achieving good health. Nevertheless, this parameter has insufficiently been investigated in older people. This is a rather important scientific gap, considering the westernization of nutritional habits observed the last few decades, with high red meat consumption and its processed products being an indispensable part. Moreover, its adverse impact in cardiovascular disease and cancer has been extensively investigated, while in recent literature, interest has been remarkably oriented towards its subtypes (i.e., fresh and processed); however, outcomes as regards the older population are controversial with a variety of them proposing moderation of red meat mainly the processed type, whilst others recognizing fresh red meat, especially the lean type, an important source of high quality protein so as to manage muscle tissue loss, a common implication of advanced-age discount. The aim of the present review was to present an overview of studies which have investigated the association between red meat and its subtypes, with chronic diseases, in middle and advanced age individuals. PMID:26642896

  5. Optimising nutrition in residential aged care: A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ekta; Marshall, Skye; Miller, Michelle; Isenring, Elisabeth

    2016-10-01

    In developed countries the prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition increases with age and multi-morbidities increase nutritional risk in aged care residents in particular. This paper presents a narrative review of the current literature on the identification, prevalence, associated risk factors, consequences, and management of malnutrition in the residential aged care (RAC) setting. We performed searches of English-language publications on Medline, PubMed, Ovid and the Cochrane Library from January 1, 1990 to November 25, 2015. We found that, on average, half of all residents in aged care are malnourished as a result of factors affecting appetite, dietary intake and nutrient absorption. Malnutrition is associated with a multitude of adverse outcomes, including increased risk of infections, falls, pressure ulcers and hospital admissions, all of which can lead to increased health care costs and poorer quality of life. A number of food and nutrition strategies have demonstrated positive nutritional and clinical outcomes in the RAC setting. These strategies extend beyond simply enhancing the nutritional value of foods and hence necessitate the involvement of a range of committed stakeholders. Implementing a nutritional protocol in RAC facilities that comprises routine nutrition screening, assessment, appropriate nutrition intervention, including attention to food service systems, and monitoring by a multidisciplinary team can help prevent decline in residents' nutritional status. Food and nutritional issues should be identified early and managed on admission and regularly in the RAC setting. PMID:27621242

  6. Red meat consumption and healthy ageing: A review.

    PubMed

    Kouvari, Matina; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2016-02-01

    According to World Health Organization older individuals is the fastest growing age-group around the globe, thanks to the tremendous improvements in medical and pharmaceutical therapies, as well as in quality of life. Unfortunately, this raise in life span is accompanied by significant increase in disease burden, and consequent economical costs. Lifestyle modifications and effective prevention strategies have shown considerable benefits as regards the development of age-oriented chronic diseases. Among lifestyle factors, nutrition is a key component for achieving good health. Nevertheless, this parameter has insufficiently been investigated in older people. This is a rather important scientific gap, considering the westernization of nutritional habits observed the last few decades, with high red meat consumption and its processed products being an indispensable part. Moreover, its adverse impact in cardiovascular disease and cancer has been extensively investigated, while in recent literature, interest has been remarkably oriented towards its subtypes (i.e., fresh and processed); however, outcomes as regards the older population are controversial with a variety of them proposing moderation of red meat mainly the processed type, whilst others recognizing fresh red meat, especially the lean type, an important source of high quality protein so as to manage muscle tissue loss, a common implication of advanced-age discount. The aim of the present review was to present an overview of studies which have investigated the association between red meat and its subtypes, with chronic diseases, in middle and advanced age individuals.

  7. Predicting low testosterone in aging men: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Millar, Adam C.; Lau, Adrian N.C.; Tomlinson, George; Kraguljac, Alan; Simel, David L.; Detsky, Allan S.; Lipscombe, Lorraine L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physicians diagnose and treat suspected hypogonadism in older men by extrapolating from the defined clinical entity of hypogonadism found in younger men. We conducted a systematic review to estimate the accuracy of clinical symptoms and signs for predicting low testosterone among aging men. Methods: We searched the MEDLINE and Embase databases (January 1966 to July 2014) for studies that compared clinical features with a measurement of serum testosterone in men. Three of the authors independently reviewed articles for inclusion, assessed quality and extracted data. Results: Among 6053 articles identified, 40 met the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of low testosterone ranged between 2% and 77%. Threshold testosterone levels used for reference standards also varied substantially. The summary likelihood ratio associated with decreased libido was 1.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3–1.9), and the likelihood ratio for absence of this finding was 0.72 (95% CI 0.58–0.85). The likelihood ratio associated with the presence of erectile dysfunction was 1.5 (95% CI 1.3–1.8) and with absence of erectile dysfunction was 0.83 (95% CI 0.76–0.91). Of the multiple-item instruments, the ANDROTEST showed both the most favourable positive likelihood ratio (range 1.9–2.2) and the most favourable negative likelihood ratio (range 0.37–0.49). Interpretation: We found weak correlation between signs, symptoms and testosterone levels, uncertainty about what threshold testosterone levels should be considered low for aging men and wide variation in estimated prevalence of the condition. It is therefore difficult to extrapolate the method of diagnosing pathologic hypogonadism in younger men to clinical decisions regarding age-related testosterone decline in aging men. PMID:27325129

  8. Spider silk aging: initial improvement in a high performance material followed by slow degradation.

    PubMed

    Agnarsson, Ingi; Boutry, Cecilia; Blackledge, Todd A

    2008-10-01

    Spider silk possesses a unique combination of high tensile strength and elasticity resulting in extraordinarily tough fibers, compared with the best synthetic materials. However, the potential application of spider silk and biomimetic fibers depends upon retention of their high performance under a variety of conditions. Here, we report on changes in the mechanical properties of dragline and capture silk fibers from several spider species over periods up to 4 years of benign aging. We find an improvement in mechanical performance of silk fibers during the first year of aging. Fibers rapidly decrease in diameter, suggesting an increase in structural alignment and organization of molecules. One-year old silk also is stiffer and has higher stress at yield than fresh silk, whereas breaking force, elasticity, and toughness either improve or are unaffected by early aging. However, 4-year old silk shows signs of degradation as the breaking load, elasticity, and toughness are all lower than in fresh silk. Aging, however, does not reduce the tensile strength of silk. These data suggest initially rapid reorganization and tighter packaging of molecules within the fiber, followed by longer-term decomposition. We hypothesize that possibly the breakdown of amino acids via emission of ammonia gas, as is seen in long-term aging of museum silkworm fabrics, may contribute. Degradation of spider silk under benign conditions may be a concern for efforts to construct and utilize biomimetic silk analogs. However, our findings suggest an initial improvement in mechanical performance and that even old spider silk still retains impressive mechanical performance. PMID:18626974

  9. Eating disorder prevention initiatives for athletes: A review.

    PubMed

    Bar, Rachel J; Cassin, Stephanie E; Dionne, Michelle M

    2016-01-01

    A substantial amount of evidence suggests that collegiate and elite athletes involved in weight-sensitive sports are at greater risk of developing eating disorders (EDs) than the general population. With the limited effectiveness of treatment for EDs, prevention of EDs has been broadly considered in the literature. The present paper reviewed the existing literature on ED prevention programmes for athletes in order to determine the current status of prevention programmes and recommend future directions. The available literature suggests that selective, primary interventions with multiple targets and an interactive multimodal approach appear most effective. Current challenges in the field, including lack of longitudinal research, hesitation by the sport community to be involved in ED research and poor cross-field communication and collaboration, are also explored. The lack of dissemination of evidence-based prevention programmes and the simultaneous promotion of prevention programmes that have not yet been empirically examined are also discussed. Based on these observations future directions are recommended.

  10. Decreasing initial telomere length in humans intergenerationally understates age-associated telomere shortening.

    PubMed

    Holohan, Brody; De Meyer, Tim; Batten, Kimberly; Mangino, Massimo; Hunt, Steven C; Bekaert, Sofie; De Buyzere, Marc L; Rietzschel, Ernst R; Spector, Tim D; Wright, Woodring E; Shay, Jerry W

    2015-08-01

    Telomere length shortens with aging, and short telomeres have been linked to a wide variety of pathologies. Previous studies suggested a discrepancy in age-associated telomere shortening rate estimated by cross-sectional studies versus the rate measured in longitudinal studies, indicating a potential bias in cross-sectional estimates. Intergenerational changes in initial telomere length, such as that predicted by the previously described effect of a father's age at birth of his offspring (FAB), could explain the discrepancy in shortening rate measurements. We evaluated whether changes occur in initial telomere length over multiple generations in three large datasets and identified paternal birth year (PBY) as a variable that reconciles the difference between longitudinal and cross-sectional measurements. We also clarify the association between FAB and offspring telomere length, demonstrating that this effect is substantially larger than reported in the past. These results indicate the presence of a downward secular trend in telomere length at birth over generational time with potential public health implications.

  11. Decreasing initial telomere length in humans intergenerationally understates age-associated telomere shortening

    PubMed Central

    Holohan, Brody; De Meyer, Tim; Batten, Kimberly; Mangino, Massimo; Hunt, Steven C; Bekaert, Sofie; De Buyzere, Marc L; Rietzschel, Ernst R; Spector, Tim D; Wright, Woodring E; Shay, Jerry W

    2015-01-01

    Telomere length shortens with aging, and short telomeres have been linked to a wide variety of pathologies. Previous studies suggested a discrepancy in age-associated telomere shortening rate estimated by cross-sectional studies versus the rate measured in longitudinal studies, indicating a potential bias in cross-sectional estimates. Intergenerational changes in initial telomere length, such as that predicted by the previously described effect of a father’s age at birth of his offspring (FAB), could explain the discrepancy in shortening rate measurements. We evaluated whether changes occur in initial telomere length over multiple generations in three large datasets and identified paternal birth year (PBY) as a variable that reconciles the difference between longitudinal and cross-sectional measurements. We also clarify the association between FAB and offspring telomere length, demonstrating that this effect is substantially larger than reported in the past. These results indicate the presence of a downward secular trend in telomere length at birth over generational time with potential public health implications. PMID:25952108

  12. Anomalous transport in cellular flows: The role of initial conditions and aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöschke, Patrick; Sokolov, Igor M.; Nepomnyashchy, Alexander A.; Zaks, Michael A.

    2016-09-01

    We consider the diffusion-advection problem in two simple cellular flow models (often invoked as examples of subdiffusive tracer motion) and concentrate on the intermediate time range, in which the tracer motion indeed may show subdiffusion. We perform extensive numerical simulations of the systems under different initial conditions and show that the pure intermediate-time subdiffusion regime is only evident when the particles start at the border between different cells, i.e., at the separatrix, and is less pronounced or absent for other initial conditions. The motion moreover shows quite peculiar aging properties, which are also mirrored in the behavior of the time-averaged mean squared displacement for single trajectories. This kind of behavior is due to the complex motion of tracers trapped inside the cell and is absent in classical models based on continuous-time random walks with no dynamics in the trapped state.

  13. Molecular ageing: Free radical initiated epimerization of thymopentin - A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheykhkarimli, Dayag; Choo, Ken-Loon; Owen, Michael; Fiser, Béla; Jójárt, Balázs; Csizmadia, Imre G.; Viskolcz, Béla

    2014-05-01

    The epimerization of amino acid residues increases with age in living organisms. In the present study, the structural consequences and thermodynamic functions of the epimerization of thymopentin (TP-5), the active site of the thymic hormone thymopoietin, were studied using molecular dynamics and density functional theory methods. The results show that free radical-initiated D-amino acid formation is energetically favoured (-130 kJmol-1) for each residue and induces significant changes to the peptide structure. In comparison to the wild-type (each residue in the L-configuration), the radius of gyration of the D-Asp3 epimer of the peptide decreased by 0.5 Å, and disrupted the intramolecular hydrogen bonding of the native peptide. Beyond establishing important structural, energetic and thermodynamic benchmarks and reference data for the structure of TP-5, these results disseminate the understanding of molecular ageing, the epimerization of amino acid residues.

  14. Molecular ageing: Free radical initiated epimerization of thymopentin – A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Sheykhkarimli, Dayag; Choo, Ken-Loon; Owen, Michael; Csizmadia, Imre G.; Fiser, Béla; Jójárt, Balázs; Viskolcz, Béla

    2014-05-28

    The epimerization of amino acid residues increases with age in living organisms. In the present study, the structural consequences and thermodynamic functions of the epimerization of thymopentin (TP-5), the active site of the thymic hormone thymopoietin, were studied using molecular dynamics and density functional theory methods. The results show that free radical-initiated D-amino acid formation is energetically favoured (−130 kJmol{sup −1}) for each residue and induces significant changes to the peptide structure. In comparison to the wild-type (each residue in the L-configuration), the radius of gyration of the D-Asp{sup 3} epimer of the peptide decreased by 0.5 Å, and disrupted the intramolecular hydrogen bonding of the native peptide. Beyond establishing important structural, energetic and thermodynamic benchmarks and reference data for the structure of TP-5, these results disseminate the understanding of molecular ageing, the epimerization of amino acid residues.

  15. 78 FR 6329 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... Study to Evaluate Pregnancy exposureS (BD-STEPS), FOA DD13-003, initial review. In accordance with... received in response to ``Birth Defects Study to Evaluate Pregnancy exposureS (BD-STEPS), FOA...

  16. 77 FR 25181 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ..., Cholera And HIV/AIDS Response, GH12-003, initial review. In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the... Assistance To The Ministry Of Public Health Of Haiti To Support Post Earthquake Reconstruction, Cholera...

  17. 78 FR 9926 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... Incentive- based Smoking Cessation for Pregnant Women, FOA DP 13-003, initial review. In accordance with... applications received in response to ``Cost-Benefit of Incentive-based Smoking Cessation for Pregnant...

  18. 78 FR 17411 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... Evaluation of Malaria Control and Elimination Activities, FOA GH13-005, initial review. In accordance with... in response to ``Monitoring and Evaluation of Malaria Control and Elimination Activities, FOA...

  19. 78 FR 732 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ... Announcement (FOA) CK13-001, initial review. In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory... Control of Vector- Borne and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases in Uganda, FOA CK13-001.'' Contact Person...

  20. 78 FR 62636 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  1. 78 FR 60875 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  2. 78 FR 9926 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  3. 78 FR 60877 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  4. 78 FR 37542 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  5. 77 FR 61756 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  6. 78 FR 19490 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... Dementia and Co- occurring Chronic Conditions among Older Adults, SIP13-072, Panel E, initial review. In... Measures for Public Health Practice, SIP13-071; and Expanding Information about Dementia and...

  7. 78 FR 44971 - Certain Robotic Toys and Components Thereof; Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Robotic Toys and Components Thereof; Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial Determination Granting a Joint Motion for Termination of the Investigation; Entry of Consent Orders;...

  8. Review on hygroscopic aging of cellulose fibres and their biocomposites.

    PubMed

    Mokhothu, Thabang H; John, Maya Jacob

    2015-10-20

    This review presents critical literature on effects of humidity and temperature on the properties of natural fibres and its composites. The drawback of moisture absorption on the mechanical properties of natural fibre and its composites is evaluated. Numerous researchers have been working to address the moisture absorption issue, with specific attention paid to the surface treatment of fibres and refining the fibre-matrix interface. Because of the natural fibre's positive commercial and environmental outcomes, as well as their desirable properties such as high specific strength, natural fibre reinforced composites are displaying a good potential to be used in various applications such as automotive, aerospace and packaging. This review addresses a comprehensive survey on hygroscopic factors (long term environmental aging) affecting natural fibres and their performance as reinforcement in polymer composites. The effects of cellulose surface chemistry and topography on hydrophobicity are addressed. Furthermore, the review also addresses the progress in the development of superhydrophobic materials based on cellulose material for better moisture resistance. In addition, recent investigations dealing with bio-based coatings prepared from renewable resources are also discussed.

  9. A systematic review of maternal obesity and breastfeeding intention, initiation and duration

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Lisa H; Donath, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding behaviour is multifactorial, and a wide range of socio-cultural and physiological variables impact on a woman's decision and ability to breastfeed successfully. An association has been reported between maternal obesity and low breastfeeding rates. This is of public health concern because obesity is rising in women of reproductive age and the apparent association with increased artificial feeding will lead to a greater risk of obesity in children. The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between maternal overweight and obesity and breastfeeding intention and initiation and duration. Methods A systematic review was conducted in January and February 2007, using the following databases: Medline, CINAHL and the Australian Breastfeeding Association's Lactation Resource Centre. Studies which have examined maternal obesity and infant feeding intention, initiation, duration and delayed onset of lactation were tabulated and summarised. Results Studies have found that obese women plan to breastfeed for a shorter period than normal weight women and are less likely to initiate breastfeeding. Of the four studies that examined onset of lactation, three reported a significant relationship between obesity and delayed lactogenesis. Fifteen studies, conducted in the USA, Australia, Denmark, Kuwait and Russia, have examined maternal obesity and duration of breastfeeding. The majority of large studies found that obese women breastfed for a shorter duration than normal weight women, even after adjusting for possible confounding factors. Conclusion There is evidence from epidemiological studies that overweight and obese women are less likely to breastfeed than normal weight women. The reasons may be biological or they may be psychological, behavioral and/or cultural. We urgently need qualitative studies from women's perspective to help us understand women in this situation and their infant feeding decisions and behaviour. PMID:17608952

  10. 75 FR 42085 - Workshop To Review Initial Health Effects Draft Materials for the Ozone (O3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... AGENCY Workshop To Review Initial Health Effects Draft Materials for the Ozone (O 3 ) Integrated Science... (O 3 ), EPA is announcing that a workshop to evaluate initial draft materials for the health effects... sections on the health effects evidence from in vivo and in vitro animal toxicology, human clinical,...

  11. The Initial Education of High School Teachers: A Critical Review of Major Issues and Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultana, Ronald G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper draws on major research findings in international literature in order to provide a critical review of a number of key issues and trends in the initial education of high school teachers. Firstly, this paper contextualizes the prevalent discourse surrounding the field of initial teacher education (ITE) and explores the effect that this…

  12. 77 FR 40084 - Certain Portable Communication Devices; Determination Not To Review Initial Determinations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... Alexandria, Virginia (``Digitude'') on December 2, 2011 and amended on December 16, 2011. 77 FR 2758 (January... Commission has determined not to review initial determinations (``IDs'') (Order Nos. 14 and 15) granting... were filed. The Commission has determined not to review the subject IDs. The investigation...

  13. 77 FR 45374 - Certain Digital Televisions and Components Thereof; Determination Not to Review Initial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ..., California (``Vizio''). 76 FR 42728-29 (July 19, 2011). The complaint alleged violations of section 337 of... Trade Commission has determined not to review initial determinations (``IDs'') (Order Nos. 69, 70, and... not to review the subject IDs. The investigation is terminated in its entirety. This action is...

  14. 7 CFR 4290.360 - Initial review of Applicant's management team's qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Initial review of Applicant's management team's...'s management team's qualifications. The Secretary will review the information submitted by the Applicant concerning the qualifications of the Applicant's management team to determine in his or her...

  15. 75 FR 16437 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... (``Sunset'') Reviews of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders; Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders, 63 FR 13516 (March 20, 1998) and 70 FR 62061 (October 28, 2005... International Trade Administration Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review AGENCY: Import...

  16. 76 FR 38613 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ...-Year (``Sunset'') Reviews of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders, 63 FR 13516 (March 20, 1998) and 70 FR 62061 (October 28, 2005). Guidance on methodological or analytical issues relevant to the...: Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16, 1998). Initiation of Review In accordance with 19 CFR...

  17. 75 FR 5042 - Initiation of Five-year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... Procedures for Conducting Five-year (``Sunset'') Reviews of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders, 63 FR 13516 (March 20, 1998) and 70 FR 62061 (October 28, 2005). Guidance on methodological or analytical... Countervailing Duty Orders: Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16, 1998). Initiation of Review In...

  18. 76 FR 11202 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... (``Sunset'') Reviews of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders: Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders, 63 FR 13516 (March 20, 1998) and 70 FR 62061 (October 28, 2005... International Trade Administration Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review AGENCY: Import...

  19. 76 FR 89 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... (``Sunset'') Reviews of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders: Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders, 63 FR 13516 (March 20, 1998) and 70 FR 62061 (October 28, 2005... International Trade Administration Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review AGENCY: Import...

  20. 78 FR 27374 - Workshop To Review Initial Draft Materials for the Nitrogen Oxides (NOX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... AGENCY Workshop To Review Initial Draft Materials for the Nitrogen Oxides (NO X ) Integrated Science.... SUMMARY: As part of the review of the air quality criteria for nitrogen oxides (NO X ) and primary (health-based) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), EPA is announcing...

  1. 77 FR 64959 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of 5-Year Review for the Southern Distinct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... update, if necessary, the Northern DPS' status in five years time (70 FR 17386; April 6, 2005). Therefore...; Initiation of 5-Year Review for the Southern Distinct Population Segment of North American Green Sturgeon... 5-year review of the Southern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of North American green...

  2. 48 CFR 32.503-3 - Initiation of progress payments and review of accounting system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... payments and review of accounting system. 32.503-3 Section 32.503-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... on Costs 32.503-3 Initiation of progress payments and review of accounting system. (a) For..., (2) possessed of an adequate accounting system and controls, and (3) in sound financial...

  3. 77 FR 5773 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... Isocyanurates from the People's Republic of China, 70 FR 36561 (June 24, 2005). On December 30, 2011, the Department received a timely request for a new shipper review from Puyang Cleanway Chemicals Ltd. (Puyang... Isocyanurates From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Review, 76 FR 6399 (February...

  4. 40 CFR 154.25 - Public announcement of final decision whether to initiate a Special Review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Public announcement of final decision whether to initiate a Special Review. 154.25 Section 154.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS SPECIAL REVIEW PROCEDURES Procedures § 154.25...

  5. 40 CFR 154.23 - Proposed decision not to initiate a Special Review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proposed decision not to initiate a Special Review. 154.23 Section 154.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...-Special Review status and the Agency's rationale for its proposed decision, announce the availability of...

  6. 40 CFR 154.25 - Public announcement of final decision whether to initiate a Special Review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public announcement of final decision whether to initiate a Special Review. 154.25 Section 154.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS SPECIAL REVIEW PROCEDURES Procedures § 154.25...

  7. 40 CFR 154.25 - Public announcement of final decision whether to initiate a Special Review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Public announcement of final decision whether to initiate a Special Review. 154.25 Section 154.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS SPECIAL REVIEW PROCEDURES Procedures § 154.25...

  8. 40 CFR 154.23 - Proposed decision not to initiate a Special Review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proposed decision not to initiate a Special Review. 154.23 Section 154.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...-Special Review status and the Agency's rationale for its proposed decision, announce the availability of...

  9. 40 CFR 154.23 - Proposed decision not to initiate a Special Review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proposed decision not to initiate a Special Review. 154.23 Section 154.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...-Special Review status and the Agency's rationale for its proposed decision, announce the availability of...

  10. 76 FR 33305 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ..., initial review.'' Contact Person for More Information: J. Felix Rogers, Ph.D., M.P.H., Scientific Review...: Time and Date: 8 a.m.--5 p.m., July 11, 2011 (Closed). Place: Intercontinental Hotel Buckhead, 3315... for Disease Control and Prevention. BILLING CODE 4163-18-P...

  11. Voluntary exercise impairs initial delayed spatial alternation performance in estradiol treated ovariectomized middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Neese, Steven L; Korol, Donna L; Schantz, Susan L

    2013-09-01

    Estrogens differentially modulate behavior in the adult female rodent. Voluntary exercise can also impact behavior, often reversing age associated decrements in memory processes. Our research group has published a series of papers reporting a deficit in the acquisition of an operant working memory task, delayed spatial alternation (DSA), following 17β-estradiol treatment to middle-aged ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The current study examined if voluntary exercise could attenuate the 17β-estradiol induced deficits on DSA performance. OVX 12-month old Long-Evans rats were implanted with a Silastic capsule containing 17β-estradiol (10% in cholesterol: low physiological range) or with a blank capsule. A subset of the 17β-estradiol and OVX untreated rats were given free access to a running wheel in their home cage. All rats were tested for 40 sessions on the DSA task. Surprisingly, we found running wheel access to impair initial acquisition of the DSA task in 17β-estradiol treated rats, an effect not seen in OVX untreated rats given running wheel access. This deficit was driven by an increase in perseverative responding on a lever no longer associated with reinforcement. We also report for the first time a 17β-estradiol induced impairment on the DSA task following a long intertrial delay (18-sec), an effect revealed following more extended testing than in our previous studies (15 additional sessions). Overall, running wheel access increased initial error rate on the DSA task in 17β-estradiol treated middle-aged OVX rats, and failed to prevent the 17β-estradiol induced deficits in performance of the operant DSA task in later testing sessions.

  12. On Consistency of Self- and Proxy-reported Regular Smoking Initiation Age.

    PubMed

    Soulakova, Julia N; Bright, Brianna C; Crockett, Lisa J

    2013-12-16

    Early onset of smoking is associated with heavier tobacco consumption and longer smoking careers. Consequently, obtaining accurate estimates of early smoking is a priority. The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of proxy reports of the age of smoking initiation, and specifically to explore whether there are differences in the consistency of proxy-reported and self-reported smoking behaviors. Data came from the 2002-2003 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey, where the current smoking behaviors and smoking history of participants were reported by self-and proxy-respondents on two occasions, one year apart. Sequential multiple-testing methods were used to assess significance of the differences in reported prevalence of consistent reports among specific sub-populations defined by age, gender and survey administration mode. Results indicated that self-reports are more reliable (more consistent over time) than proxy reports or mixed reports that include self-report at one time point and proxy reports at another. The rate of perfect agreement was also highest for self-reports. The impact of respondent type on the consistency of reports also depended on the target subjects' age and the survey administration mode (phone or in-person). PMID:25408943

  13. On Consistency of Self- and Proxy-reported Regular Smoking Initiation Age.

    PubMed

    Soulakova, Julia N; Bright, Brianna C; Crockett, Lisa J

    2013-12-16

    Early onset of smoking is associated with heavier tobacco consumption and longer smoking careers. Consequently, obtaining accurate estimates of early smoking is a priority. The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of proxy reports of the age of smoking initiation, and specifically to explore whether there are differences in the consistency of proxy-reported and self-reported smoking behaviors. Data came from the 2002-2003 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey, where the current smoking behaviors and smoking history of participants were reported by self-and proxy-respondents on two occasions, one year apart. Sequential multiple-testing methods were used to assess significance of the differences in reported prevalence of consistent reports among specific sub-populations defined by age, gender and survey administration mode. Results indicated that self-reports are more reliable (more consistent over time) than proxy reports or mixed reports that include self-report at one time point and proxy reports at another. The rate of perfect agreement was also highest for self-reports. The impact of respondent type on the consistency of reports also depended on the target subjects' age and the survey administration mode (phone or in-person).

  14. Thyroid Function in Small for Gestational Age Newborns: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Bagnoli, Franco; Laura, Farmeschi; Sara, Nappini; Salvatore, Grosso

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that small for gestational age (SGA) babies have a different hormonal profile than those born with a birth weight appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Thyroid hormones play an important role in growth and neurocognitive development. Only few studies analyzed the concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroxine (T4) during fetal and extrauterine life in SGA and AGA newborns, and the existing data on the possible alterations of these hormones in postnatal life are controversial. It remains to be established whether SGA newborns have different blood concentrations of thyroid hormones as compared with AGA infants and if so, whether these findings play a role in the development of obesity, short stature, hypertension, and diabetes - disorders, already known to be related with SGA birth. It has also not yet been established whether and when substitutive therapy with levothyroxine (LT4) should be initiated in preterm and full-term SGA newborns. Further trials are needed to determine the thyroid hormone profile in both preterm and full-term SGA newborns and also to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of LT4 treatment in these infants. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23149390

  15. Thyroid function in small for gestational age newborns: a review.

    PubMed

    Franco, Bagnoli; Laura, Farmeschi; Sara, Nappini; Salvatore, Grosso

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that small for gestational age (SGA) babies have a different hormonal profile than those born with a birth weight appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Thyroid hormones play an important role in growth and neurocognitive development. Only few studies analyzed the concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroxine (T4) during fetal and extrauterine life in SGA and AGA newborns, and the existing data on the possible alterations of these hormones in postnatal life are controversial. It remains to be established whether SGA newborns have different blood concentrations of thyroid hormones as compared with AGA infants and if so, whether these findings play a role in the development of obesity, short stature, hypertension, and diabetes--disorders, already known to be related with SGA birth. It has also not yet been established whether and when substitutive therapy with levothyroxine (LT4) should be initiated in preterm and full-term SGA newborns. Further trials are needed to determine the thyroid hormone profile in both preterm and full-term SGA newborns and also to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of LT4 treatment in these infants.

  16. Attachment theory, ageing and dementia: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Browne, C J; Shlosberg, E

    2006-03-01

    The following review draws together recent theoretical contributions and research findings highlighting the pertinence of attachment issues for older adults. Beginning with a brief overview of the principles of attachment theory, the paper proceeds to illustrate that attachment remains a key feature of relationships throughout the life cycle. Research findings suggest that past and present secure attachment relationships function as a protective resource in later life and preliminary studies highlight the continuing salience of parents as attachment figures for older adults. Particular attention is given to the significance of attachment theory in thinking about the subjective experiences of people with dementia, for whom unwilling separation and disruption of attachment bonds can be common themes. Research indicates the frequent occurrence of attachment behaviours and parent fixation amongst people with dementia living in residential care. Pre-morbid attachment style has been shown to interact with emotional and behavioural expression during the course of dementia. Clinical applications of attachment theory in dementia care are discussed and initial evidence for the effectiveness of Simulated Presence Therapy is provided. Methodological issues raised by the review are considered, together with suggestions for future research.

  17. Review: Cerebral microvascular pathology in aging and neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Brown, William R.; Thore, Clara R.

    2010-01-01

    This review of age-related brain microvascular pathologies focuses on topics studied by this laboratory, including anatomy of the blood supply, tortuous vessels, venous collagenosis, capillary remnants, vascular density, and microembolic brain injury. Our studies feature thick sections, large blocks embedded in celloidin, and vascular staining by alkaline phosphatase (AP). This permits study of the vascular network in three dimensions, and the differentiation of afferent from efferent vessels. Current evidence suggests that there is decreased vascular density in aging, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and leukoaraiosis (LA), and cerebrovascular dysfunction precedes and accompanies cognitive dysfunction and neurodegeneration. A decline in cerebrovascular angiogenesis may inhibit recovery from hypoxia-induced capillary loss. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is inhibited by tortuous arterioles and deposition of excessive collagen in veins and venules. Misery perfusion due to capillary loss appears to occur before cell loss in LA, and CBF is also reduced in the normal-appearing white matter. Hypoperfusion occurs early in AD, inducing white matter lesions and correlating with dementia. In vascular dementia, cholinergic reductions are correlated with cognitive impairment, and cholinesterase inhibitors have some benefit. Most lipid microemboli from cardiac surgery pass through the brain in a few days, but some remain for weeks. They can cause what appears to be a type of vascular dementia years after surgery. Donepezil has shown some benefit. Emboli, such as clots, cholesterol crystals, and microspheres can be extruded through the walls of cerebral vessels, but there is no evidence yet that lipid emboli undergo such extravasation. PMID:20946471

  18. Review of nutrient actions on age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Zampatti, Stefania; Ricci, Federico; Cusumano, Andrea; Marsella, Luigi Tonino; Novelli, Giuseppe; Giardina, Emiliano

    2014-02-01

    The actions of nutrients and related compounds on age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are explained in this review. The findings from 80 studies published since 2003 on the association between diet and supplements in AMD were reviewed. Antioxidants and other nutrients with an effect on AMD susceptibility include carotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin, β-carotene), vitamins (vitamin A, E, C, D, B), mineral supplements (zinc, copper, selenium), dietary fatty acids [monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA both omega-3 PUFA and omega-6 PUFA), saturated fatty acids and cholesterol], and dietary carbohydrates. The literature revealed that many of these antioxidants and nutrients exert a protective role by functioning synergistically. Specifically, the use of dietary supplements with targeted actions can provide minimal benefits on the onset or progression of AMD; however, this does not appear to be particularly beneficial in healthy people. Furthermore, some supplements or nutrients have demonstrated discordant effects on AMD in some studies. Since intake of dietary supplements, as well as exposure to damaging environmental factors, is largely dependent on population habits (including dietary practices) and geographical localization, an overall healthy diet appears to be the best strategy in reducing the risk of developing AMD. As of now, the precise mechanism of action of certain nutrients in AMD prevention remains unclear. Thus, future studies are required to examine the effects that nutrients have on AMD and to determine which factors are most strongly correlated with reducing the risk of AMD or preventing its progression. PMID:24461310

  19. Initial insights into the age and origin of the Kubuqi sand sea of northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoping; Forman, Steven; Hu, Fangen; Zhang, Deguo; Liu, Ziting; Li, Hongwei

    2016-04-01

    The Kubuqi Desert is the only active sand sea in the semiarid regions of northern China and occurs along the southern margin of the Yellow River. Little is known about the age and origin of this large (17,000 km2) sand sea with a present annual precipitation of 200-480 mm. Sand drift potentials indicated net capable winds for aeolian transport are from the northwest, though winds are stronger to north beyond the dune field than within the sand sea. Geomorphic and stratigraphic observations indicate that Holocene aeolian sand often drapes over bedrock and river terraces as a palimpsest landscape. Field investigations identified four stratigraphic sections with multiple aeolian sand units and palaeosols, with age control by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of quartz grains. Palaeosols are weakly developed, mostly accumulative A horizon with organic carbon content < 1% and reflect sand sheet deposition possibly in a steppe environment. Although sediments near river channels or former lakes might give old ages, the initial formation and age of the Kubuqi sand sea should be judged from the occurrence of the sandy palimpsest of the landscape that is OSL dated to the Holocene in general. The latest period of aeolian reactivation may be related to human activity associated with grazing and farming from lost cities in the Kubuqi Desert during the Han (206 B.C. - A.D. 220) and the Tang (A.D. 608 - 907) Dynasties. Also, variable discharge of the Yellow River with local diversions for irrigation and throughout the catchment resulted in possibly an increased supply of aeolian particles for dune field expansion in the past 2 ka.

  20. Subduction Along the South Caribbean Deformed Belt: Age of Initiation and Backthrust Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, P.; Kroehler, M.; Escalona, A.; Magnani, B.; Christeson, G.

    2007-12-01

    The South Caribbean deformed belt (SCDB) represents a submarine prism formed at the interface between subducting oceanic material in the Colombian and Venezuelan basins and arc terranes along the northern edge of the South American continent. The SCDB and subducted Caribbean slab extends 1500 km from Panama to the Aves Ridge and is similar in scale to better studied magmatic subduction zones in the Lesser Antilles and Central America. The age of subduction of the Venezuelan basin at the SCDB has been examined by dating asymmetrical sediment wedges inferred to have formed above the bending and subducting slab of the Venezuelan basin. Ages are constrained by ties to DSDP wells drilled in the Venezuelan basin ~150 km north of the SCDB. Onlapping wedges are oldest in the western area near the Beata Ridge (middle Eocene), of intermediate age in the central area (early Miocene), and youngest in the east near the Aves Ridge (Mio- Pleistocene). Overlying younger wedges in all areas demonstrate that subduction continued following its initiation. Similar ages of deformed syn-thurst wedges are known from the now inactive continental foreland of northern South America in a belt from western Venezuela to Trinidad. Based on this correlation, we propose a simple back arc thrusting origin for the SCDB that is analogous to the eastern Sunda arc of Indonesia. The obliquity of convergence in the Caribbean case has produced a longlived, eastwardly-migrating backthrust that contrasts to more static backthrust in Sunda. The immediate onset of backthrusting following continental collision means that South America-Caribbean convergence was accommodated by newly organized and focussed subduction at the SCDB backthrust; the "collided" crust of intervening accreted arc terranes remains remarkably unaffected by regional shortening effects.

  1. Aging, circadian rhythms and depressive disorders: a review

    PubMed Central

    Campos Costa, Inês; Nogueira Carvalho, Hugo; Fernandes, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Aging is typically associated with impairing behavioral patterns that are frequently and inappropriately seen as normal. Circadian rhythm changes and depressive disorders have been increasingly proposed as the two main overlapping and interpenetrating changes that take place in older age. This study aims to review the state of the art on the subject concerning epidemiology, pathophysiological mechanism, clinical findings and relevance, as well as available treatment options. Materials and Methods: A nonsystematic review of all English language PubMed articles published between 1995 and December 2012 using the terms “circadian rhythms”, “mood disorders”, “depression”, “age”, “aging”, “elderly” and “sleep”. Discussion and conclusion: Sleep disorders, mainly insomnia, and depression have been demonstrated to be highly co-prevalent and mutually precipitating conditions in the elderly population. There is extensive research on the pathophysiological mechanisms through which age conditions circadian disruption, being the disruption of the Melatonin system one of the main changes. However, research linking clearly and unequivocally circadian disruption and mood disorders is still lacking. Nonetheless, there are consistently described molecular changes on shared genes and also several proposed pathophysiological models linking depression and sleep disruption, with clinical studies also suggesting a bi-directional relationship between these pathologies. In spite of this suggested relation, clinical evaluation of these conditions in elderly patients consistently reveals itself rather complicated due to the frequently co-existing co-morbidities, some of them having been demonstrated to alter sleep and mood patters. This is the case of strokes, forms of dementia such as Alzheimer and Parkinson, several neurodegenerative disorders, among others. Although there are to the present no specific treatment guidelines, available treatment

  2. Initial laboratory studies into the chemical and radiological aging of organic materials in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, W.D.; Camaioni, D.M.; Babad, H.

    1994-03-01

    The underground storage tanks at the Hanford Complex contain wastes generated over many years from plutonium production and recovery processes, and mixed wastes from radiological degradation processes. The chemical changes of the organic materials used in the extraction processes have a direct bearing on several specific safety issues, including potential energy releases from these tanks. The major portion of organic materials that have been added to the tanks consists of tributyl phosphate, dibutyl phosphate, butyl alcohol, hexone (methyl isobutyl ketone), normal paraffin hydrocarbons (NPH), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), hydroxyethylethylenediaminetriadetic acid (HEDTA), other complexants, and lesser quantities of ion exchange polymers and minor organic compounds. A study of how thermal and radiological processes that may have changed the composition of organic tanks constituents has been initiated after a review of the open literature revealed little information was available about the rates and products of these processes under basic pH conditions. This paper will detail the initial findings as they relate to gas generation, e.g. H{sub 2}, CO, NH{sub 3}, CH{sub 4}, and to changes in the composition of the organic and inorganic components brought about by ``Aging`` processes.

  3. Age and Parkinson's disease related kinematic alterations during multi-directional gait initiation.

    PubMed

    Vallabhajosula, Srikant; Buckley, Thomas A; Tillman, Mark D; Hass, Chris J

    2013-02-01

    Previous literature suggests that older adults and persons with Parkinson's disease (PWP) exhibit impaired performance during gait initiation (GI) and turning while walking. While researchers have identified specific impairments during GI and turning separately in these populations, little is known about when these two tasks occur concurrently. Our objective was to determine how multi-directional GI kinematics are affected by aging and Parkinson's disease. Kinematic data were collected on 12 healthy young adults (HYA), 11 healthy older adults (HOA) and 11 PWP during GI in four conditions: forward, medial 45°, lateral 45°, and lateral 90°. Spatiotemporal characteristics and segmental angles were analyzed using separate 3 (group)×4 (condition) mixed ANOVA. Combined across all the conditions, HOA took a smaller (P=0.009) and slower (P=0.023) first step, and slower second step (P=0.021) compared to HYA. PWP took a slower first step (P=0.009), and longer time to initiate the second step (P=0.017) compared to HOA. Also, PWP had greater head rotation at the start of GI during the medial 45° condition (P=0.043) and reduced overall segmental rotation before toe-off of the second step during the lateral 45° condition (P=0.035), and at heel-strike of first step (P=0.031) and before toe-off of second step during lateral 90° condition (P=0.035). For HOA, their general slowness of movement could be attributed to aging effects. For PWP, rigidity and bradykinesia could impair activities of daily living like multi-directional GI and may be associated with an increased risk of falls.

  4. [OCT angiography for exudative age-related macular degeneration : Initial experiences].

    PubMed

    Lommatzsch, A; Farecki, M-L; Book, B; Heimes, B; Pauleikhoff, D

    2016-01-01

    The new technique of optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography allows a non-invasive reconstruction of the three-dimensional structure of the total retinal and choroidal vascularization within seconds. There are still limitations caused by movement artefacts, superimposition of superficial retinal vessels at the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) level and insufficient three-dimensional imaging modalities. Initial experiences with this new method and especially the correlation with the current standard diagnostic procedure of fluorescein angiography show that new information can be obtained regarding specific vascular and neovascular changes. For three-dimensional neovascular changes, such as those found in exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD,) a more sophisticated diagnostic analysis strategy must be specifically developed. Initial experiences demonstrate that the differentiation into the various types of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) by fluorescein angiography, specifically for type 1 (occult) and type 2 (classical) can also be visualized by OCT angiography. Furthermore, the new technology provides additional information on the choroidal and outer retinal changes associated with this disease, which may result in a better understanding of the underlying pathology. PMID:26743785

  5. Searching for an efficient institutional review board review model: Interrelationship of trainee-investigators, funding, and initial approval.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Roberto A; Feaster, Daniel J; Twiggs, Leo B; Altman, Norman H

    2005-02-01

    In this study we sought to identify variables associated with institutional review board (IRB) decisions to develop an efficient "pre-IRB" review model. We explored several variables, including relationships among the identification of trainees as investigators, external sources of funding, and initial approval. The sample consisted of all new submissions reviewed by the 2 medical IRBs at the University of Miami (UM) during a 1-year period. Trainees included students, residents, and fellows. At least 1 trainee had to be identified for a proposal to be considered a trainee submission. The medical-science committees (MSCs) were similar with regard to the numbers of new submissions they reviewed during convened meetings (MSC-A 242, MSC-B 241) and the percentages of proposals that were initially approved (MSC-A 52.9%, MSC-B 53.1%). Approved submissions were defined as those initially approved or conditionally approved pending minor modifications. We noted a robust statistical difference between the percentages of trainee submissions initially approved (39.9%) and submissions that did not identify a trainee (59.4%) ( P <.0001). Of the proposals that were initially not approved (tabled [deferred] or rejected [not approved]), 28.9% of those including a trainee were rejected, compared with 11.0% without a trainee ( P <.001). Proposals in which the source of funding was identified were more likely to be approved (64.2%) than were those in which it was not (30.8%) ( P <.0001). Funding also seemed to influence the trainee and initial-approval interaction. Our results show that new submissions that identified trainee investigators were more likely to be deferred or not approved than those that did not. Nonapproved proposals that identified a trainee were 3.8 times more likely to be initially rejected than those that did not. A prereview model could target those submissions that list a trainee, lack funding, or both.

  6. 14 CFR 121.1105 - Aging airplane inspections and records reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aging airplane inspections and records... Improvements § 121.1105 Aging airplane inspections and records reviews. (a) Applicability. This section applies... holder that the Administrator has completed the aging airplane inspection and records review required...

  7. 14 CFR 121.1105 - Aging airplane inspections and records reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aging airplane inspections and records... Improvements § 121.1105 Aging airplane inspections and records reviews. (a) Applicability. This section applies... holder that the Administrator has completed the aging airplane inspection and records review required...

  8. 14 CFR 121.1105 - Aging airplane inspections and records reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aging airplane inspections and records... Improvements § 121.1105 Aging airplane inspections and records reviews. (a) Applicability. This section applies... holder that the Administrator has completed the aging airplane inspection and records review required...

  9. 14 CFR 121.1105 - Aging airplane inspections and records reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aging airplane inspections and records... Improvements § 121.1105 Aging airplane inspections and records reviews. (a) Applicability. This section applies... holder that the Administrator has completed the aging airplane inspection and records review required...

  10. 14 CFR 121.1105 - Aging airplane inspections and records reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aging airplane inspections and records... Improvements § 121.1105 Aging airplane inspections and records reviews. (a) Applicability. This section applies... holder that the Administrator has completed the aging airplane inspection and records review required...

  11. The aetiology and trajectory of anabolic-androgenic steroid use initiation: a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To our knowledge, there has never been a systematic review and synthesis of the qualitative literature on the trajectory and aetiology of nonmedical anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use. Methods We systematically reviewed and synthesized qualitative literature gathered from searches in PsycINFO, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Google Scholar, and reference lists of relevant literature to investigate AAS users’ ages of first use and source(s), history prior to use, and motives/drives for initiating use. We adhered to the recommendations of the UK Economic and Social Research Council’s qualitative research synthesis manual and the PRISMA guidelines. Results A total of 44 studies published between 1980 and 2014 were included in the synthesis. Studies originated from 11 countries: the United States (n = 18), England (n = 8), Australia (n = 4), Sweden (n = 4), both England and Wales (n = 2), and Scotland (n = 2). One study each originated from Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, France, Great Britain, and Norway. The majority of AAS users initiated use before age 30. Sports participation (particularly power sports), negative body image, and psychological disorders such as depression preceded initiation of AAS use for most users. Sources of first AAS were mainly users’ immediate social networks and the illicit market. Enhanced sports performance, appearance, and muscle/strength were the paramount motives for AAS use initiation. Conclusions Our findings elucidate the significance of psychosocial factors in AAS use initiation. The proliferation of AAS on the illicit market and social networks demands better ways of dealing with the global public health problem of AAS use. PMID:24984881

  12. Food activities and identity maintenance in old age: a systematic review and meta-synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Plastow, Nicola Ann; Atwal, Anita; Gilhooly, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Services provided to older people should be developed based on active ageing policies. Nutrition is one aspect of active ageing, but little is known about how food activities contribute to psychological well-being in later life. This is a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative research that answers the question ‘What is known about the relationship between food activities and the maintenance of identities in old age?’. Methods: We followed the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines and used quality assessment parameters to complete a systematic review and narrative synthesis. Academic Search Premier, MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus, and PsycINFO databases were searched. Results: We initially identified 8016 articles, of which 167 full-text articles were screened for inclusion. Twenty-two articles were included in the review. There was moderate evidence from nine qualitative and two quantitative studies, of variable quality, that food activities contribute to the maintenance of women's gendered identities, the ethnic identities of men and women, and community identities. There was moderate evidence from 10 qualitative studies, of variable quality, that a change in food choice and deteriorating health changed food activity participation. These changes threatened identities. Most studies included both younger adults and older adults. Conclusion: In later life, there are many life experiences leading to change. Further research is needed to develop understanding of how identity and mental well-being are maintained, despite changes in everyday activities like cooking and eating. This may enable health care professionals to meet psychological needs alongside biological needs during nutritional interventions. PMID:25373998

  13. The Protective Influence of Family Bonding on Smoking Initiation in Adolescents by Racial/Ethnic and Age Subgroups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahabee-Gittens, E. Melinda; Khoury, Jane C.; Huang, Bin; Dorn, Lorah D.; Ammerman, Robert T.; Gordon, Judith S.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined the associations among family bonding factors and the initiation of smoking by race/ethnicity and age group among nonsmokers at Wave 1. Overall, 18% of the sample initiated smoking by Wave 2. For younger African-American and Hispanic youths, high maternal…

  14. A review for identification of initiating events in event tree development process on nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Riyadi, Eko H.

    2014-09-30

    Initiating event is defined as any event either internal or external to the nuclear power plants (NPPs) that perturbs the steady state operation of the plant, if operating, thereby initiating an abnormal event such as transient or loss of coolant accident (LOCA) within the NPPs. These initiating events trigger sequences of events that challenge plant control and safety systems whose failure could potentially lead to core damage or large early release. Selection for initiating events consists of two steps i.e. first step, definition of possible events, such as by evaluating a comprehensive engineering, and by constructing a top level logic model. Then the second step, grouping of identified initiating event's by the safety function to be performed or combinations of systems responses. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to discuss initiating events identification in event tree development process and to reviews other probabilistic safety assessments (PSA). The identification of initiating events also involves the past operating experience, review of other PSA, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), feedback from system modeling, and master logic diagram (special type of fault tree). By using the method of study for the condition of the traditional US PSA categorization in detail, could be obtained the important initiating events that are categorized into LOCA, transients and external events.

  15. A review for identification of initiating events in event tree development process on nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riyadi, Eko H.

    2014-09-01

    Initiating event is defined as any event either internal or external to the nuclear power plants (NPPs) that perturbs the steady state operation of the plant, if operating, thereby initiating an abnormal event such as transient or loss of coolant accident (LOCA) within the NPPs. These initiating events trigger sequences of events that challenge plant control and safety systems whose failure could potentially lead to core damage or large early release. Selection for initiating events consists of two steps i.e. first step, definition of possible events, such as by evaluating a comprehensive engineering, and by constructing a top level logic model. Then the second step, grouping of identified initiating event's by the safety function to be performed or combinations of systems responses. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to discuss initiating events identification in event tree development process and to reviews other probabilistic safety assessments (PSA). The identification of initiating events also involves the past operating experience, review of other PSA, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), feedback from system modeling, and master logic diagram (special type of fault tree). By using the method of study for the condition of the traditional US PSA categorization in detail, could be obtained the important initiating events that are categorized into LOCA, transients and external events.

  16. Nongenetic Determinants of Age at Menarche: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background. The acceleration of pubertal development is an important medical and social problem, as it may result in increased morbidity and mortality in later life. This systematic review summarizes relevant data about nongenetic factors, which contribute to age at menarche (AAM), and suggests those which may be the most important. Methods. The available literature from 1980 till July 2013 was searched using PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Finally, 154 papers were selected for the analysis. Results. Environmental factors, which may affect AAM, vary in populations of different ethnicity. The prenatal, infancy, and early childhood periods are the most susceptible to these factors. Body weight, high animal protein intake, family stressors (e.g., single parenting), and physical activity seem to influence AAM in most populations. Conclusions. The data about influence of nongenetic factors on AAM are still inconsistent. The factors affecting prenatal and early childhood growth seem to have a larger effect on further sexual maturation. Further studies are needed in order to validate the association between other environmental determinants and AAM in different ethnical groups. PMID:25050345

  17. Past and future ice age initiation: the role of an intrinsic deep-ocean millennial oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. G.

    2014-05-01

    This paper offers three interdependent contributions to studies of climate variation: (1) the recognition and analysis of an intrinsic millennial oceanic oscillation that affects both Northern and Southern high latitude climates, (2) The recognition of an oceanographic switch to ice-free seas west of Greenland that explains the initiation of the Last Ice Age, and (3) an analysis of the effect of increasing salinity in the seas east of Greenland that suggests the possibility of the initiation of an ice age threshold climate in the near future. In the first contribution the millennial oscillation in the flow of the North Atlantic Drift reported by Bond et al. (1997) is proposed to be part of a 1500 yr intrinsic deep ocean oscillation. This oscillation involves the exchange of North Atlantic intermediate-level deep water (NADW) formed in the seas east of Greenland with Antarctic Bottom Water formed in a shallow-water zone at the edge of the Antarctic continent. The concept of NADW formation is already well known, with details of the sinking water flowing out of the Greenland Sea observed by Smethie et al. (2000) using chlorofluorocarbon tracers. The concept of Antarctic Bottom Water formation is also already well established. However, its modulation by the changing fraction of NADW in the Southern Ocean, which I infer from the analysis of Weyl (1968), has not been previously discussed. The modulated lower-salinity Antarctic Bottom Water that reaches the northern North Atlantic then provides negative feedback for the cyclic variation of NADW formation as proposed here. This causes the 1500 yr bipolar oscillation. The feedback suggests the possible sinusoidal character of the proposed oscillation model. The model is consistent with the cooling of the Little Ice Age (Lamb, 1972, 1995), and it also correctly predicts NASA's observation of today's record maximum area of winter sea ice on the Southern Ocean and the present observed record low rate of Antarctic Bottom Water

  18. Marijuana use and later problems: when frequency of recent use explains age of initiation effects (and when it does not).

    PubMed

    Ellickson, Phyllis L; D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Collins, Rebecca L; Klein, David J

    2005-01-01

    Tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana are among the most commonly used drugs during adolescence. Initiation of marijuana use typically peaks at age 15, with risk of initiation continuing throughout adolescence. The goal of the current study was to prospectively examine the influence of age of marijuana initiation on four outcomes: physical health, mental health, illicit drug use other than marijuana, and marijuana-use related consequences at age 18. We controlled for several important predictors of adolescent drug use and its associated consequences, including demographics, social bonding variables, personality variables, and recent use of marijuana. Baseline survey data were collected in 1984 at grade 7 and follow up surveys were conducted at grades 8, 9, 10, and 12 (N = 2079). This initiates-only sample was 47% female, 66% White, 11% African American, 13% Hispanic, 5% Asian, and 5% other race or ethnicity. Findings indicated that age of initiation predicted marijuana consequences and other illicit drug use after controlling for demographic, social, and behavioral factors. However, once frequency of recent marijuana use was included in the models, age of initiation was only associated with other illicit drug use. Both primary and secondary prevention are needed to curb marijuana use and its associated harms. PMID:15776981

  19. Sm-Nd Age and Initial Sr-87/Sr-86 for Yamato 980318: An Old Cumulate Eucrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Takeda, H.; Shih, C.-Y.; Wiesmann, H.

    2004-01-01

    The complex pyroxene exsolution texture of the Moore County cumulate eucrite was interpreted by Miyamoto and Takeda as indicating initial cooling at 160 C/Ma followed by a sudden temperature rise and final cooling at 0.35 C/yr. They suggested initial cooling at a depth of approx. 8 km near the base of Vesta s crust, followed by impact excavation to its surface. Young Sm-Nd ages of approx. 4456, 4460, and 4410 Ma, respectively, for the Moore County, Moama, and Serra de Mag cumulate eucrites are puzzling because closure to Nd isotopic exchange would occur in only a few Ma at the above initial cooling rate. The exception to young ages among the cumulate eucrites is EET87520, with a 147Sm-147 - Nd-143 age of 4547-4598 Ma. We report here initial results of a combined mineralogical/chronological study of the Yamato 980318 feldspar-cumulate eucrite.

  20. Initiation age and incision rates of inner gorges: Do they record multiple glacial-interglacial cycles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delunel, Romain; Casagrande, Jan; Schlunegger, Fritz; Akçar, Naki; Kubik, Peter W.

    2015-04-01

    Inner gorges represent some of the most conspicuous landforms in the European Alps. They form narrow and deep active-channel incisions that link hanging tributaries with trunk valleys in glacially-conditioned environments. Despite abundant research carried out on these objects, both their origin and evolution have remained unclear. In particular, the age of initiation, the rate of incision, and the respective contribution of fluvial and subglacial processes in the evolution of inner gorges have still been a matter of scientific debate. Indeed, answering these questions has been complicated by the lack of appropriate quantitative methods and/or suitable sampling strategies for studying inner gorges. Here, we report 10Be concentrations measured in alluvial sediments that have been collected along the main stream of a ~20-km2-catchment in the Swiss foreland (Central European Alps). This catchment hosts a ca. 100-m-deep and 2-km-long inner gorge that has been cut mainly in glacial till. Catchment wide denudation rates inferred from 10Be analyses (n = 15) vary from ~120 to 650 mm/ka and show a general downstream increasing trend. Additional field observations and GIS analyses reveal that the denudation rates within the catchment increase from the headwaters, characterized by relict glacial/periglacial landscapes, to the downstream end of the basin where the inner gorge has been formed. Using a 10Be-based sediment budget approach and the delineation of topographic domains from a 2-m-resolution LIDAR, we provide an estimate of erosion rates within the gorge that are higher than 2.5 m/ka and can reach up to ~ 7 m/ka. Combining these estimated erosion rates with the reconstruction of eroded volumes within the gorge, we obtain a rough initiation age in the early Holocene, in general agreement with previous studies reporting a postglacial origin for the inner gorges. Our results therefore appear contradictory with recent findings arguing for a gradual formation of inner

  1. Past and future ice age initiation: the role of an intrinsic deep-ocean millennial oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. G.

    2014-05-01

    This paper offers three interdependent contributions to studies of climate variation: (1) the recognition and analysis of an intrinsic millennial oceanic oscillation that affects both Northern and Southern high latitude climates, (2) The recognition of an oceanographic switch to ice-free seas west of Greenland that explains the initiation of the Last Ice Age, and (3) an analysis of the effect of increasing salinity in the seas east of Greenland that suggests the possibility of the initiation of an ice age threshold climate in the near future. In the first contribution the millennial oscillation in the flow of the North Atlantic Drift reported by Bond et al. (1997) is proposed to be part of a 1500 yr intrinsic deep ocean oscillation. This oscillation involves the exchange of North Atlantic intermediate-level deep water (NADW) formed in the seas east of Greenland with Antarctic Bottom Water formed in a shallow-water zone at the edge of the Antarctic continent. The concept of NADW formation is already well known, with details of the sinking water flowing out of the Greenland Sea observed by Smethie et al. (2000) using chlorofluorocarbon tracers. The concept of Antarctic Bottom Water formation is also already well established. However, its modulation by the changing fraction of NADW in the Southern Ocean, which I infer from the analysis of Weyl (1968), has not been previously discussed. The modulated lower-salinity Antarctic Bottom Water that reaches the northern North Atlantic then provides negative feedback for the cyclic variation of NADW formation as proposed here. This causes the 1500 yr bipolar oscillation. The feedback suggests the possible sinusoidal character of the proposed oscillation model. The model is consistent with the cooling of the Little Ice Age (Lamb, 1972, 1995), and it also correctly predicts NASA's observation of today's record maximum area of winter sea ice on the Southern Ocean and the present observed record low rate of Antarctic Bottom Water

  2. HOSPITAL VENTILATION STANDARDS AND ENERGY CONSERVATION: A REVIEW OF GOVERNMENTAL AND PRIVATE AGENCY ENERGY CONSERVATION INITIATIVES

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, Robert S.; Rainer, David

    1980-03-01

    This report presents the results of a recent research project originally concerned with review of governmental initiatives for changes to hospital design and operation standards at both the federal and state levels. However. it quickly became apparent that concern with energy conservation was not impacting hospital environmental standards, especially at the state level, irrespective of the energy implications. Consequently, the study was redirected to consider all energy conservation initiatives directed toward design and operating practices unique to the hospital environment. The scope was limited to agency programs (i.e., not undertaken at the initiative of individual hospitals), applicable to non-federal public and private hospitals.

  3. A review of the most commonly used dental age estimation techniques.

    PubMed

    Willems, G

    2001-06-01

    This review of literature provides an overview of the most commonly used dental age estimation techniques and focuses on dental age estimation scoring systems in children and adults. In order to obtain a more reliable and reproducible age estimation the forensic odontologist should use several of these available methods whenever an age estimation in the living or dead is required. PMID:11494678

  4. Association between age at antiretroviral therapy initiation and 24-month immune response in HIV-infected children in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Desmonde, Sophie; Dicko, Fatoumata; Koueta, Fla; Eboua, Tanoh; Balestre, Eric; Amani-Bosse, Clarisse; Aka, Edmond A.; Lawson-Evi, Koko; Amorissani-Folquet, Madeleine; Kouakou, Kouadio; Koumakpai, Siriatou; Renner, Lorna; Sy, Haby Signaté; Valériane, Leroy

    2014-01-01

    Objective We describe the association between age at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and 24-month CD4+ cell response in West African HIV-infected children. Methods All HIV-infected children from the IeDEA paediatric West African cohort, initiating ART, with at least two CD4+ cell count measurements, including one at ART initiation (baseline) were included. CD4+ cell gain on ART was estimated using a multivariable linear mixed model adjusted for baseline variables: age, CD4+ cell count, sex, first-line ART regimen. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and a Cox proportional hazards regression model compared immune recovery for age within 24 months post-ART. Results Of the 4808 children initiated on ART, 3014 were enrol led at a median age of 5.6 years; 61.2% were immunodeficient. After 12 months, children at least 4 years at baseline had significantly lower CD4+ cell gains compared with children less than 2 years, the reference group (P < 0.001). However, by 24 months, we observed higher CD4+cell gain in children who initiated ART between 3 and 4 years compared with those less than 2 years (P < 0.001). The 24-month CD4+ cell gain was also strongest in immunodeficient children at baseline. Among these children, 75% reached immune recovery: 12-month rates were significantly highest in all those aged 2–5 years at ART initiation compared with those less than 2 years. Beyond 12 months on ART, immune recovery was significantly lower in children initiated more than 5 years (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.69, 95% confidence interval: 0.56–0.86). Conclusion These results suggest that both the initiation of ART at the earliest age less than 5 years and before any severe immunodeficiency is needed for improving 24-month immune recovery on ART. PMID:24804858

  5. Age at initiation & prevalence of tobacco use among school children in Noida, India: A cross-sectional questionnaire based survey

    PubMed Central

    Narain, Raj; Sardana, Sarita; Gupta, Sanjay; Sehgal, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Tobacco use among school children is becoming a serious problem in developing countries. The early age of initiation underscores the urgent need to intervene and protect this vulnerable group from falling prey to this addiction. The present study was thus undertaken to assess the prevalence of tobacco habits among school children, determine the age of initiation of these habits, and compare the age of initiation between students who were more than 15 and ≤ 15 yr of age. Methods: Data on tobacco use were collected from 4786 students of class 7 to 12 (age: 11-19 yr) studying in different private and government schools of Noida city during July- December 2005, through cluster and random sampling using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Any kind of tobacco use was found in 537 (11.2%) students; 419 (8.8%) were ‘ever smokers (including current smokers)’ 219 (4.6%) were ‘ever tobacco chewers (including current chewers)’, 179 (3.7%) were ‘exclusive smokers’ and 118 (2.5%) were ‘exclusive tobacco chewers’. The mean age of initiation of these habits was around 12.4 yr. More than 50 per cent of tobacco chewers reported use of khaini at least once. Nearly 70 per cent of boys and 80 per cent of girls ≤ 15 yr initiated the habit of tobacco before the age of 11 yr. A significant early uptake of tobacco chewing was reported from private school students as compared to government school students (P<0.05). Interpretation & conclusions: Tobacco addiction is emerging as a big threat among children. Our findings indicate a recent downward shift in the age at initiation of tobacco uptake and rising prevalence among girls. Such data need to be collected from different parts of the country to develop anti-tobacco campaigns and take policy decision. PMID:21441684

  6. New Age of Fishes initiated by the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction.

    PubMed

    Sibert, Elizabeth C; Norris, Richard D

    2015-07-14

    Ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) comprise nearly half of all modern vertebrate diversity, and are an ecologically and numerically dominant megafauna in most aquatic environments. Crown teleost fishes diversified relatively recently, during the Late Cretaceous and early Paleogene, although the exact timing and cause of their radiation and rise to ecological dominance is poorly constrained. Here we use microfossil teeth and shark dermal scales (ichthyoliths) preserved in deep-sea sediments to study the changes in the pelagic fish community in the latest Cretaceous and early Paleogene. We find that the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg) extinction event marked a profound change in the structure of ichthyolith communities around the globe: Whereas shark denticles outnumber ray-finned fish teeth in Cretaceous deep-sea sediments around the world, there is a dramatic increase in the proportion of ray-finned fish teeth to shark denticles in the Paleocene. There is also an increase in size and numerical abundance of ray-finned fish teeth at the boundary. These changes are sustained through at least the first 24 million years of the Cenozoic. This new fish community structure began at the K/Pg mass extinction, suggesting the extinction event played an important role in initiating the modern "age of fishes."

  7. New Age of Fishes initiated by the Cretaceous−Paleogene mass extinction

    PubMed Central

    Sibert, Elizabeth C.; Norris, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    Ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) comprise nearly half of all modern vertebrate diversity, and are an ecologically and numerically dominant megafauna in most aquatic environments. Crown teleost fishes diversified relatively recently, during the Late Cretaceous and early Paleogene, although the exact timing and cause of their radiation and rise to ecological dominance is poorly constrained. Here we use microfossil teeth and shark dermal scales (ichthyoliths) preserved in deep-sea sediments to study the changes in the pelagic fish community in the latest Cretaceous and early Paleogene. We find that the Cretaceous−Paleogene (K/Pg) extinction event marked a profound change in the structure of ichthyolith communities around the globe: Whereas shark denticles outnumber ray-finned fish teeth in Cretaceous deep-sea sediments around the world, there is a dramatic increase in the proportion of ray-finned fish teeth to shark denticles in the Paleocene. There is also an increase in size and numerical abundance of ray-finned fish teeth at the boundary. These changes are sustained through at least the first 24 million years of the Cenozoic. This new fish community structure began at the K/Pg mass extinction, suggesting the extinction event played an important role in initiating the modern “age of fishes.” PMID:26124114

  8. New Age of Fishes initiated by the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibert, Elizabeth C.; Norris, Richard D.

    2015-07-01

    Ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) comprise nearly half of all modern vertebrate diversity, and are an ecologically and numerically dominant megafauna in most aquatic environments. Crown teleost fishes diversified relatively recently, during the Late Cretaceous and early Paleogene, although the exact timing and cause of their radiation and rise to ecological dominance is poorly constrained. Here we use microfossil teeth and shark dermal scales (ichthyoliths) preserved in deep-sea sediments to study the changes in the pelagic fish community in the latest Cretaceous and early Paleogene. We find that the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg) extinction event marked a profound change in the structure of ichthyolith communities around the globe: Whereas shark denticles outnumber ray-finned fish teeth in Cretaceous deep-sea sediments around the world, there is a dramatic increase in the proportion of ray-finned fish teeth to shark denticles in the Paleocene. There is also an increase in size and numerical abundance of ray-finned fish teeth at the boundary. These changes are sustained through at least the first 24 million years of the Cenozoic. This new fish community structure began at the K/Pg mass extinction, suggesting the extinction event played an important role in initiating the modern "age of fishes."

  9. New Age of Fishes initiated by the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction.

    PubMed

    Sibert, Elizabeth C; Norris, Richard D

    2015-07-14

    Ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) comprise nearly half of all modern vertebrate diversity, and are an ecologically and numerically dominant megafauna in most aquatic environments. Crown teleost fishes diversified relatively recently, during the Late Cretaceous and early Paleogene, although the exact timing and cause of their radiation and rise to ecological dominance is poorly constrained. Here we use microfossil teeth and shark dermal scales (ichthyoliths) preserved in deep-sea sediments to study the changes in the pelagic fish community in the latest Cretaceous and early Paleogene. We find that the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg) extinction event marked a profound change in the structure of ichthyolith communities around the globe: Whereas shark denticles outnumber ray-finned fish teeth in Cretaceous deep-sea sediments around the world, there is a dramatic increase in the proportion of ray-finned fish teeth to shark denticles in the Paleocene. There is also an increase in size and numerical abundance of ray-finned fish teeth at the boundary. These changes are sustained through at least the first 24 million years of the Cenozoic. This new fish community structure began at the K/Pg mass extinction, suggesting the extinction event played an important role in initiating the modern "age of fishes." PMID:26124114

  10. 77 FR 39218 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Duty Orders, 63 FR 13516 (March 20, 1998) and 70 FR 62061 (October 28, 2005). Guidance on... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders: Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16, 1998), and in Antidumping... Duty Proceedings; Final Modification, 77 FR 8101 (February 14, 2012). Initiation of Review...

  11. 77 FR 32527 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... Duty Orders, 63 FR 13516 (March 20, 1998) and 70 FR 62061 (October 28, 2005). Guidance on... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders: Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16, 1998), and in Antidumping... Duty Proceedings; Final Modification, 77 FR 8101 (February 14, 2012). Initiation of Review...

  12. 77 FR 28355 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ...\\ This notice is a correction. \\1\\ See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 77 FR 25683 (May 1...: Brenda E. Waters, Office of AD/CVD Operations, Customs Unit, Import Administration, International Trade... No. ITC Case No. Country Product Department contact A-570-905 731-TA-709......... China...

  13. 78 FR 19647 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... Countervailing Duty Orders, 63 FR 13516 (March 20, 1998) and 70 FR 62061 (October 28, 2005). Guidance on... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders: Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16, 1998), and in Antidumping... Duty Proceedings; Final Modification, 77 FR 8101 (February 14, 2012). Initiation of Review...

  14. 78 FR 66938 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... ``Capacity Assistance for High Impact HIV Prevention'', Funding Opportunity Announcement PS14-1403, initial review, published in the Federal Register on September 18, 2013 (FR Volume 78, Number 181, Page 57391... meeting is rescheduled in accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub....

  15. 76 FR 78263 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... Safety and Health Training Project Grants, Program Announcement PAR 10-288, initial review. In accordance... set forth in Section 552b(c)(4) and (6), Title 5 U.S.C., and the Determination of the Director... to ``Occupational Safety and Health Training Project Grants, PAR 10-288.'' Contact Person for...

  16. 75 FR 39494 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... FR 13516 (March 20, 1998) and 70 FR 62061 (October 28, 2005). Guidance on methodological or... Countervailing Duty Orders: Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16, 1998). Initiation of Review In accordance... (75 FR 30777), the case number listed for Carboxymethylcellulose from Sweden was incorrect. The...

  17. 78 FR 7400 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... Countervailing Duty Orders, 63 FR 13516 (March 20, 1998) and 70 FR 62061 (October 28, 2005). Guidance on... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders: Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16, 1998), and in Antidumping... Duty Proceedings; Final Modification, 77 FR 8101 (February 14, 2012). Initiation of Review...

  18. 77 FR 59897 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... Countervailing Duty Orders, 63 FR 13516 (March 20, 1998) and 70 FR 62061 (October 28, 2005). Guidance on... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders: Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16, 1998), and in Antidumping... Duty Proceedings; Final Modification, 77 FR 8101 (February 14, 2012). Initiation of Review...

  19. 78 FR 65614 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... Duty Orders, 63 FR 13516 (March 20, 1998) and 70 FR 62061 (October 28, 2005). Guidance on... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders: Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16, 1998), and in Antidumping... Duty Proceedings; Final Modification, 77 FR 8101 (February 14, 2012). Initiation of Review...

  20. 77 FR 19643 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... Countervailing Duty Orders, 63 FR 13516 (March 20, 1998) and 70 FR 62061 (October 28, 2005). Guidance on... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders: Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16, 1998), and in Antidumping... Duty Proceedings; Final Modification, 77 FR 8101 (February 14, 2012). Initiation of Review...

  1. 77 FR 53867 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... Countervailing Duty Orders, 63 FR 13516 (March 20, 1998) and 70 FR 62061 (October 28, 2005). Guidance on... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders: Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16, 1998), and in Antidumping... Duty Proceedings; Final Modification, 77 FR 8101 (February 14, 2012). Initiation of Review...

  2. 78 FR 72061 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... Duty Orders, 63 FR 13516 (March 20, 1998) and 70 FR 62061 (October 28, 2005). Guidance on... Antidumping Duty Proceedings; Final Modification, 77 FR 8101 (February 14, 2012). Initiation of Review In...: Electronic Filing Procedures; Administrative Protective Order Procedures, 76 FR 39263 (July 6, 2011)....

  3. 76 FR 2083 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review Correction In notice document 2010-27522 beginning on page 67082 in the issue of Monday, November 1, 2010, make the...

  4. 78 FR 13862 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... Countervailing Duty Orders, 63 FR 13516 (March 20, 1998) and 70 FR 62061 (October 28, 2005). Guidance on... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders: Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16, 1998), and in Antidumping... Duty Proceedings; Final Modification, 77 FR 8101 (February 14, 2012). Initiation of Review...

  5. 77 FR 25683 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... Countervailing Duty Orders, 63 FR 13516 (March 20, 1998) and 70 FR 62061 (October 28, 2005). Guidance on... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders: Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16, 1998), and in Antidumping... Duty Proceedings; Final Modification, 77 FR 8101 (February 14, 2012). Initiation of Review...

  6. 78 FR 32442 - Certain Cases for Portable Electronic Devices; Determination Not To Review an Initial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... COMMISSION Certain Cases for Portable Electronic Devices; Determination Not To Review an Initial... sale within the United States after importation of certain cases for portable electronic devices by... portable electronic devices by reason of infringement of various claims of the '561 patent. The...

  7. UCAN: A Four-State Rural Systemic Initiative. Year Two Performance Effectiveness Review (PER).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LLamas, Vicente J.

    The Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico-Rural Systemic Initiative (UCAN-RSI) supports systemic reform of mathematics, technology, and science education for rural students in its states, focusing on schools with high enrollments of American Indian and Hispanic students. This performance effectiveness review covers UCAN's progress during its second…

  8. 77 FR 51825 - Certain Drill Bits and Products Containing Same; Determination To Review an Initial Determination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... Company and Longyear TM, Inc. both of South Jordan, Utah. 76 FR 32997 (June 4, 2012). The complaint... COMMISSION Certain Drill Bits and Products Containing Same; Determination To Review an Initial Determination... importation of certain drill bits and products containing the same by reason of infringement of certain...

  9. 75 FR 53274 - Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Deferral of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Sales at Less ] Than Fair Value: Sparklers from the People's Republic of China, 56 FR 20588 (May 6, 1991...'s Republic of China, 59 FR 22585 (May 2,1994). In accordance with the separate-rates criteria, the... published on July 28, 2010 (75 FR 44224), we initiated a review of Tapered Roller Bearings (``TRB's'')...

  10. 77 FR 73662 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... Safety and Health Education and Research Centers (ERC) PAR 10-217, initial review. In accordance with... in response to ``Occupational Safety and Health Education and Research Centers (ERC) PAR 10-217... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  11. 77 FR 12562 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... Countervailing Duty Orders, 63 FR 13516 (March 20, 1998) and 70 FR 62061 (October 28, 2005). Guidance on... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders: Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16, 1998), and in Antidumping... Duty Proceedings; Final Modification, 77 FR 8101 (February 14, 2012). Initiation of Review...

  12. 76 FR 29756 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... Agricultural Disease and Injury Research, Education, and Prevention, Program Announcement (PA) Number PAR-11... Agricultural Disease and Injury Research, Education, and Prevention, PAR-11-022, initial review.'' Contact... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention...

  13. WWC Review of the Report "Philadelphia's Renaissance Schools Initiative: 18 Month Interim Report"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The study reviewed in this report examined the effects of Philadelphia's "Renaissance Schools Initiative" on students in K-8 schools after one year of implementation. Schools were selected for participation based on their School Performance Index (SPI) at the start of the 2010-11 school year. The SPI rates every school in Philadelphia from one to…

  14. Towards Evidence-Based Initial Teacher Education in Singapore: A Review of Current Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Ee-Ling; Hui, Chenri; Taylor, Peter G.; Ng, Pak Tee

    2012-01-01

    Initial teacher education (ITE) in Singapore is shifting towards evidence-based practice. Despite a clear policy orientation, ITE in Singapore has not yet produced the evidence base that it is anticipating. This paper presents an analytical review of previous research into ITE in Singapore and makes comparisons to the larger international context.…

  15. 40 CFR 164.101 - Appeals from or review of initial decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appeals from or review of initial decisions. 164.101 Section 164.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING HEARINGS, UNDER THE FEDERAL INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE,...

  16. 40 CFR 164.101 - Appeals from or review of initial decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Appeals from or review of initial decisions. 164.101 Section 164.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING HEARINGS, UNDER THE FEDERAL INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE,...

  17. 40 CFR 164.101 - Appeals from or review of initial decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Appeals from or review of initial decisions. 164.101 Section 164.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING HEARINGS, UNDER THE FEDERAL INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE,...

  18. 40 CFR 164.101 - Appeals from or review of initial decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Appeals from or review of initial decisions. 164.101 Section 164.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING HEARINGS, UNDER THE FEDERAL INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE,...

  19. 40 CFR 164.101 - Appeals from or review of initial decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Appeals from or review of initial decisions. 164.101 Section 164.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING HEARINGS, UNDER THE FEDERAL INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE,...

  20. 75 FR 56992 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Notice of Initiation of Changed Circumstances Review and Consideration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... Countervailing Duty Determination: Certain Pasta From Italy, 61 FR 38543 (July 24, 1996). On July 29, 2010, the... Anti-Circumvention Inquiry on the Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders, 65 FR 26179 (May 5, 2000..., 68 FR 54888 (September 19, 2003). Initiation of Changed Circumstances Review, and Consideration...

  1. 77 FR 5491 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of 5-Year Review for Sei Whales

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... limited to, population trends, distribution, abundance, demographics, and genetics; (2) habitat conditions...; Initiation of 5-Year Review for Sei Whales AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... Comment'' icon on the right of that line. Mail or hand-delivery: Angela Somma, National Marine...

  2. 76 FR 59133 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Prevention Projects for Young Men of Color Who Have Sex with Men and Young Transgender... include the initial review, discussion, and evaluation of an application received in response to ``HIV..., National Center for HIV, Hepatitis and Sexually Transmitted Diseases Prevention, CDC, 1600 Clifton Road,...

  3. 78 FR 60253 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... Duty Orders, 63 FR 13516 (March 20, 1998) and 70 FR 62061 (October 28, 2005). Guidance on... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders: Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16, 1998), and in Antidumping... Duty Proceedings; Final Modification, 77 FR 8101 (February 14, 2012). Initiation of Review...

  4. 49 CFR 511.54 - Review of initial decision in absence of appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review of initial decision in absence of appeal. 511.54 Section 511.54 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Decision §...

  5. 49 CFR 511.54 - Review of initial decision in absence of appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Review of initial decision in absence of appeal. 511.54 Section 511.54 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Decision §...

  6. 78 FR 9055 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ..., Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) IP13- 002; and Strengthening Global Animal-Human Interface Activities for Avian Influenza and other Zoonotic Diseases, FOA CK13-002, initial review. In accordance with... Infections in Panama and Central America Region, FOA IP13-002; and Strengthening Global...

  7. 77 FR 27460 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) (FOA)GH-11-002, initial review. In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the... ``Conducting Public Health Research in China FOA GH-12-005'', and ``Conducting Public Health Research in Thailand by the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) FOA GH-11-002.'' Contact Person for More Information:...

  8. 78 FR 78966 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Capacity Building Assistance for High Impact...

  9. 75 FR 44224 - Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Requests for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    .... Lifetime Hong Kong Ltd. Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate, \\6\\ A-570-855 6/1/09--5/31/10 Sanmenxia Luck... for a separate rate, all other exporters of Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the PRC who have..., 2010 (75 FR 37759), initiating the 2009/10 administrative reviews of the antidumping duty orders...

  10. 40 CFR 154.7 - Criteria for initiation of Special Review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criteria for initiation of Special Review. 154.7 Section 154.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... the ingredients, impurities, metabolites, and degradation products of the pesticide): (1) May pose...

  11. 40 CFR 154.7 - Criteria for initiation of Special Review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criteria for initiation of Special Review. 154.7 Section 154.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... the ingredients, impurities, metabolites, and degradation products of the pesticide): (1) May pose...

  12. 75 FR 71072 - Initiation and Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... liquids and gases in plumbing and heating systems, air conditioning units, automatic sprinkler systems... Pipe from Korea, 57 FR 49453 (November 2, 1992). On May 17, 2010, both TUNA and Lamina y Placa filed a...: Initiation and Preliminary Results of Changed- Circumstances Review, 71 FR 14679 (March 23,...

  13. 76 FR 67458 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Emerging..., Georgia 30337, Telephone: (770) 997-1100. Contact Person For More Information: Amy Yang, Ph.D.,...

  14. 77 FR 34045 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Cooperative Research... Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Times and Dates: 8 a.m.-5 p.m., July...

  15. 77 FR 5026 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Occupational... Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease...

  16. 77 FR 31018 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member Conflict... the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and...

  17. 78 FR 66937 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Occupational... 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control...

  18. 75 FR 69054 - Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... Federal Register of October 28, 2010, 75 FR 66349, under the tables entitled ``Antidumping Duty... 28, 2010, concerning the initiation of administrative reviews of various antidumping and...-941 and C-570-942. For reasons explained in footnote 's 5 & 6 in the October 28, 2010 Federal...

  19. 78 FR 60878 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Health...

  20. 78 FR 60878 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns National...

  1. 76 FR 28790 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member...

  2. 77 FR 44618 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns the World...

  3. 78 FR 35035 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial review The meeting announced below concerns Centers...

  4. 77 FR 48986 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member...

  5. 76 FR 52330 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member...

  6. 78 FR 36785 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Centers...

  7. 78 FR 60879 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns National...

  8. 77 FR 1059 - Low Enriched Uranium From France: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... International Trade Administration Low Enriched Uranium From France: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed... review of the antidumping duty order on low enriched uranium (LEU) from France with respect to Eurodif S... deadline for re-exporting the LEU entry at issue. \\1\\ See Letter from AREVA, ``Low Enriched Uranium...

  9. 75 FR 343 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ...: Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China, 59 FR 59209 (November 16, 1994) (Order). On November... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper... shipper review of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China...

  10. 77 FR 5257 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... Indonesia, FOA CK12-002, initial review.'' Contact Person for More Information: Greg Anderson, M.P.H., M.S... Date: 1 p.m.-5 p.m., March 26, 2012 (Closed). Place: Teleconference. Status: The meeting will be closed... Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. BILLING CODE 4163-18-P...

  11. UCAN: A Four-State Rural Systemic Initiative. Year Three Performance Effectiveness Review (PER).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LLamas, Vicente J.

    The Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico-Rural Systemic Initiative (UCAN-RSI) supports systemic reform of mathematics, technology, and science education for rural students in its states, focusing on schools with high enrollments of American Indian and Hispanic students. This performance effectiveness review covers UCAN's progress during its third…

  12. 32 CFR 211.7 - Initiating an Informal DoD Review of a Proposed Project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Initiating an Informal DoD Review of a Proposed Project. 211.7 Section 211.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MISSION COMPATIBILITY EVALUATION PROCESS Project Evaluation...

  13. 32 CFR 211.7 - Initiating an Informal DoD Review of a Proposed Project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Initiating an Informal DoD Review of a Proposed Project. 211.7 Section 211.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MISSION COMPATIBILITY EVALUATION PROCESS Project Evaluation...

  14. 32 CFR 211.6 - Initiating a Formal DoD Review of a Proposed Project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Initiating a Formal DoD Review of a Proposed Project. 211.6 Section 211.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MISSION COMPATIBILITY EVALUATION PROCESS Project Evaluation...

  15. 32 CFR 211.6 - Initiating a Formal DoD Review of a Proposed Project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Initiating a Formal DoD Review of a Proposed Project. 211.6 Section 211.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MISSION COMPATIBILITY EVALUATION PROCESS Project Evaluation...

  16. 32 CFR 211.6 - Initiating a formal DoD review of a proposed project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Initiating a formal DoD review of a proposed project. 211.6 Section 211.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MISSION COMPATIBILITY EVALUATION PROCESS Project Evaluation...

  17. 32 CFR 211.7 - Initiating an informal DoD review of a proposed project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Initiating an informal DoD review of a proposed project. 211.7 Section 211.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MISSION COMPATIBILITY EVALUATION PROCESS Project Evaluation...

  18. Mechanisms and implications of age-associated impaired innate interferon secretion by dendritic cells: a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Anshu

    2013-01-01

    Initial secretion of interferons by innate immune cells such as dendritic cells is crucial for protection against infections as well as for alerting and activating the downstream immune responses. The secretion of innate interferons, both type I and type III, by dendritic cells is severely impaired in aged subjects. This review focuses on the mechanisms responsible for the reduced interferon secretion by dendritic cells and the role this plays in the increased susceptibility of the elderly to infections, particularly of the respiratory mucosa.

  19. Initiation of calorie restriction in middle-aged male rats attenuates aging-related motoric decline and bradykinesia without increased striatal dopamine.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Michael F; Terrebonne, Jennifer; Fields, Victoria; Nodurft, Danielle; Runfalo, Cori; Latimer, Brian; Ingram, Donald K

    2016-01-01

    Aging-related bradykinesia affects ∼ 15% of those reaching age 65 and 50% of those reaching their 80s. Given this high risk and lack of pharmacologic therapeutics, noninvasive lifestyle strategies should be identified to diminish its risk and identify the neurobiological targets to reduce aging-related bradykinesia. Early-life, long-term calorie restriction (CR) attenuates aging-related bradykinesia in rodents. Here, we addressed whether CR initiation at middle age could attenuate aging-related bradykinesia and motoric decline measured as rotarod performance. A 30% CR regimen was implemented for 6 months duration in 12-month-old male Brown-Norway Fischer 344 F1 hybrid rats after establishing individual baseline locomotor activities. Locomotor capacity was assessed every 6 weeks thereafter. The ad libitum group exhibited predictably decreased locomotor activity, except movement speed, out to 18 months of age. In contrast, in the CR group, movement number and horizontal activity did not decrease during the 6-month trial, and aging-related decline in rotarod performance was attenuated. The response to CR was influenced by baseline locomotor activity. The lower the locomotor activity level at baseline, the greater the response to CR. Rats in the lower 50th percentile surpassed their baseline level of activity, whereas rats in the top 50th percentile decreased at 6 weeks and then returned to baseline by 12 weeks of CR. We hypothesized that nigrostriatal dopamine tissue content would be greater in the CR group and observed a modest increase only in substantia nigra with no group differences in striatum, nucleus accumbens, or ventral tegmental area. These results indicate that initiation of CR at middle age may reduce aging-related bradykinesia, and, furthermore, subjects with below average locomotor activity may increase baseline activity. Sustaining nigral dopamine neurotransmission may be one component of preserving locomotor capabilities during aging.

  20. Factors associated with age at first sexual initiation among youths in Gamo Gofa, South West Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Early sexual initiation increases the risk of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases. This study aimed to determine age at first sexual initiation and associated factors among youths in south west Ethiopia. Methods Cross-sectional study was conducted in South west Ethiopia from January 15 – March 20, 2012. A sample of youths aged 15–24 years was taken from six health centers and three hospitals using systematic sampling technique. Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to assess the association between the outcome and explanatory variables. Result A total of 405 youths participated in the study and the mean ( ±SD ) age of sexual initiation was 17.07 years (±2.12). Age at first sexual initiation was positively associated with lack of employment [Adj. HR & (95% CI) = 7.372 (1.455, 37.357)], lack of comprehensive knowledge on HIV [Adj. HR & (95% CI) = 8.247 (2.121, 32.067)], alcohol use [Adj. HR & (95% CI) = 3.815 (1.315, 11.070)] and khat use [Adj. HR & (95% CI) = 7.241 (1.871, 28.016)]. Conclusion Majority of the study participants experienced sexual initiation. Strategies should be designed to control the use of substances like alcohol and khat which were found to be responsible for first sexual initiation. PMID:23819567

  1. The Peer Reviewers' Openness Initiative: incentivizing open research practices through peer review

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Christopher D.; Etchells, Peter J.; Harris, Christine R.; Hoekstra, Rink; Lakens, Daniël; Morey, Candice Coker; Newman, Daniel P.; Schönbrodt, Felix D.; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2016-01-01

    Openness is one of the central values of science. Open scientific practices such as sharing data, materials and analysis scripts alongside published articles have many benefits, including easier replication and extension studies, increased availability of data for theory-building and meta-analysis, and increased possibility of review and collaboration even after a paper has been published. Although modern information technology makes sharing easier than ever before, uptake of open practices had been slow. We suggest this might be in part due to a social dilemma arising from misaligned incentives and propose a specific, concrete mechanism—reviewers withholding comprehensive review—to achieve the goal of creating the expectation of open practices as a matter of scientific principle. PMID:26909182

  2. Direct cost for initial management of prostate cancer: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Sanyal, C.; Aprikian, A.G.; Chevalier, S.; Cury, F.L.; Dragomir, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer (pca) is the most common non-skin cancer among men in Canada and other Western countries. Increased prevalence and higher cost of newer treatments have led to a significant rise in the economic burden of pca. The objectives of the present study were to systematically review the literature on direct costs for the initial management of pca, and to examine the methodologic considerations across studies. Methods Bibliographic databases were systematically searched for peer-reviewed articles in English. Studies were reviewed for methodologic considerations and mean direct cost of active surveillance or watchful waiting (as/ww) and initial treatments. Direct cost was standardized to 2011 Canadian dollars. Results After a review of abstracts and full-text papers, seventeen articles met the eligibility criteria and were included in the review. Studies were published during 1992–2010. The studies reported on health care systems in the United States, France, the United Kingdom, German, Italy, and Spain. Our review identified a lack of methodologic consensus, leading to variation in direct costs between studies. Nevertheless, results indicate a significant direct cost of pca treatments. Conclusions The existing literature lacks methodologically rigorous studies on the direct costs of pca treatments specific to publicly funded health care systems. Additional studies are required to appreciate the direct costs of newer treatments and the impact of their adoption on the growing economic burden of pca management. PMID:24311952

  3. Proinflammation of aging central arteries: a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingyi; Monticone, Robert E; Lakatta, Edward G

    2014-01-01

    Arterial aging is a cornerstone of organismal aging. The central arterial wall structurally and functionally remodels under chronic proinflammatory stress over a lifetime. The low-grade proinflammation that accompanies advancing age causes arterial wall thickening and stiffening. These structural and functional alterations are consequences of adverse molecular and cellular events, e.g. an increase in local angiotensin II signaling that induces an inflammatory phenotypic shift of endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Thus, interventions to restrict proinflammatory signaling are a rational approach to delay or prevent age-associated adverse arterial remodeling.

  4. Measuring quality of mental health care: a review of initiatives and programs in selected countries.

    PubMed

    Spaeth-Rublee, Brigitta; Pincus, Harold Alan; Huynh, Phuong Trang

    2010-09-01

    This review article presents a systematic review of grey literature describing current initiatives that assess the quality of mental health care in 12 countries, as collected by the International Initiative for Mental Health Leadership.There have been increased efforts in many countries to develop and implement mental health indicator schemes to measure and monitor the quality of mental health care at the national and subnational level. Most mental health indicator sets are part of larger health policy initiatives at the national and (or) provincial or state level, with indicators and domains regularly reviewed and revised. The indicator sets described in health care quality initiatives vary widely in their scope, intended use, and degree of development, and they often cut across a broad range of domains, reflecting not only a country's specific health system and how it is organized and structured but also the implementation of such schemes (that is, collection and analysis of data) and the sociopolitical realities that determine mental health priorities.

  5. Individually modifiable risk factors to ameliorate cognitive aging: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lehert, P; Villaseca, P; Hogervorst, E; Maki, P M; Henderson, V W

    2015-10-01

    A number of health and lifestyle factors are thought to contribute to cognitive decline associated with age but cannot be easily modified by the individual patient. We identified 12 individually modifiable interventions that can be implemented during midlife or later with the potential to ameliorate cognitive aging. For ten of these, we used PubMed databases for a systematic review of long-duration (at least 6 months), randomized, controlled trials in midlife and older adults without dementia or mild cognitive impairment with objective measures of neuropsychological performance. Using network meta-analysis, we performed a quantitative synthesis for global cognition (primary outcome) and episodic memory (secondary outcome). Of 1038 publications identified by our search strategy, 24 eligible trials were included in the network meta-analysis. Results suggested that the Mediterranean diet supplemented by olive oil and tai chi exercise may improve global cognition, and the Mediterranean diet plus olive oil and soy isoflavone supplements may improve memory. Effect sizes were no more than small (standardized mean differences 0.11-0.22). Cognitive training may have cognitive benefit as well. Most individually modifiable risk factors have not yet been adequately studied. We conclude that some interventions that can be self-initiated by healthy midlife and older adults may ameliorate cognitive aging. PMID:26361790

  6. Individually modifiable risk factors to ameliorate cognitive aging: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lehert, P; Villaseca, P; Hogervorst, E; Maki, P M; Henderson, V W

    2015-10-01

    A number of health and lifestyle factors are thought to contribute to cognitive decline associated with age but cannot be easily modified by the individual patient. We identified 12 individually modifiable interventions that can be implemented during midlife or later with the potential to ameliorate cognitive aging. For ten of these, we used PubMed databases for a systematic review of long-duration (at least 6 months), randomized, controlled trials in midlife and older adults without dementia or mild cognitive impairment with objective measures of neuropsychological performance. Using network meta-analysis, we performed a quantitative synthesis for global cognition (primary outcome) and episodic memory (secondary outcome). Of 1038 publications identified by our search strategy, 24 eligible trials were included in the network meta-analysis. Results suggested that the Mediterranean diet supplemented by olive oil and tai chi exercise may improve global cognition, and the Mediterranean diet plus olive oil and soy isoflavone supplements may improve memory. Effect sizes were no more than small (standardized mean differences 0.11-0.22). Cognitive training may have cognitive benefit as well. Most individually modifiable risk factors have not yet been adequately studied. We conclude that some interventions that can be self-initiated by healthy midlife and older adults may ameliorate cognitive aging.

  7. Brief Report: Pregnant by Age 15 Years and Substance Use Initiation among US Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B.; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2012-01-01

    We examined substance use onset and associations with pregnancy by age 15 years. Participants were girls ages 15 years or younger (weighted n = 8319) from the 1999-2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS). Multivariable logistic regression examined pregnancy as a function of substance use onset (i.e., age 10 years or younger, 11-12,…

  8. Mechanisms of the anorexia of aging-a review.

    PubMed

    Wysokiński, Adam; Sobów, Tomasz; Kłoszewska, Iwona; Kostka, Tomasz

    2015-08-01

    Many, even healthy, older people fail to adequately regulate food intake and experience loss of weight. Aging-associated changes in the regulation of appetite and the lack of hunger have been termed as the anorexia of aging. The etiology of the anorexia of aging is multi-factorial and includes a combination of physiological changes associated with aging (decline in smell and taste, reduced central and peripheral drive to eat, delayed gastric emptying), pathological conditions (depression, dementia, somatic diseases, medications and iatrogenic interventions, oral-health status), and social factors (poverty, loneliness). However, exact mechanisms of the anorexia of aging remain to be elucidated. Many neurobiological mechanisms may be secondary to age-related changes in body composition and not associated with anorexia per se. Therefore, further studies on pathophysiological mechanisms of the anorexia of aging should employ accurate measurement of body fat and lean mass. The anorexia of aging is associated with protein-energy malnutrition, sarcopenia, frailty, functional deterioration, morbidity, and mortality. Since this symptom can lead to dramatic consequences, early identification and effective interventions are needed. One of the most important goals in the geriatric care is to optimize nutritional status of the elderly.

  9. DOE Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee (ASCAC) Report: Exascale Computing Initiative Review

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Daniel; Berzins, Martin; Pennington, Robert; Sarkar, Vivek; Taylor, Valerie

    2015-08-01

    On November 19, 2014, the Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee (ASCAC) was charged with reviewing the Department of Energy’s conceptual design for the Exascale Computing Initiative (ECI). In particular, this included assessing whether there are significant gaps in the ECI plan or areas that need to be given priority or extra management attention. Given the breadth and depth of previous reviews of the technical challenges inherent in exascale system design and deployment, the subcommittee focused its assessment on organizational and management issues, considering technical issues only as they informed organizational or management priorities and structures. This report presents the observations and recommendations of the subcommittee.

  10. Emerging lessons from the FIGO LOGIC initiative on maternal death and near-miss reviews.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Gwyneth

    2014-10-01

    This short paper describes some early findings from an overview of the maternal death or severe morbidity "near-miss" reviews that have been undertaken to improve clinical care by the eight societies participating in the FIGO Leadership in Obstetrics and Gynecology for Impact and Change (LOGIC) Initiative in Maternal and Newborn Health aimed at strengthening the role of professional obstetric associations. While it is expected that each will publish its own report, generalizable lessons emerged and valuable solutions were implemented that will help others planning such reviews and audits in future.

  11. The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative: A review of papers published since its inception

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Michael W.; Veitch, Dallas P.; Aisen, Paul S.; Beckett, Laurel A.; Cairns, Nigel J.; Green, Robert C.; Harvey, Danielle; Jack, Clifford R.; Jagust, William; Liu, Enchi; Morris, John C.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Schmidt, Mark E.; Shaw, Leslie; Shen, Li; Siuciak, Judith A.; Soares, Holly; Toga, Arthur W.; Trojanowski, John Q.

    2014-01-01

    The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is an ongoing, longitudinal, multicenter study designed to develop clinical, imaging, genetic, and biochemical biomarkers for the early detection and tracking of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The study aimed to enroll 400 subjects with early mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 200 subjects with early AD, and 200 normal control subjects; $67 million funding was provided by both the public and private sectors, including the National Institute on Aging, 13 pharmaceutical companies, and 2 foundations that provided support through the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health. This article reviews all papers published since the inception of the initiative and summarizes the results as of February 2011. The major accomplishments of ADNI have been as follows: (1) the development of standardized methods for clinical tests, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in a multicenter setting; (2) elucidation of the patterns and rates of change of imaging and CSF biomarker measurements in control subjects, MCI patients, and AD patients. CSF biomarkers are consistent with disease trajectories predicted by β-amyloid cascade (Hardy, J Alzheimers Dis 2006;9(Suppl 3):151–3) and tau-mediated neurodegeneration hypotheses for AD, whereas brain atrophy and hypometabolism levels show predicted patterns but exhibit differing rates of change depending on region and disease severity; (3) the assessment of alternative methods of diagnostic categorization. Currently, the best classifiers combine optimum features from multiple modalities, including MRI, [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET, CSF biomarkers, and clinical tests; (4) the development of methods for the early detection of AD. CSF biomarkers, β-amyloid 42 and tau, as well as amyloid PET may reflect the earliest steps in AD pathology in mildly symptomatic or even nonsymptomatic subjects, and are leading candidates

  12. The Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative: A review of papers published since its inception

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Michael W.; Veitch, Dallas P.; Aisen, Paul S.; Beckett, Laurel A.; Cairns, Nigel J.; Green, Robert C.; Harvey, Danielle; Jack, Clifford R.; Jagust, William; Liu, Enchi; Morris, John C.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Schmidt, Mark E.; Shaw, Leslie; Siuciak, Judith A.; Soares, Holly; Toga, Arthur W.; Trojanowski, John Q.

    2012-01-01

    The Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is an ongoing, longitudinal, multicenter study designed to develop clinical, imaging, genetic and biochemical biomarkers for the early detection and tracking of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The study aimed to enroll 400 subjects with early mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 200 subjects with early AD and 200 normal controls and $67 million funding was provided by both the public and private sectors including the National Institutes on Aging, thirteen pharmaceutical companies and two Foundations that provided support through the Foundation for NIH (FNIH). This article reviews all papers published since the inception of the initiative and summarizes the results as of February, 2011. The major accomplishments of ADNI have been 1) the development of standardized methods for clinical, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in a multi-center setting; 2) elucidation of the patterns and rates of change of imaging and CSF biomarker measurements in control, MCI and AD patients. CSF biomarkers are consistent with disease trajectories predicted by β amyloid (Aβ) cascade [1] and tau mediated neurodegeneration hypotheses for AD while brain atrophy and hypometabolism levels show predicted patterns but exhibit differing rates of change depending on region and disease severity; 3) the assessment of alternative methods of diagnostic categorization. Currently, the best classifiers combine optimum features from multiple modalities including MRI, FDG-PET, CSF biomarkers and clinical tests; 4) the development of methods for the early detection of AD. CSF biomarkers, Aβ42 and tau as well as amyloid PET may reflect the earliest steps in AD pathology in mildly or even non-symptomatic subjects and are leading candidates for the detection of AD in its preclinical stages; 5) the improvement of clinical trial efficiency through the identification of subjects most

  13. [Ethical review of biobanks in The Netherlands: lessons from the String of Pearls Initiative].

    PubMed

    Boeckhout, Martin; van Dijk, Jet; Legemate, Dink A

    2011-01-01

    Ethical and legal aspects of biobanking continue to be a topic of concern. The String of Pearls Initiative (PSI) helped establish new norms for biobank governance in The Netherlands. This article gives an overview of issues that emerged from the medical-ethical review processes of PSI. The criteria applied to biobanking projects by Ethical Review Boards were derived from the legally prescribed criteria for medical research. However, these criteria were interpreted in radically diverging ways. Key issues included the legal status of prospective research-dedicated biobanks, informed consent, monitoring of the use of biobanks, and alignment of biobanking policies both within and between research departments. The article calls on all actors involved in biobanking to continue to strive for the harmonization of biobanking policies. A certain degree of central coordination is crucial in order to improve on collaborative biobanking initiatives. PMID:21767425

  14. 2014 Update of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative: A review of papers published since its inception.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Michael W; Veitch, Dallas P; Aisen, Paul S; Beckett, Laurel A; Cairns, Nigel J; Cedarbaum, Jesse; Green, Robert C; Harvey, Danielle; Jack, Clifford R; Jagust, William; Luthman, Johan; Morris, John C; Petersen, Ronald C; Saykin, Andrew J; Shaw, Leslie; Shen, Li; Schwarz, Adam; Toga, Arthur W; Trojanowski, John Q

    2015-06-01

    The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is an ongoing, longitudinal, multicenter study designed to develop clinical, imaging, genetic, and biochemical biomarkers for the early detection and tracking of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The initial study, ADNI-1, enrolled 400 subjects with early mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 200 with early AD, and 200 cognitively normal elderly controls. ADNI-1 was extended by a 2-year Grand Opportunities grant in 2009 and by a competitive renewal, ADNI-2, which enrolled an additional 550 participants and will run until 2015. This article reviews all papers published since the inception of the initiative and summarizes the results to the end of 2013. The major accomplishments of ADNI have been as follows: (1) the development of standardized methods for clinical tests, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in a multicenter setting; (2) elucidation of the patterns and rates of change of imaging and CSF biomarker measurements in control subjects, MCI patients, and AD patients. CSF biomarkers are largely consistent with disease trajectories predicted by β-amyloid cascade (Hardy, J Alzheimer's Dis 2006;9(Suppl 3):151-3) and tau-mediated neurodegeneration hypotheses for AD, whereas brain atrophy and hypometabolism levels show predicted patterns but exhibit differing rates of change depending on region and disease severity; (3) the assessment of alternative methods of diagnostic categorization. Currently, the best classifiers select and combine optimum features from multiple modalities, including MRI, [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET, amyloid PET, CSF biomarkers, and clinical tests; (4) the development of blood biomarkers for AD as potentially noninvasive and low-cost alternatives to CSF biomarkers for AD diagnosis and the assessment of α-syn as an additional biomarker; (5) the development of methods for the early detection of AD. CSF biomarkers,

  15. 2014 Update of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative: A review of papers published since its inception.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Michael W; Veitch, Dallas P; Aisen, Paul S; Beckett, Laurel A; Cairns, Nigel J; Cedarbaum, Jesse; Green, Robert C; Harvey, Danielle; Jack, Clifford R; Jagust, William; Luthman, Johan; Morris, John C; Petersen, Ronald C; Saykin, Andrew J; Shaw, Leslie; Shen, Li; Schwarz, Adam; Toga, Arthur W; Trojanowski, John Q

    2015-06-01

    The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is an ongoing, longitudinal, multicenter study designed to develop clinical, imaging, genetic, and biochemical biomarkers for the early detection and tracking of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The initial study, ADNI-1, enrolled 400 subjects with early mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 200 with early AD, and 200 cognitively normal elderly controls. ADNI-1 was extended by a 2-year Grand Opportunities grant in 2009 and by a competitive renewal, ADNI-2, which enrolled an additional 550 participants and will run until 2015. This article reviews all papers published since the inception of the initiative and summarizes the results to the end of 2013. The major accomplishments of ADNI have been as follows: (1) the development of standardized methods for clinical tests, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in a multicenter setting; (2) elucidation of the patterns and rates of change of imaging and CSF biomarker measurements in control subjects, MCI patients, and AD patients. CSF biomarkers are largely consistent with disease trajectories predicted by β-amyloid cascade (Hardy, J Alzheimer's Dis 2006;9(Suppl 3):151-3) and tau-mediated neurodegeneration hypotheses for AD, whereas brain atrophy and hypometabolism levels show predicted patterns but exhibit differing rates of change depending on region and disease severity; (3) the assessment of alternative methods of diagnostic categorization. Currently, the best classifiers select and combine optimum features from multiple modalities, including MRI, [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET, amyloid PET, CSF biomarkers, and clinical tests; (4) the development of blood biomarkers for AD as potentially noninvasive and low-cost alternatives to CSF biomarkers for AD diagnosis and the assessment of α-syn as an additional biomarker; (5) the development of methods for the early detection of AD. CSF biomarkers,

  16. School Age Populations Research Needs - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Cancer.gov

    Drawing conclusions about the validity of available dietary assessment instruments in school age children is hampered by the differences in instruments, research design, reference methods, and populations in the validation literature.

  17. Using Ecological Frameworks to Advance a Field of Research, Practice, and Policy on Aging-in-Place Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Emily A.

    2012-01-01

    Initiatives to promote aging in place have emerged rapidly in the United States across various health care settings (e.g., acute care hospitals, skilled nursing facilities) and broader community settings (e.g., public social service agencies). Moreover, recent federal policies include a growing number of provisions for local efforts to promote…

  18. Radiological Indicators of Bone Age Assessment in Cephalometric Images. Review

    PubMed Central

    Durka-Zając, Magdalena; Mituś-Kenig, Maria; Derwich, Marcin; Marcinkowska-Mituś, Agata; Łoboda, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Summary The ability to assess bone age accurately is important and allows to diagnose the patient correctly and to plan orthodontic treatment appropriately. The aim of the work is to present views of different authors on the subject of using cephalometric images to determine bone age and its significance for conducting appropriate orthodontic treatment. Publications from the PubMed medical database were analyzed. Search criteria: bone age assessment, CVM method. Ultimately, 36 papers out of 1354 publications were selected. The research of many authors confirms the usefulness of various methods using cephalometric images to assess skeletal age. Currently, the CVM method devised by Baccetti et al. is the most frequently mentioned one in literature. It seems that bone age assessment methods based on evaluating the morphological structure of the cervical vertebrae in cephalometric images can clearly differentiate skeletal maturity in children regardless of their race or sex. Bearing in mind the constant technological progress in medicine and stomatology, bone age assessment methods need to be perfected in order to alleviate their impact on the patient as much as possible. PMID:27536337

  19. Radiological Indicators of Bone Age Assessment in Cephalometric Images. Review.

    PubMed

    Durka-Zając, Magdalena; Mituś-Kenig, Maria; Derwich, Marcin; Marcinkowska-Mituś, Agata; Łoboda, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The ability to assess bone age accurately is important and allows to diagnose the patient correctly and to plan orthodontic treatment appropriately. The aim of the work is to present views of different authors on the subject of using cephalometric images to determine bone age and its significance for conducting appropriate orthodontic treatment. Publications from the PubMed medical database were analyzed. Search criteria: bone age assessment, CVM method. Ultimately, 36 papers out of 1354 publications were selected. The research of many authors confirms the usefulness of various methods using cephalometric images to assess skeletal age. Currently, the CVM method devised by Baccetti et al. is the most frequently mentioned one in literature. It seems that bone age assessment methods based on evaluating the morphological structure of the cervical vertebrae in cephalometric images can clearly differentiate skeletal maturity in children regardless of their race or sex. Bearing in mind the constant technological progress in medicine and stomatology, bone age assessment methods need to be perfected in order to alleviate their impact on the patient as much as possible. PMID:27536337

  20. Improving the evidence base for transfusion medicine: the work of the UK systematic review initiative.

    PubMed

    Brunskill, S J; Hyde, C J; Stanworth, S J; Dorée, C J; Roberts, D J; Murphy, M F

    2009-04-01

    Clarifying the existing evidence base is crucial to improve the effectiveness of transfusion practice. The UK Systematic Review Initiative has been pursuing this objective primarily through writing systematic reviews on important topics in transfusion medicine. Here, we describe our progress for the past 5 years. We are the only research group that identifies transfusion medicine randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and to date, we have contributed 3002 RCT citations. The article considers future challenges including the need for wider involvement from the transfusion medicine community in the process of maintaining and updating systematic reviews and the identification and prioritization of topics for further clinical research including clinical trials. Collaboration between international and local research groups is important if these challenges are to be met. PMID:19320853

  1. Impact of initial quality control review on study outcome in lung and head/neck cancer studies--review of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group experience.

    PubMed

    Wallner, P E; Lustig, R A; Pajak, T F; Robinson, G; Davis, L W; Perez, C A; Seydel, H G; Marcial, V A; Laramore, G E

    1989-10-01

    The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) initiated cooperative clinical trials in 1971. In 1978, RTOG developed a formalized program of Quality Control (QC) divided into initial and final phases. The initial review process consisted of two steps. The first phase of review is an evaluation performed by a radiation oncologist to verify treatment plan and field borders. The second portion of the initial review process originally consisted of dosimetry calculation verification based on machine data provided by the regional Radiological Physics Center and treatment planning data provided by the accessioning institution. Between 1978 and December 31, 1987, a total of 11,343 cases in 96 RTOG protocols, excluding particle studies, underwent initial review. Of this number, 2227 patients were entered in lung cancer studies and 1341 patients were entered in head/neck cancer studies. Initial review was carried out in 2089 (93.8%) of the lung cancer cases. Missing or delayed data accounted for 138 (6.2%) cases not reviewed initially. In head/neck cancer trials, 1251 (93.2%) received initial review and 90 (6.8%) did not. Our findings suggest that there are sharply defined but long lasting learning experiences involved in clinical trial participation. Consideration may be given to modifying the initial review process to use random sampling of cases accessioned by experienced investigators in ongoing clinical trials and to continuing the total case evaluation on all new studies and cases entered by inexperienced investigators or investigators/institutions with unsatisfactory performance. Recommendations regarding initial review of other sites will await evaluation of the impact of initial review on those sites.

  2. Impact of oestrogen deficiency and aging on tendon: concise review

    PubMed Central

    Frizziero, Antonio; Vittadini, Filippo; Gasparre, Giuseppe; Masiero, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Summary The knowledge about tendons and tenocyte biological behaviour during aging and, especially, oestrogen deficiency is limited. Women differ from men with regard to muscle and tendon, most likely due to differences in sex hormones activity and tissue response. To-date the interest in metabolic factors that may induce tendon disorders is growing. The aim of this paper is to elucidate the current findings in the correlation between oestrogen deficiency, aging and tendon pathology and to encourage future researches to ameliorate assessment and management of tendinopathies in postmenopausal women. PMID:25489550

  3. A new age of peer reviewed scientific journals

    PubMed Central

    Adler, John R.

    2012-01-01

    The principles of peer reviewed scientific publications date back two and one-half centuries to the origins of Medical Essays and Observations published by the Royal Society of Edinburgh (1731). This year (2012) is notable in that perhaps the most prestigious and best-known medical journal, the New England Journal of Medicine, crossed the second century mark. The methodologies of peer review have undeniably served medicine well and helped to usher in unimaginable advances in human health. Despite such illustrious history, the winds of change are in the air. PMID:23230526

  4. Sex, age, race and intervention type in clinical studies of HIV cure: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Rowena E; Heitzeg, Mary M

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review was undertaken to determine the extent to which adult subjects representing sex (female), race (nonwhite), and age (>50 years) categories are included in clinical studies of HIV curative interventions and thus, by extension, the potential for data to be analyzed that may shed light on the influence of such demographic variables on safety and/or efficacy. English-language publications retrieved from PubMed and from references of retrieved papers describing clinical studies of curative interventions were read and demographic, recruitment year, and intervention-type details were noted. Variables of interest included participation by sex, age, and race; changes in participation rates by recruitment year; and differences in participation by intervention type. Of 151 publications, 23% reported full demographic data of study enrollees, and only 6% reported conducting efficacy analyses by demographic variables. Included studies recruited participants from 1991 to 2011. No study conducted safety analyses by demographic variables. The representation of women, older people, and nonwhites did not reflect national or international burdens of HIV infection. Participation of demographic subgroups differed by intervention type and study location. Rates of participation of demographic groups of interest did not vary with time. Limited data suggest efficacy, particularly of early therapy initiation followed by treatment interruption, may vary by demographic variables, in this case sex. More data are needed to determine associations between demographic characteristics and safety/efficacy of curative interventions. Studies should be powered to conduct such analyses and cure-relevant measures should be standardized.

  5. A review on role of prakriti in aging.

    PubMed

    Purvya, Mahesh Chand; Meena, M S

    2011-01-01

    Ayurveda is an eternal science with absolute principles, and prakriti is one of these. It plays an important role in the selection and establishment of every factor for which a person is going to interact from conception till death, e.g. lifestyle, diet planning, etc. Prakriti stands for nature of the body in terms of dosha and is decided at the time of conception according to the predominance of dosha. It does not change during the whole life and is responsible for the physical and mental characteristics of an individual. This prakriti is of seven types according to tridosha. The individuals of specific prakriti exhibit biological variations in terms of structure, function, behavior, individual response to internal and external environmental stimuli, susceptibility to different diseases, etc. Aging is a process of decaying and included in natural diseases. In our body, Pitta or Agni is responsible for the various types of pathological conditions. Although aging is a natural pathological condition, Pitta plays an important role in its causation like other pathological conditions. It is clearly indicated in Charak samhita that persons having Pitta predominance personality tend to suffer early with decaying process and other changes of aging. Through this article, we have made an attempt to reevaluate the interrelationships between prakriti and aging. PMID:22131753

  6. Review of "Teachers in the Age of Digital Instruction"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huerta, Luis A.

    2012-01-01

    The Fordham Institute's "Teachers in the Age of Digital Instruction" is an advocacy document outlining a vision for how technology might transform the teaching profession. The report's rationale is based on claims that the current education system lacks the capacity to support the revolutionary changes needed to unleash the technological…

  7. Free and Compulsory School Age Requirements. ECS 50-State Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aragon, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Policymakers across the nation continue to push for expanded free and compulsory school age requirements. More states are considering granting students earlier access to a free education so that they can begin their academic pursuits earlier in life. Similarly, every year a number of states consider extending the upper limit for compulsory school…

  8. Gender, ageing & carework in East and Southern Africa: A review

    PubMed Central

    Seeley, Janet

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 58 million persons aged 60-plus live in sub-Saharan Africa; by 2050 that number will rise sharply to 215 million. Older Africans traditionally get care in their old age from the middle generation. But in East and Southern Africa, HIV has hollowed out that generation, leaving many older persons to provide care for their children’s children without someone to care for him or herself in old age. Simultaneously, the burden of disease among older persons is changing in this region. The result is a growing care deficit. This article examines the existing literature on care for and by older persons in this region, highlighting understudied aspects of older persons’ experiences of ageing and care – including the positive impacts of carework, variation in the region, and the role of resilience and pensions. We advance a conceptual framework of gendered identities – for both men and women – and intergenerational social exchange to help focus and understand the complex interdependent relationships around carework, which are paramount in addressing the needs of older persons in the current care deficit in this region, and the Global South more generally. PMID:25947225

  9. Short Telomeres in Key Tissues Initiate Local and Systemic Aging in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Madalena C.; Ferreira, Tânia; Carvalho, Tânia; Ferreira, Miguel Godinho

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres shorten with each cell division and telomere dysfunction is a recognized hallmark of aging. Tissue proliferation is expected to dictate the rate at which telomeres shorten. We set out to test whether proliferative tissues age faster than non-proliferative due to telomere shortening during zebrafish aging. We performed a prospective study linking telomere length to tissue pathology and disease. Contrary to expectations, we show that telomeres shorten to critical lengths only in specific tissues and independently of their proliferation rate. Short telomeres accumulate in the gut but not in other highly proliferative tissues such as the blood and gonads. Notably, the muscle, a low proliferative tissue, accumulates short telomeres and DNA damage at the same rate as the gut. Together, our work shows that telomere shortening and DNA damage in key tissues triggers not only local dysfunction but also anticipates the onset of age-associated diseases in other tissues, including cancer. PMID:26789415

  10. The impact of age on oncogenic potential: tumor-initiating cells and the brain microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Elizabeth A; Horner, Philip J; Rostomily, Robert C

    2013-10-01

    Paradoxically, aging leads to both decreased regenerative capacity in the brain and an increased risk of tumorigenesis, particularly the most common adult-onset brain tumor, glioma. A shared factor contributing to both phenomena is thought to be age-related alterations in neural progenitor cells (NPCs), which function normally to produce new neurons and glia, but are also considered likely cells of origin for malignant glioma. Upon oncogenic transformation, cells acquire characteristics known as the hallmarks of cancer, including unlimited replication, altered responses to growth and anti-growth factors, increased capacity for angiogenesis, potential for invasion, genetic instability, apoptotic evasion, escape from immune surveillance, and an adaptive metabolic phenotype. The precise molecular pathogenesis and temporal acquisition of these malignant characteristics is largely a mystery. Recent studies characterizing NPCs during normal aging, however, have begun to elucidate mechanisms underlying the age-associated increase in their malignant potential. Aging cells are dependent upon multiple compensatory pathways to maintain cell cycle control, normal niche interactions, genetic stability, programmed cell death, and oxidative metabolism. A few multi-functional proteins act as 'critical nodes' in the coordination of these various cellular activities, although both intracellular signaling and elements within the brain environment are critical to maintaining a balance between senescence and tumorigenesis. Here, we provide an overview of recent progress in our understanding of how mechanisms underlying cellular aging inform on glioma pathogenesis and malignancy. PMID:23711239

  11. Initial clinical presentation of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy with-a focus on electrocardiographic changes: A literature review of cases

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Jimenez, Erick Francisco

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To review the initial presentation and demonstrate the importance of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. METHODS: A PubMed search using the terms “Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC)” and “apical ballooning syndrome” yielded 211 publications. Only those that were relevant were fully reviewed. The gender, age, precipitating stressor, main complaint at presentation, electrocardiogram (ECG) at admission and serum cardiac markers of patients diagnosed with TC, were extracted as available. The data were organized in tables and graphics, and the incidence of the disorder was calculated and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 250 clinical cases were examined. The predominant gender that was affected was female, with a prevalence of 87.5%. The mean age of presentation was 64 ± 14 years. The cases were divided by age into 10-year intervals. The age interval of 60-69 years showed the highest frequency of TC, accounting for 79 cases. The most common precipitating stressor was physical (50% of cases). Chest pain was the primary complaint at presentation (58.8% of cases) followed by dyspnea (30% of cases). The ST segment changes category was the most common (60%), followed by T wave changes (39.6%). Of the 60% of cases with ST segment changes, 12% had concomitant T wave changes. This means that for 27.6% of the cases, the primary abnormality in the ECG was T wave changes; 87.6% of cases with TC had a change in the ST segment, in the T wave or in both. The percentage of ECGs presenting with changes in the anterior wall was 54.4% (35.6% of ST segment elevation + 1.6% of ST segment depression + 17.2% of T wave inversion). The percentage of patients presenting with changes in the lateral segment of the heart was 46.8%, while the percentage of patients with changes in the inferior heart was 21.6% and the percentage of patients with changes in the apical region was only 16%. The prevalence of elevated creatinine kinase and/or troponin on initial presentation was 89.3%. CONCLUSION: It is

  12. State policy and research initiatives focused on improving nursing workforce: an integrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Green, Alexia; Kishi, Aileen; Esperat, M Christina R

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to examine to and synthesize nursing workforce research and policy initiatives at the state level. An integrative literature review was systematically conducted using Ganong's Stages of an Integrative Research Review (1987). Searches were limited to English-language publications in the years from 2000 to 2010 which focused on workforce issues in the United States. A total of 155 published articles were included in this review. Overall, the literature indicated that significant research is examining nursing workforce issues and that states are actively engaged in policy initiatives to address nursing workforce issues, particularly those related to a shortage of nurses and faculty. The findings also indicated a major disconnect between nursing workforce research and patient outcomes research. Recommendations include connecting research and policy links between nursing workforce research and patient outcomes research and creating clear correlations to system-level determinants of quality Additional implications for further research are provided which include the important role of nurse researchers in connecting nursing care and nurse staffing to processes and outcome measures, which demonstrate the financial impact upon health care.

  13. Managing the aging man in Asia: a review.

    PubMed

    Tong, Seng Fah; Ho, Christopher; Tan, Hui Meng

    2011-01-01

    The aging man is becoming a major burden to Asian countries because of the current poor health status of Asian men and the aging Asian population. Life expectancy at birth for men is shorter than women by an average of 4 years in Asian countries and major causes of death are cardiovascular disease, cancers, injuries and infections. However, there are considerable variations between Asian countries because of great disparity in socioeconomic status. Male-specific disorders, such as male sexual health and urological conditions, are other major health burdens because they have a great impact on men's quality of life. More importantly, many risk factors to the causes of mortality and morbidities, such as high-risk behavior and smoking, can be improved with health promotion and early intervention. The current evidence suggests that the poor health status of men is the result of their poor health care utilization, negative health-seeking behavior, the adverse social environment for men and gender-insensitive health care delivery. However, much evidence is still needed as Asian countries have great diversity in culture, societal values and men's needs. Asian time-tested wisdom on a balanced healthy lifestyle to longevity should be explored as potential men's health promotional programs. Taking into account Asian men's health-care needs, a gender-streamlined approach and man-friendly health care delivery should be on the national agenda in managing the aging man. PMID:20969645

  14. A Review of the Aging Process and Facilities Topic.

    PubMed

    Jornitz, Maik W

    2015-01-01

    Aging facilities have become a concern in the pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical manufacturing industry, so much that task forces are formed by trade organizations to address the topic. Too often, examples of aging or obsolete equipment, unit operations, processes, or entire facilities have been encountered. Major contributors to this outcome are the failure to invest in new equipment, disregarding appropriate maintenance activities, and neglecting the implementation of modern technologies. In some cases, a production process is insufficiently modified to manufacture a new product in an existing process that was used to produce a phased-out product. In other instances, manufacturers expanded the facility or processes to fulfill increasing demand and the scaling occurred in a non-uniform manner, which led to non-optimal results. Regulatory hurdles of post-approval changes in the process may thwart companies' efforts to implement new technologies. As an example, some changes have required 4 years to gain global approval. This paper will address cases of aging processes and facilities aside from modernizing options.

  15. Health Promotion and Aging: Educational and Clinical Initiatives by the Federal Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, David

    2002-01-01

    Discusses positive and negative effects of five federal health promotion initiatives: Medicare Prevention Benefits, Surgeon General's Reports, Healthy People 2000 and 2001, Guide to Clinical Preventive Services, and Put Prevention into Practice Campaign. Recommends additional research and coordination with state and private sector agencies.…

  16. Education in the Age of the Information Superhighway: An Investigation into Initial Teacher Training in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illingworth, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses particular aspects of current Canadian teacher training that seem healthy practice to an experienced school-teacher from the United Kingdom. With the UK government increasingly interested, some would say determined, in moving the funding of initial teacher training away from universities and to schools, my visit to Canada,…

  17. Consumer fraud and the elderly: a review of Canadian challenges and initiatives.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Carole A

    2006-01-01

    Financial abuse is the most common type of elder abuse. Consumer fraud, a form of financial abuse perpetrated by criminals who do not know the victim, is not well studied. Seniors represent a disproportionate percentage of the victims of consumer fraud. This article reviews the data on the prevalence of consumer fraud (primarily telemarketing scams) in Canada. It examines the reasons why Canadian seniors are targets of fraud. It also describes many unique initiatives developed at the local, provincial and national level in Canada to educate seniors and those who care for them about the types of scams and the risks of fraud.

  18. An uncommon initial presentation of snake bite-subarachnoid hemorrhage: A case report with literature review.

    PubMed

    Roy, Manoj Kumar; Dutta, Joydip; Chatterjee, Apratim; Sarkar, Anup; Roy, Koushik; Agarwal, Rakhesh; Lahiri, Durjoy; Biswas, Amrito; Mondal, Anupam; Maity, Pranab; Mukhopadhyay, Jotideb

    2015-01-01

    Snake bites are very common in India, particularly in West Bengal. Snake bite can cause various hematological, neuromyopathical complications. It can be very fatal if not detected and treated early. Timely intervention can save the patient. We are reporting a case of hematotoxic Russell viper snake bite presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Patient was successfully treated with antivenom serum (AVS) along with other conservative management. Subarachnoid hemorrhage as an initial presentation in viper bite is very rare and we discuss the case with proper literature review. PMID:26425018

  19. An uncommon initial presentation of snake bite-subarachnoid hemorrhage: A case report with literature review

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Manoj Kumar; Dutta, Joydip; Chatterjee, Apratim; Sarkar, Anup; Roy, Koushik; Agarwal, Rakhesh; Lahiri, Durjoy; Biswas, Amrito; Mondal, Anupam; Maity, Pranab; Mukhopadhyay, Jotideb

    2015-01-01

    Snake bites are very common in India, particularly in West Bengal. Snake bite can cause various hematological, neuromyopathical complications. It can be very fatal if not detected and treated early. Timely intervention can save the patient. We are reporting a case of hematotoxic Russell viper snake bite presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Patient was successfully treated with antivenom serum (AVS) along with other conservative management. Subarachnoid hemorrhage as an initial presentation in viper bite is very rare and we discuss the case with proper literature review. PMID:26425018

  20. TOWARD PRECISE AGES FOR SINGLE STARS IN THE FIELD. GYROCHRONOLOGY CONSTRAINTS AT SEVERAL Gyr USING WIDE BINARIES. I. AGES FOR INITIAL SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Chaname, Julio; Ramirez, Ivan

    2012-02-10

    We present a program designed to obtain age-rotation measurements of solar-type dwarfs to be used in the calibration of gyrochronology relations at ages of several Gyr. This is a region of parameter space crucial for the large-scale study of the Milky Way, and where the only constraint available today is that provided by the Sun. Our program takes advantage of a set of wide binaries selected so that one component is an evolved star and the other is a main-sequence star of FGK type. In this way, we obtain the age of the system from the evolved star, while the rotational properties of the main-sequence component provide the information relevant for gyrochronology regarding the spin-down of solar-type stars. By mining currently available catalogs of wide binaries, we assemble a sample of 37 pairs well positioned for our purposes: 19 with turnoff or subgiant primaries and 18 with white dwarf components. Using high-resolution optical spectroscopy, we measure precise stellar parameters for a subset of 15 of the pairs with turnoff/subgiant components and use these to derive isochronal ages for the corresponding systems. Ages for 16 of the 18 pairs with white dwarf components are taken from the literature. The ages of this initial sample of 31 wide binaries range from 1 to 9 Gyr, with precisions better than {approx}20% for almost half of these systems. When combined with measurements of the rotation period of their main-sequence components, these wide binary systems would potentially provide a similar number of points useful for the calibration of gyrochronology relations at very old ages.

  1. Spondyloarthropathy presenting at a young age: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Golda H; Renaud, Deborah L; Sundaram, Murali; Reed, Ann M

    2007-02-01

    The diagnosis of juvenile spondyloarthritis (JSA) is rarely entertained in young children who present with back and leg pain. We present a case of a 6-year-old male who presented with a 3-year history of severe back and leg pain and a positive Gower's sign, and was given a presumed diagnosis of muscular dystrophy. Presenting serologic evaluation included a mildly elevated sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein (CRP). Computed tomography of the pelvis demonstrated large erosions affecting both sacro-iliac joints. Despite the unusually young age of this patient, ankylosing spondylitis seemed the most plausible diagnosis. Following rheumatological evaluation and treatment for JSA, he showed significant clinical improvement. His disease, however, has not entirely remitted with signs of enthesitis at the Achilles tendon and knees. We present this case to illustrate that JSA could account for symptoms at an early age and not considering it could lead to multiple medical visits and diagnoses. To our knowledge, based on a search of the World literature, this would appear to be the youngest case of JSA reported with demonstrable severe sacroiliitis.

  2. The Physical Activity Levels of Preschool-Aged Children: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This systematic review presents research on the physical activity levels of preschool-aged children (aged 2-6 years). Thirty-nine primary studies (published 1986-2007) representing a total of 10,316 participants (5236 male and 5080 female), from seven countries are described and the physical activity behaviors of this population are considered in…

  3. A Narrative Review of Problem-Based Learning with School-Aged Children: Implementation and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerzembek, Gabi; Murphy, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews empirical studies that have evaluated the impact of problem-based learning (PBL) on school-aged pupils, in order to summarise how it has been implemented and to assess its effects on academic and personal development. Following electronic searches of PsychINFO, the British Education Index and the Cochrane review database, six…

  4. Supporting residents’ expression of sexuality: the initial construction of a sexuality assessment tool for residential aged care facilities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexuality is a key component of quality of life and well-being and a need to express one’s sexuality continues into old age. Staff and families in residential aged care facilities often find expressions of sexuality by residents, particularly those living with dementia, challenging and facilities often struggle to address individuals’ needs in this area. This paper describes the development of an assessment tool which enables residential aged care facilities to identify how supportive their organisation is of all residents’ expression of their sexuality, and thereby improve where required. Methods Multi-phase design using qualitative methods and a Delphi technique. Tool items were derived from the literature and verified by qualitative interviews with aged care facility staff, residents and families. The final item pool was confirmed via a reactive Delphi process. Results A final item pool of sixty-nine items grouped into seven key areas allows facilities to score their compliance with the areas identified as being supportive of older people’s expression of their sexuality in a residential aged care environment. Conclusions The sexuality assessment tool (SexAT) guides practice to support the normalization of sexuality in aged care homes and assists facilities to identify where enhancements to the environment, policies, procedures and practices, information and education/training are required. The tool also enables facilities to monitor initiatives in these areas over time. PMID:24980463

  5. Early adulthood: an overlooked age group in national sodium reduction initiatives in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sohyun; Lee, Jounghee; Kwon, Kwang-Il; Kim, Jong-Wook; Byun, Jae-Eon; Kang, Baeg-Won; Choi, Bo Youl

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES South Korean's sodium consumption level is more than twice the upper limit level suggested by the WHO. Steep increases in the prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in Korea necessitate more effective sodium reduction programs. This study was conducted in order to compare sodium intake-related eating behaviors and key psychosocial factors according to age group and gender. SUBJECTS/METHODS Using an online survey, a total of 1,564 adults (20-59 years old) considered to be geographically representative of South Korea were recruited and surveyed. The major outcomes were perceived behaviors, knowledge, intentions, and self-efficacy related to sodium intake. RESULTS The results show that perceived behavior and level of self-efficacy related to low sodium consumption differed by age and gender. Female participants showed better behavior and intention towards low sodium intake than male counterparts. Young participants in their 20s showed the lowest intention to change their current sodium intake as well as lowest self-efficacy measures. CONCLUSIONS Future sodium reduction interventions should be developed with tailored messages targeting different age and gender groups. Specifically, interventions can be planned and implemented at the college level or for workers in their early career to increase their intention and self-efficacy as a means of preventing future health complications associated with high sodium intake. PMID:25489413

  6. Development of a Comprehensive Hospital-Based Elder Abuse Intervention: An Initial Systematic Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Du Mont, Janice; Macdonald, Sheila; Kosa, Daisy; Elliot, Shannon; Spencer, Charmaine; Yaffe, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Elder abuse, a universal human rights problem, is associated with many negative consequences. In most jurisdictions, however, there are no comprehensive hospital-based interventions for elder abuse that address the totality of needs of abused older adults: psychological, physical, legal, and social. As the first step towards the development of such an intervention, we undertook a systematic scoping review. Objectives Our primary objective was to systematically extract and synthesize actionable and applicable recommendations for components of a multidisciplinary intersectoral hospital-based elder abuse intervention. A secondary objective was to summarize the characteristics of the responses reviewed, including methods of development and validation. Methods The grey and scholarly literatures were systematically searched, with two independent reviewers conducting the title, abstract and full text screening. Documents were considered eligible for inclusion if they: 1) addressed a response (e.g., an intervention) to elder abuse, 2) contained recommendations for responding to abused older adults with potential relevance to a multidisciplinary and intersectoral hospital-based elder abuse intervention; and 3) were available in English. Analysis The extracted recommendations for care were collated, coded, categorized into themes, and further reviewed for relevancy to a comprehensive hospital-based response. Characteristics of the responses were summarized using descriptive statistics. Results 649 recommendations were extracted from 68 distinct elder abuse responses, 149 of which were deemed relevant and were categorized into 5 themes: Initial contact; Capacity and consent; Interview with older adult, caregiver, collateral contacts, and/or suspected abuser; Assessment: physical/forensic, mental, psychosocial, and environmental/functional; and care plan. Only 6 responses had been evaluated, suggesting a significant gap between development and implementation of

  7. A literature review of the impact of pharmacy students in immunization initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Church, Dana; Johnson, Sarah; Raman-Wilms, Lalitha; Schneider, Eric; Waite, Nancy; Pearson Sharpe, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pharmacy students can help protect the public from vaccine-preventable diseases by participating in immunization initiatives, which currently exist in some Canadian and American jurisdictions. The objective of this article is to critically review evidence of student impact on public health through their participation in vaccination efforts. Methods: PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Database, EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Scopus and Web of Science electronic databases were searched for peer-reviewed literature on pharmacy student involvement in vaccination programs and their impact on public health. Papers were included up to November 17, 2015. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts and extracted data from eligible full-text articles. Results: Eighteen titles met all inclusion criteria. All studies were published between 2000 and 2015, with the majority conducted in the United States (n = 12). The number of vaccine doses administered by students in community-based clinics ranged from 109 to 15,000. Increases in vaccination rates in inpatient facilities ranged from 18.5% to 68%. Across studies, student-led educational interventions improved patient knowledge of vaccines and vaccine-preventable diseases. Patient satisfaction with student immunization services was consistently very high. Discussion: Methodology varied considerably across studies. The literature suggests that pharmacy students can improve public health by 1) increasing the number of vaccine doses administered, 2) increasing vaccination rates, 3) increasing capacity of existing vaccination efforts, 4) providing education about vaccines and vaccine-preventable diseases and 5) providing positive immunization experiences. Conclusion: Opportunities exist across Canada to increase pharmacy student involvement in immunization efforts and to assess the impact of their participation. Greater student involvement in immunization initiatives could boost immunization rates

  8. Major initiatives related to childhood obesity and physical inactivity in Canada: the year in review.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript briefly reviews 15 significant initiatives related to childhood obesity and physical inactivity in Canada between September 2010 and September 2011. These include the: announcement of a Federal-Provincial-Territorial framework for action to promote healthy weights; implementation of the nutrition labeling initiative; launch of the CBC "Live Right Now" campaign; announcement of the Public Health Agency of Canada's innovation strategy funding related to obesity; publication of the Canadian Health Measures Survey physical activity findings; release of new Canadian physical activity and sedentary behaviour guidelines; launch of ParticipACTION's "Think Again" campaign; workshop on building trust to address the epidemic of obesity; start of the Canadian Pediatric Weight Management Registry; initiation of "Our Health Our Future: A National Dialogue on Healthy Weights"; release of the Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth; National Obesity Summit; Nature Play Day and Sports Day in Canada; development of the Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy; and the creation of Active Canada 20/20--A National Physical Activity Plan. The diversity and intensity of activity addressing the childhood obesity and physical inactivity "epidemic" in Canada is encouraging and must be maintained and enhanced.

  9. An education initiative to increase staff knowledge of Institutional Review Board guidelines in the USA.

    PubMed

    Kotzer, Anne Marie; Milton, Jerrod

    2007-06-01

    Health-care professionals and researchers often lack a clear understanding of the role and function of an Institutional Review Board (IRB) and few have received formal education regarding IRB guidelines, policies, and procedures. The purpose of this study was to develop an initiative to educate staff concerning fundamental IRB guidelines and to assess the retention of the information from the educational intervention with a pretest and post-test. Using a descriptive survey design, 643 professional staff were contacted by email and asked to complete an online survey. Thereafter, staff received a "10 Second IRB Update" every 2 weeks for 6 months, after which the initial survey was repeated. Although there was a slight improvement in the pretest/post-test scores for some groups, no statistically significant differences were seen. Anecdotally, staff expressed enthusiasm about the initiative, stating the updates were very effective and a great teaching tool. The findings emphasize the need to continue to explore creative approaches to education regarding IRB policies and procedures.

  10. Major initiatives related to childhood obesity and physical inactivity in Canada: the year in review.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript briefly reviews 15 significant initiatives related to childhood obesity and physical inactivity in Canada between September 2010 and September 2011. These include the: announcement of a Federal-Provincial-Territorial framework for action to promote healthy weights; implementation of the nutrition labeling initiative; launch of the CBC "Live Right Now" campaign; announcement of the Public Health Agency of Canada's innovation strategy funding related to obesity; publication of the Canadian Health Measures Survey physical activity findings; release of new Canadian physical activity and sedentary behaviour guidelines; launch of ParticipACTION's "Think Again" campaign; workshop on building trust to address the epidemic of obesity; start of the Canadian Pediatric Weight Management Registry; initiation of "Our Health Our Future: A National Dialogue on Healthy Weights"; release of the Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth; National Obesity Summit; Nature Play Day and Sports Day in Canada; development of the Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy; and the creation of Active Canada 20/20--A National Physical Activity Plan. The diversity and intensity of activity addressing the childhood obesity and physical inactivity "epidemic" in Canada is encouraging and must be maintained and enhanced. PMID:22905632

  11. 78 FR 22593 - Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Initiation of a Review of the Union of Burma and the Lao...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Initiation of a Review of the Union of.../preference-programs/generalized-system-preference-gsp/gsp-program-inf . Burma was previously designated a... USTR Web site at...

  12. 42 CFR 405.841 - Reopening initial or review determination of the carrier, and decision of a carrier hearing officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... establishment of good cause for reopening such determination or decision (see 20 CFR 404.988(b) and 404.989); or... similar fault of the beneficiary or some other person, or (2) Such initial or review determination...

  13. Targeting Senescent Cells: Possible Implications for Delaying Skin Aging: A Mini-Review.

    PubMed

    Velarde, Michael C; Demaria, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Senescent cells are induced by a wide variety of stimuli. They accumulate in several tissues during aging, including the skin. Senescent cells secrete proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and proteases, a phenomenon called senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), which are thought to contribute to the functional decline of the skin as a consequence of aging. Due to the potential negative effects of the SASP in aged organisms, drugs that selectively target senescent cells represent an intriguing therapeutic strategy to delay aging and age-related diseases. Here, we review studies on the role of senescent cells in the skin, with particular emphasis on the age-related mechanisms and phenotypes associated with excessive accumulation of cellular senescence. We discuss the aberrant behavior of senescent cells in aging and how the different signaling pathways associated with survival and secretion of senescent cells can be engaged for the development of targeted therapies.

  14. Environment as 'Brain Training': A review of geographical and physical environmental influences on cognitive ageing.

    PubMed

    Cassarino, Marica; Setti, Annalisa

    2015-09-01

    Global ageing demographics coupled with increased urbanisation pose major challenges to the provision of optimal living environments for older persons, particularly in relation to cognitive health. Although animal studies emphasize the benefits of enriched environments for cognition, and brain training interventions have shown that maintaining or improving cognitive vitality in older age is possible, our knowledge of the characteristics of our physical environment which are protective for cognitive ageing is lacking. The present review analyses different environmental characteristics (e.g. urban vs. rural settings, presence of green) in relation to cognitive performance in ageing. Studies of direct and indirect associations between physical environment and cognitive performance are reviewed in order to describe the evidence that our living contexts constitute a measurable factor in determining cognitive ageing.

  15. Early age of onset in fatal familial insomnia. Two novel cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Harder, A; Gregor, A; Wirth, T; Kreuz, F; Schulz-Schaeffer, W J; Windl, O; Plotkin, M; Amthauer, H; Neukirch, K; Kretzschmar, H A; Kuhlmann, T; Braas, R; Hahne, H H; Jendroska, K

    2004-06-01

    Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) is a prion disease exhibiting the PRNP D178N/129M genotype. Features of this autosomal dominant illness are progressive insomnia, dysautonomia, myoclonus, cognitive decline and motor signs associated with thalamic nerve cell loss and gliosis. In contrast to the new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) the onset of FFI is in middle to late adulthood. We report two male patients who belong to a large German FFI kindred. They were examined clinically, and postmortem neuropathological examination was carried out in collaboration with the German reference centre for prion disease. Additionally, the prion protein gene (PRNP) was analysed. To identify further patients with disease onset under 30 years of age a comprehensive literature review was carried out. Two male patients presented with typical symptoms of FFI at the age of 23 and 24 years. In their kindred, the age of onset has never before been under 44 years of age. Our literature review identified five additional early onset cases who died at age 21 to 25 years. In all 22 reviewed FFI families the median manifestation age was 49.5 years. Although phenotypic variability of FFI is common, age of onset under 30 years has been considered to be a hallmark of vCJD with a mean manifestation at 27 years of age. Our findings underline that in addition to vCJD, FFI must be considered in cases of young-onset prion disease. This has considerable impact on clinical management and genetic counselling.

  16. Therapeutic targeting of the complement system in age-related macular degeneration: a review.

    PubMed

    Troutbeck, Robyn; Al-Qureshi, Salmaan; Guymer, Robyn H

    2012-01-01

    The last decade has produced pivotal change in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of global blindness. In this time, the complement system has featured as a unifying theme for several elements of new evidence: initially, the discovery of complement proteins within drusen and subsequently, the association between AMD and mutations in various complement pathway genes, most notably complement factor H. Increasingly, a wealth of data are pointing towards a role for chronic local inflammation and complement activation in the patho-aetiology of AMD. These findings have paved the way for the exploration of a new paradigm of therapy in AMD management; targeting of specific molecular constituents in the complement pathway thus producing dampening or inhibition of the inflammatory response. Such an approach has the potential to intervene earlier in the disease process and ideally before vision is compromised. In this review we discuss the role of the complement system in AMD, novel therapies in preclinical evaluation and clinical trial, and whether these have a part to play in reducing the burden of disease.

  17. Geology, Geochronology, and EarthScope: The EarthScope AGeS Program and a new idea for a 4D Earth Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flowers, R. M.; Arrowsmith, R.; Metcalf, J. R.; Rittenour, T. M.; Schoene, B.; Hole, J. A.; Pavlis, T. L.; Wagner, L. S.; Whitmeyer, S. J.; Williams, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    The EarthScope AGeS (Awards for Geochronology Student Research) program is a multi-year educational initiative aimed at enhancing interdisciplinary, innovative, and high-impact science by promoting training and new interactions between students, scientists, and geochronology labs at different institutions. The program offers support of up to $10,000 for graduate students to collect and interpret geochronology data that contribute to EarthScope science targets through visits to participating geochronology labs (www.earthscope.org/geochronology). The program was launched by a 2-day short course held before the 2014 National GSA meeting in Vancouver, at which 16 geochronology experts introduced 43 participants to the basic theory and applications of geochronology methods. By the first proposal submission deadline in spring 2015, 33 labs representing a broad range of techniques had joined the program by submitting lab plans that were posted on the EarthScope website. The lab plans provide information about preparation, realistic time frames for visits, and analytical costs. In the first year of the program, students submitted 47 proposals from 32 different institutions. Proposals were ranked by an independent panel, 10 were funded, and research associated with these projects is currently underway. The next proposal deadline will be held in spring 2016. The 4D-Earth initiative is an idea for a natural successor to the EarthScope program aimed at expanding the primarily 3D geophysical focus that captured a snapshot of present day North America into the 4th dimension of time (hence the connection to the prototypical AGeS program), and illuminating the crustal component that was below the resolution of much of the USArray image. Like EarthScope, the notion is that this initiative would integrate new infrastructure and usher in a new way of doing science. The overarching scientific motivation is to develop a Community Geologic Model for the 4-D Evolution of the North

  18. Effect of advanced glycation end product intake on inflammation and aging: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Van Puyvelde, Katrien; Mets, Tony; Njemini, Rose; Beyer, Ingo; Bautmans, Ivan

    2014-10-01

    Aging is associated with a chronic low-grade inflammatory status that contributes to chronic diseases such as age-related muscle wasting, kidney disease, and diabetes mellitus. Since advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are known to be proinflammatory, this systematic review examined the relation between the dietary intake of AGEs and inflammatory processes. The PubMed and Web of Science databases were screened systematically. Seventeen relevant studies in humans or animals were included. The intervention studies in humans showed mainly a decrease in inflammation in subjects on a low-AGE diet, while an increase in inflammation in subjects on a high-AGE diet was less apparent. About half of the observational studies found a relationship between inflammatory processes and AGEs in food. When the results are considered together, the dietary intake of AGEs appears to be related to inflammatory status and the level of circulating AGEs. Moreover, limiting AGE intake may lead to a decrease in inflammation and chronic diseases related to inflammatory status. Most of the trials were conducted in patients with chronic kidney disease or diabetes, and thus additional studies in healthy individuals are needed. Further investigation is needed to elucidate the effects of lifetime exposure of dietary AGEs on aging and health.

  19. 17 CFR 201.540 - Appeal and Commission review of initial decision making a temporary order permanent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of initial decision making a temporary order permanent. 201.540 Section 201.540 Commodity and... Temporary Orders and Suspensions § 201.540 Appeal and Commission review of initial decision making a... decision as to whether a temporary sanction shall be made permanent shall file a petition for...

  20. 19 CFR 210.43 - Petitions for review of initial determinations on matters other than temporary relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... matters other than temporary relief. 210.43 Section 210.43 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL... 10 business days after service of the initial determination. Petitions for review of all other initial determinations under § 210.42(c) must be filed within five (5) business days after service of...

  1. 75 FR 10759 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... and Antidumping Duty Order: Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India, 69 FR 77988 (December 29, 2004... Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 74 FR 62743... Revocation in Part, and Deferral of Initiation of Administrative Review, 75 FR 4770 (January 29, 2010)....

  2. 75 FR 34458 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG) Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on... Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following meeting of the aforementioned review group: Time...

  3. 75 FR 34459 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG) Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following meeting of the aforementioned review...

  4. Ozone-initiated particle formation, particle aging, and precursors in a laser printer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; He, Congrong; Morawska, Lidia; McGarry, Peter; Johnson, Graham

    2012-01-17

    An increasing number of researchers have hypothesized that ozone may be involved in the particle formation processes that occur during printing, however no studies have investigated this further. In the current study, this hypothesis was tested in a chamber study by adding supplemental ozone to the chamber after a print job without measurable ozone emissions. Subsequent particle number concentration and size distribution measurements showed that new particles were formed minutes after the addition of ozone. The results demonstrated that ozone did react with printer-generated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to form secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). The hypothesis was further confirmed by the observation of correlations among VOCs, ozone, and particles concentrations during a print job with measurable ozone emissions. The potential particle precursors were identified by a number of furnace tests, which suggested that squalene and styrene were the most likely SOA precursors with respect to ozone. Overall, this study significantly improved scientific understanding of the formation mechanisms of printer-generated particles, and highlighted the possible SOA formation potential of unsaturated nonterpene organic compounds by ozone-initiated reactions in the indoor environment.

  5. Salt Reduction Initiatives around the World – A Systematic Review of Progress towards the Global Target

    PubMed Central

    Trieu, Kathy; Neal, Bruce; Hawkes, Corinna; Dunford, Elizabeth; Campbell, Norm; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Rodrigo; Legetic, Branka; McLaren, Lindsay; Barberio, Amanda; Webster, Jacqui

    2015-01-01

    Objective To quantify progress with the initiation of salt reduction strategies around the world in the context of the global target to reduce population salt intake by 30% by 2025. Methods A systematic review of the published and grey literature was supplemented by questionnaires sent to country program leaders. Core characteristics of strategies were extracted and categorised according to a pre-defined framework. Results A total of 75 countries now have a national salt reduction strategy, more than double the number reported in a similar review done in 2010. The majority of programs are multifaceted and include industry engagement to reformulate products (n = 61), establishment of sodium content targets for foods (39), consumer education (71), front-of-pack labelling schemes (31), taxation on high-salt foods (3) and interventions in public institutions (54). Legislative action related to salt reduction such as mandatory targets, front of pack labelling, food procurement policies and taxation have been implemented in 33 countries. 12 countries have reported reductions in population salt intake, 19 reduced salt content in foods and 6 improvements in consumer knowledge, attitudes or behaviours relating to salt. Conclusion The large and increasing number of countries with salt reduction strategies in place is encouraging although activity remains limited in low- and middle-income regions. The absence of a consistent approach to implementation highlights uncertainty about the elements most important to success. Rigorous evaluation of ongoing programs and initiation of salt reduction programs, particularly in low- and middle- income countries, will be vital to achieving the targeted 30% reduction in salt intake. PMID:26201031

  6. Concise review: the epigenetic contribution to stem cell ageing: can we rejuvenate our older cells?

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Lyle; Al-Aama, Jumana; Stojkovic, Miodrag; Lako, Majlinda

    2014-09-01

    Although certainly one of the most recognizable characteristics of human biology, aging remains one of the least understood. This is largely attributable to the fact that aging is both gradual and inherently complex, with almost all aspects of physiology and phenotype undergoing steady modification with advancing age. The complexity of the aging process does not allow for a single all-encompassing definition, yet decades of study using diverse systems, methodologies, and model organisms have begun to build a consensus regarding the central physiological characteristics of aging. Indeed, such studies have shown that the process of aging is invariably accompanied by a diminished capacity to adequately maintain tissue homeostasis or to repair tissues after injury. When homeostatic control diminishes to the point at which tissue/organ integrity and function are no longer sufficiently maintained, physiologic decline ensues, and aging is manifested. Inadequate organ homeostasis indicates possible dysfunction of tissue-specific stem cells. Several mechanisms have been postulated to account for age-related cellular changes; however, increasing literature evidence suggests that age-related changes to the epigenome make a major contribution to the aged phenotype. In this review, we discuss the evidence for epigenetic contributions to tissue-specific stem cell ageing. PMID:24740867

  7. Criteria for CT and Initial Management of Head Injured Infants: A Review.

    PubMed

    Shiomi, Naoto; Echigo, Tadashi; Hino, Akihiko; Hashimoto, Naoya; Yamaki, Tarumi

    2016-07-15

    Criteria for computed tomography (CT) to head injured infants have not been established. Since the identification of neurological findings is difficult in infants, examination by CT may be necessary in some cases, but it may be difficult to perform CT because of problems with radiation exposure and body movement. Moreover, even though no intracranial abnormality was found immediately after injury, abnormal findings may appear after several hours. From this viewpoint, course observation after injury may be more important than CT in the initial treatment of head trauma in infants. The complaints and neurological manifestations of infants, particularly those aged 2 or younger, are frequently unclear; therefore, there is an opinion that CT is recommended for all pediatric patients. However, the appropriateness of its use should be determined after confirming the mechanism of injury, consciousness level, neurological findings, and presence/absence of a history of abuse. Among the currently available rules specifying criteria for CT of infants with head trauma, the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) study may be regarded as reliable at present. In Japan, where the majority of emergency hospitals are using CT, it may be necessary to develop criteria for CT in consideration of the actual situation. CT diagnosis for pediatric head trauma is not always necessary. When no imaging is performed, this should be fully explained at the initial treatment before selecting course observation at home. Checking on a state of the patients by telephone is useful for both patients and physicians. PMID:27194179

  8. Criteria for CT and Initial Management of Head Injured Infants: A Review.

    PubMed

    Shiomi, Naoto; Echigo, Tadashi; Hino, Akihiko; Hashimoto, Naoya; Yamaki, Tarumi

    2016-07-15

    Criteria for computed tomography (CT) to head injured infants have not been established. Since the identification of neurological findings is difficult in infants, examination by CT may be necessary in some cases, but it may be difficult to perform CT because of problems with radiation exposure and body movement. Moreover, even though no intracranial abnormality was found immediately after injury, abnormal findings may appear after several hours. From this viewpoint, course observation after injury may be more important than CT in the initial treatment of head trauma in infants. The complaints and neurological manifestations of infants, particularly those aged 2 or younger, are frequently unclear; therefore, there is an opinion that CT is recommended for all pediatric patients. However, the appropriateness of its use should be determined after confirming the mechanism of injury, consciousness level, neurological findings, and presence/absence of a history of abuse. Among the currently available rules specifying criteria for CT of infants with head trauma, the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) study may be regarded as reliable at present. In Japan, where the majority of emergency hospitals are using CT, it may be necessary to develop criteria for CT in consideration of the actual situation. CT diagnosis for pediatric head trauma is not always necessary. When no imaging is performed, this should be fully explained at the initial treatment before selecting course observation at home. Checking on a state of the patients by telephone is useful for both patients and physicians.

  9. Criteria for CT and Initial Management of Head Injured Infants: A Review

    PubMed Central

    SHIOMI, Naoto; ECHIGO, Tadashi; HINO, Akihiko; HASHIMOTO, Naoya; YAMAKI, Tarumi

    2016-01-01

    Criteria for computed tomography (CT) to head injured infants have not been established. Since the identification of neurological findings is difficult in infants, examination by CT may be necessary in some cases, but it may be difficult to perform CT because of problems with radiation exposure and body movement. Moreover, even though no intracranial abnormality was found immediately after injury, abnormal findings may appear after several hours. From this viewpoint, course observation after injury may be more important than CT in the initial treatment of head trauma in infants. The complaints and neurological manifestations of infants, particularly those aged 2 or younger, are frequently unclear; therefore, there is an opinion that CT is recommended for all pediatric patients. However, the appropriateness of its use should be determined after confirming the mechanism of injury, consciousness level, neurological findings, and presence/absence of a history of abuse. Among the currently available rules specifying criteria for CT of infants with head trauma, the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) study may be regarded as reliable at present. In Japan, where the majority of emergency hospitals are using CT, it may be necessary to develop criteria for CT in consideration of the actual situation. CT diagnosis for pediatric head trauma is not always necessary. When no imaging is performed, this should be fully explained at the initial treatment before selecting course observation at home. Checking on a state of the patients by telephone is useful for both patients and physicians. PMID:27194179

  10. Mini-review: Retarding aging in murine genetic models of neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Albin, Roger L; Miller, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    Retardation of aging processes is a plausible approach to delaying the onset or slowing the progression of common neurodegenerative disorders. We review the results of experiments using murine genetic models of Alzheimer disease and Huntington disease to evaluate the effects of retarding aging. While positive results are reported in several of these experiments, there are several discrepancies in behavioral and pathologic outcomes both within and between different experiments. Similarly, different experiments yield varying assessments of potential proximate mechanisms of action of retarding aging. The anti-aging interventions used for some experiments include some that show only modest effects on lifespan, and others that have proven hard to reproduce. Several experiments used aggressive transgenic neurodegenerative disease models that may be less relevant in the context of age-related diseases. The experience with these models and interventions may be useful in designing future experiments assessing anti-aging interventions for disease-modifying treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. Age-Related Changes in Performance and Recovery Kinetics in Masters Athletes: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Borges, Nattai; Reaburn, Peter; Driller, Matthew; Argus, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Despite increasing participation rates in masters sport and extensive research examining age-related changes in performance, little is known about the effect of age on recovery kinetics in masters athletes. This narrative review focuses on the relationship between aging and sport participation, and the effect on both performance and recovery following an exercise bout. Current research suggests the effect of age on performance and recovery may be smaller than originally suggested and that increasing sedentary lifestyles appear to play a larger role in any observed decrements in performance and recovery in masters athletes. Currently, it appears that performance decrements are inevitable with age. However, performance capacities can be maintained through systematic physical training. Moreover, the limited current research suggests there may be an age effect on recovery kinetics following an exercise bout, although further research is required to understand the acute and chronic recovery processes in the masters athlete.

  12. Factors implicated in the initiation of human parturition in term and preterm labor: a review.

    PubMed

    Ravanos, Konstantinos; Dagklis, Themistoklis; Petousis, Stamatios; Margioula-Siarkou, Chrysoula; Prapas, Yannis; Prapas, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    After accommodating the pregnancy for an average of 40 weeks, the uterus expels the fetus, the placenta and the membranes through the birth canal in a process named parturition. The absolute sequence of events that trigger and sustain human parturition are not yet fully clarified. Evidence suggests that spontaneous preterm and term labor seem to share a common inflammatory pathway. However, there are several other factors being involved in the initiation of human parturition. Placental corticotropin releasing hormone production seems to serve as a placental clock that might be set to ring earlier or later determining the duration of pregnancy and timing of labor. Estrogens do not cause contractions but their properties seem to capacitate uterus to coordinate and enhance contractions. Cytokines, prostaglandins, nitric oxide and steroids seem also to induce ripening by mediating remodeling of the extracellular matrix and collagen. Infection and microbe invasion resulting in chorioamnionitis also represents a common cause of early preterm labour. This review provides an overview of all these factors considered to be implicated in the initiation of human parturition.

  13. A review of lunar chronology revealing a preponderance of 4.34-4.37 Ga ages

    DOE PAGES

    Borg, Lars E.; Gaffney, Amy M.; Shearer, Charles K.

    2014-11-24

    In this study, data obtained from Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic measurements of lunar highlands’ samples are renormalized to common standard values and then used to define ages with a common isochron regression algorithm. The reliability of these ages is evaluated using five criteria that include whether: (1) the ages are defined by multiple isotopic systems, (2) the data demonstrate limited scatter outside uncertainty, (3) initial isotopic compositions are consistent with the petrogenesis of the samples, (4) the ages are defined by an isotopic system that is resistant to disturbance by impact metamorphism, and (5) the rare-earth element abundances determined bymore » isotope dilution of bulk of mineral fractions match those measured by in situ analyses. From this analysis, it is apparent that the oldest highlands’ rock ages are some of the least reliable, and that there is little support for crustal ages older than ~4.40 Ga. A model age for ur-KREEP formation calculated using the most reliable Mg-suite Sm-Nd isotopic systematics, in conjunction with Sm-Nd analyses of KREEP basalts, is 4389 ± 45 Ma. This age is a good match to the Lu-Hf model age of 4353 ± 37 Ma determined using a subset of this sample suite, the average model age of 4353 ± 25 Ma determined on mare basalts with the 146Sm-142Nd isotopic system, with a peak in Pb-Pb ages observed in lunar zircons of ~4340 ± 20 Ma, and the oldest terrestrial zircon age of 4374 ± 6 Ma. The preponderance of ages between 4.34 and 4.37 Ga reflect either primordial solidification of a lunar magma ocean or a widespread secondary magmatic event on the lunar nearside. The first scenario is not consistent with the oldest ages reported for lunar zircons, whereas the second scenario does not account for concordance between ages of crustal rocks and mantle reservoirs.« less

  14. A review of lunar chronology revealing a preponderance of 4.34-4.37 Ga ages

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, Lars E.; Gaffney, Amy M.; Shearer, Charles K.

    2014-11-24

    In this study, data obtained from Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic measurements of lunar highlands’ samples are renormalized to common standard values and then used to define ages with a common isochron regression algorithm. The reliability of these ages is evaluated using five criteria that include whether: (1) the ages are defined by multiple isotopic systems, (2) the data demonstrate limited scatter outside uncertainty, (3) initial isotopic compositions are consistent with the petrogenesis of the samples, (4) the ages are defined by an isotopic system that is resistant to disturbance by impact metamorphism, and (5) the rare-earth element abundances determined by isotope dilution of bulk of mineral fractions match those measured by in situ analyses. From this analysis, it is apparent that the oldest highlands’ rock ages are some of the least reliable, and that there is little support for crustal ages older than ~4.40 Ga. A model age for ur-KREEP formation calculated using the most reliable Mg-suite Sm-Nd isotopic systematics, in conjunction with Sm-Nd analyses of KREEP basalts, is 4389 ± 45 Ma. This age is a good match to the Lu-Hf model age of 4353 ± 37 Ma determined using a subset of this sample suite, the average model age of 4353 ± 25 Ma determined on mare basalts with the 146Sm-142Nd isotopic system, with a peak in Pb-Pb ages observed in lunar zircons of ~4340 ± 20 Ma, and the oldest terrestrial zircon age of 4374 ± 6 Ma. The preponderance of ages between 4.34 and 4.37 Ga reflect either primordial solidification of a lunar magma ocean or a widespread secondary magmatic event on the lunar nearside. The first scenario is not consistent with the oldest ages reported for lunar zircons, whereas the second scenario does not account for concordance between ages of crustal rocks and mantle reservoirs.

  15. Mathematical Modeling of HIV Dynamics After Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Moog, Claude H.; Stan, Guy-Bart; Brunet, Cecile; Raffi, François; Ferré, Virginie; Costanza, Vicente; Mhawej, Marie J.; Biafore, Federico; Ouattara, Djomangan A.; Ernst, Damien; Fonteneau, Raphael; Xia, Xiaohua

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This review shows the potential ground-breaking impact that mathematical tools may have in the analysis and the understanding of the HIV dynamics. In the first part, early diagnosis of immunological failure is inferred from the estimation of certain parameters of a mathematical model of the HIV infection dynamics. This method is supported by clinical research results from an original clinical trial: data just after 1 month following therapy initiation are used to carry out the model identification. The diagnosis is shown to be consistent with results from monitoring of the patients after 6 months. In the second part of this review, prospective research results are given for the design of individual anti-HIV treatments optimizing the recovery of the immune system and minimizing side effects. In this respect, two methods are discussed. The first one combines HIV population dynamics with pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics models to generate drug treatments using impulsive control systems. The second one is based on optimal control theory and uses a recently published differential equation to model the side effects produced by highly active antiretroviral therapy therapies. The main advantage of these revisited methods is that the drug treatment is computed directly in amounts of drugs, which is easier to interpret by physicians and patients. PMID:25371860

  16. Initial review of the treatment operations at the Installation Logistics Center, Fort Lewis, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, K.J.; Liikala, T.L.; Gilmore, T.J.; Last, G.V.

    1998-07-01

    An initial review was conducted of the current treatment operations for remediation of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethene (TCE) at the Fort lewis Logistics Center. Results from this review indicate the two pump-and-treat systems are effectively containing the TCE plume within the upper unconfined aquifer (Vashon Drift). However, mass balance calculations show the existing treatment systems alone will not accomplish the remedial action objective of cleaning up the aquifer to drinking water standards within 30 years as specified in the Record of Decision (ROD). This conclusion is based on the estimated mass of TCE at the source term (51,000 kg), the calculated mass of TCE in the aquifer (4,900 kg), and the removal rate of the pump-and-treat systems that currently ranges from 324 to 667 kg of TCe per year. Four areas within the TCE plume have been identified where enhancements could be made to the existing treatment operations. These are, Area 1 -- the vadose zone source, Area 2 -- the saturated zone source, Area 3 -- a containment area down gradient of Areas 1 and 2, and Area 4 -- the remainder of the plume. This report lists several remedial technologies including new and innovative technologies for these four areas that may help clean up the site to regulatory acceptable levels, shorten the timeframe for cleanup, or significantly reduce currently estimated Installation Restoration program (IRP) life-cycle costs.

  17. Impact of Tobacco Control Interventions on Smoking Initiation, Cessation, and Prevalence: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Lisa M.; Avila Tang, Erika; Chander, Geetanjali; Hutton, Heidi E.; Odelola, Olaide A.; Elf, Jessica L.; Heckman-Stoddard, Brandy M.; Bass, Eric B.; Little, Emily A.; Haberl, Elisabeth B.; Apelberg, Benjamin J.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Policymakers need estimates of the impact of tobacco control (TC) policies to set priorities and targets for reducing tobacco use. We systematically reviewed the independent effects of TC policies on smoking behavior. Methods. We searched MEDLINE (through January 2012) and EMBASE and other databases through February 2009, looking for studies published after 1989 in any language that assessed the effects of each TC intervention on smoking prevalence, initiation, cessation, or price participation elasticity. Paired reviewers extracted data from studies that isolated the impact of a single TC intervention. Findings. We included 84 studies. The strength of evidence quantifying the independent effect on smoking prevalence was high for increasing tobacco prices and moderate for smoking bans in public places and antitobacco mass media campaigns. Limited direct evidence was available to quantify the effects of health warning labels and bans on advertising and sponsorship. Studies were too heterogeneous to pool effect estimates. Interpretations. We found evidence of an independent effect for several TC policies on smoking prevalence. However, we could not derive precise estimates of the effects across different settings because of variability in the characteristics of the intervention, level of policy enforcement, and underlying tobacco control environment. PMID:22719777

  18. Structured Benefit-risk assessment: a review of key publications and initiatives on frameworks and methodologies.

    PubMed

    Mt-Isa, Shahrul; Ouwens, Mario; Robert, Veronique; Gebel, Martin; Schacht, Alexander; Hirsch, Ian

    2016-07-01

    Introduction The conduct of structured benefit-risk assessment (BRA) of pharmaceutical products is a key area of interest for regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry. However, the acceptance of a standardized approach and implementation are slow. Statisticians play major roles in these organizations, and have a great opportunity to be involved and drive the shaping of future BRA. Method We performed a literature search of recent reviews and initiatives assessing BRA methodologies, and grouped them to assist those new to BRA in learning, understanding, and choosing methodologies. We summarized the key points and discussed the impact of this emerging field on various stakeholders, particularly statisticians in the pharmaceutical industry. Results We provide introductory, essential, special interest, and further information and initiatives materials that direct readers to the most relevant materials, which were published between 2000 and 2013.  Based on recommendations in these materials we supply a toolkit of advocated BRA methodologies. Discussion Despite initiatives promoting these methodologies, there are still barriers, one of which being the lack of a consensus on the most appropriate methodologies among stakeholders. However, this opens up opportunities, for statisticians in the pharmaceutical industry especially, to champion appropriate BRA methodology use throughout the pharmaceutical product lifecycle. Conclusions This article may serve as a starting point for discussions and to reach a mutual consensus for methodology selection in a particular situation. Regulators and pharmaceutical industry should continue to collaborate to develop and take forward BRA methodologies, and by clear communication develop a mutual understanding of the key issues. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25981683

  19. Structured Benefit-risk assessment: a review of key publications and initiatives on frameworks and methodologies.

    PubMed

    Mt-Isa, Shahrul; Ouwens, Mario; Robert, Veronique; Gebel, Martin; Schacht, Alexander; Hirsch, Ian

    2016-07-01

    Introduction The conduct of structured benefit-risk assessment (BRA) of pharmaceutical products is a key area of interest for regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry. However, the acceptance of a standardized approach and implementation are slow. Statisticians play major roles in these organizations, and have a great opportunity to be involved and drive the shaping of future BRA. Method We performed a literature search of recent reviews and initiatives assessing BRA methodologies, and grouped them to assist those new to BRA in learning, understanding, and choosing methodologies. We summarized the key points and discussed the impact of this emerging field on various stakeholders, particularly statisticians in the pharmaceutical industry. Results We provide introductory, essential, special interest, and further information and initiatives materials that direct readers to the most relevant materials, which were published between 2000 and 2013.  Based on recommendations in these materials we supply a toolkit of advocated BRA methodologies. Discussion Despite initiatives promoting these methodologies, there are still barriers, one of which being the lack of a consensus on the most appropriate methodologies among stakeholders. However, this opens up opportunities, for statisticians in the pharmaceutical industry especially, to champion appropriate BRA methodology use throughout the pharmaceutical product lifecycle. Conclusions This article may serve as a starting point for discussions and to reach a mutual consensus for methodology selection in a particular situation. Regulators and pharmaceutical industry should continue to collaborate to develop and take forward BRA methodologies, and by clear communication develop a mutual understanding of the key issues. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Age- and stroke-related skeletal muscle changes: a review for the geriatric clinician.

    PubMed

    Sions, Jaclyn Megan; Tyrell, Christine M; Knarr, Brian A; Jancosko, Angela; Binder-Macleod, Stuart A

    2012-01-01

    Independently, aging and stroke each have a significant negative impact on skeletal muscle, but the potential cumulative effects of aging and stroke have not been explored. Optimal interventions for individuals post stroke may include those that specifically target skeletal muscle. Addressing changes in muscles may minimize activity limitations and enhance participation post stroke. This article reviews the impact of aging and stroke on muscle morphology and composition, including fiber atrophy, reductions in muscle cross-sectional area, changes in muscle fiber distributions, and increases in intramuscular fat. Relationships between changes in muscle structure, muscle function, and physical mobility are reviewed. Clinical recommendations that preserve and enhance skeletal muscle in the aging adult and individuals post stroke are discussed. Future research directions that include systematic comparison of the differences in skeletal muscle between younger and older adults who have sustained a stroke are suggested.

  1. Causes of dysphagia among different age groups: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Roden, Dylan F; Altman, Kenneth W

    2013-12-01

    Dysphagia is a common problem that has the potential to result in severe complications such as malnutrition and aspiration pneumonia. Based on the complexity of swallowing, there may be many different causes. This article presents a systematic literature review to assess different comorbid disease associations with dysphagia based on age. The causes of dysphagia are different depending on age, affecting between 1.7% and 11.3% of the general population. Dysphagia can be a symptom representing disorders pertinent to any specialty of medicine. This review can be used to aid in the diagnosis of patients presenting with the complaint of dysphagia.

  2. 14 CFR 129.105 - Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for U.S.-registered multiengine aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aging airplane inspections and records... § 129.105 Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for U.S.-registered multiengine aircraft. (a... completed the aging airplane inspection and records review required by this section. During the...

  3. 14 CFR 135.422 - Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for multiengine airplanes certificated with nine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aging airplane inspections and records... Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.422 Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for multiengine... aging airplane inspection and records review required by this section. During the inspection and...

  4. 14 CFR 129.105 - Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for U.S.-registered multiengine aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aging airplane inspections and records... § 129.105 Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for U.S.-registered multiengine aircraft. (a... completed the aging airplane inspection and records review required by this section. During the...

  5. 14 CFR 135.422 - Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for multiengine airplanes certificated with nine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aging airplane inspections and records... Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.422 Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for multiengine... aging airplane inspection and records review required by this section. During the inspection and...

  6. 14 CFR 135.422 - Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for multiengine airplanes certificated with nine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aging airplane inspections and records... Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.422 Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for multiengine... aging airplane inspection and records review required by this section. During the inspection and...

  7. 14 CFR 129.105 - Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for U.S.-registered multiengine aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aging airplane inspections and records... § 129.105 Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for U.S.-registered multiengine aircraft. (a... completed the aging airplane inspection and records review required by this section. During the...

  8. 14 CFR 135.422 - Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for multiengine airplanes certificated with nine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aging airplane inspections and records... Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.422 Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for multiengine... aging airplane inspection and records review required by this section. During the inspection and...

  9. 14 CFR 135.422 - Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for multiengine airplanes certificated with nine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aging airplane inspections and records... Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.422 Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for multiengine... aging airplane inspection and records review required by this section. During the inspection and...

  10. 14 CFR 129.105 - Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for U.S.-registered multiengine aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aging airplane inspections and records... § 129.105 Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for U.S.-registered multiengine aircraft. (a... completed the aging airplane inspection and records review required by this section. During the...

  11. 14 CFR 129.105 - Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for U.S.-registered multiengine aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aging airplane inspections and records... § 129.105 Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for U.S.-registered multiengine aircraft. (a... completed the aging airplane inspection and records review required by this section. During the...

  12. Correcting for initial Th in speleothems to obtain the age of calcite nucleation after a growth hiatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, D. A.; Nita, D. C.; Moseley, G. E.; Hoffmann, D. L.; Standish, C. D.; Smart, P. L.; Edwards, R.

    2013-12-01

    In addition to the many U-Th dated speleothem records (δ18O δ13C, trace elements) of past environmental change based on continuous phases of calcite growth, discontinuous records also provide important constraints for a wide range of past states of the Earth system, including sea levels, permafrost extent, regional aridity and local cave flooding. Chronological information about human activity or faunal evolution can also be obtained where calcite can be seen to overlie cave art or mammalian bones, for example. Among the important considerations when determining the U-Th age of calcite that nucleates on an exposed surface are (1) initial 230Th/232Th, which can be elevated and variable in some settings, and (2) growth rate and sub-sample density, where extrapolation is required. By way of example, we present sea level data based on U-Th ages of vadose speleothems (i.e. formed above the water table and distinct from 'phreatic' examples) from caves of the circum-Caribbean , where calcite growth was interrupted by rising sea levels and then reinitiated after regression. These estimates demand large corrections and derived sea level constraints are compared with alternative data from coral reef terraces, phreatic overgrowths on speleothems or indirect, proxy evidence from oxygen isotopes to constrain rates of ice volume growth. Flowstones from the Bahamas provide useful sea level constraints because they present the longest and most continuous records in such settings (a function of preservation potential in addition to hydrological routing) and also earliest growth post-emergence after sea level fall. We revisit estimates for sea level regression at the end of MIS 5 at ~ 80 ka (Richards et al, 1994; Lundberg and Ford, 1994) and make corrections for non-Bulk Earth initial Th contamination (230Th/232Th activity ratio > 10), based on isochron analysis of alternative stalagmites from the same settings and recent high resolution analysis. We also present new U-Th ages for

  13. The potential effects of meditation on age-related cognitive decline: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gard, Tim; Hölzel, Britta K; Lazar, Sara W

    2014-01-01

    With a rapidly aging society it becomes increasingly important to counter normal age-related decline in cognitive functioning. Growing evidence suggests that cognitive training programs may have the potential to counteract this decline. On the basis of a growing body of research that shows that meditation has positive effects on cognition in younger and middle-aged adults, meditation may be able to offset normal age-related cognitive decline or even enhance cognitive function in older adults. In this paper, we review studies investigating the effects of meditation on age-related cognitive decline. We searched the Web of Science (1900 to present), PsycINFO (1597 to present), MEDLINE (1950 to present), and CABI (1910 to present) to identify original studies investigating the effects of meditation on cognition and cognitive decline in the context of aging. Twelve studies were included in the review, six of which were randomized controlled trials. Studies involved a wide variety of meditation techniques and reported preliminary positive effects on attention, memory, executive function, processing speed, and general cognition. However, most studies had a high risk of bias and small sample sizes. Reported dropout rates were low and compliance rates high. We conclude that meditation interventions for older adults are feasible, and preliminary evidence suggests that meditation can offset age-related cognitive decline.

  14. The potential effects of meditation on age-related cognitive decline: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Gard, Tim; Hölzel, Britta K.; Lazar, Sara W.

    2014-01-01

    With a rapidly aging society it becomes increasingly important to counter normal age-related decline in cognitive functioning. Growing evidence suggests that cognitive training programs may have the potential to counteract this decline. On the basis of a growing body of research that shows that meditation has positive effects on cognition in younger and middle-aged adults, meditation may be able to offset normal age-related cognitive decline or even enhance cognitive function in older adults. In this paper, we review studies investigating the effects of meditation on age-related cognitive decline. We searched the Web of Science (1900 to present), PsycINFO (1597 to present), MEDLINE (1950 to present), and CABI (1910 to present) to identify original studies investigating the effects of meditation on cognition and cognitive decline in the context of aging. Twelve studies were included in the review, six of which were randomized controlled trials. Studies involved a wide variety of meditation techniques and reported preliminary positive effects on attention, memory, executive function, processing speed, and general cognition. However, most studies had a high risk of bias and small sample sizes. Reported dropout rates were low and compliance rates high. We conclude that meditation interventions for older adults are feasible, and preliminary evidence suggests that meditation can offset age-related cognitive decline. PMID:24571182

  15. Exercise training as a preventive tool for age-related disorders: a brief review

    PubMed Central

    Ciolac, Emmanuel Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Aging populations are a worldwide phenomenon affecting both developed and developing countries. This issue raises serious concerns for both governments and the general population. Regular participation in physical activity and/or exercise training programs can minimize the physiological alterations that occur during aging and may contribute to improvements in health and well-being. The present review will discuss the role of regular exercise training in preventing age-related physiological decline and, consequently, associated chronic diseases. Compelling evidence that regular exercise and/or physical activity can improve quality of life, prevent or control the development of chronic disease and increase life expectancy is shown. In summary, regular exercise training and/or physical activity has an important influence on aging and may help to prevent age-related disorders. PMID:23778419

  16. Human neuromuscular structure and function in old age: A brief review

    PubMed Central

    Power, Geoffrey A.; Dalton, Brian H.; Rice, Charles L.

    2016-01-01

    Natural adult aging is associated with many functional impairments of the human neuromuscular system. One of the more observable alterations is the loss of contractile muscle mass, termed sarcopenia. The loss of muscle mass occurs primarily due to a progressive loss of viable motor units, and accompanying atrophy of remaining muscle fibers. Not only does the loss of muscle mass contribute to impaired function in old age, but alterations in fiber type and myosin heavy chain isoform expression also contribute to weaker, slower, and less powerful contracting muscles. This review will focus on motor unit loss associated with natural adult aging, age-related fatigability, and the age-related differences in strength across contractile muscle actions. PMID:27011872

  17. Health Sector Initiatives for Disaster Risk Management in Ethiopia: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Tadesse, Luche; Ardalan, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Natural and man-made disasters are prevailing in Ethiopia mainly due to drought, floods, landslides, earthquake, volcanic eruptions, and disease epidemics. Few studies so far have critically reviewed about medical responses to disasters and little information exists pertaining to the initiatives being undertaken by health sector from the perspective of basic disaster management cycle. This article aimed to review emergency health responses to disasters and other related interventions which have been undertaken in the health sector. Methods: Relevant documents were identified by searches in the websites of different sectors in Ethiopian and international non-governmental organizations and United Nations agencies. Using selected keywords, articles were also searched in the data bases of Medline, CINAHL, Scopus, and Google Scholar. In addition, pertinent articles from non-indexed journals were referred to. Results: Disaster management system in Ethiopia focused on response, recovery, and rehabilitation from 1974 to 1988; while the period between 1988 and 1993 marked the transition phase towards a more comprehensive approach. Theoretically, from 1993 onwards, the disaster management system has fully integrated the mitigation, prevention, and preparedness phases into already existing response and recovery approach, particularly for drought. This policy has changed the emergency response practices and the health sector has taken some initiatives in the area of emergency health care. Hence, drought early warning system, therapeutic feeding program in hospitals, health centers and posts in drought prone areas to manage promptly acute malnutrition cases have all been put in place. In addition, public health disease emergencies have been responded to at all levels of health care system. Conclusions: Emergency health responses to drought and its ramifications such as acute malnutrition and epidemics have become more comprehensive in the context of basic disaster

  18. A systematic review on zinc for the prevention and treatment of age-related macular degeneration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc is a potential candidate for the prevention and treatment of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) due to its high concentration in the retina and role as a cofactor for antioxidant enzymes. The objective of this work was to conduct a systematic review of studies that investigated dietary inta...

  19. A Review and New Look at Ethical Suicide in Advanced Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Brian D.

    1993-01-01

    Notes that suicide is common in old age, but public opinion remains negative. Following a review of theories of suicide and summary of arguments against suicide, constructs argument for why elderly have unique claim to an ethical, unobstructed suicide. Claim rests on their "developmental autonomy," based on experience and wisdom of the elderly.…

  20. Cost-Effectiveness of Social Work Services in Aging: An Updated Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizzo, Victoria M.; Rowe, Jeannine M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study examines the impact of social work interventions in aging on quality of life (QOL) and cost outcomes in four categories (health, mental health, geriatric evaluation and management, and caregiving). Methods: Systematic review methods are employed. Databases were searched for articles published in English between 2004 and 2012…

  1. Explaining Differences in Age at Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Amy M.; Mandell, David S.

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of autism is often delayed, which translates into a missed opportunity to provide treatment during a critical developmental period. This study reviews studies that assessed factors associated with age at autism spectrum disorder diagnosis and provides recommendations on future research, programs, and policies to improve early…

  2. A Systematic Review of Common Physiotherapy Interventions in School-Aged Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Liz; Baker, Richard; Harvey, Adrienne

    2010-01-01

    This systematic review focused on the common conventional physiotherapy interventions used with children with cerebral palsy (CP), aged 4 to 18 years, and critically appraised the recent evidence of each of these interventions using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine Levels of Evidence. The search strategy yielded 34 articles after…

  3. Initial Canadian experience with robotic simple prostatectomy: Case series and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Hoy, Nathan Y.; Van Zyl, Stephan; St. Martin, Blair A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Robotic-assisted simple prostatectomy (RASP) has been touted as an alternative to open simple prostatectomy (OSP) to treat large gland benign prostatic hyperplasia. Our study assesses our institution’s experience with RASP and reviews the literature. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review from January 2011 to November 2013 of all patients undergoing RASP and OSP. Operative and 90-day outcomes, including operation time, intraoperative blood loss, length of hospital stay (LOS), transfusion requirements, and complication rates, were assessed. Results: Thirty-two patients were identified: 4 undergoing RASP and 28 undergoing OSP. There was no difference in mean age at surgery (69.3 vs. 75.2 years; p = 0.17), mean Charlson Comorbidity Index (2.5 vs. 3.5; p = 0.19), and mean prostate volume on TRUS (239 vs. 180 mL; p = 0.09) in the robotic and open groups, respectively. There was a significant difference in the mean length of operation, with RASP exceeding OSP (161 vs. 79 min; p = 0.008). The mean intraoperative blood loss was significantly higher in the open group (835.7 vs. 218.8 mL; p = 0.0001). Mean LOS was shorter in the RASP group (2.3 vs. 5.5 days; p = 0.0001). No significant differences were noted in the 90-day transfusion rate (p = 0.13), or overall complication rate at 0% with RASP vs. 57.1% with OSP (p = 0.10). Conclusions: Our data suggest RASP has a shorter LOS and lower intraoperative volume of blood loss, with the disadvantage of a longer operating time, compared to OSP. It is a feasible technique and deserves further investigation and consideration at Canadian centres performing robotic prostatectomies. PMID:26425225

  4. Neurodevelopment and brain growth in classic Menkes disease is influenced by age and symptomatology at initiation of copper treatment.

    PubMed

    Kaler, Stephen G

    2014-10-01

    Menkes disease is an X-linked recessive disorder of brain copper metabolism caused by mutations in an essential mammalian copper transport gene, ATP7A. Untreated affected individuals suffer failure to thrive and neurodevelopmental delays that usually commence at 6-8 weeks of age. Death by age three years is typical. While provision of working copies of ATP7A to the brain by viral vectors is a promising strategy under development, the only treatment currently available is subcutaneous copper injections. These can normalize circulating blood levels and may replete brain copper depending on the molecular context, e.g., the severity of ATP7A mutation and potential presence of mosaicism. In this paper, we summarize somatic growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes for 60 subjects enrolled in a recently concluded phase I/II clinical trial of copper histidine for Menkes disease (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00001262). Primary outcomes indicate highly statistically significant improvements in gross motor, fine motor/adaptive, personal-social, and language neurodevelopment in the cohort of subjects who received early treatment prior to onset of symptoms (n=35). Correlating with these findings, quantitative parameters of somatic growth indicated statistically significant greater growth in head circumference for the initially asymptomatic group, whereas weight and height/length at age three years (or at time of death) did not differ significantly. Mortality at age 3 was higher (50%) in subjects older and symptomatic when treatment commenced compared to the asymptomatic group (28.6%). We conclude that early copper histidine for Menkes disease is safe and efficacious, with treatment outcomes influenced by the timing of intervention, and ATP7A mutation. PMID:25281031

  5. The influence of age at disease onset on disease activity and disability: results from the Ontario Best Practices Research Initiative.

    PubMed

    Ruban, T N; Jacob, B; Pope, J E; Keystone, E C; Bombardier, C; Kuriya, B

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to compare characteristics between late-onset rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and young-onset RA and determine the association between age at disease onset and disease severity. We cross-sectionally studied 971 patients at the time of entry into the Ontario Best Practices Research Initiative, a registry of RA patients followed up in routine care. We restricted patients to ≤5 years of disease duration. Late-onset RA was defined as an onset ≥60 years of age and young-onset RA <60 years. Group differences were compared, and multivariate linear regression models were used to test the influence of age at onset on Disease Activity Score in 28 Joints with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR), Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI), and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) scores. The swollen joint count (6.2 vs. 5.3), acute phase reactants (C-reactive protein (CRP) 17.4 vs. 11.8 mg/L, ESR 30.6 vs. 21.5 mm/h), and comorbidity burden were higher in late-onset RA compared to young-onset RA (p < 0.01). Mean DAS28-ESR (4.6 vs. 4.3) and HAQ (1.2 vs. 1.1) scores were higher in late-onset RA patients (p < 0.05). Late-onset RA patients received more initial disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) monotherapy and corticosteroids in comparison to greater DMARD/biologic combination therapy in young-onset RA patients (p < 0.05). Adjusted multivariate analyses showed that late-onset RA was independently associated with higher mean DAS28-ESR and HAQ scores, but not CDAI. Late-onset RA patients have greater disease activity that may contribute to disability early in the disease course. Despite this, initial treatment consists of less combination DMARD and biologic use in late-onset RA patients. This may have implications for future response to therapy and development of joint damage, disability, and comorbidities in this group.

  6. Age at Weaning and Infant Growth: Primary Analysis and Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Vail, Brennan; Prentice, Philippa; Dunger, David B.; Hughes, Ieuan A.; Acerini, Carlo L.; Ong, Ken K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test whether earlier age at weaning (age 3-6 months) may promote faster growth during infancy. Study design Weaning at age 3.0-7.0 months was reported by 571 mothers of term singletons in a prospective birth cohort study conducted in Cambridge, UK. Infant weight and length were measured at birth and at age 3 months and 12 months. Anthropometric values were transformed into age- and sex-adjusted z-scores. Three linear regression models were performed, including adjustment for confounders in a stepwise manner. Measurements at age 3 months, before weaning, were used to consider reverse causality. Results Almost three-quarters (72.9%) of infants were weaned before age 6 months. Age at weaning of 3.0-7.0 months was inversely associated with weight and length (but not with body mass index) at 12 months (both P ≤ .01, adjusted for maternal and demographic factors). These associations were attenuated after adjustment for type of milk feeding and weight or length at age 3 months (before weaning). Rapid weight gain between 0 and 3 months predicted subsequent earlier age at weaning (P = .01). Our systematic review identified 2 trials, both reporting null effects of age at weaning on growth, and 15 observational studies, with 10 reporting an inverse association between age at weaning and infant growth and 4 reporting evidence of reverse causality. Conclusion In high-income countries, weaning between 3 and 6 months appears to have a neutral effect on infant growth. Inverse associations are likely related to reverse causality. PMID:26073105

  7. Review of performance, medical, and operational data on pilot aging issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoklosa, J. H.

    1992-01-01

    An extensive review of the literature and studies relating to performance, medical, operational, and legal data regarding pilot aging issues was performed in order to determine what evidence there is, if any, to support mandatory pilot retirement. Popular misconceptions about aging, including the failure to distinguish between the normal aging process and disease processes that occur more frequently in older individuals, continue to contribute to much of the misunderstanding and controversy that surround this issue. Results: Review of medical data related to the pilot aging issue indicate that recent improvement in medical diagnostics and treatment technology have made it possible to identify to a high degree individuals who are at risk for developing sudden incapacitating illness and for treating those with disqualifying medical conditions. Performance studies revealed that after controlling for the presence of disease states, older pilots are able to perform as well as younger pilots on many performance tasks. Review of accident data showed that older, healthy pilots do not have higher accident rates than younger pilots, and indeeed, evidence suggests that older pilots have an advantage in the cockpit due to higher experience levels. The Man-Machine-Mission-Environment interface of factors can be managed through structured, supervised, and enhanced operations, maintenance, flight reviews, and safety procedures in order to ensure safe and productive operations by reducing the margin of error and by increasing the margin of safety. Conclusions: There is no evidence indicating any specific age as an arbitrary cut-off point for pilots to perform their fight duties. A combination of regular medical screening, performance evaluation, enhanced operational maintenance, and safety procedures can most effectively ensure a safe pilot population than can a mandatory retirement policy based on arbitrary age restrictions.

  8. Facilitating Change in Undergraduate STEM: Initial Results from an Interdisciplinary Literature Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Charles; Beach, Andrea; Finkelstein, Noah; Larson, R. Sam

    2008-10-01

    Although decades of research have identified effective instructional practices for improving Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education, these practices are not widely implemented. Scholars in three fields are interested in promoting these practices and have engaged in research on pedagogical change: Disciplinary-based STEM Education Researchers, Faculty Development Researchers, and Higher Education Researchers. There is little interaction between the fields and efforts in all areas have met with only modest success. In this paper we present an initial examination of 130 randomly chosen articles from a set of 295 we identified as addressing efforts to promote change in the instructional practices of STEM faculty. We identify four core change strategies and note that change strategies differ by fields. Articles in all fields frequently do not provide enough evidence to convincingly argue for the success of the change strategy studied and have few connections to theoretical or empirical literature related to change. This literature review and related efforts sit within broader efforts to promote interdisciplinary directed at facilitating lasting change.

  9. Initiatives to reduce overcrowding and access block in Australian emergency departments: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Kimberley; Morphet, Julia; Jones, Tamsin; Innes, Kelli; Griffiths, Debra; Williams, Allison

    2014-01-01

    Australian emergency departments are experiencing an increasing demand for their services. Patient throughput continues to expand resulting in overcrowding and access block where patients cannot gain entry to appropriate hospital beds. This is despite both state and federal governments implementing numerous schemes to address the complex causes of stress on emergency departments. This paper explores the current literature and highlights the key strategies adopted by different emergency departments to reduce delays and streamline patient flow, including: waiting room nurses; streaming; rapid assessment teams; short stay units and care coordination programmes. Many of these initiatives have proven successful at reducing the number of people re-presenting to the emergency department, addressing time delays and improving the management of existing resources and patient flow. More recent changes include increasing the scope of practice and workload for triage nurses. With the recent introduction of the National Emergency Access Target, which requires that most patients presenting to Australian emergency departments are reviewed and transferred or discharged from the department within 4h, traditional roles of nurses in the emergency department are changing and expanding to meet the needs of modern healthcare systems.

  10. Salt intakes and salt reduction initiatives in Southeast Asia: a review.

    PubMed

    Batcagan-Abueg, Ada Portia M; Lee, Jeanette J M; Chan, Pauline; Rebello, Salome A; Amarra, Maria Sofia V

    2013-01-01

    Increased dietary sodium intake is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The monitoring of population sodium intake is a key part of any salt reduction intervention. However, the extent and methods used for as-sessment of sodium intake in Southeast Asia is currently unclear. This paper provides a narrative synthesis of the best available evidence regarding levels of sodium intake in six Southeast Asian countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, and describes salt reduction measures being undertaken in these countries. Electronic databases were screened to identify relevant articles for inclusion up to 29 February 2012. Reference lists of included studies and conference proceedings were also examined. Local experts and researchers in nutrition and public health were consulted. Quality of studies was assessed using a modified version of the Downs and Black Checklist. Twenty-five studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Full texts of 19 studies including government reports were retrieved, with most studies being of good quality. In-sufficient evidence exists regarding salt intakes in Southeast Asia. Dietary data suggest that sodium intake in most SEA countries exceeded the WHO recommendation of 2 g/day. Studies are needed that estimate sodium intake using the gold standard 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. The greatest proportion of dietary sodium came from added salt and sauces. Data on children were limited. The six countries had salt reduction initiatives that differed in specificity and extent, with greater emphasis on consumer education.

  11. Initiatives to reduce overcrowding and access block in Australian emergency departments: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Kimberley; Morphet, Julia; Jones, Tamsin; Innes, Kelli; Griffiths, Debra; Williams, Allison

    2014-01-01

    Australian emergency departments are experiencing an increasing demand for their services. Patient throughput continues to expand resulting in overcrowding and access block where patients cannot gain entry to appropriate hospital beds. This is despite both state and federal governments implementing numerous schemes to address the complex causes of stress on emergency departments. This paper explores the current literature and highlights the key strategies adopted by different emergency departments to reduce delays and streamline patient flow, including: waiting room nurses; streaming; rapid assessment teams; short stay units and care coordination programmes. Many of these initiatives have proven successful at reducing the number of people re-presenting to the emergency department, addressing time delays and improving the management of existing resources and patient flow. More recent changes include increasing the scope of practice and workload for triage nurses. With the recent introduction of the National Emergency Access Target, which requires that most patients presenting to Australian emergency departments are reviewed and transferred or discharged from the department within 4h, traditional roles of nurses in the emergency department are changing and expanding to meet the needs of modern healthcare systems. PMID:25632734

  12. A Review of Climate Change and Societal Impacts on Groundwater: Implications for a UNESCO Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, M.; Green, T. R.; Aureli, A.

    2004-12-01

    Global change issues have gained widespread interests, but hydrologic studies of the effects have been largely limited to surface and very near-surface processes. Global climate change/variability and human activities may also have pronounced effects on groundwater systems, including groundwater storage and fluxes (recharge and discharge rates). A new initiative in collaboration with the UNESCO International Hydrological Programme (IHP) will address various subjects (groundwater fluxes, storage, and quality), methods (simulation, data analysis, remote sensing, and paleo-reconstruction), and regions of the world. The aim is to investigate a range of high-priority research areas, including: 1) spatial and temporal scaling issues; 2) quantitative plant physiology and succession for environmental stress responses; 3) hydrological boundary conditions, including sea-level and snow-pack changes; 4) coupled atmospheric-hydrologic-oceanographic processes and their feedbacks; and 5) feedbacks associated with societal adjustments in land/water resource management. In this presentation, we review published and ongoing investigations in these areas to identify knowledge gaps and potential for collaborative research under the umbrella of a proposed international project on Groundwater Resources Assessments under the Pressures of Humanity and Climate change (GRAPHiC).

  13. A Review of Information for Managing Aging in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    WC Morgan; JV Livingston

    1995-09-01

    Age related degradation effects in safety related systems of nuclear power plants should be managed to prevent safety margins from eroding below the acceptable limits provided in plant design bases. The Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Pro- gram, conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, and other related aging management programs are developing technical information on managing aging. The aging management process central to these efforts consists of three key elements: 1) selecting structures, systems, and components (SSCs) in which aging should be controlled; 2) understanding the mechanisms and rates of degradation in these SSCs; and 3) managing degradation through effective inspection, surveillance, condition monitoring, trending, record keeping, mainten- ance, refurbishment, replacement, and adjustments in the operating environment and service conditions. This document concisely reviews and integrates information developed under the NPAR Program and other aging management studies and other available information related to understanding and managing age-related degradation effects and provides specific refer- ences to more comprehensive information on the same subjects.

  14. Fault slip rates and initiation age based on diffusion equation modeling: Wasatch Fault Zone and eastern Great Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattson, Ann; Bruhn, Ronald L.

    2001-01-01

    Models of the evolution of fault scarp morphology provide time elapsed since slip initiated on a faulted surface and may therefore provide more accurate estimates of slip rate than the rate calculated by dividing scarp offset by the age of the ruptured surface. To accomplish this task, linear and nonlinear models of sediment transport are calibrated from the morphology of Lake Bonneville shoreline scarps and fault scarps formed by multiple, surface-rupturing earthquakes along the Wasatch Fault Zone (WFZ). Profile modeling of scarps formed by several events distributed through time is done using a constant slip rate (CSR) solution and yields a value of A/κ (1/2 slip rate/diffusivity). Time elapsed since slip initiated on a fault is determined by establishing a value for κ and measuring total scarp offset. CSR nonlinear modeling (κ0 = 2.8 ± 1.1 m2/kyr, WFZ) of faults along the west slope of the Oquirrh Mountains indicates a slip rate of ˜0.1 mm/yr since 50 to 65 ka, which is corroborated by cosmogenic dating (10Be/26Al age = 75 ka). The slip rate along the west flank of the Stansbury Mountains varies from 0.04 to 0.2 mm/yr for time frames of 10 to >100 ka, with the most recent rupture on the northern portion of the fault zone ˜10 ka. Scarp analysis of the southern end of the Nephi segment, WFZ, suggests either temporal clustering or variable slip rate as indicated by differences in the short-term (1.3 mm/yr for 4.3 ka) versus long-term (0.4 mm/yr for 70 ka) slip rates.

  15. The Age Conundrum: A Scoping Review of Younger Age or Adolescent and Young Adult as a Risk Factor for Clinical Distress, Depression, or Anxiety in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lang, Michael J; David, Victoria; Giese-Davis, Janine

    2015-12-01

    This scoping review was conducted to understand the extent, range, and nature of current research on adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer and distress, depression, and anxiety (DDA). This information is necessary to find and aggregate valuable data on the AYA population embedded in generalized studies of DDA. Keyword searches of six relevant electronic databases identified 2156 articles, with 316 selected for abstract review and 40 for full text review. Full-text reviews and data extraction resulted in 34 studies being included, which ranged widely in design, sample size, age-range categorization, analysis methods, DDA measurement tool, overall study rigor, and quality of evidence. Studies very seldom reported using theory to guide their age categorization, with only four studies giving any rationale for their age-group definitions. All 34 studies found a significant association between at least one DDA construct and the younger age group relative to the older age groups at some point along the cancer trajectory. However, age as an independent risk factor for DDA is still unclear, as the relationship could be confounded by other age-related factors. Despite the wide range of definitions and effect sizes in the studies included in this review, one thing is clear: adolescents and young adults, however defined, are a distinct group within the cancer population with an elevated risk of DDA. Widespread adoption of a standard AYA age-range definition will be essential to any future meta-analytical psycho-oncology research in this population.

  16. The Age Conundrum: A Scoping Review of Younger Age or Adolescent and Young Adult as a Risk Factor for Clinical Distress, Depression, or Anxiety in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lang, Michael J; David, Victoria; Giese-Davis, Janine

    2015-12-01

    This scoping review was conducted to understand the extent, range, and nature of current research on adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer and distress, depression, and anxiety (DDA). This information is necessary to find and aggregate valuable data on the AYA population embedded in generalized studies of DDA. Keyword searches of six relevant electronic databases identified 2156 articles, with 316 selected for abstract review and 40 for full text review. Full-text reviews and data extraction resulted in 34 studies being included, which ranged widely in design, sample size, age-range categorization, analysis methods, DDA measurement tool, overall study rigor, and quality of evidence. Studies very seldom reported using theory to guide their age categorization, with only four studies giving any rationale for their age-group definitions. All 34 studies found a significant association between at least one DDA construct and the younger age group relative to the older age groups at some point along the cancer trajectory. However, age as an independent risk factor for DDA is still unclear, as the relationship could be confounded by other age-related factors. Despite the wide range of definitions and effect sizes in the studies included in this review, one thing is clear: adolescents and young adults, however defined, are a distinct group within the cancer population with an elevated risk of DDA. Widespread adoption of a standard AYA age-range definition will be essential to any future meta-analytical psycho-oncology research in this population. PMID:26697266

  17. Sarcopenia, cachexia and aging: diagnosis, mechanisms and therapeutic options - a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sumbul; Garcia, Jose M

    2014-01-01

    By the year 2050, individuals over the age of 65 years will comprise 20% of the US population. Loss of muscle mass and strength is common in this age group and it is associated with increased dependence, frailty and mortality. Sarcopenia, defined as the loss of muscle mass and function associated with aging, and cachexia, defined as weight loss due to an underlying illness, are muscle wasting disorders of particular relevance in the aging population, but they go largely unrecognized. In this review we highlight the common pathophysiological mechanisms underlying muscle loss in sarcopenia and cachexia, the factors unique to each condition and means of diagnosing and differentiating them clinically. Therapeutic options including exercise, nutritional therapy, androgens and growth hormone as well as their practical limitations are discussed. We also shed light on newer agents being developed as potential therapeutic options for wasting diseases. PMID:24731978

  18. 78 FR 27977 - National Institute on Aging; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... Committee: National Institute on Aging Initial Review Group; Behavior and Social Science of Aging Review... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.866, Aging Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  19. A systematic review on the role of environmental toxicants in stem cells aging.

    PubMed

    Hodjat, Mahshid; Rezvanfar, Mohammad Amin; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    Stem cells are an important target for environmental toxicants. As they are the main source for replenishing of organs in the body, any changes in their normal function could affect the regenerative potential of organs, leading to the appearance of age-related disease and acceleration of the aging process. Environmental toxicants could exert their adverse effect on stem cell function via multiple cellular and molecular mechanisms, resulting in changes in the stem cell differentiation fate and cell transformation, and reduced self-renewal capacity, as well as induction of stress-induced cellular senescence. The present review focuses on the effect of environmental toxicants on stem cell function associated with the aging process. We categorized environmental toxicants according to their preferred molecular mechanism of action on stem cells, including changes in genomic, epigenomic, and proteomic levels and enhancing oxidative stress. Pesticides, tobacco smoke, radiation and heavy metals are well-studied toxicants that cause stem cell dysfunction via induction of oxidative stress. Transgenerational epigenetic changes are the most important effects of a variety of toxicants on germ cells and embryos that are heritable and could affect health in the next several generations. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of toxicant-induced stem cell aging will help us to develop therapeutic intervention strategies against environmental aging. Meanwhile, more efforts are required to find the direct in vivo relationship between adverse effect of environmental toxicants and stem cell aging, leading to organismal aging.

  20. The evolutionary theories of aging revisited--a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Ljubuncic, Predrag; Reznick, Abraham Z

    2009-01-01

    This short review portrays the evolutionary theories of aging in the light of the existing discoveries from genomic and molecular genetic studies on aging and longevity. At the outset, an historical background for the development of the evolutionary theories of aging is presented through the works of August Weismann (programmed death and the germ plasm theories) including his exceptional theoretical postulation, later experimentally validated by the existence of cell division limits. Afterwards, the theory of mutation accumulation of Peter Medawar and the theory modification by Charlesworth (late-life mortality plateau) are presented as well as the antagonistic pleiotropy hypothesis of George Williams, and the disposable soma theory of Kirkwood and Holliday. These theories are discussed in the light of the different research studies, which include studies on insulin signaling and longevity, the possibility that nuclear factor kappa B may be a major mediator of aging, studies of anti-aging Sirtuins and studies on heat shock proteins and longevity and on gene sets as biomarkers of aging. Finally, the proposals for future research in biogerontology, such as studies on the control of protein synthesis, validation of biomarkers of aging, understanding the biochemistry of longevity and research in the field of gerontologic pathology are presented. Likewise, further attention is suggested regarding the work on telomere shortening, stem cells and studies on understanding the biochemical and molecular basis for longevity in centenarians. PMID:19202326

  1. Successful Aging and Its Discontents: A Systematic Review of the Social Gerontology Literature

    PubMed Central

    Martinson, Marty; Berridge, Clara

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this study was to analyze the range of critiques of successful aging models and the suggestions for improvement as expressed in the social gerontology literature. Design and Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review using the following criteria: journal articles retrieved in the Abstracts in Social Gerontology, published 1987–2013, successful aging/ageing in the title or text (n = 453), a critique of successful aging models as a key component of the article. Sixty-seven articles met the criteria. Qualitative methods were used to identify key themes and inductively configure meanings across the range of critiques. Results: The critiques and remedies fell into 4 categories. The Add and Stir group suggested a multidimensional expansion of successful aging criteria and offered an array of additions. The Missing Voices group advocated for adding older adults’ subjective meanings of successful aging to established objective measures. The Hard Hitting Critiques group called for more just and inclusive frameworks that embrace diversity, avoid stigma and discrimination, and intervene at structural contexts of aging. The New Frames and Names group presented alternative ideal models often grounded in Eastern philosophies. Implications: The vast array of criteria that gerontologists collectively offered to expand Rowe and Kahn’s original successful model is symptomatic of the problem that a normative model is by definition exclusionary. Greater reflexivity about gerontology’s use of “successful aging” and other normative models is needed. PMID:24814830

  2. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among Childbearing Age Women in India: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Jamie M.; Tang, Gong; Haggerty, Catherine L.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) can lead to reproductive sequelae. Information on the general population of childbearing age women in India is sparse. We reviewed the literature on CT prevalence within the general population of reproductive aged women in order to improve the efforts of public health screening programs and interventions. Objective. To conduct a literature review to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among childbearing age women in India. Search Strategy. Ovid Medline and PubMed databases were searched for articles from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2014. Search terms included “Chlamydia trachomatis”, “CT”, “prevalence”, “India”, and “sexually transmitted infections”. Selection Criteria. Studies on prevalence data for CT among women of childbearing age (15–45) living in India were included. Data Collection and Analysis. Articles that met the inclusion criteria were extracted by two readers and discrepancies solved through discussion. Results. Reported prevalence of active CT infection among lower risk groups ranged from 0.1% to 1.1% and in higher risk group from 2.7% to 28.5%. Conclusion. CT prevalence among women in India is comparable to other countries. Screening programs to prevent adverse outcomes among Indian women of childbearing age and their offspring are warranted. PMID:27672303

  3. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among Childbearing Age Women in India: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Jamie M.; Tang, Gong; Haggerty, Catherine L.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) can lead to reproductive sequelae. Information on the general population of childbearing age women in India is sparse. We reviewed the literature on CT prevalence within the general population of reproductive aged women in order to improve the efforts of public health screening programs and interventions. Objective. To conduct a literature review to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among childbearing age women in India. Search Strategy. Ovid Medline and PubMed databases were searched for articles from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2014. Search terms included “Chlamydia trachomatis”, “CT”, “prevalence”, “India”, and “sexually transmitted infections”. Selection Criteria. Studies on prevalence data for CT among women of childbearing age (15–45) living in India were included. Data Collection and Analysis. Articles that met the inclusion criteria were extracted by two readers and discrepancies solved through discussion. Results. Reported prevalence of active CT infection among lower risk groups ranged from 0.1% to 1.1% and in higher risk group from 2.7% to 28.5%. Conclusion. CT prevalence among women in India is comparable to other countries. Screening programs to prevent adverse outcomes among Indian women of childbearing age and their offspring are warranted.

  4. Aging and Sexual Orientation: A 25-Year Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.; Muraco, Anna

    2013-01-01

    In a review of 58 articles published between 1984 and 2008, this article synthesizes the recent state of social research on older lesbian, gay male, and bisexual adults in order to summarize existing knowledge about these groups, to guide future research on aging, and to identify the substantive issues affecting their lives. Based on a life-course perspective, the primary research domains identified include the interplay of lives and historical times and linked and interdependent lives. After reviewing the literature in each of these areas, the article presents an examination of the strengths and limitations of the body of knowledge and an outline of a blueprint for future research. PMID:24098063

  5. 76 FR 74041 - Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-30

    ...., investigation, administrative review, new shipper review or changed circumstances review). For any company..., acquisitions of new companies or facilities, or changes to their official company name \\2\\, should timely file... the applicable starting time. Notice of No Sales If a producer or exporter named in this notice...

  6. 76 FR 33334 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of Nine Species...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ..., 1990 (55 heterodon. MA, NH, NJ, NY, FR 9447). NC, PA, VT, VA). PLANTS Swamp pink Helonias bullata... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of 5- Year Reviews of Nine Species: Purple Bean, Clubshell, Roanoke Logperch, Swamp Pink, Northern Riffleshell,...

  7. 76 FR 67761 - Certain Light-Emitting Diodes and Products Containing Same Determination Not To Review an Initial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... (collectively, ``LG''). 76 FR 54254 (August 31, 2011). The complaint alleged violations of section 337 based... COMMISSION Certain Light-Emitting Diodes and Products Containing Same Determination Not To Review an Initial... States after importation of certain light emitting diodes and products containing same by reason...

  8. 77 FR 71200 - Submission for Review: Initial Certification of Full-Time School Attendance, RI 25-41

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ... June 4, 2012 at Volume 77 FR 33007 allowing for a 60-day public comment period. No comments were... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Initial Certification of Full-Time School Attendance, RI 25-41 AGENCY: U.S... Full-Time School Attendance. As required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, (Pub. L. 104-13, 44...

  9. 75 FR 7284 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces...

  10. 75 FR 34459 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG) Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following meeting of the...

  11. 76 FR 69318 - Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Initiation of a Review: Designation of the Republic of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Initiation of a Review: Designation of the.../trade-topics/trade-development/preference-programs/generalized-system-preference-gsp/gsp-program-inf... Representative for the Generalized System of Preferences, Office of the U.S. Trade Representative. BILLING...

  12. 75 FR 5764 - Honey from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Antidumping Duty Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... at Less Than Fair Value and Antidumping Duty Order; Honey from the People's Republic of China, 66 FR... International Trade Administration Honey from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper... determined that two requests for new shipper reviews (``NSRs'') of the antidumping duty order on honey...

  13. 19 CFR 210.43 - Petitions for review of initial determinations on matters other than temporary relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Petitions for review of initial determinations on matters other than temporary relief. 210.43 Section 210.43 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Determinations and Actions Taken § 210.43...

  14. Regulatory instrument review: Aging management of LWR cables, containment and basemat, reactor coolant pumps, and motor-operated valves

    SciTech Connect

    Werry, E.V.; Somasundaram, S.

    1995-09-01

    The results of Stage 2 of the Regulatory Instrument Review are presented in this volume. Selected regulatory instruments, such as the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Regulatory Guides, and ASME Codes, were investigated to determine the extent to which these regulations apply aging management to selected safety-related components in nuclear power plants. The Regulatory Instrument Review was funded by the NRC under the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program. Stage 2 of the review focused on four safety-related structures and components; namely, cables, containment and basemat, reactor coolant pumps, and motor-operated valves. The review suggests that the primary-emphasis of the regulatory instruments was on the design, construction, start-up, and operation of a nuclear power plant, and that aging issues were primarily addressed after an aging-related problem was recognized. This Stage 2 review confirms the results of the prior review; (see Regulatory Instrument Review: Management of Aging of LWR Major Safety-Related Components NUREG/CR-5490. The observations indicate that the regulations generally address management of age-related degradation indirectly. Specific age-related degradation phenomena frequently are dealt with in bulletins and notices or through generic issues, letters, etc. The major recommendation of this report, therefore, is that the regulatory instruments should more directly and explicitly address the aging phenomenon and the management of the age-related degradation process.

  15. Botanical extracts as anti-aging preparations for the skin: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Katherine J; Hung, Shao Kang; Ernst, Edzard

    2010-12-01

    Although topical creams and other anti-aging products purport to reduce the appearance of aging and skin wrinkling, there has been no critical analysis in the scientific literature of their effectiveness. This systematic review critically evaluates the evidence for the effectiveness or efficacy of botanical treatments in reducing skin aging and wrinkling. MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL®, CENTRAL and AMED databases were searched from their inception until October 2009. Reference lists of retrieved articles were hand-searched. Manufacturers and professional associations were contacted in order to identify further non-published studies. No language restrictions were applied. Only randomized clinical trials or controlled clinical trials assessing the effectiveness of botanical extracts in reducing wrinkling and aging of the skin were included. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers and methodological quality was assessed using the Jadad score and key aspects of the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Of 36 potentially relevant studies, 11 trials of botanical extracts for reducing skin wrinkling and the appearance of aging met all the inclusion criteria. No trials were identified following contact with anti-aging and cosmetic organizations, companies and professional bodies. A significant reduction in skin wrinkling was noted for date kernel extract, cork extract, soy extract, Rosaceae and peony extract. No significant reduction was noted for green tea, Vitaphenol® (a combination of green and white teas, mangosteen and pomegranate extract) or maca root. All trials were of poor methodological quality. Adverse effects were frequently not reported. In summary, there is some weak evidence to suggest that several botanical extracts may be effective in reducing the appearance of skin aging but no evidence that this effect is enduring. Independent replications with larger, more diverse samples, longer treatment durations and more rigorous study designs are required to validate

  16. Screening for developmental delay among children aged 1-4 years: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Rachel; Kenny, Meghan; Bennett, Teresa; Fitzpatrick-Lewis, Donna; Ali, Muhammad Usman; Sherifali, Diana; Raina, Parminder

    2016-01-01

    Background: Existing guidelines on screening children less than 5 years of age for developmental delay vary. In this systematic review, we synthesized the literature on the effectiveness and harms of screening for developmental delay in asymptomatic children aged 1-4 years. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and PsychINFO for relevant articles published to June 16, 2015. We identified studies that included children aged 1-4 years who were not at high risk of developmental delay, screened in a primary care setting. Randomized trials and controlled cohort studies were considered for benefits (cognitive, academic and functional outcomes); no restrictions on study design were imposed for the review of harms. Results: Two studies were included. One used the Ages and Stages Questionnaire II for screening and reported significantly more referrals to early intervention in the intervention groups than in the control group (relative risk [RR] 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49-2.54, in the intervention group with office support and RR 1.71, 95% CI 1.30-2.25, in the intervention group without office support). The time to referral was 70% shorter in the intervention group with office support (rate ratio 0.30, 95% CI 0.19-0.48) and 64% shorter in the intervention group without office support (rate ratio 0.36, 95% CI 0.23-0.59), compared with the control group. The other study used the VroegTijdige Onderkenning Ontwikkelingsstoornissen Language Screening instrument to screen children aged 15 months at enrolment for language delay. It reported no differences between groups in academic performance outcomes at age 8 years. Interpretation: The evidence on screening for developmental delay in asymptomatic children aged 1-4 years is inconclusive. Further research with longer-term outcomes is needed to inform decisions about screening and screening intervals. PMID:27226967

  17. Botanical extracts as anti-aging preparations for the skin: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Katherine J; Hung, Shao Kang; Ernst, Edzard

    2010-12-01

    Although topical creams and other anti-aging products purport to reduce the appearance of aging and skin wrinkling, there has been no critical analysis in the scientific literature of their effectiveness. This systematic review critically evaluates the evidence for the effectiveness or efficacy of botanical treatments in reducing skin aging and wrinkling. MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL®, CENTRAL and AMED databases were searched from their inception until October 2009. Reference lists of retrieved articles were hand-searched. Manufacturers and professional associations were contacted in order to identify further non-published studies. No language restrictions were applied. Only randomized clinical trials or controlled clinical trials assessing the effectiveness of botanical extracts in reducing wrinkling and aging of the skin were included. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers and methodological quality was assessed using the Jadad score and key aspects of the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Of 36 potentially relevant studies, 11 trials of botanical extracts for reducing skin wrinkling and the appearance of aging met all the inclusion criteria. No trials were identified following contact with anti-aging and cosmetic organizations, companies and professional bodies. A significant reduction in skin wrinkling was noted for date kernel extract, cork extract, soy extract, Rosaceae and peony extract. No significant reduction was noted for green tea, Vitaphenol® (a combination of green and white teas, mangosteen and pomegranate extract) or maca root. All trials were of poor methodological quality. Adverse effects were frequently not reported. In summary, there is some weak evidence to suggest that several botanical extracts may be effective in reducing the appearance of skin aging but no evidence that this effect is enduring. Independent replications with larger, more diverse samples, longer treatment durations and more rigorous study designs are required to validate

  18. Assistive technologies for ageing populations in six low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Marasinghe, Keshini Madara; Lapitan, Jostacio Moreno; Ross, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Despite the benefits derived from the use of assistive technologies (AT), some parts of the world have minimal or no access to AT. In many low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC), only 5–15% of people who require AT have access to them. Rapid demographic changes will exacerbate this situation as populations over 60 years of age, as well as functional limitations among older populations, in LMIC are expected to be higher than in high-income countries in the coming years. Given both these trends, AT are likely to be in high demand and provide many benefits to respond to challenges related to healthy and productive ageing. Multiple databases were searched for English literature. Three groups of keywords were combined: those relating to AT, ageing population and LMIC selected for this study, namely Brazil, Cambodia, Egypt, India, Turkey and Zimbabwe. These countries are expected to see the most rapid growth in the 65 and above population in the coming years. Results indicate that all countries had AT designed for older adults with existing impairment and disability, but had limited AT that are designed to prevent impairment and disability among older adults who do not currently have any disabilities. All countries have ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The findings conclude that AT for ageing populations have received some attention in LMIC as attested by the limited literature results. Analysis of review findings indicate the need for a comprehensive, integrated health and social system approach to increase the current availability of AT for ageing populations in LMIC. These would entail, yet not be limited to, work on: (1) promoting initiatives for low-cost AT; (2) awareness raising and capacity building on AT; (3) bridging the gap between AT policy and practice; and (4) fostering targeted research on AT. PMID:26688747

  19. Television viewing and age at smoking initiation: does a relationship exist between higher levels of television viewing and earlier onset of smoking?

    PubMed

    Gutschoven, Klaas; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2005-06-01

    This cross-sectional study of children assessed the association between television viewing and age at smoking initiation, using self-reports administered by research assistants in schools. Participants were 909 students in their first and fourth years of secondary education in a random sample of 15 secondary schools in Flanders, Belgium, who had smoked at least one cigarette. The main outcome measure was age at smoking initiation. The independent variable was weekly television viewing volume. Gender, educational level, parental smoking, and peer smoking were the control variables. The relationship between television viewing and age at smoking initiation was significant. Higher levels of television viewing were related to earlier onset of smoking behavior in adolescents. The relationship of television viewing with age at smoking initiation was stronger than that of peer smoking, parental smoking, and gender. For each hour of television viewing per day, the average smoking initiation age decreased by 60 days. Heavier television viewers start smoking at an earlier age. Two possible explanations for this relationship are suggested. Social learning theory suggests that actors and actresses serve as behavioral role models for heavy viewers. Cultivation theory suggests that exposure to positive messages influences smoking attitudes. Further research should examine whether the relationship is causal and whether television acts as a provider of smoking role models or whether it influences smoking attitudes. PMID:16085505

  20. Associations between age-related nuclear cataract and lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet and serum in the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS), an ancillary study of the Women’s Health Initiative

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet and serum and prevalence of age-related nuclear cataract in older women. Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study participants aged 50 y+, at 3 sites, who reported high (above the 78th percentile...

  1. Age at Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation Predicts Immune Recovery, Death, and Loss to Follow-Up Among HIV-Infected Adults in Urban Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Jessica; Mwale, Jonas; Marx, Melissa A.; Goma, Fastone M.; Mulenga, Lloyd B.; Stringer, Jeffrey S.A.; Eron, Joseph J.; Chi, Benjamin H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We analyzed the association of age at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation with CD4+ T cell count recovery, death, and loss to follow-up (LTFU) among HIV-infected adults in Zambia. We compared baseline characteristics of patients by sex and age at ART initiation [categorized as 16–29 years, 30–39 years, 40–49 years, 50–59 years, and 60 years and older]. We used the medication possession ratio to assess adherence and analysis of covariance to measure the adjusted change in CD4+ T cell count during ART. Using Cox proportional hazard regression, we examined the association of age with death and LTFU. In a secondary analysis, we repeated models with age as a continuous variable. Among 92,130 HIV-infected adults who initiated ART, the median age was 34 years and 6,281 (6.8%) were aged ≥50 years. Compared with 16–29 year olds, 40–49 year olds (–46 cells/mm3), 50–59 year olds (–53 cells/mm3), and 60+ year olds (–60 cells/mm3) had reduced CD4+ T cell gains during ART. The adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) for death was increased for individuals aged ≥40 years (AHR 1.25 for 40–49 year olds, 1.56 for 50–59 year olds, and 2.97 for 60+ year olds). Adherence and retention in care were poorest among 16–29 year olds but similar in other groups. As a continuous variable, a 5-year increase in age predicted reduced CD4+ T cell count recovery and increased risk of death. Increased age at ART initiation was associated with poorer clinical outcomes, while age <30 years was associated with a higher likelihood of being lost to follow-up. HIV treatment guidelines should consider age-specific recommendations. PMID:24998881

  2. Younger age at initiation of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination series is associated with higher rates of on-time completion.

    PubMed

    St Sauver, Jennifer L; Rutten, Lila J Finney; Ebbert, Jon O; Jacobson, Debra J; McGree, Michaela E; Jacobson, Robert M

    2016-08-01

    Vaccination rates for human papillomavirus (HPV) have remained disappointingly low. It is critical to identify methods to increase on-time vaccine series completion rates (before 13 or 15years). To determine whether younger age (9 to 10years of age) at HPV vaccine series initiation was associated with improved on-time completion rates compared to initiation at 11 to 12years, we examined the prevalence of on-time HPV vaccine series completion rates from August 2006 through December 2012 in a large, population-based cohort of children and adolescents (aged 9.5 to 27years) residing in Olmsted County, MN on December 31, 2012 (n=36,223). We compared age at vaccine initiation between individuals who successfully completed both 2 and 3 doses of the vaccination series on-time (before age 13.5 or 15.0years) using multivariate logistic regression. On-time completion of both 2 and 3 doses of the vaccine series by age 13.5 or 15.0years was significantly associated with initiation at 9 to 10years as compared to 11 to 12years after adjusting for sex, race, insurance status, frequent health care visits, and year of first vaccination (all p<.01). Interventions focused on beginning the vaccination series at 9 to 10years of age may result in higher rates of timely series completion.

  3. Impact of Age and Sex on CD4+ Cell Count Trajectories following Treatment Initiation: An Analysis of the Tanzanian HIV Treatment Database

    PubMed Central

    Means, Arianna R.; Risher, Kathryn A.; Ujeneza, Eva L.; Maposa, Innocent; Nondi, Joseph; Bellan, Steven E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective New guidelines recommend that all HIV-infected individuals initiate antiretroviral treatment (ART) immediately following diagnosis. This study describes how immune reconstitution varies by gender and age to help identify poorly reconstituting subgroups and inform targeted testing initiatives. Design Longitudinal data from the outpatient monitoring system of the National AIDS Control Program in Tanzania. Methods An asymptotic nonlinear mixed effects model was fit to post-treatment CD4+ cell count trajectories, allowing for fixed effects of age and sex, and an age by sex interaction. Results Across 220,544 clinic visits from 32,069 HIV-infected patients, age- and sex-specific average CD4+ cell count at ART initiation ranged from 83–136 cells/mm3, long term asymptotic CD4+ cell count ranged from 301–389 cells/mm3, and time to half of maximal CD4+ reconstitution ranged from 3.57–5.68 months. CD4+ cell count at ART initiation and asymptotic CD4+ cell count were 1.28 (95% CI: 1.18–1.40) and 1.25 (95% CI: 1.20–1.31) times higher, respectively, for females compared to males in the youngest age group (19–29 years). Older patients started treatment at higher CD4+ counts but experienced slower CD4+ recovery than younger adults. Treatment initiation at greater CD4+ cell counts was correlated with greater asymptotic CD4+ cell counts within all sex and age groups. Conclusion Older adults should initiate care early in disease progression because total immune reconstitution potential and rate of reconstitution appears to decrease with age. Targeted HIV testing and care linkage remains crucial for patient populations who tend to initiate treatment at lower CD4+ cell counts, including males and younger adults. PMID:27716818

  4. Genetics and age-related macular degeneration: a practical review for the clinician

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Stephen G; Hampton, Blake M; Kovach, Jaclyn L; Brantley, Milam A

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is a complex disease, with both genetic and environmental risk factors interacting in unknown ways. Currently, 52 gene variants within 34 loci have been significantly associated with age-related macular degeneration. Two well-studied major genes are complement factor H (CFH) and age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2). There exist several commercially available tests that are proposed to stratify patients into high-risk and low-risk groups, as well as predict response to nutritional supplementation. However, at present, the bulk of the available peer-reviewed evidence suggests that genetic testing is more useful as a research tool than for clinical management of patients. PMID:27445455

  5. Fingermark age determinations: Legal considerations, review of the literature and practical propositions.

    PubMed

    Girod, A; Ramotowski, R; Lambrechts, S; Misrielal, P; Aalders, M; Weyermann, C

    2016-05-01

    The question of the age of fingermarks is often raised in investigations and trials when suspects admit that they have left their fingermarks at a crime scene but allege that the contact occurred at a different time than the crime and for legal reasons. In the first part of this review article, examples from American appellate court cases will be used to demonstrate that there is a lack of consensus among American courts regarding the admissibility and weight of testimony from expert witnesses who provide opinions about the age of fingermarks. Of course, these issues are not only encountered in America but have also been reported elsewhere, for example in Europe. The disparity in the way fingermark dating cases were managed in these examples is probably due to the fact that no methodology has been validated and accepted by the forensic science community so far. The second part of this review article summarizes the studies reported on fingermark dating in the literature and highlights the fact that most proposed methodologies still suffer from limitations preventing their use in practice. Nevertheless, several approaches based on the evolution of aging parameters detected in fingermark residue over time appear to show promise for the fingermark dating field. Based on these approaches, the definition of a formal methodological framework for fingermark dating cases is proposed in order to produce relevant temporal information. This framework identifies which type of information could and should be obtained about fingermark aging and what developments are still required to scientifically address dating issues.

  6. Weld repair of aged Cr-Mo steel piping -- A review of literature

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, R.; Gandy, D.

    2000-02-01

    Power plant piping operating at elevated temperatures is subject to several types of service aging-related degradation, such as softening, spheroidization, embrittlement, and creep. When cracks are found in these components, weld repair is often employed to ensure continued operation. The efficacy of the weld repairs in terms of extending the life of the aged components has, however, not been documented quantitatively. The Electric Power Research institute (EPRI) has recently undertaken a comprehensive study to evaluate weld repairs performed to aged piping. In connection with this study, results from other worldwide activities have been reviewed, leading to significant conclusions regarding weld repair. this review of results from several worldwide studies has confirmed that aged high-temperature piping can be successfully weld repaired to gain additional lives in excess of several decades. The key aspects of successful weld repair include excavation and removal of all prior creep cavitation damage, elimination of external bending stresses, and implementation of good welding practice. From merely a creep rupture point of view, postweld heat treatment (PWHT) has been concluded to be superfluous by several authors. Temperbead repairs appear to offer a promising alternative to PWHT repairs from a creep, tensile, and toughness standpoint. Choice of the repair process ultimately is dictated by many considerations such as toughness, notch sensitivity, residual stresses and hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility. Several reports suggest that gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) repairs may outperform shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) repairs with or without PWHT.

  7. Fingermark age determinations: Legal considerations, review of the literature and practical propositions.

    PubMed

    Girod, A; Ramotowski, R; Lambrechts, S; Misrielal, P; Aalders, M; Weyermann, C

    2016-05-01

    The question of the age of fingermarks is often raised in investigations and trials when suspects admit that they have left their fingermarks at a crime scene but allege that the contact occurred at a different time than the crime and for legal reasons. In the first part of this review article, examples from American appellate court cases will be used to demonstrate that there is a lack of consensus among American courts regarding the admissibility and weight of testimony from expert witnesses who provide opinions about the age of fingermarks. Of course, these issues are not only encountered in America but have also been reported elsewhere, for example in Europe. The disparity in the way fingermark dating cases were managed in these examples is probably due to the fact that no methodology has been validated and accepted by the forensic science community so far. The second part of this review article summarizes the studies reported on fingermark dating in the literature and highlights the fact that most proposed methodologies still suffer from limitations preventing their use in practice. Nevertheless, several approaches based on the evolution of aging parameters detected in fingermark residue over time appear to show promise for the fingermark dating field. Based on these approaches, the definition of a formal methodological framework for fingermark dating cases is proposed in order to produce relevant temporal information. This framework identifies which type of information could and should be obtained about fingermark aging and what developments are still required to scientifically address dating issues. PMID:27044033

  8. The anorexia of ageing: physiopathology, prevalence, associated comorbidity and mortality. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Malafarina, Vincenzo; Uriz-Otano, Francisco; Gil-Guerrero, Lucía; Iniesta, Raquel

    2013-04-01

    The physiological processes of ageing and factors prevalent in the elderly such as comorbidities and polypharmacy often cause loss of appetite in the elderly, which we call anorexia of ageing. Social factors, together with changes in the sensory organs, can be important causes of a reduction in both appetite and ingestion. This review assesses the regulation of appetite in the elderly and the development of anorexia of ageing. It also examines the prevalence of this type of anorexia, its associated comorbidities and mortality rates. We have reviewed 27 studies, with a total of 6208 patients. These reported changes in the secretion and response of both central and peripheral hormones that regulate appetite. Anorexia, very prevalent among hospitalized and institutionalized elderly people, is associated with comorbidity and represents a predictive factor for mortality. No treatment for it has been proved to be effective. The mechanism regulating ingestion in elderly people is complex and difficult to resolve. Comorbidity as a cause or a consequence of anorexia of ageing has become a research field of great interest in geriatrics. A correct nutritional evaluation is a fundamental part of an integrated geriatric assessment.

  9. 78 FR 52535 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... Japanese Encephalitis Vaccination in Cambodia, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) CK14-001, initial... evaluation of applications received in response to ``Impact of Japanese Encephalitis Vaccination in...

  10. e-Health Interventions for Healthy Aging: A Systematic Review Protocol.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Beogo, Idrissa; Buyl, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    e-Health interventions could contribute to healthy aging (HA) but their effectiveness has not been synthesised. This study aims to systematically review the effectiveness of e-health interventions for supporting HA. We will perform standardized searches to identify experimental and quasi-experimental studies evaluating the effectiveness of e-health interventions for HA. Outcomes of interest are: wellbeing, quality of life, activities of daily living, leisure activities, knowledge, evaluation of care, social support, skill acquisition and healthy behaviours. We will also consider adverse effects such as social isolation, anxiety, and burden on informal caregivers. Two reviewers will independently assess studies for inclusion and extract data using a standardised tool. We will calculate effect sizes related to e-health interventions. If not possible, we will present the findings in a narrative form. This systematic review will provide unique knowledge on the effectiveness of e-health interventions for supporting HA. PMID:27332428

  11. e-Health Interventions for Healthy Aging: A Systematic Review Protocol.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Beogo, Idrissa; Buyl, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    e-Health interventions could contribute to healthy aging (HA) but their effectiveness has not been synthesised. This study aims to systematically review the effectiveness of e-health interventions for supporting HA. We will perform standardized searches to identify experimental and quasi-experimental studies evaluating the effectiveness of e-health interventions for HA. Outcomes of interest are: wellbeing, quality of life, activities of daily living, leisure activities, knowledge, evaluation of care, social support, skill acquisition and healthy behaviours. We will also consider adverse effects such as social isolation, anxiety, and burden on informal caregivers. Two reviewers will independently assess studies for inclusion and extract data using a standardised tool. We will calculate effect sizes related to e-health interventions. If not possible, we will present the findings in a narrative form. This systematic review will provide unique knowledge on the effectiveness of e-health interventions for supporting HA.

  12. Electrodeposition and isothermal aging of Co and Mn layers on stainless steel for interconnectors: Initial stages of spinel phase formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, R.; Carmezim, M. J.; Montemor, M. F.

    2014-06-01

    Electrodeposited Co and Mn spinel phase oxides for application as coatings for metallic interconnectors in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells were prepared. The study aims at understanding the initial stages of transformation of the metallic layers into the spinel phase. Co and Mn metallic layers were sequentially deposited over AISI 430 stainless steel substrate from acidic sulfate solutions and annealed in oxidizing and inert atmospheres between 600 °C and 800 °C. The coatings obtained showed a thickness above 20 μm. After 1 h of isothermal aging the coatings were composed of layers of un-reacted metallic elements and Mn based oxides. The spinel phase was studied by XRD and revealed Mn based tetragonal structure Mn3O4 with Co in solid solution and a non-determined Co/Mn ratio. According to EDS measurements this ratio should vary with depth. Full conversion was not obtained at these time frames with the presence other Mn oxides (MnO and Mn2O3). In inert atmosphere, the allotropic Mn transformation from α to β phase was detected. No outward diffusion of Cr was detected, due to the short exposure times.

  13. Results & Lessons Learned from 1:1 Laptop Initiatives: A Collective Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb, Lori B.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last ten years, the emergence of 1:1 programs has grown increasingly in popularity. More and more schools are implementing 1:1 programs as a means for increasing student achievement and performance. In fact, few modern educational initiatives have been as widespread and costly as the integration of laptop initiatives into education. As a…

  14. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "Philadelphia's Renaissance Schools Initiative: 18 Month Interim Report"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of Philadelphia's Renaissance Schools Initiative after one year of implementation. The Renaissance Schools Initiative, which began in the 2010-11 school year, aimed at improving low-performing schools by providing new management, additional resources, and new educational strategies. The study reported that…

  15. 77 FR 50556 - Correction: Fresh Tomatoes From Mexico: Notice of Initiation of Changed Circumstances Review and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... International Trade Administration Correction: Fresh Tomatoes From Mexico: Notice of Initiation of Changed... Department of Commerce (the Department) issued Tomatoes from Mexico: Notice of Initiation of Changed... Suspended Investigation.'' Thus, the title of the notice should have read ``Fresh Tomatoes from...

  16. 77 FR 85 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... Flat (202) 482-139. Products (3rd Review). A-580-816 731-TA-618 South Korea Corrosion-Resistant David Goldberger Carbon Steel Flat (202) 482-4136. Products (3rd Review). C-580-818 701-TA-350 South Korea... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders, 63 FR 13516 (March 20, 1998) and 70 FR 62061 (October 28,...

  17. 75 FR 53664 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... South Korea Polyethylene Dana Mermelstein, (202) 482-1391. Terephthalate (PET) Film (3rd Review). A-588... Review). A-580-813 731-TA-563 South Korea Stainless Steel Dana Mermelstein, (202) 492-1391. Butt-Weld... Countervailing Duty Orders, 63 FR 13516 (March 20, 1998) and 70 FR 62061 (October 28, 2005). Guidance...

  18. 75 FR 67685 - Notice of Initiation and Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... Steel Wire Rod From Mexico, 70 FR 25809 (May 16, 2005); see also Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review: Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico, 71 FR 27989 (May 15... of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 57 FR 20460, 20462 (May 13, 1992) and Certain...

  19. 75 FR 60731 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders, 63 FR 13516 (March 20, 1998) and 70 FR 62061 (October 28, 2005... (``Sunset'') Reviews of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders: Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16... Porcelain-on-Steel Jennifer Moats Cooking Ware (3rd (202) 482-5047. Review). A-570-855 731-TA-841 PRC...

  20. 76 FR 21748 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... review.'' Contact Person for More Information: Lata Kumar, M.B.A., M.P.H., Scientific Review Officer... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and Date: 12 p.m.-4 p.m... 4163-18-P...

  1. 77 FR 25485 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... review.'' Contact Person for More Information: Donald Blackman, Ph.D., M.P.H., Scientific Review Officer... and Date: 8:30 a.m.-5:00 p.m., May 15, 2012 (Closed). Place: The Georgian Terrace Hotel, 659 Peachtree... Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. BILLING CODE 4163-18-P...

  2. 76 FR 21749 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... review.'' Contact Person for More Information: Lata Kumar, M.B.A., M.P.H., Scientific Review Officer... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and Date: 12 p.m.-4 p.m... 4163-18-P...

  3. The role of social networks and media receptivity in predicting age of smoking initiation: a proportional hazards model of risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Unger, J B; Chen, X

    1999-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of adolescent smoking demonstrates the need to identify factors associated with early smoking initiation. Previous studies have shown that smoking by social network members and receptivity to pro-tobacco marketing are associated with smoking among adolescents. It is not clear, however, whether these variables also are associated with the age of smoking initiation. Using data from 10,030 California adolescents, this study identified significant correlates of age of smoking initiation using bivariate methods and a multivariate proportional hazards model. Age of smoking initiation was earlier among those adolescents whose friends, siblings, or parents were smokers, and among those adolescents who had a favorite tobacco advertisement, had received tobacco promotional items, or would be willing to use tobacco promotional items. Results suggest that the smoking behavior of social network members and pro-tobacco media influences are important determinants of age of smoking initiation. Because early smoking initiation is associated with higher levels of addiction in adulthood, tobacco control programs should attempt to counter these influences. PMID:10400276

  4. Systematic review and meta-analysis of age at menarche and risk of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Janghorbani, Mohsen; Mansourian, Marjan; Hosseini, Elham

    2014-08-01

    The relation of early menarche with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains inconsistent across studies. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis of published population-based observational studies was to assess the association between age at menarche and T2DM risk. We searched online data bases through December 2013 and examined the reference lists of pertinent articles. Summary relative risks (RRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with a random-effects model. A total of 14 effect estimates from 10 eligible studies (three cross-sectional and seven cohort studies) included 315,428 participants and 22,085 cases of T2DM. Compared with the highest or middle category, women in the lowest category of age at menarche had higher risk of T2DM [summary RR (95 % CI) 1.22 (1.17, 1.28)]. These results were consistent between studies that conducted in the United States and in Europe. The association between age at menarche and T2DM was slightly stronger for cohort than for cross-sectional studies. These findings strongly support an association between younger age at menarche and increased risk of T2DM. Age at menarche may help identify women with increased risk of developing T2DM. PMID:24671509

  5. Ageism and age discrimination in health care: Fact or fiction? A narrative review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kydd, Angela; Fleming, Anne

    2015-08-01

    Ageism and age discrimination are terms used in best practice statements and in the literature to define negative attitudes towards older people and towards people because of their age (whether old or young). However, 'old age' is a nebulous concept with definitions ranging from the over 50s to the over 85s. In seeking to explore ageism and age discrimination within health care, this paper discusses the concept of 'old' and discusses the findings of a narrative review of the literature on these two concepts. Results show that negative attitudes have been perceived by users of health care services, but the reasons are not clear. Such attitudes are usually reported in acute health care settings, where targets and quick turnover are encouraged. Thus people, usually those with complex needs, who require longer periods of recuperation and rehabilitation following an episode of ill health, are troublesome to staff working in a system geared up for early discharges. This type of service user is usually over the age of 85. Recommendations from this paper include the need for acute frailty units, with well trained staff, where frail older people can be comprehensively assessed, receive timely and targeted care, followed by a supported discharge.

  6. Effects of Age and Initial Risk Perception on Balloon Analog Risk Task: The Mediating Role of Processing Speed and Need for Cognitive Closure

    PubMed Central

    Koscielniak, Maciej; Rydzewska, Klara; Sedek, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    According to the dual-process theoretical perspective adopted in the presented research, the efficiency of deliberative processes in decision making declines with age, but experiential processes are relatively well-preserved. The age-related differences in deliberative and experiential processes in risky decision-making were examined in this research by applying the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART). We analyzed the influence of age on risk acceptance and decision-making performance in two age groups of female participants (younger adults, n = 81; older adults, n = 76), with additional experimental manipulation of initial risk perception. We predicted and confirmed that aging significantly worsens performance on the behavioral BART measures due to age-related decline in deliberative processes. Older participants were found to exhibit significantly higher risk aversion and lower BART performance, and the effect of age was mediated by cognitive (processing speed) and motivational (need for cognitive closure) mechanisms. Moreover, older adults adapt to the initial failure (vs. success) similarly, as younger adults due to preserved efficiency of experiential processes. These results suggest future directions for minimizing negative effects of aging in risky decision-making and indicate compensatory processes, which are preserved during aging. PMID:27199877

  7. Effects of Age and Initial Risk Perception on Balloon Analog Risk Task: The Mediating Role of Processing Speed and Need for Cognitive Closure.

    PubMed

    Koscielniak, Maciej; Rydzewska, Klara; Sedek, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    According to the dual-process theoretical perspective adopted in the presented research, the efficiency of deliberative processes in decision making declines with age, but experiential processes are relatively well-preserved. The age-related differences in deliberative and experiential processes in risky decision-making were examined in this research by applying the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART). We analyzed the influence of age on risk acceptance and decision-making performance in two age groups of female participants (younger adults, n = 81; older adults, n = 76), with additional experimental manipulation of initial risk perception. We predicted and confirmed that aging significantly worsens performance on the behavioral BART measures due to age-related decline in deliberative processes. Older participants were found to exhibit significantly higher risk aversion and lower BART performance, and the effect of age was mediated by cognitive (processing speed) and motivational (need for cognitive closure) mechanisms. Moreover, older adults adapt to the initial failure (vs. success) similarly, as younger adults due to preserved efficiency of experiential processes. These results suggest future directions for minimizing negative effects of aging in risky decision-making and indicate compensatory processes, which are preserved during aging. PMID:27199877

  8. Progress in Modeling Pu Properties and Aging - ESC Review, March 19-23, 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfer, W G; Caturla, M; Kubota, A; Quong, A; Sadigh, B; Sterne, P; Surh, M; Schaldach, C; Wirth, B

    2001-03-29

    An important component of the Pu aging programs both here at LLNL and at LANL is the development of models for the aging processes. These models will, in the foreseeable future, be validated with more and more data from different experiments, and eventually enable us to predict the lifetime of pits. The processes of aging from within the material are mainly caused by the radioactive decay of Pu, and this produces three drivers for changes in properties: (1) Radiation damage in the form of displacements, of defects, of dislocations, and voids. (2) Helium will aggregate in the form of bubbles and cavities. (3) Uranium, Americium, and Neptunium will change the chemical composition and perhaps the phase stability. All the three drivers act synergistically, no doubt. But it is useful to approach the complexity of Pu aging with the strategy of ''first divide, conquer, and then unify''. In this spirit, we have divided the program into three major task areas with individual subtasks to be conquered by various researchers. The subtasks and staffing has changed somewhat from last year, and this is indicated on the viewgraph by underlines. Undoubtedly, it will change in the future, but the objectives of the major tasks and of the entire project will not change until the mission as stated at the beginning will have been accomplished. As you see from the third task, there is a strong emphasis on providing theoretical and computational support for critical, fundamental experiments. Before reviewing the progress made last year for the various tasks, let me briefly state what the physical properties are that we monitor for signs of aging. Prominent is the change in density and microstructure, and its effects on strength and EOS. You will hear little if anything at all about the latter two properties, but work is in progress on these issues, and the review committee will hear about it at the next review. For this review, I want to concentrate on dimensional changes and the

  9. A Systematic Review of Individual and Contextual Factors Affecting ART Initiation, Adherence, and Retention for HIV-Infected Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Ian; Plummer, Mary L.; Konopka, Sarah N.; Colvin, Christopher J.; Jonas, Edna; Albertini, Jennifer; Amzel, Anouk; Fogg, Karen P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite progress reducing maternal mortality, HIV-related maternal deaths remain high, accounting, for example, for up to 24 percent of all pregnancy-related deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is effective in improving outcomes among HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women, yet rates of initiation, adherence, and retention remain low. This systematic literature review synthesized evidence about individual and contextual factors affecting ART use among HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women. Methods Searches were conducted for studies addressing the population (HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women), intervention (ART), and outcomes of interest (initiation, adherence, and retention). Quantitative and qualitative studies published in English since January 2008 were included. Individual and contextual enablers and barriers to ART use were extracted and organized thematically within a framework of individual, interpersonal, community, and structural categories. Results Thirty-four studies were included in the review. Individual-level factors included both those within and outside a woman’s awareness and control (e.g., commitment to child’s health or age). Individual-level barriers included poor understanding of HIV, ART, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission, and difficulty managing practical demands of ART. At an interpersonal level, disclosure to a spouse and spousal involvement in treatment were associated with improved initiation, adherence, and retention. Fear of negative consequences was a barrier to disclosure. At a community level, stigma was a major barrier. Key structural barriers and enablers were related to health system use and engagement, including access to services and health worker attitudes. Conclusions To be successful, programs seeking to expand access to and continued use of ART by integrating maternal health and HIV services must identify and address the relevant barriers and enablers in

  10. 47 CFR 1.276 - Appeal and review of initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... date on which public release of the full text of an initial decision is made, or such other time as the... release of the full text thereof is made unless otherwise ordered by the Commission. The timely filing...

  11. 47 CFR 1.276 - Appeal and review of initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... date on which public release of the full text of an initial decision is made, or such other time as the... release of the full text thereof is made unless otherwise ordered by the Commission. The timely filing...

  12. 47 CFR 1.276 - Appeal and review of initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... date on which public release of the full text of an initial decision is made, or such other time as the... release of the full text thereof is made unless otherwise ordered by the Commission. The timely filing...

  13. The evolution of aging phenotypes in snakes: a review and synthesis with new data

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Reptiles are underutilized vertebrate models in the study of the evolution and persistence of senescence. Their unique physiology, indeterminate growth, and increasing fecundity across the adult female lifespan motivate the study of how physiology at the mechanistic level, life history at the organismal level, and natural selection at the evolutionary timescale define lifespan in this diverse taxonomic group. Reviewed here are, first, comparative results of cellular metabolic studies conducted across a range of colubrid snake species with variable lifespan. New results on the efficiency of DNA repair in these species are synthesized with the cellular studies. Second, detailed studies of the ecology, life history, and cellular physiology are reviewed for one colubrid species with either short or long lifespan (Thamnophis elegans). New results on the rate of telomere shortening with age in this species are synthesized with previous research. The comparative and intraspecific studies both yield results that species with longer lifespans have underlying cellular physiologies support the free-radical/repair mechanistic hypothesis for aging. As well, both underscore the importance of mortality environment for the evolution of aging rate. PMID:19424866

  14. 75 FR 17411 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Women's Health Initiative Observational Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... days for public comment. Two comments were received and appropriate responses were given. The purpose... women and relating subsequent disease development to baseline assessments of historical, physical... population of aging women. Frequency of Response: Annually. Affected Public: Individuals and physicians....

  15. 77 FR 20822 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... Person for More Information: Jane Suen, Dr.P.H., M.S., Scientific Review Officer, CDC, 4770 Buford... aforementioned meeting: Time and Date: 12 p.m.-3 p.m., April 26, 2012 (Closed). Place: Teleconference....

  16. 34 CFR 222.158 - What procedures apply to the Secretary's review of an initial decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT AID PROGRAMS Impact Aid Administrative Hearings and Judicial Review Under Section 8011 of the Act § 222.158...

  17. 77 FR 82 - Correction to Initiation of 2010-2011 Antidumping Duty Administrative Review: Narrow Woven...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 67133, 67138 (Oct. 31, 2011). The period of review is September 1...: Hector Rodriguez or Holly Phelps, AD/ CVD Operations, Office 2, Import Administration,...

  18. 76 FR 24890 - National Institute on Aging; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Aging; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Institute on Aging Initial Review Group, Biological Aging Review Committee. Date: June 1..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Institute on Aging, Gateway...

  19. The Prognostic Value of Age, Sex, and Subsite in Cutaneous Head and Neck Melanoma: A Clinical Review of Recent Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kadakia, Sameep; Chan, David; Mourad, Moustafa; Ducic, Yadranko

    2016-01-01

    Context Cutaneous head and neck melanoma is a challenging disease owing to its aggressive nature and often times advanced stage at presentation. Age, sex, and subsite are three prognostic indicators which can be determined prior to treatment or testing, and can allow the practitioner to counsel the patient before initiating therapy. Evidence Acquisition A PubMed search was conducted utilizing various terms relating to the subject matter. Articles over the past 25 years were analyzed and appropriately selected for review. Results It appears that patients older than 65 have a decreased overall 5 year survival compared to their younger counterparts. Male patients have poorer prognosis compared to female patients as noted by the decreased overall survival, decreased disease specific survival, and shorter time to distant metastasis. Scalp subsite was most uniformly accepted as having the worst prognosis in the head and neck, and may even serve as an independent prognostic indicator. Conclusions Advanced age, male sex, and scalp subsite all portend poor prognosis in patients with cutaneous head and neck melanoma. PMID:27703647

  20. Changing Aging Competency Following a GeroRich Intervention Initiative: Implications for Bachelor's and Master's Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Theresa A.; Nelson-Becker, Holly; Chapin, Rosemary K.; Landry, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    This article reports an evaluation of a GeroRich effort to increase age-specific content throughout bachelor and master-level social work curricula. A total of 426 students (128 BSWs and 298 MSWs) completed pre and posttests in 2004-2005, self-rating their aging competency using the Social Work with Aging Skill Competency Scale II (New York…

  1. A Multi-Perspective Exploration of a Cross-Age Tutoring Initiative: An Analysis of the Responses of All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillies, Ann

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study assessed the effectiveness of a cross-age tutoring intervention on adaptive behavior goals of three PreKindergarten/Kindergarten-aged students with labels of autism spectrum disorder. Data were collected in an inclusive environment; the school library. Three fourth grade general education cross-age tutors were trained to use…

  2. On the particular vulnerability of face recognition to aging: a review of three hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    Boutet, Isabelle; Taler, Vanessa; Collin, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Age-related face recognition deficits are characterized by high false alarms to unfamiliar faces, are not as pronounced for other complex stimuli, and are only partially related to general age-related impairments in cognition. This paper reviews some of the underlying processes likely to be implicated in theses deficits by focusing on areas where contradictions abound as a means to highlight avenues for future research. Research pertaining to the three following hypotheses is presented: (i) perceptual deterioration, (ii) encoding of configural information, and (iii) difficulties in recollecting contextual information. The evidence surveyed provides support for the idea that all three factors are likely to contribute, under certain conditions, to the deficits in face recognition seen in older adults. We discuss how these different factors might interact in the context of a generic framework of the different stages implicated in face recognition. Several suggestions for future investigations are outlined. PMID:26347670

  3. Skin infections in young people (aged 14-18 years): an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Lambe, Catherine I; Hoare, Karen J

    2014-06-01

    Skin infections are a major cause of preventable hospitalization, with young people being particularly susceptible. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infection typically presents as skin infection. CA-MRSA infection rates have increased rapidly in the past decade. Exploration of literature specific to young people aged 14-18 years is therefore timely. Integrative review using the methods described by Whittemore and Knafl was undertaken. Electronic databases of Medline, CINAHL, Scopus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Google databases were searched for English-language articles published after 1990. Twenty primary studies were included and the findings are reported here. Data analysis revealed factors influencing skin infections in young people may be host-, transmission-, or pathogen-specific. Strategies to address host and transmission factors may be effective in controlling skin infection rates in young people. PMID:23945044

  4. A scoping review of anorexia of aging correlates and their relevance to population health interventions.

    PubMed

    Roy, Mathieu; Gaudreau, Pierrette; Payette, Hélène

    2016-10-01

    Anorexia of aging (AA, i.e., loss of appetite and/or reduction of food intake with aging) is an important public health issue. It leads to unintentional weight loss, which is an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality among seniors. AA has mainly been studied from a biological perspective and regarded as a normal physiological consequence of aging, rather than a negative health outcome with underlying determinants. Some potentially modifiable correlates have however been found to be associated with this geriatric condition. Here, we conducted a scoping review of the literature to: 1) identify AA correlates, and 2) discuss their relevance to population health interventions. Our results indicate two main categories of AA correlates, namely, physiopathological and non-physiopathological. The first category relates to physiological dysfunctions, pathologies involving (or culminating in) biomarker dysregulation, and polypharmacy. These correlates are difficult to modify, especially through population health interventions. The second category, which contains fewer correlates, includes potentially modifiable public health targets, such as food-related properties, psychological, sociocultural, and environmental issues. We conclude that there are several AA correlates. Some of them are modifiable and could be targeted for development and implementation as appropriate population health interventions to prevent appetite loss and promote maintenance of adequate food intake in aging.

  5. Nuclear and chromatin reorganization during cell senescence and aging - a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong-Myung; Kucia, Magda; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z

    2011-01-01

    Genetic material in the nucleus governs mechanisms related to cell proliferation, differentiation, and function. Thus, senescence and aging are directly tied to the change of nuclear function and structure. The most important mechanisms that affect cell senescence are: (i) telomere shortening; (ii) environmental stress-mediated accumulation of DNA mutations, and (iii) the intrinsically encoded biological clock that dictates lifespan events of any particular cell type. Overall, these changes lead to modification of the expression of genes that are responsible for: (i) organization of the nuclear structure; (ii) integrity of transcriptionally inactive heterochromatin, and (iii) epigenetic modification of chromosomes due to DNA methylation and/or histone modifications. These aging-related nuclear alterations do not only affect somatic cells. More importantly, they affect stem cells, which are responsible for proper tissue rejuvenation. In this review, we focus on epigenetic changes in the chromatin structure and their impact on the biology and function of adult cells as they age. We will also address aging-related changes in a compartment of the most primitive pluripotent stem cells that were recently identified by our team and named 'very small embryonic/epiblast-like stem cells'. PMID:20134149

  6. A scoping review of anorexia of aging correlates and their relevance to population health interventions.

    PubMed

    Roy, Mathieu; Gaudreau, Pierrette; Payette, Hélène

    2016-10-01

    Anorexia of aging (AA, i.e., loss of appetite and/or reduction of food intake with aging) is an important public health issue. It leads to unintentional weight loss, which is an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality among seniors. AA has mainly been studied from a biological perspective and regarded as a normal physiological consequence of aging, rather than a negative health outcome with underlying determinants. Some potentially modifiable correlates have however been found to be associated with this geriatric condition. Here, we conducted a scoping review of the literature to: 1) identify AA correlates, and 2) discuss their relevance to population health interventions. Our results indicate two main categories of AA correlates, namely, physiopathological and non-physiopathological. The first category relates to physiological dysfunctions, pathologies involving (or culminating in) biomarker dysregulation, and polypharmacy. These correlates are difficult to modify, especially through population health interventions. The second category, which contains fewer correlates, includes potentially modifiable public health targets, such as food-related properties, psychological, sociocultural, and environmental issues. We conclude that there are several AA correlates. Some of them are modifiable and could be targeted for development and implementation as appropriate population health interventions to prevent appetite loss and promote maintenance of adequate food intake in aging. PMID:27374898

  7. A systematic review of age, sex, ethnicity, and race as predictors of violent recidivism.

    PubMed

    Piquero, Alex R; Jennings, Wesley G; Diamond, Brie; Reingle, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    Recidivism of released prisoners, especially violent recidivism, is an important policy issue. Equally important is an understanding of how demographic risk factors may act as moderators of recidivism. Knowledge of such relationships is important in developing a deeper theoretical understanding of the risk of recidivism as well as identifying points of intervention that may need to be re-oriented to reduce recidivism. The present study conducts a meta-analytic review of the violent recidivism literature focusing on the role of several demographic risk factors. Findings show that age, sex, and race (Whites) were significantly related to violent recidivism. Implications and directions for future research are identified.

  8. Genetic variants in the complement system predisposing to age-related macular degeneration: a review.

    PubMed

    Schramm, Elizabeth C; Clark, Simon J; Triebwasser, Michael P; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Seddon, Johanna M; Atkinson, John P

    2014-10-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of visual impairment in the western world. It is characterized by the presence of lipoproteinaceous deposits (drusen) in the inner layers of the retina. Immunohistochemistry studies identified deposition of complement proteins in the drusen as well as in the choroid. In the last decade, genetic studies have linked both common and rare variants in genes of the complement system to increased risk of development of AMD. Here, we review the variants described to date and discuss the functional implications of dysregulation of the alternative pathway of complement in AMD.

  9. Initial Report of the Cancer PROMIS Supplement Sexual Function Committee: Review of Sexual Function Measures and Domains Used in Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, Diana D.; Tzeng, Janice P.; Keefe, Francis J.; Porter, Laura S.; Hahn, Elizabeth A.; Flynn, Kathryn E.; Reeve, Bryce B.; Weinfurt, Kevin P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This report describes initial activities of the Cancer Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Sexual Function domain group (CaPS-SF), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Roadmap Initiative to develop brief questionnaires or individually-tailored assessments of quality of life domains. Our literature review of sexual function measures used in cancer populations, and descriptions of domains found in those measures, is presented. Methods Using a consensus-driven approach, an electronic bibliographic search was conducted for articles published 1991-2007, yielding 486 articles for in-depth review. Results A total of 257 articles reported the administration of a psychometrically evaluated sexual function measure to individuals diagnosed with cancer. Apart from the UCLA Prostate Cancer Index, the International Index of Erectile Function, and the Female Sexual Function Index, the 31 identified measures have not been widely tested in cancer populations. Most measures were multidimensional and included domains related to the sexual response cycle and to general sexual satisfaction. Conclusions Our review supports the need for a flexible, psychometrically robust measure of sexual function for use in oncology settings and strongly justifies the development of the PROMIS-SF instrument. After PROMIS-SF is publicly available, cancer clinicians and researchers will have another measure to assess patient-reported sexual function outcomes in addition to the few legacy measures identified through our review. PMID:19195044

  10. Reorganization of brain networks in aging: a review of functional connectivity studies

    PubMed Central

    Sala-Llonch, Roser; Bartrés-Faz, David; Junqué, Carme

    2015-01-01

    Healthy aging (HA) is associated with certain declines in cognitive functions, even in individuals that are free of any process of degenerative illness. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been widely used in order to link this age-related cognitive decline with patterns of altered brain function. A consistent finding in the fMRI literature is that healthy old adults present higher activity levels in some brain regions during the performance of cognitive tasks. This finding is usually interpreted as a compensatory mechanism. More recent approaches have focused on the study of functional connectivity, mainly derived from resting state fMRI, and have concluded that the higher levels of activity coexist with disrupted connectivity. In this review, we aim to provide a state-of-the-art description of the usefulness and the interpretations of functional brain connectivity in the context of HA. We first give a background that includes some basic aspects and methodological issues regarding functional connectivity. We summarize the main findings and the cognitive models that have been derived from task-activity studies, and we then review the findings provided by resting-state functional connectivity in HA. Finally, we suggest some future directions in this field of research. A common finding of the studies included is that older subjects present reduced functional connectivity compared to young adults. This reduced connectivity affects the main brain networks and explains age-related cognitive alterations. Remarkably, the default mode network appears as a highly compromised system in HA. Overall, the scenario given by both activity and connectivity studies also suggests that the trajectory of changes during task may differ from those observed during resting-state. We propose that the use of complex modeling approaches studying effective connectivity may help to understand context-dependent functional reorganizations in the aging process. PMID:26052298

  11. Interventions to Increase Physical Activity in Children Aged 2-5 Years: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jiying; Robbins, Lorraine B; Wen, Fujun; Peng, Wei

    2015-08-01

    Comprehensive evaluation of prior interventions designed to increase preschoolers' physical activity is lacking. This systematic review aimed to examine the effect of interventions on objectively measured physical activity in children aged 2-5 years. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. In May 2014, we searched PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, SPORTDiscus, Cochrane, and Embase. Two reviewers independently identified and appraised the studies. Twenty-four articles describing 23 independent studies and 20 unique interventions met inclusion criteria. Of the 8 interventions resulting in a significant effect in objectively measured physical activity, all were center-based and included a structured physical activity component, 6 included multiple components, 5 integrated theories or models, and 4 actively involved parents. Seven of the 8 were randomized controlled trials. Due to the heterogeneity of the study designs, physical activity measures, and interventions, drawing definitive conclusions was difficult. Although the overall intervention effect was less than optimal, the review indicated that theory-driven, multicomponent interventions including a structured physical activity component and targeting both parents and their children may be a promising approach for increasing preschoolers' physical activity and warrant continued investigation using rigorous designs to identify those that are most effective.

  12. 75 FR 74685 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... Countervailing Duty Orders, 63 FR 13516 (March 20, 1998) and 70 FR 62061 (October 28, 2005). Guidance on... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders: Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16, 1998). Initiation of... Regulations, 75 FR 59611 (Dept. of Treasury, September 28, 2010). While this import ban remains in effect,...

  13. 76 FR 5563 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... Duty Orders, 63 FR 13516 (March 20, 1998) and 70 FR 62061 (October 28, 2005). Guidance on... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders: Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16, 1998). Initiation of... antidumping duty order: ] DOC case No. ITC case No. Country Product Department contact A-351-840...

  14. 76 FR 31588 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Duty Orders, 63 FR 13516 (March 20, 1998) and 70 FR 62061 (October 28, 2005). Guidance on... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders: Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16, 1998). Initiation of... Administration During Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Proceedings: Interim Final Rule, 76 FR 7491...

  15. 76 FR 24459 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... Duty Orders, 63 FR 13516 (March 20, 1998) and 70 FR 62061 (October 28, 2005). Guidance on... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders: Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16, 1998). Initiation of... and Countervailing Duty Proceedings: Interim Final Rule, 76 FR 7491 (February 10, 2011) (Interim...

  16. 76 FR 74775 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... Countervailing Duty Orders, 63 FR 13516 (March 20, 1998) and 70 FR 62061 (October 28, 2005). Guidance on... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders: Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16, 1998). Initiation of... During Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Proceedings: Interim Final Rule, 76 FR 7491 (February 10,...

  17. 77 FR 50553 - Fresh Tomatoes from Mexico: Notice of Initiation of Changed Circumstances Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... (LTFV). See Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation: Fresh Tomatoes From Mexico, 61 FR 18377 (April... Investigation, Investigation No. 731-TA-747 (Preliminary), 61 FR 28891 (June 6, 1996). On October 10, 1996, the... Less Than Fair Value and Postponement of Final Determination: Fresh Tomatoes from Mexico, 61 FR...

  18. The Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Informatics Core: A Decade in Review

    PubMed Central

    Toga, Arthur W.; Crawford, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    The Informatics Core of the Alzheimer’s Diseases Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) has coordinated data integration and dissemination for a continually growing and complex dataset in which both data contributors and recipients span institutions, scientific disciplines and geographic boundaries. This article provides an update on the accomplishments and future plans. PMID:26194316

  19. Initial Review of Research Literature on Appropriate Dispute Resolution (ADR) in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiman, John; Beck, Laura; Peter, Marshall; Zeller, Dick; Moses, Philip; Engiles, Anita

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a literature search process employed to identify research in Appropriate Dispute Resolution (ADR) and special education, organizes some initial search results, briefly summarizes them, and raises important questions for the purpose of generating a future research agenda. The authors hope that this examination of literature…

  20. Developing a Statewide, Standards-Based Student Report Card: A Review of the Kentucky Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.; Swan, Gerry M.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a major initiative in the Commonwealth of Kentucky to develop a statewide, standards-based, student report card for reporting the learning progress of individual students at all grade levels (K-12). Led by a team of researchers with expertise in grading and reporting, 36 educators from three diverse school districts created…