Science.gov

Sample records for aging process researchers

  1. Aging Research in Higher Education: Research in Reading Processes of the Elderly (Problems and Promise).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walmsley, Sean A.; Allington, Richard

    1980-01-01

    Considers three issues related to the conduct of research into reading problems of the elderly: (1) the lack of federal funding of literacy research concerning the elderly, (2) differences between conducting research with school-aged populations and with the elderly, and (3) problems encountered in testing elderly individuals. (GT)

  2. The Aging Process and Psychoactive Drug Use. Services Research Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Research Inst., Menlo Park, CA.

    This three-phase literature review focusses on the dangers of drug misuse or abuse by the elderly, and seeks to assist in the development of prevention and treatment strategies. The first phase focusses on the aging process and psychoactive drug use in clinical treatment. The second phase identifies and synthesizes information on the patterns of…

  3. Aging Research Using Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl L.; Anderson, Laura; Sheehan, Susan; Hill, Warren G.; Chang, Bo; Churchill, Gary A.; Chesler, Elissa J.; Korstanje, Ron; Peters, Luanne L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the dramatic increase in human lifespan over the past century, there remains pronounced variability in “health-span”, or the period of time in which one is generally healthy and free of disease. Much of the variability in health-span and lifespan is thought to be genetic in origin. Understanding the genetic mechanisms of aging and identifying ways to boost longevity is a primary goal in aging research. Here, we describe a pipeline of phenotypic assays for assessing mouse models of aging. This pipeline includes behavior/cognition testing, body composition analysis, and tests of kidney function, hematopoiesis, immune function and physical parameters. We also describe study design methods for assessing lifespan and health-span, and other important considerations when conducting aging research in the laboratory mouse. The tools and assays provided can assist researchers with understanding the correlative relationships between age-associated phenotypes and, ultimately, the role of specific genes in the aging process. PMID:26069080

  4. AMPK Function in Aging Process.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Rocío; Pérez-Villegas, Eva María; Manuel Carrión, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Aging involves the progressive deterioration of physiological functions, diminishing the individual's capacity for survival. Indeed, aging is the main risk factor for cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. The discovery that the rate of aging is controlled by conserved genetic and biochemical pathways represented an unprecedented advance in aging research. The AMPK protein is a metabolic sensor that acts as a qualified cellular housekeeper, as well as controlling energy homeostasis and resistance to stress. Thus, the correct regulation of this factor enhances health and survival. In this manuscript we will review the molecular pathways regulated by AMPK that are related to the aging process, paying special attention to mitochondrial dysfunction, metabolic deregulation, cell senescence and autophagy. PMID:26521771

  5. American Federation for Aging Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... Links Videos Huff/Post 50 Infoaging Biology of Aging Disease Center Healthy Aging Ask the Expert Contact Us Press Info Contact ... the pipeline of research in the biology of aging AFAR's Impact GIVE to AFAR's work to help ...

  6. Age Effects in Information Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furukawa, James M.; And Others

    Attempts to modify or ameliorate the effects of declining cognitive abilities of the elderly have met with limited success. To focus on the effects of age in cognitive processing capacity (CPC), Furukawa's (1977) CPC test was administered individually to 3 age groups (16-30, 31-45, and 45-60) of 15 subjects each. Speed of processing old and new…

  7. [Ageing: research in Spain and Europe].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Vicente; Rodríguez Mañas, Leocadio; Sancho Castiello, Mayte; Díaz Martín, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Researchers, stakeholders and policy makers agree about the importance of the population ageing in modern societies, so a broad analysis of current research strategies is in progress, such as FUTURAGE, a network for drawing a map for future research on ageing. This document presents the Spanish contribution to this map following FUTURAGE guidelines, drawn from the debates held in the 'Ageing. Research in Spain and Europe' Workshop. The first part consists of general ideas seeking to define future challenges on research using a multidisciplinary approach, in which the theoretical and methodological debate, the comparative and multilevel perspective, the transfer of knowledge and involvement of the older people would be essential to consider. Some of the main issues according to FUTURAGE structure are, the bio-gerontology of ageing, healthy and active ageing, and the socioeconomic and environmental resources of ageing. The interaction between these contents is pivotal to understand the research on ageing. Finally, the document provides some methodological and instrumental ideas to reinforce the need for cross-sectional research initiatives, integrating different data and combining methods in order to develop assessment and intervention strategies. Other aspects look into the mechanisms to coordinate research within a European context. The map on ageing research has been published after the consultation process in Europe (http://futurage.group.shef.ac.uk/road-map.html) and is now ready to be considered for integration into future European and Spanish research programs. PMID:22578385

  8. Changing course in ageing research: The healthy ageing phenotype.

    PubMed

    Franco, Oscar H; Karnik, Kavita; Osborne, Gabrielle; Ordovas, Jose M; Catt, Michael; van der Ouderaa, Frans

    2009-05-20

    Ageing is often associated with the aged and the diseased, nevertheless ageing is a process that starts in-uterus and is characterised by a progressive functional loss but not necessarily by the presence of disease and poor quality of life. How to meander through life without crossing the confines of major chronic disease and cognitive and physical impairment remains one of the most relevant challenges for science and humankind. Delimiting that 'immaculate' trajectory - that we dub as the 'Healthy Ageing Phenotype' - and exploring solutions to help the population to stay or return to this trajectory should constitute the core focus of scientific research. Nevertheless, current efforts on ageing research are mainly focused on developing animal models to disentangle the human ageing process, and on age-related disorders often providing merely palliative solutions. Therefore, to identify alternative perspectives in ageing research, Unilever and the Medical Research Council (MRC) UK convened a Spark workshop entitled 'The Healthy Ageing Phenotype'. In this meeting, international specialists from complementary areas related to ageing research, gathered to find clear attributes and definitions of the 'Healthy Ageing Phenotype', to identify potential mechanisms and interventions to improve healthy life expectancy of the population; and to highlight areas within ageing research that should be prioritised in the future. General agreement was reached in recognising ageing research as a disaggregated field with little communication between basic, epidemiological and clinical areas of research and limited translation to society. A more holistic, multi-disciplinary approach emanating from a better understanding of healthy ageing trajectories and centred along human biological resilience, its maintenance and the reversibility from early deviations into pathological trajectories, is urgently required. Future research should concentrate on understanding the mechanisms that permit

  9. Active Learning in Aging Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singelis, Theodore M.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the involvement of undergraduate students in research at the California State University (CSU), Chico funded through an Academic Research Enhancement Award (AREA) from the National Institute on Aging (NIA). CSU, Chico is a "teaching" university and has students with a variety of motivations and abilities. The 3-year research…

  10. Systems biology approaches in aging research.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Anuradha; Liebal, Ulf W; Vera, Julio; Baltrusch, Simone; Junghanß, Christian; Tiedge, Markus; Fuellen, Georg; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Köhling, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a systemic process which progressively manifests itself at multiple levels of structural and functional organization from molecular reactions and cell-cell interactions in tissues to the physiology of an entire organ. There is ever increasing data on biomedical relevant network interactions for the aging process at different scales of time and space. To connect the aging process at different structural, temporal and spatial scales, extensive systems biological approaches need to be deployed. Systems biological approaches can not only systematically handle the large-scale datasets (like high-throughput data) and the complexity of interactions (feedback loops, cross talk), but also can delve into nonlinear behaviors exhibited by several biological processes which are beyond intuitive reasoning. Several public-funded agencies have identified the synergistic role of systems biology in aging research. Using one of the notable public-funded programs (GERONTOSYS), we discuss how systems biological approaches are helping the scientists to find new frontiers in aging research. We elaborate on some systems biological approaches deployed in one of the projects of the consortium (ROSage). The systems biology field in aging research is at its infancy. It is open to adapt existing systems biological methodologies from other research fields and devise new aging-specific systems biological methodologies. PMID:25341520

  11. Insights gained from aging research

    SciTech Connect

    Blahnik, D.E.; Casada, D.A.; Edson, J.L.; Fineman, D.L.; Gunther, W.E.; Haynes, H.D.; Hoopingarner, K.R.; Jacobus, M.J.; Jarrell, D.B.; Kryter, R.C.; Magelby, H.L.; Murphy, G.A.; Subudhi, M.M.

    1992-03-01

    The US NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research has implemented hardware-oriented engineering research programs to identify and resolve technical issues related to the aging of systems, structures, and components (SSCs) in operating nuclear power plants. This report provides a summary of those research results which have been compiled and published in NUREGS and related technical reports. The systems, components and structures that have been studied are organized by alphabetical order. The research results summary on the SSCs is followed by an assessment guide to emphasize inspection techniques which may be useful for detecting aging degradation in nuclear power plants. This report will be updated periodically to reflect new research results on these or other SSCs.

  12. Natural products and the aging process.

    PubMed

    Ergin, Volkan; Bali, Elif Burcu; Hariry, Reza Ebrahimi; Karasu, Cimen

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Literature surveys show that the most of the research that have been conducted on the effect of herbal remedies on many tissue pathologies, including metabolic disturbances, cardiovascular decline, neurodegeneration, cataract, diabetic retinopathy and skin inflammation, all lead to an accelerated aging process. The increased carbonylation of proteins (carbonyl stress) disturbing their function has been indicated as an underlying mechanism of cellular senescence and age-related diseases. Because it is also linked to the carbonyl stress, aging chronic disease and inflammation plays an important role in understanding the clinical implications of cellular stress response and relevant markers. Greater knowledge of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in several pathologies associated with aging would provide a better understanding to help us to develop suitable strategies, use specific targets to mitigate the effect of human aging, prevent particularly chronic degenerative diseases and improve quality of life. However, research is lacking on the herbal compounds affecting cellular aging signaling as well as studies regarding the action mechanism(s) of natural products in prevention of the age-related disease. This review provides leads for identifying new medicinal agents or potential phytochemical drugs from plant sources for the prevention or delaying cellular aging processes and the treatment of some disorders related with accelerated body aging. PMID:25436747

  13. The ontogeny of a sexual fetish from birth to age 30 and memory processes. A research case report from a prospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Massie, H; Szajnberg, N

    1997-08-01

    From a longitudinal study that began at birth, a case is described in which a man at the age of 30 recalls the onset of a sexual fetish in his fifth or sixth year of life. The memories activated and dreams reported during the thirty-year follow-up interview, were synthesised with parent-infant film data and historical information contained in the research record concerning the child's development, his parents' behaviour and traumatic experiences. Taken together they provide a detailed description of the psychological ontogenesis of the fetish. The case provides unusual information about the manner in which early childhood events-objectively documented-interdigitate with intrapsychic processes and mental structuralisation. This also illuminates processes by which memories are retained, condensed, distorted and lost. In addition, information from other participants in the project who reported sexually anomalous histories at the age of 30 raises questions of what can be predicted from early life experiences. PMID:9306187

  14. Aging Processes and the Development of Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Loeser, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Aging is a primary risk factor for the development of osteoarthritis (OA) and the understanding of how aging processes contribute to the development of OA is an important area of active research. The most recent literature in this area was reviewed in order update investigators on the status of the field. Recent findings The field is beginning to move beyond a cartilage focus to include other joint tissues relevant to OA such as ligaments, meniscus, and bone. Synovitis also appears to play a role in OA but has not been a focus of aging studies. Studies in small animals, including mice and rats, demonstrate age-related changes that can contribute to OA and show that animal age is a key factor to be considered in interpreting the results of studies using surgically-induced models of OA. There is accumulating evidence that cellular processes such as damage-induced cell senescence contribute to OA and a growing body of literature on the role of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in aging and OA. Summary Not all OA is due to aging processes in joint tissues but the age-related changes being discovered certainly could play a major contributing role. PMID:23080227

  15. Metformin: A Hopeful Promise in Aging Research.

    PubMed

    Novelle, Marta G; Ali, Ahmed; Diéguez, Carlos; Bernier, Michel; de Cabo, Rafael

    2016-03-01

    Even though the inevitable process of aging by itself cannot be considered a disease, it is directly linked to life span and is the driving force behind all age-related diseases. It is an undisputable fact that age-associated diseases are among the leading causes of death in the world, primarily in industrialized countries. During the last several years, an intensive search of antiaging treatments has led to the discovery of a variety of drugs that promote health span and/or life extension. The biguanide compound metformin is widely used for treating people with type 2 diabetes and appears to show protection against cancer, inflammation, and age-related pathologies. Here, we summarize the recent developments about metformin use in translational aging research and discuss its role as a potential geroprotector. PMID:26931809

  16. Cognitive Aging Research: What Does It Say about Cognition? Aging?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glucksberg, Sam

    Cognitive aging research needs to clarify whether or not there are functional or ability declines with aging and, if so, to understand and mediate these declines. Recent research which has demonstrated declines in cognitive functioning with age has involved episodic memory and rehearsal-independent forms of such memory. It is not known how much of…

  17. Research Planning Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofton, Rodney

    2010-01-01

    This presentation describes the process used to collect, review, integrate, and assess research requirements desired to be a part of research and payload activities conducted on the ISS. The presentation provides a description of: where the requirements originate, to whom they are submitted, how they are integrated into a requirements plan, and how that integrated plan is formulated and approved. It is hoped that from completing the review of this presentation, one will get an understanding of the planning process that formulates payload requirements into an integrated plan used for specifying research activities to take place on the ISS.

  18. Soviet optical processing research

    SciTech Connect

    VanderLugt, A.; Attard, A.E.; Cronin-Golomb, M.; Hartman, R.L.; Lee, J.N.; Morris, G.M.; Rhodes, W.T.

    1991-04-01

    Optical processing techniques are used to transform, manipulate, or transmit information. The Soviet Union has vigorously pursued optical processing since the 1960s. This report summarizes Soviet capabilities in hardware, particularly in materials and devices, as well as their capability in applications such as image processing and signal processing/computing. Soviet work in optical signal processing may be characterized as follows: good in terms of fundamental science of materials; capable of producing good materials (often on a par with the West); curious lack of activity with ferroelectric liquid crystals; unique capability in biochrome materials; good capabilities in waveguide devices; good research on spatial light modulators using electro-optic materials; lacking in fabrication techniques for devices; good in terms of statistical analysis of expected system performance; lacking in microelectronic support capabilities; and general lack of innovation for new signal processing architectures. 400 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. The multicultural research process.

    PubMed

    Evans, Bronwynne C

    2006-07-01

    Qualitative research allows students to explore the complex experiences of health and illness and examine assumptions related to class, race, gender, and ethnicity. Faculty who teach qualitative research can promote culturally congruent nursing practice, and students can learn how such practice is grounded in research. The experiential approach taken in this class acquainted students with basic principles of qualitative research, used such principles to foster recognition of assumptions and increase cultural awareness, and encouraged a new way of knowing and being in nursing. The learning goals were to experience the "flavor" of qualitative data analysis using a filmed interview of an American Indian nurse and written interviews of a Hispanic/Latina nurse and nursing student, speaking about their educational experiences in nursing. In this process, the nurse educator exemplified principles of multicultural education for these budding teachers, such as weaving cultural content across the curriculum and role modeling concern for cultural issues in teaching, research, and service. PMID:16863108

  20. Research into Process Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreas, Burton G.; And Others

    These papers are related to the basic comprehensive research and development plan of the Eastern Regional Institute for Education (ERIE). The first paper, Improving Process Education: A Comprehensive Plan by Burton G. Andreas, describes the comprehensive plan and introduces the succeeding papers. The goals of the program are to improve process…

  1. The Serendipitous Research Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutefall, Jennifer E.; Ryder, Phyllis Mentzell

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of an exploratory study asking faculty in the first-year writing program and instruction librarians about their research process focusing on results specifically related to serendipity. Steps to prepare for serendipity are highlighted as well as a model for incorporating serendipity into a first-year writing…

  2. Fertile waters for aging research.

    PubMed

    Wang, Adrienne M; Promislow, Daniel E L; Kaeberlein, Matt

    2015-02-26

    The quest to slow aging has come far, and what used to be the domain of science fiction writers and snake oil salesmen may soon become science fact. Innovative new approaches, such as the use of the very short-lived African killifish (Harel et al.), are bridging the translational gap and bring the promise of healthy longevity to fruition. PMID:25723160

  3. Efficacy of Female Rat Models in Translational Cardiovascular Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    Rice, K. M.; Fannin, J. C.; Gillette, C.; Blough, E. R.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women in the United States. Aging is a primary risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease as well as cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Aging is a universal process that all humans undergo; however, research in aging is limited by cost and time constraints. Therefore, most research in aging has been done in primates and rodents; however it is unknown how well the effects of aging in rat models translate into humans. To compound the complication of aging gender has also been indicated as a risk factor for various cardiovascular diseases. This review addresses the systemic pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system associated with aging and gender for aging research with regard to the applicability of rat derived data for translational application to human aging. PMID:25610649

  4. Encouraging early preventive dental visits for preschool-aged children enrolled in Medicaid: Using the Extended Parallel Process Model to conduct formative research

    PubMed Central

    Askelson, Natoshia M.; Chi, Donald L.; Momany, Elizabeth T.; Kuthy, Raymond A.; Ortiz, Cristina (Nina); Hanson, Jessica D.; Damiano, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Objective Preventive dental visits for preschool-aged children can result in better oral health outcomes, especially for children from lower income families. Many children, however, still do not see a dentist for preventive visits. This qualitative study examined the potential for the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) to be used to uncover potential antecedents to parents’ decisions about seeking preventive dental care. Methods Seventeen focus groups including 41 parents were conducted. The focus group protocol centered on constructs (perceived severity, perceived susceptibility, perceived self-efficacy, and perceived response efficacy) of the EPPM. Transcripts were analyzed by 3 coders who employed closed coding strategies. Results Parents’ perceptions of severity of dental issues were high, particularly regarding negative health and appearance outcomes. Parents perceived susceptibility of their children to dental problems as low, primarily because most children in this study received preventive care, which parents viewed as highly efficacious. Parents’ self-efficacy to obtain preventive care for their children was high. However, they were concerned about barriers including lack of dentists, especially dentists who are good with young children. Conclusions Findings were consistent with EPPM, which suggests this model is a potential tool for understanding parents’ decisions about seeking preventive dental care for their young children. Future research should utilize quantitative methods to test this model. PMID:22994600

  5. Healthy ageing, narrative method and research ethics.

    PubMed

    Sarvimäki, Anneli

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe research and teaching activities related to healthy ageing, narrative methods and research ethics at the Nordic School of Public Health NHV during 1999 - 2012. Healthy ageing was conceived in terms of The World Health Organization's (WHO) model of active ageing and of quality of life defined as a sense of well-being, meaning and value. Qualitative research on ageing and health conducted at NHV showed how elderly people themselves experience health and what they perceive to be health promoting. Narrative method was one the qualitative methods used in research at NHV. By adopting holistic and categorical content analysis the life stories of elderly Finnish migrants, the stories of home-dwelling persons about falls, and working persons' stories of alcohol use were studied. The courses on research ethics took their point of departure in a model that describes the role of scientific, economic, aesthetic and ethical values in research. PMID:26311800

  6. Human information processing in different age.

    PubMed

    Korobeynikov, G

    2002-01-01

    The aim of investigation was to study the aging pecularities of information processing organization. 60 men and 90 women in four age groups: 30-39, 40-49, 50-59 and 60-65 were examined. The information processing was modeled by special computer test with working algorithm changes. The time and accuracy of each assignment were registered for each person. The psychophysiological mechanisms of informational processing were studied by informative mathematical methods. The results are showed that within the aging reduction of perception, processing and speed of reaction in older. As a result of the negative influence of aging shows the decline of mental activity efficiency. Aging decrease on mental capability provokes the compensation of psychophysiological mechanisms of adaptation. The main mechanism increases the psychophysiological organization stochastic and changes the type organization in informational processing to a self-finishing quest response. (Tab. 5, Ref. 22.) PMID:12518996

  7. Ageing aircraft research in the Netherlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejonge, J. B.; Bartelds, G.

    1992-01-01

    The problems of aging aircraft are worldwide. Hence, international cooperative actions to overcome or prevent problems should be taken. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Netherlands Civil Aviation Department (RLD) signed a Memorandum of Cooperation in the area of structural integrity, with specific reference to research on problems in the area of aging aircraft. Here, an overview is given of aging research that is going on in the Netherlands. The work described is done largely at the National Aerospace Laboratory; much of the research is part of the forementioned cooperative agreement.

  8. Electro Processing Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Electroprocessing which is concerned with fluid dynamics of the electroreduction process to determine how it may be modified to improve the quality of the deposit was studied. Experimental techniques are used in this research. These techniques include laser Schlieren photography, laser Doppler velocimetry, and frequency spectrum analysis. Projects involve fluid flow studies of zinc plating in aqueous and molten salt electrolytes, study of cell design for magnesium chlorides electrolysis, digital signal analysis of manganese electrodeposition in molten chlorides, and electroplating of molybdenum from low melting salts. It is anticipated that the use of refractory metals as constructed materials in engineering will increase. Their electrodeposition from molten salt electrolytes is important in the extraction metallurgy of refractory metals.

  9. USEPA ORD Aging Water Infrastructure Research Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes research that is being conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) Research Program, which will help U.S. water infrastructure to be more effectively and sustainably managed. The AWI research program see...

  10. Current research in aging: a report from the 2015 Ageing Summit.

    PubMed

    Moyse, Emmanuel; Lahousse, Lies; Krantic, Slavica

    2015-01-01

    Ageing Summit, London, UK, 10-12 February 2015 The Ageing Summit 2015 held on 10-12 February 2015 in London (UK) provided an extensive update to our knowledge of the 'Biology of Ageing' and a forum to discuss the participants' latest research progress. The meeting was subdivided into four thematic sessions: cellular level research including the aging brain; slowing down progression, rejuvenation and self-repair; genetic and epigenetic regulation; and expression and pathology of age-related diseases. Each session included multiple key presentations, three to five short research communications and ongoing poster presentations. The meeting provided an exciting multidisciplinary overview of the aging process from cellular and molecular mechanisms to medico-social aspects of human aging. PMID:26107317

  11. Mapping the Collaborative Research Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochanek, Julie Reed; Scholz, Carrie; Garcia, Alicia N.

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant federal investments in the production of high-quality education research, the direct use of that research in policy and practice is not evident. Some education researchers are increasingly employing collaborative research models that use structures and processes to integrate practitioners into the research process in an effort…

  12. Leading Edges: Recent Research on Psychosocial Aging. Review Essays Prepared for the White House Conference on Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Beth B., Ed.; Bond, Kathleen, Ed.

    The objectives of this book, a collection of papers about recent research on psychosocial aging, are to broaden scientific understanding of the psychosocial components of the aging process and the place of older people in society, and to call attention to a number of issues in aging research. The papers emphasize that aging does not occur in a…

  13. Academic Research in the Cyberspace Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willey, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Discusses research in the cyberspace era, exploring why academics may be naive about what information they are being allowed to access on the academic databases they rely on for research. Asserts that the real issue of the cyberspace age is the marketing of knowledge. (EV)

  14. Temporal Processing Deficits in Middle Age

    PubMed Central

    Mamo, Sara K.; Buss, Emily; Hall, Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this brief report is to provide a synopsis of recent work, primarily from the authors' laboratory, that points to the emergence of temporal processing deficits relatively early in the aging process. Method The approach taken was to provide a descriptive summary of selected published and current experiments focusing on the processing of temporal envelopes and fine structure. Conclusion Deficits in both temporal envelope and temporal fine structure processing are evident during middle age even while audiometric hearing sensitivity remains normal. PMID:25768652

  15. Contributions of Nonhuman Primates to Research on Aging.

    PubMed

    Didier, E S; MacLean, A G; Mohan, M; Didier, P J; Lackner, A A; Kuroda, M J

    2016-03-01

    Aging is the biological process of declining physiologic function associated with increasing mortality rate during advancing age. Humans and higher nonhuman primates exhibit unusually longer average life spans as compared with mammals of similar body mass. Furthermore, the population of humans worldwide is growing older as a result of improvements in public health, social services, and health care systems. Comparative studies among a wide range of organisms that include nonhuman primates contribute greatly to our understanding about the basic mechanisms of aging. Based on their genetic and physiologic relatedness to humans, nonhuman primates are especially important for better understanding processes of aging unique to primates, as well as for testing intervention strategies to improve healthy aging and to treat diseases and disabilities in older people. Rhesus and cynomolgus macaques are the predominant monkeys used in studies on aging, but research with lower nonhuman primate species is increasing. One of the priority topics of research about aging in nonhuman primates involves neurologic changes associated with cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases. Additional areas of research include osteoporosis, reproductive decline, caloric restriction, and their mimetics, as well as immune senescence and chronic inflammation that affect vaccine efficacy and resistance to infections and cancer. The purpose of this review is to highlight the findings from nonhuman primate research that contribute to our understanding about aging and health span in humans. PMID:26869153

  16. Regulation of the aging process by autophagy.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Antero; Kaarniranta, Kai

    2009-05-01

    Autophagy is involved in cellular protein and organelle degradation, which is mediated by the lysosomal pathway. Autophagocytosis has a key role in cellular housekeeping by removing damaged organelles. During aging, the efficiency of autophagic degradation declines and intracellular waste products accumulate. In Caenorhabditis elegans, there is clear evidence that lifespan is linked to the capacity to regulate autophagy. Recent studies have revealed that the same signaling factors regulate both aging and autophagocytosis, thus highlighting the role of autophagy in the regulation of aging and age-related degenerative diseases. Here, we examine in detail the interactions of the signaling network involving longevity factors SIRT1, mTOR, FoxO3, NF-kappaB and p53 in the regulation of autophagy. We discuss the possibility that these well-known stress resistance and longevity factors regulate the aging process via autophagy. PMID:19380253

  17. Results of LWR snubber aging research

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D P; Werry, E V; Blahnik, D E

    1992-05-01

    This report describes the aging research results and recommendations for snubbers used in commercial nuclear power plants. Snubbers are safety-related devices used to restrain undesirable dynamic loads at various piping and equipment locations in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Each snubber must accommodate a plant's normal thermal movements and must be capable of restraining the maximum off-normal dynamic loads, such as a seismic event or a transient, postulated for its specific location. The effects of snubber aging and the factors that contribute to the degradation of their safety performance need to be better understood. Thus, Phase II of Nuclear Plant Aging Research was conducted to enhance the understanding of snubber aging and its consequences. Pacific Northwest Laboratory staff and their subcontractors, Lake Engineering and Wyle Laboratories, visited eight sites (encompassing thirteen plants) to conduct interviews with NPP staff and to collect data on snubber aging, testing, and maintenance. The Phase II research methodology, evaluation, results, conclusions, and recommendations are described in the report. Effective methods for service-life monitoring of snubbers are included in the recommendations.

  18. Telecommunication market research processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, J. F.

    1983-06-01

    The data processing in two telecommunication market investigations is described. One of the studies concerns the office applications of communication and the other the experiences with a videotex terminal. Statistical factorial analysis was performed on a large mass of data. A comparison between utilization intentions and effective utilization is made. Extensive rewriting of statistical analysis computer programs was required.

  19. Impact of nutrition on the ageing process.

    PubMed

    Mathers, John C

    2015-01-01

    Human life expectancy has been increasing steadily for almost two centuries and is now approximately double what it was at the beginning of the Victorian era. This remarkable demographic change has been accompanied by a shift in disease prevalence so that age is now the major determinant of most common diseases. The challenge is to enhance healthy ageing and to reduce the financial and social burdens associated with chronic ill health in later life. Studies in model organisms have demonstrated that the ageing phenotype arises because of the accumulation of macromolecular damage within the cell and that the ageing process is plastic. Nutritional interventions that reduce such damage, or which enhance the organism's capacity to repair damage, lead to greater longevity and to reduced risk of age-related diseases. Dietary (energy) restriction increases lifespan in several model organisms, but it is uncertain whether it is effective in primates, including humans. However, excess energy storage leading to increased adiposity is a risk factor for premature mortality and for age-related diseases so that obesity prevention is likely to be a major public health route to healthy ageing. In addition, adherence to healthy eating patterns, such as the Mediterranean dietary pattern, is associated with longevity and reduced risk of age-related diseases. PMID:25415221

  20. Biology of Aging: Research Today for a Healthier Tomorrow

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Biology of Aging Heath and Aging Biology of Aging Preface The National Institute on Aging ( ... major institutions across the United States and internationally. Biology of Aging: Research Today for a Healthier Tomorrow ...

  1. TOR and ageing: a complex pathway for a complex process.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Mark A; Tsai, Shih-Yin; Kennedy, Brian K

    2011-01-12

    Studies in invertebrate model organisms have led to a wealth of knowledge concerning the ageing process. But which of these discoveries will apply to ageing in humans? Recently, an assessment of the degree of conservation of ageing pathways between two of the leading invertebrate model organisms, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Caenorhabditis elegans, was completed. The results (i) quantitatively indicated that pathways were conserved between evolutionarily disparate invertebrate species and (ii) emphasized the importance of the TOR kinase pathway in ageing. With recent findings that deletion of the mTOR substrate S6K1 or exposure of mice to the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin result in lifespan extension, mTOR signalling has become a major focus of ageing research. Here, we address downstream targets of mTOR signalling and their possible links to ageing. We also briefly cover other ageing genes identified by comparing worms and yeast, addressing the likelihood that their mammalian counterparts will affect longevity. PMID:21115526

  2. Aging Chart: a community resource for rapid exploratory pathway analysis of age-related processes

    PubMed Central

    Moskalev, Alexey; Zhikrivetskaya, Svetlana; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Dobrovolskaya, Evgenia; Gurinovich, Roman; Kuryan, Oleg; Pashuk, Aleksandr; Jellen, Leslie C.; Aliper, Alex; Peregudov, Alex; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Aging research is a multi-disciplinary field encompassing knowledge from many areas of basic, applied and clinical research. Age-related processes occur on molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organismal and even psychological levels, trigger the onset of multiple debilitating diseases and lead to a loss of function, and there is a need for a unified knowledge repository designed to track, analyze and visualize the cause and effect relationships and interactions between the many elements and processes on all levels. Aging Chart (http://agingchart.org/) is a new, community-curated collection of aging pathways and knowledge that provides a platform for rapid exploratory analysis. Building on an initial content base constructed by a team of experts from peer-reviewed literature, users can integrate new data into biological pathway diagrams for a visible, intuitive, top-down framework of aging processes that fosters knowledge-building and collaboration. As the body of knowledge in aging research is rapidly increasing, an open visual encyclopedia of aging processes will be useful to both the new entrants and experts in the field. PMID:26602690

  3. Aging Chart: a community resource for rapid exploratory pathway analysis of age-related processes.

    PubMed

    Moskalev, Alexey; Zhikrivetskaya, Svetlana; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Dobrovolskaya, Evgenia; Gurinovich, Roman; Kuryan, Oleg; Pashuk, Aleksandr; Jellen, Leslie C; Aliper, Alex; Peregudov, Alex; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Aging research is a multi-disciplinary field encompassing knowledge from many areas of basic, applied and clinical research. Age-related processes occur on molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organismal and even psychological levels, trigger the onset of multiple debilitating diseases and lead to a loss of function, and there is a need for a unified knowledge repository designed to track, analyze and visualize the cause and effect relationships and interactions between the many elements and processes on all levels. Aging Chart (http://agingchart.org/) is a new, community-curated collection of aging pathways and knowledge that provides a platform for rapid exploratory analysis. Building on an initial content base constructed by a team of experts from peer-reviewed literature, users can integrate new data into biological pathway diagrams for a visible, intuitive, top-down framework of aging processes that fosters knowledge-building and collaboration. As the body of knowledge in aging research is rapidly increasing, an open visual encyclopedia of aging processes will be useful to both the new entrants and experts in the field. PMID:26602690

  4. Research on probabilistic information processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, W.

    1973-01-01

    The work accomplished on probabilistic information processing (PIP) is reported. The research proposals and decision analysis are discussed along with the results of research on MSC setting, multiattribute utilities, and Bayesian research. Abstracts of reports concerning the PIP research are included.

  5. Age, Marital Processes, and Depressed Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookwala, Jamila; Jacobs, Jamie

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: We examined age-cohort differences in the interrelationships among marital processes and depressed affect. Design and Methods: We used data from individuals in first marriages that participated in the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH). The NSFH interviewed one adult per household of a nationally representative sample.…

  6. Intensive Measurement Designs for Research on Aging

    PubMed Central

    Rast, Philippe; MacDonald, Stuart W. S.; Hofer, Scott M.

    2013-01-01

    Intensive measurement burst designs permit analysis of behavioral and biological processes as they unfold over short and long periods of time and providing the opportunity to identify change from an individual’s normative level of functioning. The measurement burst design permits statistical decomposition of short-term variation and learning effects that overlay normative aging and provide stronger bases for detecting accelerated change due to pathological processes. We provide an overview of design features and analysis of measurement burst data in Project MIND. The objective of intensive measurement designs is to obtain greater resolution of processes of interest that permit reliable and sensitive assessments of functioning and change in functioning and of key determinants underlying short-term variation and long-term aging and health-related change. PMID:24672475

  7. Aging and Self-Regulated Language Processing

    PubMed Central

    Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A. L.; Soederberg Miller, Lisa M.; Hertzog, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces an adult developmental model of self-regulated language processing (SRLP), in which the allocation policy with which a reader engages text is driven by declines in processing capacity, growth in knowledge-based processes, and age-related shifts in reading goals. Evidence is presented to show that the individual reader’s allocation policy is consistent across time and across different types of text, can serve a compensatory function in relation to abilities, and is predictive of subsequent memory performance. As such, it is an important facet of language understanding and learning from text through the adult life span. PMID:16822168

  8. [Oxidative stress, antioxydants and the ageing process].

    PubMed

    Pincemail, J; Ricour, C; Defraigne, J O; Petermans, J

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidant supplementation in the form of pills is thought to slow down the aging process through the "free radical" scavenger activity of these compounds. The idea arose from the "Free Radical Theory of Ageing" (FRTA), initially developed by Harman in 1956. In the present paper, we present some arguments against this theory. One of the most pertinent is that "free radicals", more properly renamed as reactive oxygen species (ROS), play important biological roles in defense mechanisms of the organism as illustrated, in particular, by the hormesis phenomenon. Surprisingly, a moderate production of ROS has been shown to extend the life span in animals. PMID:25065231

  9. Gender relations and applied research on aging.

    PubMed

    Calasanti, Toni

    2010-12-01

    As a concept in gerontology, gender appears as lists of traits learned through socialization when theorized at all. I argue for a framework that theorizes the intersections of relations of gender inequality with those of age. This framework holds that men and women gain resources and bear responsibilities, in relation to one another, by virtue of mundane categorization into naturalized stratified groups. Current research shows that this approach allows explanation of gender differences, which appear in many reports but which usually go untheorized, as responses to social inequality. I illustrate applications to research and practice in relation to three areas of old age experiences: financial security, spousal care work, and health. Throughout, I discuss implications of focusing on inequality to enhance our abilities to engage in effective research, practice, and policy for older people, women and men alike. For instance, an understanding of the gender division of labor and workplace discrimination makes clear that financial status in later life cannot be reduced to individual choices concerning paid labor or retirement planning. And understanding that people orient their behaviors to gender ideals allows us to see that men and women perform spousal care in similar and different ways that require varied responses from practitioners; it also reveals contexts in which men engage in positive health behaviors. Finally, I argue that gerontologists interested in facilitating favorable outcomes for old people should consider research and practice that would disrupt, not reinforce, the bases of gender inequalities in later life. PMID:20956798

  10. Minority Aging and Endogenous Pain Facilitatory Processes

    PubMed Central

    Bulls, Hailey W.; Goodin, Burel R.; McNew, Myriah; Gossett, Ethan W.; Bradley, Laurence A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the current study was to examine the relationships among age, ethnicity, and endogenous pain facilitation using temporal summation (TS) responses to mechanical and heat stimuli. Design The present study assessed hyperalgesia and pain facilitation to thermal and mechanical stimuli at the knee and distal sites in 98 pain-free men and women. Participants were drawn from two ethnic (African-Americans, AA; and non-Hispanic whites, NHW) and age groups (19-35 and 45-85). Results Significant main effects of ethnicity were demonstrated for both mechanical and heat modalities (all p’s≤0.05), suggesting that AA participants, relative to NHW counterparts, demonstrated enhanced hyperalgesia. Age differences (older > younger) in hyperalgesia were found in mechanical pain ratings only. Results indicated that mechanical pain ratings significantly increased from first to maximal pain as a function of both age group and ethnicity (all p’s≤0.05), and a significant ethnicity by age interaction for TS of mechanical pain was found at the forearm (p<0.05) and trended towards significance at the knee (p=0.071). Post-hoc tests suggested that results were primarily driven by the older AA participants, who demonstrated the greatest mechanical TS. Additionally, evidence of differences in heat TS due to both ethnicity alone (all p’s≤0.05) and minority aging was also found. Conclusions This study provides evidence suggesting that older AAs demonstrate enhanced pain facilitatory processes, which is important because this group may be at increased risk for development of chronic pain. These results underscore the necessity of testing pain modulatory mechanisms when addressing questions related to pain perception and minority aging. PMID:26814250

  11. Using C. elegans for aging research

    PubMed Central

    Tissenbaum, Heidi A.

    2015-01-01

    Over a century ago, the zoologist Emile Maupas first identified the nematode, Rhabditis elegans, in the soil in Algiers. Subsequent work and phylogenic studies renamed the species Caenorhabditis elegans or more commonly referred to as C. elegans; (Caeno meaning recent; rhabditis meaning rod; elegans meaning nice). However, it was not until 1963, when Sydney Brenner, already successful from his work on DNA, RNA, and the genetic code, suggested the future of biological research lay in model organisms. Brenner believed that biological research required a model system that could grow in vast quantities in the lab, were cheap to maintain and had a simple body plan, and he chose the nematode C. elegans to fulfill such a role. Since that time, C. elegans has emerged as one of the premiere model systems for aging research. This paper reviews some initial identification of mutants with altered lifespan with a focus on genetics and then discusses advantages and disadvantages for using C. elegans as a model system to understand human aging. This review focuses on molecular genetics aspects of this model organism. PMID:26136622

  12. AGING AND THE ENVIRONMENT: A RESEARCH FRAMEWORK.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript discusses the development of a research program on health effects and environmental exposures to older adults. It summarizes input to this process from experts and the public, and outlines the critical elements necessary to fully address issues of environmental p...

  13. Process of precocious functional aging in workers of laundries.

    PubMed

    Mafra, Simone Caldas Tavares; Carlos, Celina Angélica Lisboa Valente; Silva, Vania Eugênia da

    2012-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO), as well as researchers of the whole world, it has been demonstrating concern with the subject of the aging related to the work and it recognizes that modifications in the several systems of the human body take to the gradual decrease in the effectiveness of each one of them, because the aging caused by the work advances apprenticeships of the cycle of the man's life, not respecting the natural state of that process. In this sense, it was aimed at with this research to investigate the relative aspects to the capacity for the work and to the workers' with responsibility to realize the work in the laundries service, verifying if they present signs of precocious functional aging. PMID:22316746

  14. Recent advances in vertebrate aging research 2009.

    PubMed

    Austad, Steven

    2010-06-01

    Among the notable trends seen in this year's highlights in mammalian aging research is an awakening of interest in the assessment of age-related measures of mouse health in addition to the traditional focus on longevity. One finding of note is that overexpression of telomerase extended life and improved several indices of health in mice that had previously been genetically rendered cancer resistant. In another study, resveratrol supplementation led to amelioration of several degenerative conditions without affecting mouse lifespan. A primate dietary restriction (DR) study found that restriction led to major improvements in glucoregulatory status along with provocative but less striking effects on survival. Visceral fat removal in rats improved their survival, although not as dramatically as DR. An unexpected result showing the power of genetic background effects was that DR shortened the lifespan of long-lived mice bearing Prop1(df), whereas a previous report in a different background had found DR to extend the lifespan of Prop1(df) mice. Treatment with the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, rapamycin, enhanced the survival of even elderly mice and improved their vaccine response. Genetic inhibition of a TOR target made female, but not male, mice live longer. This year saw the mTOR network firmly established as a major modulator of mammalian lifespan. PMID:20331443

  15. Cochlear Processes: A Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwislocki, Jozef J.

    This paper summarizes recent research on functions of the cochlea of the inner ear. The cochlea is described as the seat of the first step in the auditory sound analysis and transduction of mechanical vibration into electrochemical processes leading to the generation of neural action potentials. The cochlea is also described as a frequent seat of…

  16. Community Engagement and the Resource Centers for Minority Aging Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sood, Johanna R.; Stahl, Sidney M.

    2011-01-01

    The National Institute on Aging created the Resource Centers for Minority Aging Research (RCMARs) to address infrastructure development intended to reduce health disparities among older adults. The overall goals of the RCMARs are to (a) increase the size of the cadre of researchers conducting research on issues related to minority aging; (b)…

  17. Acceleration of the aging process by oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miquel, J.; Lunderen, P. R.; Bensch, K. G.

    1975-01-01

    Tissue changes induced by hyperoxia have been compared with those of normal aging. Results of investigations using male flies prompt conclusion that normal aging, radiation syndrome, and hyperoxic injury share at least one common feature--lipid peroxidation damage to all mambranes resulting in accumulation of age pigment.

  18. Improving Learners' Research Process Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, T. K.; Hunter, L.; Kluger-Bell, B.; Seagroves, S.

    2010-12-01

    The Professional Development Program (PDP) supports participants as they design inquiry activities that help learners improve their research process skills. These skills include the cognitive or reasoning skills that scientists and engineers use while doing research; for example, making a testable hypothesis, coordinating results from multiple experiments, or identifying and evaluating tradeoffs. Past work in the PDP indicated that additional support was needed to help participants design instructional activities that would teach these important skills. A new workshop was therefore developed for the 2009 PDP cycle, entitled "Improving Learners' Process Skills." In this workshop, participants worked in small groups to define specific science and engineering skills found in four past PDP activity designs. Participants distinguished between "simple tasks" and "authentic inquiry" activities that learners could perform as demonstration of the skill. Through this new workshop, participants were able to explicitly discuss ways in which individual process skills are unique or inter-related. In addition, by identifying a "simple task," participants were able to pinpoint areas in which their own designs could be improved to better focus on authentic inquiry tasks. In 2010, the workshop was slightly modified to help participants reconnect the research process skills with the activity content. In addition, the idea of using generic and context-specific scaffolds was also introduced. To make the participants feel like they were contributing to the PDP community, four activity designs actively being worked on in the 2010 cycle were used. Based on participant feedback, this "Improving Learners' Process Skills" workshop should be strongly considered for future returning participants.

  19. Extramural Training and Career Opportunities in Aging Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Aging (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The rapid growth of the older population heightens the urgency for training in aging research. This publication outlines the opportunities for extramural research training and career development that exist within the National Institute on Aging (NIA). The NIA supports research and research training primarily through the award of grants and…

  20. Research Advances in Aging 1984-1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Aging (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The National Institute on Aging (NIA) has, for the past several years, focused attention on a wide range of clinical problems associated with aging, including falls and gait disorders, bone fractures, urinary incontinence, and hypertension. Understanding the causes of and exploring possible treatments for Alzheimer's disease has been another of…

  1. Electrophysiological Advances on Multiple Object Processing in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Mazza, Veronica; Brignani, Debora

    2016-01-01

    EEG research conducted in the past 5 years on multiple object processing has begun to define how the aging brain tracks the numerosity of the objects presented in the visual field for different goals. We review the recent EEG findings in healthy older individuals (age range: 65–75 years approximately) on perceptual, attentional and memory mechanisms-reflected in the N1, N2pc and contralateral delayed activity (CDA) components of the EEG, respectively-during the execution of a variety of cognitive tasks requiring simultaneous processing of multiple elements. The findings point to multiple loci of neural changes in multi-object analysis, and suggest the involvement of early perceptual mechanisms, attentive individuation and working memory (WM) operations in the neural and cognitive modification due to aging. However, the findings do not simply reflect early impairments with a cascade effect over subsequent stages of stimulus processing, but in fact highlight interesting dissociations between the effects occurring at the various stages of stimulus processing. Finally, the results on older adults indicate the occurrence of neural overactivation in association to good levels of performance in easy perceptual contexts, thus providing some hints on the existence of compensatory phenomena that are associated with the functioning of early perceptual mechanisms. PMID:26973520

  2. Health-and disease-related biomarkers in aging research.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Hilaire J; Voss, Joachim G

    2009-04-01

    This article focuses on a synthesis of knowledge about healthy aging research in human beings and then synthesized nurse-led research in gerontology and geriatrics that use biomarkers. Healthy aging research has attracted considerable attention in the biomedical and basic sciences within the context of four major areas: (a) genetic variations as an expression of successful or unsuccessful aging; (b) caloric restriction as an intervention to slow the progression of aging; (c) immunological aging; (d) neurobiology of the aging brain. A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify nurse-led geriatric-related biomarker research. Nurse researchers who have chosen to integrate biomarkers as part of their research studies have been working in six focal areas, which are reviewed: health promotion within risk populations, cancer, vascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, caregiving, and complementary therapies. The article provides a discussion of contributions to date, identifying existing gaps and future research opportunities. PMID:20077975

  3. Nutrition and aging: potentials and problems for research in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Solomons, N W

    1992-08-01

    The demographic explosion of persons over 60 years of age is a reality in developed and developing countries alike. There is evidence that research on aging and nutrition in Third World countries is growing and developing. Specific research programs, and the linking of these programs in timely multicenter efforts, promise both valuable descriptive research for the benefit of national populations and comparative insights that will help us to learn more, collectively, about the intrinsic nature of the aging process itself. PMID:1407753

  4. Speech Recognition and Temporal Processing in Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Helfer, Karen S.; Vargo, Megan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to examine speech understanding ability and temporal processing in middle-aged women with normal or near-normal pure-tone thresholds. Research Design Speech understanding, temporal processing ability, and self-assessed hearing were measured in groups of younger and middle-aged females. Study Sample Participants were younger and middle-aged females (n = 12 per group) with normal hearing through 4000 Hz bilaterally. Subjects were drawn from nonclinical populations. Data Collection and Analysis Speech understanding was measured in the presence of steady-state noise and competing speech, with and without perceived spatial separation of the target speech and masker. The Gaps-In-Noise (GIN) test (Musiek et al, 2005) was used to assess temporal resolution ability. In addition, subjects completed a questionnaire with several items from the Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale (Gatehouse and Noble, 2004) to gauge their subjective ability to understand speech in complex listening situations. Data were analyzed via repeated-measures ANOVA and Pearson r correlations. Results Results showed that the performance of the middle-aged subjects was significantly poorer than that of the younger participants in the presence of a spatially coincident speech masker. Although performance in this listening condition was unrelated to pure-tone thresholds, it was strongly correlated with scores on the GIN test. Speech understanding performance in the presence of a steady-state masker was related to high-frequency pure-tone thresholds. Conclusions These results suggest that some middle-aged women with little or no pure-tone hearing loss experience listening difficulty in complex environments. Results also suggest a strong relationship between temporal processing and speech understanding in certain competing speech situations. PMID:19927698

  5. Gender Relations and Applied Research on Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calasanti, Toni

    2010-01-01

    As a concept in gerontology, gender appears as lists of traits learned through socialization when theorized at all. I argue for a framework that theorizes the intersections of relations of gender inequality with those of age. This framework holds that men and women gain resources and bear responsibilities, in relation to one another, by virtue of…

  6. Understanding the Aging Process through Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmall, Vicki L.; Staton, Maryanne

    1982-01-01

    This article presents ideas for simulation activities through which home economics students can experience age-related changes. In these activities, students are physically impaired by using a variety of devices and materials and then are required to complete common day-to-day tasks. (CT)

  7. Understanding the Elderly and the Aging Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havighurst, Robert J.

    1974-01-01

    Two areas of concern for elderly persons - maintaining ties with family and friends and preserving physical health and vigor - suggest courses on aging that home economists might teach. Understanding these problems and interpreting them for the community is a responsibility that home economists are well equipped to handle. (Author/AJ)

  8. Incorporating Biomarkers Into Cancer and Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Joleen M.; Cohen, Harvey J.; Muss, Hyman B.

    2014-01-01

    The challenge in treating the older adult with cancer is accurately accounting for and adapting management to the heterogeneity in health status of the individual patient. Many oncologists recognize that chronological age alone should not be the determinant when deciding on a treatment regimen. Easily measurable markers that provide an assessment of functional age would be ideal to assess frailty, which may predispose the patient to complications from cancer treatment, including increased toxicity, functional decline, decreased quality of life, and poorer survival. Several categories of potential markers, including chronic inflammatory markers, markers of cellular senescence, and imaging to assess muscle mass to detect sarcopenia, may provide insight into the likelihood of treatment-related complications. This article discusses candidate markers and strategies to evaluate these markers in cancer treatment trials, with the aim of developing a method to assess risk of oncologic outcomes and guide management decisions for both the physician and patient. PMID:25071114

  9. Aging in France: Population Trends, Policy Issues, and Research Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot

    2013-01-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…

  10. The aging process and potential interventions to extend life expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Tosato, Matteo; Zamboni, Valentina; Ferrini, Alessandro; Cesari, Matteo

    2007-01-01

    Aging is commonly defined as the accumulation of diverse deleterious changes occurring in cells and tissues with advancing age that are responsible for the increased risk of disease and death. The major theories of aging are all specific of a particular cause of aging, providing useful and important insights for the understanding of age-related physiological changes. However, a global view of them is needed when debating of a process which is still obscure in some of its aspects. In this context, the search for a single cause of aging has recently been replaced by the view of aging as an extremely complex, multifactorial process. Therefore, the different theories of aging should not be considered as mutually exclusive, but complementary of others in the explanation of some or all the features of the normal aging process. To date, no convincing evidence showing the administration of existing “anti-aging” remedies can slow aging or increase longevity in humans is available. Nevertheless, several studies on animal models have shown that aging rates and life expectancy can be modified. The present review provides an overlook of the most commonly accepted theories of aging, providing current evidence of those interventions aimed at modifying the aging process. PMID:18044191

  11. Translational Research Involving Oxidative Stress and Diseases of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Robert A.; Towner, Rheal A.; He, Ting; Hensley, Kenneth; Maples, Kirk R.

    2011-01-01

    There is ample mounting evidence that reactive oxidant species are exacerbated in inflammatory processes, many pathological conditions and underlying processes of chronic age-related diseases. Therefore there is increased expectation that therapeutics can be developed which act in some fashion to suppress reactive oxidant species and ameliorate the condition. This has turned out to be more difficult than at first expected. Developing therapeutics for indications where reactive oxidant species is an important consideration presents some unique challenges. We discuss important questions including whether reactive oxidant species should be a therapeutic target and the need to recognize the fact that an antioxidant in a defined chemical system may be a poor antioxidant operationally in a biological system and the importance of considering the fact that reactive oxidant species may accompany the disease or pathological system rather than being a causative factor. We also discuss the value of having preclinical models to determine if the processes which are important in causing the disease under study is critically dependent on reactive oxidant species events and if the therapeutic under consideration quells these processes. In addition we discuss measures of success that must be met in commercial research and development in preclinical and clinical trials and discuss as examples our translational research effort in developing nitrones for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke and as anti-cancer agents. PMID:21549833

  12. Aging, Research on Aging, and National Policy: A Conversation with Robert Butler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VandenBos, Gary R.; Buchanan, Joan

    1983-01-01

    The former director of the National Institute on Aging (NIA) discusses: consequences of aging in relation to Federal policies; care facilities for older persons; the role of the Federal government in funding aging research; and the need for more personnel trained to deal with problems of the elderly. (AOS)

  13. Resisting Age Bias in Digital Literacy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Lauren Marshall

    2011-01-01

    Through an eighty-one-year-old woman's literacy narrative, I argue that literacy researchers should pay greater attention to elder writers, readers, and learners. Particularly as notions of literacy shift in digital times, the perspective of a lifespan can reveal otherwise hidden complexities of literacy, including the motivational impact of…

  14. Differential Effects of Aging on Processes Underlying Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Robert; Travers, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to examine the effects of aging on processes underlying task switching. The response time data revealed an age-related increase in mixing costs before controlling for general slowing and no effect of aging on switching costs. In the cue-locked epoch, the ERP data revealed little effect…

  15. Arithmetic and Aging: Impact of Quantitative Knowledge and Processing Speed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozencwajg, Paulette; Schaeffer, Olivier; Lefebvre, Virginie

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine how quantitative knowledge ("Gq" in the CHC model) and processing speed ("Gs" in the CHC model) affect scores on the WAIS-III Arithmetic Subtest (Wechsler, 2000) with aging. Two age groups were compared: 30 young adults and 25 elderly adults. For both age groups, "Gq" was an important predictor of…

  16. The Process of Empirical Research: A Learning Experience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, Tilda

    2000-01-01

    In interviews, Scottish adults aged 55-96 in formal, self-help, and distance learning or not participating in group learning reflected on the process of working together to make meaning and on beliefs about learning, education, knowledge, and wisdom. The research process itself was a learning experience for subjects and interviewer. (SK)

  17. AGING WATER INFRASTRUCTURE RESEARCH PROGRAM: ADDRESSING THE CHALLENGE THROUGH INNOVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A driving force behind the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative and the Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is the Clean Water and Drinking Water Infrastructure Gap Analysis. In this report, EPA estimated that if operation, maintenance, and capital inves...

  18. Observational Search for Cometary Aging Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meech, Karen J.

    1997-01-01

    The scientific objectives of this study were (i) to search for physical differences in the behavior of the dynamically new comets (those which are entering the solar system for the first time from the Oort cloud) and the periodic comets, and (ii) to interpret these differences, if any, in terms of the physical and chemical nature of the comets and the evolutionary histories of the two comet groups. Because outer solar system comets may be direct remnants of the planetary formation processes, it is clear that the understanding of both the physical characteristics of these bodies at the edge of the planet forming zone and of their activity at large heliocentric distances, r, will ultimately provide constraints on the planetary formation process both in our Solar System and in extra-solar planetary systems. A combination of new solar system models which suggest that the protoplanetary disk was relatively massive and as a consequence comets could form at large distances from the sun (e.g. from the Uranus-Neptune region to the vicinity of the Kuiper belt), observations of activity in comets at large r, and laboratory experiments on low temperature volatile condensation, are dramatically changing our understanding of the chemical'and physical conditions in the early solar nebula. In order to understand the physical processes driving the apparent large r activity, and to address the question of possible physical and chemical differences between periodic, non-periodic and Oort comets, the PI has been undertaking a long-term study of the behavior of a significant sample of these comets (approximately 50) over a wide range of r to watch the development, disappearance and changing morphology of the dust coma. The ultimate goal is to search for systematic physical differences between the comet classes by modelling the coma growth in terms of volatile-driven activity. The systematic observations for this have been ongoing since 1986, and have been obtained over the course of

  19. The CITRA Research-Practice Consensus-Workshop Model: Exploring a New Method of Research Translation in Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabir, Myra; Breckman, Risa; Meador, Rhoda; Wethington, Elaine; Reid, Carrington; Pillemer, Karl

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: On the basis of the experience of an extensive community-based research partnership in New York City, we developed an innovative process for bridging the gap between aging-related research and practice, using a consensus-workshop model. Design and Methods: We adapted the traditional scientific consensus-workshop model to include…

  20. Frontiers in the Use of Biomarkers of Health in Research on Stress and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, David M.; Dmitrieva, Natalia O.; Klein, Laura C.

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of biomarkers that reflect objective indicators of physiological processes has become increasingly popular in psychological research on stress and aging. The current article reviews biomarkers of the neuroendocrine and immune systems, including issues related to measurement and normative age-related changes. We also discuss how exposure to stressors can provoke changes in these biomarkers and propose that stressful experiences may accelerate age-related declines in these systems. We recommend that future research examining physical health and aging incorporate dynamic and multivariate methods for assessing links between stressors and biomarkers. PMID:20647348

  1. The Development of Small Primate Models for Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Kathleen E.; Austad, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Nonhuman primate (NHP) aging research has traditionally relied mainly on the rhesus macaque. But the long lifespan, low reproductive rate, and relatively large body size of macaques and related Old World monkeys make them less than ideal models for aging research. Manifold advantages would attend the use of smaller, more rapidly developing, shorter-lived NHP species in aging studies, not the least of which are lower cost and the ability to do shorter research projects. Arbitrarily defining “small” primates as those weighing less than 500 g, we assess small, relatively short-lived species among the prosimians and callitrichids for suitability as models for human aging research. Using the criteria of availability, knowledge about (and ease of) maintenance, the possibility of genetic manipulation (a hallmark of 21st century biology), and similarities to humans in the physiology of age-related changes, we suggest three species—two prosimians (Microcebus murinus and Galago senegalensis) and one New World monkey (Callithrix jacchus)—that deserve scrutiny for development as major NHP models for aging studies. We discuss one other New World monkey group, Cebus spp., that might also be an effective NHP model of aging as these species are longer-lived for their body size than any primate except humans. PMID:21411860

  2. Lyapunov exponent for aging process in induction motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayram, Duygu; Ünnü, Sezen Yıdırım; Şeker, Serhat

    2012-09-01

    focused on the controlling the mechanical parameters of the electrical machines. Brushless DC motor (BLDCM) and the other general purpose permanent magnet (PM) motors are the most widely examined motors [1, 8, 9]. But the researches, about Lyapunov Exponent, subjected to the induction motors are mostly focused on the control theory of the motors. Flux estimation of rotor, external load disturbances and speed tracking and vector control position system are the main research areas for induction motors [10, 11, 12-14]. For all the data sets which can be collected from an induction motor, vibration data have the key role for understanding the mechanical behaviours like aging, bearing damage and stator insulation damage [15-18]. In this paper aging of an induction motor is investigated by using the vibration signals. The signals consist of new and aged motor data. These data are examined by their 2 dimensional phase portraits and the geometric interpretation is applied for detecting the Lyapunov Exponents. These values are compared in order to define the character and state estimation of the aging processes.

  3. Establishing the European Research Area in Ageing: a network of national research programmes.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Gerda

    2005-10-01

    The following paper gives a summary of the European Commission's research policy with regard to the ERA-NET scheme and especially with regard to the ERA-AGE project that was launched in March 2004. All the partner institutions in the ERA-AGE project are main national funding agencies, research councils or ministries. Some selected examples of programme funding by the partner institutions may demonstrate their different ways of funding research and show the great variety of programmes. The long-term objective of the ERA-AGE project is to create a sustainable basis for the planning, implementation and exploitation of transnational research. In future, the European Research Area in Ageing could gain an added value from research investments by integrating existing funding mechanisms and research infrastructures, by commonly deciding on research priorities for funding activities in order to reduce fragmentation and duplication, and by the recruitment of young researchers. PMID:16154308

  4. Physiological Aspects of Aging. Module A-5. Block A. Basic Knowledge of the Aging Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Dexter; Cap, Orest

    This instructional module on physiological aspects of aging is one in a block of 10 modules designed to provide the human services worker who works with older adults with basic information regarding the aging process. An introduction provides an overview of the module content. A listing of general objectives follows. Nine sections present…

  5. Psychological Aspects of Aging. Module A-7. Block A. Basic Knowledge of the Aging Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Dexter; Cap, Orest

    This instructional module on psychological aspects of aging is one in a block of 10 modules designed to provide the human services worker who works with older adults with basic information regarding the aging process. An introduction provides an overview of the module content. A listing of general objectives follows. Six sections present…

  6. Process-Product Research: A Cornerstone in Educational Effectiveness Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creemers, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    2015-01-01

    This article links the contribution of process-product studies in developing the theoretical framework of educational effectiveness by pointing out the importance of teacher behavior in the classroom. The role that Jere Brophy played in this evolving research is described within the various phases of teacher effectiveness research. Process-product…

  7. The Revival of Research Circles: Meeting the Needs of Modern Aging and the Third Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostlund, Britt

    2008-01-01

    This article provides evidence that it is worthwhile to reconsider the traditional research circle method as a means of involving people in the third age in fulfilling their needs to participate in learning activities and make their voices heard. The findings are based on three cases of research circles consistently driven by the interests of the…

  8. [Research on the aging of all-ceramics restoration materials].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongjiao; Chen, Xinmin

    2011-10-01

    All-ceramic crowns and bridges have been widely used for dental restorations owing to their excellent functionality, aesthetics and biocompatibility. However, the premature clinical failure of all-ceramic crowns and bridges may easily occur when they are subjected to the complex environment of oral cavity. In the oral environment, all-ceramic materials are prone to aging. Aging can lead all-ceramic materials to change color, to lower bending strength, and to reduce anti-fracture toughness. There are many factors affecting the aging of the all-ceramic materials, for example, the grain size, the type of stabilizer, the residual stress and the water environment. In order to analyze the aging behavior, to optimize the design of all-ceramic crowns and bridges, and to evaluate the reliability and durability, we review in this paper recent research progress of aging behavior for all-ceramics restoration materials. PMID:22097281

  9. [Research on the infrared spectrometry of aging silk fabrics].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-mei; Yuan, Si-xun

    2004-12-01

    The detection of deterioration degree of ancient silk fabrics will be helpful to the selection and developing of conservation methods. This paper carried out some research on the deterioration extent and mechanism of silk fabrics by means of infrared spectrometry. The samples artificially aged and excavated from Hubei, Innermongolia and Qinghai province, were analyzed. The artificially aging was done by simulating three main natural aging factors: light, heat and hydrolysis. The infrared spectrometric analysis results show that although the infrared spectrometry is a half-quantitative analysis method, for the hydrolysis-aged silk fabrics, it can give good qualitative and better half-quantitative analysis results because of the increase of carboxyl. So the infrared spectrometric analysis is of practical value for the conservation state and aging mechanism studies of ancient silk. PMID:15828318

  10. The Influence of Age, Health Literacy, and Affluence on Adolescents' Capacity to Consent to Research.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Lance R; Stupiansky, Nathan W; Ott, Mary A

    2016-04-01

    While adults are assumed to have the capacity to consent to medical research, and young children to have no capacity, adolescents' capacity to consent is not well described. Adapting the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR), we describe adolescents' capacity to consent to medical research and factors influencing that capacity. Our pilot study included a community-based sample of 30 adolescents, 14 to 21 years of age, who completed the MacCAT-CR after undergoing a simulated informed consent process. We found that adolescents' capacity to consent to research was associated with age, health literacy, and family affluence. These findings suggest that investigators and institutional review boards should be aware that factors other than age may influence capacity to consent, and, for modifiable factors, such as health literacy, consent processes for medical research with adolescents can be modified. PMID:27009303

  11. Generating Large-Scale Longitudinal Data Resources for Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    Hofer, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The need for large studies and the types of large-scale data resources (LSDRs) are discussed along with their general scientific utility, role in aging research, and affordability. The diversification of approaches to large-scale data resourcing is described in order to facilitate their use in aging research. Methods. The need for LSDRs is discussed in terms of (a) large sample size; (b) longitudinal design; (c) as platforms for additional investigator-initiated research projects; and (d) broad-based access to core genetic, biological, and phenotypic data. Discussion. It is concluded that a “lite-touch, lo-tech, lo-cost” approach to LSDRs is a viable strategy for the development of LSDRs and would enhance the likelihood of LSDRs being established which are dedicated to the wide range of important aging-related issues. PMID:21743049

  12. Teacher Research as Continuous Process Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Charles; Castle, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Teacher research (inquiry) has been characterized as practice improvement, professional development and action research, among numerous names and descriptions. The purpose of this paper is to support the case that teacher research is also a form of quality improvement known as continuous process improvement (CPI).…

  13. Developing Qualitative Research Questions: A Reflective Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agee, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The reflective and interrogative processes required for developing effective qualitative research questions can give shape and direction to a study in ways that are often underestimated. Good research questions do not necessarily produce good research, but poorly conceived or constructed questions will likely create problems that affect all…

  14. Practical applications of genomics research for treatment of aging skin.

    PubMed

    Kaczvinsky, Joseph R; Grimes, Pearl E

    2009-07-01

    Skin aging integrates the impact of extrinsic skin insults (e.g., ultraviolet [UV] light, etc.) with chronological, genetically programmed decreases in cellular function. A genomic study of aged skin highlighted the mechanistic importance of skin barrier function, exfoliation, control of reactive oxygen species and maintenance of extracellular matrix to the aging process. A set of topical products designed to address these mechanistic themes was developed and clinically tested. The individual products improved skin barrier function, hydration and skin turnover, as well as the smoothness and depth of periorbital wrinkles. Treatment with a regimen of these products improved the appearance of facial wrinkles after eight weeks. Changes in treated subjects' stratum corneum protein biomarker levels were consistent with the mechanistic pathways identified in the genomic work. Thus, leveraging a genomic understanding of skin aging led to the development of a clinically efficacious, aesthetically pleasing cosmetic regimen that improved the appearance of aged skin. PMID:19623780

  15. Processing of temporal fine structure as a function of age

    PubMed Central

    Grose, John H.; Mamo, Sara K.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine whether the processing of temporal fine structure diminishes with age, even in the presence of relatively normal audiometric hearing. Temporal fine structure processing was assessed by measuring the discrimination of inter-aural phase differences (IPDs). The hypothesis was that IPD discrimination is more acute in middle-aged observers than in older observers but that acuity in middle-aged observers is nevertheless poorer than in young adults. Design Two experiments were undertaken. The first measured discrimination of 0-and π-radian inter-aural phases as a function of carrier frequency. The stimulus was a 5-Hz sinusoidally amplitude modulated tone where, in the signal waveform, the inter-aural phase of the carrier was inverted during alternate modulation periods. The second experiment measured IPD discrimination at fixed frequencies. The stimulus was a pair of tone pulses where, in the signal, the trailing pulse contained an IPD. A total of 39 adults with normal audiograms below 2000 Hz participated: 15 younger, 12 middle-aged, and 12 older. Results Experiment 1 showed that the highest carrier frequency at which a π-radian IPD could be discriminated from the diotic, 0-radian standard was significantly lower in middle-aged listeners than young adults, and lower still in older listeners. Experiment 2 indicated that middle-aged listeners were less sensitive to IPDs than young adults at all but the lowest frequencies tested. Older listeners, as a group, had the poorest thresholds. Conclusions These results suggest that deficits in temporal fine structure processing are evident in the pre-senescent auditory system. This adds to the accumulating evidence that deficiencies in some aspects of auditory temporal processing emerge relatively early in the aging process. It is possible that early-emerging temporal processing deficits manifest themselves in challenging speech-in-noise environments. PMID:20592614

  16. Role of EPA in Asset Management Research – The Aging Water Infrastructure Research Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    This slide presentation provides an overview of the EPA Office of Research and Development’s Aging Water infrastructure Research Program (AWIRP). The research program origins, goals, products, and plans are described. The research program focuses on four areas: condition asses...

  17. Adult Education and Aging: Perspectives on Research at a Private Independent Research Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ-Eft, Darlene

    As part of a symposium on challenges and problems of adult education researchers in different settings, recent research activities at one private independent research organization were examined. Three projects of the American Instituties for Research (AIR) were reviewed, all relating to adult development and aging. The first examined career…

  18. Modelling aging effects on a thermal cycling absorption process column

    SciTech Connect

    Laquerbe, C.; Contreras, S.; Demoment, J.

    2008-07-15

    Palladium coated on alumina is used in hydrogen separation systems operated at CEA/Valduc, and more particularly in Thermal Cycling Absorption Process columns. With such materials, tritium decay is known to induce aging effects which have direct side effects on hydrogen isotopes absorption isotherms. Furthermore in a TCAP column, aging occurs in an heterogeneous way. The possible impacts of these intrinsic material evolutions on the separation performances are investigated here through a numerical approach. (authors)

  19. Aging Behavior of Al 6061 Alloy Processed by High-Pressure Torsion and Subsequent Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Intan Fadhlina; Lee, Seungwon; Edalati, Kaveh; Horita, Zenji; Hirosawa, Shoichi; Matsuda, Kenji; Terada, Daisuke

    2015-06-01

    A process to achieve strengthening in an Al 6061 alloy by grain refinement to ~200 nm using high-pressure torsion (HPT) and fine precipitation using aging treatment is studied. It is shown that although aging of the HPT-processed sample is effective for extra strengthening of the alloy, the imposed shear strain and the aging temperature should be selected carefully. The HPT processing after 5 turns leads high saturation hardness and tensile strength of 163 Hv and 470 MPa, respectively. The hardness at the saturation level remains the same during aging at 373 K (100 °C), while the hardness decreases by aging at 423 K (150 °C). When the disks are processed for 0.75 turns (lower shear strains) and aged at 373 K (100 °C), the hardness increases above the hardness level at the saturation because of the formation of B' and β' precipitates. Quantitative analyses indicate that three major hardening mechanisms contribute to the total hardening: grain boundary hardening through the Hall-Petch relationship, dislocation hardening through the Bailey-Hirsch relationship and precipitation hardening through the Orowan relationship. This study shows that the contribution of different strengthening mechanisms can be estimated using a linear additive relationship in ultrafine-grained aluminum alloys.

  20. Analogical reasoning and aging: the processing speed and inhibition hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Bugaiska, Aurélia; Thibaut, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of aging on analogical reasoning by manipulating the strength of semantic association (LowAssoc or HighAssoc) and the number of distracters' semantic analogies of the A:B::C:D type and to determine which factors might be responsible for the age-related differences on analogical reasoning by testing two different theoretical frameworks: the inhibition hypothesis and the speed mediation hypothesis. We compared young adults and two groups of aging people (old and old-old) with word analogies of the A:B::C:D format. Results indicate an age-related effect on analogical reasoning, this effect being greatest with LowAssoc analogies. It was not associated with the presence of semantic distractors. Moreover, the results show that the variance part of the analogy task due to age was mainly explained by processing speed (rather than by inhibition) in the case of old participants and by both processing speed and inhibition in the old-old group. These results are discussed in relation to current models of aging and their interaction with the processes involved in analogical reasoning. PMID:25213435

  1. Developing a Community-Based Participatory Research Model to Engage Transition Age Youth Using Mental Health Service in Research

    PubMed Central

    Lincoln, Alisa K.; Borg, Ryan; Delman, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We present a model for the development and conduct of a Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) project with transition age youth (TAY) mental health service users. CBPR frameworks can facilitate equitable partnerships and meaningful inclusion, but have not been fully drawn-upon in mental health research. The model included TAY as trained research associates involved in every aspect of the research process. We describe the development of the project, creation of the research team, training, the design and conduct of the study, and challenges faced. The methods developed successfully provided support for the meaningful participation of TAY in the project. PMID:25423247

  2. Aging Parents and Adult Children: Research Themes in Intergenerational Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancini, Jay A.; Blieszner, Rosemary

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the following dominant themes in the relationships of older parents and their adult children within the context of societal age structure changes: roles and responsibilities, parent-child interaction, individual well-being, relationship quality, and caregiving by adult children. Concludes with speculations on the future of research on…

  3. Transportation and Aging: A Research Agenda for Advancing Safe Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, Anne E.; Molnar, Lisa J.; Eby, David W.; Adler, Geri; Bedard, Michel; Berg-Weger, Marla; Classen, Sherrilene; Foley, Daniel; Horowitz, Amy; Kerschner, Helen; Page, Oliver; Silverstein, Nina M.; Staplin, Loren; Trujillo, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We review what we currently know about older driver safety and mobility, and we highlight important research needs in a number of key areas that hold promise for achieving the safety and mobility goals for the aging baby boomers and future generations of older drivers. Design and Methods: Through the use of a framework for transportation…

  4. In Silico Approaches and the Role of Ontologies in Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    Boerries, Melanie; Busch, Hauke; de Grey, Aubrey; Hahn, Udo; Hiller, Thomas; Hoeflich, Andreas; Jansen, Ludger; Janssens, Georges E.; Kaleta, Christoph; Meinema, Anne C.; Schäuble, Sascha; Simm, Andreas; Schofield, Paul N.; Smith, Barry; Sühnel, Juergen; Vera, Julio; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wönne, Eva C.; Wuttke, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The 2013 Rostock Symposium on Systems Biology and Bioinformatics in Aging Research was again dedicated to dissecting the aging process using in silico means. A particular focus was on ontologies, because these are a key technology to systematically integrate heterogeneous information about the aging process. Related topics were databases and data integration. Other talks tackled modeling issues and applications, the latter including talks focused on marker development and cellular stress as well as on diseases, in particular on diseases of kidney and skin. PMID:24188080

  5. In silico approaches and the role of ontologies in aging research.

    PubMed

    Fuellen, Georg; Boerries, Melanie; Busch, Hauke; de Grey, Aubrey; Hahn, Udo; Hiller, Thomas; Hoeflich, Andreas; Jansen, Ludger; Janssens, Georges E; Kaleta, Christoph; Meinema, Anne C; Schäuble, Sascha; Simm, Andreas; Schofield, Paul N; Smith, Barry; Sühnel, Juergen; Vera, Julio; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wönne, Eva C; Wuttke, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    The 2013 Rostock Symposium on Systems Biology and Bioinformatics in Aging Research was again dedicated to dissecting the aging process using in silico means. A particular focus was on ontologies, because these are a key technology to systematically integrate heterogeneous information about the aging process. Related topics were databases and data integration. Other talks tackled modeling issues and applications, the latter including talks focused on marker development and cellular stress as well as on diseases, in particular on diseases of kidney and skin. PMID:24188080

  6. Age-related difference in relationships between cognitive processing speed and general cognitive status.

    PubMed

    Tam, Helena M K; Lam, Charlene L M; Huang, Haixia; Wang, Baolan; Lee, Tatia M C

    2015-01-01

    General cognitive status (GCS) is a composite of cognitive abilities reflecting full function. The literature suggests a relationship between cognitive processing speed and GCS, as well as age-related changes of processing speed on cognitive performance. Therefore, this study recruited 34 younger and 39 older adults to verify age-related differences in relationships between cognitive processing speed and GCS. We measured cognitive processing speed with the Processing Speed Index of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Findings indicated that cognitive processing speed predicted GCS in older but not younger adults. Future research may be needed to verify the training effect of processing speed on GCS. This study also further examined cognitive factors related to processing speed in aging and the relationships between cognitive processing speed and verbal fluency, cognitive inhibition, and divided attention. A stepwise regression analysis indicated that only verbal fluency contributed significantly to cognitive processing speed in older adults, accounting for 21% of the variance. These observations suggest that age-related changes of prefrontal regions may not fully explain age-related decline in cognitive processing speed. PMID:24927241

  7. Research on Aging: A Piece of the Puzzle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Gene D.

    1979-01-01

    By following disorders over time, particularly into later life, and by studying changes that occur with the aging process, one sees new findings and clues emerging. These new leads can add to understanding mental illness and its treatment as well as human development in general. (Author)

  8. Health Screening and Random Recruitment for Cognitive Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Kathy J.; Moye, Jennifer; Armson, Rossana Rae; Kern, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    A survey of 197 cognitive aging studies revealed infrequent use of structured health assessments and random recruitment. In this study, a health screening questionnaire developed to identify subjects with medical problems that might impair cognition was administered to 315 adults aged 60 and older who were recruited by random digit dialing. On the basis of self-reported medical problems, 35% of the subjects were excluded. Those excluded were older (p < .001) and tended to be male but did not differ in education from those who passed the screening. Subjects who passed the screening and decided to participate in a neuropsychological research project were younger (p < .001), better educated (p < .001), and more likely to be male (p < .001) than nonparticipants. These findings suggest that careful assessment, selection, and description of subjects is needed to aid interpretation of cognitive aging research. Further attention to health status is needed to aid interpretation of cognitive aging research. Although random recruitment of the elderly is feasible, obtaining representative samples may require stratification on demographic variables. PMID:1610509

  9. Research and the planned Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Original photo and caption dated October 8, 1991: 'Plant researchers Lisa Ruffe and Neil Yorio prepare to harvest a crop of Waldann's Green Lettuce from KSC's Biomass Production Chamber (BPC). KSC researchers have grown several different crops in the BPC to determine which plants will better produce food, water and oxygen on long-duration space missions.' Their work is an example of the type of life sciences research that will be conducted at the Space Experiment Research Procession Laboratory (SERPL). The SERPL is a planned 100,000-square-foot laboratory that will provide expanded and upgraded facilities for hosting International Space Station experiment processing. In addition, it will provide better support for other biological and life sciences payload processing at KSC. It will serve as a magnet facility for a planned 400-acre Space Station Commerce Park.

  10. Research and the planned Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Original photo and caption dated October 8, 1991: 'Plant researchers Neil Yorio and Lisa Ruffe prepare to harvest a crop of Waldann's Green Lettuce from KSC's Biomass Production Chamber (BPC). KSC researchers have grown several different crops in the BPC to determine which plants will better produce food, water and oxygen on long-duration space missions.' Their work is an example of the type of life sciences research that will be conducted at the Space Experiment Research Procession Laboratory (SERPL). The SERPL is a planned 100,000-square-foot laboratory that will provide expanded and upgraded facilities for hosting International Space Station experiment processing. In addition, it will provide better support for other biological and life sciences payload processing at KSC. It will serve as a magnet facility for a planned 400-acre Space Station Commerce Park.

  11. The Critical Need to Promote Research of Aging and Aging-related Diseases to Improve Health and Longevity of the Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Kunlin; Simpkins, James W.; Ji, Xunming; Leis, Miriam; Stambler, Ilia

    2015-01-01

    Due to the aging of the global population and the derivative increase in aging-related non-communicable diseases and their economic burden, there is an urgent need to promote research on aging and aging-related diseases as a way to improve healthy and productive longevity for the elderly population. To accomplish this goal, we advocate the following policies: 1) Increasing funding for research and development specifically directed to ameliorate degenerative aging processes and to extend healthy and productive lifespan for the population; 2) Providing a set of incentives for commercial, academic, public and governmental organizations to foster engagement in such research and development; and 3) Establishing and expanding coordination and consultation structures, programs and institutions involved in aging-related research, development and education in academia, industry, public policy agencies and at governmental and supra-governmental levels. PMID:25657847

  12. Sustainability Research: Biofuels, Processes and Supply Chains

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will talk about sustainability at the EPA, summarily covering high level efforts and focusing in more detail on research in metrics for liquid biofuels and tools to evaluate sustainable processes. The presentation will also briefly touch on a new area of research, t...

  13. The Geropathology Research Network: An Interdisciplinary Approach for Integrating Pathology Into Research on Aging.

    PubMed

    Ladiges, Warren; Ikeno, Yuji; Niedernhofer, Laura; McIndoe, Richard A; Ciol, Marcia A; Ritchey, Jerry; Liggitt, Denny

    2016-04-01

    Geropathology is the study of aging and age-related lesions and diseases in the form of whole necropsies/autopsies, surgical biopsies, histology, and molecular biomarkers. It encompasses multiple subspecialties of geriatrics, anatomic pathology, molecular pathology, clinical pathology, and gerontology. In order to increase the consistency and scope of communication in the histologic and molecular pathology assessment of tissues from preclinical and clinical aging studies, a Geropathology Research Network has been established consisting of pathologists and scientists with expertise in the comparative pathology of aging, the design of aging research studies, biostatistical methods for analysis of aging data, and bioinformatics for compiling and annotating large sets of data generated from aging studies. The network provides an environment to promote learning and exchange of scientific information and ideas for the aging research community through a series of symposia, the development of uniform ways of integrating pathology into aging studies, and the statistical analysis of pathology data. The efforts of the network are ultimately expected to lead to a refined set of sentinel biomarkers of molecular and anatomic pathology that could be incorporated into preclinical and clinical aging intervention studies to increase the relevance and productivity of these types of investigations. PMID:26243216

  14. A new research challenge: persuasive technology to motivate healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Intille, Stephen S

    2004-09-01

    Healthcare systems in developed countries are experiencing severe financial stress as age demographics shift upward, leading to a larger percentage of older adults needing care. One way to potentially reduce or slow spiraling medical costs is to use technology, not only to cure sickness, but also to promote wellness throughout all stages of life, thereby avoiding or deferring expensive medical treatments. Ubiquitous computing and context-aware algorithms offer a new healthcare opportunity and a new set of research challenges: exploiting emerging consumer electronic devices to motivate healthy behavior as people age by presenting "just-in-time" information at points of decision and behavior. PMID:15484427

  15. Promoting Cognitive Health: A Formative Research Collaboration of the Healthy Aging Research Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laditka, James N.; Beard, Renee L.; Bryant, Lucinda L.; Fetterman, David; Hunter, Rebecca; Ivey, Susan; Logsdon, Rebecca G.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Wu, Bei

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Evidence suggests that healthy lifestyles may help maintain cognitive health. The Prevention Research Centers Healthy Aging Research Network, 9 universities collaborating with their communities and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, is conducting a multiyear research project, begun in 2005, to understand how to translate this…

  16. The Law of Entropy and the Aging Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samaras, T. T.

    1974-01-01

    Entrophy, internal work on body, mass, and energy are analyzed in relation to the human system and its rate of deterioration. Progressive development, increasing physical and mental efficiency, low caloric intake, and configuration management techniques are recommended for combating the aging process. (Author/SDH)

  17. The Physiology of Exercise and the Process of Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mravetz, Patricia

    A physical fitness plan is considered desirable for young people, young adults, and especially older adults. This program for secondary level students focuses on the physiology of exercise and the process of aging, and stresses the need for physical fitness. Specific objectives include the following: (1) to let students become evaluators of their…

  18. A Review of the Aging Process and Facilities Topic.

    PubMed

    Jornitz, Maik W

    2015-01-01

    Aging facilities have become a concern in the pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical manufacturing industry, so much that task forces are formed by trade organizations to address the topic. Too often, examples of aging or obsolete equipment, unit operations, processes, or entire facilities have been encountered. Major contributors to this outcome are the failure to invest in new equipment, disregarding appropriate maintenance activities, and neglecting the implementation of modern technologies. In some cases, a production process is insufficiently modified to manufacture a new product in an existing process that was used to produce a phased-out product. In other instances, manufacturers expanded the facility or processes to fulfill increasing demand and the scaling occurred in a non-uniform manner, which led to non-optimal results. Regulatory hurdles of post-approval changes in the process may thwart companies' efforts to implement new technologies. As an example, some changes have required 4 years to gain global approval. This paper will address cases of aging processes and facilities aside from modernizing options. PMID:26242790

  19. Nuclear plant-aging research on reactor protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the rsults of a review of the Reactor Trip System (RTS) and the Engineered Safety Feature Actuating System (ESFAS) operating experiences reported in Licensee Event Reports (LER)s, the Nuclear Power Experience data base, Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, and plant maintenance records. Our purpose is to evaluate the potential significance of aging, including cycling, trips, and testing as contributors to degradation of the RTS and ESFAS. Tables are presented that show the percentage of events for RTS and ESFAS classified by cause, components, and subcomponents for each of the Nuclear Steam Supply System vendors. A representative Babcock and Wilcox plant was selected for detailed study. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research guidelines were followed in performing the detailed study that identified materials susceptible to aging, stressors, environmental factors, and failure modes for the RTS and ESFAS as generic instrumentation and control systems. Functional indicators of degradation are listed, testing requirements evaluated, and regulatory issues discussed.

  20. Ageing, Drama, and Creativity: Translating Research Into Practice.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Jackie; Bernard, Miriam; Rezzano, Jill; Rickett, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Ageing, Drama, and Creativity was a pilot six-session interprofessional training course delivered collaboratively by Keele University and the New Vic Theatre, Newcastle-under-Lyme, as part of our Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) funded Ages and Stages follow-on project. The course brought together a critical gerontological approach with arts-based educational practices and was designed to develop practice capabilities and age awareness among a diverse group of professionals working in arts organizations, the voluntary sector, local government, health and social services, and housing. This article describes how the course was developed and how participants were selected, details its aims and objectives, provides an overview of the sessions and a flavor of some of the exercises that were used, and considers findings from the structured evaluation alongside written reflections from participants. PMID:26905617

  1. [Research on the silk aging with x-ray diffraction spectra].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-mei; Yuan, Si-xun

    2010-01-01

    The present paper did some researches on the deterioration mechanism and the changes in crystallinity of silk fabrics by means of the X-ray diffraction analysis. The samples artificially aged and excavated from Hubei, Innermongolia, Shaanxi and Qinghai provinces were analyzed. The artificial aging was done by simulating three main natural aging factors: light, heat and hydrolysis. The analytical results show that X-ray diffraction analysis could reveal the aging process and characteristic of silk, as well as the changes in crystallinity during silk aging. The X-ray diffraction analysis is of practical value for the conservation state and aging mechanism studies of ancient silk. In addition, X-ray diffraction analysis could also provide important information on ancient technology of textile and apparel. PMID:20302128

  2. Impact of nutrition on ageing the process. Bridging the gap: the animal perspective.

    PubMed

    Butterwick, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    In pets, as in humans, there is increasing interest in interventions that promote 'health and well-being' into later life and extend these beyond their current limits. The purpose of this review was to assess the relevance of current knowledge of ageing in humans, described in a companion paper, as well as reviewing recent research on ageing in pet populations. The role of diet and other factors that influence the ageing process and ultimately lifespan in pets are highlighted in this review; in addition, future opportunities and challenges to further our understanding of the ageing process in pets are identified. Advancing knowledge of the fundamental biology of ageing will be key for the development and evaluation of strategies that extend both the quality and the quantity of lifespan in human and pet populations. PMID:25588384

  3. Age does not count: resilience of quantity processing in healthy ageing

    PubMed Central

    Lambrechts, Anna; Karolis, Vyacheslav; Garcia, Sara; Obende, Jennifer; Cappelletti, Marinella

    2013-01-01

    Quantity skills have been extensively studied in terms of their development and pathological decline. Recently, numerosity discrimination (i.e., how many items are in a set) has been shown to be resilient to healthy ageing despite relying on inhibitory skills, but whether processing continuous quantities such as time and space is equally well-maintained in ageing participants is not known. Life-long exposure to quantity-related problems may progressively refine proficiency in quantity tasks, or alternatively quantity skills may decline with age. In addition, is not known whether the tight relationship between quantity dimensions typically shown in their interactions is preserved in ageing. To address these questions, two experimental paradigms were used in 38 younger and 32 older healthy adults who showed typical age-related decline in attention, executive function and memory tasks. In both groups we first assessed time and space discrimination independently using a two-choice task (i.e., “Which of two horizontal lines is longer in duration or extension?”), and found that time and space processing were equally accurate in younger and older participants. In a second paradigm, we assessed the relation between different quantity dimensions which were presented as a dynamic pattern of dots independently changing in duration, spatial extension and numerosity. Younger and older participants again showed a similar profile of interaction between number, cumulative area and duration, although older adults showed a greater sensitivity to task-irrelevant information than younger adults in the cumulative area task but lower sensitivity in the duration task. Continuous quantity processing seems therefore resilient to ageing similar to numerosity and to other non-quantity skills like vocabulary or implicit memory; however, ageing might differentially affect different quantity dimensions. PMID:24339818

  4. Summary of process research analysis efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of solar-cell process research analysis efforts was presented. Process design and cell design are interactive efforts where technology from integrated circuit processes and other processes are blended. The primary factors that control cell efficiency are: (1) the bulk parameters of the available sheet material, (2) the retention and enhancement of these bulk parameters, and (3) the cell design and the cost to produce versus the finished cells performance. The process sequences need to be tailored to be compatible with the sheet form, the cell shape form, and the processing equipment. New process options that require further evaluation and utilization are lasers, robotics, thermal pulse techniques, and new materials. There are numerous process control techniques that can be adapted and used that will improve product uniformity and reduced costs. Two factors that can lead to longer life modules are the use of solar cell diffusion barriers and improved encapsulation.

  5. Ageing with elegans: a research proposal to map healthspan pathways.

    PubMed

    Luyten, Walter; Antal, Peter; Braeckman, Bart P; Bundy, Jake; Cirulli, Francesca; Fang-Yen, Christopher; Fuellen, Georg; Leroi, Armand; Liu, Qingfei; Martorell, Patricia; Metspalu, Andres; Perola, Markus; Ristow, Michael; Saul, Nadine; Schoofs, Liliane; Siems, Karsten; Temmerman, Liesbet; Smets, Tina; Wolk, Alicja; Rattan, Suresh I S

    2016-08-01

    Human longevity continues to increase world-wide, often accompanied by decreasing birth rates. As a larger fraction of the population thus gets older, the number of people suffering from disease or disability increases dramatically, presenting a major societal challenge. Healthy ageing has therefore been selected by EU policy makers as an important priority ( http://www.healthyageing.eu/european-policies-and-initiatives ); it benefits not only the elderly but also their direct environment and broader society, as well as the economy. The theme of healthy ageing figures prominently in the Horizon 2020 programme ( https://ec.europa.eu/programmes/horizon2020/en/h2020-section/health-demographic-change-and-wellbeing ), which has launched several research and innovation actions (RIA), like "Understanding health, ageing and disease: determinants, risk factors and pathways" in the work programme on "Personalising healthcare" ( https://ec.europa.eu/research/participants/portal/desktop/en/opportunities/h2020/topics/693-phc-01-2014.html ). Here we present our research proposal entitled "ageing with elegans" (AwE) ( http://www.h2020awe.eu/ ), funded by this RIA, which aims for better understanding of the factors causing health and disease in ageing, and to develop evidence-based prevention, diagnostic, therapeutic and other strategies. The aim of this article, authored by the principal investigators of the 17 collaborating teams, is to describe briefly the rationale, aims, strategies and work packages of AwE for the purposes of sharing our ideas and plans with the biogerontological community in order to invite scientific feedback, suggestions, and criticism. PMID:27040825

  6. Dissociation of motor and sensory inhibition processes in normal aging

    PubMed Central

    Anguera, Joaquin A.; Gazzaley, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Objective Age-related cognitive impairments have been attributed to deficits in inhibitory processes that mediate both motor restraint and sensory filtering. However, behavioral studies have failed to show an association between tasks that measure these distinct types of inhibition. In the present study, we hypothesized neural markers reflecting each type of inhibition may reveal a relationship across inhibitory domains in older adults. Methods Electroencephalography (EEG) and behavioral measures were used to explore whether there was an across-participant correlation between sensory suppression and motor inhibition. Sixteen healthy older adult participants (65-80 years) engaged in two separate experimental paradigms: a selective attention, delayed-recognition task and a stop-signal task. Results Findings revealed no significant relationship existed between neural markers of sensory suppression (P1 amplitude; N170 latency) and markers of motor inhibition (N2 and P3 amplitude and latency) in older adults. Conclusions These distinct inhibitory domains are differentially impacted in normal aging, as evidenced by previous behavioral work and the current neural findings. Thus a generalized inhibitory deficit may not be a common impairment in cognitive aging. Significance Given that some theories of cognitive aging suggest age-related failure of inhibitory mechanisms may span different modalities, the present findings contribute to an alternative view where age-related declines within each inhibitory modality are unrelated. PMID:21963321

  7. Gender stereotypes across the ages: On-line processing in school-age children, young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna; Warren, Paul; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Most research to date on implicit gender stereotyping has been conducted with one age group – young adults. The mechanisms that underlie the on-line processing of stereotypical information in other age groups have received very little attention. This is the first study to investigate real time processing of gender stereotypes at different age levels. We investigated the activation of gender stereotypes in Italian in four groups of participants: third- and fifth-graders, young and older adults. Participants heard a noun that was stereotypically associated with masculine (preside “headmaster”) or feminine roles (badante “social care worker”), followed by a male (padre “father”) or female kinship term (madre “mother”). The task was to decide if the two words – the role noun and the kinship term – could describe the same person. Across all age groups, participants were significantly faster to respond, and significantly more likely to press ‘yes,’ when the gender of the target was congruent with the stereotypical gender use of the preceding prime. These findings suggest that information about the stereotypical gender associated with a role noun is incorporated into the mental representation of this word and is activated as soon as the word is heard. In addition, our results show differences between male and female participants of the various age groups, and between male- and female-oriented stereotypes, pointing to important gender asymmetries. PMID:26441763

  8. Aging and the number sense: preserved basic non-symbolic numerical processing and enhanced basic symbolic processing

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Jade E.; McGeown, William J.; Guerrini, Chiara; Castronovo, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Aging often leads to general cognitive decline in domains such as memory and attention. The effect of aging on numerical cognition, particularly on foundational numerical skills known as the number sense, is not well-known. Early research focused on the effect of aging on arithmetic. Recent studies have begun to investigate the impact of healthy aging on basic numerical skills, but focused on non-symbolic quantity discrimination alone. Moreover, contradictory findings have emerged. The current study aimed to further investigate the impact of aging on basic non-symbolic and symbolic numerical skills. A group of 25 younger (18–25) and 25 older adults (60–77) participated in non-symbolic and symbolic numerical comparison tasks. Mathematical and spelling abilities were also measured. Results showed that aging had no effect on foundational non-symbolic numerical skills, as both groups performed similarly [RTs, accuracy and Weber fractions (w)]. All participants showed decreased non-symbolic acuity (accuracy and w) in trials requiring inhibition. However, aging appears to be associated with a greater decline in discrimination speed in such trials. Furthermore, aging seems to have a positive impact on mathematical ability and basic symbolic numerical processing, as older participants attained significantly higher mathematical achievement scores, and performed significantly better on the symbolic comparison task than younger participants. The findings suggest that aging and its lifetime exposure to numbers may lead to better mathematical achievement and stronger basic symbolic numerical skills. Our results further support the observation that basic non-symbolic numerical skills are resilient to aging, but that aging may exacerbate poorer performance on trials requiring inhibitory processes. These findings lend further support to the notion that preserved basic numerical skills in aging may reflect the preservation of an innate, primitive, and embedded number sense

  9. Aging research 2011: exploring the pet dog paradigm.

    PubMed

    Waters, David J

    2011-01-01

    Researchers are counting on comparative biologists to find alternative animal models of human aging that will foster experimental approaches to study disability-free longevity, not just the addition of years. This article presents one such alternative: the use of pet dogs living in the same environment as people to study the determinants of healthy longevity. There are both theoretical and practical reasons for this research model beyond the well-documented physiologic similarities between dogs and humans. First, a wealth of medical data--based on clinical and biochemical evaluation, medical imaging, and pathology--is available for pet dogs. Second, a vast array of phenotypic domains can be accurately assessed in dogs, ranging from cardiac contractility and glomerular integrity to the ability to climb stairs and interact with people. Moreover, studying pet dogs obviates the purchase and per diem costs typically associated with large animal research. Pet dogs may be particularly well suited for exploring (1) mechanisms of sex differences in longevity; (2) interventions to compress morbidity and enhance healthspan; (3) genomic correlates of successful aging phenotypes and endophenotypes; (4) heterogeneity in resistance to aging-related diseases, such as cancer; and (5) noninvasive biomarkers of particular target organs. Finally, between-breed differences in senescence trajectories and longevity may expand hypotheses of key genetic factors that contribute to sustained organ function and the postponement of disease. Yet the pet dog paradigm in aging research is nascent; tapping into the potential of this model will add to the existing strengths of conventional model systems. PMID:21411862

  10. Ageing and oxytocin: a call for extending human oxytocin research to ageing populations--a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Huffmeijer, Renske; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2013-01-01

    Interest in oxytocin has increased rapidly over the last decades. Consequently, quite a number of studies have addressed the influence of oxytocin on social stress, perception, cognition, and decision making in healthy adults as well as in clinical samples characterized by some form of social disturbance. Surprisingly little research on oxytocin has focused on ageing populations. This is particularly striking in two areas of study: the role of oxytocin in grandparents' behavior toward and bonding with their grandchildren and the effects of oxytocin on the neurocognitive processing of socioemotional stimuli. The current mini-review offers an overview of the literature on the involvement of oxytocin in parental behavior and neurocognitive functioning, and discusses the relevance of these findings to ageing individuals. As the literature shows that oxytocin is profoundly involved in parenting and in bonding throughout life, it is highly likely that oxytocin plays a role in grandparenting and bonding between grandparents and grandchildren as well. However, results obtained with younger adults may not be directly applicable to older individuals in yet another type of relationship. The possibility that age-related changes occur in the oxytocin system (which is at present unclear) must be taken into account. In addition, ageing impairs neurocognitive processes that are profoundly affected by oxytocin (including some aspects of memory and emotion recognition) and is associated with alterations in both structure and function of the amygdala, which is prominently involved in mediating effects of oxytocin. Research investigating the ageing oxytonergic system and studies focusing on the involvement of oxytocin in socioemotional neurocognitive processes and social behavior in elderly individuals, including grandparents, are therefore urgently needed. PMID:22922544

  11. The materials processing research base of the Materials Processing Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latanision, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    An annual report of the research activities of the Materials Processing Center of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is given. Research on dielectrophoresis in the microgravity environment, phase separation kinetics in immiscible liquids, transport properties of droplet clusters in gravity-free fields, probes and monitors for the study of solidification of molten semiconductors, fluid mechanics and mass transfer in melt crystal growth, and heat flow control and segregation in directional solidification are discussed.

  12. Aging of motoneurons and synaptic processes in the cat.

    PubMed

    Chase, M H; Morales, F R; Boxer, P A; Fung, S J

    1985-11-01

    The aging of spinal cord alpha motoneurons was explored in old cats with intracellular recording techniques to determine the basic membrane properties of these neurons and their monosynaptic response following activation of group Ia afferent fibers. The conduction velocity of the motoneurons' axons decreased in old animals (14 to 15 years of age) compared with adult controls (1 to 3 years of age). The input resistance of the motoneurons increased in the old cats; no change occurred in the resting membrane potential or spike amplitude. There was a reduction in the delay between the initial segment and the somadendritic components of the antidromic spike. The half-width duration of the monosynaptic EPSP in the old cats increased, but its amplitude did not change. These data indicate that a host of different membrane properties of spinal cord motoneurons and their Ia-monosynaptic input are affected by the aging process. Analysis of the results suggests that the degradation of neuronal processes occurs in all motoneurons rather than preferentially affecting a specific population of motoneurons. PMID:2996926

  13. T regulatory cells and the immune aging process

    PubMed Central

    Jagger, Ann Titi; Shimojima, Yasuhiro; Goronzy, Jorg J.; Weyand, Cornelia M.

    2016-01-01

    Constant exposure to new and persisting antigens and the need to replace cellular attrition with newly build cells lead to profound remodeling of the immune system during the second half of life. The impact of the immunosenescence process varies amongst the different functional subsets represented within the immune system, and emerging data suggest that progressive aging significantly affects frequencies, subset distribution and functional competence of regulatory T cells (Treg). Given the central role of Treg cells in immune homeostasis, age-related loss of Treg function would be predicted to render the host susceptible to excessive immunity, encountered in elderly humans as a syndrome of chronic-smoldering inflammation. Conversely, age-dependent gain of Treg activity would expose the host to greater risk of immune failure, such as the rising risk of malignancies and infections in the aging population. Emerging data suggest that some Treg populations, specifically naturally occurring Tregs (nTreg), seem to accumulate with advancing age, whereas inducible Tregs (iTreg) appear to be less available in the older host. More studies are necessary to elucidate functional competence of old Tregs, with emphasis on comparing efficacy of young on old Tregs for defined functional domains. Mechanisms of declining Treg inducibility are not understood, but may provide an opportunity for targeted immunomodulation in the elderly. On the horizon is the potential to develop novel therapeutic interventions that target Tregs to make the elderly more efficient in fighting cancers and infections and dampen the risk for senescence-associated inflammation. PMID:24296590

  14. How Do People with Learning Disabilities Experience and Make Sense of the Ageing Process?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newberry, Gayle; Martin, Carol; Robbins, Lorna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Not enough is currently known about how people with learning disabilities experience and understand the ageing process. This is particularly important as the population of older people with learning disabilities is growing due to increased life expectancy. This article draws on the first author's doctoral research study, which aimed to…

  15. Age-Related Changes in Duration Reproduction: Involvement of Working Memory Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baudouin, Alexia; Vanneste, Sandrine; Pouthas, Viviane; Isingrini, Michel

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to study age-related changes in duration reproduction by differentiating the working memory processes underlying this time estimation task. We compared performances of young and elderly adults in a duration reproduction task performed in simple and concurrent task conditions. Participants were also administered…

  16. Research at Yale in Natural Language Processing. Research Report #84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schank, Roger C.

    This report summarizes the capabilities of five computer programs at Yale that do automatic natural language processing as of the end of 1976. For each program an introduction to its overall intent is given, followed by the input/output, a short discussion of the research underlying the program, and a prognosis for future development. The programs…

  17. [PROBLEM OF ENDOMETRIUM HYPERPLASTIC PROCESSES IN REPRODUCTIVE AGE WOMEN].

    PubMed

    Bazyuta, L Z; Polyova, S P; Tsintar, S A

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the risk factors of endometrium hyperplastic processes (EHP) in reproduc- tive age women. It is shown that EHP occur in response to hormonal homeostasis violations of the target tissues. It is established that the biologically active substances, which are closely related to immune mechanisms of the reproductive system functioning take place in regulatory mechanisms of cell growth and differentiation of endometrium. PMID:27491143

  18. Aerobic granular processes: Current research trends.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanguo; Hu, Jianjun; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-06-01

    Aerobic granules are large biological aggregates with compact interiors that can be used in efficient wastewater treatment. This mini-review presents new researches on the development of aerobic granular processes, extended treatments for complicated pollutants, granulation mechanisms and enhancements of granule stability in long-term operation or storage, and the reuse of waste biomass as renewable resources. A discussion on the challenges of, and prospects for, the commercialization of aerobic granular process is provided. PMID:26873285

  19. Anti-aging medicine and research: a realm of conflict and profound societal implications.

    PubMed

    Binstock, Robert H

    2004-06-01

    Biogerontologists have recently launched a war of words on anti-aging medicine. They seek to discredit what they judge to be fraudulent and harmful products and therapies, and to distinguish their own research from what they regard as the pseudoscience of anti-aging injections, special mineral waters, and other services and products. Yet, many of these biogerontologists are themselves trying to develop interventions that will actually slow or arrest the fundamental processes of human aging and substantially extend average life expectancy and maximum life span. Achievement of these biogerontological goals would drastically alter the nature of individual and collective life, radically transforming virtually every social institution and norm. Biogerontologists who are engaged in anti-aging research need to undertake more active leadership in helping the public to understand their goals, to deliberately consider the implications of their fulfillment, and to begin thinking about ways to shape those ramifications in constructive fashions. PMID:15215257

  20. Brain Processing of Emotional Scenes in Aging: Effect of Arousal and Affective Context

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Nicolas Gilles; Gentaz, Edouard; Harquel, Sylvain; Vercueil, Laurent; Chauvin, Alan; Bonnet, Stéphane; Campagne, Aurélie

    2014-01-01

    Research on emotion showed an increase, with age, in prevalence of positive information relative to negative ones. This effect is called positivity effect. From the cerebral analysis of the Late Positive Potential (LPP), sensitive to attention, our study investigated to which extent the arousal level of negative scenes is differently processed between young and older adults and, to which extent the arousal level of negative scenes, depending on its value, may contextually modulate the cerebral processing of positive (and neutral) scenes and favor the observation of a positivity effect with age. With this aim, two negative scene groups characterized by two distinct arousal levels (high and low) were displayed into two separate experimental blocks in which were included positive and neutral pictures. The two blocks only differed by their negative pictures across participants, as to create two negative global contexts for the processing of the positive and neutral pictures. The results show that the relative processing of different arousal levels of negative stimuli, reflected by LPP, appears similar between the two age groups. However, a lower activity for negative stimuli is observed with the older group for both tested arousal levels. The processing of positive information seems to be preserved with age and is also not contextually impacted by negative stimuli in both younger and older adults. For neutral stimuli, a significantly reduced activity is observed for older adults in the contextual block of low-arousal negative stimuli. Globally, our study reveals that the positivity effect is mainly due to a modulation, with age, in processing of negative stimuli, regardless of their arousal level. It also suggests that processing of neutral stimuli may be modulated with age, depending on negative context in which they are presented to. These age-related effects could contribute to justify the differences in emotional preference with age. PMID:24932857

  1. The Future of Nearshore Processes Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elko, N.; Feddersen, F.; Foster, D. L.; Holman, R. A.; McNinch, J.; Ozkan-Haller, H. T.; Plant, N. G.; Raubenheimer, B.; Elgar, S.; Hay, A. E.; Holland, K. T.; Kirby, J. T., Jr.; Lippmann, T. C.; Miller, J. K.; Stockdon, H. F.; Ashton, A. D.; Boehm, A. B.; Clark, D.; Cowen, E.; Dalyander, S.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Hapke, C. J.; MacMahan, J.; McNamara, D.; Mulligan, R. P.; Palmsten, M. L.; Ruggiero, P.; Sherwood, C. R.; Hsu, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Over 70 members of the nearshore coastal processes research community convened in April 2014 to discuss a vision for the future of nearshore science while celebrating the memories and contributions of our recently departed colleague, Abby Sallenger. The participants reviewed community accomplishments over the past four decades. Federal agencies, including FEMA, NOAA, NPS, USGS, USACE, and NRL discussed the most pressing societal needs within the coastal zone. The group engaged in a retrospective of the last four decades of progress, assessed the current status and limitations of nearshore processes research, and developed a vision for the future that focuses on societally relevant problems. The top research topics identified included: Long-term Coastal Impacts: Meaningfully improve our understanding and prediction of the long-term coastal effects of sea level rise and changes in storminess patterns and associated efforts to protect coastal infrastructure. Extreme Events: Coastal flooding, overland flow, and concurrent morphological evolution during extreme events including the subsequent process of coastal recovery. Human and Ecosystem Health: Linkages between physical coastal processes (transport and mixing) and land-based pollution (pathogens, nutrients, toxic contaminants). Critical for addressing these research questions is enabling infrastructure, such as new observational tools and data sets, models, and nearshore-community communication and collaboration. Idea and concepts developed during the meeting (to be published in Shore and Beach) will be presented to foster collaboration and advocacy amongst the wider nearshore community. Meeting materials are available at: https://scripps.ucsd.edu/centers/nearshorefuture/.

  2. [Caring for healthy aging: building an educational process with rural women].

    PubMed

    Portella, M R

    1999-01-01

    This study analyses a proposal of nursing assistance. The project proposed has as its goal the construction of an educational process aiming a healthy aging among rural women. It is important to emphasize that these women's cultural health practices were taken into consideration in this research. The conceptual milestones adopted were drawn from Madeleine Leninger's concept of "cultural care" and Paulo Freire's pedagogical ideas. The educational process being proposed is based on the idea of caring/educating in which the nursing professional and the group share experiences through reflective dialog, and seek cultural health practices that can contribute on a healthy aging. PMID:12138632

  3. Priorities in the use of research into ageing.

    PubMed

    Lesser, Harry

    2005-03-01

    This paper considers which applications of research into ageing should be supported. It assumes that both applications which enhance the quality of life for the elderly and applications which extend the life-span are desirable, and then considers which should be prioritised. It is argued that in the present state of our knowledge and under present social and medical conditions there are a number of reasons for favouring the improvement of the quality of life over increasing the life-span, and thinking that this is likely to do more good and for more people. PMID:15889681

  4. USU research helps agriculture enter the space age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, F. B.

    1987-01-01

    Research at the Utah State University College of Agriculture that is relevant to the space life sciences is reviewed. Specific programs detailed are gravitropism of dicot stems, maximization of wheat yields for use in space exploration, and plant development processes in wheat in microgravity.

  5. Radiological ageing process in the cervical spine of Nigerian women.

    PubMed

    Obisesan, K A; Obajimi, M O

    1999-01-01

    The study was designed to determine the age of commencement of ageing process in Nigerian women Four hundred (400) consecutive women requesting for cervical spine radiographs where recruited for this study. A study chart was made showing different variables like osteoarthrosis, detached osteophytes, postural ulterations and disk degenerations in a four year period from 1st January, 1993 to 31st December, 1996 the modified Kellgren and Lawrence grading system was used to assess radiographic changes. The highest rate of osteoarthrosis (31.13%) was found in the fifth decade. Incidence of postural alterations of the cervical spine rose sharply in the 5th and 6th decades of life. Grade 2 osteoarthrosis (Kellgren and Lawrence) was commonest (61.3%); Grades 3 and 4 had the lowest incidence (3.45%). Disc degeneration was commonest in the 5th; the most involved disc was C5/C6 and the least involved was C2/C3. It is concluded that the ageing process in the Nigerian women commences in the fourth decade of life, and apparently shows no difference with caucasian women. PMID:11205829

  6. The aging process of optical couplers by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarek, Lukas; Marcinka, Ondrej; Perecar, Frantisek; Papes, Martin; Hajek, Lukas; Nedoma, Jan; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2015-08-01

    Scientists have recently discovered that the ageing process of optical elements is faster than it was originally anticipated. It is mostly due to the multiple increases of the optical power in optical components, the introduction of wavelength division multiplexers and, overall, the increased flow of traffic in optical communications. This article examines the ageing process of optical couplers and it focuses on their performance parameters. It describes the measurement procedure followed by the evaluation of the measurement results. To accelerate the ageing process, gamma irradiation from 60Co was used. The results of the measurements of the optical coupler with one input and eight outputs (1:8) were summarized. The results gained by measuring of the optical coupler with one input and four outputs (1:4) as well as of the optical couplers with one input and two outputs (1:2) with different split ratios were also processed. The optical powers were measured on the input and the outputs of each branch of each optical coupler at the wavelengths of 1310 nm and 1550 nm. The parameters of the optical couplers were subsequently calculated according to the appropriate formulas. These parameters were the insertion loss of the individual branches, split ratio, total losses, homogeneity of the losses and directionalities alias cross-talk between the individual output branches. The gathered data were summarized before and after the first irradiation when the configuration of the couplers was 1:8 and 1:4. The data were summarized after the third irradiation when the configuration of the couplers was 1:2.

  7. Weak ergodicity breaking, irreproducibility, and ageing in anomalous diffusion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Metzler, Ralf

    2014-01-14

    Single particle traces are standardly evaluated in terms of time averages of the second moment of the position time series r(t). For ergodic processes, one can interpret such results in terms of the known theories for the corresponding ensemble averaged quantities. In anomalous diffusion processes, that are widely observed in nature over many orders of magnitude, the equivalence between (long) time and ensemble averages may be broken (weak ergodicity breaking), and these time averages may no longer be interpreted in terms of ensemble theories. Here we detail some recent results on weakly non-ergodic systems with respect to the time averaged mean squared displacement, the inherent irreproducibility of individual measurements, and methods to determine the exact underlying stochastic process. We also address the phenomenon of ageing, the dependence of physical observables on the time span between initial preparation of the system and the start of the measurement.

  8. Feed process studies: Research-Scale Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Whittington, K.F.; Seiler, D.K.; Luey, J.; Vienna, J.D.; Sliger, W.A.

    1996-09-01

    In support of a two-phase approach to privatizing the processing of hazardous and radioactive waste at Hanford, research-scale melter (RSM) experiments were conducted to determine feed processing characteristics of two potential privatization Phase 1 high-level waste glass formulations and to determine if increased Ag, Te, and noble metal amounts would have bad effects. Effects of feed compositions and process conditions were examined for processing rate, cold cap behavior, off-gas, and glass properties. The 2 glass formulations used were: NOM-2 with adjusted waste loading (all components except silica and soda) of 25 wt%, and NOM-3 (max waste loaded glass) with adjusted waste loading of 30 wt%. The 25 wt% figure is the minimum required in the privatization Request for Proposal. RSM operated for 19 days (5 runs). 1010 kg feed was processed, producing 362 kg glass. Parts of runs 2 and 3 were run at 10 to 30 degrees above the nominal temperature 1150 C, with the most significant processing rate increase in run 3. Processing observations led to the choice of NOM-3 for noble metal testing in runs 4 and 5. During noble metal testing, processing rates fell 50% from baseline. Destructive analysis showed that a layer of noble metals and noble metal oxides settled on the floor of the melter, leading to current ``channeling`` which allowed the top section to cool, reducing production rates.

  9. The availability of research data declines rapidly with article age.

    PubMed

    Vines, Timothy H; Albert, Arianne Y K; Andrew, Rose L; Débarre, Florence; Bock, Dan G; Franklin, Michelle T; Gilbert, Kimberly J; Moore, Jean-Sébastien; Renaut, Sébastien; Rennison, Diana J

    2014-01-01

    Policies ensuring that research data are available on public archives are increasingly being implemented at the government [1], funding agency [2-4], and journal [5, 6] level. These policies are predicated on the idea that authors are poor stewards of their data, particularly over the long term [7], and indeed many studies have found that authors are often unable or unwilling to share their data [8-11]. However, there are no systematic estimates of how the availability of research data changes with time since publication. We therefore requested data sets from a relatively homogenous set of 516 articles published between 2 and 22 years ago, and found that availability of the data was strongly affected by article age. For papers where the authors gave the status of their data, the odds of a data set being extant fell by 17% per year. In addition, the odds that we could find a working e-mail address for the first, last, or corresponding author fell by 7% per year. Our results reinforce the notion that, in the long term, research data cannot be reliably preserved by individual researchers, and further demonstrate the urgent need for policies mandating data sharing via public archives. PMID:24361065

  10. Finding Major Patterns of Aging Process by Data Synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyano, Takaya; Tsutsui, Takako

    We developed a method for extracting feature patterns from multivariate data using a network of coupled phase oscillators subject to an analogue of the Kuramoto model for collective synchronization. Our method may be called data synchronization. We applied data synchronization to the care-needs-certification data, provided by Otsu City as a historical old city near Kyoto City, in the Japanese public long-term care insurance program to find the trend of the major patterns of the aging process for elderly people needing nursing care.

  11. Interactive image processing in swallowing research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dengel, Gail A.; Robbins, JoAnne; Rosenbek, John C.

    1991-06-01

    Dynamic radiographic imaging of the mouth, larynx, pharynx, and esophagus during swallowing is used commonly in clinical diagnosis, treatment and research. Images are recorded on videotape and interpreted conventionally by visual perceptual methods, limited to specific measures in the time domain and binary decisions about the presence or absence of events. An image processing system using personal computer hardware and original software has been developed to facilitate measurement of temporal, spatial and temporospatial parameters. Digitized image sequences derived from videotape are manipulated and analyzed interactively. Animation is used to preserve context and increase efficiency of measurement. Filtering and enhancement functions heighten image clarity and contrast, improving visibility of details which are not apparent on videotape. Distortion effects and extraneous head and body motions are removed prior to analysis, and spatial scales are controlled to permit comparison among subjects. Effects of image processing on intra- and interjudge reliability and research applications are discussed.

  12. Understanding Combustion Processes Through Microgravity Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronney, Paul D.

    1998-01-01

    A review of research on the effects of gravity on combustion processes is presented, with an emphasis on a discussion of the ways in which reduced-gravity experiments and modeling has led to new understanding. Comparison of time scales shows that the removal of buoyancy-induced convection leads to manifestations of other transport mechanisms, notably radiative heat transfer and diffusional processes such as Lewis number effects. Examples from premixed-gas combustion, non-premixed gas-jet flames, droplet combustion, flame spread over solid and liquid fuels, and other fields are presented. Promising directions for new research are outlined, the most important of which is suggested to be radiative reabsorption effects in weakly burning flames.

  13. "What If? As If", An Approach to Action Research Practice: Becoming-Different in School-Age Childcare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Eva

    2015-01-01

    When doing research, or for that matter working in school-age childcare, the researcher/teacher is required to develop a plan for her/his work in spite of knowing that unexpected things will happen. This article aims to explore the relationship between the process of planning and unexpected events in childcare practice and action research. The…

  14. Professor Age and Research Assistant Ratings of Passive-Avoidant and Proactive Leadership: The Role of Age-Related Work Concerns and Age Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacher, Hannes; Bal, P. Matthijs

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has shown that, in general, older professors are rated to have more passive-avoidant leadership styles than younger professors by their research assistants. The current study investigated professors' age-related work concerns and research assistants' favorable age stereotypes as possible explanations for this finding. Data came…

  15. Qing'E formula alleviates the aging process in D-galactose-induced aging mice

    PubMed Central

    ZHONG, LIN; HUANG, FEI; SHI, HAILIAN; WU, HUI; ZHANG, BEIBEI; WU, XIAOJUN; WEI, XIAOHUI; WANG, ZHENGTAO

    2016-01-01

    Qing'E formula (QEF) is a clinically used prescription with four ingredients, Eucommiae Cortex, Psoraleae Fructus, Juglandis Semen and Garlic Rhizoma, from the Song dynasty (10th century CE). The present study aimed to investigate the anti-aging effect and mechanisms of QEF on D-galactose-induced aging mice. A mouse subacute aging model was established by subcutaneous injection of D-galactose at the neck consecutively for 8 weeks. Motor activity and memory impairment of the mice were evaluated by the rotarod test and passive avoidance test, respectively. Serum and liver parameters were analyzed with biochemical kits. Hippocampal mRNA and protein expression levels were examined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. QEF administration significantly ameliorated the impaired motor and memory of aging mice. In the serum, QEF reduced blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and inhibited alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities. In the liver, QEF increased the glutathione level, enhanced total antioxidant capacity and catalase activity, deceased NO and MDA production, and reduced NO synthase activity. In the hippocampus, QEF elevated gene expression levels of Klotho, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), forkhead box transcription factor O3, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), insulin-like growth factor-1 and peroxiredoxin-3. QEF increased protein expression levels of Klotho and SIRT1, and decreased that of PGC-1α in the hippocampus. In conclusion, QEF attenuated the aging process in D-galactose-treated mice, which may be mediated through enhancing the antioxidants in the body, protecting renal and hepatic health, and balancing hippocampal expression levels of the longevity-related genes. PMID:27347412

  16. Vascular Ageing and Exercise: Focus on Cellular Reparative Processes

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Mark D.; Malone, Eva; Florida-James, Geraint

    2016-01-01

    Ageing is associated with an increased risk of developing noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The increased risk can be attributable to increased prolonged exposure to oxidative stress. Often, CVD is preceded by endothelial dysfunction, which carries with it a proatherothrombotic phenotype. Endothelial senescence and reduced production and release of nitric oxide (NO) are associated with “vascular ageing” and are often accompanied by a reduced ability for the body to repair vascular damage, termed “reendothelialization.” Exercise has been repeatedly shown to confer protection against CVD and diabetes risk and incidence. Regular exercise promotes endothelial function and can prevent endothelial senescence, often through a reduction in oxidative stress. Recently, endothelial precursors, endothelial progenitor cells (EPC), have been shown to repair damaged endothelium, and reduced circulating number and/or function of these cells is associated with ageing. Exercise can modulate both number and function of these cells to promote endothelial homeostasis. In this review we look at the effects of advancing age on the endothelium and these endothelial precursors and how exercise appears to offset this “vascular ageing” process. PMID:26697131

  17. Aging.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-09-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  18. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  19. Age effects on visual-perceptual processing and confrontation naming.

    PubMed

    Gutherie, Audrey H; Seely, Peter W; Beacham, Lauren A; Schuchard, Ronald A; De l'Aune, William A; Moore, Anna Bacon

    2010-03-01

    The impact of age-related changes in visual-perceptual processing on naming ability has not been reported. The present study investigated the effects of 6 levels of spatial frequency and 6 levels of contrast on accuracy and latency to name objects in 14 young and 13 older neurologically normal adults with intact lexical-semantic functioning. Spatial frequency and contrast manipulations were made independently. Consistent with the hypotheses, variations in these two visual parameters impact naming ability in young and older subjects differently. The results from the spatial frequency-manipulations revealed that, in general, young vs. older subjects are faster and more accurate to name. However, this age-related difference is dependent on the spatial frequency on the image; differences were only seen for images presented at low (e.g., 0.25-1 c/deg) or high (e.g., 8-16 c/deg) spatial frequencies. Contrary to predictions, the results from the contrast manipulations revealed that overall older vs. young adults are more accurate to name. Again, however, differences were only seen for images presented at the lower levels of contrast (i.e., 1.25%). Both age groups had shorter latencies on the second exposure of the contrast-manipulated images, but this possible advantage of exposure was not seen for spatial frequency. Category analyses conducted on the data from this study indicate that older vs. young adults exhibit a stronger nonliving-object advantage for naming spatial frequency-manipulated images. Moreover, the findings suggest that bottom-up visual-perceptual variables integrate with top-down category information in different ways. Potential implications on the aging and naming (and recognition) literature are discussed. PMID:19670050

  20. Research and the planned Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Original photo and caption dated August 14, 1995: 'KSC plant physiologist Dr. Gary Stutte (right) and Cheryl Mackowiak harvest potatoes grown in the Biomass Production Chamber of the Controlled Enviornment Life Support System (CELSS in Hangar L at Cape Canaveral Air Station. During a 418-day 'human rated' experiment, potato crops grown in the chamber provided the equivalent of a continuous supply of the oxygen for one astronaut, along with 55 percent of that long-duration space flight crew member's caloric food requirements and enough purified water for four astronauts while absorbing their expelled carbon dioxide. The experiment provided data that will help demonstarte the feasibility of the CELSS operating as a bioregenerative life support system for lunar and deep-space missions that can operate independently without the need to carry consumables such as air, water and food, while not requiring the expendable air and water system filters necessary on today's human-piloted spacecraft.' Their work is an example of the type of life sciences research that will be conducted at the Space Experiment Research Procession Laboratory (SERPL). The SERPL is a planned 100,000-square-foot laboratory that will provide expanded and upgraded facilities for hosting International Space Station experiment processing. In addition, it will provide better support for other biological and life sciences payload processing at KSC. It will serve as a magnet facility for a planned 400-acre Space Station Commerce Park.

  1. Research and the planned Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Original photo and caption dated August 14, 1995: 'KSC plant physiologist Dr. Gary Stutte harvests a potato grown in the Biomass Production Chamber of the Controlled environment Life Support system (CELSS) in Hangar L at Cape Canaveral Air Station. During a 418-day 'human rated' experiment, potato crops grown in the chamber provided the equivalent of a continuous supply of the oxygen for one astronaut, along with 55 percent of that long-duration space flight crew member's caloric food requirements and enough purified water for four astronauts while absorbing their expelled carbon dioxide. The experiment provided data that will help demonstarte the feasibility of the CELSS operating as a bioregenerative life support system for lunar and deep-space missions that can operate independently without the need to carry consumables such as air, water and food, while not requiring the expendable air and water system filters necessary on today's human-piloted spacecraft.' His work is an example of the type of life sciences research that will be conducted at the Space Experiment Research Procession Laboratory (SERPL). The SERPL is a planned 100,000-square-foot laboratory that will provide expanded and upgraded facilities for hosting International Space Station experiment processing. In addition, it will provide better support for other biological and life sciences payload processing at KSC. It will serve as a magnet facility for a planned 400-acre Space Station Commerce Park.

  2. Hormones as “difference makers” in cognitive and socioemotional aging processes

    PubMed Central

    Ebner, Natalie C.; Kamin, Hayley; Diaz, Vanessa; Cohen, Ronald A.; MacDonald, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with well-recognized alterations in brain function, some of which are reflected in cognitive decline. While less appreciated, there is also considerable evidence of socioemotional changes later in life, some of which are beneficial. In this review, we examine age-related changes and individual differences in four neuroendocrine systems—cortisol, estrogen, testosterone, and oxytocin—as “difference makers” in these processes. This suite of interrelated hormonal systems actively coordinates regulatory processes in brain and behavior throughout development, and their level and function fluctuate during the aging process. Despite these facts, their specific impact in cognitive and socioemotional aging has received relatively limited study. It is known that chronically elevated levels of the stress hormone cortisol exert neurotoxic effects on the aging brain with negative impacts on cognition and socioemotional functioning. In contrast, the sex hormones estrogen and testosterone appear to have neuroprotective effects in cognitive aging, but may decrease prosociality. Higher levels of the neuropeptide oxytocin benefit socioemotional functioning, but little is known about the effects of oxytocin on cognition or about age-related changes in the oxytocin system. In this paper, we will review the role of these hormones in the context of cognitive and socioemotional aging. In particular, we address the aforementioned gap in the literature by: (1) examining both singular actions and interrelations of these four hormonal systems; (2) exploring their correlations and causal relationships with aspects of cognitive and socioemotional aging; and (3) considering multilevel internal and external influences on these hormone systems within the framework of explanatory pluralism. We conclude with a discussion of promising future research directions. PMID:25657633

  3. Engaging Students in Aging Research through the Academic Research Enhancement Award Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Sandra S.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the R15, Academic Research Enhancement Award (AREA) mechanism available through the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for institutions that do not typically receive substantial NIH funding. Equipped with training received at the St. Scholastica National Institute on Social Work and Aging, I was able to secure AREA funding…

  4. Cytochrome c oxidase loses catalytic activity and structural integrity during the aging process in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Jian-Ching; Rebrin, Igor; Klichko, Vladimir; Orr, William C.; Sohal, Rajindar S.

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Cytochrome c oxidase loses catalytic activity during the aging process. {yields} Abundance of seven nuclear-encoded subunits of cytochrome c oxidase decreased with age in Drosophila. {yields} Cytochrome c oxidase is specific intra-mitochondrial site of age-related deterioration. -- Abstract: The hypothesis, that structural deterioration of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) is a causal factor in the age-related decline in mitochondrial respiratory activity and an increase in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generation, was tested in Drosophila melanogaster. CcO activity and the levels of seven different nuclear DNA-encoded CcO subunits were determined at three different stages of adult life, namely, young-, middle-, and old-age. CcO activity declined progressively with age by 33%. Western blot analysis, using antibodies specific to Drosophila CcO subunits IV, Va, Vb, VIb, VIc, VIIc, and VIII, indicated that the abundance these polypeptides decreased, ranging from 11% to 40%, during aging. These and previous results suggest that CcO is a specific intra-mitochondrial site of age-related deterioration, which may have a broad impact on mitochondrial physiology.

  5. Carbonyl Stress in Aging Process: Role of Vitamins and Phytochemicals as Redox Regulators

    PubMed Central

    Ergin, Volkan; Hariry, Reza Ebrahimi; Karasu, Çimen

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing scientific agreement that the cellular redox regulators such as antioxidants, particularly the natural polyphenolic forms, may help lower the incidence of some pathologies, including metabolic diseases like diabetes and diabesity, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative abnormalities, and certain cancers or even have anti-aging properties. The recent researches indicate that the degree of metabolic modulation and adaptation response of cells to reductants as well as oxidants establish their survival and homeostasis, which is linked with very critical balance in imbalances in cellular redox capacity and signaling, and that might be an answer the questions why some antioxidants or phytochemicals potentially could do more harm than good, or why some proteins lose their function by increase interactions with glyco- and lipo-oxidation mediates in the cells (carbonyl stress). Nonetheless, pursue of healthy aging has led the use of antioxidants as a means to disrupt age-associated physiological dysfunctions, dysregulated metabolic processes or prevention of many age-related diseases. Although it is still early to define their exact clinical benefits for treating age-related disease, a diet rich in polyphenolic or other forms of antioxidants does seem to offer hope in delaying the onset of age-related disorders. It is now clear that any deficiency in antioxidant vitamins, inadequate enzymatic antioxidant defenses can distinctive for many age-related disease, and protein carbonylation can used as an indicator of oxidative stress associated diseases and aging status. This review examines antioxidant compounds and plant polyphenols as redox regulators in health, disease and aging processes with hope that a better understanding of the many mechanisms involved with these distinct compounds, which may lead to better health and novel treatment approaches for age-related diseases. PMID:24124633

  6. Primary Polymer Aging Processes Identified from Weapon Headspace Chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, D M; Bazan, J M; Ithaca, J G

    2002-03-25

    A current focus of our weapon headspace sampling work is the interpretation of the volatile chemical signatures that we are collecting. To help validate our interpretation we have been developing a laboratory-based material aging capability to simulate material decomposition chemistries identified. Key to establishing this capability has been the development of an automated approach to process, analyze, and quantify arrays of material combinations as a function of time and temperature. Our initial approach involves monitoring the formation and migration of volatile compounds produced when a material decomposes. This approach is advantageous in that it is nondestructive and provides a direct comparison with our weapon headspace surveillance initiative. Nevertheless, this approach requires us to identify volatile material residue and decomposition byproducts that are not typically monitored and reported in material aging studies. Similar to our weapon monitoring method, our principle laboratory-based method involves static headspace collection by solid phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). SPME is a sorbent collection technique that is ideally suited for preconcentration and delivery of trace gas-phase compounds for analysis by GC. When combined with MS, detection limits are routinely in the low- and sub-ppb ranges, even for semivolatile and polar compounds. To automate this process we incorporated a robotic sample processor configured for SPME collection. The completed system will thermally process, sample, and analyze a material sample. Quantification of the instrument response is another process that has been integrated into the system. The current system screens low-milligram quantities of material for the formation or outgas of small compounds as initial indicators of chemical decomposition. This emerging capability offers us a new approach to identify and non-intrusively monitor decomposition mechanisms that are

  7. 2010 Membranes: Materials & Processes Gordon Research Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Lin

    2010-07-30

    The GRC series on Membranes: Materials and Processes have gained significant international recognition, attracting leading experts on membranes and other related areas from around the world. It is now known for being an interdisciplinary and synergistic meeting. The next summer's edition will keep with the past tradition and include new, exciting aspects of material science, chemistry, chemical engineering, computer simulation with participants from academia, industry and national laboratories. This edition will focus on cutting edge topics of membranes for addressing several grand challenges facing our society, in particular, energy, water, health and more generally sustainability. During the technical program, we want to discuss new membrane structure and characterization techniques, the role of advanced membranes and membrane-based processes in sustainability/environment (including carbon dioxide capture), membranes in water processes, and membranes for biological and life support applications. As usual, the informal nature of the meeting, excellent quality of the oral presentations and posters, and ample opportunity to meet many outstanding colleagues make this an excellent conference for established scientists as well as for students. A Gordon Research Seminar (GRS) on the weekend prior to the GRC meeting will provide young researchers an opportunity to present their work and network with outstanding experts. It will also be a right warm-up for the conference participants to join and enjoy the main conference.

  8. Cross-Age Peer Mentoring. Research in Action. Issue 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karcher, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Cross-age peer mentoring is a somewhat unique and different approach to mentoring than the better-known adult-with-youth mentoring model. In cross-age mentoring programs (CAMPs) the mentor is an older youth, typically high school-aged, who is paired or matched with an elementary or middle school-aged child. Meetings almost always take place in the…

  9. NIH Research Addresses Aging Issues and Disparities in Oral Health | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging NIH Research Addresses Aging Issues and Disparities in Oral Health ... NIH Why is it important to have a research focus on older adults? One reason is that ...

  10. Summary of research on microbiological processes

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, A.L.

    1992-09-01

    Storage of thermal energy in aquifers has obvious benefits of saving energy and decreasing the consumption of fossil fuels. However, aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES), which involves groundwater aquifers as the storage medium for heat or chill, impinges on the environment. A literature review of pertinent microbiology publications (Hicks and Stewart, 1988) identified the potential for the interaction of ATES systems and microbiological processes to create a source of infectious diseases and the potential for damage to the environment. In addition, the review identified a potential for microbiological processes to develop conditions that would interfere with the operation of an ATES system. As a result of this research effort, investigators from Finland, Germany, Switzerland, and the United States have examined several ATES systems in operation and have observed that the ATES systems studied do not contribute to infectious disease transmission, do not adversely affect the environment, and do not contribute significantly to biofouling or biocorrosion.

  11. Human face processing is tuned to sexual age preferences

    PubMed Central

    Ponseti, J.; Granert, O.; van Eimeren, T.; Jansen, O.; Wolff, S.; Beier, K.; Deuschl, G.; Bosinski, H.; Siebner, H.

    2014-01-01

    Human faces can motivate nurturing behaviour or sexual behaviour when adults see a child or an adult face, respectively. This suggests that face processing is tuned to detecting age cues of sexual maturity to stimulate the appropriate reproductive behaviour: either caretaking or mating. In paedophilia, sexual attraction is directed to sexually immature children. Therefore, we hypothesized that brain networks that normally are tuned to mature faces of the preferred gender show an abnormal tuning to sexual immature faces in paedophilia. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test directly for the existence of a network which is tuned to face cues of sexual maturity. During fMRI, participants sexually attracted to either adults or children were exposed to various face images. In individuals attracted to adults, adult faces activated several brain regions significantly more than child faces. These brain regions comprised areas known to be implicated in face processing, and sexual processing, including occipital areas, the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and, subcortically, the putamen and nucleus caudatus. The same regions were activated in paedophiles, but with a reversed preferential response pattern. PMID:24850896

  12. Human face processing is tuned to sexual age preferences.

    PubMed

    Ponseti, J; Granert, O; van Eimeren, T; Jansen, O; Wolff, S; Beier, K; Deuschl, G; Bosinski, H; Siebner, H

    2014-05-01

    Human faces can motivate nurturing behaviour or sexual behaviour when adults see a child or an adult face, respectively. This suggests that face processing is tuned to detecting age cues of sexual maturity to stimulate the appropriate reproductive behaviour: either caretaking or mating. In paedophilia, sexual attraction is directed to sexually immature children. Therefore, we hypothesized that brain networks that normally are tuned to mature faces of the preferred gender show an abnormal tuning to sexual immature faces in paedophilia. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test directly for the existence of a network which is tuned to face cues of sexual maturity. During fMRI, participants sexually attracted to either adults or children were exposed to various face images. In individuals attracted to adults, adult faces activated several brain regions significantly more than child faces. These brain regions comprised areas known to be implicated in face processing, and sexual processing, including occipital areas, the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and, subcortically, the putamen and nucleus caudatus. The same regions were activated in paedophiles, but with a reversed preferential response pattern. PMID:24850896

  13. Ageing dynamics of ion bombardment induced self-organization processes

    PubMed Central

    Bikondoa, Oier; Carbone, Dina; Chamard, Virginie; Metzger, Till Hartmut

    2013-01-01

    Instabilities caused during the erosion of a surface by an ion beam can lead to the formation of self-organized patterns of nanostructures. Understanding the self-organization process requires not only the in-situ characterization of ensemble averaged properties but also probing the dynamics. This can be done with the use of coherent X-rays and analyzing the temporal correlations of the scattered intensity. Here, we show that the dynamics of a semiconductor surface nanopatterned by normal incidence ion beam sputtering are age-dependent and slow down with sputtering time. This work provides a novel insight into the erosion dynamics and opens new perspectives for the understanding of self-organization mechanisms. PMID:23685386

  14. Hypoxia-Inducible Histone Lysine Demethylases: Impact on the Aging Process and Age-Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Salminen, Antero; Kaarniranta, Kai; Kauppinen, Anu

    2016-01-01

    pathological processes emphasizing that long-term stress-related insults can impair the maintenance of chromatin landscape and provoke cellular senescence and tissue fibrosis associated with aging and age-related diseases. PMID:27114850

  15. Hypoxia-Inducible Histone Lysine Demethylases: Impact on the Aging Process and Age-Related Diseases.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Antero; Kaarniranta, Kai; Kauppinen, Anu

    2016-03-01

    pathological processes emphasizing that long-term stress-related insults can impair the maintenance of chromatin landscape and provoke cellular senescence and tissue fibrosis associated with aging and age-related diseases. PMID:27114850

  16. Age-related decline in cognitive control: the role of fluid intelligence and processing speed

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Research on cognitive control suggests an age-related decline in proactive control abilities whereas reactive control seems to remain intact. However, the reason of the differential age effect on cognitive control efficiency is still unclear. This study investigated the potential influence of fluid intelligence and processing speed on the selective age-related decline in proactive control. Eighty young and 80 healthy older adults were included in this study. The participants were submitted to a working memory recognition paradigm, assessing proactive and reactive cognitive control by manipulating the interference level across items. Results Repeated measures ANOVAs and hierarchical linear regressions indicated that the ability to appropriately use cognitive control processes during aging seems to be at least partially affected by the amount of available cognitive resources (assessed by fluid intelligence and processing speed abilities). Conclusions This study highlights the potential role of cognitive resources on the selective age-related decline in proactive control, suggesting the importance of a more exhaustive approach considering the confounding variables during cognitive control assessment. PMID:24401034

  17. Thermal EOR process research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Engi, D.; Aeschliman, D.P.; Moreno, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes recent results of Research and Development activities associated with thermal EOR processes in the areas of process mapping, downhole steam generator (DSG) materials performance, and insulated tubulars. Field measurements which can be used to map overall geometry and local stability of the displacement fronts would be particularly useful in the context of process control. Electromagnetic techniques which are being developed to make these measurements are currently limited to qualitative interpretations. This paper first describes lab scale physical simulations being conducted to develop a fundamental understanding of the variations in electrical properties associated with the constitutive zones of a recovery process to improve our ability to interpret field data. Field tests in 1981 to 1982 identified DSG combustor material failure as the primary technical concern in DSG development, with the presumption that the failure mode was due to mixed hot gas corrosion. Experimental results are summarized here for a variety of candidate combustor materials, chosen largely for corrosion resistance. No important differences in performance were found. More recently, analytical studies supported by a single experiment on a thin-walled combustor liner have suggested that thermally-induced stress in the thick-walled liners used is the probable cause of failure. Insulated steam injection tubulars have been observed to be less effective in reducing wellbore heat loss if operated in a wet wellbore - a typical situation. Wellbore refluxing, a process analogous to the action of a heat pipe, was proposed in 1983 to be the source of the reduced efficiency. The results of recently completed tests on insulated tubing in wet and dry wellbores are reported. 23 references, 16 figures, 3 tables.

  18. Engaging Graduate-Level Distance Learners in Research: A Collaborative Investigation of Rural Aging.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Melissa L; Fuller-Iglesias, Heather; Bishop, Alexander J; Doll, Gayle; Killian, Timothy; Margrett, Jennifer; Pearson-Scott, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Online educational programs pose challenges to nonresidential graduate students for whom research is a key professional development experience. In this article, the authors share their pedagogical approach to engaging graduate-level online distance learners in research. Five students enrolled in an online master's degree program participated in a directed research course designed to facilitate a semester-long, collaborative, hands-on research experience in gerontology. As such, students recruited participants and conducted phone interviews for a multisite study examining aging in place in rural areas. Several strategies were used to facilitate student engagement and learning, including: regular meetings with faculty mentors, creation of a research team across institutions, interactive training, and technological tools to aid in communication. The authors discuss the process of implementing the project, challenges that arose, strategies for dealing with these issues, and a pedagogical framework that could be used to guide future endeavors of this type. PMID:26865026

  19. The age of citizen science: Stimulating future environmental research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, S. N.

    2010-12-01

    warming water temperatures. Citizen science projects fulfill the requirements of government granting institutions for outreach and scientific communication. This presentation will highlight marine research projects, which have not only engaged citizens in the scientific process but also discuss the impacts of associated outreach, capacity building and community environmental stewardship.

  20. Aging of the Planning Process: The Role of Executive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorel, Olivier; Pennequin, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    This study tested whether the aging of executive functioning is linked to the decline in planning performance. Participants were divided into three groups: group 1 composed of 15 adults with a mean age of 22.7 years, group 2 composed of 15 adults with a mean age of 68.1 years and group 3 composed of 16 adults with a mean age of 78.75 years. Each…

  1. Statistical process control in nursing research.

    PubMed

    Polit, Denise F; Chaboyer, Wendy

    2012-02-01

    In intervention studies in which randomization to groups is not possible, researchers typically use quasi-experimental designs. Time series designs are strong quasi-experimental designs but are seldom used, perhaps because of technical and analytic hurdles. Statistical process control (SPC) is an alternative analytic approach to testing hypotheses about intervention effects using data collected over time. SPC, like traditional statistical methods, is a tool for understanding variation and involves the construction of control charts that distinguish between normal, random fluctuations (common cause variation), and statistically significant special cause variation that can result from an innovation. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of SPC and to illustrate its use in a study of a nursing practice improvement intervention. PMID:22095634

  2. NASA/MSFC FY-85 Atmospheric Processes Research Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, W. W. (Compiler); Porter, F. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    The two main areas of focus for the research program are global scale processes and mesoscale processes. Geophysical fluid processes, satellite doppler lidar, satellite data analysis, atmospheric electricity, doppler lidar wind research, and mesoscale modeling are among the topics covered.

  3. [Skin aging: Molecular understanding of extrinsic and intrinsic processes].

    PubMed

    Makrantonaki, E; Vogel, M; Scharffetter-Kochanek, K; Zouboulis, C C

    2015-10-01

    In an ever-aging society, a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms accompanying skin aging has become essential. Most age-related morphological skin changes are triggered by a combination of intrinsic factors (e.g., genetics, hormones) and extrinsic ones (e.g., ultarviolet/infrared light exposure, smoking, pollution). In this article, new insights on the latest findings regarding the pathogenesis of skin aging are summarised, addressing the extent to which the aforementioned factorsmay influence the progress of skin aging and identifying the consequences on the morphology and physiology of skin. PMID:26385893

  4. Global Scale Atmospheric Processes Research Program Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worley, B. A. (Editor); Peslen, C. A. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Global modeling; satellite data assimilation and initialization; simulation of future observing systems; model and observed energetics; dynamics of planetary waves; First Global Atmospheric Research Program Global Experiment (FGGE) diagnosis studies; and National Research Council Research Associateship Program are discussed.

  5. Wild-derived mouse stocks: an underappreciated tool for aging research

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Virtually all biomedical research makes use of a relatively small pool of laboratory-adapted, inbred, isogenic stocks of mice. Although the advantages of these models are many, there are a number of disadvantages as well. When studying a multifaceted process such as aging, the problems associated with using laboratory stocks are greatly inflated. On the other hand, wild-derived mouse stocks, loosely defined here as either wild-caught individuals or the recent progeny of wild-caught individuals, have much to offer to biogerontology research. Hence, the aims of this review are threefold: (1) to (re)acquaint readers with the pros and cons of using a typical inbred laboratory mouse model for aging research; (2) to reintroduce the notion of using wild-derived mouse stocks in aging research as championed by Austad, Miller and others for more than a decade, and (3) to provide an overview of recent advances in biogerontology using wild-derived mouse stocks. PMID:19424863

  6. Undergraduate Students' Perceptions and Behaviors Related to the Aged and to Aging Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dussen, Daniel J.; Weaver, Robert R.

    2009-01-01

    Aging education is relatively new to the university, and our understanding of the perspectives students bring to aging populations is correspondingly limited. This investigation surveys 546 students at a midsized, Midwestern university to explore students' views toward elders, toward serving elders, and toward the relevance of aging education for…

  7. Microlinguistic processes that contribute to the ability to relay main events: influence of age.

    PubMed

    Capilouto, Gilson J; Wright, Heather Harris; Maddy, Katherine McComas

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the microlinguistic processes that contribute to picture description in healthy adults across the life span. Two-hundred forty healthy adults were separated into three groups, young (n = 80; 20-39), middle (n = 80; 40-69), and older (n = 80; 70-89). Participants provided language samples in response to two single and two sequential pictures analyzed for total number of words, informativeness, lexical diversity, syntactic complexity, and main events. The older group produced a significantly lower proportion of main events for the single and sequential pictures compared to the other groups. Group differences on the microlinguistic measures varied depending on the measure and the stimulus type. Further, regardless of task, total number of words significantly related to main event production for the young and middle aged groups, but not the older group. Results of the current study extend previous findings by researchers who have investigated discourse production in cognitively healthy, older adults. Using a multi-level approach, we found that linguistic processes across different levels interact; however, the relationship is age-dependent. By including a middle-aged group we identify the potential course of documented change and our results indicate that the changes in language processes with age may not be linear. PMID:26653413

  8. 2003 research briefs : Materials and Process Sciences Center.

    SciTech Connect

    Cieslak, Michael J.

    2003-08-01

    This report is the latest in a continuing series that highlights the recent technical accomplishments associated with the work being performed within the Materials and Process Sciences Center. Our research and development activities primarily address the materials-engineering needs of Sandia's Nuclear-Weapons (NW) program. In addition, we have significant efforts that support programs managed by the other laboratory business units. Our wide range of activities occurs within six thematic areas: Materials Aging and Reliability, Scientifically Engineered Materials, Materials Processing, Materials Characterization, Materials for Microsystems and Materials Modeling and Computational Simulation. We believe these highlights collectively demonstrate the importance that a strong materials-science base has on the ultimate success of the NW program and the overall DOE technology portfolio.

  9. 2005 Research Briefs : Materials and Process Sciences Center.

    SciTech Connect

    Cieslak, Michael J.

    2005-05-01

    This report is the latest in a continuing series that highlights the recent technical accomplishments associated with the work being performed within the Materials and Process Sciences Center. Our research and development activities primarily address the materials-engineering needs of Sandia's Nuclear-Weapons (NW) program. In addition, we have significant efforts that support programs managed by the other laboratory business units. Our wide range of activities occurs within six thematic areas: Materials Aging and Reliability, Scientifically Engineered Materials, Materials Processing, Materials Characterization, Materials for Microsystems, and Materials Modeling and Simulation. We believe these highlights collectively demonstrate the importance that a strong materials-science base has on the ultimate success of the NW program and the overall DOE technology portfolio.

  10. 2004 research briefs :Materials and Process Sciences Center.

    SciTech Connect

    Cieslak, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This report is the latest in a continuing series that highlights the recent technical accomplishments associated with the work being performed within the Materials and Process Sciences Center. Our research and development activities primarily address the materials-engineering needs of Sandia's Nuclear-Weapons (NW) program. In addition, we have significant efforts that support programs managed by the other laboratory business units. Our wide range of activities occurs within six thematic areas: Materials Aging and Reliability, Scientifically Engineered Materials, Materials Processing, Materials Characterization, Materials for Microsystems, and Materials Modeling and Simulation. We believe these highlights collectively demonstrate the importance that a strong materials-science base has on the ultimate success of the NW program and the overall DOE technology portfolio.

  11. NRC Research Program on Plant Aging: Listing and summaries of reports issued through September 1993. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    Vora, J.P.

    1993-12-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is conducting the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. This is a comprehensive hardware-oriented engineering research program focused on understanding the aging mechanisms of components and systems in nuclear power plants. The NPAR program also focuses on methods for simulating and monitoring the aging-related degradation of these components and systems. In addition, it provides recommendations for effective maintenance to manage aging and for implementation of the research results in the regulatory process. This document contains a listing and index of reports generated in the NPAR Program that were issued through September 1993 and summaries of those reports. Each summary describes the elements of the research covered in the report and outlines the significant results. For the convenience of the user, the reports are indexed by personal author, corporate author, and subject.

  12. Active Ageing and Universities: Engaging Older Learners. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, Chris; Ogg, Jim

    2010-01-01

    This report reviews the engagement of older learners (defined as those aged 50 and over) in education and training with particular reference to their involvement in higher education. The ageing of populations was one of the most important trends in the 20th century and will raise major challenges in this century. Appended are: (1) Selected UK…

  13. Evaluation of a Training Program in Aging Research for Social Work Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrotra, Chandra M.; Townsend, Aloen; Berkman, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Since 2004, we have offered a postgraduate training program in aging research for social work faculty from across the country. The overarching goal of the program is to expand the pool of social work faculty engaged in aging research. This, in turn, will reinvigorate participants' teaching; prepare them to update aging-related content in the…

  14. Research on Rural Ageing: Where Have We Got to and Where Are We Going in Europe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burholt, Vanessa; Dobbs, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which rural studies conducted in Europe (compared to other countries in the Global North) have addressed the phenomenon of rural ageing. Through a review of the literature published on rural ageing research in the last decade, it compares the research goals identified by the International Rural Ageing Project…

  15. [Research of aerobic granule characteristics with different granule age].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Man; Yang, Chang-Zhu; Pu, Wen-Hong; Luo, Ying-Dong; Gong, Jian-Yu

    2012-03-01

    In the SBR reactor, we studied the different style, physicochemical characteristic, pollutants removal and microbial activity between the short age and long age aerobic granule, respectively. The short age aerobic granule was cultivated from activated floccules sludge and the other was gotten from aerobic granular sludge which was operated stably more than one year. The results indicated that the wet density, the specific gravity and integrated coefficient (IC) of the short age aerobic granule were 1.066 g x cm(-1), 1.013 g x cm(-3) and 98.7%, respectively. And that of long age were 1.026 g x cm(-3), 1.010 g x cm(-3) and 98.4%, respectively. All of them were higher than the long age aerobic granule. The mean diameters of them were 1.9 mm and 2.2 mm, respectively. The settling velocity of short age and long age aerobic granule were 0.005-0.032 m x s(-1) and 0.003-0.028 m x s(-1), respectively, and two kinds of aerobic granule settling velocity increased with the diameter increased. SVI of the former was lower. The COD removal rates of two aerobic granules were above 90%, and the NH4(+) -N removal rates of them were about 85%. The results of the COD effluent concentration, NH4(+) -N effluent concentration and the pollutants concentration in a typical cycle indicated that the short age aerobic granule had better pollutants removal efficiency. The TP removal rates of them were between 40% -90% and 32% -85%, respectively. The TN removal rates of them were about 80%. The SOUR(H) SOUR(NH4) and SOUR(NO2) of the short age aerobic granule were 26.4, 14.8 and 11.2 mg x (h x g)(-1), respectively. And that of long age were 25.2, 14.4 and 8.4 mg x (h x g)(-1), respectively. In summary, the aerobic granule had significantly different physical and chemical characteristics because of different granule age, and the short age aerobic granule exhibited better pollutants removal ability, higher microbial activity and more stability than the long age aerobic granule. PMID:22624385

  16. Morphometric analysis of the human anterior pituitary's folliculostellate cells during the aging process.

    PubMed

    Pavlović, Miljana; Jovanović, Ivan; Ugrenović, Slađana; Vasović, Ljiljana; Krstić, Miljan; Bakić, Mirjana; Živković, Vladimir; Stojanović, Vesna

    2013-05-01

    Folliculostellate cells represent non-endocrine cells of the anterior pituitary which influence the function of the endocrine cells via paracrine action. Though there is a lack of literature data on their presence during human aging, the aim of this research was to perform the quantification of anterior pituitary folliculostellate cells by the application of immunohistochemical and morphometric methods. The material for the study consisted of 15 anterior pituitaries taken from cadavers at routine autopsy. Their tissue was processed by standard histological procedure and the obtained histological slices were stained by S100 polyclonal antibody. Digital images of stained histological sections were analyzed by morphometric method with ImageJ system. The volume density of S100 positive cells was measured for each case. Results of morphometric and statistical analysis showed a significantly positive correlation between folliculostellate cell volume density and the age of the evaluated cases. Linear regression additionally showed that the age significantly predicts folliculostellate cells volume density in our sample. Further, all cases were classified into three age groups and One Way ANOVA showed that the volume density of folliculostellate cells was significantly higher only in the third age group in relation to the first and the second group, respectively. Volume densities of the first and the second age groups were not significantly different. So, the results of our study pointed to the conclusion that folliculostellate cells presence generally increases with age, but this increase is significant only in the oldest cases and might represent the modality of successful anterior pituitary aging. PMID:23295121

  17. Partial ages: diagnosing transport processes by means of multiple clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouchet, Anne; Cornaton, Fabien; Deleersnijder, Éric; Delhez, Éric J. M.

    2016-03-01

    The concept of age is widely used to quantify the transport rate of tracers - or pollutants - in the environment. The age focuses only on the time taken to reach a given location and disregards other aspects of the path followed by the tracer parcel. To keep track of the subregions visited by the tracer parcel along this path, partial ages are defined as the time spent in the different subregions. Partial ages can be computed in an Eulerian framework in much the same way as the usual age by extending the Constituent oriented Age and Residence Time theory (CART, www.climate.be/CARTages, applications to a 1D model with lateral/transient storage, to the 1D advection-diffusion equation and to the diagnosis of the ventilation of the deep ocean are provided. They demonstrate the versatility of the concept of partial age and the potential new insights that can be gained with it.

  18. Sex-specific age-related changes of information processing rate indicators during childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Zebec, Mislav S; Budimir, Sanja; Merkas, Marina; Szirovicza, Lajos; Zivicnjak, Miroslav

    2014-06-01

    Despite the relevant findings on non-average information processing rate (IPR) indicators-intelligence relation, and on age-related changes of some of these indicators during aging, the research on sex-specific age-related changes of these indicators during childhood and adolescence are lacking. In a transversal study, 1197 school children (598 girls) aged 8-18 have been individually measured on 5 IPR indicators--two averages (mean_t, median_t) and three non-averages (min_t, max_t, sd_t). The results corroborated the expected non-linear changes of average IPR indicators in the observed developmental period, whereby the sex difference in related developmental patterns was detected: marked age-related decrement in girls ceased at the age of 12, and in boys around the age of 13-14, after which progress in both sexes gradually ceased by the age of 18 and was less pronounced in girls. Generally similar non-linear age-related decrements of non-average indicators were registered, but they showed mutual intensity differences at specific ages and sex difference in developmental patterns was detected, analogously to average indicators. Systematic sex differences in the whole observed period were obtained only in two non-average indicators: girls showed minor sd_t and boys showed minor min_t. In specific age groups, a number of sex differences were obtained that are explainable by two possible mechanisms: earlier maturation in girls and sex bias of the IPR task content. The justifiability of separate, average and non-average, IPR indicators application was corroborated by their distribution form differences, by mutual, predominantly low and medium correlations, by the different intensity of their developmental changes and by their different ability to detect sex differences. For all registered phenomena, the theoretical and/or empirical explanations were offered from the domain of sex specific intellectual, motor and neural development, and it has been shown that non

  19. [White House Conference on Aging, 1981. Research in Aging. Report and Executive Summary of the Technical Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birren, James E.; And Others

    This Technical Committee Report provides an overview and historical sketch of research in aging and proposes a need for new knowledge. An examination of key issues notes the difficulty in assigning priority to research topics, and identifies emerging issues of public concern including: (1) physical health (alcohol and drugs, falls and accidents,…

  20. Increasing the Value of Age: Guidance in Employers' Age Management Strategies. Research Paper No 44

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The European active population is ageing. In the face of growing skills shortages, both national States and employers need to prolong the working lives of their most experienced workers. While enterprises strive to respond to this challenge, most still have not fully explored the potential of guidance activities in addressing age-related issues in…

  1. Healthy ageing supported by technology – a cross-disciplinary research challenge

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade, the challenges of an ageing society became focus for extensive scientific, public and political discussions. From discussions in scientific fora within each discipline, there is now a shift towards cross-disciplinary scientific approaches. The aim of this article is therefore, to collect and describe different scientific viewpoints in this regard and to point out research gaps to be addressed in the future. The article is based on a number of review articles and keynote lectures given by the author, and complemented with informal interviews of experts from different scientific fields engaged in the field of technology and ageing. Results show that research has emerged from being technology-focussed to scenario-based taking different scientific perspectives into account. However, the biggest challenge still is to accommodate the need for a holistic integrated service which means to provide personalised services and adapt technology and content to individual needs of different stakeholders. Further, cross-disciplinary research is needed that relates informatics and technology to different stages of the aging process and that evaluates the effects of proposed technical solutions. PMID:21133765

  2. Gray and Green Revisited: A Multidisciplinary Perspective of Gardens, Gardening, and the Aging Process

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Scott D.; Wadsworth, Amy Maida

    2014-01-01

    Over fourteen years ago, the concept of “gray and green” was first introduced by Wright and Lund (2000) to represent a new awareness and a call for increased scholarship at the intersection of environmental issues and the aging process. This review paper revisits that concept with a fresh perspective on the specific role of gardens and gardening in the aging experience. As example, gardening is one of the most popular home-based leisure activities in the US and represents an important activity in the lives of older adults in a variety of residential settings. Yet, there has been a lack of any comprehensive and multidisciplinary (science and humanities) examination of the nexus between gardening and the aging experience, and in particular with research connections to stewardship and caring. In this paper, we review contemporary articles demonstrating the multidisciplinarity of gardening and the aging process. First, we will focus on the beneficial psychological effects resulting from the cultivation of caring, including personal contentment and artistic expression. Second, we will focus on stewardship and how gardening increases health, community awareness, and a connection to future generations. On the surface, this may demonstrate a separation between the humanities and science, but we will clarify a symbiotic relationship between the two disciplines in our conclusion. PMID:24734179

  3. Gray and green revisited: a multidisciplinary perspective of gardens, gardening, and the aging process.

    PubMed

    Wright, Scott D; Wadsworth, Amy Maida

    2014-01-01

    Over fourteen years ago, the concept of "gray and green" was first introduced by Wright and Lund (2000) to represent a new awareness and a call for increased scholarship at the intersection of environmental issues and the aging process. This review paper revisits that concept with a fresh perspective on the specific role of gardens and gardening in the aging experience. As example, gardening is one of the most popular home-based leisure activities in the US and represents an important activity in the lives of older adults in a variety of residential settings. Yet, there has been a lack of any comprehensive and multidisciplinary (science and humanities) examination of the nexus between gardening and the aging experience, and in particular with research connections to stewardship and caring. In this paper, we review contemporary articles demonstrating the multidisciplinarity of gardening and the aging process. First, we will focus on the beneficial psychological effects resulting from the cultivation of caring, including personal contentment and artistic expression. Second, we will focus on stewardship and how gardening increases health, community awareness, and a connection to future generations. On the surface, this may demonstrate a separation between the humanities and science, but we will clarify a symbiotic relationship between the two disciplines in our conclusion. PMID:24734179

  4. Directed forgetting and aging: the role of retrieval processes, processing speed, and proactive interference.

    PubMed

    Hogge, Michaël; Adam, Stéphane; Collette, Fabienne

    2008-07-01

    The directed forgetting effect obtained with the item method is supposed to depend on both selective rehearsal of to-be-remembered (TBR) items and attentional inhibition of to-be-forgotten (TBF) items. In this study, we investigated the locus of the directed forgetting deficit in older adults by exploring the influence of recollection and familiarity-based retrieval processes on age-related differences in directed forgetting. Moreover, we explored the influence of processing speed, short-term memory capacity, thought suppression tendencies, and sensitivity to proactive interference on performance. The results indicated that older adults' directed forgetting difficulties are due to decreased recollection of TBR items, associated with increased automatic retrieval of TBF items. Moreover, processing speed and proactive interference appeared to be responsible for the decreased recall of TBR items. PMID:18584340

  5. Age associations with neural processing of reward anticipation in adolescents with bipolar disorders

    PubMed Central

    Urošević, Snežana; Luciana, Monica; Jensen, Jonathan B.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Thomas, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Reward/behavioral approach system hypersensitivity is implicated in bipolar disorders (BD) and in normative development during adolescence. Pediatric onset of BD is associated with a more severe illness course. However, little is known about neural processing of rewards in adolescents with BD or developmental (i.e., age) associations with activation of these neural systems. The present study aims to address this knowledge gap. The present sample included 21 adolescents with BD and 26 healthy adolescents, ages 13 to 19. Participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol using the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task. Behavioral performance was similar between groups. Group differences in BOLD activation during target anticipation and feedback anticipation periods of the task were examined using whole-brain analyses, as were group differences in age effects. During both target anticipation and feedback anticipation, adolescents with BD, compared to adolescents without psychopathology, exhibited decreased engagement of frontal regions involved in cognitive control (i.e., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). Healthy adolescents exhibited age-related decreases, while adolescents with BD exhibited age-related increases, in activity of other cognitive control frontal areas (i.e., right inferior frontal gyrus), suggesting altered development in the BD group. Longitudinal research is needed to examine potentially abnormal development of cognitive control during reward pursuit in adolescent BD and whether early therapeutic interventions can prevent these potential deviations from normative development. PMID:27114896

  6. Reconceptualizing Design Research in the Age of Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannan, Brenda; Cook, John; Pachler, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to begin to examine how the intersection of mobile learning and design research prompts the reconceptualization of research and design individually as well as their integration appropriate for current, complex learning environments. To fully conceptualize and reconceptualize design research in mobile learning, the…

  7. Invertebrates as model organisms for research on aging biology

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Mahadev; Ram, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Invertebrate model systems, such as nematodes and fruit flies, have provided valuable information about the genetics and cellular biology involved in aging. However, limitations of these simple, genetically tractable organisms suggest the need for other model systems, some of them invertebrate, to facilitate further advances in the understanding of mechanisms of aging and longevity in mammals, including humans. This paper introduces 10 review articles about the use of invertebrate model systems for the study of aging by authors who participated in an ‘NIA-NIH symposium on aging in invertebrate model systems’ at the 2013 International Congress for Invertebrate Reproduction and Development. In contrast to the highly derived characteristics of nematodes and fruit flies as members of the superphylum Ecdysozoa, cnidarians, such as Hydra, are more ‘basal’ organisms that have a greater number of genetic orthologs in common with humans. Moreover, some other new model systems, such as the urochordate Botryllus schlosseri, the tunicate Ciona, and the sea urchins (Echinodermata) are members of the Deuterostomia, the same superphylum that includes all vertebrates, and thus have mechanisms that are likely to be more closely related to those occurring in humans. Additional characteristics of these new model systems, such as the recent development of new molecular and genetic tools and a more similar pattern to humans of regeneration and stem cell function suggest that these new model systems may have unique advantages for the study of mechanisms of aging and longevity. PMID:26241448

  8. Air Force research in optical processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, J.

    1981-01-01

    Optical and optical electronic hybrid processing especially in the application area of image processing are emphasized. Real time pattern recognition processors for such airborne missions as target recognition, tracking, and terminal guidance are studied.

  9. Advantages of Studying Processes in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Bernhard

    2006-01-01

    It is argued that learning and instruction could be conceptualized from a process-analytic perspective. Important questions from the field of learning and instruction are presented which can be answered using our approach of process analyses. A classification system of process concepts and methods is given. One main advantage of this kind of…

  10. FCS Undergrads at Mississippi State Learn Research Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Sheri L.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the research process is a vital part of the undergraduate experience. Conducting research helps students see the value of the scientific process and various research methods, and encourages inquisitiveness about family and consumer sciences (FCS) issues. Research experiences augment students' professional development, increase their…

  11. Extending the Conversation: Qualitative Research as Dialogic Collaborative Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulus, Trena; Woodside, Marianne; Ziegler, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Collaborative research often refers to collaboration among the researcher and the participants. Few studies investigate the collaborative process among researchers themselves. Assumptions about the qualitative research process, particularly ways to establish rigor and transparency, are pervasive. Our experience conducting three collaborative…

  12. Conflict-Specific Aging Effects Mainly Manifest in Early Information Processing Stages—An ERP Study with Different Conflict Types

    PubMed Central

    Korsch, Margarethe; Frühholz, Sascha; Herrmann, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Aging is usually accompanied by alterations of cognitive control functions such as conflict processing. Recent research suggests that aging effects on cognitive control seem to vary with degree and source of conflict, and conflict specific aging effects on performance measures as well as neural activation patterns have been shown. However, there is sparse information whether and how aging affects different stages of conflict processing as indicated by event related potentials (ERPs) such as the P2, N2 and P3 components. In the present study, 19 young and 23 elderly adults performed a combined Flanker conflict and stimulus-response-conflict (SRC) task. Analysis of the reaction times (RTs) revealed an increased SRC related conflict effect in elderly. ERP analysis furthermore demonstrated an age-related increase of the P2 amplitude in response to the SRC task. In addition, elderly adults exhibited an increased P3 amplitude modulation induced by incongruent SRC and Flanker conflict trials. PMID:27014059

  13. Age- and diet-associated metabolome remodeling characterizes the aging process driven by damage accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Avanesov, Andrei S; Ma, Siming; Pierce, Kerry A; Yim, Sun Hee; Lee, Byung Cheon; Clish, Clary B; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2014-01-01

    Aging is thought to be associated with increased molecular damage, but representative markers vary across conditions and organisms, making it difficult to assess properties of cumulative damage throughout lifespan. We used nontargeted metabolite profiling to follow age-associated trajectories of >15,000 metabolites in Drosophila subjected to control and lifespan-extending diets. We find that aging is associated with increased metabolite diversity and low-abundance molecules, suggesting they include cumulative damage. Remarkably, the number of detected compounds leveled-off in late-life, and this pattern associated with survivorship. Fourteen percent of metabolites showed age-associated changes, which decelerated in late-life and long-lived flies. In contrast, known metabolites changed in abundance similarly to nontargeted metabolites and transcripts, but did not increase in diversity. Targeted profiling also revealed slower metabolism and accumulation of lifespan-limiting molecules. Thus, aging is characterized by gradual metabolome remodeling, and condition- and advanced age-associated deceleration of this remodeling is linked to mortality and molecular damage. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02077.001 PMID:24843015

  14. International Trends and Perspectives: Aging. International Research Document No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Jacob S.; Hoover, Sally L.

    This report considers demographic conditions and prospects for the countries of the world with respect to aging. Particular attention is paid to the implications for health care. The information analyzed and presented in this report was obtained from the latest population projections published by the United Nations. The countries are generally…

  15. Why is the dog an ideal model for aging research?

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Keiva M; Greer, Kimberly A

    2015-11-01

    With many caveats to the traditional vertebrate species pertaining to biogerontology investigations, it has been suggested that a most informative model is the one which: 1) examines closely related species, or various members of the same species with naturally occurring lifespan variation, 2) already has adequate medical procedures developed, 3) has a well annotated genome, 4) does not require artificial housing, and can live in its natural environment while being investigated, and 5) allows considerable information to be gathered within a relatively short period of time. The domestic dog unsurprisingly fits each criterion mentioned. The dog has already become a key model system in which to evaluate surgical techniques and novel medications because of the remarkable similarity between human and canine conditions, treatments, and response to therapy. The dog naturally serves as a disease model for study, obviating the need to construct artificial genetically modified examples of disease. Just as the dog offers a natural model for human conditions and diseases, simple observation leads to the conclusion that the canine aging phenotype also mimics that of the human. Genotype information, biochemical information pertaining to the GH/IGF-1 pathway, and some limited longitudinal investigations have begun the establishment of the domestic dog as a model of aging. Although we find that dogs indeed are a model to study aging and there are many independent pieces of canine aging data, there are many more "open" areas, ripe for investigation. PMID:26325590

  16. Age, Time, and Decision Making: From Processing Speed to Global Time Horizons

    PubMed Central

    Löckenhoff, Corinna E.

    2013-01-01

    Time and time perceptions are integral to decision making because any meaningful choice is embedded in a temporal context and requires the evaluation of future preferences and outcomes. The present review examines the influence of chronological age on time perceptions and horizons and discusses implications for decision making across the life span. Time influences and interacts with decision making in multiple ways. Specifically, this review examines the following topic areas: (1) processing speed and decision time, (2) internal clocks and time estimation, (3) mental representations of future time and intertemporal choice, and (4) global time horizons. For each aspect, patterns of age differences and implications for decision strategies and quality are discussed. The conclusion proposes frameworks to integrate different lines of research and identifies promising avenues for future inquiry. PMID:22023567

  17. A "concrete view" of aging: event related potentials reveal age-related changes in basic integrative processes in language.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsu-Wen; Meyer, Aaron M; Federmeier, Kara D

    2012-01-01

    Normal aging is accompanied by changes in both structural and functional cerebral organization. Although verbal knowledge seems to be relatively stable across the lifespan, there are age-related changes in the rapid use of that knowledge during on-line language processing. In particular, aging has been linked to reduce effectiveness in preparing for upcoming words and building an integrated sentence-level representation. The current study assessed whether such age-related changes extend even to much simpler language units, such as modification relations between a centrally presented adjective and a lateralized noun. Adjectives were used to elicit concrete and abstract meanings of the same, polysemous lexical items (e.g., "green book" vs. "interesting book"). Consistent with findings that lexical information is preserved with age, older adults, like younger adults, exhibited concreteness effects at the adjectives, with more negative responses to concrete adjectives over posterior (300-500 ms; N400) and frontal (300-900 ms) channels. However, at the noun, younger adults exhibited concreteness-based predictability effects linked to left hemisphere processing and imagery effects linked to right hemisphere processing, contingent on whether the adjectives and nouns formed a cohesive conceptual unit. In contrast, older adults showed neither effect, suggesting that they were less able to rapidly link the adjective-noun meaning to form an integrated conceptual representation. Age-related changes in language processing may thus be more pervasive than previously realized. PMID:22044648

  18. Research in the Biotech Age: Can Informational Privacy Compete?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peekhaus, Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the privacy of personal medical information in the health research context. Arguing that biomedical research in Canada has been caught up in the government's broader neoliberal policy agenda that has positioned biotechnology as a strategic driver of economic growth, the author discusses the tension between informational…

  19. Learning Design Research: Advancing Pedagogies in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobozy, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Learning design research (LDR) is establishing itself as a separate and specialised field of educational research. Worldwide, technology-mediated learning experiences in higher and further education are on the increase. LDR investigates their success in providing effective outcomes-based and personalised learning experiences. This paper reports on…

  20. Institutional Research in Australasia: Coming of Age or Coming Unstuck?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanlon, Martin; Rothery, Michael; Daldy, Rob

    2011-01-01

    The scope of institutional research (IR) undertaken in Australasian universities is progressively expanding. A traditional focus on student life cycle elements such as enrolment, retention and satisfaction has been complemented for some years now by other areas of focus including research performance and community engagement. More recently,…

  1. The Age of Clutter: Conducting Effective Research Using the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornaciari, Charles J.; Roca, Maria F. Loffredo

    1999-01-01

    Problems in using the Internet for research include knowledge of the technology, data relevance, information overload, and website evaluation. Solutions include making research mindful, defining problems effectively, determining information needs, identifying and evaluating information, and questioning source credibility and quality. (SK)

  2. Adult Age Differences in Processing Narrative Text: Managing Character Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noh, Soo Rim

    2009-01-01

    Understanding a narrative situation depends on keeping track of multiple characters that enter and exit dynamically as the plot unfolds. Because there has been no systematic investigation of age differences in the ability to manage multiple characters during narrative comprehension, this project was designed to examine those differences in this…

  3. Age-Related Variability in Cortical Activity during Language Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fridriksson, Julius; Morrow, K. Leigh; Moser, Dana; Baylis, Gordon C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated the extent of cortical activity during overt picture naming using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Method: Participants comprised 20 healthy, adult participants with ages ranging from 20 to 82 years. While undergoing fMRI, participants completed a picture-naming task consisting of 60…

  4. Photographic Technology and the Research Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noss, Jerome

    1974-01-01

    Description of photogrammetric analyses which, combined with the current emergence of biomechanics, is utilized to explain and measure photographs of human movement. Oriented towards the use of photogrammetric analysis in physical education research. (JA)

  5. The materials processing research base of the Materials Processing Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flemings, M. C.; Bowen, H. K.; Kenney, G. B.

    1980-01-01

    The goals and activities of the center are discussed. The center activities encompass all engineering materials including metals, ceramics, polymers, electronic materials, composites, superconductors, and thin films. Processes include crystallization, solidification, nucleation, and polymer synthesis.

  6. Translational Research in Pediatrics IV: Solid Tissue Collection and Processing.

    PubMed

    Gillio-Meina, Carolina; Zielke, H Ronald; Fraser, Douglas D

    2016-01-01

    Solid tissues are critical for child-health research. Specimens are commonly obtained at the time of biopsy/surgery or postmortem. Research tissues can also be obtained at the time of organ retrieval for donation or from tissue that would otherwise have been discarded. Navigating the ethics of solid tissue collection from children is challenging, and optimal handling practices are imperative to maximize tissue quality. Fresh biopsy/surgical specimens can be affected by a variety of factors, including age, gender, BMI, relative humidity, freeze/thaw steps, and tissue fixation solutions. Postmortem tissues are also vulnerable to agonal factors, body storage temperature, and postmortem intervals. Nonoptimal tissue handling practices result in nucleotide degradation, decreased protein stability, artificial posttranslational protein modifications, and altered lipid concentrations. Tissue pH and tryptophan levels are 2 methods to judge the quality of solid tissue collected for research purposes; however, the RNA integrity number, together with analyses of housekeeping genes, is the new standard. A comprehensive clinical data set accompanying all tissue samples is imperative. In this review, we examined: the ethical standards relating to solid tissue procurement from children; potential sources of solid tissues; optimal practices for solid tissue processing, handling, and storage; and reliable markers of solid tissue quality. PMID:26659457

  7. Decolonizing Research: Indigenous Scholars Can Take Over the Research Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Cheryl Crazy

    2004-01-01

    The article discusses efforts made by native scholars across the U.S. to decolonizing research methodologies. It states that for many years, educators and students at tribal colleges and universities (TCL's) have recognized contributions of community-based scholars and their efforts to preserve and revitalize their cultural traditions and ways of…

  8. The Origin of Aging: Imperfectness-Driven Non-Random Damage Defines the Aging Process and Control of Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2013-01-01

    Physico-chemical properties preclude ideal biomolecules and perfect biological functions. This inherent imperfectness leads to the generation of damage by every biological process, at all levels, from small molecules to cells. The damage is too numerous to be repaired, is partially invisible to natural selection and manifests as aging. I propose that it is the inherent imperfectness of biological systems that is the true root of the aging process. As each biomolecule generates specific forms of damage, the cumulative damage is largely non-random and is indirectly encoded in the genome. I consider this concept in light of other proposed theories of aging and integrate these disparate ideas into a single model. I also discuss the evolutionary significance of damage accumulation and strategies for reducing damage. Finally, I suggest ways to test this integrated model of aging. PMID:23769208

  9. But: Do Age and Working Memory Influence Conventional Implicature Processing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssens, Leen; Drooghmans, Stephanie; Schaeken, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Conventional implicatures are omnipresent in daily life communication but experimental research on this topic is sparse, especially research with children. The aim of this study was to investigate if eight- to twelve-year-old children spontaneously make the conventional implicature induced by "but," "so," and…

  10. Maturation of Visual and Auditory Temporal Processing in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawes, Piers; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To examine development of sensitivity to auditory and visual temporal processes in children and the association with standardized measures of auditory processing and communication. Methods: Normative data on tests of visual and auditory processing were collected on 18 adults and 98 children aged 6-10 years of age. Auditory processes…

  11. Effects of age on spatial information processing: relationship to senescent changes in brain noradrenergic and opioid systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    A major focus in current research on aging is the identification of senescent changes in cognitive function in laboratory animals. This literature indicates that the processing of spatial information may be particularly impaired during senescence. The degree to which nonspecific factors (eg. sensory of motor deficits) contribute to behavioral impairments in aging, however, remains largely uninvestigated. In addition, few studies have attempted to identify senescent changes in brain structure and function which might underlie the behavioral manifestations of aging. In the behavioral experiments reported here, the authors tested young, middle-age, and senescent rates in several versions of a spatial memory task, the Morris water maze. The results of these investigations demonstrate that aged rats are significantly impaired in the Morris task compared to young or middle-age animals. In addition, these studies indicate that age-related deficits in the water maze reflect a specific dysfunction in the ability of older animals to effectively process spatial information rather than a senescent decline in sensory or motor functions. Using the subjects from the behavioral studies, additional investigations assessed whether age-dependent changes in neurochemical and neuroanatomical systems which are known to mediate spatial learning in young animals were related to the behavioral deficits exhibited by aged rats. The results of these studies demonstrate that a portion of senescent animals exhibit significant increases in lateral septal /sup 3/H-desmethylimipramine binding and decrease in /sup 3/H-naloxone binding in this same region as assessed by quantitative in vitro autoradiography.

  12. Fatigue and fatigue crack growth processes in hard tissues: The importance of age and surface integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majd, Hessam

    . Using the experimental findings, a Damage Effect Model (DEM) was also developed to describe the influence of flaws introduced by bur treatment on fatigue of dentin. The DEM showed that the damage caused by bur treatment is uniform and independent of tubule orientation. Using the developed DEM for dentin with 0° tubule orientation, material constants of bur treated dentin with 90° orientation were estimated and used in predicting fatigue for controlled experimental conditions involving a notched fatigue approach. Overall, the results of this study provide fundamental knowledge concerning the influence of aging and cutting processes on the fatigue properties of dentin. These findings are of substantial importance to the field of restorative dentistry, and potentially establish the need for treating senior patients with an approach that is unique from that of younger patients. The damage models developed in this investigation are the first that have been developed for hard tissues, and provide a foundation for future research aimed at modeling fatigue processes in hard tissues including bone and dentin.

  13. Caregivers' Experience during Their Children's Transition Process from Early Childhood Special Education Services to School-Aged Special Education Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Linda Yvonne

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates caregivers' perceptions of the transition process for children transitioning from Early Childhood Special Education (ECSE) to School Age Special Education services (SA). Interest in this topic developed during the researcher's 18 years of experience as an Itinerant Early Childhood Special Education Teacher during which she…

  14. Process Research on Polycrystalline Silicon Material (PROPSM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culik, J. S.; Wrigley, C. Y.

    1985-01-01

    Results of hydrogen-passivated polycrysalline silicon solar cell research are summarized. The short-circuit current of solar cells fabricated from large-grain cast polycrystalline silicon is nearly equivalent to that of single-crystal cells, which indicates long bulk minority-carrier diffusion length. Treatments with molecular hydrogen showed no effect on large-grain cast polycrystalline silicon solar cells.

  15. Research Methodologies and the Doctoral Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creswell, John W.; Miller, Gary A.

    1997-01-01

    Doctoral students often select one of four common research methodologies that are popular in the social sciences and education today: positivist; interpretive; ideological; and pragmatic. But choice of methodology also influences the student's choice of course work, membership of dissertation committee, and the form and structure of the…

  16. Risk and ageing populations: practice development research through an international research network.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Charlotte L

    2006-09-01

    Background.  Risk theories derive from a range of disciplines, with nursing traditionally concentrating on scientific medical perspectives. However, for older people, risk perception and management is filled with complexity and paradox, and the threat of focusing on physical safety only to the detriment of the well-being of the older person. Method.  An international collaborative research network on risk in ageing populations has been developed, with 22 members in six countries (Britain, USA, India, South Africa, Australia and Northern Ireland). The network supports several independent projects, many of which have developed as a result of the network. An annual workshop for members has provided the opportunity to share and synthesize methodological experiences and to identify a developing model of risk for older people. Findings.  The developing model highlights the importance for older people of engaging with risk in a positive way, and describes patterns of risk-philic and risk-phobic activity. The inter-relationship of the individual older person with their community, with practitioners and with society is specific to the context of different countries. Conclusion.  Socio-critical practice development research can be a vehicle for advancing an understanding of risk theory for older people. Risk underpins concepts of choice and capacity to execute decisions. It is influenced by society, policy, health and social care services, and has a profound impact on the experiences of older people. PMID:20925746

  17. 42 CFR 93.316 - Completing the research misconduct process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Completing the research misconduct process. 93.316... POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of Institutions The Institutional Investigation § 93.316 Completing the research misconduct process. (a) ORI expects institutions to carry inquiries...

  18. 42 CFR 93.316 - Completing the research misconduct process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Completing the research misconduct process. 93.316... POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of Institutions The Institutional Investigation § 93.316 Completing the research misconduct process. (a) ORI expects institutions to carry inquiries...

  19. 42 CFR 93.316 - Completing the research misconduct process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Completing the research misconduct process. 93.316... POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of Institutions The Institutional Investigation § 93.316 Completing the research misconduct process. (a) ORI expects institutions to carry inquiries...

  20. 42 CFR 93.316 - Completing the research misconduct process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Completing the research misconduct process. 93.316... POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of Institutions The Institutional Investigation § 93.316 Completing the research misconduct process. (a) ORI expects institutions to carry inquiries...

  1. NASA/MSFC FY-83 Atmospheric Processes Research Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. E. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    The atmospheric processes research program was reviewed. Research tasks sponsored by the NASA Office of Space Science and Applications, Earth Sciences and Applications Division in the areas of upper atmosphere, global weather, and mesoscale processes are discussed. The are: the research project summaries, together with the agenda and other information about the meeting.

  2. 77 FR 26911 - Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 1208 RIN 0581-AC79 Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order... Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order). The program will be implemented under the Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information Act of 1996 (1996 Act). Under the...

  3. The Research Implementation Process: Some Reflections and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Paul R.

    1970-01-01

    Barriers to an understanding of the research implementation process are discussed. The purposes of the research utilization conference, a new element in this process, include intensive study of specific results to determine implications of the research for practice and future examination. (Author)

  4. Process Research of Polycrystalline Silicon Material (PROPSM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culik, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    A passivation process (hydrogenation) that will improve the power generation of solar cells fabricated from presently produced, large grain, cast polycrystalline silicon (Semix), a potentially low cost material are developed. The first objective is to verify the operation of a DC plasma hydrogenation system and to investigate the effect of hydrogen on the electrical performance of a variety of polycrystalline silicon solar cells. The second objective is to parameterize and optimize a hydrogenation process for cast polycrystalline silicon, and will include a process sensitivity analysis. The sample preparation for the first phase is outlined. The hydrogenation system is described, and some early results that were obtained using the hydrogenation system without a plasma are summarized. Light beam induced current (LBIC) measurements of minicell samples, and their correlation to dark current voltage characteristics, are discussed.

  5. Education and Research for the Age of Nanoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    Nanoelectronics has great potential for further, sustainable growth, and this growth is needed worldwide, because new chips provide the technology foundation for all those products and services that shape our lives. However, the concern is justified that this truth is not the perception of the public in the first decades of the new millennium. How can we work towards a broad, sustained commitment to an innovation ecosystem involving education, research, business, and public policy? Reminding ourselves of the 10x programs invoked in Chap. 2 to describe major milestones in advancing microelectronics towards today's nanoelectronics, we notice that all of them demanded requirements-driven, top-down research with ambitious, often disruptive targets for new products or services. Coming closer to the end of the nanometer focus, the new task of global proportion should be a femto-Joule focus on minimum-energy nanoelectronic systems research.

  6. Genetic Variance in Processing Speed Drives Variation in Aging of Spatial and Memory Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, Deborah; McArdle, John J.; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Hamagami, Fumiaki; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    Previous analyses have identified a genetic contribution to the correlation between declines with age in processing speed and higher cognitive abilities. The goal of the current analysis was to apply the biometric dual change score model to consider the possibility of temporal dynamics underlying the genetic covariance between aging trajectories for processing speed and cognitive abilities. Longitudinal twin data from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging, including up to 5 measurement occasions covering a 16-year period, were available from 806 participants ranging in age from 50 to 88 years at the 1st measurement wave. Factors were generated to tap 4 cognitive domains: verbal ability, spatial ability, memory, and processing speed. Model-fitting indicated that genetic variance for processing speed was a leading indicator of variation in age changes for spatial and memory ability, providing additional support for processing speed theories of cognitive aging. PMID:19413434

  7. Review Processes: Assessing the Quality of Research Proposals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Research, Washington, DC.

    Issues concerning review processes used to select research to be performed in universities and sunported by the federal government are discussed. Recommendations regarding review processes, with special emphasis on the peer review system, are offered. It is proposed that review processes serve government and researchers' purposes of assuring that…

  8. Process Systems Engineering Education: Learning by Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbas, A.; Alhammadi, H. Y.; Romagnoli, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss our approach in teaching the final-year course Process Systems Engineering. Students are given ownership of the course by transferring to them the responsibility of learning. A project-based group environment stimulates learning while solving a real engineering problem. We discuss postgraduate student involvement and how…

  9. Attitudes of Elderly People about Clinical Research on Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Janet M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined participation of elderly people in research. Compared to subjects refusing consent, subjects signing consent had significantly more positive feelings about being used as subject; giving urine; giving blood; having physical examination; being interviewed; taking intelligence test; answering questions; being subject to help others; finding…

  10. Exploring Aging Attitudes through a Puppet Making Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteland, Susan R.

    2016-01-01

    Intergenerational programs often reduce ageism and stereotypical thinking. This author uses a mixed methods case study to investigate how attitudes may change when older adults and children participate in an intergenerational art project. The research question, "Is there a positive correlation in children's attitudes toward older adults and…

  11. Is the Golden Age of the Private Research University Over?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2013-01-01

    After receiving his PhD in 1970, the author has spent almost 30 years conducting research on the economics of higher education, chairing faculty budget committees at Cornell, serving as a Cornell vice president and then as a trustee of both Cornell and SUNY, and being associated with innumerable national commissions and higher education…

  12. Global Research in an Age of Export Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monastersky, Richard

    2008-01-01

    When a jury convicted a Tennessee professor this month of illegally exporting information to foreign countries via his graduate students and a trip to China, it sent a message to colleges that they need to scrupulously monitor their faculty members' research and their compliance with the often confusing universe of export-control regulations. In…

  13. Young People's Images of Old Age in Chile: Exploratory Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold-Cathalifaud, Marcelo; Thumala, Daniela; Urquiza, Anahi; Ojeda, Alejandra

    2008-01-01

    According to gerontological thought, an important part of senior citizens' disabilities are products of their social exclusion rather than factors associated with their physical or mental health. How these exclusions come about was the purpose of the research reported in this article. The study was conducted among 682 Chilean university students…

  14. The aging of the red blood cell. A multifactor process.

    PubMed

    Danon, D; Marikovsky, Y

    1988-01-01

    Red blood cell (rbc) senescence is associated with loss of surface sialic acid, which is the principal carrier of surface negative charge and determines the electrokinetic behavior of old rbcs. Loss of sialic acid in an old rbc is demonstrated in its decreased electric mobility and lower negative charge density, determined topographically with cationic particle labeling. Surface sialic acid determines also the mutual attraction--repulsion forces, as demonstrated in enhanced aggluinability with cationic molecules, lectins, and blood group antibodies. Loss of sialic acid accompanies ATP-depletion in vitro; thus, a T-antigen site is unmasked. Macrophages have specific receptors to the site as to newly exposed galactose and N-acetyl galactosamine sugars. Furthermore, the involvement of complement molecules in the recognition of old RBCs by macrophages has been shown. This is possibly due to loss of sialic acid or at least a regrouping--relocation of surface anionic sites due to cell shape changes from discocytes to crenated forms, which accompany both in vivo and in vitro rbc aging. In turn, shape changes are apparently controlled by the cytoskeletal network underlying the rbc membrane, which undergoes structural alteration with physiologic aging in changing the dimensions of oligomeric spectrin and the thickness of the spectrin-actin cytoskeletal assembly. PMID:3052636

  15. Effect of dietary boron on the aging process.

    PubMed

    Massie, H R

    1994-11-01

    Total boron concentrations in Drosophila changed during development and aging. The highest concentration of boron was found during the egg stage, followed by a decline during the larval stages. Newly emerged flies contained 35.5 ppm boron. During the adult stage the boron concentration increased by 52% by 9 weeks of age. Adding excess dietary boron during the adult stage decreased the median life span by 69% at 0.01 M sodium borate and by 21% at 0.001 M sodium borate. Lower concentrations gave small but significant increases in life span. Supplementing a very low boron diet with 0.00025 M sodium borate improved life span by 9.5%. The boron contents of young and old mouse tissues were similar to those of Drosophila and human samples. Boron supplements of 4.3 and 21.6 ppm in the drinking water, however, did not significantly change the life span of old mice fed a diet containing 31.1 ppm boron. PMID:7889879

  16. Age Differences in the Effects of Conceptual Integration Training on Resource Allocation in Sentence Processing

    PubMed Central

    Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A. L.; Noh, Soo Rim; Shake, Matthew C.

    2009-01-01

    This research examined age differences in the accommodation of reading strategies as a consequence of explicit instruction in conceptual integration. In Experiment 1, young, middle-aged, and older adults read sentences for delayed recall using a moving window method. Readers in an experimental group received instruction in making conceptual links during reading while readers in a control group were simply encouraged to allocate effort. Regression analysis to decompose word-by-word reading times in each condition isolated the time allocated to conceptual processing at the point in the text at which new concepts were introduced, as well as at clause and sentence boundaries. While younger adults responded to instructions by differentially allocating effort to sentence wrap-up, older adults allocated effort to intrasentence wrap-up and on new concepts as they were introduced, suggesting that older readers optimized their allocation of effort to linguistic computations for textbase construction within their processing capacity. Experiment 2 verified that conceptual integration training improved immediate recall among older readers as a consequence of engendering allocation to conceptual processing. PMID:19941199

  17. Age-related decline in bottom-up processing and selective attention in the very old

    PubMed Central

    Zhuravleva, T. Y.; Alperin, B. R.; Haring, A. E.; Rentz, D. M.; Holcomb, P. J.; Daffner, K. R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research demonstrating age-related deficits in selective attention have not included old-old adults, an increasingly important group to study. The current investigation compared event-related potentials (ERPs) in 15 young-old (65–79) and 23 old-old (80–99) subjects during a color-selective attention task. Subjects responded to target letters in a specified color (Attend) while ignoring letters in a different color (Ignore) under both low and high load. There were no group differences in visual acuity, accuracy, reaction time, or latency of early ERP components. The old-old group showed a disruption in bottom-up processing, indexed by a substantially diminished posterior N1 (smaller amplitude). They also demonstrated markedly decreased modulation of bottom-up processing based on selected visual features, indexed by the posterior selection negativity (SN), with similar attenuation under both loads. In contrast, there were no group differences in frontally-mediated attentional selection, measured by the anterior selection positivity (SP). There was a robust inverse relationship between the size of the SN and SP (the smaller the SN, the larger the SP), which may represent an anteriorly-supported compensatory mechanism. In the absence of a decline in top-down modulation indexed by the SP, the diminished SN may reflect age-related degradation of early bottom-up visual processing in old-old adults. PMID:24887611

  18. Engineering therapeutic processes: from research to commodity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, Robert L.

    2014-03-01

    Three of the most important forces driving medical care are: patient specificity, treatment specificity and the move from discovery to design. Engineers while trained in specificity, efficiency, and design are often not trained in either biology or medical processes. Yet they are increasing critical to medical care. For example, modern medical imaging at US hospitals generates 1 exabyte (10^18 bytes) of data per year clearly beyond unassisted human analysis. It is not desirable to involve engineers in the acquisition, storage and analysis of this data, it is essential. While in the past we have nibbled around the edges of medical care, it is time and perhaps past time to insert ourselves more squarely into medical processes, making them more efficient, more specific and more robust. This requires engineers who understand biology and physicians who are willing to step away from classic medical thinking to try new approaches. But once the idea is proven in a laboratory, it must move into use and then into common practice. This requires additional engineering to make the process robust to noisy data and imprecise practices as well as workflow analysis to get the new technique into operating and treatment rooms. True innovation and true translation will require physicians, engineers, other medical stakeholders and even corporate involvement to take a new, important idea and move it not just to a patient but to all patients.

  19. SOME CONCEPTS PERTAINING TO INVESTIGATIVE METHODOLOGY FOR SUBSURFACE PROCESS RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Problems of investigative methodology comprise a critical and often preponderant element of research to delineate and quantitate processes which govern the transport and fate of pollutants in subsurface environments. Examination of several recent research studies illustrates that...

  20. Distinct Visual Evoked Potential Morphological Patterns for Apparent Motion Processing in School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Julia; Sharma, Anu

    2016-01-01

    Measures of visual cortical development in children demonstrate high variability and inconsistency throughout the literature. This is partly due to the specificity of the visual system in processing certain features. It may then be advantageous to activate multiple cortical pathways in order to observe maturation of coinciding networks. Visual stimuli eliciting the percept of apparent motion and shape change is designed to simultaneously activate both dorsal and ventral visual streams. However, research has shown that such stimuli also elicit variable visual evoked potential (VEP) morphology in children. The aim of this study was to describe developmental changes in VEPs, including morphological patterns, and underlying visual cortical generators, elicited by apparent motion and shape change in school-aged children. Forty-one typically developing children underwent high-density EEG recordings in response to a continuously morphing, radially modulated, circle-star grating. VEPs were then compared across the age groups of 5–7, 8–10, and 11–15 years according to latency and amplitude. Current density reconstructions (CDR) were performed on VEP data in order to observe activated cortical regions. It was found that two distinct VEP morphological patterns occurred in each age group. However, there were no major developmental differences between the age groups according to each pattern. CDR further demonstrated consistent visual generators across age and pattern. These results describe two novel VEP morphological patterns in typically developing children, but with similar underlying cortical sources. The importance of these morphological patterns is discussed in terms of future studies and the investigation of a relationship to visual cognitive performance. PMID:27445738

  1. Distinct Visual Evoked Potential Morphological Patterns for Apparent Motion Processing in School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Julia; Sharma, Anu

    2016-01-01

    Measures of visual cortical development in children demonstrate high variability and inconsistency throughout the literature. This is partly due to the specificity of the visual system in processing certain features. It may then be advantageous to activate multiple cortical pathways in order to observe maturation of coinciding networks. Visual stimuli eliciting the percept of apparent motion and shape change is designed to simultaneously activate both dorsal and ventral visual streams. However, research has shown that such stimuli also elicit variable visual evoked potential (VEP) morphology in children. The aim of this study was to describe developmental changes in VEPs, including morphological patterns, and underlying visual cortical generators, elicited by apparent motion and shape change in school-aged children. Forty-one typically developing children underwent high-density EEG recordings in response to a continuously morphing, radially modulated, circle-star grating. VEPs were then compared across the age groups of 5-7, 8-10, and 11-15 years according to latency and amplitude. Current density reconstructions (CDR) were performed on VEP data in order to observe activated cortical regions. It was found that two distinct VEP morphological patterns occurred in each age group. However, there were no major developmental differences between the age groups according to each pattern. CDR further demonstrated consistent visual generators across age and pattern. These results describe two novel VEP morphological patterns in typically developing children, but with similar underlying cortical sources. The importance of these morphological patterns is discussed in terms of future studies and the investigation of a relationship to visual cognitive performance. PMID:27445738

  2. Aging and Others' Pain Processing: Implications for Hospitalization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. While self-pain perception has been widely investigated in aging, the perception as well as memory of pain in others has received little attention. Methods. The study was designed as a cross-sectional behavioral study in which a group of 41 younger and a group of 41 older adults evaluated a series of valenced and pain-related pictures and were later required to recall them. Results. We found that older adults judge the stimuli as being less intense compared to their younger counterparts. However, older adults remembered a larger number of pictures with individuals expressing pain compared to pictures with individuals who have neutral or positive facial expressions. Conclusions. Older adults may underestimate emotional intensity in others, but they seem to remember painful information in others as well as younger adults. These data are discussed in terms of theories of pain perception and implications for hospitalization. PMID:25254040

  3. Stochastic Process Model of Physiological Regeneration, Fertility and Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akushevich, Igor; Manton, Kenneth

    2003-03-01

    A state space model of human birth, death processes is presented based upon a generalization of the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov (F-P-K) diffusion equation. In the model it is assumed that males and females are linked through the birth process and that birth and fetal growth, itself possibly described by a F-P-K equation, generates new probability mass in the population state space. Specific case of radiation as a risk factor is considered and analyzed. Life time generator is constructed on the basis of the developed model and its results are compared with existent physiological longitudinal data.

  4. Riding the Wave: Student Researcher Reflection on the Action Research Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Andrea; Thomas, Jonathan; Woods, Angie; Suess, Robert; Dole, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this article is the exploration of and an explanation of student researchers' affect and activity in an action research project. Using a hermeneutical theoretical framework we argue that the researcher group as a whole constructs a wave process and at the same time each individual researcher in the group creates a wave process that…

  5. Controlled processes account for age-related decrease in episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Vanderaspoilden, Valérie; Adam, Stéphane; der Linden, Martial Van; Morais, José

    2007-05-01

    A decrease in controlled processes has been proposed to be responsible for age-related episodic memory decline. We used the Process Dissociation Procedure, a method that attempts to estimate the contribution of controlled and automatic processes to cognitive performance, and entered both estimates in regression analyses. Results indicate that only controlled processes explained a great part of the age-related variance in a word recall task, especially when little environmental support was offered. PMID:16860766

  6. Word Learning and Phonetic Processing in Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havy, Melanie; Bertoncini, Josiane; Nazzi, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Consonants and vowels have been shown to play different relative roles in different processes, including retrieving known words from pseudowords during adulthood or simultaneously learning two phonetically similar pseudowords during infancy or toddlerhood. The current study explores the extent to which French-speaking 3- to 5-year-olds exhibit a…

  7. Emerging Adulthood: Age-Related Tasks and Underlying Self Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Shmuel; Feldman, Benni; Blatt, Sidney; Cohen, Omri; Mahler, Amalya

    2005-01-01

    Seventy-two Israeli emerging adults were interviewed for descriptions of themselves and accounts of their personal, social, and professional dreams, current life status, romantic relationships, and relationships with their parents. Interviews were transcribed and rated on scales assessing self-processes, attainment of professional and romantic…

  8. Real-Time Language Processing in School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, James W.

    2006-01-01

    Background:School-age children with specific language impairment (SLI) exhibit slower real-time (i.e. immediate) language processing relative to same-age peers and younger, language-matched peers. Results of the few studies that have been done seem to indicate that the slower language processing of children with SLI is due to inefficient…

  9. Regional Groundwater Processes and Flow Dynamics from Age Tracer Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, Uwe; Stewart, Mike K.; Matthews, Abby

    2016-04-01

    Age tracers are now used in New Zealand on regional scales for quantifying the impact and lag time of land use and climate change on the quantity and quality of available groundwater resources within the framework of the National Policy Statement for Freshwater Management 2014. Age tracers provide measurable information on the dynamics of groundwater systems and reaction rates (e.g. denitrification), essential for conceptualising the regional groundwater - surface water system and informing the development of land use and groundwater flow and transport models. In the Horizons Region of New Zealand, around 200 wells have tracer data available, including tritium, SF6, CFCs, 2H, 18O, Ar, N2, CH4 and radon. Well depths range from shallower wells in gravel aquifers in the Horowhenua and Tararua districts, and deeper wells in the aquifers between Palmerston North and Wanganui. Most of the groundwater samples around and north of the Manawatu River west of the Tararua ranges are extremely old (>100 years), even from relatively shallow wells, indicating that these groundwaters are relatively disconnected from fresh surface recharge. The groundwater wells in the Horowhenua tap into a considerably younger groundwater reservoir with groundwater mean residence time (MRT) of 10 - 40 years. Groundwater along the eastern side of the Tararua and Ruahine ranges is significantly younger, typically <5 years MRT. Vertical groundwater recharge rates, as deduced from groundwater depth and MRT, are extremely low in the central coastal area, consistent with confined groundwater systems, or with upwelling of old groundwater close to the coast. Very low vertical recharge rates along the Manawatu River west of the Manawatu Gorge indicate upwelling groundwater conditions in this area, implying groundwater discharge into the river is more likely here than loss of river water into the groundwater system. High recharge rates observed at several wells in the Horowhenua area and in the area east of

  10. Effects of Age and Initial Risk Perception on Balloon Analog Risk Task: The Mediating Role of Processing Speed and Need for Cognitive Closure

    PubMed Central

    Koscielniak, Maciej; Rydzewska, Klara; Sedek, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    According to the dual-process theoretical perspective adopted in the presented research, the efficiency of deliberative processes in decision making declines with age, but experiential processes are relatively well-preserved. The age-related differences in deliberative and experiential processes in risky decision-making were examined in this research by applying the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART). We analyzed the influence of age on risk acceptance and decision-making performance in two age groups of female participants (younger adults, n = 81; older adults, n = 76), with additional experimental manipulation of initial risk perception. We predicted and confirmed that aging significantly worsens performance on the behavioral BART measures due to age-related decline in deliberative processes. Older participants were found to exhibit significantly higher risk aversion and lower BART performance, and the effect of age was mediated by cognitive (processing speed) and motivational (need for cognitive closure) mechanisms. Moreover, older adults adapt to the initial failure (vs. success) similarly, as younger adults due to preserved efficiency of experiential processes. These results suggest future directions for minimizing negative effects of aging in risky decision-making and indicate compensatory processes, which are preserved during aging. PMID:27199877

  11. Effects of Age and Initial Risk Perception on Balloon Analog Risk Task: The Mediating Role of Processing Speed and Need for Cognitive Closure.

    PubMed

    Koscielniak, Maciej; Rydzewska, Klara; Sedek, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    According to the dual-process theoretical perspective adopted in the presented research, the efficiency of deliberative processes in decision making declines with age, but experiential processes are relatively well-preserved. The age-related differences in deliberative and experiential processes in risky decision-making were examined in this research by applying the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART). We analyzed the influence of age on risk acceptance and decision-making performance in two age groups of female participants (younger adults, n = 81; older adults, n = 76), with additional experimental manipulation of initial risk perception. We predicted and confirmed that aging significantly worsens performance on the behavioral BART measures due to age-related decline in deliberative processes. Older participants were found to exhibit significantly higher risk aversion and lower BART performance, and the effect of age was mediated by cognitive (processing speed) and motivational (need for cognitive closure) mechanisms. Moreover, older adults adapt to the initial failure (vs. success) similarly, as younger adults due to preserved efficiency of experiential processes. These results suggest future directions for minimizing negative effects of aging in risky decision-making and indicate compensatory processes, which are preserved during aging. PMID:27199877

  12. Lake Erie Yellow perch age estimation based on three structures: Precision, processing times, and management implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandergoot, C.S.; Bur, M.T.; Powell, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    Yellow perch Perca flavescens support economically important recreational and commercial fisheries in Lake Erie and are intensively managed. Age estimation represents an integral component in the management of Lake Erie yellow perch stocks, as age-structured population models are used to set safe harvest levels on an annual basis. We compared the precision associated with yellow perch (N = 251) age estimates from scales, sagittal otoliths, and anal spine sections and evaluated the time required to process and estimate age from each structure. Three readers of varying experience estimated ages. The precision (mean coefficient of variation) of estimates among readers was 1% for sagittal otoliths, 5-6% for anal spines, and 11-13% for scales. Agreement rates among readers were 94-95% for otoliths, 71-76% for anal spines, and 45-50% for scales. Systematic age estimation differences were evident among scale and anal spine readers; less-experienced readers tended to underestimate ages of yellow perch older than age 4 relative to estimates made by an experienced reader. Mean scale age tended to underestimate ages of age-6 and older fish relative to otolith ages estimated by an experienced reader. Total annual mortality estimates based on scale ages were 20% higher than those based on otolith ages; mortality estimates based on anal spine ages were 4% higher than those based on otolith ages. Otoliths required more removal and preparation time than scales and anal spines, but age estimation time was substantially lower for otoliths than for the other two structures. We suggest the use of otoliths or anal spines for age estimation in yellow perch (regardless of length) from Lake Erie and other systems where precise age estimates are necessary, because age estimation errors resulting from the use of scales could generate incorrect management decisions. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  13. Results from the Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program: Their use in inspection activities

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, W.; Taylor, J. )

    1990-09-01

    The US NCR's Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program has determined the susceptibility to aging of components and systems, and the potential for aging to impact plant safety and availability. The NPAR Program also identified methods for detecting and mitigating aging in components. This report describes the NPAR results which can enhance NRC inspection activities. Recommendations are provided for communicating pertinent information to NRC inspectors. These recommendations are based on a detailed assessment of the NRC's Inspection Program, and feedback from resident and regional inspectors as described within. Examples of NPAR report summaries and aging inspection guides for components and systems are included. 13 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Process Research on Polycrystalline Silicon Material (PROPSM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culik, J. S.; Wrigley, C. Y.

    1984-01-01

    Results of hydrogen-passivated polycrystalline silicon solar cells are summarized. Very small grain or short minority-carrier diffusion length silicon was used. Hydrogenated solar cells fabricated from this material appear to have effective minority-carrier diffusion lengths that are still not very long, as shown by the open-circuit voltages of passivated cells that are still significantly less than those of single-crystal solar cells. The short-circuit current of solar cells fabricated from large-grain cast polycrystalline silicon is nearly equivalent to that of single-crystal cells, which indicates long bulk minority-carrier diffusion length. However, the open-circuit voltage, which is sensitive to grain boundary recombination, is sometimes 20 to 40 mV less. The goal was to minimize variations in open-circuit voltage and fill-factor caused by defects by passivating these defects using a hydrogenation process. Treatments with molecular hydrogen showed no effect on large-grain cast polycrystaline silicon solar cells.

  15. Ground based research in microgravity materials processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Rathz, Tom

    1994-01-01

    The core activities performed during this time period have been concerned with tracking the TEMPEST experiments on the shuttle with drops of Zr, Ni, and Nb alloys. In particular a lot of Zr drops are being made to better define the recalescence characteristics of that system so that accurate comparisons of the drop tube results with Tempest can be made. A new liner, with minimal reflectivity characteristics, has been inserted into the drop tube in order to improve the recalescence measurements of the falling drops. The first installation to make the geometric measurements to ensure a proper fit has been made. The stovepipe sections are currently in the shop at MSFC being painted with low reflectivity black paint. Work has also continued on setting up the MEL apparatus obtained from Oak Ridge in the down stairs laboratory at the Drop Tube Facilities. Some ground-based experiments on the same metals as are being processed on TEMPEST are planned for the MEL. The flight schedules for the KC-135 experiments are still to be determined in the near future.

  16. The global status of freshwater fish age validation studies and a prioritization framework for future research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Kevin L.; Hamel, Martin J.; Pegg, Mark A.; Spurgeon, Jonathan J.

    2016-01-01

    Age information derived from calcified structures is commonly used to estimate recruitment, growth, and mortality for fish populations. Validation of daily or annual marks on age structures is often assumed, presumably due to a lack of general knowledge concerning the status of age validation studies. Therefore, the current status of freshwater fish age validation studies was summarized to show where additional effort is needed, and increase the accessibility of validation studies to researchers. In total, 1351 original peer-reviewed articles were reviewed from freshwater systems that studied age in fish. Periodicity and age validation studies were found for 88 freshwater species comprising 21 fish families. The number of age validation studies has increased over the last 30 years following previous calls for more research; however, few species have validated structures spanning all life stages. In addition, few fishes of conservation concern have validated ageing structures. A prioritization framework, using a combination of eight characteristics, is offered to direct future age validation studies and close the validation information gap. Additional study, using the offered prioritization framework, and increased availability of published studies that incorporate uncertainty when presenting research results dealing with age information are needed.

  17. The origins of age of acquisition and typicality effects: Semantic processing in aphasia and the ageing brain.

    PubMed

    Räling, Romy; Schröder, Astrid; Wartenburger, Isabell

    2016-06-01

    Age of acquisition (AOA) has frequently been shown to influence response times and accuracy rates in word processing and constitutes a meaningful variable in aphasic language processing, while its origin in the language processing system is still under debate. To find out where AOA originates and whether and how it is related to another important psycholinguistic variable, namely semantic typicality (TYP), we studied healthy, elderly controls and semantically impaired individuals using semantic priming. For this purpose, we collected reaction times and accuracy rates as well as event-related potential data in an auditory category-member-verification task. The present results confirm a semantic origin of TYP, but question the same for AOA while favouring its origin at the phonology-semantics interface. The data are further interpreted in consideration of recent theories of ageing. PMID:27106392

  18. The Relationship Between Age and Information Processing Capacity and Age and Channel Capacity of Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, William Lester

    This study sought to determine if there is a change in information processing and channel capacity as the human organism grows older, and if this relationship is altered with a change in stimulus complexity and dimensionality of the stimulus presented. With the human organism considered as a communication system, the use of absolute judgments to…

  19. Mentoring Australian Emerging Researchers in Aging: Evaluation of a Pilot Mentoring Scheme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henwood, Tim; Bartlett, Helen; Carroll, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    A survey of Australian emerging researchers in aging identified the need for greater professional development and networking opportunities. To address this, a formal mentorship scheme was developed and evaluated. Fourteen postgraduate researchers (proteges) were matched by discipline and research interest to experienced academics (mentors).…

  20. School Nurses Can Address Existing Gaps in School-Age Sleep Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willgerodt, Mayumi A.; Kieckhefer, Gail M.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep has been linked to a host of physical, behavioral, and emotional outcomes, and research has documented that youth across the globe are experiencing inadequate sleep. Despite this knowledge, however, very little research has been conducted on school-age children; much of the extant research has focused on infants, toddlers, preschoolers,…

  1. Epigenomic maintenance through dietary intervention can facilitate DNA repair process to slow down the progress of premature aging.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Shampa; Sinha, Jitendra Kumar; Raghunath, Manchala

    2016-09-01

    DNA damage caused by various sources remains one of the most researched topics in the area of aging and neurodegeneration. Increased DNA damage causes premature aging. Aging is plastic and is characterised by the decline in the ability of a cell/organism to maintain genomic stability. Lifespan can be modulated by various interventions like calorie restriction, a balanced diet of macro and micronutrients or supplementation with nutrients/nutrient formulations such as Amalaki rasayana, docosahexaenoic acid, resveratrol, curcumin, etc. Increased levels of DNA damage in the form of double stranded and single stranded breaks are associated with decreased longevity in animal models like WNIN/Ob obese rats. Erroneous DNA repair can result in accumulation of DNA damage products, which in turn result in premature aging disorders such as Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. Epigenomic studies of the aging process have opened a completely new arena for research and development of drugs and therapeutic agents. We propose here that agents or interventions that can maintain epigenomic stability and facilitate the DNA repair process can slow down the progress of premature aging, if not completely prevent it. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(9):717-721, 2016. PMID:27364681

  2. Fast Airborne Size Distribution Measurements of an Aerosol Processes and Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapustin, V.; Clarke, A. D.; Zhou, J.; Brekhovskikh, V.; McNaughton, C. S.; Howell, S.

    2009-12-01

    During MILAGRO/INTEX experiment the Hawaii Group for Environmental Aerosol Research (HIGEAR) deployed a wide range of aerosol instrumentation aboard NSF C-130 and NASA DC-8. These were designed to provide rapid information on aerosol composition, state of mixing (internal or external), spectral optical properties (scattering and absorption), the humidity dependence of light scattering - f(RH), and the role of condensed species in changing the absorption properties of black carbon (BC) and inferred properties of organic carbon (OC). We also flew the Fast Mobility Particle Spectrometer (FMPS, TSI Inc.) to measure aerosol size distributions in a range 5.6 - 560 nm. For all our flights around Mexico City, an aerosol number concentration usually was well above the nominal FMPS sensitivity (from ~100 particles/cc @ Dp = 5.6 nm to 1 part/cc @ 560nm), providing us with reliable size distributions even at 1 sec resolution. FMPS measurements revealed small scale structure of an aerosol and allowed us to examine size distributions varying over space and time associated with mixing processes previously unresolved. These 1-Hz measurements during aircraft profiles captured variations in size distributions within shallow layers. Other dynamic processes observed included orography induced aerosol layers and evolution of the nanoparticles formed by nucleation. We put FMPS high resolution size distribution data in a context of aerosol evolution and aging, using a range of established (for MIRAGE/INTEX) chemical, aerosol and transport aging parameters.

  3. Hierarchical and serial processing in the spatial auditory cortical pathway is degraded by natural aging

    PubMed Central

    Juarez-Salinas, Dina L.; Engle, James R.; Navarro, Xochi O.; Recanzone, Gregg H.

    2010-01-01

    The compromised abilities to localize sounds and to understand speech are two hallmark deficits in aged individuals. The auditory cortex is necessary for these processes, yet we know little about how normal aging affects these early cortical fields. In this study, we recorded the spatial tuning of single neurons in primary (area A1) and secondary (area CL) auditory cortical areas in young and aged alert rhesus macaques. We found that the neurons of aged animals had greater spontaneous and driven activity, and broader spatial tuning compared to those of younger animals. Importantly, spatial tuning was not sharpened between A1 and CL in aged monkeys as it is in younger monkeys. This implies that a major effect of normal aging is a degradation of the hierarchical processing between serially connected cortical areas, which could be a key contributing mechanism of the general cognitive decline that is commonly observed in normal aging. PMID:21048138

  4. From mind wandering to involuntary retrieval: Age-related differences in spontaneous cognitive processes.

    PubMed

    Maillet, David; Schacter, Daniel L

    2016-01-01

    The majority of studies that have investigated the effects of healthy aging on cognition have focused on age-related differences in voluntary and deliberately engaged cognitive processes. Yet many forms of cognition occur spontaneously, without any deliberate attempt at engaging them. In this article we review studies that have assessed age-related differences in four such types of spontaneous thought processes: mind-wandering, involuntary autobiographical memory, intrusive thoughts, and spontaneous prospective memory retrieval. These studies suggest that older adults exhibit a reduction in frequency of both mind-wandering and involuntary autobiographical memory, whereas findings regarding intrusive thoughts have been more mixed. Additionally, there is some preliminary evidence that spontaneous prospective memory retrieval may be relatively preserved in aging. We consider the roles of age-related differences in cognitive resources, motivation, current concerns and emotional regulation in accounting for these findings. We also consider age-related differences in the neural correlates of spontaneous cognitive processes. PMID:26617263

  5. Therapeutic Process and Outcome: The Interplay of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbel, Holly

    2008-01-01

    From Freud through to modern times researchers have aimed to develop a clearer understanding of therapeutic processes and outcomes. Despite this continued interest in the field, the representation of psychotherapy processes and the applicability of research findings and recommendations to the therapeutic field continue to prove difficult.…

  6. Power spectra for both interrupted and perennial aging processes.

    PubMed

    Lukovic, Mirko; Grigolini, Paolo

    2008-11-14

    We study the power spectrum of a random telegraphic noise with the distribution density of waiting times tau given by psi(tau) proportional to 1tau(mu), with mu approximately 2. The condition mu<2 violates the ergodic hypothesis, and in this case the adoption of Wiener-Khintchine (WK) theorem for the spectrum evaluation requires some caution. We study this problem theoretically and numerically and we prove that the power spectrum obeys the prescription S(f)=Kf(eta), with eta=3-mu, namely, the 1f noise lives at border between the ergodic mu>2 and nonergodic mu<2 condition. We study sequences with the finite length L. In the case mu<2 the adoption of WK theorem is made legitimate by two different kinds of truncation effects: the physical and observation-induced effect. In the former case psi(tau) is truncated at tau approximately T(max) and L>T(max) ensures the condition of interrupted aging. In this case, we find that K is a number independent of L. The latter case, L2. We do not limit our treatment to the time asymptotic case, thereby producing a prediction that accounts for the transition from the 1f(eta) to the 1f(2) regime, recently observed in an experiment on blinking quantum dots. Our theoretical approach allows us to discuss some other recent experiments on molecular intermittent fluorescence and affords indications that should help to assess whether the spectrum is determined by the LT(max) condition. PMID:19045381

  7. Word learning and phonetic processing in preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Havy, Mélanie; Bertoncini, Josiane; Nazzi, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Consonants and vowels have been shown to play different relative roles in different processes, including retrieving known words from pseudowords during adulthood or simultaneously learning two phonetically similar pseudowords during infancy or toddlerhood. The current study explores the extent to which French-speaking 3- to 5-year-olds exhibit a so-called "consonant bias" in a task simulating word acquisition, that is, when learning new words for unfamiliar objects. In Experiment 1, the to-be-learned words differed both by a consonant and a vowel (e.g., /byf/-/duf/), and children needed to choose which of the two objects to associate with a third one whose name differed from both objects by either a consonant or a vowel (e.g., /dyf/). In such a conflict condition, children needed to favor (or neglect) either consonant information or vowel information. The results show that only 3-year-olds preferentially chose the consonant identity, thereby neglecting the vowel change. The older children (and adults) did not exhibit any response bias. In Experiment 2, children needed to pick up one of two objects whose names differed on either consonant information or vowel information. Whereas 3-year-olds performed better with pairs of pseudowords contrasting on consonants, the pattern of asymmetry was reversed in 4-year-olds, and 5-year-olds did not exhibit any significant response bias. Interestingly, girls showed overall better performance and exhibited earlier changes in performance than boys. The changes in consonant/vowel asymmetry in preschoolers are discussed in relation with developments in linguistic (lexical and morphosyntactic) and cognitive processing. PMID:20850758

  8. In the ear of the beholder: how age shapes emotion processing in nonverbal vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Lima, César F; Alves, Tiago; Scott, Sophie K; Castro, São Luís

    2014-02-01

    It is well established that emotion recognition of facial expressions declines with age, but evidence for age-related differences in vocal emotions is more limited. This is especially true for nonverbal vocalizations such as laughter, sobs, or sighs. In this study, 43 younger adults (M = 22 years) and 43 older ones (M = 61.4 years) provided multiple emotion ratings of nonverbal emotional vocalizations. Contrasting with previous research, which often includes only one positive emotion (happiness) versus several negative ones, we examined 4 positive and 4 negative emotions: achievement/triumph, amusement, pleasure, relief, anger, disgust, fear, and sadness. We controlled for hearing loss and assessed general cognitive decline, cognitive control, verbal intelligence, working memory, current affect, emotion regulation, and personality. Older adults were less sensitive than younger ones to the intended vocal emotions, as indicated by decrements in ratings on the intended emotion scales and accuracy. These effects were similar for positive and negative emotions, and they were independent of age-related differences in cognitive, affective, and personality measures. Regression analyses revealed that younger and older participants' responses could be predicted from the acoustic properties of the temporal, intensity, fundamental frequency, and spectral profile of the vocalizations. The two groups were similarly efficient in using the acoustic cues, but there were differences in the patterns of emotion-specific predictors. This study suggests that ageing produces specific changes on the processing of nonverbal vocalizations. That decrements were not attenuated for positive emotions indicates that they cannot be explained by a positivity effect in older adults. PMID:24219391

  9. Top-down modulation of visual and auditory cortical processing in aging.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Maria J S; Eck, Judith; Moerel, Michelle; Evers, Elisabeth A T; Van Gerven, Pascal W M

    2015-02-01

    Age-related cognitive decline has been accounted for by an age-related deficit in top-down attentional modulation of sensory cortical processing. In light of recent behavioral findings showing that age-related differences in selective attention are modality dependent, our goal was to investigate the role of sensory modality in age-related differences in top-down modulation of sensory cortical processing. This question was addressed by testing younger and older individuals in several memory tasks while undergoing fMRI. Throughout these tasks, perceptual features were kept constant while attentional instructions were varied, allowing us to devise all combinations of relevant and irrelevant, visual and auditory information. We found no top-down modulation of auditory sensory cortical processing in either age group. In contrast, we found top-down modulation of visual cortical processing in both age groups, and this effect did not differ between age groups. That is, older adults enhanced cortical processing of relevant visual information and suppressed cortical processing of visual distractors during auditory attention to the same extent as younger adults. The present results indicate that older adults are capable of suppressing irrelevant visual information in the context of cross-modal auditory attention, and thereby challenge the view that age-related attentional and cognitive decline is due to a general deficits in the ability to suppress irrelevant information. PMID:25300470

  10. Brain white matter structure and information processing speed in healthy older age.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Ksenia A; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Ritchie, Stuart J; Cox, Simon R; Storkey, Amos J; Starr, John M; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Deary, Ian J; Bastin, Mark E

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive decline, especially the slowing of information processing speed, is associated with normal ageing. This decline may be due to brain cortico-cortical disconnection caused by age-related white matter deterioration. We present results from a large, narrow age range cohort of generally healthy, community-dwelling subjects in their seventies who also had their cognitive ability tested in youth (age 11 years). We investigate associations between older age brain white matter structure, several measures of information processing speed and childhood cognitive ability in 581 subjects. Analysis of diffusion tensor MRI data using Tract-based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) showed that all measures of information processing speed, as well as a general speed factor composed from these tests (g speed), were significantly associated with fractional anisotropy (FA) across the white matter skeleton rather than in specific tracts. Cognitive ability measured at age 11 years was not associated with older age white matter FA, except for the g speed-independent components of several individual processing speed tests. These results indicate that quicker and more efficient information processing requires global connectivity in older age, and that associations between white matter FA and information processing speed (both individual test scores and g speed), unlike some other aspects of later life brain structure, are generally not accounted for by cognitive ability measured in youth. PMID:26254904

  11. Refining Martian Ages and Understanding Geological Processes From Cratering Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, William K.

    2005-01-01

    Senior Scientist William K. Hartman presents his final report on Mars Data Analysis Program grant number NAG5-12217: The third year of the three-year program was recently completed in mid-2005. The program has been extremely productive in research and data analysis regarding Mars, especially using Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey imagery. In the 2005 alone, three papers have already been published, to which this work contributed.1) Hartmann, W. K. 200.5. Martian cratering 8. Isochron refinement and the history of Martian geologic activity Icarus 174, 294-320. This paper is a summary of my entire program of establishing Martian chronology through counts of Martian impact craters. 2) Arfstrom, John, and W. K. Hartmann 2005. Martian flow features, moraine-like rieges, and gullies: Terrestrial analogs and interrelationships. Icarus 174,32 1-335. This paper makes pioneering connections between Martian glacier-like features and terrestrial glacial features. 3) Hartmann, W.K., D. Winterhalter, and J. Geiss. 2005 Chronology and Physical Evolution of Planet Mars. In The Solar System and Beyond: Ten Years of ISSI (Bern: International Space Science Institute). This is a summary of work conducted at the International Space Science Institute with an international team, emphasizing our publication of a conference volume about Mars, edited by Hartmann and published in 2001.

  12. Nutrition in the age-related disablement process.

    PubMed

    Inzitari, M; Doets, E; Bartali, B; Benetou, V; Di Bari, M; Visser, M; Volpato, S; Gambassi, G; Topinkova, E; De Groot, L; Salva, A

    2011-08-01

    The transition from independence to disability in older adults is characterized by detectable changes in body composition and physical function. Epidemiologic studies have shown that weight loss, reduced caloric intake and the reduced intake of specific nutrients are associated with such changes. The mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear, and different hypotheses have been suggested, including the reduction of the antioxidant effects of some nutrients. Changes in muscle mass and quality might play a central role in the pathway linking malnutrition, its biological and molecular consequences, and function. A different approach aims at assessing diets by dietary patterns, which capture intercorrelations of nutrients within a diet, rather than by selective foods or nutrients: epidemiologic evidence suggests that some types of diet, such as the Mediterranean diet, might prevent negative functional outcomes in older adults. However, despite a theoretical and empirical basis, intervention studies using nutritional supplementation have shown inconclusive results in preventing functional impairment and disability. The present work is the result of a review and consensus effort of a European task force on nutrition in the elderly, promoted by the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics (IAGG) European Region. After the critical review of different aspects related to the role of nutrition in the transition from independence to disability, we propose future lines for research, including the determination of levels of inadequacy and target doses of supplements, the study of interactions (between nutrients within a diet and with other lifestyle aspects), and the association with functional outcomes. PMID:21968852

  13. New Academics and Identities: Research as a Process of "Becoming"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Heather; Badenhorst, Cecile

    2014-01-01

    We are new academics involved in the process of becoming researchers. We believe that gathering, reflecting, sharing and producing knowledge are important parts of constructing a strong identity as a researcher that we produce and own rather than being produced by the prevailing academic discourse. We decenter research as a product and bring into…

  14. Maculate Conceptions: Power, Process, and Creativity in Participatory Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Alexandra; Bell, Michael; Croll, Nora Swan; Jackson, Randall; Gratton, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Justifiably concerned about power dynamics between researchers and participants in participatory research, much of the literature proposes guidelines for including participant voices at every step of the research process. We find these guidelines insufficient for dealing with constraints set up by the social organizational structures in which…

  15. Optimal Control of Markov Processes with Age-Dependent Transition Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Mrinal K. Saha, Subhamay

    2012-10-15

    We study optimal control of Markov processes with age-dependent transition rates. The control policy is chosen continuously over time based on the state of the process and its age. We study infinite horizon discounted cost and infinite horizon average cost problems. Our approach is via the construction of an equivalent semi-Markov decision process. We characterise the value function and optimal controls for both discounted and average cost cases.

  16. Investigating Moderator Hypotheses in Aging Research: Statistical, Methodological, and Conceptual Difficulties with Comparing Separate Regressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newsom, Jason T.; Prigerson, Holly G.; Schulz, Richard; Reynolds, Charles F., III

    2003-01-01

    Many topics in aging research address questions about group differences in prediction. Such questions can be viewed in terms of interaction or moderator effects, and use of appropriate methods to test these hypotheses are necessary to arrive at accurate conclusions about age differences. This article discusses the conceptual, methodological, and…

  17. On the Aging of Scientific Personnel in Higher Education and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elstermann, Gert

    1978-01-01

    The situation of "collective aging" of the academic staff in universities and research institutes caused by the skew age distribution and the zero-growth budgets in nearly all European countries is discussed. Possible policies to palliate the negative effects are considered along with support for junior staff with temporary contracts or limited…

  18. [Aging and cognitive slowing: example of attentional processes--evaluation procedures and related questions].

    PubMed

    Eusop, E; Sebban, C; Piette, F

    2001-01-01

    Slowing is generally associated to ageing. It appears in motor's functions and in cognitive tasks. What is the real nature of this slowing? Is it a general slowing concerning every cognitive processes with the same scale or is this slowing specific of only processes. Or, at least, is it of different magnitude for each cognitive processes? The aim of this paper is to present the state of this debate from results obtained in studies orientated toward attentional processes. Attention allows us to adapt oneself to environment that require in one hand selective mechanisms for pertinence events and in other hand inhibitory mechanisms for interferences. To evaluate these mechanisms priming and cueing procedures are used. Using primes (semantic or conceptual) results in shorter reaction time than for conditions without prime. In some experimental conditions, negative primes can be observed which results for longer reaction time. In these procedures, we need to be careful to the SOA's value (Stimulus Onset Asynchrony) (it represents the time between the end of the prime or cue presentation and the beginning of the stimulus presentation). The longer is the SOA, the shorter is the reaction time increase with a SOA between 200 ms and 400 ms. In these procedures, we now have to understand in the field of information processing what causes this reaction time modification. In other words, increase of reaction time with SOA could be explain increase of all stages of treatment or may be also the consequence of some abolition's of stages? In attentional procedures, we have to consider the automatic or controlled nature of cognitive processes. In target research tasks that implies selective attention, several authors have showed a distinction between automatic and controlled processing. Time to detect prompts increase generally with the distractor number excepted when the prompt is prominent for the subject (because of physical or emotional characteristics). In this second case, the

  19. Comparative and alternative approaches and novel animal models for aging research

    PubMed Central

    Kristan, D. M.

    2008-01-01

    This special issue of AGE showcases powerful alternative or unconventional approaches to basic aging research, including the use of exceptionally long-lived animal model species and comparative methods from evolutionary biology. In this opening paper, we introduce several of these alternative aging research themes, including the comparative phylogenetic approach. This approach applies modern inferential methods for dissecting basic physiological and biochemical mechanisms correlated with phenotypic traits including longevity, slow aging, sustained somatic maintenance, and repair of molecular damage. Comparative methods can be used to assess the general relevance of specific aging mechanisms—including oxidative processes—to diverse animal species, as well as to assess their potential clinical relevance to humans and other mammals. We also introduce several other novel, underexploited approaches with particular relevance to biogerontology, including the use of model animal species or strains that retain natural genetic heterogeneity, studies of effects of infectious disease and parasites on aging and responses to caloric restriction, studies of reproductive aging, and naturally occurring sex differences in aging. We emphasize the importance of drawing inferences from aging phenomena in laboratory studies that can be applied to clinically relevant aging syndromes in long-lived, outbred animals, including humans. PMID:19424857

  20. Changes in global DNA methylation intensity and DNMT1 transcription during the aging process of scallop Chlamys farreri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Shanshan; He, Yan; Li, Xue; Zhao, Bosong; Hou, Rui; Hu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Lingling; Bao, Zhenmin

    2015-08-01

    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic regulatory mechanism that influences genomic stability, gene activation, X-chromosome inactivation and other factors. A change in DNA methylation is usually associated with aging and cellular senescence. DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) is the most abundant DNA methyltransferase, and it plays an important role in maintaining the established methylation pattern during DNA replication in vertebrates. Although the effect of aging on DNA methylation has been well studied in vertebrates, little research has been conducted in invertebrates, especially in marine bivalves. In this study, we examined global DNA methylation levels in four groups of adult Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri at different ages. The results showed that both the age and tissue type had a strong effect on the DNA methylation. In addition, a significant decrease in DNA methylation with aging (1-4 years) can be detected in mantle, kidney and hepatopancreas. We further measured the change in DNMT1 transcript abundance using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), which revealed that DNMT1 transcription significantly decreased with aging in mantle and hepatopancreas and strongly correlated with DNA methylation ( R = 0.72). Our data provided greater insight into the aging-related decline of DNA methylation, which could aid in gaining a better understanding of the relationship between DNA methylation and the aging process in bivalve mollusks.

  1. Process Analysis and Documentation for Utilization of Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Flora

    This document reports on an investigation which surveyed process analysis and documentation concepts, practices, and standards in light of the need for communicating the processes and outcomes of educational research and development. The survey demonstrated that the areas of impartial process analysis and documentation are both important and…

  2. NASA/MSFC FY-84 Atmospheric Processes Research Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, W. W. (Compiler); Porter, F. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    The two main areas of focus for NASA/MSFC's atmospheric research program are: (1) global scale processes (geophysical fluid processes, satellite Doppler lidar wind profiler, and satellite data analyses) and (2) mesoscale processes (atmospheric electricity (lightning), ground/airborne Doppler lidar wind measurements, and mesoscale analyses and space sensors). Topics within these two general areas are addressed.

  3. Global Biology Research Program: Biogeochemical Processes in Wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, D. S. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    The results of a workshop examining potential NASA contributions to research on wetland processes as they relate to global biogeochemical cycles are summarized. A wetlands data base utilizing remotely sensed inventories, studies of wetland/atmosphere exchange processes, and the extrapolation of local measurements to global biogeochemical cycling processes were identified as possible areas for NASA support.

  4. NASA/MSFC FY-82 atmospheric processes research review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. E. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    The NASA/MSFC FY-82 Atmospheric Processes Research Program was reviewed. The review covered research tasks in the areas of upper atmosphere, global weather, and severe storms and local weather. Also included was research on aviation safety environmental hazards. The research project summaries, in narrative outline form, supplied by the individual investigators together with the agenda and other information about the review are presented.

  5. Integrating Stakeholders and Users into the Geography Discipline's Research Process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hermans, Caroline M.; Taketa, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Future research priorities of Geography emphasize the discipline's leadership role in the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in multidisciplinary and integrated research on human and environmental systems and how these systems are interrelated and respond to change Geography's research priorities also emphasize providing science that is usable to society and creating decision support products applicable to given customer problems. To achieve these goals, we must understand the relationship between our research and our customer, and how to integrate the customer into the research process. This report details the elements of the research process that help achieve the degree of stakeholder involvement necessary to ensure a successful end-product. It offers suggestions that can help researchers better understand stakeholders and customers and involve them in the research process more effectively, while preserving the integrity of the science. Its aim is to help researchers understand the problems and challenges faced by our customers and communicate the ways in which Geography can help address their problems. Adopting these guidelines can improve the efficiency of the research process and lead to higher quality output. We will be able to conduct better research because we will have an improved understanding of the research problem and the stakeholders involved. This report covers a broad range of topics, from identifying and communicating with stakeholders and users, to the use of language, to how to effectively present scientific information to the user. It does not offer a 'one size fits all' method. Instead, perhaps only specific sections are suitable for a given project and customers, depending on project scope and needs. This report is based on the objectives of Geography's strategic plan, U. S. Geological Survey's strategic plan, and Department of Interior's strategic plan. Section 2 of these guidelines describes the purpose of the research process in Geography and

  6. Five years of interdisciplinary research on ageing and technology: Outcomes of the Lower Saxony Research Network Design of Environments for Ageing (GAL)--an introduction to this Special Issue on Ageing and Technology.

    PubMed

    Haux, Reinhold; Hein, Andreas; Kolb, Gerald; Künemund, Harald; Eichelberg, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This Special Issue of Informatics for Health and Social Care is presenting outcomes of the Lower Saxony Research Network Design of Environments for Ageing (abbreviated as GAL), probably one of the largest inter- and multidisciplinary research projects on aging and technology. In order to investigate and provide answers on whether new information and communication technologies can contribute to keeping, or even improving quality of life, health and self-sufficiency in ageing societies through new ways of living and new forms of care, GAL had been established as a five-year research project, running from 2008 to 2013. Ambient-assisted living technologies in personal and home environments were especially important. During the five years of research in GAL, more than seventy researchers from computer science, economics, engineering, geriatrics, gerontology, informatics, medicine, nursing science and rehabilitation pedagogy intensively collaborated in finding answers. PMID:25148555

  7. Aligning Web-Based Tools to the Research Process Cycle: A Resource for Collaborative Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Geoffrey P.; Wright, Vivian H.

    2012-01-01

    Using John Creswell's Research Process Cycle as a framework, this article describes various web-based collaborative technologies useful for enhancing the organization and efficiency of educational research. Visualization tools (Cacoo) assist researchers in identifying a research problem. Resource storage tools (Delicious, Mendeley, EasyBib)…

  8. HIV and Aging: State of Knowledge and Areas of Critical Need for Research

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    HIV risk behaviors, susceptibility to HIV acquisition, progression of disease after infection, and response to anti-retroviral therapy all vary by age. In those living with HIV, current effective treatment has increased the median life expectancy to > 70 years of age. Biologic, medical, individual social and societal issues change as one ages with HIV infection, but there has been only a small amount of research in this field. Therefore, the Office of AIDS Research of the National Institutes of Health commissioned a working group to develop an outline of the current state of knowledge and areas of critical need for research in HIV and Aging; the working groups’ findings and recommendations are summarized in this report. Key overarching themes identified by the group included: multi-morbidity, poly-pharmacy and the need to emphasize maintenance of function; the complexity of assessing HIV vs. treatment effects vs. aging vs. concurrent disease; the inter-related mechanisms of immune senescence, inflammation and hypercoagulability; the utility of multi-variable indices for predicting outcomes; a need to emphasize human studies to account for complexity; and a required focus on issues of community support, caregivers and systems infrastructure. Critical resources are needed to enact this research agenda and include expanded review panel expertise in aging, functional measures and multi-morbidity, as well as facilitated use and continued funding to allow long-term follow-up of cohorts aging with HIV. PMID:22688010

  9. Aging in Place: Evolution of a Research Topic Whose Time Has Come

    PubMed Central

    Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Steinman, Bernard A.; Liebig, Phoebe S.; Pynoos, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, policy makers and professionals who provide services to older adults with chronic conditions and impairments have placed greater emphasis on conceptualizing aging in place as an attainable and worthwhile goal. Little is known, however, of the changes in how this concept has evolved in aging research. To track trends in aging in place, we examined scholarly articles published from 1980 to 2010 that included the concept in eleven academic gerontology journals. We report an increase in the absolute number and proportion of aging-in-place manuscripts published during this period, with marked growth in the 2000s. Topics related to the environment and services were the most commonly examined during 2000–2010 (35% and 31%, resp.), with a substantial increase in manuscripts pertaining to technology and health/functioning. This underscores the increase in diversity of topics that surround the concept of aging-in-place literature in gerontological research. PMID:22175020

  10. Leaf Aging of Amazonian Canopy Trees: Insights to Tropical Ecological Processes and Satellited Detected Canopy Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavana-Bryant, C.; Malhi, Y.; Gerard, F.

    2015-12-01

    Leaf aging is a fundamental driver of changes in leaf traits, thereby, regulating ecosystem processes and remotely-sensed canopy dynamics. Leaf age is particularly important for carbon-rich tropical evergreen forests, as leaf demography (leaf age distribution) has been proposed as a major driver of seasonal productivity in these forests. We explore leaf reflectance as a tool to monitor leaf age and develop a novel spectra-based (PLSR) model to predict age using data from a phenological study of 1,072 leaves from 12 lowland Amazonian canopy tree species in southern Peru. Our results demonstrate monotonic decreases in LWC and Pmass and increase in LMA with age across species; Nmass and Cmassshowed monotonic but species-specific age responses. Spectrally, we observed large age-related variation across species, with the most age-sensitive spectral domains found to be: green peak (550nm), red edge (680-750 nm), NIR (700-850 nm), and around the main water absorption features (~1450 and ~1940 nm). A spectra-based model was more accurate in predicting leaf age (R2= 0.86; %RMSE= 33) compared to trait-based models using single (R2=0.07 to 0.73; %RMSE=7 to 38) and multiple predictors (step-wise analysis; R2=0.76; %RMSE=28). Spectral and trait-based models established a physiochemical basis for the spectral age model. The relative importance of the traits modifying the leaf spectra of aging leaves was: LWC>LMA>Nmass>Pmass,&Cmass. Vegetation indices (VIs), including NDVI, EVI2, NDWI and PRI were all age-dependent. This study highlights the importance of leaf age as a mediator of leaf traits, provides evidence of age-related leaf reflectance changes that have important impacts on VIs used to monitor canopy dynamics and productivity, and proposes a new approach to predicting and monitoring leaf age with important implications for remote sensing.

  11. Variability of the Aging Process in Dementia-Free Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsao, Raphaele; Kindelberger, Cecile; Freminville, Benedicte; Touraine, Renaud; Bussey, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to analyze the typical aging process in adults with Down syndrome, focusing on its variability. The sample comprised 120 adults with Down syndrome who were free of dementia. Ages ranged from 20 to 69 years. Each participant was assessed on cognitive functioning and social adaptation, and was checked for…

  12. Effect of hydrodynamic pressure processing and aging on sarcoplasmic proteins of beef strip loins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the effects of hydrodynamic pressure processing (HDP) and aging on the sarcoplasmic proteins of beef strip loins. Loins (n=12) were halved at 48 h postmortem and assigned to HDP or control treatments. Following treatment, each half was divided into three portions for aging (0, 5...

  13. Negotiations of the Ageing Process: Older Adults' Stories of Sports Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dionigi, Rylee A.; Horton, Sean; Baker, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the talk of older athletes, with particular focus on how the context of sport helps them negotiate the ageing process. It draws on personal stories provided by 44 World Masters Games competitors (23 women; 21 men; aged 56-90 years; "M" = 72). Four themes emerged: "There's no such thing as…

  14. Genetic Variance in Processing Speed Drives Variation in Aging of Spatial and Memory Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Deborah; Reynolds, Chandra A.; McArdle, John J.; Hamagami, Fumiaki; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2009-01-01

    Previous analyses have identified a genetic contribution to the correlation between declines with age in processing speed and higher cognitive abilities. The goal of the current analysis was to apply the biometric dual change score model to consider the possibility of temporal dynamics underlying the genetic covariance between aging trajectories…

  15. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGE AND INFORMATION PROCESSING CAPACITY OF ADULTS. REPORT NUMBER 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARPENTER, WILLIAM L.

    CHANGE IN INFORMATION PROCESSING AND CHANNEL CAPACITY WITH INCREASE IN AGE WAS STUDIED, AND POSSIBLE ALTERING OF THIS RELATIONSHIP WITH A CHANGE IN COMPLEXITY AND DIMENSIONALITY OF THE STIMULUS PRESENTED. VISUAL STIMULI WERE PROJECTED ON A SCREEN TO FOUR GROUPS COMPOSED OF 74 COLLEGE GRADUATES, RANGING IN AGE FROM 23 TO 68 YEARS, IN A SIMULATED…

  16. Functional Activation during the Rapid Visual Information Processing Task in a Middle Aged Cohort: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Neale, Chris; Johnston, Patrick; Hughes, Matthew; Scholey, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP) task, a serial discrimination task where task performance believed to reflect sustained attention capabilities, is widely used in behavioural research and increasingly in neuroimaging studies. To date, functional neuroimaging research into the RVIP has been undertaken using block analyses, reflecting the sustained processing involved in the task, but not necessarily the transient processes associated with individual trial performance. Furthermore, this research has been limited to young cohorts. This study assessed the behavioural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) outcomes of the RVIP task using both block and event-related analyses in a healthy middle aged cohort (mean age = 53.56 years, n = 16). The results show that the version of the RVIP used here is sensitive to changes in attentional demand processes with participants achieving a 43% accuracy hit rate in the experimental task compared with 96% accuracy in the control task. As shown by previous research, the block analysis revealed an increase in activation in a network of frontal, parietal, occipital and cerebellar regions. The event related analysis showed a similar network of activation, seemingly omitting regions involved in the processing of the task (as shown in the block analysis), such as occipital areas and the thalamus, providing an indication of a network of regions involved in correct trial performance. Frontal (superior and inferior frontal gryi), parietal (precuenus, inferior parietal lobe) and cerebellar regions were shown to be active in both the block and event-related analyses, suggesting their importance in sustained attention/vigilance. These networks and the differences between them are discussed in detail, as well as implications for future research in middle aged cohorts. PMID:26488289

  17. Sleep, Cognition, and Normal Aging: Integrating a Half-Century of Multidisciplinary Research

    PubMed Central

    Scullin, Michael K.; Bliwise, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is implicated in cognitive functioning in young adults. With increasing age there are substantial changes to sleep quantity and quality including changes to slow wave sleep, spindle density, and sleep continuity/fragmentation. A provocative question for the field of cognitive aging is whether such changes in sleep physiology affect cognition (e.g., memory consolidation). We review nearly a half-century of research studies across 7 diverse correlational and experimental literature domains, which historically have had little crosstalk. Broadly speaking, sleep and cognitive functions are often related in advancing age, though the prevalence of null effects (including correlations in the unexpected, negative direction) in healthy older adults indicates that age may be an effect modifier of these associations. We interpret the literature as suggesting that maintaining good sleep quality, at least in young adulthood and middle age, promotes better cognitive functioning and serves to protect against age-related cognitive declines. PMID:25620997

  18. Sleep, cognition, and normal aging: integrating a half century of multidisciplinary research.

    PubMed

    Scullin, Michael K; Bliwise, Donald L

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is implicated in cognitive functioning in young adults. With increasing age, there are substantial changes to sleep quantity and quality, including changes to slow-wave sleep, spindle density, and sleep continuity/fragmentation. A provocative question for the field of cognitive aging is whether such changes in sleep physiology affect cognition (e.g., memory consolidation). We review nearly a half century of research across seven diverse correlational and experimental domains that historically have had little crosstalk. Broadly speaking, sleep and cognitive functions are often related in advancing age, though the prevalence of null effects in healthy older adults (including correlations in the unexpected, negative direction) indicates that age may be an effect modifier of these associations. We interpret the literature as suggesting that maintaining good sleep quality, at least in young adulthood and middle age, promotes better cognitive functioning and serves to protect against age-related cognitive declines. PMID:25620997

  19. Mentoring across Generations: Engaging Age 50+ Adults as Mentors. Research in Action. Issue 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that older adult volunteers are more likely to be involved in relationship building with young people who are in difficult situations, in periods of transition, and in educational endeavors than volunteers of younger ages. Research also suggests that nurturing, giving to, and serving others contributes to greater…

  20. Intrinsic Motivation and Environmental Factors Affecting Research of Social Work Faculty on Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Janice G.; Short, Glenda F. Lester

    2010-01-01

    Within the context of Self-determination Theory, this research identifies intrinsic motivation and environmental factors that support social-work-faculty research in aging. Intrinsic factors include faculty's interest in gerontology as a field of practice, the desire to advance knowledge in the field of gerontology, including producing…

  1. Age as a Factor in Second Language Acquisition: A Review of Some Recent Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, D. M.

    The assumed connection between ease of language learning and age has been investigated in recent years by researchers from a wide range of disciplines. With the exception of the findings of research that authentic accents are more easily acquired by children, studies seem to indicate that efficiency in language learning increases with maturation.…

  2. Research on aging in Latin America: Present status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Sennott-Miller, L

    1994-01-01

    This essay examines the status of aging research in Latin America. It presents a profile of the aging population in the Region in relation to societal institutions, illustrating how the aged are only marginally served by them. Most of the available information is derived from secondary sources and comes from international and national agencies, and private organizations. Data-based research includes small-sample studies of specific issues and country-specific investigations by both U.S. and Latin American researchers. Paradigms used emphasize successful/productive aging, functional ability, and, to a lesser extent, work focused on health conditions or specific situations such as poverty. The best sources of contextual information are often unpublished or not published in the mainstream literature. Future directions recommended include organizing existing data to inform policy, identifying, with Latin American researchers, the most critical research questions, formalizing collaborative relationships, and holding a working conference of those involved in Latin American aging research to develop a future agenda. PMID:24390003

  3. Consultation and Decision Processes in a Research and Development Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Clagett G.

    1970-01-01

    Study of relationship between consultation and decision processes in an industrial research laboratory showed the efficacy of multidirectional consultation coupled with a pattern of shared, decentralized decision making. (Author/KJ)

  4. Modeling the Development Process of Dialogical Critical Thinking in Pupils Aged 10 to 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Marie-France; Lafortune, Louise; Pallascio, Richard; Splitter, Laurance; Slade, Christina; de la Garza, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    This research project investigated manifestations of critical thinking in pupils 10 to 12 years of age during their group discussions held in the context of Philosophy for Children Adapted to Mathematics. The objective of the research project was to examine, through the pupils' discussions, the development of dialogical critical thinking…

  5. Northwestern University Facility for Clean Catalytic Process Research

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, Tobin Jay

    2013-05-08

    Northwestern University with DOE support created a Facility for Clean Catalytic Process Research. This facility is designed to further strengthen our already strong catalysis research capabilities and thus to address these National challenges. Thus, state-of-the art instrumentation and experimentation facility was commissioned to add far greater breadth, depth, and throughput to our ability to invent, test, and understand catalysts and catalytic processes, hence to improve them via knowledge-based design and evaluation approaches.

  6. School nurses can address existing gaps in school-age sleep research.

    PubMed

    Willgerodt, Mayumi A; Kieckhefer, Gail M

    2013-06-01

    Sleep has been linked to a host of physical, behavioral, and emotional outcomes, and research has documented that youth across the globe are experiencing inadequate sleep. Despite this knowledge, however, very little research has been conducted on school-age children; much of the extant research has focused on infants, toddlers, preschoolers, adolescents, and adults. School-age children exhibit increasing independence around health-related behaviors, which provide health professionals the opportunity to educate and promote healthy sleep behaviors. This commentary extends previous research reviews by identifying the current gaps in sleep research, highlighting future directions needed in sleep research, and explaining why school nurses are best suited to address this growing public health issue. PMID:23054101

  7. [Spatial pattern and consequences of demographic aging processes for regional planning].

    PubMed

    Friedrich, K

    1991-01-01

    The spatial dimension of man-environment interactions in old age is analyzed within urban, suburban, and rural residential environments of the German Rhine-Main-Agglomeration. By comparing the three levels of organization, utilization, and interpretation, housing conditions as well as geographical distribution and redistribution (migrations) our outside-home-activities and environmental perception show a fundamental influence on the everyday lives of the 750 elderly who were interviewed. The majority of the target population and, especially, the rural elderly is characterized by traditional patterns of spatial organization and distribution, mobility, regional attachment, and a concern about preserving the stability of their current residential environment from changes. The suburban and urban seniors, however, exhibit a greater amount of locational flexibility and utility-oriented behavior patterns. These spatial variations are induced by specific regional values and intensity of local and regional identification. They might be interpreted as different stages in the process of modernization within postindustrial societies. Reflecting, however, the paradigms of planning for the elderly, these different patterns are not systematically considered to the necessary and sufficient extent. Instead of promoting regional or local networks that are favored by senior citizens, agencies usually prefer comprehensive approaches on a macrolevel. First steps to improve this situation and to combine life- and system-world demands have been taken by the federal government, which implemented a neighborhood-related research program on housing for the elderly. As a result of this, further research on environmental aspects on aging should pay more methodological attention to the hitherto neglected regional and local level, and also for the transfer of its findings into planning policy. PMID:1957539

  8. Device research task (processing and high-efficiency solar cells)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This task has been expanded since the last 25th Project Integration Meeting (PIM) to include process research in addition to device research. The objective of this task is to assist the Flat-plate Solar Array (FSA) Project in meeting its near- and long-term goals by identifying and implementing research in the areas of device physics, device structures, measurement techniques, material-device interactions, and cell processing. The research efforts of this task are described and reflect the deversity of device research being conducted. All of the contracts being reported are either completed or near completion and culminate the device research efforts of the FSA Project. Optimazation methods and silicon solar cell numerical models, carrier transport and recombination parameters in heavily doped silicon, development and analysis of silicon solar cells of near 20% efficiency, and SiN sub x passivation of silicon surfaces are discussed.

  9. Characterizing cognitive aging of recognition memory and related processes in animal models and in humans

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Sara N.; Ryan, Lee; Barnes, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Analyses of complex behaviors across the lifespan of animals can reveal the brain regions that are impacted by the normal aging process, thereby, elucidating potential therapeutic targets. Recent data from rats, monkeys, and humans converge, all indicating that recognition memory and complex visual perception are impaired in advanced age. These cognitive processes are also disrupted in animals with lesions of the perirhinal cortex, indicating that the the functional integrity of this structure is disrupted in old age. This current review summarizes these data, and highlights current methodologies for assessing perirhinal cortex-dependent behaviors across the lifespan. PMID:22988437

  10. Developing the European Researcher: "Extended" Professionality within the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Since 2003, doctoral education has become a key feature within the remit of the Bologna Process. Perceived as a crucial link between the European Higher Education Area and the European Research Area, it is perceived as the cornerstone upon which will be built Europe's future world-class research excellence. Yet consideration of how European…

  11. Complexity, Methodology and Method: Crafting a Critical Process of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhadeff-Jones, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper defines a theoretical framework aiming to support the actions and reflections of researchers looking for a "method" in order to critically conceive the complexity of a scientific process of research. First, it starts with a brief overview of the core assumptions framing Morin's "paradigm of complexity" and Le…

  12. 42 CFR 93.316 - Completing the research misconduct process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Completing the research misconduct process. 93.316 Section 93.316 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH...

  13. The Research Roadmap: A Primer to the Approach and Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burian, Philip E.; Rogerson, Lynda; Maffei, Francis R., III.

    2010-01-01

    Performing research can be an overwhelming and challenging endeavor. It's easy to get confused just from collecting, reading and deciphering textbooks and journal articles. Getting organized and mapping out the entire process would be extremely helpful and more importantly provide a path for accomplishing the research project. This paper will…

  14. Relevance as Process: Judgements in the Context of Scholarly Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Theresa Dirndorfer

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: This paper discusses how exploring the research process in-depth and over time contributes to a fuller understanding of interactions with various representations of information. Method. A longitudinal ethnographic study explored decisions made by two informants involved in scholarly research. Relevance assessment and information…

  15. Natural Language Processing in Game Studies Research: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zagal, Jose P.; Tomuro, Noriko; Shepitsen, Andriy

    2012-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) is a field of computer science and linguistics devoted to creating computer systems that use human (natural) language as input and/or output. The authors propose that NLP can also be used for game studies research. In this article, the authors provide an overview of NLP and describe some research possibilities…

  16. Patterns of frontoparietal activation as a marker for unsuccessful visuospatial processing in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Drag, Lauren L; Light, Sharee N; Langenecker, Scott A; Hazlett, Kathleen E; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Welsh, Robert; Steinberg, Brett A; Bieliauskas, Linas A

    2016-09-01

    Visuospatial abilities are sensitive to age-related decline, although the neural basis for this decline (and its everyday behavioral correlates) is as yet poorly understood. fMRI was employed to examine age-related differences in patterns of functional activation that underlie changes in visuospatial processing. All participants completed a brief neuropsychological battery and also a figure ground task (FGT) assessing visuospatial processing while fMRI was recorded. Participants included 16 healthy older adults (OA; aged 69-82 years) and 16 healthy younger adults (YA; aged 20-35 years). We examined age-related differences in behavioral performance on the FGT in relation to patterns of fMRI activation. OA demonstrated reduced performance on the FGT task and showed increased activation of supramarginal parietal cortex as well as increased activation of frontal and temporal regions compared to their younger counterparts. Performance on the FGT related to increased supramarginal gyrus activity and increased medial prefrontal activity in OAs, but not YAs. Our results are consistent with an anterior-posterior compensation model. Successful FGT performance requires the perception and integration of multiple stimuli and thus it is plausible that healthy aging may be accompanied by changes in visuospatial processing that mimic a subtle form of dorsal simultanagnosia. Overall, decreased visuospatial processing in OA relates to an altered frontoparietal neurobiological signature that may contribute to the general phenomenon of increasingly fragmented execution of behavior associated with normal aging. PMID:26195153

  17. Arsenite exposure accelerates aging process regulated by the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chan-Wei; How, Chun Ming; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

    2016-05-01

    Arsenic is a known human carcinogen and high levels of arsenic contamination in food, soils, water, and air are of toxicology concerns. Nowadays, arsenic is still a contaminant of emerging interest, yet the effects of arsenic on aging process have received little attention. In this study, we investigated the effects and the underlying mechanisms of chronic arsenite exposure on the aging process in Caenorhabditis elegans. The results showed that prolonged arsenite exposure caused significantly decreased lifespan compared to non-exposed ones. In addition, arsenite exposure (100 μM) caused significant changes of age-dependent biomarkers, including a decrease of defecation frequency, accumulations of intestinal lipofuscin and lipid peroxidation in an age-dependent manner in C. elegans. Further evidence revealed that intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was significantly increased in an age-dependent manner upon 100 μM arsenite exposure. Moreover, the mRNA levels of transcriptional makers of aging (hsp-16.1, hsp-16.49, and hsp-70) were increased in aged worms under arsenite exposure (100 μM). Finally, we showed that daf-16 mutant worms were more sensitive to arsenite exposure (100 μM) on lifespan and failed to induce the expression of its target gene sod-3 in aged daf-16 mutant under arsenite exposure (100 μM). Our study demonstrated that chronic arsenite exposure resulted in accelerated aging process in C. elegans. The overproduction of intracellular ROS and the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO play roles in mediating the accelerated aging process by arsenite exposure in C. elegans. This study implicates a potential ecotoxicological and health risk of arsenic in the environment. PMID:26796881

  18. Ambulatory Assessment in the Research on Aging: Contemporary and Future Applications.

    PubMed

    Brose, Annette; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W

    2015-01-01

    Older adults have surprisingly high levels of well-being, which has been referred to as a paradox in the past. Improved emotion regulation has been suggested to underlie these high levels of well-being. Later life is also a period with enhanced exposure to critical life events, and this comes with risks. During such times, and towards the end of life, emotional well-being may and eventually does decline. We suggest that ambulatory assessment (AA) is ideally suited for the investigation of the above phenomena and for intervention purposes. More precisely, AA can be used to thoroughly examine within-person processes of emotion regulation, including the multiple levels on which emotions occur (physiology, experience, behavior, context, and nonverbal expressions). It thereby provides a basis for understanding competent emotion regulation, the well-being paradox, and emotionally critical periods. Such insights can be utilized to detect person-specific critical periods and for designing immediate person-specific interventions. Although this is still a vision, the benefits of such an approach seem invaluable. The major part of this paper is organized around three general principles that we suggest to further tap the potential of AA in aging research, namely (1) identify within-subject processes and their relations to important life outcomes; (2) capitalize on the full scope of AA technology via multivariate assessments, and (3) combine real-time monitoring with real-time interventions. PMID:25677190

  19. Biological, Clinical, and Psychosocial Correlates at the Interface of Cancer and Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    Dale, William; Mohile, Supriya G.; Eldadah, Basil A.; Trimble, Edward L.; Schilsky, Richard L.; Cohen, Harvey J.; Muss, Hyman B.; Schmader, Kenneth E.; Ferrell, Betty; Extermann, Martine; Nayfield, Susan G.

    2012-01-01

    In September 2010, the Cancer and Aging Research Group, in collaboration with the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute on Aging, conducted the first of three planned conferences to discuss research methodology to generate the highest quality research in older adults with cancer and then disseminate these findings among those working in the fields of cancer and aging. Conference speakers discussed the current level of research evidence in geriatric oncology, outlined the current knowledge gaps, and put forth principles for research designs and strategies that would address these gaps within the next 10 years. It was agreed that future oncology research trials that enroll older adults should include: 1) improved standardized geriatric assessment of older oncology patients, 2) substantially enhanced biological assessment of older oncology patients, 3) specific trials for the most vulnerable and/or those older than 75 years, and 4) research infrastructure that specifically targets older adults and substantially strengthened geriatrics and oncology research collaborations. This initial conference laid the foundation for the next two meetings, which will address the research designs and collaborations needed to enhance therapeutic and intervention trials in older adults with cancer. PMID:22457474

  20. Advances in soil erosion research: processes, measurement, and modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil erosion by the environmental agents of water and wind is a continuing global menace that threatens the agricultural base that sustains our civilization. Members of ASABE have been at the forefront of research to understand erosion processes, measure erosion and related processes, and model very...

  1. Collaborative Practices in Dance Research: Unpacking the Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Sherrie

    2015-01-01

    This essay explores the numerous and diverse ways collaborative practices in dance research can unfold. Strengths and challenges within the collaborative process are discussed as emphasis is given to the multiple perspectives and types of relationships that evolve from and within the process. These core elements offer scholars a rich array of…

  2. Identifying Process Variables in Career Counseling: A Research Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heppner, Mary J.; Heppner, P. Paul

    2003-01-01

    Outlines areas for career counseling process research: examining the working alliance; reconceptualizing career counseling as learning; investigating process/outcome differences due to client and counselor attributes; examining influential session events; using a common problem resolution metric; examining change longitudinally; examining…

  3. Detection of a novel, integrative aging process suggests complex physiological integration.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alan A; Milot, Emmanuel; Li, Qing; Bergeron, Patrick; Poirier, Roxane; Dusseault-Bélanger, Francis; Fülöp, Tamàs; Leroux, Maxime; Legault, Véronique; Metter, E Jeffrey; Fried, Linda P; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Many studies of aging examine biomarkers one at a time, but complex systems theory and network theory suggest that interpretations of individual markers may be context-dependent. Here, we attempted to detect underlying processes governing the levels of many biomarkers simultaneously by applying principal components analysis to 43 common clinical biomarkers measured longitudinally in 3694 humans from three longitudinal cohort studies on two continents (Women's Health and Aging I & II, InCHIANTI, and the Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging). The first axis was associated with anemia, inflammation, and low levels of calcium and albumin. The axis structure was precisely reproduced in all three populations and in all demographic sub-populations (by sex, race, etc.); we call the process represented by the axis "integrated albunemia." Integrated albunemia increases and accelerates with age in all populations, and predicts mortality and frailty--but not chronic disease--even after controlling for age. This suggests a role in the aging process, though causality is not yet clear. Integrated albunemia behaves more stably across populations than its component biomarkers, and thus appears to represent a higher-order physiological process emerging from the structure of underlying regulatory networks. If this is correct, detection of this process has substantial implications for physiological organization more generally. PMID:25761112

  4. Aced Out: Censorship of Qualitative Research in the Age of "Scientifically Based Research"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceglowski, Deborah; Bacigalupa, Chiara; Peck, Emery

    2011-01-01

    In this manuscript, we examine three layers of censorship related to the publication of qualitative research studies: (a) the global level of federal legislation and the definition of the "gold standard" of educational research, (b) the decline in the number of qualitative studies published in a top-tiered early childhood educational research…

  5. Effects of Age and Hearing Loss on the Processing of Auditory Temporal Fine Structure.

    PubMed

    Moore, Brian C J

    2016-01-01

    Within the cochlea, broadband sounds like speech and music are filtered into a series of narrowband signals, each of which can be considered as a relatively slowly varying envelope (ENV) imposed on a rapidly oscillating carrier (the temporal fine structure, TFS). Information about ENV and TFS is conveyed in the timing and short-term rate of nerve spikes in the auditory nerve. There is evidence that both hearing loss and increasing age adversely affect the ability to use TFS information, but in many studies the effects of hearing loss and age have been confounded. This paper summarises evidence from studies that allow some separation of the effects of hearing loss and age. The results suggest that the monaural processing of TFS information, which is important for the perception of pitch and for segregating speech from background sounds, is adversely affected by both hearing loss and increasing age, the former being more important. The monaural processing of ENV information is hardly affected by hearing loss or by increasing age. The binaural processing of TFS information, which is important for sound localisation and the binaural masking level difference, is also adversely affected by both hearing loss and increasing age, but here the latter seems more important. The deterioration of binaural TFS processing with increasing age appears to start relatively early in life. The binaural processing of ENV information also deteriorates somewhat with increasing age. The reduced binaural processing abilities found for older/hearing-impaired listeners may partially account for the difficulties that such listeners experience in situations where the target speech and interfering sounds come from different directions in space, as is common in everyday life. PMID:27080640

  6. Aging and energetics’ ‘Top 40’ future research opportunities 2010-2013

    PubMed Central

    Allison, David B.; Antoine, Lisa H.; Ballinger, Scott W.; Bamman, Marcas M.; Biga, Peggy; Darley-Usmar, Victor M.; Fisher, Gordon; Gohlke, Julia M.; Halade, Ganesh V.; Hartman, John L.; Hunter, Gary R.; Messina, Joseph L.; Nagy, Tim R.; Plaisance, Eric P.; Powell, Mickie L.; Roth, Kevin A.; Sandel, Michael W.; Schwartz, Tonia S.; Smith, Daniel L.; Sweatt, J. David; Tollefsbol, Trygve O.; Watts, Stephen A.; Yang, Yongbin; Zhang, Jianhua; Austad, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: As part of a coordinated effort to expand our research activity at the interface of Aging and Energetics a team of investigators at The University of Alabama at Birmingham systematically assayed and catalogued the top research priorities identified in leading publications in that domain, believing the result would be useful to the scientific community at large. Objective: To identify research priorities and opportunities in the domain of aging and energetics as advocated in the 40 most cited papers related to aging and energetics in the last 4 years. Design: The investigators conducted a search for papers on aging and energetics in Scopus, ranked the resulting papers by number of times they were cited, and selected the ten most-cited papers in each of the four years that include 2010 to 2013, inclusive. Results:   Ten research categories were identified from the 40 papers.  These included: (1) Calorie restriction (CR) longevity response, (2) role of mTOR (mechanistic target of Rapamycin) and related factors in lifespan extension, (3) nutrient effects beyond energy (especially resveratrol, omega-3 fatty acids, and selected amino acids), 4) autophagy and increased longevity and health, (5) aging-associated predictors of chronic disease, (6) use and effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), (7) telomeres relative to aging and energetics, (8) accretion and effects of body fat, (9) the aging heart,  and (10) mitochondria, reactive oxygen species, and cellular energetics. Conclusion: The field is rich with exciting opportunities to build upon our existing knowledge about the relations among aspects of aging and aspects of energetics and to better understand the mechanisms which connect them. PMID:25324965

  7. Using Computers in Educational and Psychological Research: Using Information Technolgies to Support the Research Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Jerry; Kim, Seung H.

    2006-01-01

    This book has been designed to assist researchers in the social sciences and education fields who are interested in learning how information technologies can help them successfully navigate the research process. Most researchers are familiar with the use of programs like SPSS to analyze data, but many are not aware of other ways information…

  8. The synergistic effects of HIV, diabetes, and aging on cognition: implications for practice and research.

    PubMed

    Vance, David E; Fazeli, Pariya L; Dodson, Joan E; Ackerman, Michelle; Talley, Michele; Appel, Susan J

    2014-10-01

    Thanks to highly active antiretroviral therapy, many people infected with HIV will likely live into old age. Although this is a welcome prognosis, new issues are emerging that may complicate the ability to successfully age in this clinical population. HIV and aging independently are related to cognitive impairments, so there are concerns that those aging with HIV may be more at risk of such cognitive impairments. Moreover, highly active antiretroviral therapy itself can create metabolic disorders, such as prediabetes and/or frank type 2 diabetes, which have also been linked to poorer cognitive functioning. Thus, concerns increase that, as people age with HIV and develop comorbid metabolic disorders that may lead to type 2 diabetes, they will be at triple risk of developing cognitive impairments that can impair everyday functioning and reduce quality of life. This article explores these issues and provides implications for practice and research. PMID:25099061

  9. Investigation of mineral filler effects on the aging process of asphalt mastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes, Raquel

    Aging of asphalt binders is induced by chemical and/or physicochemical changes during production of pavement and throughout its service life. Although binder aging in pavement always occurs while binder is in contact with aggregates and mineral filler, in most laboratory aging studies, and in current specifications, asphalt binders are individually aged without accounting for aggregate induced interactions. Past research has had conflicting findings, attributing both mitigating and/or catalytic effects to the presence of mineral filler in asphalt binder with regards to oxidative aging. Thus, in the present study it was hypothesized that evaluation of asphalt oxidative aging without regard to interactive effect of the presence of mineral filler is inadequate as a specification tool. Effects of mineral fillers on oxidative aging of asphalt is investigated by means of accelerated aging of mastics (asphalt and fillers) in Pressure Aging Vessel (PAV). Testing matrix included aging evaluation of mastics containing different fillers content, mineralogy, and surface area. Results showed that low-temperature behavior of aged mastic can be modified by controlling filler concentration and type. Fillers acts as an agent adsorbing heavy fractions of asphalt binder, therefore reducing stiffness and changing glass-transition temperature. Also, during oxidative aging of asphalt binders and mastics, both diffusion and adsorption mechanisms play a role in the rate of aging of asphaltic material. A method to characterize the behavior of mastics with aging was also developed by monitoring the mastics |G*| aging index (ratio of complex modulus before and after aging). Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) testing results supported mentioned findings regarding |G*| changes, as the presence of mineral filler appears to decelerate the rate of production of larger molecular size oxidation products in the binder phase of mastics. Implication of the findings is that change in molecular size

  10. Foreign language training as cognitive therapy for age-related cognitive decline: A hypothesis for future research

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Mark; Gunasekera, Geshri; Wong, Patrick C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Over the next fifty years, the number of older adults is set to reach record levels. Protecting older adults from the age-related effects of cognitive decline is one of the greatest challenges of the next few decades as it places increasing pressure on families, health systems, and economies on a global scale. The disease-state of age-related cognitive decline—Alzheimer's disease and other dementias—hijacks our consciousness and intellectual autonomy. However, there is evidence that cognitively stimulating activities protect against the adverse effects of cognitive decline. Similarly, bilingualism is also considered to be a safeguard. We propose that foreign language learning programs aimed at older populations are an optimal solution for building cognitive reserve because language learning engages an extensive brain network that is known to overlap with the regions negatively affected by the aging process. It is recommended that future research should test this potentially fruitful hypothesis. PMID:24051310

  11. Pathways to Advancing Aging Policy-Relevant Research in Academic Settings.

    PubMed

    Kietzman, Kathryn G; Troy, Lisa M; Green, Carmen R; Wallace, Steven P

    2016-01-01

    Policy-level changes have a significant influence on the health and well-being of aging populations. Yet there is often a gap between scientific knowledge and policy action. Although previous research has identified barriers and facilitators to effective knowledge translation, little attention has been given to the role of academic institutions in knowledge generation. This exploratory focus group study examines barriers and pathways to developing and maintaining an aging policy-relevant research agenda in academic settings, and additional challenges associated with minority group membership in this pursuit. Participants were personally committed to conducting policy-relevant research despite institutional barriers such as fewer funding opportunities and less value attributed to their research, particularly in the context of tenure and promotion. Although many viewed their research as an opportunity to make a difference, especially for underserved older adult populations, a number of minority group participants expressed that their policy research interests were marginalized. Participants offer individual and institutional-level strategies for addressing barriers, including collaborating with community members and colleagues and engaging mentors within and outside of their academic institutions. Reframing the valuation of policy research through the diversification of funding and publishing opportunities can better support scholars engaged in aging policy-relevant research. PMID:26849290

  12. Absence of superoxide dismutase activity causes nuclear DNA fragmentation during the aging process

    SciTech Connect

    Muid, Khandaker Ashfaqul; Karakaya, Hüseyin Çaglar; Koc, Ahmet

    2014-02-07

    Highlights: • Aging process increases ROS accumulation. • Aging process increases DNA damage levels. • Absence of SOD activity does not cause DNA damage in young cells. • Absence of SOD activity accelerate aging and increase oxidative DNA damages during the aging process. - Abstract: Superoxide dismutases (SOD) serve as an important antioxidant defense mechanism in aerobic organisms, and deletion of these genes shortens the replicative life span in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Even though involvement of superoxide dismutase enzymes in ROS scavenging and the aging process has been studied extensively in different organisms, analyses of DNA damages has not been performed for replicatively old superoxide dismutase deficient cells. In this study, we investigated the roles of SOD1, SOD2 and CCS1 genes in preserving genomic integrity in replicatively old yeast cells using the single cell comet assay. We observed that extend of DNA damage was not significantly different among the young cells of wild type, sod1Δ and sod2Δ strains. However, ccs1Δ mutants showed a 60% higher amount of DNA damage in the young stage compared to that of the wild type cells. The aging process increased the DNA damage rates 3-fold in the wild type and more than 5-fold in sod1Δ, sod2Δ, and ccs1Δ mutant cells. Furthermore, ROS levels of these strains showed a similar pattern to their DNA damage contents. Thus, our results confirm that cells accumulate DNA damages during the aging process and reveal that superoxide dismutase enzymes play a substantial role in preserving the genomic integrity in this process.

  13. Processing Speed in Normal Aging: Effects of White Matter Hyperintensities and Hippocampal Volume Loss

    PubMed Central

    Papp, Kathryn V.; Kaplan, Richard F.; Springate, Beth; Moscufo, Nicola; Wakefield, Dorothy B.; Guttmann, Charles R.G.; Wolfson, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Changes in cognitive functioning are said to be part of normal aging. Quantitative MRI has made it possible to measure structural brain changes during aging which may underlie these decrements which include slowed information processing and memory loss. Much has been written on white matter hyperintensities (WMH), which are associated with cognitive deficits on tasks requiring processing speed and executive functioning, and hippocampal volume loss, which is associated with memory decline. Here we examine volumetric MRI measures of WMH and hippocampal volume loss together in relation to neuropsychological tests considered to be measures of executive functioning and processing speed in 81 non-demented elderly individuals, aged 75-90. Correlational analysis showed that when controlling for age, both greater WMH volume and smaller hippocampal volume were correlated with slower performances on most tests with the exception of a battery of continuous performance tests in which only WMH was correlated with slower reaction time (RT). We then performed a series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses to examine the independent contributions of greater WMH volume and reduced hippocampal volume to executive functioning and processing speed. The results showed that for the four measures requiring executive functioning and speed of processing, WMH volume and hippocampal volume combined predicted between 21.4 and 37% of the explained variance. These results suggest that WM integrity and hippocampal volume influence cognitive decline independently on tasks involving processing speed and executive function independent of age. PMID:23895570

  14. Multiple Modes of Right-Hemisphere Information Processing: Age and Sex Differences in Facial Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkewitz, Gerald; Ross-Kossak, Phyllis

    1984-01-01

    Examines hemispheric differences in processing tachistoscopically presented faces in right-handed 8-, 11-, and 13-year-olds. Concludes that younger children and males at all ages use a diffuse right-hemisphere processing strategy in recognizing faces, whereas some older females use a more integrated right-hemispheric strategy. (Author/CB)

  15. Critical action research applied in clinical placement development in aged care facilities.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lily D; Kelton, Moira; Paterson, Jan

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop quality clinical placements in residential aged care facilities for undergraduate nursing students undertaking their nursing practicum topics. The proportion of people aged over 65 years is expected to increase steadily from 13% in 2006 to 26% of the total population in Australia in 2051. However, when demand is increasing for a nursing workforce competent in the care of older people, studies have shown that nursing students generally lack interest in working with older people. The lack of exposure of nursing students to quality clinical placements is one of the key factors contributing to this situation. Critical action research built on a partnership between an Australian university and five aged care organisations was utilised. A theoretical framework informed by Habermas' communicative action theory was utilised to guide the action research. Multiple research activities were used to support collaborative critical reflection and inform actions throughout the action research. Clinical placements in eight residential aged care facilities were developed to support 179 nursing students across three year-levels to complete their practicum topics. Findings were presented in three categories described as structures developed to govern clinical placement, learning and teaching in residential aged care facilities. PMID:23134277

  16. Age-Related Neural Oscillation Patterns During the Processing of Temporally Manipulated Speech.

    PubMed

    Rufener, Katharina S; Oechslin, Mathias S; Wöstmann, Malte; Dellwo, Volker; Meyer, Martin

    2016-05-01

    This EEG-study aims to investigate age-related differences in the neural oscillation patterns during the processing of temporally modulated speech. Viewing from a lifespan perspective, we recorded the electroencephalogram (EEG) data of three age samples: young adults, middle-aged adults and older adults. Stimuli consisted of temporally degraded sentences in Swedish-a language unfamiliar to all participants. We found age-related differences in phonetic pattern matching when participants were presented with envelope-degraded sentences, whereas no such age-effect was observed in the processing of fine-structure-degraded sentences. Irrespective of age, during speech processing the EEG data revealed a relationship between envelope information and the theta band (4-8 Hz) activity. Additionally, an association between fine-structure information and the gamma band (30-48 Hz) activity was found. No interaction, however, was found between acoustic manipulation of stimuli and age. Importantly, our main finding was paralleled by an overall enhanced power in older adults in high frequencies (gamma: 30-48 Hz). This occurred irrespective of condition. For the most part, this result is in line with the Asymmetric Sampling in Time framework (Poeppel in Speech Commun 41:245-255, 2003), which assumes an isomorphic correspondence between frequency modulations in neurophysiological patterns and acoustic oscillations in spoken language. We conclude that speech-specific neural networks show strong stability over adulthood, despite initial processes of cortical degeneration indicated by enhanced gamma power. The results of our study therefore confirm the concept that sensory and cognitive processes undergo multidirectional trajectories within the context of healthy aging. PMID:26613726

  17. Confocal Raman study of aging process in diabetes mellitus human voluntaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Liliane; Téllez Soto, Claudio Alberto; dos Santos, Laurita; Ali, Syed Mohammed; Fávero, Priscila Pereira; Martin, Airton A.

    2015-06-01

    Accumulation of AGEs [Advanced Glycation End - products] occurs slowly during the human aging process. However, its formation is accelerated in the presence of diabetes mellitus. In this paper, we perform a noninvasive analysis of glycation effect on human skin by in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy. This technique uses a laser of 785 nm as excitation source and, by the inelastic scattering of light, it is possible to obtain information about the biochemical composition of the skin. Our aim in this work was to characterize the aging process resulting from the glycation process in a group of 10 Health Elderly Women (HEW) and 10 Diabetic Elderly Women (DEW). The Raman data were collected from the dermis at a depth of 70-130 microns. Through the theory of functional density (DFT) the bands positions of hydroxyproline, proline and AGEs (pentosidine and glucosepane) were calculated by using Gaussian 0.9 software. A molecular interpretation of changes in type I collagen was performed by the changes in the vibrational modes of the proline (P) and hydroxyproline (HP). The data analysis shows that the aging effects caused by glycation of proteins degrades type I collagen differently and leads to accelerated aging process.

  18. "We-Research": Adopting a Wiki to Support the Processes of Collaborative Research among a Team of International Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Susan; Perez, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the adoption of a wiki to support the processes of collaborative research between members of an international team involved in the project MyPlace: MyMusic. The focus is on how new technological communications, here specifically the wiki, can enable and transform the methods and processes of research. We propose two main…

  19. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect

    Speight, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

  20. Enacting the molecular imperative: How gene-environment interaction research links bodies and environments in the post-genomic age.

    PubMed

    Darling, Katherine Weatherford; Ackerman, Sara L; Hiatt, Robert H; Lee, Sandra Soo-Jin; Shim, Janet K

    2016-04-01

    Despite a proclaimed shift from 'nature versus nurture' to 'genes and environment' paradigms within biomedical and genomic science, capturing the environment and identifying gene-environment interactions (GEIs) has remained a challenge. What does 'the environment' mean in the post-genomic age? In this paper, we present qualitative data from a study of 33 principal investigators funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health to conduct etiological research on three complex diseases (cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes). We examine their research practices and perspectives on the environment through the concept of molecularization: the social processes and transformations through which phenomena (diseases, identities, pollution, food, racial/ethnic classifications) are re-defined in terms of their molecular components and described in the language of molecular biology. We show how GEI researchers' expansive conceptualizations of the environment ultimately yield to the imperative to molecularize and personalize the environment. They seek to 'go into the body' and re-work the boundaries between bodies and environments. In the process, they create epistemic hinges to facilitate a turn from efforts to understand social and environmental exposures outside the body, to quantifying their effects inside the body. GEI researchers respond to these emergent imperatives with a mixture of excitement, ambivalence and frustration. We reflect on how GEI researchers struggle to make meaning of molecules in their work, and how they grapple with molecularization as a methodological and rhetorical imperative as well as a process transforming biomedical research practices. PMID:26994357

  1. Crossmodal temporal processing acuity impairment aggravates with age in developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Virsu, Veijo; Lahti-Nuuttila, Pekka; Laasonen, Marja

    2003-01-23

    Temporal processing has been found to be impaired in developmental dyslexia. We investigated how aging affects crossmodal temporal processing impairment with 39 dyslexic and 40 fluent 20-59-year-old readers. Cognitive temporal acuity was measured at millisecond levels in six tasks. They consisted of order judgments of two brief non-speech stimulus pulses, the stimuli being audiotactile, visuotactile and audiovisual, and of simultaneity/nonsimultaneity detection of the pulses in two parallel three-pulse trains. Temporal acuity declined with age in both reading groups and its impairment was observed in developmental dyslexia. A new finding was that the crossmodal temporal impairment, directly relevant to reading, increased with age. The age-related exacerbation suggests a developmental neuronal deficit, possibly related to magnocells, which exists before dyslexia and is its ontogenetic cause. PMID:12505615

  2. Experiencing the Full Research Process at Sea Education Association (SEA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, S. E.; Joyce, P.; Jaroslow, G.; Graziano, L.; Lea, C.; Witting, J.; Bower, A.

    2003-12-01

    While some undergraduate research experiences include only a small piece of the research process, students attending Sea Education Association's SEA Semester complete all aspects of oceanographic research in an intensive 12 week program that earns a full semester's credit. In the first half of the program, students read and discuss background literature on a subject, ask questions, pose hypotheses, and develop a written research proposal, which they defend orally. The second half of the course takes place at sea on one of SEA's state-of-the-art oceanographic research vessels where students carry out their sampling plans, analyze samples and data, write a final paper and present their results before the vessel reaches port, completing the course. At sea, students participate in sample collection and analysis for all student projects in addition to learning the general oceanography along their cruise track. This structure exposes students to the realities of research from start to finish and allows them to take full ownership of their projects. In addition to honing writing, public speaking, and problem-solving skills, students learn that research requires dedication, flexibility, and creativity, particularly when their results are unexpected or negate their hypothesis. SEA's undergraduate research program has been developing since 1971. Over that time, SEA has collected an extensive historical oceanographic database in the western Atlantic and Caribbean, plus Pacific data since 2001. This database is available to both students and outside research scientists. Collaborations with scientists outside SEA enhance the student experience and help facilitate oceanographic research by providing "ship-of-opportunity" sampling in remote locations. SEA Semester provides an excellent model for undergraduate research experiences with over 5000 alumni, about 30% of whom enter graduate school. About half the students in SEA's undergraduate programs are non-science majors. Although

  3. Joint Analyses of Longitudinal and Time-to-Event Data in Research on Aging: Implications for Predicting Health and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Arbeev, Konstantin G.; Akushevich, Igor; Kulminski, Alexander M.; Ukraintseva, Svetlana V.; Yashin, Anatoliy I.

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal data on aging, health, and longevity provide a wealth of information to investigate different aspects of the processes of aging and development of diseases leading to death. Statistical methods aimed at analyses of time-to-event data jointly with longitudinal measurements became known as the “joint models” (JM). An important point to consider in analyses of such data in the context of studies on aging, health, and longevity is how to incorporate knowledge and theories about mechanisms and regularities of aging-related changes that accumulate in the research field into respective analytic approaches. In the absence of specific observations of longitudinal dynamics of relevant biomarkers manifesting such mechanisms and regularities, traditional approaches have a rather limited utility to estimate respective parameters that can be meaningfully interpreted from the biological point of view. A conceptual analytic framework for these purposes, the stochastic process model of aging (SPM), has been recently developed in the biodemographic literature. It incorporates available knowledge about mechanisms of aging-related changes, which may be hidden in the individual longitudinal trajectories of physiological variables and this allows for analyzing their indirect impact on risks of diseases and death. Despite, essentially, serving similar purposes, JM and SPM developed in parallel in different disciplines with very limited cross-referencing. Although there were several publications separately reviewing these two approaches, there were no publications presenting both these approaches in some detail. Here, we overview both approaches jointly and provide some new modifications of SPM. We discuss the use of stochastic processes to capture biological variation and heterogeneity in longitudinal patterns and important and promising (but still largely underused) applications of JM and SPM to predictions of individual and population mortality and health

  4. Youth researching youth: benefits, limitations and ethical considerations within a participatory research process

    PubMed Central

    Jardine, Cynthia G.; James, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine the benefits, limitations and ethical issues associated with conducting participatory research on tobacco use using youth to research other youth. Study design Community-based participatory research. Methods Research on tobacco use was conducted with students in the K’àlemì Dene School and Kaw Tay Whee School in the Northwest Territories, Canada, using PhotoVoice. The Grade 9–12 students acted as researchers. Researcher reflections and observations were assessed using “member checking,” whereby students, teachers and community partners could agree or disagree with the researcher's interpretation. The students and teachers were further asked informally to share their own reflections and observations on this process. Results and conclusions Using youth to research other youth within a participatory research framework had many benefits for the quality of the research, the youth researchers and the community. The research was perceived by the researchers and participants to be more valid and credible. The approach was more appropriate for the students, and the youth researchers gained valuable research experience and a sense of ownership of both the research process and results. Viewing smoking through their children's eyes was seen by the community to be a powerful and effective means of creating awareness of the community environment. Limitations of the approach were residual response bias of participants, the short period of time to conduct the research and failure to fully explore student motivations to smoke or not to smoke. Ethical considerations included conducting research with minors, difficulties in obtaining written parental consent, decisions on cameras (disposable versus digital) and representation of all participants in the final research product. PMID:22584512

  5. Communications, Signal Processing, and Telemetering Research Program Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A Communications, Signal Processing, and Telemetering Research Program Review was held on February 23, 1999. Research conducted under the grant was presented and reviewed, for progress, and for possible technology transfers. The research reviewed was in the following areas: (1) Bandwidth-efficient Modulation and nonlinear equalization; (2) Investigation of an architecture for parallel signal processing applicable to communications problems; (3)Coded partial response over satellites; (4) synchronization at Low SNR; (5) Serial concatenated convolutional codes and some implementation issues on high rate turbo codes; (6) Flight experiments; (7) Real time doppler tracking; (8) Space protocol testing; (9) Lightweight optical communications without carrying a laser in space. The presentations are given by the graduate students who performed the research.

  6. Processing of complex distracting sounds in school-aged children and adults: evidence from EEG and MEG data.

    PubMed

    Ruhnau, Philipp; Herrmann, Björn; Maess, Burkhard; Brauer, Jens; Friederici, Angela D; Schröger, Erich

    2013-01-01

    When a perceiver performs a task, rarely occurring sounds often have a distracting effect on task performance. The neural mismatch responses in event-related potentials to such distracting stimuli depend on age. Adults commonly show a negative response, whereas in children a positive as well as a negative mismatch response has been reported. Using electro- and magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG), here we investigated the developmental changes of distraction processing in school-aged children (9-10 years) and adults. Participants took part in an auditory-visual distraction paradigm comprising a visuo-spatial primary task and task-irrelevant environmental sounds distracting from this task. Behaviorally, distractors delayed reaction times (RTs) in the primary task in both age groups, and this delay was of similar magnitude in both groups. The neurophysiological data revealed an early as well as a late mismatch response elicited by distracting stimuli in both age groups. Together with previous research, this indicates that deviance detection is accomplished in a hierarchical manner in the auditory system. Both mismatch responses were localized to auditory cortex areas. All mismatch responses were generally delayed in children, suggesting that not all neurophysiological aspects of deviance processing are mature in school-aged children. Furthermore, the P3a, reflecting involuntary attention capture, was present in both age groups in the EEG with comparable amplitudes and at similar latencies, but with a different topographical distribution. This suggests that involuntary attention shifts toward complex distractors operate comparably in school-aged children and adults, yet undergoing generator maturation. PMID:24155730

  7. Intelligent processing equipment research supported by the National Science Foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Suren B.

    1992-04-01

    The research in progress on processes, workstations, and systems has the goal of developing a high level of understanding of the issues involved. This will enable the incorporation of a level of intelligence that will allow the creation of autonomous manufacturing systems that operate in an optimum manner, under a wide range of conditions. The emphasis of the research has been on the development of highly productive and flexible techniques to address current and future problems in manufacturing and processing. Several of these projects have resulted in well-defined and established models that can now be implemented in the application arena in the next few years.

  8. Intelligent Processing Equipment Research Supported by the National Science Foundation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Suren B.

    1992-01-01

    The research in progress on processes, workstations, and systems has the goal of developing a high level of understanding of the issues involved. This will enable the incorporation of a level of intelligence that will allow the creation of autonomous manufacturing systems that operate in an optimum manner, under a wide range of conditions. The emphasis of the research has been on the development of highly productive and flexible techniques to address current and future problems in manufacturing and processing. Several of these projects have resulted in well-defined and established models that can now be implemented in the application arena in the next few years.

  9. The interplay between mitochondria and autophagy and its role in the aging process.

    PubMed

    Schiavi, Alfonso; Ventura, Natascia

    2014-08-01

    Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles which play a central role in cellular homeostasis. Mitochondrial dysfunction leads to life-threatening disorders and accelerates the aging process. Surprisingly, on the other hand, a mild reduction of mitochondria functionality can have pro-longevity effects in organisms spanning from yeast to mammals. Autophagy is a fundamental cellular housekeeping process that needs to be finely regulated for proper cell and organism survival, as underlined by the fact that both its over- and its defective activation have been associated with diseases and accelerated aging. A reciprocal interplay exists between mitochondria and autophagy, which is needed to constantly adjust cellular energy metabolism in different pathophysiological conditions. Here we review general features of mitochondrial function and autophagy with particular focus on their crosstalk and its possible implication in the aging process. PMID:24607515

  10. Testing principle working mechanisms of the health action process approach for subjective physical age groups.

    PubMed

    Wienert, Julian; Kuhlmann, Tim; Fink, Sebastian; Hambrecht, Rainer; Lippke, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated differences in social-cognitive predictors and self-regulatory planning, as proposed by the health action process approach (HAPA), across three different subjective physical age groups for physical activity. With a cross-sectional design, 521 participants across the chronological age span from 25 to 86 years (M = 48.79; SD = 12.66) were separated into three groups: those who feel physically younger than they are in terms of chronological age, the same perceived and chronological age, and feeling physically older compared to their chronological age. Participants were assessed regarding their perceived vulnerability, outcome expectancies, general intentions, planning, self-efficacy, and stages of physical activity (non-intenders, intenders, and actors). Data were analysed via mean comparison and multigroup structural equation modelling. Mean differences for all but one construct were eminent in all groups, generally showing that those feeling physically younger also report better social-cognitive predictors of physical activity (e.g. lower perceived vulnerability) in comparison to those who feel the same age or older. The model showed that basic working mechanisms of the HAPA can be applied to all groups. With that, the results provide for the first time evidence that principle working mechanism of the HAPA can be applied to all subjective physical age groups. These may be used to tailor health promoting interventions according to participants' needs as a more suitable proxy than chronological age. PMID:26967593

  11. Dynamic viscoelastic properties of processed soft denture liners: Part II--Effect of aging.

    PubMed

    Wagner, W C; Kawano, F; Dootz, E R; Koran, A

    1995-09-01

    The proper functioning of soft denture liners depends to a great extent on their mechanical properties. As with many polymers these materials are affected by aging. Twelve soft denture liners were processed by a laboratory according to the manufacturers' directions. Five specimens of each material were tested without aging. Five additional specimens of each material were subjected to 900 hours of accelerated aging in a Weather-Ometer instrument. These were tested with a dynamic viscoelastometer at three frequencies and two temperatures, and data for 37 degrees C and 1 Hz was obtained. Two of the ethyl methacrylate resins demonstrated the largest increases in storage (E') and loss moduli (E") after aging. These materials also showed the greatest overall E' and E". One denture liner material exhibited 673% and 488% increases in E' and E", and other materials showed smaller increases. The effects of aging on the damping factor (tan delta) were varied and five materials showed increased tan delta. Only two ethyl methacrylate resins developed lower tan delta. All the silicone and polyphosphazine rubbers showed small changes after aging and had the lowest tan delta values. Significance of differences between materials and treatments was tested with ANOVA, Scheffé intervals, and t-tests at a = 0.05. The ethyl methacrylate soft denture liners were affected the most by accelerated aging, and the silicones and polyphosphazine were least affected. The ethyl methacrylate resins also had the greatest values of E', E", and tan delta after aging. PMID:7473285

  12. Researching on the process of remote sensing video imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, He-rao; Zheng, Xin-qi; Sun, Yi-bo; Jia, Zong-ren; Wang, He-zhan

    Unmanned air vehicle remotely-sensed imagery on the low-altitude has the advantages of higher revolution, easy-shooting, real-time accessing, etc. It's been widely used in mapping , target identification, and other fields in recent years. However, because of conditional limitation, the video images are unstable, the targets move fast, and the shooting background is complex, etc., thus it is difficult to process the video images in this situation. In other fields, especially in the field of computer vision, the researches on video images are more extensive., which is very helpful for processing the remotely-sensed imagery on the low-altitude. Based on this, this paper analyzes and summarizes amounts of video image processing achievement in different fields, including research purposes, data sources, and the pros and cons of technology. Meantime, this paper explores the technology methods more suitable for low-altitude video image processing of remote sensing.

  13. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments for the quarter are presented for the following areas of research: oil shale, tar sand, coal, advanced exploratory process technology, and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research includes; oil shale process studies, environmental base studies for oil shale, and miscellaneous basic concept studies. Tar sand research covers process development. Coal research includes; underground coal gasification, coal combustion, integrated coal processing concepts, and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes; advanced process concepts, advanced mitigation concepts, and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesa Verde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced recovery techniques; and menu driven access to the WDEQ Hydrologic Data Management Systems.

  14. Modelling of the aging behavior of polyamide 12 powder during laser melting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummer, Dietmar; Wudy, Katrin; Drexler, Maximilian

    2015-05-01

    Concerning individualization, the requirements to products have increased. Additive manufacturing technologies, such as selective laser melting allow manufacturing of complex parts without tools and forms. Due to this additive manufacturing processes comply, in opposite to conventional techniques, with these increased demands on processing technology. Due to the high temperature during processing, a degradation of the used plastic powder occurs. The non-molten material in the building chamber, the so-called partcake, can be removed after building from the finished component and reused for another process. To realize reproducible part properties refreshing of partcake powder with 30 up to 50 % virgin powder is necessary. However, these refreshing strategies lead to varying component properties due to an undefined aging state. Previous investigations on oven aged powder for selective laser melting showed for short periods of storage near the melting point thermally induced post condensation is the predominate aging effect. Due to post condensation the molecular weight and thus the viscosity increases. This paper focuses on the modeling of the post condensation process to define the aging state of polyamide 12 powder in laser melting process. Therefore the rheological behavior of PA 12 powder in dependency of time and temperature is investigated. Isothermal viscosity measurements are conducted in order to describe the post condensation reaction with a model. With knowledge of the kinetics of the post condensation reaction the state of aging can be predicted in a second step. Thus expected useful life of the powder can be calculated in dependency of the building chamber temperature. These results are then compared with viscosity values of defined aged PA 12 powder to validate the determined model.

  15. Progress in Research on Aging in the Behavioral and Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birren, James E.

    1980-01-01

    Proposes a biobehavioral view of research on aging which suggests that behavior depends upon the limits set by genetic heritage, the modifications and reinforcements of physical and social environments, and the self-concept achieved through the integration of past life experiences. (Author/SS)

  16. Teaching Students How to Research the Past: Historians and Librarians in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author examines some issues linked to the impact of new technologies on teaching. In a 2003 survey, respondents stressed that the priority was to understand "how new media are changing student learning." There are by now numerous studies that attempt to assess how students conduct research and learn in the digital age, but…

  17. Building a Method for Researching Attribution of Meaning by Children Aged 5 to 6 in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tertoolen, Anja; van Oers, Bert; Geldens, Jeannette; Popeijus, Herman

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the first phase of a research project in which we looked for the voices of young children, aged 5 to 6, in school. What do children experience in school? What do they see as the meaning of school? What is their motivation? Children have the right to be listened to. The question is which settings, under which circumstances,…

  18. Choosing Assessment Instruments for Anxiety Practice and Outcome Research with School-Aged Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erford, Bradley T.; Lutz, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Using effect size results from our meta-analysis for the treatment of anxiety in school-aged youth, the practical and technical aspects of five commonly used anxiety instruments were analyzed, and effect size estimates compared to indicate the best choices for use in anxiety outcome research.

  19. History of the USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Jean Mayer United States Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, while quite a mouthful, is aptly named, since it has contributed substantially to the legacy of Jean Mayer, to the scientific stature of the USDA and, in Atwater’s tradition, to the d...

  20. Older-Adult Playfulness: An Innovative Construct and Measurement for Healthy Aging Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarnal, Careen; Qian, Xinyi

    2011-01-01

    Few studies of adult playfulness exist, but limited research on older adults and playfulness suggests that playfulness in later life improves cognitive, emotional, social, and psychological functioning and healthy aging overall. Older adults represent a rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, underscoring the need to understand the aging…

  1. School-Aged Children of Alcoholics: Theory and Research. Pamphlet Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeannette L.; Bennett, Linda A.

    Despite the research documenting the occurrence of alcoholism in families, little is known about how alcoholism is transmitted from one generation to the next or what causes several members of the same family to abuse alcohol. To date, the most consistent findings among school-aged children are reports of cognitive differences. Health problems,…

  2. Children's Attitudes toward Older Adults and Aging: A Synthesis of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Cara N.; Ricketts, Kristina G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper serves as a summation of literature on children's attitudes toward older adults and aging. Research indicates that the vast amount of information available provides varying levels of understanding toward children's actual views of older adults. Differences between measurements, settings, and procedures stand as barriers in…

  3. Hardware development process for Human Research facility applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Liz

    2000-01-01

    The simple goal of the Human Research Facility (HRF) is to conduct human research experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) astronauts during long-duration missions. This is accomplished by providing integration and operation of the necessary hardware and software capabilities. A typical hardware development flow consists of five stages: functional inputs and requirements definition, market research, design life cycle through hardware delivery, crew training, and mission support. The purpose of this presentation is to guide the audience through the early hardware development process: requirement definition through selecting a development path. Specific HRF equipment is used to illustrate the hardware development paths. .

  4. Unmasking the 'elderly mystique': Why it is time to make the personal political in ageing research.

    PubMed

    Carney, Gemma M; Gray, Mia

    2015-12-01

    This article uses feminist scholarship to investigate 'the elderly mystique'-which contends that the potential of old age is masked by a set of false beliefs about ageing (i.e. ageism) which permeate social, economic, and political life (Cohen, 1988). The article presents a theoretical model which explores the extent to which institutionalised ageism shapes the trajectory of life after 60.(1) The hypothesis underpinning the model is simple: The challenge for ageing societies is not the average age of a given population, but rather, how age is used to structure economic, social and political life. An inter-disciplinary framework is used to examine how biological facts about ageing are used to segregate older from younger people, giving older people the status of 'other'; economically through retirement, politically through assumptions about 'the grey vote,' and socially through ageist stereotyping in the media and through denial and ridicule of the sexuality of older people. Each domain is informed by the achievements of feminist theory and research on sexism and how its successes and failures can inform critical investigations of ageism. The paper recognises the role of ageism in de-politicising the lived experience of ageing. The paper concludes that feminist scholarship, particularly work by feminists in their seventies, eighties, and nineties, has much to offer in terms of re-framing gerontology as an emancipatory project for current and future cohorts of older people. PMID:26568222

  5. What makes age diverse teams effective? Results from a six-year research program.

    PubMed

    Wegge, J; Jungmann, F; Liebermann, S; Shemla, M; Ries, B C; Diestel, S; Schmidt, K-H

    2012-01-01

    Based on a new model of productivity in age diverse tams, findings from a six-year research program are reported in which data from more than 745 natural teams with 8,848 employees in three different fields (car production, administrative work, financial services) were collected. Moreover, central assumptions of this model were tested with a representative survey of the German workforce (N = 2,000). Results support both significant advantages and disadvantages for age-mixed teams. Based on the findings, the following preconditions for the effectiveness of age diverse teams are identified: high task complexity, low salience and high appreciation of age diversity, a positive team climate, low age-discrimination, ergonomic design of work places, and the use of age differentiated leadership. Based on these insights, we developed a new training for supervisors, which addresses the aforementioned aspects and seeks to improve team performance and health of team members. It was found that the training reduces age stereotypes, team conflicts and enhances innovation. Thus, we can conclude that effective interventions for a successful integration of elderly employees in work groups are available and that combinations of measures that address ergonomic design issues, team composition and leadership are to be strongly recommended for practice. PMID:22317517

  6. Ergodicity breaking, ageing, and confinement in generalized diffusion processes with position and time dependent diffusivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherstvy, Andrey G.; Metzler, Ralf

    2015-05-01

    We study generalized anomalous diffusion processes whose diffusion coefficient D(x, t) ∼ D0|x|αtβ depends on both the position x of the test particle and the process time t. This process thus combines the features of scaled Brownian motion and heterogeneous diffusion parent processes. We compute the ensemble and time averaged mean squared displacements of this generalized diffusion process. The scaling exponent of the ensemble averaged mean squared displacement is shown to be the product of the critical exponents of the parent processes, and describes both subdiffusive and superdiffusive systems. We quantify the amplitude fluctuations of the time averaged mean squared displacement as function of the length of the time series and the lag time. In particular, we observe a weak ergodicity breaking of this generalized diffusion process: even in the long time limit the ensemble and time averaged mean squared displacements are strictly disparate. When we start to observe this process some time after its initiation we observe distinct features of ageing. We derive a universal ageing factor for the time averaged mean squared displacement containing all information on the ageing time and the measurement time. External confinement is shown to alter the magnitudes and statistics of the ensemble and time averaged mean squared displacements.

  7. Refining the Enrolment Process in Emergency Medicine Research

    PubMed Central

    Sahan, Kate M; Channon, Keith M; Choudhury, Robin P; Kharbanda, Rajesh K; Lee, Regent; Sheehan, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Research in the emergency setting involving patients with acute clinical conditions is needed if there are to be advances in diagnosis and treatment. But research in these areas poses ethical and practical challenges. One of these is the general inability to obtain informed consent due to the patient’s lack of mental capacity and insufficient time to contact legal representatives. Regulatory frameworks which allow this research to proceed with a consent ‘waiver’, provided patients lack mental capacity, miss important ethical subtleties. One of these is the varying nature of mental capacity among emergency medicine patients. Not only is their capacity variable and often unclear, but some patients are also likely to be able to engage with the researcher and the context to varying degrees. In this paper we describe the key elements of a novel enrolment process for emergency medicine research that refines the consent waiver and fully engages with the ethical rationale for consent and, in this context, its waiver. The process is verbal but independently documented during the ‘emergent’ stages of the research. It provides appropriate engagement with the patient, is context-sensitive and better addresses ethical subtleties. In line with regulation, full written consent for on-going participation in the research is obtained once the emergency is passed. PMID:27499840

  8. Research unit INTERNANO: Mobility, aging and functioning of engineered inorganic nanoparticles at the aquatic-terrestrial interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaumann, Gabriele Ellen; Metreveli, George; Baumann, Thomas; Klitzke, Sondra; Lang, Friederike; Manz, Werner; Nießner, Reinhard; Schulz, Ralf; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2013-04-01

    Engineered inorganic nanoparticles (EINP) are expected to pass the wastewater-river-topsoil-groundwater pathway. Despite their increasing release, the processes governing the EINP aging and the changes in functionality in the environment are up to now largely unknown. The objective of the interdisciplinary research unit INTERNANO funded by the DFG is to identify the processes relevant for the fate of EINP and EINP-associated pollutants in the interfacial zone between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The research unit consists of six subprojects and combines knowledge from aquatic and terrestrial sciences as well as from microbiology, ecotoxicology, physicochemistry, soil chemistry and soil physics. For the identification of key processes we will consider compartment specific flow conditions, physicochemistry and biological activity. Situations representative for a floodplain system are simulated using micromodels (μm scale) as well as incubation, soil column and joint laboratory stream microcosm experiments. These results will be transferred to a joint aquatic-terrestrial model system on EINP aging, transport and functioning across the aquatic-terrestrial transition zone. EINP isolation and characterization will be carried out via a combination of chromatographic, light scattering and microscopic methods including dynamic light scattering, elemental analysis, hydrodynamic radius chromatography, field flow fractionation as well as atomic force microscopy, Raman microscopy and electron microscopy. INTERNANO generates fundamental aquatic-terrestrial process knowledge, which will help to evaluate the environmental significance of the EINP at aquatic-terrestrial interfaces. Thus, INTERNANO provides a scientific basis to assess and predict the environmental impact of EINP release into the environment.

  9. Investigating age-related changes in anterior and posterior neural activity throughout the information processing stream.

    PubMed

    Alperin, Brittany R; Tusch, Erich S; Mott, Katherine K; Holcomb, Phillip J; Daffner, Kirk R

    2015-10-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) and other functional imaging studies often demonstrate age-related increases in anterior neural activity and decreases in posterior activity while subjects carry out task demands. It remains unclear whether this "anterior shift" is limited to late cognitive operations like those indexed by the P3 component, or is evident during other stages of information processing. The temporal resolution of ERPs provided an opportunity to address this issue. Temporospatial principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify underlying components that may be obscured by overlapping ERP waveforms. ERPs were measured during a visual oddball task in 26 young, 26 middle-aged, and 29 old subjects who were well-matched for IQ, executive function, education, and task performance. PCA identified six anterior factors peaking between ∼140 ms and 810 ms, and four posterior factors peaking between ∼300 ms and 810 ms. There was an age-related increase in the amplitude of anterior factors between ∼200 and 500 ms, and an age-associated decrease in amplitude of posterior factors after ∼500 ms. The increase in anterior processing began as early as middle-age, was sustained throughout old age, and appeared to be linear in nature. These results suggest that age-associated increases in anterior activity occur after early sensory processing has taken place, and are most prominent during a period in which attention is being marshaled to evaluate a stimulus. In contrast, age-related decreases in posterior activity manifest during operations involved in stimulus categorization, post-decision monitoring, and preparation for an upcoming event. PMID:26295684

  10. Investigation of Aging Processes of Ti-6Al-4 V Powder Material in Laser Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyda, V.; Kaufmann, N.; Emmelmann, C.

    Laser melting of titanium material, e.g. Ti-6Al-4 V, offers great potential in manufacturing automotive components, lightweight structures and medical implants. In order to achieve required mechanical properties of laser melted components quality of powder materials is essential. Unmelted powder is recycled and reused in a subsequent process. Due to repeated recycling it is suggested that powder material changes. In this paper aging processes of Ti-6Al-4 V powder are studied. It was observed that powder particles coarsen and flowability increases. Comparing examined powder characteristics to bulk material properties it was noticed that there are significant effects of aged powder on laser melted components.

  11. Partnering with Indigenous student co-researchers: improving research processes and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, Shelagh K.; Willows, Noreen; Jardine, Cindy G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the contribution of student co-researchers to a community-based participatory Photovoice investigation of Indigenous children's food-related lived experience. We examine co-researchers’ contributions to the research process, their role in knowledge co-generation and dissemination, and factors that fostered research partnership with the teenage co-researchers. Methods High school students attending a First Nation community school in Canada were trained as research partners. They contributed to aspects of research design, conducted interviews with grades 3 and 4 Photovoice participants, and participated in data analysis and the development of a culturally relevant photobook. The study was initiated by the community's research committee. It is informed by critical consciousness theory and the positive youth development framework. Results Student co-researchers incorporated culturally appropriate strategies as they interviewed participants. Co-researchers adopted conversational approaches, built rapport by articulating personal and cultural connections, and engaged in mentoring and health promotion as they interviewed participants. They made critical contributions to dissemination by developing photobook content that promoted the importance of traditional foods and the vital role of family and community in healthy eating practices. Relationships and “dialogic” space were important to building partnership with and promoting capacity development among youth co-researchers. Conclusions Partnership between university researchers and Indigenous student co-researchers holds great promise for health promotion in communities. Co-researchers developed research and leadership skills, gained understanding of health challenges facing their community, and initiated health and cultural promotion through the project's Photobook. This investigation supports the powerful potential of student co-researchers to meaningfully contribute to research processes and

  12. Attention to Item-Specific Processing Eliminates Age Effects in False Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, A.K.; Sommers, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    One possible reason for age differences in false memory susceptibility is that older adults may not encode contextual information that allows them to distinguish between presented and non-presented but internally activated items. The present research examines whether older adults can reduce false memories when given external contextual support. In…

  13. The Representation and Processing of Familiar Faces in Dyslexia: Differences in Age of Acquisition Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Spark, James H.; Moore, Viv

    2009-01-01

    Two under-explored areas of developmental dyslexia research, face naming and age of acquisition (AoA), were investigated. Eighteen dyslexic and 18 non-dyslexic university students named the faces of 50 well-known celebrities, matched for facial distinctiveness and familiarity. Twenty-five of the famous people were learned early in life, while the…

  14. Mars Public Mapping Project: Public Participation in Science Research; Providing Opportunities for Kids of All Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, L. D.; Valderrama Graff, P.; Bandfield, J. L.; Christensen, P. R.; Klug, S. L.; Deva, B.; Capages, C.

    2007-12-01

    The Mars Public Mapping Project is a web-based education and public outreach tool developed by the Mars Space Flight Facility at Arizona State University. This tool allows the general public to identify and map geologic features on Mars, utilizing Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) visible images, allowing public participation in authentic scientific research. In addition, participants are able to rate each image (based on a 1 to 5 star scale) to help build a catalog of some of the more appealing and interesting martian surface features. Once participants have identified observable features in an image, they are able to view a map of the global distribution of the many geologic features they just identified. This automatic feedback, through a global distribution map, allows participants to see how their answers compare to the answers of other participants. Participants check boxes "yes, no, or not sure" for each feature that is listed on the Mars Public Mapping Project web page, including surface geologic features such as gullies, sand dunes, dust devil tracks, wind streaks, lava flows, several types of craters, and layers. Each type of feature has a quick and easily accessible description and example image. When a participant moves their mouse over each example thumbnail image, a window pops up with a picture and a description of the feature. This provides a form of "on the job training" for the participants that can vary with their background level. For users who are more comfortable with Mars geology, there is also an advanced feature identification section accessible by a drop down menu. This includes additional features that may be identified, such as streamlined islands, valley networks, chaotic terrain, yardangs, and dark slope streaks. The Mars Public Mapping Project achieves several goals: 1) It engages the public in a manner that encourages active participation in scientific research and learning about geologic features and processes. 2) It helps to

  15. Prevention, Rehabilitation, and Mitigation Strategies of Cognitive Deficits in Aging with HIV: Implications for Practice and Research

    PubMed Central

    Vance, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy has given the chance to those living with HIV to keep on living, allowing them the opportunity to age and perhaps age successfully. Yet, there are severe challenges to successful aging with HIV, one of which is cognitive deficits. Nearly half of those with HIV experience cognitive deficits that can interfere with everyday functioning, medical decision making, and quality of life. Given that cognitive deficits develop with more frequency and intensity with increasing age, concerns mount that as people age with HIV, they may experience more severe cognitive deficits. These concerns become especially germane given that by 2015, 50% of those with HIV will be 50 and older, and this older cohort of adults is expected to grow. As such, this paper focuses on the etiologies of such cognitive deficits within the context of cognitive reserve and neuroplasticity. From this, evidence-based and hypothetical prevention (i.e., cognitive prescriptions), rehabilitation (i.e., speed of processing training), and mitigation (i.e., spaced retrieval method) strategies are reviewed. Implications for nursing practice and research are posited. PMID:23431469

  16. Number processing and calculation in Brazilian children aged 7-12 years.

    PubMed

    Dos, Santos Flávia Heloisa; Da Silva, Paulo Adilson; Ribeiro, Fabiana Silva; Dias, Ana Luiza Ribeiro Pereira; Frigério, Michele Cândida; Dellatolas, Georges; von Aster, Michael

    2012-07-01

    Numerical cognition is based on two components - number processing and calculation. Its development is influenced by biological, cognitive, educational, and cultural factors. The objectives of the present study were to: i) assess number processing and calculation in Brazilian children aged 7-12 years from public schools using the Zareki-R (Battery of neuropsychological tests for number processing and calculation in children, Revised; von Aster & Dellatolas, 2006) in order to obtain normative data for Portuguese speakers; ii) identify how environment, age, and gender influences the development of these mathematical skills; iii) investigate the construct validity of the Zareki-R by the contrast with the Arithmetic subtest of WISC-III. The sample included 172 children, both genders, divided in two groups: urban (N = 119) and rural (N = 53) assessed by the Zareki-R. Rural children presented lower scores in one aspect of number processing; children aged 7-8 years demonstrated an inferior global score than older; boys presented a superior performance in both number processing and calculation. Construct validity of Zareki-R was demonstrated by high to moderate correlations with Arithmetic subtest of WISC-III. The Zareki-R therefore is a suitable instrument to assess the development of mathematical skills, which is influenced by factors such as environment, age, and gender. PMID:22774425

  17. From Idea to Impact: A Guide to the Research Process. Building Effective Research, 1. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Andrew

    The purpose of this document is to encourage collaboration in research and development in postsecondary education through providing increased understanding of the diversity of contributions from professional educational researchers, teachers, librarians, and other school personnel. Emphasis is placed on the role of the educational practitioner, as…

  18. Reclaiming Queerness: Self, Identity, and the Research Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Janna Marie

    2007-01-01

    This article explores some of the challenges and benefits of doing a dissertation with participants from a population to which I belong and on a topic some consider controversial, that of gay and lesbian educators. I describe the homophobia I experienced and how that homophobia affected my choice of topic, the research process, and my job…

  19. Coding the Composing Process: A Guide for Teachers and Researchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perl, Sondra

    Designed for teachers and researchers interested in the study of the composing process, this guide introduces a method of analysis that can be applied to data from a range of different cases. Specifically, the guide offers a simple, direct coding scheme for describing the movements occurring during composing that involves four procedures: teaching…

  20. Conceptual Frameworks in the Doctoral Research Process: A Pedagogical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Jeanette; Smyth, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    This paper contributes to consideration of the role of conceptual frameworks in the doctoral research process. Through reflection on the two authors' own conceptual frameworks for their doctoral studies, a pedagogical model has been developed. The model posits the development of a conceptual framework as a core element of the doctoral…

  1. Teaching as a Linguistic Process. Mid-Project Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, Virginia, Comp.

    Investigators wrote proposals for research on the nature and learning of communicative processes in the elementary classroom. Three questions were addressed: (1) What is the nature of communication in the classroom? (2) How do students acquire the rules of classroom discourse? (3) What is the effect of inadequate learning of classroom discourse…

  2. A Garbage Can Model of the Psychological Research Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joanne

    1981-01-01

    Reviews models commonly used in psychological research, and, particularly, in organizational decision making. An alternative model of organizational decision making is suggested. The model, referred to as the garbage can model, describes a process in which members of an organization collect the problems and solutions they generate by dumping them…

  3. Relational Processes in Career Transition: Extending Theory, Research, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motulsky, Sue L.

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of work in relational theory and career decision making explores how relational processes, not just people's relationships but more broadly their connections to self, others, and society, inform career development and counseling. This article presents the results of a qualitative research study of midlife women in career transition…

  4. Engineering graphics and image processing at Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, Susan J.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of making raster graphics and image processing techniques readily available for the analysis and display of engineering and scientific data is stated. The approach is to develop and acquire tools and skills which are applied to support research activities in such disciplines as aeronautics and structures. A listing of grants and key personnel are given.

  5. Virtual Vocabulary: Research and Learning in Lexical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuetze, Ulf; Weimer-Stuckmann, Gerlinde

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the concept development, research programming, and learning design of a lexical processing web application, Virtual Vocabulary, which was developed using theories in both cognitive psychology and second language acquisition (SLA). It is being tested with first-year students of German at the University of Victoria in Canada,…

  6. Getting Research into Practice: Healing Damaged Attachment Processes in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Tony; McDaniel, Benny

    2005-01-01

    The translation of research into practice in social care is long on theory and short on practical examples. We describe a pilot project, which identified an important practice issue--the promotion of positive attachment in early infancy--explored the evidence base, summarised the findings, and devised an implementation process. The site of the…

  7. Bias in the reporting of sex and age in biomedical research on mouse models.

    PubMed

    Flórez-Vargas, Oscar; Brass, Andy; Karystianis, George; Bramhall, Michael; Stevens, Robert; Cruickshank, Sheena; Nenadic, Goran

    2016-01-01

    In animal-based biomedical research, both the sex and the age of the animals studied affect disease phenotypes by modifying their susceptibility, presentation and response to treatment. The accurate reporting of experimental methods and materials, including the sex and age of animals, is essential so that other researchers can build on the results of such studies. Here we use text mining to study 15,311 research papers in which mice were the focus of the study. We find that the percentage of papers reporting the sex and age of mice has increased over the past two decades: however, only about 50% of the papers published in 2014 reported these two variables. We also compared the quality of reporting in six preclinical research areas and found evidence for different levels of sex-bias in these areas: the strongest male-bias was observed in cardiovascular disease models and the strongest female-bias was found in infectious disease models. These results demonstrate the ability of text mining to contribute to the ongoing debate about the reproducibility of research, and confirm the need to continue efforts to improve the reporting of experimental methods and materials. PMID:26939790

  8. Bias in the reporting of sex and age in biomedical research on mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Flórez-Vargas, Oscar; Brass, Andy; Karystianis, George; Bramhall, Michael; Stevens, Robert; Cruickshank, Sheena; Nenadic, Goran

    2016-01-01

    In animal-based biomedical research, both the sex and the age of the animals studied affect disease phenotypes by modifying their susceptibility, presentation and response to treatment. The accurate reporting of experimental methods and materials, including the sex and age of animals, is essential so that other researchers can build on the results of such studies. Here we use text mining to study 15,311 research papers in which mice were the focus of the study. We find that the percentage of papers reporting the sex and age of mice has increased over the past two decades: however, only about 50% of the papers published in 2014 reported these two variables. We also compared the quality of reporting in six preclinical research areas and found evidence for different levels of sex-bias in these areas: the strongest male-bias was observed in cardiovascular disease models and the strongest female-bias was found in infectious disease models. These results demonstrate the ability of text mining to contribute to the ongoing debate about the reproducibility of research, and confirm the need to continue efforts to improve the reporting of experimental methods and materials. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13615.001 PMID:26939790

  9. Effect of aging process on adsorption of diethyl phthalate in soils amended with bamboo biochar.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaokai; Sarmah, Ajit K; Bolan, Nanthi S; He, Lizhi; Lin, Xiaoming; Che, Lei; Tang, Caixian; Wang, Hailong

    2016-01-01

    Biochar is a carbonaceous sorbent and can be used as a potential material to reduce the bioavailability of organic pollutants in contaminated soils. In the present study, the adsorption and desorption of diethyl phthalate (DEP) onto soils amended with bamboo biochar was investigated with a special focus on the effect of biochar application rates and aging conditions on the adsorption capacity of the soils. Biochar amendment significantly enhanced the soil adsorption of DEP that increased with increasing application rates of biochar. However, the adsorption capacity decreased by two aging processes (alternating wet and dry, and constantly moist). In the soil with low organic carbon (OC) content, the addition of 0.5% biochar (without aging) increased the adsorption by nearly 98 times compared to the control, and exhibited the highest adsorption capacity among all the treatments. In the soil with high OC content, the adsorption capacity in the treatment of 0.5% biochar without aging was 3.5 and 3 times greater than those of the treatments of biochar aged by alternating wet and dry, and constantly moist, respectively. Moreover, constantly moist resulted in a greater adsorption capacity than alternating wet and dry treatments regardless of biochar addition. This study revealed that biochar application enhanced soil sorption of DEP, however, the enhancement of the adsorption capacity was dependent on the soil organic carbon levels, and aging processes of biochar. PMID:26004250

  10. The effect of aging in recollective experience: the processing speed and executive functioning hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Bugaiska, Aurélia; Clarys, David; Jarry, Caroline; Taconnat, Laurence; Tapia, Géraldine; Vanneste, Sandrine; Isingrini, Michel

    2007-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of aging on consciousness in recognition memory, using the Remember/Know/Guess procedure (Gardiner, J. M., & Richarson-Klavehn, A. (2000). Remembering and Knowing. In E. Tulving & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Memory. Oxford University Press.). In recognition memory, older participants report fewer occasions on which recognition is accompanied by recollection of the original encoding context. Two main hypotheses were tested: the speed mediation hypothesis (Salthouse, T. A. (1996). The processing-speed theory of adult age differences in cognition. Psychological Review, 3, 403-428) and the executive-aging hypothesis (West, R. L. (1996). An application of prefrontal cortex function theory to cognitive aging. Psychological Bulletin, 120, 272-292). A group of young and a group of older adults took a recognition test in which they classified their responses according to Gardiner, J. M., & Richarson-Klavehn, A. (2000). Remembering and Knowing. In E. Tulving & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Memory. Oxford University Press. remember-know-guess paradigm. Subsequently, participants completed processing speed and executive function tests. The results showed that among the older participants, R responses decreased, but K responses did not. Moreover, a hierarchical regression analysis supported the view that the effect of age in recollection experience is determined by frontal lobe integrity and not by diminution of processing speed. PMID:17251040

  11. Neurophysiological and epigenetic effects of physical exercise on the aging process.

    PubMed

    Kaliman, Perla; Párrizas, Marcelina; Lalanza, Jaume F; Camins, Antoni; Escorihuela, Rosa Maria; Pallàs, Mercè

    2011-09-01

    Aging is a gradual process during which molecular and cellular processes deteriorate progressively, often leading to such pathological conditions as vascular and metabolic disorders and cognitive decline. Although the mechanisms of aging are not yet fully understood, inflammation, oxidative damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, functional alterations in specific neuronal circuits and a restricted degree of apoptosis are involved. Physical exercise improves the efficiency of the capillary system and increases the oxygen supply to the brain, thus enhancing metabolic activity and oxygen intake in neurons, and increases neurotrophin levels and resistance to stress. Regular exercise and an active lifestyle during adulthood have been associated with reduced risk and protective effects for mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Similarly, studies in animal models show that physical activity has positive physiological and cognitive effects that correlate with changes in transcriptional profiles. According to numerous studies, epigenetic events that include changes in DNA methylation patterns, histone modification and alterations in microRNA profiles seem to be a signature of aging. Hence, insight into the epigenetic mechanisms involved in the aging process and their modulation through lifestyle interventions such as physical exercise might open new avenues for the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies to treat aging-related diseases. PMID:21624506

  12. Nuclei of aged myofibres undergo structural and functional changes suggesting impairment in RNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Malatesta, M.; Perdoni, F.; Muller, S.; Zancanaro, C.; Pellicciari, C.

    2009-01-01

    Advancing adult age is associated with a progressive decrease in skeletal muscle mass, strength and quality known as sarcopenia. The mechanisms underlying age-related skeletal muscle wasting and weakness are manifold and still remain to be fully elucidated. Despite the increasing evidence that the progress of muscle diseases leading to muscle atrophy/dystrophy may be related to defective RNA processing, no data on the morpho-functional features of skeletal muscle nuclei in sarcopenia are available at present. In this view, we have investigated, by combining morphometry and immunocytochemistry at light and electron microscopy, the fine structure of myonuclei as well as the distribution and amount of RNA processing factors in skeletal myofibres of biceps brachii and quadriceps femoris from adult and old rats. Results demonstrate that the myonuclei of aged type II fibres show an increased amount of condensed chromatin and lower amounts of phosphorylated polymerase II and DNA/RNA hybrid molecules, clearly indicating a decrease in pre-mRNA transcription rate compared to adult animals. In addition, myonuclei of aged fibres show decreased amounts of nucleoplasmic splicing factors and an accumulation of cleavage factors, polyadenilated RNA and perichromatin granules, suggesting a reduction in the processing and transport rate of pre-mRNA. During ageing, it seems therefore that in rat myonuclei the entire production chain of mRNA, from synthesis to cytoplasmic export, is less efficient. This failure likely contributes to the reduced responsiveness of muscle cells to anabolic stimuli in the elderly.

  13. Increases in cognitive and linguistic processing primarily account for increases in speaking rate with age.

    PubMed

    Nip, Ignatius S B; Green, Jordan R

    2013-01-01

    Age-related increases of speaking rate are not fully understood, but have been attributed to gains in biologic factors and learned skills that support speech production. This study investigated developmental changes in speaking rate and articulatory kinematics of participants aged 4 (N = 7), 7 (N = 10), 10 (N = 9), 13 (N = 7), 16 (N = 9) years, and young adults (N = 11) in speaking tasks varying in task demands. Speaking rate increased with age, with decreases in pauses and articulator displacements but not increases in articulator movement speed. Movement speed did not appear to constrain the speaking. Rather, age-related increases in speaking rate are due to gains in cognitive and linguistic processing and speech motor control. PMID:23331100

  14. Increases in Cognitive and Linguistic Processing Primarily Account for Increases in Speaking Rate with Age

    PubMed Central

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.

    2012-01-01

    Age-related increases of speaking rate are not fully understood, but have been attributed to gains in biologic factors and learned skills that support speech production. This study investigated developmental changes in speaking rate and articulatory kinematics of participants aged 4 (N = 7), 7 (N = 10), 10 (N = 9), 13 (N = 7), 16 (N = 9) years and young adults (N = 11) in speaking tasks varying in task demands. Speaking rate increased with age, with decreases in pauses and articulator displacements but not increases in articulator movement speed. Movement speed did not appear to constrain the speaking. Rather, age-related increases in speaking rate are due to gains in cognitive and linguistic processing and speech motor control. PMID:23331100

  15. Effect of decontamination on aging processes and considerations for life extension

    SciTech Connect

    Diercks, D.R.

    1987-10-01

    The basis for a recently initiated program on the chemical decontamination of nuclear reactor components and the possible impact of decontamination on extended-life service is described. The incentives for extending plant life beyond the present 40-year limit are discussed, and the possible aging degradation processes that may be accentuated in extended-life service are described. Chemical decontamination processes for nuclear plant primary systems are summarized with respect to their corrosive effects on structural alloys, particularly those in the aged condition. Available experience with chemical cleaning processes for the secondary side of PWR steam generators is also briefly considered. Overall, no severe materials corrosion problems have been found that would preclude the use of these chemical processes, but concerns have been raised in several areas, particularly with respect to corrosion-related problems that may develop during extended service.

  16. Materials processing in space programs tasks. [NASA research tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pentecost, E.

    1981-01-01

    Active research tasks as of the end of fiscal year 1981 of the materials processing in space program, NASA Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications are summarized to provide an overview of the program scope for managers and scientists in industry, university, and government communities. The program, its history, strategy, and overall goal are described the organizational structures and people involved are identified and a list of recent publications is given for each research task. Four categories: Crystal Growth; Solidification of Metals, Alloys, and Composites; Fluids, Transports, and Chemical Processes, and Ultrahigh Vacuum and Containerless Processing Technologies are used to group the tasks. Some tasks are placed in more than one category to insure complete coverage of each category.

  17. Kinetic theory of age-structured stochastic birth-death processes.

    PubMed

    Greenman, Chris D; Chou, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Classical age-structured mass-action models such as the McKendrick-von Foerster equation have been extensively studied but are unable to describe stochastic fluctuations or population-size-dependent birth and death rates. Stochastic theories that treat semi-Markov age-dependent processes using, e.g., the Bellman-Harris equation do not resolve a population's age structure and are unable to quantify population-size dependencies. Conversely, current theories that include size-dependent population dynamics (e.g., mathematical models that include carrying capacity such as the logistic equation) cannot be easily extended to take into account age-dependent birth and death rates. In this paper, we present a systematic derivation of a new, fully stochastic kinetic theory for interacting age-structured populations. By defining multiparticle probability density functions, we derive a hierarchy of kinetic equations for the stochastic evolution of an aging population undergoing birth and death. We show that the fully stochastic age-dependent birth-death process precludes factorization of the corresponding probability densities, which then must be solved by using a Bogoliubov--Born--Green--Kirkwood--Yvon-like hierarchy. Explicit solutions are derived in three limits: no birth, no death, and steady state. These are then compared with their corresponding mean-field results. Our results generalize both deterministic models and existing master equation approaches by providing an intuitive and efficient way to simultaneously model age- and population-dependent stochastic dynamics applicable to the study of demography, stem cell dynamics, and disease evolution. PMID:26871029

  18. Kinetic theory of age-structured stochastic birth-death processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenman, Chris D.; Chou, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Classical age-structured mass-action models such as the McKendrick-von Foerster equation have been extensively studied but are unable to describe stochastic fluctuations or population-size-dependent birth and death rates. Stochastic theories that treat semi-Markov age-dependent processes using, e.g., the Bellman-Harris equation do not resolve a population's age structure and are unable to quantify population-size dependencies. Conversely, current theories that include size-dependent population dynamics (e.g., mathematical models that include carrying capacity such as the logistic equation) cannot be easily extended to take into account age-dependent birth and death rates. In this paper, we present a systematic derivation of a new, fully stochastic kinetic theory for interacting age-structured populations. By defining multiparticle probability density functions, we derive a hierarchy of kinetic equations for the stochastic evolution of an aging population undergoing birth and death. We show that the fully stochastic age-dependent birth-death process precludes factorization of the corresponding probability densities, which then must be solved by using a Bogoliubov--Born--Green--Kirkwood--Yvon-like hierarchy. Explicit solutions are derived in three limits: no birth, no death, and steady state. These are then compared with their corresponding mean-field results. Our results generalize both deterministic models and existing master equation approaches by providing an intuitive and efficient way to simultaneously model age- and population-dependent stochastic dynamics applicable to the study of demography, stem cell dynamics, and disease evolution.

  19. Twins and the paradox of dental-age estimations: a caution for researchers and clinicians.

    PubMed

    Pechníková, M; De Angelis, D; Gibelli, D; Vecchio, V; Cameriere, R; Zeqiri, B; Cattaneo, C

    2014-08-01

    The biological age difference among twins is frequently an issue in studies of genetic influence on various dental features, particularly dental development. The timing of dental development is a crucial issue also for many clinicians and researchers. The aim of this study was therefore to verify within groups of twins how dental development differs, by applying Demirjian's method, Mincer's charts of development of third molars and two of Cameriere's methods for dental age estimation, which are among the most popular methods both in the clinical and the forensic scenario. The sample consisted of 64 twin pairs: 21 monozygotic, 30 dizygotic same-sex and 13 dizygotic opposite-sex with an age range between 5.8 and 22.6 years. Dental age was determined from radiographs using the mentioned methods. Results showed that dental age of monozygotic twins is not identical even if they share all their genes. The mean intra-pair difference of monozygotic pairs was low and similar to the difference in dizygotic same-sex twins; the maximum difference between monozygotic twins, however, was surprisingly large (nearly two years). This should lead to some circumspection in the interpretation of systematic estimations of dental age both in the clinical and forensic scenario. PMID:24951409

  20. The Somatotropic Axis in Human Aging: Framework for the Current State of Knowledge and Future Research.

    PubMed

    Milman, Sofiya; Huffman, Derek M; Barzilai, Nir

    2016-06-14

    Mutations resulting in reduced signaling of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH/IGF-1) axis are associated with increased life- and healthspan across model organisms. Similar findings have been noted in human cohorts with functional mutations in the somatotropic axis, suggesting that this pathway may also be relevant to human aging and protection from age-related diseases. While epidemiological data indicate that low circulating IGF-1 level may protect aging populations from cancer, results remain inconclusive regarding most other diseases. We propose that studies in humans and animals need to consider differences in sex, pathway function, organs, and time-specific effects of GH/IGF-1 signaling in order to better define the role of the somatotropic axis in aging. Agents that modulate signaling of the GH/IGF-1 pathway are available for human use, but before they can be implemented in clinical studies that target aging and age-related diseases, researchers need to address the challenges discussed in this Review. PMID:27304500

  1. Confusion and the Older Adult. Module A-8. Block A. Basic Knowledge of the Aging Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Dexter; Cap, Orest

    This instructional module on confusion and the older adult is one in a block of 10 modules designed to provide the human services worker who works with older adults with basic information regarding the aging process. An introduction provides an overview of the module content. A listing of general objectives follows. Three sections present…

  2. Myelin Breakdown Mediates Age-Related Slowing in Cognitive Processing Speed in Healthy Elderly Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Po H.; Lee, Grace J.; Tishler, Todd A.; Meghpara, Michael; Thompson, Paul M.; Bartzokis, George

    2013-01-01

    Background: To assess the hypothesis that in a sample of very healthy elderly men selected to minimize risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebrovascular disease, myelin breakdown in late-myelinating regions mediates age-related slowing in cognitive processing speed (CPS). Materials and methods: The prefrontal lobe white matter and the genu of…

  3. Processing Speed and Executive Functions in Cognitive Aging: How to Disentangle Their Mutual Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albinet, Cedric T.; Boucard, Geoffroy; Bouquet, Cedric; Audiffren, Michel

    2012-01-01

    The processing-speedtheory and the prefrontal-executivetheory are competing theories of cognitive aging. Here we used a theoretically and methodologically-driven framework to investigate the relationships among measures classically used to assess these two theoretical constructs. Twenty-eight young adults (18-32 years) and 39 healthy older adults…

  4. Effects of Speaker Emotional Facial Expression and Listener Age on Incremental Sentence Processing

    PubMed Central

    Carminati, Maria Nella; Knoeferle, Pia

    2013-01-01

    We report two visual-world eye-tracking experiments that investigated how and with which time course emotional information from a speaker's face affects younger (N = 32, Mean age  = 23) and older (N = 32, Mean age  = 64) listeners’ visual attention and language comprehension as they processed emotional sentences in a visual context. The age manipulation tested predictions by socio-emotional selectivity theory of a positivity effect in older adults. After viewing the emotional face of a speaker (happy or sad) on a computer display, participants were presented simultaneously with two pictures depicting opposite-valence events (positive and negative; IAPS database) while they listened to a sentence referring to one of the events. Participants' eye fixations on the pictures while processing the sentence were increased when the speaker's face was (vs. wasn't) emotionally congruent with the sentence. The enhancement occurred from the early stages of referential disambiguation and was modulated by age. For the older adults it was more pronounced with positive faces, and for the younger ones with negative faces. These findings demonstrate for the first time that emotional facial expressions, similarly to previously-studied speaker cues such as eye gaze and gestures, are rapidly integrated into sentence processing. They also provide new evidence for positivity effects in older adults during situated sentence processing. PMID:24039781

  5. Comparing Changes in Late-Life Depressive Symptoms across Aging, Disablement, and Mortality Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fauth, Elizabeth B.; Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Malmberg, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Developmental processes are inherently time-related, with various time metrics and transition points being used to proxy how change is organized with respect to the theoretically underlying mechanisms. Using data from 4 Swedish studies of individuals aged 70-100+ (N = 453) who were measured every 2 years for up to 5 waves, we tested whether…

  6. The Effects of Age, Years of Experience, and Type of Experience in the Teacher Selection Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, David Scott

    2010-01-01

    Paper screening in the pre-selection process of hiring teachers has been the focus in an ongoing series of similar studies starting with Allison in 1981. There have been many independent variables, including, but not limited to, age, gender, ethnic background, years of experience, type of experience, and grade point average, introduced into the…

  7. Nutrition and the Older Adult. Module A-9. Block A. Basic Knowledge of the Aging Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Dexter; Cap, Orest

    This instructional module on nutrition and the older adult is one in a block of 10 modules designed to provide the human services worker who works with older adults with basic information regarding the aging process. An introduction provides an overview of the module content. A listing of general objectives follows. Five sections present…

  8. Effects of postmortem aging and hydrodynamic pressure processing on sarcoplasmic proteins and beef tenderness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of hydrodynamic pressure processing (HDP) and postmortem aging on the sarcoplasmic protein fraction of beef strip loins. Loins (n=12) were halved at 48 h postmortem and assigned to HDP or control treatments. Following treatment, each half was ...

  9. Chemical and biochemical transformations during the industrial process of sherry vinegar aging.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Victor; Valcárcel, Manuel; Caro, Ildefonso; Pérez, Luis

    2002-07-17

    The work described here concerns a study of the chemical and biochemical transformations in sherry vinegar during the different aging stages. The main factors that contribute to the nature and special characteristics of sherry vinegar are the raw sherry wine, the traditional process of acetic acid fermentation in butts (the solera system), and the physicochemical activity during the aging process in the solera system. A number of chemical and biochemical changes that occur during sherry vinegar aging are similar to those that take place in sherry wine during its biological activity process (where the wine types obtained are fino and manzanilla) or physicochemical activity process (to give oloroso wines). Significant increase in acetic acid levels was observed during the biological activity phase. In addition, the concentrations of tartaric, gluconic, succinic, and citric acids increased during the aging, as did levels of amino acids and acetoin. A color change was also produced during this stage. Glycerol was not consumed by acetic acid bacteria, and levels of higher alcohols decreased because of the synthesis of acetates. On the other hand, in the physicochemical phase the microbiological activity was lower. Concentrations of some cations increased because of evaporation of water through the wood. A color change was also produced in this stage. Concentrations of different amino acids decreased because of reaction with carbonyl compounds. A precipitation of potassium with tartaric acid was also observed. PMID:12105949

  10. Processing Efficiency in Preschoolers' Memory Span: Individual Differences Related to Age and Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visu-Petra, Laura; Miclea, Mircea; Cheie, Lavinia; Benga, Oana

    2009-01-01

    In self-paced auditory memory span tasks, the microanalysis of response timing measures represents a developmentally sensitive measure, providing insights into the development of distinct processing rates during recall performance. The current study first examined the effects of age and trait anxiety on span accuracy (effectiveness) and response…

  11. Effect of postmortem aging and hydrodynamic pressure processing on pork loin quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of hydrodynamic pressure processing (HDP) and aging on the overall quality and protein characteristics of pork loins. Boneless pork loins (n=12) were split into halves assigned control and HDP treatments. Following treatment on day 0, each h...

  12. Effect of hydrodynamic pressure processing and aging on the tenderness and protein characteristics of pork loins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrodynamic pressure processing (HDP) is a novel postharvest technology that utilizes high pressure shockwaves to tenderize meat. The effects of HDP on the tenderization and proteolysis associated with postmortem aging are not well understood. The objective of this study was to determine the effect...

  13. The Development of Emotion-Processing in Children: Effects of Age, Emotion, and Intensity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herba, Catherine M.; Landau, Sabine; Russell, Tamara; Ecker, Christine; Phillips, Mary L.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study examined the effects of age and two novel factors (intensity and emotion category) on healthy children's developing emotion-processing from 4 to 15 years using two matching paradigms. Methods: An explicit emotion-matching task was employed in which children matched the emotion of a target individual, and an implicit task…

  14. The Phenomenon of Withdrawal in Relation to the Aging Process: A Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMordie, William R.

    1981-01-01

    Challenges the disengagement theory of adaptation in the aging process. Suggests that the withdrawal phenomenon exhibited by the elderly simply reflects reduced environmental opportunities for social interaction. Views interpersonal intimacy as the key to satisfactory adjustment. Presents a longitudinal developmental approach to the development of…

  15. The Emergence of the Teaching/Learning Process in Preschoolers: Theory of Mind and Age Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensalah, Leila

    2011-01-01

    This study analysed the gradual emergence of the teaching/learning process by examining theory of mind (ToM) acquisition and age effects in the preschool period. We observed five dyads performing a jigsaw task drawn from a previous study. Three stages were identified. In the first one, the teacher focuses on the execution of her/his own task…

  16. Alterations in the sarcoplasmic protein fraction of beef muscle with postmortem aging and hydrodynamic pressure processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) analysis were utilized to detect differences in the sarcoplasmic protein profiles of beef strip loins subjected to aging and hydrodynamic pressure processing (HDP) treatments. At 48 h postmortem, stri...

  17. Membrane applications and research in food processing: An assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mohr, C.M.; Leeper, S.A.; Engelau, D.E.; Charboneau, B.L.

    1988-08-01

    This assessment is intended to aid in planning separations research and development projects aimed at reducing energy consumption in the food industry. The food processing industry uses approximately 1.5 quadrillion Btu per year, 2% of the US national annual energy consumption. Food processing involves a variety of liquid feed, product, and waste streams and makes extensive use of thermal operations such as drying, evaporation, pasteurization, and distillation. As such, it is a candidate for energy conservation through the use of membrane separations. The assessment is organized according to Standard Industry Classification (SIC) Code for the food industry. Individual subindustries considered are: (a) Meat Processing, Dairy Products, Preserved Fruit and Vegetables, Grain Milling, Bakery Products, Sugar and Confectionery products, Edible Fats and Oils, and Beverages. Topics covered include: (a) background information on food processing and membrane separations, (b) a review of current and developing membrane separations for the food industry, (c) energy consumption and processes used in individual subindustries, (d) separations in the subindustries that could be augmented or replaced by membrane processes, (e) industry practices and market conditions that could affect adoption of new technologies, and (f) prioritized recommendations for DOE-OIP supported research to further use of membrane separations in the food industry. 435 refs.

  18. City Initiatives in School-Age Child Care. SACC Action Research Paper No. 1. School-Age Child Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannett, Ellen

    Features contributing to the success of six city-wide, comprehensive school-age program models are highlighted. Models are Seattle, Washington's Community Partnerships for School-Age Child Care; Madison, Wisconsin's School-Age Child Care Project; Irvine, California's Irvine Child Care Project; Houston, Texas' After-School Partnership; Los Angeles,…

  19. Semantic processing of EHR data for clinical research.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hong; Depraetere, Kristof; De Roo, Jos; Mels, Giovanni; De Vloed, Boris; Twagirumukiza, Marc; Colaert, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing need to semantically process and integrate clinical data from different sources for clinical research. This paper presents an approach to integrate EHRs from heterogeneous resources and generate integrated data in different data formats or semantics to support various clinical research applications. The proposed approach builds semantic data virtualization layers on top of data sources, which generate data in the requested semantics or formats on demand. This approach avoids upfront dumping to and synchronizing of the data with various representations. Data from different EHR systems are first mapped to RDF data with source semantics, and then converted to representations with harmonized domain semantics where domain ontologies and terminologies are used to improve reusability. It is also possible to further convert data to application semantics and store the converted results in clinical research databases, e.g. i2b2, OMOP, to support different clinical research settings. Semantic conversions between different representations are explicitly expressed using N3 rules and executed by an N3 Reasoner (EYE), which can also generate proofs of the conversion processes. The solution presented in this paper has been applied to real-world applications that process large scale EHR data. PMID:26515501

  20. Age-related changes in brain activity are specific for high order cognitive processes during successful encoding of information in working memory

    PubMed Central

    Pinal, Diego; Zurrón, Montserrat; Díaz, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Memory capacity suffers an age-related decline, which is supposed to be due to a generalized slowing of processing speed and to a reduced availability of processing resources. Information encoding in memory has been demonstrated to be very sensitive to age-related changes, especially when carried out through self-initiated strategies or under high cognitive demands. However, most event-related potentials (ERP) research on age-related changes in working memory (WM) has used tasks that preclude distinction between age-related changes in encoding and retrieval processes. Here, we used ERP recording and a delayed match to sample (DMS) task with two levels of memory load to assess age-related changes in electrical brain activity in young and old adults during successful information encoding in WM. Age-related decline was reflected in lower accuracy rates and longer reaction times in the DMS task. Beside, only old adults presented lower accuracy rates under high than low memory load conditions. However, effects of memory load on brain activity were independent of age and may indicate an increased need of processing after stimulus classification as reflected in larger mean voltages in high than low load conditions between 550 and 1000 ms post-stimulus for young and old adults. Regarding age-related effects on brain activity, results also revealed smaller P2 and P300 amplitudes that may signal the existence of an age dependent reduction in the processing resources available for stimulus evaluation and categorization. Additionally, P2 and N2 latencies were longer in old than in young participants. Furthermore, longer N2 latencies were related to greater accuracy rates on the DMS task, especially in old adults. These results suggest that age-related slowing of processing speed may be specific for target stimulus analysis and evaluation processes. Thus, old adults seem to improve their performance the longer they take to evaluate the stimulus they encode in visual WM. PMID

  1. Age-related changes in brain activity are specific for high order cognitive processes during successful encoding of information in working memory.

    PubMed

    Pinal, Diego; Zurrón, Montserrat; Díaz, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Memory capacity suffers an age-related decline, which is supposed to be due to a generalized slowing of processing speed and to a reduced availability of processing resources. Information encoding in memory has been demonstrated to be very sensitive to age-related changes, especially when carried out through self-initiated strategies or under high cognitive demands. However, most event-related potentials (ERP) research on age-related changes in working memory (WM) has used tasks that preclude distinction between age-related changes in encoding and retrieval processes. Here, we used ERP recording and a delayed match to sample (DMS) task with two levels of memory load to assess age-related changes in electrical brain activity in young and old adults during successful information encoding in WM. Age-related decline was reflected in lower accuracy rates and longer reaction times in the DMS task. Beside, only old adults presented lower accuracy rates under high than low memory load conditions. However, effects of memory load on brain activity were independent of age and may indicate an increased need of processing after stimulus classification as reflected in larger mean voltages in high than low load conditions between 550 and 1000 ms post-stimulus for young and old adults. Regarding age-related effects on brain activity, results also revealed smaller P2 and P300 amplitudes that may signal the existence of an age dependent reduction in the processing resources available for stimulus evaluation and categorization. Additionally, P2 and N2 latencies were longer in old than in young participants. Furthermore, longer N2 latencies were related to greater accuracy rates on the DMS task, especially in old adults. These results suggest that age-related slowing of processing speed may be specific for target stimulus analysis and evaluation processes. Thus, old adults seem to improve their performance the longer they take to evaluate the stimulus they encode in visual WM. PMID

  2. Surgery and Research: A Practical Approach to Managing the Research Process.

    PubMed

    Swiatek, Peter R; Chung, Kevin C; Mahmoudi, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Following a practical project management method is essential in completing a research project on time and within budget. Although this concept is well developed in the business world, it has yet to be explored in academic surgical research. Defining and adhering to a suitable workflow would increase portability, reusability, and therefore efficiency of the research process. In this article, the authors briefly review project management techniques. The authors specifically underline four main steps of project management-definition and organization, planning, execution, and evaluation-using practical examples from their own multidisciplinary plastic surgery research team. PMID:26710037

  3. Age-related differences in the neural bases of phonological and semantic processes

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Michele T.; Johnson, Micah A.; Burke, Deborah M.; Madden, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in language functions during normal aging are greater for phonological compared to semantic processes. To investigate the behavioral and neural basis for these age-related differences, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine younger and older adults who made semantic and phonological decisions about pictures. The behavioral performance of older adults was less accurate and less efficient than younger adults’ in the phonological task, but did not differ in the semantic task. In the fMRI analyses, the semantic task activated left-hemisphere language regions, while the phonological task activated bilateral cingulate and ventral precuneus. Age-related effects were widespread throughout the brain, and most often expressed as greater activation for older adults. Activation was greater for younger compared to older adults in ventral brain regions involved in visual and object processing. Although there was not a significant Age x Condition interaction in the whole-brain fMRI results, correlations examining the relationship between behavior and fMRI activation were stronger for younger compared to older adults. Our results suggest that the relationship between behavior and neural activation declines with age and this may underlie some of the observed declines in performance. PMID:24893737

  4. [Is it possible to "cancel" aging process of cell cultures under optimal conditions for cultivation?].

    PubMed

    Bozhkov, A I; Kovaleva, M K; Menzianova, N G

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of the cells epigenotypes Dunaliella viridis Teod. in the process of chronological and replicative aging were investigated. By 40th day of accumulative cultivation (which coincided with the stationary growth phase) DNA content in the cells of Dunaliella viridis increased 2 times, triacylglycerides 3 times, beta-carotene and carbonyl proteins 2 times, RNA content decreased in comparison with cells in exponential growth phase, i. e., the 40th day of growth of culture forms the age-related epigenotype. 4 received subcultures were being transplanted during 2 years in mid-logarithmic growth phase (subculture-10), early stationary phase of growth (subculture-20), in the mid-stationary growth phase (subculture-30), and late stationary growth phase (subculture-40). It is shown that epigenotype of subculture-10 remained unchanged over 2 years of cultivation, i. e., it does not manifest replicative aging. At the same time, the subculture-20, although long enough (at least 40 passages), maintained epigenotype characteristic of young cultures, and showed age-related changes. Pronounced age-dependent changes of epigenotype in the course of cultivation were identified for subculture-30, and subculture-40 was characterized by unstable epigenotype. Thus, cultivation conditions determine the intensity of replicative aging in Dunaliella viridis. PMID:21809617

  5. Effects of aging on peripheral and central auditory processing in rats.

    PubMed

    Costa, Margarida; Lepore, Franco; Prévost, François; Guillemot, Jean-Paul

    2016-08-01

    Hearing loss is a hallmark sign in the elderly population. Decline in auditory perception provokes deficits in the ability to localize sound sources and reduces speech perception, particularly in noise. In addition to a loss of peripheral hearing sensitivity, changes in more complex central structures have also been demonstrated. Related to these, this study examines the auditory directional maps in the deep layers of the superior colliculus of the rat. Hence, anesthetized Sprague-Dawley adult (10 months) and aged (22 months) rats underwent distortion product of otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) to assess cochlear function. Then, auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were assessed, followed by extracellular single-unit recordings to determine age-related effects on central auditory functions. DPOAE amplitude levels were decreased in aged rats although they were still present between 3.0 and 24.0 kHz. ABR level thresholds in aged rats were significantly elevated at an early (cochlear nucleus - wave II) stage in the auditory brainstem. In the superior colliculus, thresholds were increased and the tuning widths of the directional receptive fields were significantly wider. Moreover, no systematic directional spatial arrangement was present among the neurons of the aged rats, implying that the topographical organization of the auditory directional map was abolished. These results suggest that the deterioration of the auditory directional spatial map can, to some extent, be attributable to age-related dysfunction at more central, perceptual stages of auditory processing. PMID:27306460

  6. A kinetic theory for age-structured stochastic birth-death processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Tom; Greenman, Chris

    Classical age-structured mass-action models such as the McKendrick-von Foerster equation have been extensively studied but they are structurally unable to describe stochastic fluctuations or population-size-dependent birth and death rates. Conversely, current theories that include size-dependent population dynamics (e.g., carrying capacity) cannot be easily extended to take into account age-dependent birth and death rates. In this paper, we present a systematic derivation of a new fully stochastic kinetic theory for interacting age-structured populations. By defining multiparticle probability density functions, we derive a hierarchy of kinetic equations for the stochastic evolution of an aging population undergoing birth and death. We show that the fully stochastic age-dependent birth-death process precludes factorization of the corresponding probability densities, which then must be solved by using a BBGKY-like hierarchy. Our results generalize both deterministic models and existing master equation approaches by providing an intuitive and efficient way to simultaneously model age- and population-dependent stochastic dynamics applicable to the study of demography, stem cell dynamics, and disease evolution. NSF.

  7. False memories and normal aging: Links between inhibitory capacities and monitoring processes.

    PubMed

    Colombel, Fabienne; Tessoulin, Marine; Gilet, Anne-Laure; Corson, Yves

    2016-05-01

    Empirical evidence suggests an increased production of false memories with advancing age. The activation-monitoring theory proposes that strategic monitoring processes influence the probability of false recall in the DRM paradigm. In the present study, we examined the hypothesis that a low level of inhibition may impair the efficient use of monitoring processes during information retrieval and thus increase the production of false memories in aging. Accordingly, we conducted a study in which older adults with low or high levels of inhibition performed a standard DRM task or an inclusion DRM task that disables monitoring processes. The results indicated that low inhibitory capacities were associated with fewer correct recalls and increased production of critical lures (false memories), suggesting difficulties in using monitoring processes at the time of retrieval. Our findings also showed that the relationship between Age and the production of critical lures in a standard DRM task is mediated by Inhibition. These results are interpreted as suggesting that inhibitory abilities may partly be linked to the impairment of monitoring processes in the elderly. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27111523

  8. The Effects of Age, Years of Experience, and Type of Experience in the Teacher Selection Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Place, A. William; Vail, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Paper screening in the pre-selection process of hiring teachers has been an established line of research starting with Young and Allison (1982). Administrators were asked to rate hypothetical candidates based on the information provided by the researcher. The dependent variable in several of these studies (e.g. Young & Fox, 2002; Young & Schmidt,…

  9. Neural changes associated with semantic processing in healthy aging despite intact behavioral performance.

    PubMed

    Lacombe, Jacinthe; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Grimault, Stephan; Pineault, Jessica; Joubert, Sven

    2015-10-01

    Semantic memory recruits an extensive neural network including the left inferior prefrontal cortex (IPC) and the left temporoparietal region, which are involved in semantic control processes, as well as the anterior temporal lobe region (ATL) which is considered to be involved in processing semantic information at a central level. However, little is known about the underlying neuronal integrity of the semantic network in normal aging. Young and older healthy adults carried out a semantic judgment task while their cortical activity was recorded using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Despite equivalent behavioral performance, young adults activated the left IPC to a greater extent than older adults, while the latter group recruited the temporoparietal region bilaterally and the left ATL to a greater extent than younger adults. Results indicate that significant neuronal changes occur in normal aging, mainly in regions underlying semantic control processes, despite an apparent stability in performance at the behavioral level. PMID:26282079

  10. Effects of sugar concentration processes in grapes and wine aging on aroma compounds of sweet wines—a review.

    PubMed

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Dessert sweet wines from Europe and North America are described in this review from two points of view: both their aroma profile and also their sensorial description. There are growing literature data about the chemical composition and sensory properties of these wines. Wines were grouped according to the production method (concentration of sugars in grapes) and to the aging process of wine (oxidative, biological, or a combination of both and aging in the bottle). It was found that wines natively sweets and wines fortified with liquors differ in their volatile compounds. Sensory properties of these wines include those of dried fruit (raisins), red berries, honey, chocolate and vanilla, which is contributing to their growing sales. However, there is still a need for scientific research on the understanding of the mechanisms for wine flavor enhancement. PMID:24915355

  11. The use of containerless processing in researching reactive materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, J. K. R.; Krishnan, Shankar; Nordine, Paul C.

    1991-01-01

    It has recently become possible to perform containerless, high-temperature liquid-phase processing of many nonvolatile materials without resort to orbital microgravity, thereby facilitating the conduct of materials research in conjunction with noncontact diagnostic instruments. The melt-levitation techniques are electromagnetic, aerodynamic, acoustic, aeroacoustic, and electrostatic; nonorbital microgravity conditions are obtainable aboard NASA's KC-135 aircraft on parabolic flight paths, as well as in drop tubes and towers. Applications encompass the purification of metals and the creation of nonequilibrium and metastable structures. Process control and property measurements include optical pyrometry and emissivity, laser polarimetry, and drop calorimetry.

  12. ISS and Shuttle Payload Research Development and Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoun, Kyle A.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's ISS and Spacecraft Processing Directorate (UB) is charged with the performance of payload development for research originating through NASA, ISS international partners, and the National Laboratory. The Payload Development sector of the Directorate takes biological research approved for on orbit experimentation from its infancy stage and finds a way to integrate and implement that research into a payload on either a Shuttle sortie or Space Station increment. From solicitation and selection, to definition, to verification, to integration and finally to operations and analysis, Payload Development is there every step of the way. My specific work as an intern this summer has consisted of investigating data received by separate flight and ground control Advanced Biological Research Systems (ABRS) units for Advanced Plant Experiments (APEX) and Cambium research. By correlation and analysis of this data and specific logbook information I have been working to explain changes in environmental conditions on both the flight and ground control unit. I have then, compiled all of that information into a form that can be presentable to the Principal Investigator (PI). This compilation allows that PI scientist to support their findings and add merit to their research. It also allows us, as the Payload Developers, to further inspect the ABRS unit and its performance

  13. Age, race, and implicit prejudice: using process dissociation to separate the underlying components.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Brandon D; von Hippel, William; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2009-02-01

    Older adults express greater prejudice than younger adults, but it is not clear why. In a community-based sample, we found that older White adults demonstrated more racial prejudice on an implicit measure, the race Implicit Association Test, than did younger adults. Process-dissociation procedures indicated that this difference in implicit prejudice was due to older adults having less control of their automatic prejudicial associations rather than stronger automatic prejudicial associations. Furthermore, this age difference in control was mediated by age-related deficits in inhibitory ability. White participants showed stronger automatic prejudicial associations than did Black participants. PMID:19175528

  14. In vitro thermal diffusivity measurements as aging process study in human tooth hard tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, A. P. N.; Dias, D. T.; Bedeschi, V. C.; Nakamura, O.; Oliveira, M. Q.

    2013-11-01

    In the present work, the Open Photoacoustic Cell Technique was used to find effective thermal diffusivity of human tooth hard tissues, a thermal variable of great interest in the biological science, and inorganic materials. The aging process of the tooth enamel and dentin was analyzed through its effective thermal diffusivity. The study in vitro of these samples showed an increase and posterior decrease with aging of the samples. The values found for the enamel and dentin samples, varied from (36-55)×10-4 cm2 s-1 and (20-32)×10-4 cm2 s-1, respectively.

  15. Research unit INTERNANO: Mobility, aging and functioning of engineered inorganic nanoparticles at the aquatic-terrestrial interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaumann, G. E.; Baumann, T.; Duester, L.; Klitzke, S.; Lang, F.; Manz, W.; Nießner, R.; Schulz, R.; Vogel, H.-J.

    2012-04-01

    Engineered inorganic nanoparticles (EINP) are expected to pass the wastewater-river-topsoil-groundwater pathway. Despite their increasing release, the processes governing the EINP aging and the changes in functionality in the environment are up to now largely unknown. The objective of the interdisciplinary research unit INTERNANO funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) is to identify the processes relevant for the fate of EINP and EINP-associated pollutants in the interfacial zone between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The research unit consists of six subprojects and combines knowledge from aquatic and terrestrial sciences as well as from microbiology, ecotoxicology, physicochemistry, soil chemistry and soil physics. For the identification of key processes we will consider compartment specific flow conditions, physicochemistry and biological activity. Situations representative for a floodplain system are simulated using micromodels (μm scale) as well as incubation, soil column and joint laboratory stream microcosm experiments. These results will be transferred to a joint aquatic-terrestrial model system on EINP aging, transport and functioning across the aquatic-terrestrial transition zone. EINP isolation and characterization will be carried out via a combination of chromatographic, light scattering and microscopic methods including dynamic light scattering, elemental analysis, hydrodynamic radius chromatography, field flow fractionation as well as atomic force microscopy, Raman microscopy, dynamic light scattering methods and electron microscopy. INTERNANO generates fundamental aquatic-terrestrial process knowledge, which will help to evaluate the environmental significance of the EINP at aquatic-terrestrial interfaces. Therefore, INTERNANO serves as a qualitative basis to predict the environmental impact of EINP contamination.

  16. A Vital Legacy: Biological and Environmental Research in the Atomic Age

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1997-09-01

    This booklet presents a summary of the five decades of biological and environmental research in the atomic age. It commemorates the contributions to science and society during these decades and concludes with a view to the years ahead. The Contents includes Safety First: in the Shadow of a New Technology; A Healthy Citizenry: Gifts of the New Era; and Environmental Concerns: From Meteorology to Ecology. The conclusion is titled An Enduring Mandate: Looking to the Future.

  17. A vital legacy: Biological and environmental research in the atomic age

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughan, D.

    1997-09-01

    This booklet presents a summary of the five decades of biological and environmental research in the atomic age. It commemorates the contributions to science and society during these decades and concludes with a view to the years ahead. The Contents includes `Safety First: in the Shadow of a New Technology; A Healthy Citizenry: Gifts of the New Era; and Environmental Concerns: From Meteorology to Ecology`. The conclusion is titled `An Enduring Mandate: Looking to the Future`.

  18. Coal liquefaction process research quarterly report, October-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Bickel, T.C.; Curlee, R.M.; Granoff, B.; Stohl, F.V.; Thomas, M.G.

    1980-03-01

    This quarterly report summarizes the activities of Sandia's continuing program in coal liquefaction process research. The overall objectives are to: (1) provide a fundamental understanding of the chemistry of coal liquefaction; (2) determine the role of catalysts in coal liquefaction; and (3) determine the mechanism(s) of catalyst deactivation. The program is composed of three major projects: short-contact-time coal liquefaction, mineral effects, and catalyst studies. These projects are interdependent and overlap significantly.

  19. Research of Woody Biomass Drying Process in Pellet Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selivanovs, Jevgenijs; Blumberga, Dagnija; Ziemele, Jelena; Blumberga, Andra; Barisa, Aiga

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents results of experimental research on wood chips and sawdust drying in a rotary dryer. Empirical models for the assessment of two dependent parameters of the drying process were created based on the results of experimental data. The mathematical description of the relationship between the independent variable - reduced sawdust moisture content - and dependent variable - specific fuel consumption - is represented by a linear equation.

  20. Trichotomous Processes in Early Memory Development, Aging, and Neurocognitive Impairment: A Unified Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.; Howe, M. L.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most extensively investigated topics in the adult memory literature, dual memory processes, has had virtually no impact on the study of early memory development. The authors remove the key obstacles to such research by formulating a trichotomous theory of recall that combines the traditional dual processes of recollection and…

  1. Definitions and Developmental Processes in Research on Infant Morality

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Audun

    2016-01-01

    Key terms in research on moral development also exist in everyday language. Tafreshi and her colleagues (2014) propose that researchers should use terms in ways consistent with their usage by non-researchers. This commentary questions this claim, and argues for the importance of providing clear and explicit definitions of terms such as “morality” and “innate,” of showing caution when attributing evaluations and judgments to infants, and of considering developmental processes preceding and succeeding the abilities demonstrated using looking-time and related measures. Progress is unlikely to result from conceptual analysis alone. However, conceptual clarity will make it easier to see what theories agree and disagree about as well as how opposing claims can be tested empirically.

  2. How are academic age, productivity and collaboration related to citing behavior of researchers?

    PubMed

    Milojević, Staša

    2012-01-01

    References are an essential component of research articles and therefore of scientific communication. In this study we investigate referencing (citing) behavior in five diverse fields (astronomy, mathematics, robotics, ecology and economics) based on 213,756 core journal articles. At the macro level we find: (a) a steady increase in the number of references per article over the period studied (50 years), which in some fields is due to a higher rate of usage, while in others reflects longer articles and (b) an increase in all fields in the fraction of older, foundational references since the 1980s, with no obvious change in citing patterns associated with the introduction of the Internet. At the meso level we explore current (2006-2010) referencing behavior of different categories of authors (21,562 total) within each field, based on their academic age, productivity and collaborative practices. Contrary to some previous findings and expectations we find that senior researchers use references at the same rate as their junior colleagues, with similar rates of re-citation (use of same references in multiple papers). High Modified Price Index (MPI, which measures the speed of the research front more accurately than the traditional Price Index) of senior authors indicates that their research has the similar cutting-edge aspect as that of their younger colleagues. In all fields both the productive researchers and especially those who collaborate more use a significantly lower fraction of foundational references and have much higher MPI and lower re-citation rates, i.e., they are the ones pushing the research front regardless of researcher age. This paper introduces improved bibliometric methods to measure the speed of the research front, disambiguate lead authors in co-authored papers and decouple measures of productivity and collaboration. PMID:23145111

  3. How Are Academic Age, Productivity and Collaboration Related to Citing Behavior of Researchers?

    PubMed Central

    Milojević, Staša

    2012-01-01

    References are an essential component of research articles and therefore of scientific communication. In this study we investigate referencing (citing) behavior in five diverse fields (astronomy, mathematics, robotics, ecology and economics) based on 213,756 core journal articles. At the macro level we find: (a) a steady increase in the number of references per article over the period studied (50 years), which in some fields is due to a higher rate of usage, while in others reflects longer articles and (b) an increase in all fields in the fraction of older, foundational references since the 1980s, with no obvious change in citing patterns associated with the introduction of the Internet. At the meso level we explore current (2006–2010) referencing behavior of different categories of authors (21,562 total) within each field, based on their academic age, productivity and collaborative practices. Contrary to some previous findings and expectations we find that senior researchers use references at the same rate as their junior colleagues, with similar rates of re-citation (use of same references in multiple papers). High Modified Price Index (MPI, which measures the speed of the research front more accurately than the traditional Price Index) of senior authors indicates that their research has the similar cutting-edge aspect as that of their younger colleagues. In all fields both the productive researchers and especially those who collaborate more use a significantly lower fraction of foundational references and have much higher MPI and lower re-citation rates, i.e., they are the ones pushing the research front regardless of researcher age. This paper introduces improved bibliometric methods to measure the speed of the research front, disambiguate lead authors in co-authored papers and decouple measures of productivity and collaboration. PMID:23145111

  4. Perspectives on Sensory Processing Disorder: A Call for Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Lucy J.; Nielsen, Darci M.; Schoen, Sarah A.; Brett-Green, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the convergence of two fields, which have similar theoretical origins: a clinical field originally known as sensory integration and a branch of neuroscience that conducts research in an area also called sensory integration. Clinically, the term was used to identify a pattern of dysfunction in children and adults, as well as a related theory, assessment, and treatment method for children who have atypical responses to ordinary sensory stimulation. Currently the term for the disorder is sensory processing disorder (SPD). In neuroscience, the term sensory integration refers to converging information in the brain from one or more sensory domains. A recent subspecialty in neuroscience labeled multisensory integration (MSI) refers to the neural process that occurs when sensory input from two or more different sensory modalities converge. Understanding the specific meanings of the term sensory integration intended by the clinical and neuroscience fields and the term MSI in neuroscience is critical. A translational research approach would improve exploration of crucial research questions in both the basic science and clinical science. Refinement of the conceptual model of the disorder and the related treatment approach would help prioritize which specific hypotheses should be studied in both the clinical and neuroscience fields. The issue is how we can facilitate a translational approach between researchers in the two fields. Multidisciplinary, collaborative studies would increase knowledge of brain function and could make a significant contribution to alleviating the impairments of individuals with SPD and their families. PMID:19826493

  5. Cable Polymer Aging and Condition Monitoring Research at Sandia National Laboratores Under the Nuclear Energy Plant Optimization (NEPO) Program

    SciTech Connect

    K. Gillen; R. Assink; R. Bernstein

    2005-12-23

    This report describes cable polymer aging and condition monitoring research performed at Sandia National Laboratories under the Nuclear Energy Plant Optimization (NEPO) Program from 2000 to 2005. The research results apply to low-voltage cable insulation and Program from 2000 to 2005. The research results apply to low-voltage cable insulation and jacket materials that are commonly used in U.S. nuclear power plants. The research builds upon and is liked to research performed at Sandia from 1977 through 1986, sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Aged and unaged specimens from that research remained available and were subjected to further testing under the NEPO research effort.The documented results from the earlier research were complemented by subjecting the specimens to new condition monitoring tests. Additional aging regimens were applied to additional specimens to develop aging models for key cable jacket and insulation materials

  6. Aqueous-phase oligomerization of methyl vinyl ketone through photooxidation - Part 1: Aging processes of oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, P.; Siekmann, F.; Salque, G.; Demelas, C.; Coulomb, B.; Vassalo, L.; Ravier, S.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Voisin, D.; Monod, A.

    2015-01-01

    It has recently been established that unsaturated water-soluble organic compounds (UWSOCs) might efficiently form oligomers in polluted fogs and wet aerosol particles, even for weakly soluble ones like methyl vinyl ketone (MVK). The atmospheric relevance of these processes is explored by means of multiphase process model studies in a companion paper. In the present study, we investigate the aging of these aqueous-phase MVK oligomers formed via •OH oxidation, as well as their ability to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) upon water evaporation. The comparison between aqueous-phase composition and aerosol composition after nebulization of the corresponding solutions shows similar trends for oligomer formation and aging. The measurements reveal that oligomer aging leads to the formation of organic diacids. Quantification of the SOA mass formed after nebulization is performed, and the obtained SOA mass yields seem to depend on the spectral irradiance of the light used to initiate the photochemistry. Investigating a large range of initial MVK concentrations (0.2-20 mM), the results show that their •OH oxidation undergoes competition between functionalization and oligomerization that is dependent on the precursor concentration. At high initial MVK concentrations (≥ 2 mM), oligomerization prevails over functionalization, while at lower initial concentrations, oligomerization is not the major process, and functionalization dominates, resulting in small carbonyls, dicarbonyls and monoacids. The atmospheric implications of these processes are discussed.

  7. A white dwarf cooling age of 8 Gyr for NGC 6791 from physical separation processes.

    PubMed

    García-Berro, Enrique; Torres, Santiago; Althaus, Leandro G; Renedo, Isabel; Lorén-Aguilar, Pablo; Córsico, Alejandro H; Rohrmann, René D; Salaris, Maurizio; Isern, Jordi

    2010-05-13

    NGC 6791 is a well studied open cluster that it is so close to us that can be imaged down to very faint luminosities. The main-sequence turn-off age ( approximately 8 Gyr) and the age derived from the termination of the white dwarf cooling sequence ( approximately 6 Gyr) are very different. One possible explanation is that as white dwarfs cool, one of the ashes of helium burning, (22)Ne, sinks in the deep interior of these stars. At lower temperatures, white dwarfs are expected to crystallize and phase separation of the main constituents of the core of a typical white dwarf ((12)C and (16)O) is expected to occur. This sequence of events is expected to introduce long delays in the cooling times, but has not hitherto been proven. Here we report that, as theoretically anticipated, physical separation processes occur in the cores of white dwarfs, resolving the age discrepancy for NGC 6791. PMID:20463732

  8. Classification of normal and pathological aging processes based on brain MRI morphology measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Gonzalez, J. L.; Yanez-Suarez, O.; Medina-Bañuelos, V.

    2014-03-01

    Reported studies describing normal and abnormal aging based on anatomical MRI analysis do not consider morphological brain changes, but only volumetric measures to distinguish among these processes. This work presents a classification scheme, based both on size and shape features extracted from brain volumes, to determine different aging stages: healthy control (HC) adults, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Three support vector machines were optimized and validated for the pair-wise separation of these three classes, using selected features from a set of 3D discrete compactness measures and normalized volumes of several global and local anatomical structures. Our analysis show classification rates of up to 98.3% between HC and AD; of 85% between HC and MCI and of 93.3% for MCI and AD separation. These results outperform those reported in the literature and demonstrate the viability of the proposed morphological indexes to classify different aging stages.

  9. The MARK-AGE extended database: data integration and pre-processing.

    PubMed

    Baur, J; Kötter, T; Moreno-Villanueva, M; Sindlinger, T; Berthold, M R; Bürkle, A; Junk, M

    2015-11-01

    MARK-AGE is a recently completed European population study, where bioanalytical and anthropometric data were collected from human subjects at a large scale. To facilitate data analysis and mathematical modelling, an extended database had to be constructed, integrating the data sources that were part of the project. This step involved checking, transformation and documentation of data. The success of downstream analysis mainly depends on the preparation and quality of the integrated data. Here, we present the pre-processing steps applied to the MARK-AGE data to ensure high quality and reliability in the MARK-AGE Extended Database. Various kinds of obstacles that arose during the project are highlighted and solutions are presented. PMID:26004672

  10. Nonconscious processing and a novel target for schizophrenia research

    PubMed Central

    Badgaiyan, Rajendra D.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the pattern of altered cognition observed in schizophrenia provides better insight into neurocognitive deficits. It reveals a potential novel target for schizophrenia research. To understand this target we reviewed the findings of neuroimaging studies on implicit [nonconscious] memory. These studies have consistently reported attenuated activity in the area V3A of the extrastriate cortex during retrieval of studied items. It was suggested that the attenuation limits the pool of information available for further cognitive processing. Therefore, if V3A is functionally damaged, individuals will have access to a larger pool of information for cognitive processing. Since cognitive tasks that are not dependent on attention [attention independent] process a larger pool of information more efficiently, performance in these tasks is likely to improve after V3A is damaged. Conversely, tasks that are dependent on attentional resources are more efficient in processing smaller pool of information. Performance in these tasks therefore is expected to deteriorate if a large pool of information is made available following V3A damage. A review of cognitive performance in schizophrenia suggests that patients perform at above normal level in attention independent priming tasks and perform at subnormal level in attention dependent episodic and working memory tasks. These findings indicate possible impairment of V3A activity. It could therefore be a potentially important unstudied target for schizophrenia research, particularly because a number of investigators have reported that the activity in this area is altered in schizophrenia. PMID:24404419

  11. Gordon Research Conference on Holography and Optical Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walkup, John F.

    1991-09-01

    The 1991 Gordon Research Conference on Holography and Optical Information Processing was held on 17-21 June, 1991 at Plymouth State College in Plymouth, NH. The talks on Ultrafast Optical Logic Using Solitons and Optical Processing with Planar Optics pointed out the significant progress being made by various Bell Labs investigators on various aspects of optical computing. Professor Sing Lee from the University of California-San Diego gave an excellent overview of some engineering and performance Issues in optoelectronic computing. It is clear that the Soviets have made considerable progress on multi transducer acousto-optic spectrum analyzers. It is also clear that the Japanese government is planning to continue to make optical computing one of its high priority areas, with its NIPT (New Information Processing Technology project), and are projected to continue to investigate so called sixth generation computer technologies.

  12. Research on pre-processing of QR Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Haixing; Xia, Haojie; Dong, Ning

    2013-10-01

    QR code encodes many kinds of information because of its advantages: large storage capacity, high reliability, full arrange of utter-high-speed reading, small printing size and high-efficient representation of Chinese characters, etc. In order to obtain the clearer binarization image from complex background, and improve the recognition rate of QR code, this paper researches on pre-processing methods of QR code (Quick Response Code), and shows algorithms and results of image pre-processing for QR code recognition. Improve the conventional method by changing the Souvola's adaptive text recognition method. Additionally, introduce the QR code Extraction which adapts to different image size, flexible image correction approach, and improve the efficiency and accuracy of QR code image processing.

  13. Influence of the Ageing Process on the Resistive and Reactive Properties of the Respiratory System

    PubMed Central

    e Tramont, Caio Vinicius Villalón; Faria, Alvaro Camilo Dias; Lopes, Agnaldo José; Jansen, José Manoel; de Melo, Pedro Lopes

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In an increasingly old society, the study of the respiratory system changes and new techniques dedicated to older patients are of interest in physiologic studies as well as in the diagnosis of respiratory diseases. OBJECTIVES (1) To investigate the impact of ageing on the resistive and reactive properties of the respiratory system, and (2) to compare the easiness of accomplishment of spirometry and forced oscillation for assessing lung function. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study in which forced oscillation was used to investigate respiratory system resistive and reactive properties, while spirometry was used as a reference test to evaluate 80 normal subjects aged between 20 and 86 years. A questionnaire was used to evaluate the easiness of accomplishment of spirometry and forced oscillation. RESULTS There was a significant increase in the respiratory system resonance frequency (p<0.003) and a reduction in the mean reactance (p<0.004) with increasing age. Respiratory system resistance and dynamic compliance were not related to the ageing process. The easiness of accomplishment of forced oscillation measurements was greater than that of spirometry. This result was particularly relevant in subjects over 70 years old (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Respiratory system resistance and dynamic compliance are not modified with ageing. On the other hand, respiratory system homogeneity decreases during the ageing process. Forced oscillation is easy to perform and provides information complementary to spirometry. This technique may be a promising alternative and/or complement to other conventional exams used to evaluate older people who are unable to adequately perform spirometric tests. PMID:19936180

  14. Research on Signal Processing Algorithms in GPS Receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Fan; Yin, Yan; Zhang, Xiu-Zhong

    2007-03-01

    The modern standard satellite navigation receivers are commonly based on ASICs for signal processing and fast microprocessors for application calculations. The software satellite navigation receiver is also developed in recent years. The research on software receivers becomes one trend of satellite navigation receiver. For algorithms on signal processing play an important role in satellite navigation receivers, the paper illuminates the signal processing algorithms in detail. The GPS receiver is widely used at present. So the paper places emphasis on signal processing algorithms about GPS receiver. Signal processing algorithms include three aspects: the algorithm on signal acquisition, the algorithm on carrier tracking and the algorithm on PRN (pseudo random noise) code tracking. In the part of signal acquisition, the method of using FFT to get the result of circular correlation is introduced. The paper carefully researches the method and discusses the derivation process of the method. In the part of carrier tracking, the paper describes the principle of frequency locked loop (FLL) and phase locked loop (PLL) and analyzes the principle of loop filter. The method of transition from s-domain to z-domain is introduced. The computation of noise bandwidth of the loop filter are expatiated and the structures of one-step digital loop filter, two-step digital loop filter and three step are given. Other parameters of loop filters are also given. In the part of code tracking, delay-early locked loop (DLL) is introduced. Theoretical analysis and experiment results demonstrate the algorithms in the paper. Through the simulation testing, the performance of combination of PLL and FLL can be acknowledged.

  15. The neuroimaging research process from the participants' perspective.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Richard; Peel, Elizabeth; Shaw, Rachel L; Senior, Carl

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate participants' experiences of taking part in research conducted using fMRI or MEG procedures. Forty-four participants completed a questionnaire after taking part in either fMRI or MEG experiments; the questionnaire asked about experiences of and attitudes toward fMRI/MEG. Ten follow-up interviews were conducted to enable an in-depth analysis of these attitudes and experiences. The findings were generally positive: all participants thought fMRI and MEG were safe procedures, 93% would recommend participating in neuroimaging research to their friends and family, and participants were positive about participating in future neuroimaging research. However, some negative issues were identified. Some participants reported feeling nervous prior to scanning procedures, several participants reported side-effects after taking part, a number of participants were upset at being in a confined space and some participants did not feel confident about exiting the scanner in an emergency. Several recommendations for researchers are made, including a virtual tour of the scanning equipment during the consenting process in order to better prepare potential participants for the scanning experience and to minimize the potential psychological discomfort sometimes experienced in neuroimaging research. PMID:16806548

  16. Age-Related Changes in Processing Simultaneous Amplitude Modulated Sounds Assessed Using Envelope Following Responses.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathy, Aravindakshan; Lai, Jesyin; Bartlett, Edward L

    2016-04-01

    Listening conditions in the real world involve segregating the stimuli of interest from competing auditory stimuli that differ in their sound level and spectral content. It is in these conditions of complex spectro-temporal processing that listeners with age-related hearing loss experience the most difficulties. Envelope following responses (EFRs) provide objective neurophysiological measures of auditory processing. EFRs were obtained to two simultaneous sinusoidally amplitude modulated (sAM) tones from young and aged Fischer-344 rats. One was held at a fixed suprathreshold sound level (sAM1FL) while the second varied in sound level (sAM2VL) and carrier frequency. EFR amplitudes to sAM1FL in the young decreased with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and this reduction was more pronounced when the sAM2VL carrier frequency was spectrally separated from sAM1FL. Aged animals showed similar trends, while having decreased overall response amplitudes compared to the young. These results were replicated using an established computational model of the auditory nerve. The trends observed in the EFRs were shown to be due to the contributions of the low-frequency tails of high-frequency neurons, rather than neurons tuned to the sAM1FL carrier frequency. Modeling changes in threshold and neural loss reproduced some of the changes seen with age, but accuracy improved when combined with an additional decrease representing synaptic loss of auditory nerve neurons. Sound segregation in this case derives primarily from peripheral processing, regardless of age. Contributions by more central neural mechanisms are likely to occur only at low SNRs. PMID:26905273

  17. Age-related changes in processing faces from detection to identification: ERP evidence

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Sharon; Bentin, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    We examined the ability of people 70 to 90 years old to apply global, configural and featural face-processing strategies. In addition we investigated age-related changes in the ability to categorize faces at basic, subordinate and individual levels. Using the N170 potential as index of early face processing and the P300 component as index of categorical decision making and effort, we found significant age-related perceptual changes which slowed and somewhat impaired face processing. Specifically, older participants had problems integrating face features into global structures, demonstrating enhanced dependence on distal global information. They did not apply configural computations by default while processing faces which suggests that, unless identification is required, they process faces only at a basic level. These perceptual changes could be the cause for slower and less accurate subordinate categorization, particularly when it is based on details. At the neural levels face processing was not right-lateralized, reflecting excessive involvement of the left hemisphere in perception leading to a more general reduction of inter-hemispheric asymmetry. In addition we found excessive but nonselective activation of frontal regions adding support to the view that executive control and particularly inhibition of irrelevant input are reduced in the elderly. PMID:20961658

  18. The Psychology of Aging: Canadian Research in an International Context. [and] Commentary: A Historical Perspective on the US-Canada Connection in the Psychology of Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Roger A.; Cohen, Anna-Lisa

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes a broad and inclusive model of the psychology of aging and highlights ways in which Canadian research and training reflects and advances scholarly agendas. Commentary by Neil Charness highlights differences in U.S. and Canadian perspectives and the cross-fertilization between the two research communities. Contains 131 references. (JOW)

  19. Ursolic acid regulates aging process through enhancing of metabolic sensor proteins level.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Soroush Alaghehband; Bakhtiari, Nuredin

    2016-08-01

    We previously reported that Ursolic Acid (UA) ameliorates skeletal muscle performance through satellite cells proliferation and cellular energy status. In studying the potential role of the hypothalamus in aging, we developed a strategy to pursue UA effects on the hypothalamus anti-aging proteins such as; SIRT1, SIRT6, PGC-1β and α-Klotho. In this study, we used a model of aging animals (C57BL/6). UA dissolved in Corn oil (20mg/ml) and then administrated (200mg/Kg i.p injection) to mice, twice daily for 7days. After treatment times, the mice perfused and the hypothalamus isolated for preparing of tissue to Immunofluorescence microscopy. The data illustrated that UA significantly increased SIRT1 (∼3.5±0.3 folds) and SIRT-6 (∼1.5±0.2 folds) proteins overexpression (P<0.001). In addition, our results showed that UA enhanced α-Klotho (∼3.3±0.3) and PGC-1β (∼2.6±0.2 folds) proteins levels (P<0. 01). In this study, data were analyzed using SPSS 16 (ANOVA test). To the best of our knowledge, it seems that UA through enhancing of anti-aging biomarkers (SIRT1 and SIRT6) and PGC-1β in hypothalamus regulates aging-process and attenuates mitochondrial-related diseases. In regard to the key role of α-Klotho in aging, our data indicate that UA may be on the horizon to forestall diseases of aging. PMID:27470332

  20. Orbitofrontal Cortex and the Early Processing of Visual Novelty in Healthy Aging.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, David A S; Keith, Cierra M; Perlstein, William M

    2016-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) studies have previously found that scalp topographies of attention-related ERP components show frontal shifts with age, suggesting an increased need for compensatory frontal activity to assist with top-down facilitation of attention. However, the precise neural time course of top-down attentional control in aging is not clear. In this study, 20 young (mean: 22 years) and 14 older (mean: 64 years) adults completed a three-stimulus visual oddball task while high-density ERPs were acquired. Colorful, novel distracters were presented to engage early visual processing. Relative to young controls, older participants exhibited elevations in occipital early posterior positivity (EPP), approximately 100 ms after viewing colorful distracters. Neural source models for older adults implicated unique patterns of orbitofrontal cortex (OFC; BA 11) activity during early visual novelty processing (100 ms), which was positively correlated with subsequent activations in primary visual cortex (BA 17). Older adult EPP amplitudes and OFC activity were associated with performance on tests of complex attention and executive function. These findings are suggestive of age-related, compensatory neural changes that may driven by a combination of weaker cortical efficiency and increased need for top-down control over attention. Accordingly, enhanced early OFC activity during visual attention may serve as an important indicator of frontal lobe integrity in healthy aging. PMID:27199744

  1. Orbitofrontal Cortex and the Early Processing of Visual Novelty in Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, David A. S.; Keith, Cierra M.; Perlstein, William M.

    2016-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) studies have previously found that scalp topographies of attention-related ERP components show frontal shifts with age, suggesting an increased need for compensatory frontal activity to assist with top-down facilitation of attention. However, the precise neural time course of top-down attentional control in aging is not clear. In this study, 20 young (mean: 22 years) and 14 older (mean: 64 years) adults completed a three-stimulus visual oddball task while high-density ERPs were acquired. Colorful, novel distracters were presented to engage early visual processing. Relative to young controls, older participants exhibited elevations in occipital early posterior positivity (EPP), approximately 100 ms after viewing colorful distracters. Neural source models for older adults implicated unique patterns of orbitofrontal cortex (OFC; BA 11) activity during early visual novelty processing (100 ms), which was positively correlated with subsequent activations in primary visual cortex (BA 17). Older adult EPP amplitudes and OFC activity were associated with performance on tests of complex attention and executive function. These findings are suggestive of age-related, compensatory neural changes that may driven by a combination of weaker cortical efficiency and increased need for top-down control over attention. Accordingly, enhanced early OFC activity during visual attention may serve as an important indicator of frontal lobe integrity in healthy aging. PMID:27199744

  2. Coercive Family Process and Early-Onset Conduct Problems From Age 2 to School Entry

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Justin D.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Wilson, Melvin N.; Winter, Charlotte C.; Patterson, Gerald R.

    2013-01-01

    The emergence and persistence of conduct problems during early childhood is a robust predictor of behavior problems in school and future maladaptation. In this study we examined the reciprocal influences between observed coercive interactions between children and caregivers, oppositional and aggressive behavior, and growth in parent report of early childhood (ages 2–5) and school-age conduct problems (age 7.5 and 8.5). Participants were drawn from the Early Steps multisite randomized prevention trial that includes an ethnically diverse sample of male and female children and their families (N = 731). A parallel process growth model combining latent trajectory and cross-lagged approaches revealed the amplifying effect of observed coercive caregiver–child interactions on children's noncompliance, whereas child oppositional and aggressive behaviors did not consistently predict increased coercion. The slope and initial levels of child oppositional and aggressive behaviors and the stability of caregiver–child coercion were predictive of teacher-reported oppositional behavior at school age. Families assigned to the Family Check-Up condition had significantly steeper declines in child oppositional and aggressive behavior and moderate reductions in oppositional behavior in school and in coercion at age 3. Results were not moderated by child gender, race/ethnicity, or assignment to the intervention condition. The implications of these findings are discussed with respect to understanding the early development of conduct problems and to designing optimal strategies for reducing problem behavior in early childhood with families most in need. PMID:24690305

  3. Non-refractory Submicron Aerosol Aging Processes in the Rural Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakurt Cevik, B.; Leong, Y. J.; Hernandez, C.; Griffin, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) took place over a six-week period and included ground and elevated measurements that aimed to improve the understanding of biosphere-atmosphere interactions and their impacts on air quality and climate. As part of SOAS, an Aerodyne High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed at the rural ground site in Centreville, AL, from 1 June to 15 July 2013. The HR-ToF-AMS provided quantitative measurement of non-refractory submicron aerosol composition and size distribution with high temporal resolution. Time series of mass concentrations of organic material, sulfate, ammonium, and nitrate (in order of average relative importance) and the changes in the concentrations of each component with respect to a photochemical airmass age metric (based on oxidation of nitrogen oxides) are reported. The relative importance of secondary ammonium and sulfate increases with values of the airmass age metric. While the contributions of organic and nitrate aerosol to total particle concentration decrease with increasing airmass age, organic aerosol concentration normalized by carbon monoxide (CO) constantly increases with age. However, the nitrate concentration normalized by CO appears relatively independent of the age metric. For a better understanding of organic aerosol processing, atomic ratio (oxygen/carbon and hydrogen/carbon) and carbon oxidation state (OSc) analyses of bulk organic aerosol are investigated.

  4. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Progress made in five research programs is described. The subtasks in oil shale study include oil shale process studies and unconventional applications and markets for western oil shale.The tar sand study is on recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE) process. Four tasks are described in coal research: underground coal gasification; coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and sold waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research covers: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; NMR analysis of sample from the ocean drilling program; and menu driven access to the WDEQ hydrologic data management system.

  5. Barriers to participation in mental health research: are there specific gender, ethnicity and age related barriers?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is well established that the incidence, prevalence and presentation of mental disorders differ by gender, ethnicity and age, and there is evidence that there is also differential representation in mental health research by these characteristics. The aim of this paper is to a) review the current literature on the nature of barriers to participation in mental health research, with particular reference to gender, age and ethnicity; b) review the evidence on the effectiveness of strategies used to overcome these barriers. Method Studies published up to December 2008 were identified using MEDLINE, PsycINFO and EMBASE using relevant mesh headings and keywords. Results Forty-nine papers were identified. There was evidence of a wide range of barriers including transportation difficulties, distrust and suspicion of researchers, and the stigma attached to mental illness. Strategies to overcome these barriers included the use of bilingual staff, assistance with travel, avoiding the use of stigmatising language in marketing material and a focus on education about the disorder under investigation. There were very few evaluations of such strategies, but there was evidence that ethnically matching recruiters to potential participants did not improve recruitment rates. Educational strategies were helpful and increased recruitment. Conclusion Mental health researchers should consider including caregivers in recruitment procedures where possible, provide clear descriptions of study aims and describe the representativeness of their sample when reporting study results. Studies that systematically investigate strategies to overcome barriers to recruitment are needed. PMID:21126334

  6. Overview of U.S. EPA Aging Water Infrastructure Research Program - Interfacing with the Water Industry on Technology Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    This slide presentation summarizes key elements of the EPA Office of Research and Development’s (ORD) Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) Research program. An overview of the national problems posed by aging water infrastructure is followed by a brief description of EPA’s overall r...

  7. Curcumin in Cell Death Processes: A Challenge for CAM of Age-Related Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Salvioli, S.; Sikora, E.; Cooper, E. L.

    2007-01-01

    Curcumin, the yellow pigment from the rhizoma of Curcuma longa, is a widely studied phytochemical which has a variety of biological activities: anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative. In this review we discuss the biological mechanisms and possible clinical effects of curcumin treatment on cancer therapy, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's Disease, with particular attention to the cell death processes induced by curcumin. Since oxidative stress and inflammation are major determinants of the aging process, we also argue that curcumin can have a more general effect that slows down the rate of aging. Finally, the effects of curcumin can be described as xenohormetic, since it activates a sort of stress response in mammalian cells. PMID:17549234

  8. A review of the literature on the aging adult skull and face: implications for forensic science research and applications.

    PubMed

    Albert, A Midori; Ricanek, Karl; Patterson, Eric

    2007-10-01

    This paper is a summary of findings of adult age-related craniofacial morphological changes. Our aims are two-fold: (1) through a review of the literature we address the factors influencing craniofacial aging, and (2) the general ways in which a head and face age in adulthood. We present findings on environmental and innate influences on face aging, facial soft tissue age changes, and bony changes in the craniofacial and dentoalveolar skeleton. We then briefly address the relevance of this information to forensic science research and applications, such as the development of computer facial age-progression and face recognition technologies, and contributions to forensic sketch artistry. PMID:17434276

  9. Effects of alloying on aging and hardening processes of steel with 20% nickel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogachev, I. N.; Zvigintsev, N. V.; Maslakova, T. M.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of hardness, thermal emf, and electrical resistance were used to study the effects of Co, Mo, Ti and Al contents on aging and hardening processes in Fe 20%Ni steel. It is shown that the effects of these alloying elements differ substantially. Anomalies which arise in the temperature dependence of physical properties due to the presence of cobalt and molybdenum are reduced by the inclusion of titanium and aluminum (and vice versa).

  10. Residual abilities in age-related macular degeneration to process spatial frequencies during natural scene categorization.

    PubMed

    Musel, Benoit; Hera, Ruxandra; Chokron, Sylvie; Alleysson, David; Chiquet, Christophe; Romanet, Jean-Paul; Guyader, Nathalie; Peyrin, Carole

    2011-11-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is characterized by a central vision loss. We explored the relationship between the retinal lesions in AMD patients and the processing of spatial frequencies in natural scene categorization. Since the lesion on the retina is central, we expected preservation of low spatial frequency (LSF) processing and the impairment of high spatial frequency (HSF) processing. We conducted two experiments that differed in the set of scene stimuli used and their exposure duration. Twelve AMD patients and 12 healthy age-matched participants in Experiment 1 and 10 different AMD patients and 10 healthy age-matched participants in Experiment 2 performed categorization tasks of natural scenes (Indoors vs. Outdoors) filtered in LSF and HSF. Experiment 1 revealed that AMD patients made more no-responses to categorize HSF than LSF scenes, irrespective of the scene category. In addition, AMD patients had longer reaction times to categorize HSF than LSF scenes only for indoors. Healthy participants' performance was not differentially affected by spatial frequency content of the scenes. In Experiment 2, AMD patients demonstrated the same pattern of errors as in Experiment 1. Furthermore, AMD patients had longer reaction times to categorize HSF than LSF scenes, irrespective of the scene category. Again, spatial frequency processing was equivalent for healthy participants. The present findings point to a specific deficit in the processing of HSF information contained in photographs of natural scenes in AMD patients. The processing of LSF information is relatively preserved. Moreover, the fact that the deficit is more important when categorizing HSF indoors, may lead to new perspectives for rehabilitation procedures in AMD. PMID:22192508

  11. Advanced computational research in materials processing for design and manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharia, T.

    1995-04-01

    Advanced mathematical techniques and computer simulation play a major role in providing enhanced understanding of conventional and advanced materials processing operations. Development and application of mathematical models and computer simulation techniques can provide a quantitative understanding of materials processes and will minimize the need for expensive and time consuming trial- and error-based product development. As computer simulations and materials databases grow in complexity, high performance computing and simulation are expected to play a key role in supporting the improvements required in advanced material syntheses and processing by lessening the dependence on expensive prototyping and re-tooling. Many of these numerical models are highly compute-intensive. It is not unusual for an analysis to require several hours of computational time on current supercomputers despite the simplicity of the models being studied. For example, to accurately simulate the heat transfer in a 1-m{sup 3} block using a simple computational method requires 10`2 arithmetic operations per second of simulated time. For a computer to do the simulation in real time would require a sustained computation rate 1000 times faster than that achievable by current supercomputers. Massively parallel computer systems, which combine several thousand processors able to operate concurrently on a problem are expected to provide orders of magnitude increase in performance. This paper briefly describes advanced computational research in materials processing at ORNL. Continued development of computational techniques and algorithms utilizing the massively parallel computers will allow the simulation of conventional and advanced materials processes in sufficient generality.

  12. Evaluation Criteria for Solid Waste Processing Research and Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie A.; Hogan, J. A.; Alazraki, M. P.

    2001-01-01

    A preliminary list of criteria is proposed for evaluation of solid waste processing technologies for research and technology development (R&TD) in the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. Completion of the proposed list by current and prospective ALS technology developers, with regard to specific missions of interest, may enable identification of appropriate technologies (or lack thereof) and guide future development efforts for the ALS Program solid waste processing area. An attempt is made to include criteria that capture information about the technology of interest as well as its system-wide impacts. Some of the criteria in the list are mission-independent, while the majority are mission-specific. In order for technology developers to respond to mission-specific criteria, critical information must be available on the quantity, composition and state of the waste stream, the wast processing requirements, as well as top-level mission scenario information (e.g. safety, resource recovery, planetary protection issues, and ESM equivalencies). The technology readiness level (TRL) determines the degree to which a technology developer is able to accurately report on the list of criteria. Thus, a criteria-specific minimum TRL for mandatory reporting has been identified for each criterion in the list. Although this list has been developed to define criteria that are needed to direct funding of solid waste processing technologies, this list processes significant overlap in criteria required for technology selection for inclusion in specific tests or missions. Additionally, this approach to technology evaluation may be adapted to other ALS subsystems.

  13. Environments for Healthy Aging: Linking Prevention Research and Public Health Practice

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Lynda A.; Belza, Basia; Bodiford, Kristin; Hooker, Steven P.; Kochtitzky, Chris S.; Marquez, David X.; Satariano, William A.

    2013-01-01

    Safe and well-designed community environments support healthful behaviors that help prevent chronic conditions and unintentional injuries and enable older adults to be active and engaged in community life for as long as possible. We describe the work of the Healthy Aging Research Network (HAN) and partners over the past decade to better understand place-based determinants of health and translate that knowledge to real-world practice, with a focus on environmental strategies. Using key components of the Knowledge to Action framework, we document the importance of a sustained, multidisciplinary, collaborative approach and ongoing interaction between researchers and communities. We share examples of practical tools and strategies designed to engage and support critical sectors with the potential to enhance the health and well-being of older adults and their communities. We conclude with a description of lessons learned in facilitating the translation of prevention research into practice. PMID:23597393

  14. Age-related face processing bias in infancy: evidence of perceptual narrowing for adult faces.

    PubMed

    Macchi Cassia, Viola; Bulf, Hermann; Quadrelli, Ermanno; Proietti, Valentina

    2014-02-01

    Recent data demonstrate a perceptual processing advantage for adult faces in both adults and young children, suggesting that face representation is shaped by visual experience accumulated with different face-age groups. As for species and race, this age bias may emerge during the first year of life as part of the general process of perceptual narrowing, given the extensive amount of social and perceptual experience accumulated with caregivers and/or other adult individuals. Using infant-controlled habituation and visual-paired comparison at test, two experiments were carried out to examine 3- and 9-month-olds' ability to discriminate within adult and infant faces. Results showed that, when they are provided with adequate time to visually compare the stimuli during test trials (Experiment 2), 3-month-olds exhibit above-chance discrimination of adult and infant faces. Instead, 9-month-olds discriminate adult faces but not infant faces (Experiments 1 and 2). Results provide the first evidence of age-related face processing biases in infancy, and show that by 9 months face representations tune to adult human faces. PMID:24374735

  15. Research targets lower gas-processing operating costs

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, H.S.; Leppin, D.

    1997-12-29

    Increasing natural-gas demand and declining gas quality at the wellhead require the gas-processing industry to look to new technologies to stay competitive. The Gas Research Institute (GRI), Chicago, is managing a research, development, design, and deployment program that could save industry $230 million/year in operating and capital costs from NGL extraction and recovery, dehydration, acid-gas removal/sulfur recovery, and nitrogen rejection. Three technologies are addressed here. (1) Multivariable control (MVC) technology for predictive process control and optimization is installed or in design at 14 facilities, treating a combined total of more than 30 billion normal cu m/year (bcmy; 1.1 trillion standard cu ft/year, tcfy). Simple paybacks are typically less than 6 months. (2) A new acid-gas-removal process based on N-formyl morpholine (NFM) is being field tested that offers 40--50% savings in operating costs and 15--30% savings in capital costs relative to a commercially available physical solvent. (3) The GRI-MemCalc computer program for membrane separations and the GRI-Scavenger CalcBase computer program for scavenging technologies are screening tools that engineers can use to determine the best practice for treating their gas.

  16. [Autonomy despite multimorbidity in old age--the Berlin-based AMA research consortium].

    PubMed

    Schüz, B; Dräger, D; Richter, S; Kummer, K; Kuhlmey, A; Tesch-Römer, C

    2011-12-01

    The proportion of the population with multiple illnesses increases with age and growing numbers of people are now living to a very old age. Despite medical progress and improved living conditions, many old people have to deal with physical, psychological, and social impairments. It is a crucial challenge for health and social policy to support the elderly with health-related impairments in their desire to lead as independent a life as possible. Against this background the research consortium Autonomy Despite Multimorbidity in Old Age (AMA I) examined the extent to which the self-determined life style of multimorbid old and very old persons can be supported and maintained. In order to reflect the diversity of life worlds of the elderly, the study sample included participants who were not notably impaired in their everyday functioning, participants in need of nursing care and participants with cognitive impairments. Moreover, the sample comprised both older persons who were still living in their own homes and nursing home residents. The studies conducted within the AMA framework focused on the resources available to old persons living in different situations and on how these resources can be strengthened. This article presents findings from the first phase of funding of the AMA research consortium. In a second phase of funding (2011-2013, AMA II), sustainable practice-based interventions are being developed to mobilize resources which can help multimorbid older persons to maintain their autonomy and the practical viability of these interventions will be tested. PMID:22270971

  17. Microstructure evolution in age-hardenable aluminium alloy during processing by hydrostatic extrusion.

    PubMed

    Lewandowska, M

    2006-10-01

    In the present work, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate the microstructural evolution occurring during the hydrostatic extrusion of an age-hardenable aluminium alloy. It was shown that processing by hydrostatic extrusion leads to grain refinement to 95 nm in equivalent diameter. Hydrostatic extrusion also influences the geometrical parameters of two different types of particle: intermetallic inclusions and precipitates. The intermetallic inclusions slightly decrease in mean equivalent diameter, but their size remains at the micrometre level. The precipitates are fragmented to nanoscale spherical particles, and their evolution delays the process of grain refinement. PMID:17100901

  18. Access to Archived Astronaut Data for Human Research Program Researchers: Update on Progress and Process Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, L. R.; Montague, K. A.; Charvat, J. M.; Wear, M. L.; Thomas, D. M.; Van Baalen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Since the 2010 NASA directive to make the Life Sciences Data Archive (LSDA) and Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) data archives more accessible by the research and operational communities, demand for astronaut medical data has increased greatly. LSAH and LSDA personnel are working with Human Research Program on many fronts to improve data access and decrease lead time for release of data. Some examples include the following: Feasibility reviews for NASA Research Announcement (NRA) data mining proposals; Improved communication, support for researchers, and process improvements for retrospective Institutional Review Board (IRB) protocols; Supplemental data sharing for flight investigators versus purely retrospective studies; Work with the Multilateral Human Research Panel for Exploration (MHRPE) to develop acceptable data sharing and crew consent processes and to organize inter-agency data coordinators to facilitate requests for international crewmember data. Current metrics on data requests crew consenting will be presented, along with limitations on contacting crew to obtain consent. Categories of medical monitoring data available for request will be presented as well as flow diagrams detailing data request processing and approval steps.

  19. Age-related differences in event-related potentials for early visual processing of emotional faces.

    PubMed

    Hilimire, Matthew R; Mienaltowski, Andrew; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Corballis, Paul M

    2014-07-01

    With advancing age, processing resources are shifted away from negative emotional stimuli and toward positive ones. Here, we explored this 'positivity effect' using event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants identified the presence or absence of a visual probe that appeared over photographs of emotional faces. The ERPs elicited by the onsets of angry, sad, happy and neutral faces were recorded. We examined the frontocentral emotional positivity (FcEP), which is defined as a positive deflection in the waveforms elicited by emotional expressions relative to neutral faces early on in the time course of the ERP. The FcEP is thought to reflect enhanced early processing of emotional expressions. The results show that within the first 130 ms young adults show an FcEP to negative emotional expressions, whereas older adults show an FcEP to positive emotional expressions. These findings provide additional evidence that the age-related positivity effect in emotion processing can be traced to automatic processes that are evident very early in the processing of emotional facial expressions. PMID:23677489

  20. The effect of ageing on recollection: the role of the binding updating process.

    PubMed

    Boujut, Arnaud; Clarys, David

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to highlight the underlying process responsible for the age-related deficit in recollection. Through two experiments using the Remember-Know-Guess procedure (Gardiner, J. M., & Richardson-Klavehn, A. [2000]. Remembering and knowing. In The Oxford handbook of memory (pp. 229-244). New York, NY: Oxford University Press) in recognition, we manipulated the opportunity to update bindings between target items and their encoding context, in young and older adults. In the first experiment we impaired the binding updating process during the encoding of items, while in the second we supported this process. The results indicated that the "Remember" responses in the younger group were specifically reduced by the impairment of the binding updating process (Exp. 1), suggesting that this ability is useful for them to encode a specific episode. Conversely, only the "Remember" responses in the older group were improved in accuracy by supporting the binding updating process (Exp. 2), suggesting that their weakness in this ability is the source of their failure to improve the accuracy of their memories. The overall results support the hypothesis that the age-related decline in episodic memory is partly due to a greater vulnerability to interference on bindings, impairing the ability to update content-context bindings as and when events occur. PMID:27560656