Science.gov

Sample records for aging research npar

  1. NPAR- products, applications and closure

    SciTech Connect

    Vora, J.P.

    1995-04-01

    Almost a decade ago the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) developed and implemented a comprehensive research program (NUREG-1144) widely known as NPAR or Nuclear Plant Aging Research. The NPAR program is a structured research program specifically oriented to understanding significant age-related degradation mechanisms and their long term effects on properties and performance of important components and systems and ways to mitigate detrimental effects of aging. It provided a road map and a phased approach to research that is applicable to any structure, system, or component of interest. This hardware-oriented engineering research program led the industry worldwide and communicated a need to understand and manage age-related degradation effects in selected but important structures and components. At the conclusion (1995) of the NPAR program, 22 electrical and mechanical components, 13 safety-related systems, and 10 special topics will have been studied and results summarized in 160 technical reports. This reference library of information listed and summarized in NUREG-1377, Rev. No. 4 provides a foundation upon which individual programs can be built for the specific needs of a utility, a regulator, or equipment manufacturers. During the life of the NPAR program, it has provided technical bases and support for license renewal, codes and standards, resolution of generic safety issues, information notices, regulatory guides and the standard Review Plan, as well as the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and The NRC Regions. All ongoing NPAR activities will either be completed or terminated by the end of 1995. No new initiative will be undertaken. This paper summarizes NPAR products and accomplishments, application of the research results, and its status and closure.

  2. Results from the Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program: Their use in inspection activities

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, W.; Taylor, J. )

    1990-09-01

    The US NCR's Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program has determined the susceptibility to aging of components and systems, and the potential for aging to impact plant safety and availability. The NPAR Program also identified methods for detecting and mitigating aging in components. This report describes the NPAR results which can enhance NRC inspection activities. Recommendations are provided for communicating pertinent information to NRC inspectors. These recommendations are based on a detailed assessment of the NRC's Inspection Program, and feedback from resident and regional inspectors as described within. Examples of NPAR report summaries and aging inspection guides for components and systems are included. 13 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. NRC Research Program on Plant Aging: Listing and summaries of reports issued through September 1993. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    Vora, J.P.

    1993-12-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is conducting the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. This is a comprehensive hardware-oriented engineering research program focused on understanding the aging mechanisms of components and systems in nuclear power plants. The NPAR program also focuses on methods for simulating and monitoring the aging-related degradation of these components and systems. In addition, it provides recommendations for effective maintenance to manage aging and for implementation of the research results in the regulatory process. This document contains a listing and index of reports generated in the NPAR Program that were issued through September 1993 and summaries of those reports. Each summary describes the elements of the research covered in the report and outlines the significant results. For the convenience of the user, the reports are indexed by personal author, corporate author, and subject.

  4. Pump and valve research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, H. D.

    Over the last several years, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has carried out several aging assessments on pumps and valves under the NRC's Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. In addition, ORNL has established an Advanced Diagnostic Engineering Research and Development Center (ADEC) in order to play a key role in the field of diagnostic engineering. Initial ADEC research projects have addressed problems that were identified, at least in part, by the NPAR and other NRC-sponsored programs. This paper summarizes the pump and valve related research that has been done at ORNL and describes in more detail several diagnostic techniques developed at ORNL which are now commercially available.

  5. Recommendations for managing equipment aging in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, W.E.; Subudhi, M.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    1992-12-01

    Research conducted under the auspices of the US NRC`s Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program has resulted in a large database of component and system operating, maintenance, and testing information. This database has been used to determine the susceptibility to aging of selected components, and the potential for equipment aging to impact plant safety and availability. it has also identified methods for detecting and mitigating component and system aging. This paper describes the research recommendations on electrical components which could be applied to maintenance, testing, and inspection activities to detect and mitigate the effects of aging prior to equipment failures.

  6. Recommendations for managing equipment aging in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, W.E.; Subudhi, M. ); Aggarwal, S.K. )

    1992-01-01

    Research conducted under the auspices of the US NRC's Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program has resulted in a large database of component and system operating, maintenance, and testing information. This database has been used to determine the susceptibility to aging of selected components, and the potential for equipment aging to impact plant safety and availability. it has also identified methods for detecting and mitigating component and system aging. This paper describes the research recommendations on electrical components which could be applied to maintenance, testing, and inspection activities to detect and mitigate the effects of aging prior to equipment failures.

  7. American Federation for Aging Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... Links Videos Huff/Post 50 Infoaging Biology of Aging Disease Center Healthy Aging Ask the Expert Contact Us Press Info Contact ... the pipeline of research in the biology of aging AFAR's Impact GIVE to AFAR's work to help ...

  8. Aging assessment of reactor instrumentation and protection system components, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Gehl, A.C.; Hagen, E.W.; Farmer, W.S.

    1992-04-01

    A study of the aging-related operating experiences throughout a five year period (1984--1988) of six generic instrumentation modules (indicators, sensors, controllers, transmitters, annunciators, and recorders) was performed as a part of the USNRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. The effects of aging from operational and environmental stressors were characterized from results depicted in Licensee Event Reports (LERs). The data are graphically displayed as frequency of events per plant year for operating plant ages from 1 to 28 years to determine aging-related failure trend patterns. This document describes the results and conclusions from this study.

  9. Aging assessment of reactor instrumentation and protection system components, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Gehl, A.C.; Hagen, E.W. ); Farmer, W.S. )

    1992-01-01

    A study of the aging-related operating experiences throughout a five year period (1984--1988) of six generic instrumentation modules (indicators, sensors, controllers, transmitters, annunciators, and recorders) was performed as a part of the USNRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. The effects of aging from operational and environmental stressors were characterized from results depicted in Licensee Event Reports (LERs). The data are graphically displayed as frequency of events per plant year for operating plant ages from 1 to 28 years to determine aging-related failure trend patterns. This document describes the results and conclusions from this study.

  10. Aging Research Using Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl L.; Anderson, Laura; Sheehan, Susan; Hill, Warren G.; Chang, Bo; Churchill, Gary A.; Chesler, Elissa J.; Korstanje, Ron; Peters, Luanne L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the dramatic increase in human lifespan over the past century, there remains pronounced variability in “health-span”, or the period of time in which one is generally healthy and free of disease. Much of the variability in health-span and lifespan is thought to be genetic in origin. Understanding the genetic mechanisms of aging and identifying ways to boost longevity is a primary goal in aging research. Here, we describe a pipeline of phenotypic assays for assessing mouse models of aging. This pipeline includes behavior/cognition testing, body composition analysis, and tests of kidney function, hematopoiesis, immune function and physical parameters. We also describe study design methods for assessing lifespan and health-span, and other important considerations when conducting aging research in the laboratory mouse. The tools and assays provided can assist researchers with understanding the correlative relationships between age-associated phenotypes and, ultimately, the role of specific genes in the aging process. PMID:26069080

  11. Non-Parametric Bayesian Registration (NParBR) of Body Tumors in DCE-MRI Data.

    PubMed

    Pilutti, David; Strumia, Maddalena; Buchert, Martin; Hadjidemetriou, Stathis

    2016-04-01

    The identification of tumors in the internal organs of chest, abdomen, and pelvis anatomic regions can be performed with the analysis of Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) data. The contrast agent is accumulated differently by pathologic and healthy tissues and that results in a temporally varying contrast in an image series. The internal organs are also subject to potentially extensive movements mainly due to breathing, heart beat, and peristalsis. This contributes to making the analysis of DCE-MRI datasets challenging as well as time consuming. To address this problem we propose a novel pairwise non-rigid registration method with a Non-Parametric Bayesian Registration (NParBR) formulation. The NParBR method uses a Bayesian formulation that assumes a model for the effect of the distortion on the joint intensity statistics, a non-parametric prior for the restored statistics, and also applies a spatial regularization for the estimated registration with Gaussian filtering. A minimally biased intra-dataset atlas is computed for each dataset and used as reference for the registration of the time series. The time series registration method has been tested with 20 datasets of liver, lungs, intestines, and prostate. It has been compared to the B-Splines and to the SyN methods with results that demonstrate that the proposed method improves both accuracy and efficiency. PMID:26672032

  12. Active Learning in Aging Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singelis, Theodore M.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the involvement of undergraduate students in research at the California State University (CSU), Chico funded through an Academic Research Enhancement Award (AREA) from the National Institute on Aging (NIA). CSU, Chico is a "teaching" university and has students with a variety of motivations and abilities. The 3-year research…

  13. Nuclear power plant Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL). Appendix B

    SciTech Connect

    Kasza, K.E.; Diercks, D.R.; Holland, J.W.; Choi, S.U.

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this generic aging lessons learned (GALL) review is to provide a systematic review of plant aging information in order to assess materials and component aging issues related to continued operation and license renewal of operating reactors. Literature on mechanical, structural, and thermal-hydraulic components and systems reviewed consisted of 97 Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) reports, 23 NRC Generic Letters, 154 Information Notices, 29 Licensee Event Reports (LERs), 4 Bulletins, and 9 Nuclear Management and Resources Council Industry Reports (NUMARC IRs) and literature on electrical components and systems reviewed consisted of 66 NPAR reports, 8 NRC Generic Letters, 111 Information Notices, 53 LERs, 1 Bulletin, and 1 NUMARC IR. More than 550 documents were reviewed. The results of these reviews were systematized using a standardized GALL tabular format and standardized definitions of aging-related degradation mechanisms and effects. The tables are included in volume s 1 and 2 of this report. A computerized data base has also been developed for all review tables and can be used to expedite the search for desired information on structures, components, and relevant aging effects. A survey of the GALL tables reveals that all ongoing significant component aging issues are currently being addressed by the regulatory process. However, the aging of what are termed passive components has been highlighted for continued scrutiny. This report consists of Volume 2, which consists of the GALL literature review tables for the NUMARC Industry Reports reviewed for the report.

  14. The effects of aging on BWR core isolation cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.S.

    1994-10-01

    A study was performed to assess the effects of aging on the Reactor Core Isolation Cooling (RCIC) system in commercial Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs). This study is part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The objectives of this program are to provide an understanding of the aging process and how it affects plant safety so that it can be properly managed. This is one of a number of studies performed under the NPAR program which provide a technical basis for the identification and evaluation of degradation caused by age. The failure data from national databases, as well as plant specific data were reviewed and analyzed to understand the effects of aging on the RCIC system. This analysis identified important components that should receive the highest priority in terms of aging management. The aging characterization provided information on the effects of aging on component failure frequency, failure modes, and failures causes. Current inspection, surveillance, and monitoring practices were also reviewed.

  15. Insights gained from aging research

    SciTech Connect

    Blahnik, D.E.; Casada, D.A.; Edson, J.L.; Fineman, D.L.; Gunther, W.E.; Haynes, H.D.; Hoopingarner, K.R.; Jacobus, M.J.; Jarrell, D.B.; Kryter, R.C.; Magelby, H.L.; Murphy, G.A.; Subudhi, M.M.

    1992-03-01

    The US NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research has implemented hardware-oriented engineering research programs to identify and resolve technical issues related to the aging of systems, structures, and components (SSCs) in operating nuclear power plants. This report provides a summary of those research results which have been compiled and published in NUREGS and related technical reports. The systems, components and structures that have been studied are organized by alphabetical order. The research results summary on the SSCs is followed by an assessment guide to emphasize inspection techniques which may be useful for detecting aging degradation in nuclear power plants. This report will be updated periodically to reflect new research results on these or other SSCs.

  16. Aging and service wear of auxiliary feedwater pumps for PWR nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Greenstreet, W.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes investigations on auxiliary feedwater pumps being done under the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. Objectives of these studies are: to identify and evaluate practical, cost-effective methods for detecting, monitoring, and assessing the severity of time-dependent degradation (aging and service wear); recommend inspection and maintenance practices; establish acceptance criteria; and help facilitate use of the results. Emphasis is given to identifying and assessing methods for detecting failure in the incipient stage and to developing degradation trends to allow timely maintenance, repair or replacement actions. 3 refs.

  17. A Review of Information for Managing Aging in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    WC Morgan; JV Livingston

    1995-09-01

    Age related degradation effects in safety related systems of nuclear power plants should be managed to prevent safety margins from eroding below the acceptable limits provided in plant design bases. The Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Pro- gram, conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, and other related aging management programs are developing technical information on managing aging. The aging management process central to these efforts consists of three key elements: 1) selecting structures, systems, and components (SSCs) in which aging should be controlled; 2) understanding the mechanisms and rates of degradation in these SSCs; and 3) managing degradation through effective inspection, surveillance, condition monitoring, trending, record keeping, mainten- ance, refurbishment, replacement, and adjustments in the operating environment and service conditions. This document concisely reviews and integrates information developed under the NPAR Program and other aging management studies and other available information related to understanding and managing age-related degradation effects and provides specific refer- ences to more comprehensive information on the same subjects.

  18. The effects of age on nuclear power plant containment cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lofaro, R.; Subudhi, M.; Travis, R.; DiBiasio, A.; Azarm, A.; Davis, J.

    1994-04-01

    A study was performed to assess the effects of aging on the performance and availability of containment cooling systems in US commercial nuclear power plants. This study is part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The objectives of this program are to provide an understanding of the aging process and how it affects plant safety so that it can be properly managed. This is one of a number of studies performed under the NPAR program which provide a technical basis for the identification and evaluation of degradation caused by age. The effects of age were characterized for the containment cooling system by reviewing and analyzing failure data from national databases, as well as plant-specific data. The predominant failure causes and aging mechanisms were identified, along with the components that failed most frequently. Current inspection, surveillance, and monitoring practices were also examined. A containment cooling system unavailability analysis was performed to examine the potential effects of aging by increasing failure rates for selected components. A commonly found containment spray system design and a commonly found fan cooler system design were modeled. Parametric failure rates for those components in each system that could be subject to aging were accounted for in the model to simulate the time-dependent effects of aging degradation, assuming no provisions are made to properly manage it. System unavailability as a function of increasing component failure rates was then calculated.

  19. Nuclear power plant Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL). Main report and appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    Kaza, K.E.; Diercks, D.R.; Holland, J.W.; Choi, S.U.

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this generic aging lessons learned (GALL) review is to provide a systematic review of plant aging information in order to assess materials and component aging issues related to continued operation and license renewal of operating reactors. Literature on mechanical, structural, and thermal-hydraulic components and systems reviewed consisted of 97 Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) reports, 23 NRC Generic Letters, 154 Information Notices, 29 Licensee Event Reports (LERs), 4 Bulletins, and 9 Nuclear Management and Resources Council Industry Reports (NUMARC IRs) and literature on electrical components and systems reviewed consisted of 66 NPAR reports, 8 NRC Generic Letters, 111 Information Notices, 53 LERs, 1 Bulletin, and 1 NUMARC IR. More than 550 documents were reviewed. The results of these reviews were systematized using a standardized GALL tabular format and standardized definitions of aging-related degradation mechanisms and effects. The tables are included in volume s 1 and 2 of this report. A computerized data base has also been developed for all review tables and can be used to expedite the search for desired information on structures, components, and relevant aging effects. A survey of the GALL tables reveals that all ongoing significant component aging issues are currently being addressed by the regulatory process. However, the aging of what are termed passive components has been highlighted for continued scrutiny. This document is Volume 1, consisting of the executive summary, summary and observations, and an appendix listing the GALL literature review tables.

  20. Cognitive Aging Research: What Does It Say about Cognition? Aging?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glucksberg, Sam

    Cognitive aging research needs to clarify whether or not there are functional or ability declines with aging and, if so, to understand and mediate these declines. Recent research which has demonstrated declines in cognitive functioning with age has involved episodic memory and rehearsal-independent forms of such memory. It is not known how much of…

  1. Aging assessment of Westinghouse PWR and General Electric BWR containment isolation functions

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.S.; Travis, R.; Grove, E.; DiBiasio, A.

    1996-03-01

    A study was performed to assess the effects of aging on the Containment Isolation (CI) functions of Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactors and General Electric Boiling Water Reactors. This study is part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program, sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The objectives of this program are to provide an understanding of the aging process and how it affects plant safety so that it can be properly managed. This is one of a number of studies performed under the NPAR program which provide a technical basis for the identification and evaluation of degradation caused by age. Failure data from two national databases, Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS) and Licensee Event Reports (LERs), as well as plant specific data were reviewed and analyzed to understand the effects of aging on the CI functions. This study provided information on the effects of aging on component failure frequency, failure modes, and failure causes. Current inspection, surveillance, and monitoring practices were also reviewed.

  2. Changing course in ageing research: The healthy ageing phenotype.

    PubMed

    Franco, Oscar H; Karnik, Kavita; Osborne, Gabrielle; Ordovas, Jose M; Catt, Michael; van der Ouderaa, Frans

    2009-05-20

    Ageing is often associated with the aged and the diseased, nevertheless ageing is a process that starts in-uterus and is characterised by a progressive functional loss but not necessarily by the presence of disease and poor quality of life. How to meander through life without crossing the confines of major chronic disease and cognitive and physical impairment remains one of the most relevant challenges for science and humankind. Delimiting that 'immaculate' trajectory - that we dub as the 'Healthy Ageing Phenotype' - and exploring solutions to help the population to stay or return to this trajectory should constitute the core focus of scientific research. Nevertheless, current efforts on ageing research are mainly focused on developing animal models to disentangle the human ageing process, and on age-related disorders often providing merely palliative solutions. Therefore, to identify alternative perspectives in ageing research, Unilever and the Medical Research Council (MRC) UK convened a Spark workshop entitled 'The Healthy Ageing Phenotype'. In this meeting, international specialists from complementary areas related to ageing research, gathered to find clear attributes and definitions of the 'Healthy Ageing Phenotype', to identify potential mechanisms and interventions to improve healthy life expectancy of the population; and to highlight areas within ageing research that should be prioritised in the future. General agreement was reached in recognising ageing research as a disaggregated field with little communication between basic, epidemiological and clinical areas of research and limited translation to society. A more holistic, multi-disciplinary approach emanating from a better understanding of healthy ageing trajectories and centred along human biological resilience, its maintenance and the reversibility from early deviations into pathological trajectories, is urgently required. Future research should concentrate on understanding the mechanisms that permit

  3. Fertile waters for aging research.

    PubMed

    Wang, Adrienne M; Promislow, Daniel E L; Kaeberlein, Matt

    2015-02-26

    The quest to slow aging has come far, and what used to be the domain of science fiction writers and snake oil salesmen may soon become science fact. Innovative new approaches, such as the use of the very short-lived African killifish (Harel et al.), are bridging the translational gap and bring the promise of healthy longevity to fruition. PMID:25723160

  4. [Ageing: research in Spain and Europe].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Vicente; Rodríguez Mañas, Leocadio; Sancho Castiello, Mayte; Díaz Martín, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Researchers, stakeholders and policy makers agree about the importance of the population ageing in modern societies, so a broad analysis of current research strategies is in progress, such as FUTURAGE, a network for drawing a map for future research on ageing. This document presents the Spanish contribution to this map following FUTURAGE guidelines, drawn from the debates held in the 'Ageing. Research in Spain and Europe' Workshop. The first part consists of general ideas seeking to define future challenges on research using a multidisciplinary approach, in which the theoretical and methodological debate, the comparative and multilevel perspective, the transfer of knowledge and involvement of the older people would be essential to consider. Some of the main issues according to FUTURAGE structure are, the bio-gerontology of ageing, healthy and active ageing, and the socioeconomic and environmental resources of ageing. The interaction between these contents is pivotal to understand the research on ageing. Finally, the document provides some methodological and instrumental ideas to reinforce the need for cross-sectional research initiatives, integrating different data and combining methods in order to develop assessment and intervention strategies. Other aspects look into the mechanisms to coordinate research within a European context. The map on ageing research has been published after the consultation process in Europe (http://futurage.group.shef.ac.uk/road-map.html) and is now ready to be considered for integration into future European and Spanish research programs. PMID:22578385

  5. Healthy ageing, narrative method and research ethics.

    PubMed

    Sarvimäki, Anneli

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe research and teaching activities related to healthy ageing, narrative methods and research ethics at the Nordic School of Public Health NHV during 1999 - 2012. Healthy ageing was conceived in terms of The World Health Organization's (WHO) model of active ageing and of quality of life defined as a sense of well-being, meaning and value. Qualitative research on ageing and health conducted at NHV showed how elderly people themselves experience health and what they perceive to be health promoting. Narrative method was one the qualitative methods used in research at NHV. By adopting holistic and categorical content analysis the life stories of elderly Finnish migrants, the stories of home-dwelling persons about falls, and working persons' stories of alcohol use were studied. The courses on research ethics took their point of departure in a model that describes the role of scientific, economic, aesthetic and ethical values in research. PMID:26311800

  6. Aging of concrete components and its significance relative to life extension of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear power currently supplies about 16% of the US electricity requirements, with the percentage expected to rise to 20% by 1990. Despite the increasing role of nuclear power in energy production, cessation of orders for new nuclear plants in combination with expiration of operating licenses for several plants in the next 15 to 20 years results in a potential loss of electrical generating capacity of 50 to 60 gigawatts during the time period 2005 to 2020. A potential timely and cost-effective solution to the problem of meeting future energy demand is available through extension of the service life of existing nuclear plants. Any consideration of plant life extension, however, must consider the concrete components in these plants, since they play a vital safety role. Under the USNRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program, a study was conducted to review operating experience and to provide background that will lead to subsequent development of a methodology for assessing and predicting the effects of aging on the performance of concrete-based structures. The approach followed was in conformance with the NPAR strategy.

  7. Ageing aircraft research in the Netherlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejonge, J. B.; Bartelds, G.

    1992-01-01

    The problems of aging aircraft are worldwide. Hence, international cooperative actions to overcome or prevent problems should be taken. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Netherlands Civil Aviation Department (RLD) signed a Memorandum of Cooperation in the area of structural integrity, with specific reference to research on problems in the area of aging aircraft. Here, an overview is given of aging research that is going on in the Netherlands. The work described is done largely at the National Aerospace Laboratory; much of the research is part of the forementioned cooperative agreement.

  8. USEPA ORD Aging Water Infrastructure Research Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes research that is being conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) Research Program, which will help U.S. water infrastructure to be more effectively and sustainably managed. The AWI research program see...

  9. Systems biology approaches in aging research.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Anuradha; Liebal, Ulf W; Vera, Julio; Baltrusch, Simone; Junghanß, Christian; Tiedge, Markus; Fuellen, Georg; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Köhling, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a systemic process which progressively manifests itself at multiple levels of structural and functional organization from molecular reactions and cell-cell interactions in tissues to the physiology of an entire organ. There is ever increasing data on biomedical relevant network interactions for the aging process at different scales of time and space. To connect the aging process at different structural, temporal and spatial scales, extensive systems biological approaches need to be deployed. Systems biological approaches can not only systematically handle the large-scale datasets (like high-throughput data) and the complexity of interactions (feedback loops, cross talk), but also can delve into nonlinear behaviors exhibited by several biological processes which are beyond intuitive reasoning. Several public-funded agencies have identified the synergistic role of systems biology in aging research. Using one of the notable public-funded programs (GERONTOSYS), we discuss how systems biological approaches are helping the scientists to find new frontiers in aging research. We elaborate on some systems biological approaches deployed in one of the projects of the consortium (ROSage). The systems biology field in aging research is at its infancy. It is open to adapt existing systems biological methodologies from other research fields and devise new aging-specific systems biological methodologies. PMID:25341520

  10. Effect of aging upon CE and B and W control rod drives

    SciTech Connect

    Grove, E.; Gunther, W.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of aging upon the Babcock Wilcox (B W) and Combustion Engineering (CE) Control Rod Drive (CRD) systems has been evaluated as part of the US NRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program. Operating experience data for the 1980--1990 time period was reviewed to identify predominant failure modes, causes, and effects. These results, in conjunction with an assessment of component materials and operating environment, conclude that both systems are susceptible to age degradation. System failures have resulted in significant plant effects, including power reductions, plant shutdowns, scrams, and Engineered Safety Feature (ESF) actuation. Current industry inspection and maintenance practices were assessed. Some of these practices effectively address aging, while others do not.

  11. Effect of aging upon CE and B and W control rod drives

    SciTech Connect

    Grove, E.; Gunther, W.

    1992-05-01

    The effect of aging upon the Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) and Combustion Engineering (CE) Control Rod Drive (CRD) systems has been evaluated as part of the US NRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program. Operating experience data for the 1980--1990 time period was reviewed to identify predominant failure modes, causes, and effects. These results, in conjunction with an assessment of component materials and operating environment, conclude that both systems are susceptible to age degradation. System failures have resulted in significant plant effects, including power reductions, plant shutdowns, scrams, and Engineered Safety Feature (ESF) actuation. Current industry inspection and maintenance practices were assessed. Some of these practices effectively address aging, while others do not.

  12. Academic Research in the Cyberspace Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willey, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Discusses research in the cyberspace era, exploring why academics may be naive about what information they are being allowed to access on the academic databases they rely on for research. Asserts that the real issue of the cyberspace age is the marketing of knowledge. (EV)

  13. Metformin: A Hopeful Promise in Aging Research.

    PubMed

    Novelle, Marta G; Ali, Ahmed; Diéguez, Carlos; Bernier, Michel; de Cabo, Rafael

    2016-03-01

    Even though the inevitable process of aging by itself cannot be considered a disease, it is directly linked to life span and is the driving force behind all age-related diseases. It is an undisputable fact that age-associated diseases are among the leading causes of death in the world, primarily in industrialized countries. During the last several years, an intensive search of antiaging treatments has led to the discovery of a variety of drugs that promote health span and/or life extension. The biguanide compound metformin is widely used for treating people with type 2 diabetes and appears to show protection against cancer, inflammation, and age-related pathologies. Here, we summarize the recent developments about metformin use in translational aging research and discuss its role as a potential geroprotector. PMID:26931809

  14. Pre-Phase 1 Aging Assessment of the BWR and PWR Accumulators

    SciTech Connect

    Buckely, G. D.

    1995-08-01

    Accumulators are important components used in many systems at commercial boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors in the United States. The accumulators are vessels attached to fluid systems to provide 1) a limited backup source of stored fluid energy for hydraulic/pneumatic mechanical equipment, 2) a damping effect on pressure pulses in fluid systems, and 3) a volume of fluid to be injected passively into a fluid system. Accumulators contain a gas that is compressed or expanded as the fluid from the system enters or exits the accumulator. The gas and fluid in accumulators are usually separated from each other by a piston or bladder. In support of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Aging Research Program (NPAR), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted an analysis of available industry databases to determine if accumulator components already had been studied in other NPAR assessments and to evaluate each accumulator type for applicable aging issues. The results of this preliminary study indicate that two critical uses of accumulators have been previously evaluated by the NPAR program. NUREGICR-5699, Aging and Service Wear of Control Rod Drive Mechanisms for BUT Nuclear Plants (Greene 199 I), identified two hydraulic control unit components subject to aging failures: accumulator nitrogen-charging cartridge valves and the scram water accumulator. In addition, NUREGICR-6001, Aging Assessment of BWR Standby Liquid Control Systems (Buckley et al. 1992), identified two predominant aging-related accumulator failures that result in a loss of the nitrogen blanket pressure: (charging) valve wear and failure of the gas bladder. The present study has identified five prevalent aging-related accumulator failures: rupture of the accumulator bladder separation of the metal disc from the bottom of the bladder leakage of the gas from the charging valve leakage past the safety injection tank manway cover gasket leakage past O-rings. An additional

  15. Check valves aging assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, H.D.

    1991-01-01

    In support of the NRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has carried out an assessment of several check value diagnostic monitoring methods, in particular, those based on measurements of acoustic emission, ultrasonics, and magnetic flux. The evaluations have focussed on the capabilities of each method to provide information useful in determining check valve aging and service wear effects, check valve failures, and undesirable operating modes. This paper describes the benefits and limitations associated with each method and includes recent laboratory and field test data, including data obtained from the vendors who recently participated in a comprehensive series of tests directed by a nuclear industry users group. In addition, as part of the ORNL Advanced Diagnostic Engineering Research and Development Center (ADEC), two novel nonintrusive monitoring methods were developed that provide several unique capabilities. These methods, based on external ac- an dc-magnetic monitoring are also described. None of the examined methods could, by themselves, monitor both the instantaneous position and motion of check valve internals and valve leakage; however, the combination of acoustic emission monitoring with one of the other methods provides the means to determine vital check valve operational information.

  16. Results of LWR snubber aging research

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D P; Werry, E V; Blahnik, D E

    1992-05-01

    This report describes the aging research results and recommendations for snubbers used in commercial nuclear power plants. Snubbers are safety-related devices used to restrain undesirable dynamic loads at various piping and equipment locations in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Each snubber must accommodate a plant's normal thermal movements and must be capable of restraining the maximum off-normal dynamic loads, such as a seismic event or a transient, postulated for its specific location. The effects of snubber aging and the factors that contribute to the degradation of their safety performance need to be better understood. Thus, Phase II of Nuclear Plant Aging Research was conducted to enhance the understanding of snubber aging and its consequences. Pacific Northwest Laboratory staff and their subcontractors, Lake Engineering and Wyle Laboratories, visited eight sites (encompassing thirteen plants) to conduct interviews with NPP staff and to collect data on snubber aging, testing, and maintenance. The Phase II research methodology, evaluation, results, conclusions, and recommendations are described in the report. Effective methods for service-life monitoring of snubbers are included in the recommendations.

  17. Biology of Aging: Research Today for a Healthier Tomorrow

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Biology of Aging Heath and Aging Biology of Aging Preface The National Institute on Aging ( ... major institutions across the United States and internationally. Biology of Aging: Research Today for a Healthier Tomorrow ...

  18. Gender relations and applied research on aging.

    PubMed

    Calasanti, Toni

    2010-12-01

    As a concept in gerontology, gender appears as lists of traits learned through socialization when theorized at all. I argue for a framework that theorizes the intersections of relations of gender inequality with those of age. This framework holds that men and women gain resources and bear responsibilities, in relation to one another, by virtue of mundane categorization into naturalized stratified groups. Current research shows that this approach allows explanation of gender differences, which appear in many reports but which usually go untheorized, as responses to social inequality. I illustrate applications to research and practice in relation to three areas of old age experiences: financial security, spousal care work, and health. Throughout, I discuss implications of focusing on inequality to enhance our abilities to engage in effective research, practice, and policy for older people, women and men alike. For instance, an understanding of the gender division of labor and workplace discrimination makes clear that financial status in later life cannot be reduced to individual choices concerning paid labor or retirement planning. And understanding that people orient their behaviors to gender ideals allows us to see that men and women perform spousal care in similar and different ways that require varied responses from practitioners; it also reveals contexts in which men engage in positive health behaviors. Finally, I argue that gerontologists interested in facilitating favorable outcomes for old people should consider research and practice that would disrupt, not reinforce, the bases of gender inequalities in later life. PMID:20956798

  19. Using C. elegans for aging research

    PubMed Central

    Tissenbaum, Heidi A.

    2015-01-01

    Over a century ago, the zoologist Emile Maupas first identified the nematode, Rhabditis elegans, in the soil in Algiers. Subsequent work and phylogenic studies renamed the species Caenorhabditis elegans or more commonly referred to as C. elegans; (Caeno meaning recent; rhabditis meaning rod; elegans meaning nice). However, it was not until 1963, when Sydney Brenner, already successful from his work on DNA, RNA, and the genetic code, suggested the future of biological research lay in model organisms. Brenner believed that biological research required a model system that could grow in vast quantities in the lab, were cheap to maintain and had a simple body plan, and he chose the nematode C. elegans to fulfill such a role. Since that time, C. elegans has emerged as one of the premiere model systems for aging research. This paper reviews some initial identification of mutants with altered lifespan with a focus on genetics and then discusses advantages and disadvantages for using C. elegans as a model system to understand human aging. This review focuses on molecular genetics aspects of this model organism. PMID:26136622

  20. Recent advances in vertebrate aging research 2009.

    PubMed

    Austad, Steven

    2010-06-01

    Among the notable trends seen in this year's highlights in mammalian aging research is an awakening of interest in the assessment of age-related measures of mouse health in addition to the traditional focus on longevity. One finding of note is that overexpression of telomerase extended life and improved several indices of health in mice that had previously been genetically rendered cancer resistant. In another study, resveratrol supplementation led to amelioration of several degenerative conditions without affecting mouse lifespan. A primate dietary restriction (DR) study found that restriction led to major improvements in glucoregulatory status along with provocative but less striking effects on survival. Visceral fat removal in rats improved their survival, although not as dramatically as DR. An unexpected result showing the power of genetic background effects was that DR shortened the lifespan of long-lived mice bearing Prop1(df), whereas a previous report in a different background had found DR to extend the lifespan of Prop1(df) mice. Treatment with the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, rapamycin, enhanced the survival of even elderly mice and improved their vaccine response. Genetic inhibition of a TOR target made female, but not male, mice live longer. This year saw the mTOR network firmly established as a major modulator of mammalian lifespan. PMID:20331443

  1. Community Engagement and the Resource Centers for Minority Aging Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sood, Johanna R.; Stahl, Sidney M.

    2011-01-01

    The National Institute on Aging created the Resource Centers for Minority Aging Research (RCMARs) to address infrastructure development intended to reduce health disparities among older adults. The overall goals of the RCMARs are to (a) increase the size of the cadre of researchers conducting research on issues related to minority aging; (b)…

  2. Extramural Training and Career Opportunities in Aging Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Aging (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The rapid growth of the older population heightens the urgency for training in aging research. This publication outlines the opportunities for extramural research training and career development that exist within the National Institute on Aging (NIA). The NIA supports research and research training primarily through the award of grants and…

  3. Survey and evaluation of aging risk assessment methods and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sanzo, D.L.; Kvam, P.; Apostolakis, G.; Wu, J.; Milici, T.; Ghoniem, N.; Guarro, S.

    1993-11-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated the nuclear power plant aging research (NPAR) program about 6 years ago to gather information about nuclear power plant aging. Since then, this program has collected a significant amount of information, largely qualitative, on plant aging and its potential effects on plant safety. However, this body of knowledge has not yet been integrated into formalisms that can be used effectively and systematically to assess plant risk resulting from aging, although models for assessing the effect of increasing failure rates on core damage frequency have been proposed. The purpose of this review is to survey the work conducted to address the aging of systems, structures, and components (SSCs) of nuclear power plants (NPPs), as well as the associated data bases. The review takes a critical look at the need to revise probabilistic risk assessment (PRAs) so that they will include the contribution to risk from plant aging, the adequacy of existing methods for evaluating this contribution, and the adequacy of the data that have been used in these evaluation methods. A preliminary framework is identified for integrating the aging of SSCs into the PRA, including the identification of needed data for such an integration.

  4. Research Advances in Aging 1984-1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Aging (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The National Institute on Aging (NIA) has, for the past several years, focused attention on a wide range of clinical problems associated with aging, including falls and gait disorders, bone fractures, urinary incontinence, and hypertension. Understanding the causes of and exploring possible treatments for Alzheimer's disease has been another of…

  5. Health-and disease-related biomarkers in aging research.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Hilaire J; Voss, Joachim G

    2009-04-01

    This article focuses on a synthesis of knowledge about healthy aging research in human beings and then synthesized nurse-led research in gerontology and geriatrics that use biomarkers. Healthy aging research has attracted considerable attention in the biomedical and basic sciences within the context of four major areas: (a) genetic variations as an expression of successful or unsuccessful aging; (b) caloric restriction as an intervention to slow the progression of aging; (c) immunological aging; (d) neurobiology of the aging brain. A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify nurse-led geriatric-related biomarker research. Nurse researchers who have chosen to integrate biomarkers as part of their research studies have been working in six focal areas, which are reviewed: health promotion within risk populations, cancer, vascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, caregiving, and complementary therapies. The article provides a discussion of contributions to date, identifying existing gaps and future research opportunities. PMID:20077975

  6. Efficacy of Female Rat Models in Translational Cardiovascular Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    Rice, K. M.; Fannin, J. C.; Gillette, C.; Blough, E. R.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women in the United States. Aging is a primary risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease as well as cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Aging is a universal process that all humans undergo; however, research in aging is limited by cost and time constraints. Therefore, most research in aging has been done in primates and rodents; however it is unknown how well the effects of aging in rat models translate into humans. To compound the complication of aging gender has also been indicated as a risk factor for various cardiovascular diseases. This review addresses the systemic pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system associated with aging and gender for aging research with regard to the applicability of rat derived data for translational application to human aging. PMID:25610649

  7. Gender Relations and Applied Research on Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calasanti, Toni

    2010-01-01

    As a concept in gerontology, gender appears as lists of traits learned through socialization when theorized at all. I argue for a framework that theorizes the intersections of relations of gender inequality with those of age. This framework holds that men and women gain resources and bear responsibilities, in relation to one another, by virtue of…

  8. Intensive Measurement Designs for Research on Aging

    PubMed Central

    Rast, Philippe; MacDonald, Stuart W. S.; Hofer, Scott M.

    2013-01-01

    Intensive measurement burst designs permit analysis of behavioral and biological processes as they unfold over short and long periods of time and providing the opportunity to identify change from an individual’s normative level of functioning. The measurement burst design permits statistical decomposition of short-term variation and learning effects that overlay normative aging and provide stronger bases for detecting accelerated change due to pathological processes. We provide an overview of design features and analysis of measurement burst data in Project MIND. The objective of intensive measurement designs is to obtain greater resolution of processes of interest that permit reliable and sensitive assessments of functioning and change in functioning and of key determinants underlying short-term variation and long-term aging and health-related change. PMID:24672475

  9. Incorporating Biomarkers Into Cancer and Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Joleen M.; Cohen, Harvey J.; Muss, Hyman B.

    2014-01-01

    The challenge in treating the older adult with cancer is accurately accounting for and adapting management to the heterogeneity in health status of the individual patient. Many oncologists recognize that chronological age alone should not be the determinant when deciding on a treatment regimen. Easily measurable markers that provide an assessment of functional age would be ideal to assess frailty, which may predispose the patient to complications from cancer treatment, including increased toxicity, functional decline, decreased quality of life, and poorer survival. Several categories of potential markers, including chronic inflammatory markers, markers of cellular senescence, and imaging to assess muscle mass to detect sarcopenia, may provide insight into the likelihood of treatment-related complications. This article discusses candidate markers and strategies to evaluate these markers in cancer treatment trials, with the aim of developing a method to assess risk of oncologic outcomes and guide management decisions for both the physician and patient. PMID:25071114

  10. Aging in France: Population Trends, Policy Issues, and Research Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot

    2013-01-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…

  11. Aging, Research on Aging, and National Policy: A Conversation with Robert Butler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VandenBos, Gary R.; Buchanan, Joan

    1983-01-01

    The former director of the National Institute on Aging (NIA) discusses: consequences of aging in relation to Federal policies; care facilities for older persons; the role of the Federal government in funding aging research; and the need for more personnel trained to deal with problems of the elderly. (AOS)

  12. Resisting Age Bias in Digital Literacy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Lauren Marshall

    2011-01-01

    Through an eighty-one-year-old woman's literacy narrative, I argue that literacy researchers should pay greater attention to elder writers, readers, and learners. Particularly as notions of literacy shift in digital times, the perspective of a lifespan can reveal otherwise hidden complexities of literacy, including the motivational impact of…

  13. AGING AND THE ENVIRONMENT: A RESEARCH FRAMEWORK.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript discusses the development of a research program on health effects and environmental exposures to older adults. It summarizes input to this process from experts and the public, and outlines the critical elements necessary to fully address issues of environmental p...

  14. Current research in aging: a report from the 2015 Ageing Summit.

    PubMed

    Moyse, Emmanuel; Lahousse, Lies; Krantic, Slavica

    2015-01-01

    Ageing Summit, London, UK, 10-12 February 2015 The Ageing Summit 2015 held on 10-12 February 2015 in London (UK) provided an extensive update to our knowledge of the 'Biology of Ageing' and a forum to discuss the participants' latest research progress. The meeting was subdivided into four thematic sessions: cellular level research including the aging brain; slowing down progression, rejuvenation and self-repair; genetic and epigenetic regulation; and expression and pathology of age-related diseases. Each session included multiple key presentations, three to five short research communications and ongoing poster presentations. The meeting provided an exciting multidisciplinary overview of the aging process from cellular and molecular mechanisms to medico-social aspects of human aging. PMID:26107317

  15. Aging assessment of nuclear air-treatment system HEPA filters and adsorbers. Volume 1, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Winegardner, W.K.

    1993-08-01

    A Phase I aging assessment of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and activated carbon gas adsorption units (adsorbers) was performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. Information concerning design features; failure experience; aging mechanisms, effects, and stressors; and surveillance and monitoring methods for these key air-treatment system components was compiled. Over 1100 failures, or 12 percent of the filter installations, were reported as part of a Department of Energy (DOE) survey. Investigators from other national laboratories have suggested that aging effects could have contributed to over 80 percent of these failures. Tensile strength tests on aged filter media specimens indicated a decrease in strength. Filter aging mechanisms range from those associated with particle loading to reactions that alter properties of sealants and gaskets. Low radioiodine decontamination factors associated with the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident were attributed to the premature aging of the carbon in the adsorbers. Mechanisms that can lead to impaired adsorber performance include oxidation as well as the loss of potentially available active sites as a result of the adsorption of pollutants. Stressors include heat, moisture, radiation, and airborne particles and contaminants.

  16. Regulatory instrument review: Aging management of LWR cables, containment and basemat, reactor coolant pumps, and motor-operated valves

    SciTech Connect

    Werry, E.V.; Somasundaram, S.

    1995-09-01

    The results of Stage 2 of the Regulatory Instrument Review are presented in this volume. Selected regulatory instruments, such as the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Regulatory Guides, and ASME Codes, were investigated to determine the extent to which these regulations apply aging management to selected safety-related components in nuclear power plants. The Regulatory Instrument Review was funded by the NRC under the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program. Stage 2 of the review focused on four safety-related structures and components; namely, cables, containment and basemat, reactor coolant pumps, and motor-operated valves. The review suggests that the primary-emphasis of the regulatory instruments was on the design, construction, start-up, and operation of a nuclear power plant, and that aging issues were primarily addressed after an aging-related problem was recognized. This Stage 2 review confirms the results of the prior review; (see Regulatory Instrument Review: Management of Aging of LWR Major Safety-Related Components NUREG/CR-5490. The observations indicate that the regulations generally address management of age-related degradation indirectly. Specific age-related degradation phenomena frequently are dealt with in bulletins and notices or through generic issues, letters, etc. The major recommendation of this report, therefore, is that the regulatory instruments should more directly and explicitly address the aging phenomenon and the management of the age-related degradation process.

  17. AGING WATER INFRASTRUCTURE RESEARCH PROGRAM: ADDRESSING THE CHALLENGE THROUGH INNOVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A driving force behind the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative and the Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is the Clean Water and Drinking Water Infrastructure Gap Analysis. In this report, EPA estimated that if operation, maintenance, and capital inves...

  18. Contributions of Nonhuman Primates to Research on Aging.

    PubMed

    Didier, E S; MacLean, A G; Mohan, M; Didier, P J; Lackner, A A; Kuroda, M J

    2016-03-01

    Aging is the biological process of declining physiologic function associated with increasing mortality rate during advancing age. Humans and higher nonhuman primates exhibit unusually longer average life spans as compared with mammals of similar body mass. Furthermore, the population of humans worldwide is growing older as a result of improvements in public health, social services, and health care systems. Comparative studies among a wide range of organisms that include nonhuman primates contribute greatly to our understanding about the basic mechanisms of aging. Based on their genetic and physiologic relatedness to humans, nonhuman primates are especially important for better understanding processes of aging unique to primates, as well as for testing intervention strategies to improve healthy aging and to treat diseases and disabilities in older people. Rhesus and cynomolgus macaques are the predominant monkeys used in studies on aging, but research with lower nonhuman primate species is increasing. One of the priority topics of research about aging in nonhuman primates involves neurologic changes associated with cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases. Additional areas of research include osteoporosis, reproductive decline, caloric restriction, and their mimetics, as well as immune senescence and chronic inflammation that affect vaccine efficacy and resistance to infections and cancer. The purpose of this review is to highlight the findings from nonhuman primate research that contribute to our understanding about aging and health span in humans. PMID:26869153

  19. The Development of Small Primate Models for Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Kathleen E.; Austad, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Nonhuman primate (NHP) aging research has traditionally relied mainly on the rhesus macaque. But the long lifespan, low reproductive rate, and relatively large body size of macaques and related Old World monkeys make them less than ideal models for aging research. Manifold advantages would attend the use of smaller, more rapidly developing, shorter-lived NHP species in aging studies, not the least of which are lower cost and the ability to do shorter research projects. Arbitrarily defining “small” primates as those weighing less than 500 g, we assess small, relatively short-lived species among the prosimians and callitrichids for suitability as models for human aging research. Using the criteria of availability, knowledge about (and ease of) maintenance, the possibility of genetic manipulation (a hallmark of 21st century biology), and similarities to humans in the physiology of age-related changes, we suggest three species—two prosimians (Microcebus murinus and Galago senegalensis) and one New World monkey (Callithrix jacchus)—that deserve scrutiny for development as major NHP models for aging studies. We discuss one other New World monkey group, Cebus spp., that might also be an effective NHP model of aging as these species are longer-lived for their body size than any primate except humans. PMID:21411860

  20. Managing aging in nuclear power plants: Insights from NRC maintenance team inspection reports

    SciTech Connect

    Fresco, A.; Subudhi, M.; Gunther, W.; Grove, E.; Taylor, J.

    1993-12-01

    A plant`s maintenance program is the principal vehicle through which age-related degradation is managed. From 1988 to 1991, the NRC evaluated the maintenance program of every nuclear power plant in the United States. Forty-four out of a total of 67 of the reports issued on these in-depth team inspections were reviewed for insights into the strengths and weaknesses of the programs as related to the need to understand and manage the effects of aging on nuclear plant systems, structures, and components. Relevant information was extracted from these inspection reports and sorted into several categories, including Specific Aging Insights, Preventive Maintenance, Predictive Maintenance and Condition Monitoring, Post Maintenance Testing, Failure Trending, Root Cause Analysis and Usage of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in the Maintenance Process. Specific examples of inspection and monitoring techniques successfully used by utilities to detect degradation due to aging have been identified. The information also was sorted according to systems and components, including: Auxiliary Feedwater, Main Feedwater, High Pressure Injection for both BWRs and PWRs, Service Water, Instrument Air, and Emergency Diesel Generator Air Start Systems, and Emergency Diesel Generators Air Start Systems, emergency diesel generators, electrical components such as switchgear, breakers, relays, and motor control centers, motor operated valves and check valves. This information was compared to insights gained from the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. Attributes of plant maintenance programs where the NRC inspectors felt that improvement was needed to properly address the aging issue also are discussed.

  1. Establishing the European Research Area in Ageing: a network of national research programmes.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Gerda

    2005-10-01

    The following paper gives a summary of the European Commission's research policy with regard to the ERA-NET scheme and especially with regard to the ERA-AGE project that was launched in March 2004. All the partner institutions in the ERA-AGE project are main national funding agencies, research councils or ministries. Some selected examples of programme funding by the partner institutions may demonstrate their different ways of funding research and show the great variety of programmes. The long-term objective of the ERA-AGE project is to create a sustainable basis for the planning, implementation and exploitation of transnational research. In future, the European Research Area in Ageing could gain an added value from research investments by integrating existing funding mechanisms and research infrastructures, by commonly deciding on research priorities for funding activities in order to reduce fragmentation and duplication, and by the recruitment of young researchers. PMID:16154308

  2. The Revival of Research Circles: Meeting the Needs of Modern Aging and the Third Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostlund, Britt

    2008-01-01

    This article provides evidence that it is worthwhile to reconsider the traditional research circle method as a means of involving people in the third age in fulfilling their needs to participate in learning activities and make their voices heard. The findings are based on three cases of research circles consistently driven by the interests of the…

  3. [Research on the aging of all-ceramics restoration materials].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongjiao; Chen, Xinmin

    2011-10-01

    All-ceramic crowns and bridges have been widely used for dental restorations owing to their excellent functionality, aesthetics and biocompatibility. However, the premature clinical failure of all-ceramic crowns and bridges may easily occur when they are subjected to the complex environment of oral cavity. In the oral environment, all-ceramic materials are prone to aging. Aging can lead all-ceramic materials to change color, to lower bending strength, and to reduce anti-fracture toughness. There are many factors affecting the aging of the all-ceramic materials, for example, the grain size, the type of stabilizer, the residual stress and the water environment. In order to analyze the aging behavior, to optimize the design of all-ceramic crowns and bridges, and to evaluate the reliability and durability, we review in this paper recent research progress of aging behavior for all-ceramics restoration materials. PMID:22097281

  4. [Research on the infrared spectrometry of aging silk fabrics].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-mei; Yuan, Si-xun

    2004-12-01

    The detection of deterioration degree of ancient silk fabrics will be helpful to the selection and developing of conservation methods. This paper carried out some research on the deterioration extent and mechanism of silk fabrics by means of infrared spectrometry. The samples artificially aged and excavated from Hubei, Innermongolia and Qinghai province, were analyzed. The artificially aging was done by simulating three main natural aging factors: light, heat and hydrolysis. The infrared spectrometric analysis results show that although the infrared spectrometry is a half-quantitative analysis method, for the hydrolysis-aged silk fabrics, it can give good qualitative and better half-quantitative analysis results because of the increase of carboxyl. So the infrared spectrometric analysis is of practical value for the conservation state and aging mechanism studies of ancient silk. PMID:15828318

  5. Generating Large-Scale Longitudinal Data Resources for Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    Hofer, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The need for large studies and the types of large-scale data resources (LSDRs) are discussed along with their general scientific utility, role in aging research, and affordability. The diversification of approaches to large-scale data resourcing is described in order to facilitate their use in aging research. Methods. The need for LSDRs is discussed in terms of (a) large sample size; (b) longitudinal design; (c) as platforms for additional investigator-initiated research projects; and (d) broad-based access to core genetic, biological, and phenotypic data. Discussion. It is concluded that a “lite-touch, lo-tech, lo-cost” approach to LSDRs is a viable strategy for the development of LSDRs and would enhance the likelihood of LSDRs being established which are dedicated to the wide range of important aging-related issues. PMID:21743049

  6. Role of EPA in Asset Management Research – The Aging Water Infrastructure Research Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    This slide presentation provides an overview of the EPA Office of Research and Development’s Aging Water infrastructure Research Program (AWIRP). The research program origins, goals, products, and plans are described. The research program focuses on four areas: condition asses...

  7. Adult Education and Aging: Perspectives on Research at a Private Independent Research Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ-Eft, Darlene

    As part of a symposium on challenges and problems of adult education researchers in different settings, recent research activities at one private independent research organization were examined. Three projects of the American Instituties for Research (AIR) were reviewed, all relating to adult development and aging. The first examined career…

  8. Aging Parents and Adult Children: Research Themes in Intergenerational Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancini, Jay A.; Blieszner, Rosemary

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the following dominant themes in the relationships of older parents and their adult children within the context of societal age structure changes: roles and responsibilities, parent-child interaction, individual well-being, relationship quality, and caregiving by adult children. Concludes with speculations on the future of research on…

  9. Transportation and Aging: A Research Agenda for Advancing Safe Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, Anne E.; Molnar, Lisa J.; Eby, David W.; Adler, Geri; Bedard, Michel; Berg-Weger, Marla; Classen, Sherrilene; Foley, Daniel; Horowitz, Amy; Kerschner, Helen; Page, Oliver; Silverstein, Nina M.; Staplin, Loren; Trujillo, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We review what we currently know about older driver safety and mobility, and we highlight important research needs in a number of key areas that hold promise for achieving the safety and mobility goals for the aging baby boomers and future generations of older drivers. Design and Methods: Through the use of a framework for transportation…

  10. Leading Edges: Recent Research on Psychosocial Aging. Review Essays Prepared for the White House Conference on Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Beth B., Ed.; Bond, Kathleen, Ed.

    The objectives of this book, a collection of papers about recent research on psychosocial aging, are to broaden scientific understanding of the psychosocial components of the aging process and the place of older people in society, and to call attention to a number of issues in aging research. The papers emphasize that aging does not occur in a…

  11. Health Screening and Random Recruitment for Cognitive Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Kathy J.; Moye, Jennifer; Armson, Rossana Rae; Kern, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    A survey of 197 cognitive aging studies revealed infrequent use of structured health assessments and random recruitment. In this study, a health screening questionnaire developed to identify subjects with medical problems that might impair cognition was administered to 315 adults aged 60 and older who were recruited by random digit dialing. On the basis of self-reported medical problems, 35% of the subjects were excluded. Those excluded were older (p < .001) and tended to be male but did not differ in education from those who passed the screening. Subjects who passed the screening and decided to participate in a neuropsychological research project were younger (p < .001), better educated (p < .001), and more likely to be male (p < .001) than nonparticipants. These findings suggest that careful assessment, selection, and description of subjects is needed to aid interpretation of cognitive aging research. Further attention to health status is needed to aid interpretation of cognitive aging research. Although random recruitment of the elderly is feasible, obtaining representative samples may require stratification on demographic variables. PMID:1610509

  12. The Geropathology Research Network: An Interdisciplinary Approach for Integrating Pathology Into Research on Aging.

    PubMed

    Ladiges, Warren; Ikeno, Yuji; Niedernhofer, Laura; McIndoe, Richard A; Ciol, Marcia A; Ritchey, Jerry; Liggitt, Denny

    2016-04-01

    Geropathology is the study of aging and age-related lesions and diseases in the form of whole necropsies/autopsies, surgical biopsies, histology, and molecular biomarkers. It encompasses multiple subspecialties of geriatrics, anatomic pathology, molecular pathology, clinical pathology, and gerontology. In order to increase the consistency and scope of communication in the histologic and molecular pathology assessment of tissues from preclinical and clinical aging studies, a Geropathology Research Network has been established consisting of pathologists and scientists with expertise in the comparative pathology of aging, the design of aging research studies, biostatistical methods for analysis of aging data, and bioinformatics for compiling and annotating large sets of data generated from aging studies. The network provides an environment to promote learning and exchange of scientific information and ideas for the aging research community through a series of symposia, the development of uniform ways of integrating pathology into aging studies, and the statistical analysis of pathology data. The efforts of the network are ultimately expected to lead to a refined set of sentinel biomarkers of molecular and anatomic pathology that could be incorporated into preclinical and clinical aging intervention studies to increase the relevance and productivity of these types of investigations. PMID:26243216

  13. A new research challenge: persuasive technology to motivate healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Intille, Stephen S

    2004-09-01

    Healthcare systems in developed countries are experiencing severe financial stress as age demographics shift upward, leading to a larger percentage of older adults needing care. One way to potentially reduce or slow spiraling medical costs is to use technology, not only to cure sickness, but also to promote wellness throughout all stages of life, thereby avoiding or deferring expensive medical treatments. Ubiquitous computing and context-aware algorithms offer a new healthcare opportunity and a new set of research challenges: exploiting emerging consumer electronic devices to motivate healthy behavior as people age by presenting "just-in-time" information at points of decision and behavior. PMID:15484427

  14. Aging Research in Higher Education: Research in Reading Processes of the Elderly (Problems and Promise).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walmsley, Sean A.; Allington, Richard

    1980-01-01

    Considers three issues related to the conduct of research into reading problems of the elderly: (1) the lack of federal funding of literacy research concerning the elderly, (2) differences between conducting research with school-aged populations and with the elderly, and (3) problems encountered in testing elderly individuals. (GT)

  15. Promoting Cognitive Health: A Formative Research Collaboration of the Healthy Aging Research Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laditka, James N.; Beard, Renee L.; Bryant, Lucinda L.; Fetterman, David; Hunter, Rebecca; Ivey, Susan; Logsdon, Rebecca G.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Wu, Bei

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Evidence suggests that healthy lifestyles may help maintain cognitive health. The Prevention Research Centers Healthy Aging Research Network, 9 universities collaborating with their communities and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, is conducting a multiyear research project, begun in 2005, to understand how to translate this…

  16. Nuclear plant-aging research on reactor protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the rsults of a review of the Reactor Trip System (RTS) and the Engineered Safety Feature Actuating System (ESFAS) operating experiences reported in Licensee Event Reports (LER)s, the Nuclear Power Experience data base, Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, and plant maintenance records. Our purpose is to evaluate the potential significance of aging, including cycling, trips, and testing as contributors to degradation of the RTS and ESFAS. Tables are presented that show the percentage of events for RTS and ESFAS classified by cause, components, and subcomponents for each of the Nuclear Steam Supply System vendors. A representative Babcock and Wilcox plant was selected for detailed study. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research guidelines were followed in performing the detailed study that identified materials susceptible to aging, stressors, environmental factors, and failure modes for the RTS and ESFAS as generic instrumentation and control systems. Functional indicators of degradation are listed, testing requirements evaluated, and regulatory issues discussed.

  17. Ageing, Drama, and Creativity: Translating Research Into Practice.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Jackie; Bernard, Miriam; Rezzano, Jill; Rickett, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Ageing, Drama, and Creativity was a pilot six-session interprofessional training course delivered collaboratively by Keele University and the New Vic Theatre, Newcastle-under-Lyme, as part of our Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) funded Ages and Stages follow-on project. The course brought together a critical gerontological approach with arts-based educational practices and was designed to develop practice capabilities and age awareness among a diverse group of professionals working in arts organizations, the voluntary sector, local government, health and social services, and housing. This article describes how the course was developed and how participants were selected, details its aims and objectives, provides an overview of the sessions and a flavor of some of the exercises that were used, and considers findings from the structured evaluation alongside written reflections from participants. PMID:26905617

  18. Ageing with elegans: a research proposal to map healthspan pathways.

    PubMed

    Luyten, Walter; Antal, Peter; Braeckman, Bart P; Bundy, Jake; Cirulli, Francesca; Fang-Yen, Christopher; Fuellen, Georg; Leroi, Armand; Liu, Qingfei; Martorell, Patricia; Metspalu, Andres; Perola, Markus; Ristow, Michael; Saul, Nadine; Schoofs, Liliane; Siems, Karsten; Temmerman, Liesbet; Smets, Tina; Wolk, Alicja; Rattan, Suresh I S

    2016-08-01

    Human longevity continues to increase world-wide, often accompanied by decreasing birth rates. As a larger fraction of the population thus gets older, the number of people suffering from disease or disability increases dramatically, presenting a major societal challenge. Healthy ageing has therefore been selected by EU policy makers as an important priority ( http://www.healthyageing.eu/european-policies-and-initiatives ); it benefits not only the elderly but also their direct environment and broader society, as well as the economy. The theme of healthy ageing figures prominently in the Horizon 2020 programme ( https://ec.europa.eu/programmes/horizon2020/en/h2020-section/health-demographic-change-and-wellbeing ), which has launched several research and innovation actions (RIA), like "Understanding health, ageing and disease: determinants, risk factors and pathways" in the work programme on "Personalising healthcare" ( https://ec.europa.eu/research/participants/portal/desktop/en/opportunities/h2020/topics/693-phc-01-2014.html ). Here we present our research proposal entitled "ageing with elegans" (AwE) ( http://www.h2020awe.eu/ ), funded by this RIA, which aims for better understanding of the factors causing health and disease in ageing, and to develop evidence-based prevention, diagnostic, therapeutic and other strategies. The aim of this article, authored by the principal investigators of the 17 collaborating teams, is to describe briefly the rationale, aims, strategies and work packages of AwE for the purposes of sharing our ideas and plans with the biogerontological community in order to invite scientific feedback, suggestions, and criticism. PMID:27040825

  19. Aging research 2011: exploring the pet dog paradigm.

    PubMed

    Waters, David J

    2011-01-01

    Researchers are counting on comparative biologists to find alternative animal models of human aging that will foster experimental approaches to study disability-free longevity, not just the addition of years. This article presents one such alternative: the use of pet dogs living in the same environment as people to study the determinants of healthy longevity. There are both theoretical and practical reasons for this research model beyond the well-documented physiologic similarities between dogs and humans. First, a wealth of medical data--based on clinical and biochemical evaluation, medical imaging, and pathology--is available for pet dogs. Second, a vast array of phenotypic domains can be accurately assessed in dogs, ranging from cardiac contractility and glomerular integrity to the ability to climb stairs and interact with people. Moreover, studying pet dogs obviates the purchase and per diem costs typically associated with large animal research. Pet dogs may be particularly well suited for exploring (1) mechanisms of sex differences in longevity; (2) interventions to compress morbidity and enhance healthspan; (3) genomic correlates of successful aging phenotypes and endophenotypes; (4) heterogeneity in resistance to aging-related diseases, such as cancer; and (5) noninvasive biomarkers of particular target organs. Finally, between-breed differences in senescence trajectories and longevity may expand hypotheses of key genetic factors that contribute to sustained organ function and the postponement of disease. Yet the pet dog paradigm in aging research is nascent; tapping into the potential of this model will add to the existing strengths of conventional model systems. PMID:21411862

  20. Priorities in the use of research into ageing.

    PubMed

    Lesser, Harry

    2005-03-01

    This paper considers which applications of research into ageing should be supported. It assumes that both applications which enhance the quality of life for the elderly and applications which extend the life-span are desirable, and then considers which should be prioritised. It is argued that in the present state of our knowledge and under present social and medical conditions there are a number of reasons for favouring the improvement of the quality of life over increasing the life-span, and thinking that this is likely to do more good and for more people. PMID:15889681

  1. The availability of research data declines rapidly with article age.

    PubMed

    Vines, Timothy H; Albert, Arianne Y K; Andrew, Rose L; Débarre, Florence; Bock, Dan G; Franklin, Michelle T; Gilbert, Kimberly J; Moore, Jean-Sébastien; Renaut, Sébastien; Rennison, Diana J

    2014-01-01

    Policies ensuring that research data are available on public archives are increasingly being implemented at the government [1], funding agency [2-4], and journal [5, 6] level. These policies are predicated on the idea that authors are poor stewards of their data, particularly over the long term [7], and indeed many studies have found that authors are often unable or unwilling to share their data [8-11]. However, there are no systematic estimates of how the availability of research data changes with time since publication. We therefore requested data sets from a relatively homogenous set of 516 articles published between 2 and 22 years ago, and found that availability of the data was strongly affected by article age. For papers where the authors gave the status of their data, the odds of a data set being extant fell by 17% per year. In addition, the odds that we could find a working e-mail address for the first, last, or corresponding author fell by 7% per year. Our results reinforce the notion that, in the long term, research data cannot be reliably preserved by individual researchers, and further demonstrate the urgent need for policies mandating data sharing via public archives. PMID:24361065

  2. Professor Age and Research Assistant Ratings of Passive-Avoidant and Proactive Leadership: The Role of Age-Related Work Concerns and Age Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacher, Hannes; Bal, P. Matthijs

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has shown that, in general, older professors are rated to have more passive-avoidant leadership styles than younger professors by their research assistants. The current study investigated professors' age-related work concerns and research assistants' favorable age stereotypes as possible explanations for this finding. Data came…

  3. Aging.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-09-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  4. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  5. Engaging Students in Aging Research through the Academic Research Enhancement Award Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Sandra S.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the R15, Academic Research Enhancement Award (AREA) mechanism available through the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for institutions that do not typically receive substantial NIH funding. Equipped with training received at the St. Scholastica National Institute on Social Work and Aging, I was able to secure AREA funding…

  6. Cross-Age Peer Mentoring. Research in Action. Issue 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karcher, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Cross-age peer mentoring is a somewhat unique and different approach to mentoring than the better-known adult-with-youth mentoring model. In cross-age mentoring programs (CAMPs) the mentor is an older youth, typically high school-aged, who is paired or matched with an elementary or middle school-aged child. Meetings almost always take place in the…

  7. NIH Research Addresses Aging Issues and Disparities in Oral Health | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging NIH Research Addresses Aging Issues and Disparities in Oral Health ... NIH Why is it important to have a research focus on older adults? One reason is that ...

  8. Translational Research Involving Oxidative Stress and Diseases of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Robert A.; Towner, Rheal A.; He, Ting; Hensley, Kenneth; Maples, Kirk R.

    2011-01-01

    There is ample mounting evidence that reactive oxidant species are exacerbated in inflammatory processes, many pathological conditions and underlying processes of chronic age-related diseases. Therefore there is increased expectation that therapeutics can be developed which act in some fashion to suppress reactive oxidant species and ameliorate the condition. This has turned out to be more difficult than at first expected. Developing therapeutics for indications where reactive oxidant species is an important consideration presents some unique challenges. We discuss important questions including whether reactive oxidant species should be a therapeutic target and the need to recognize the fact that an antioxidant in a defined chemical system may be a poor antioxidant operationally in a biological system and the importance of considering the fact that reactive oxidant species may accompany the disease or pathological system rather than being a causative factor. We also discuss the value of having preclinical models to determine if the processes which are important in causing the disease under study is critically dependent on reactive oxidant species events and if the therapeutic under consideration quells these processes. In addition we discuss measures of success that must be met in commercial research and development in preclinical and clinical trials and discuss as examples our translational research effort in developing nitrones for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke and as anti-cancer agents. PMID:21549833

  9. Active Ageing and Universities: Engaging Older Learners. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, Chris; Ogg, Jim

    2010-01-01

    This report reviews the engagement of older learners (defined as those aged 50 and over) in education and training with particular reference to their involvement in higher education. The ageing of populations was one of the most important trends in the 20th century and will raise major challenges in this century. Appended are: (1) Selected UK…

  10. Evaluation of a Training Program in Aging Research for Social Work Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrotra, Chandra M.; Townsend, Aloen; Berkman, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Since 2004, we have offered a postgraduate training program in aging research for social work faculty from across the country. The overarching goal of the program is to expand the pool of social work faculty engaged in aging research. This, in turn, will reinvigorate participants' teaching; prepare them to update aging-related content in the…

  11. Research on Rural Ageing: Where Have We Got to and Where Are We Going in Europe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burholt, Vanessa; Dobbs, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which rural studies conducted in Europe (compared to other countries in the Global North) have addressed the phenomenon of rural ageing. Through a review of the literature published on rural ageing research in the last decade, it compares the research goals identified by the International Rural Ageing Project…

  12. [Research of aerobic granule characteristics with different granule age].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Man; Yang, Chang-Zhu; Pu, Wen-Hong; Luo, Ying-Dong; Gong, Jian-Yu

    2012-03-01

    In the SBR reactor, we studied the different style, physicochemical characteristic, pollutants removal and microbial activity between the short age and long age aerobic granule, respectively. The short age aerobic granule was cultivated from activated floccules sludge and the other was gotten from aerobic granular sludge which was operated stably more than one year. The results indicated that the wet density, the specific gravity and integrated coefficient (IC) of the short age aerobic granule were 1.066 g x cm(-1), 1.013 g x cm(-3) and 98.7%, respectively. And that of long age were 1.026 g x cm(-3), 1.010 g x cm(-3) and 98.4%, respectively. All of them were higher than the long age aerobic granule. The mean diameters of them were 1.9 mm and 2.2 mm, respectively. The settling velocity of short age and long age aerobic granule were 0.005-0.032 m x s(-1) and 0.003-0.028 m x s(-1), respectively, and two kinds of aerobic granule settling velocity increased with the diameter increased. SVI of the former was lower. The COD removal rates of two aerobic granules were above 90%, and the NH4(+) -N removal rates of them were about 85%. The results of the COD effluent concentration, NH4(+) -N effluent concentration and the pollutants concentration in a typical cycle indicated that the short age aerobic granule had better pollutants removal efficiency. The TP removal rates of them were between 40% -90% and 32% -85%, respectively. The TN removal rates of them were about 80%. The SOUR(H) SOUR(NH4) and SOUR(NO2) of the short age aerobic granule were 26.4, 14.8 and 11.2 mg x (h x g)(-1), respectively. And that of long age were 25.2, 14.4 and 8.4 mg x (h x g)(-1), respectively. In summary, the aerobic granule had significantly different physical and chemical characteristics because of different granule age, and the short age aerobic granule exhibited better pollutants removal ability, higher microbial activity and more stability than the long age aerobic granule. PMID:22624385

  13. Practical applications of genomics research for treatment of aging skin.

    PubMed

    Kaczvinsky, Joseph R; Grimes, Pearl E

    2009-07-01

    Skin aging integrates the impact of extrinsic skin insults (e.g., ultraviolet [UV] light, etc.) with chronological, genetically programmed decreases in cellular function. A genomic study of aged skin highlighted the mechanistic importance of skin barrier function, exfoliation, control of reactive oxygen species and maintenance of extracellular matrix to the aging process. A set of topical products designed to address these mechanistic themes was developed and clinically tested. The individual products improved skin barrier function, hydration and skin turnover, as well as the smoothness and depth of periorbital wrinkles. Treatment with a regimen of these products improved the appearance of facial wrinkles after eight weeks. Changes in treated subjects' stratum corneum protein biomarker levels were consistent with the mechanistic pathways identified in the genomic work. Thus, leveraging a genomic understanding of skin aging led to the development of a clinically efficacious, aesthetically pleasing cosmetic regimen that improved the appearance of aged skin. PMID:19623780

  14. [White House Conference on Aging, 1981. Research in Aging. Report and Executive Summary of the Technical Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birren, James E.; And Others

    This Technical Committee Report provides an overview and historical sketch of research in aging and proposes a need for new knowledge. An examination of key issues notes the difficulty in assigning priority to research topics, and identifies emerging issues of public concern including: (1) physical health (alcohol and drugs, falls and accidents,…

  15. Increasing the Value of Age: Guidance in Employers' Age Management Strategies. Research Paper No 44

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The European active population is ageing. In the face of growing skills shortages, both national States and employers need to prolong the working lives of their most experienced workers. While enterprises strive to respond to this challenge, most still have not fully explored the potential of guidance activities in addressing age-related issues in…

  16. Reconceptualizing Design Research in the Age of Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannan, Brenda; Cook, John; Pachler, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to begin to examine how the intersection of mobile learning and design research prompts the reconceptualization of research and design individually as well as their integration appropriate for current, complex learning environments. To fully conceptualize and reconceptualize design research in mobile learning, the…

  17. Invertebrates as model organisms for research on aging biology

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Mahadev; Ram, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Invertebrate model systems, such as nematodes and fruit flies, have provided valuable information about the genetics and cellular biology involved in aging. However, limitations of these simple, genetically tractable organisms suggest the need for other model systems, some of them invertebrate, to facilitate further advances in the understanding of mechanisms of aging and longevity in mammals, including humans. This paper introduces 10 review articles about the use of invertebrate model systems for the study of aging by authors who participated in an ‘NIA-NIH symposium on aging in invertebrate model systems’ at the 2013 International Congress for Invertebrate Reproduction and Development. In contrast to the highly derived characteristics of nematodes and fruit flies as members of the superphylum Ecdysozoa, cnidarians, such as Hydra, are more ‘basal’ organisms that have a greater number of genetic orthologs in common with humans. Moreover, some other new model systems, such as the urochordate Botryllus schlosseri, the tunicate Ciona, and the sea urchins (Echinodermata) are members of the Deuterostomia, the same superphylum that includes all vertebrates, and thus have mechanisms that are likely to be more closely related to those occurring in humans. Additional characteristics of these new model systems, such as the recent development of new molecular and genetic tools and a more similar pattern to humans of regeneration and stem cell function suggest that these new model systems may have unique advantages for the study of mechanisms of aging and longevity. PMID:26241448

  18. Nutrition and aging: potentials and problems for research in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Solomons, N W

    1992-08-01

    The demographic explosion of persons over 60 years of age is a reality in developed and developing countries alike. There is evidence that research on aging and nutrition in Third World countries is growing and developing. Specific research programs, and the linking of these programs in timely multicenter efforts, promise both valuable descriptive research for the benefit of national populations and comparative insights that will help us to learn more, collectively, about the intrinsic nature of the aging process itself. PMID:1407753

  19. Research on Aging: A Piece of the Puzzle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Gene D.

    1979-01-01

    By following disorders over time, particularly into later life, and by studying changes that occur with the aging process, one sees new findings and clues emerging. These new leads can add to understanding mental illness and its treatment as well as human development in general. (Author)

  20. International Trends and Perspectives: Aging. International Research Document No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Jacob S.; Hoover, Sally L.

    This report considers demographic conditions and prospects for the countries of the world with respect to aging. Particular attention is paid to the implications for health care. The information analyzed and presented in this report was obtained from the latest population projections published by the United Nations. The countries are generally…

  1. Why is the dog an ideal model for aging research?

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Keiva M; Greer, Kimberly A

    2015-11-01

    With many caveats to the traditional vertebrate species pertaining to biogerontology investigations, it has been suggested that a most informative model is the one which: 1) examines closely related species, or various members of the same species with naturally occurring lifespan variation, 2) already has adequate medical procedures developed, 3) has a well annotated genome, 4) does not require artificial housing, and can live in its natural environment while being investigated, and 5) allows considerable information to be gathered within a relatively short period of time. The domestic dog unsurprisingly fits each criterion mentioned. The dog has already become a key model system in which to evaluate surgical techniques and novel medications because of the remarkable similarity between human and canine conditions, treatments, and response to therapy. The dog naturally serves as a disease model for study, obviating the need to construct artificial genetically modified examples of disease. Just as the dog offers a natural model for human conditions and diseases, simple observation leads to the conclusion that the canine aging phenotype also mimics that of the human. Genotype information, biochemical information pertaining to the GH/IGF-1 pathway, and some limited longitudinal investigations have begun the establishment of the domestic dog as a model of aging. Although we find that dogs indeed are a model to study aging and there are many independent pieces of canine aging data, there are many more "open" areas, ripe for investigation. PMID:26325590

  2. Research in the Biotech Age: Can Informational Privacy Compete?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peekhaus, Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the privacy of personal medical information in the health research context. Arguing that biomedical research in Canada has been caught up in the government's broader neoliberal policy agenda that has positioned biotechnology as a strategic driver of economic growth, the author discusses the tension between informational…

  3. Learning Design Research: Advancing Pedagogies in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobozy, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Learning design research (LDR) is establishing itself as a separate and specialised field of educational research. Worldwide, technology-mediated learning experiences in higher and further education are on the increase. LDR investigates their success in providing effective outcomes-based and personalised learning experiences. This paper reports on…

  4. Institutional Research in Australasia: Coming of Age or Coming Unstuck?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanlon, Martin; Rothery, Michael; Daldy, Rob

    2011-01-01

    The scope of institutional research (IR) undertaken in Australasian universities is progressively expanding. A traditional focus on student life cycle elements such as enrolment, retention and satisfaction has been complemented for some years now by other areas of focus including research performance and community engagement. More recently,…

  5. The Age of Clutter: Conducting Effective Research Using the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornaciari, Charles J.; Roca, Maria F. Loffredo

    1999-01-01

    Problems in using the Internet for research include knowledge of the technology, data relevance, information overload, and website evaluation. Solutions include making research mindful, defining problems effectively, determining information needs, identifying and evaluating information, and questioning source credibility and quality. (SK)

  6. Risk and ageing populations: practice development research through an international research network.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Charlotte L

    2006-09-01

    Background.  Risk theories derive from a range of disciplines, with nursing traditionally concentrating on scientific medical perspectives. However, for older people, risk perception and management is filled with complexity and paradox, and the threat of focusing on physical safety only to the detriment of the well-being of the older person. Method.  An international collaborative research network on risk in ageing populations has been developed, with 22 members in six countries (Britain, USA, India, South Africa, Australia and Northern Ireland). The network supports several independent projects, many of which have developed as a result of the network. An annual workshop for members has provided the opportunity to share and synthesize methodological experiences and to identify a developing model of risk for older people. Findings.  The developing model highlights the importance for older people of engaging with risk in a positive way, and describes patterns of risk-philic and risk-phobic activity. The inter-relationship of the individual older person with their community, with practitioners and with society is specific to the context of different countries. Conclusion.  Socio-critical practice development research can be a vehicle for advancing an understanding of risk theory for older people. Risk underpins concepts of choice and capacity to execute decisions. It is influenced by society, policy, health and social care services, and has a profound impact on the experiences of older people. PMID:20925746

  7. Education and Research for the Age of Nanoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    Nanoelectronics has great potential for further, sustainable growth, and this growth is needed worldwide, because new chips provide the technology foundation for all those products and services that shape our lives. However, the concern is justified that this truth is not the perception of the public in the first decades of the new millennium. How can we work towards a broad, sustained commitment to an innovation ecosystem involving education, research, business, and public policy? Reminding ourselves of the 10x programs invoked in Chap. 2 to describe major milestones in advancing microelectronics towards today's nanoelectronics, we notice that all of them demanded requirements-driven, top-down research with ambitious, often disruptive targets for new products or services. Coming closer to the end of the nanometer focus, the new task of global proportion should be a femto-Joule focus on minimum-energy nanoelectronic systems research.

  8. Attitudes of Elderly People about Clinical Research on Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Janet M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined participation of elderly people in research. Compared to subjects refusing consent, subjects signing consent had significantly more positive feelings about being used as subject; giving urine; giving blood; having physical examination; being interviewed; taking intelligence test; answering questions; being subject to help others; finding…

  9. USU research helps agriculture enter the space age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, F. B.

    1987-01-01

    Research at the Utah State University College of Agriculture that is relevant to the space life sciences is reviewed. Specific programs detailed are gravitropism of dicot stems, maximization of wheat yields for use in space exploration, and plant development processes in wheat in microgravity.

  10. Exploring Aging Attitudes through a Puppet Making Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteland, Susan R.

    2016-01-01

    Intergenerational programs often reduce ageism and stereotypical thinking. This author uses a mixed methods case study to investigate how attitudes may change when older adults and children participate in an intergenerational art project. The research question, "Is there a positive correlation in children's attitudes toward older adults and…

  11. Is the Golden Age of the Private Research University Over?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2013-01-01

    After receiving his PhD in 1970, the author has spent almost 30 years conducting research on the economics of higher education, chairing faculty budget committees at Cornell, serving as a Cornell vice president and then as a trustee of both Cornell and SUNY, and being associated with innumerable national commissions and higher education…

  12. Global Research in an Age of Export Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monastersky, Richard

    2008-01-01

    When a jury convicted a Tennessee professor this month of illegally exporting information to foreign countries via his graduate students and a trip to China, it sent a message to colleges that they need to scrupulously monitor their faculty members' research and their compliance with the often confusing universe of export-control regulations. In…

  13. Young People's Images of Old Age in Chile: Exploratory Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold-Cathalifaud, Marcelo; Thumala, Daniela; Urquiza, Anahi; Ojeda, Alejandra

    2008-01-01

    According to gerontological thought, an important part of senior citizens' disabilities are products of their social exclusion rather than factors associated with their physical or mental health. How these exclusions come about was the purpose of the research reported in this article. The study was conducted among 682 Chilean university students…

  14. The age of citizen science: Stimulating future environmental research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, S. N.

    2010-12-01

    Public awareness of the state of the ocean is growing with issues such as climate change, over-harvesting, marine pollution, coral bleaching, ocean acidification and sea level rise appearing regularly in popular media outlets. Society is also placing greater value on the range of ecosystem services the ocean provides. This increased consciousness of environmental change due to a combination of anthropogenic activities and impacts from climate change offers scientists the opportunity of engaging citizens in environmental research. The term citizen science refers to scientific research carried out by citizens and led by professionals, which involves large scale data collection whilst simultaneously engaging and educating those who participate. Most projects that engage citizen scientists have been specifically designed to provide an educational benefit to the volunteer and benefit the scientific inquiry by collecting extensive data sets over large geographical areas. Engaging the public in environmental science is not a new concept and successful projects (such as the Audobon Christmas Bird Count and Earthwatch) have been running for several decades resulting in hundreds of thousands of people conducting long-term field research in partnership with scientists based at universities worldwide. The realm of citizen science projects is continually expanding, with public engagement options ranging from science online; to backyard afternoon studies; to fully immersive experiential learning projects running for weeks at a time. Some organisations, such as Earthwatch also work in partnership with private industry; giving scientists access to more funding opportunities than those avenues traditionally available. These scientist -industry partnerships provide mutual benefits as the results of research projects in environments such as coastal ecosystems feed directly back into business risk strategies; for example mitigating shoreline erosion, storm surges, over fishing and

  15. Frontiers in the Use of Biomarkers of Health in Research on Stress and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, David M.; Dmitrieva, Natalia O.; Klein, Laura C.

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of biomarkers that reflect objective indicators of physiological processes has become increasingly popular in psychological research on stress and aging. The current article reviews biomarkers of the neuroendocrine and immune systems, including issues related to measurement and normative age-related changes. We also discuss how exposure to stressors can provoke changes in these biomarkers and propose that stressful experiences may accelerate age-related declines in these systems. We recommend that future research examining physical health and aging incorporate dynamic and multivariate methods for assessing links between stressors and biomarkers. PMID:20647348

  16. The global status of freshwater fish age validation studies and a prioritization framework for future research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Kevin L.; Hamel, Martin J.; Pegg, Mark A.; Spurgeon, Jonathan J.

    2016-01-01

    Age information derived from calcified structures is commonly used to estimate recruitment, growth, and mortality for fish populations. Validation of daily or annual marks on age structures is often assumed, presumably due to a lack of general knowledge concerning the status of age validation studies. Therefore, the current status of freshwater fish age validation studies was summarized to show where additional effort is needed, and increase the accessibility of validation studies to researchers. In total, 1351 original peer-reviewed articles were reviewed from freshwater systems that studied age in fish. Periodicity and age validation studies were found for 88 freshwater species comprising 21 fish families. The number of age validation studies has increased over the last 30 years following previous calls for more research; however, few species have validated structures spanning all life stages. In addition, few fishes of conservation concern have validated ageing structures. A prioritization framework, using a combination of eight characteristics, is offered to direct future age validation studies and close the validation information gap. Additional study, using the offered prioritization framework, and increased availability of published studies that incorporate uncertainty when presenting research results dealing with age information are needed.

  17. The CITRA Research-Practice Consensus-Workshop Model: Exploring a New Method of Research Translation in Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabir, Myra; Breckman, Risa; Meador, Rhoda; Wethington, Elaine; Reid, Carrington; Pillemer, Karl

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: On the basis of the experience of an extensive community-based research partnership in New York City, we developed an innovative process for bridging the gap between aging-related research and practice, using a consensus-workshop model. Design and Methods: We adapted the traditional scientific consensus-workshop model to include…

  18. Mentoring Australian Emerging Researchers in Aging: Evaluation of a Pilot Mentoring Scheme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henwood, Tim; Bartlett, Helen; Carroll, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    A survey of Australian emerging researchers in aging identified the need for greater professional development and networking opportunities. To address this, a formal mentorship scheme was developed and evaluated. Fourteen postgraduate researchers (proteges) were matched by discipline and research interest to experienced academics (mentors).…

  19. School Nurses Can Address Existing Gaps in School-Age Sleep Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willgerodt, Mayumi A.; Kieckhefer, Gail M.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep has been linked to a host of physical, behavioral, and emotional outcomes, and research has documented that youth across the globe are experiencing inadequate sleep. Despite this knowledge, however, very little research has been conducted on school-age children; much of the extant research has focused on infants, toddlers, preschoolers,…

  20. Investigating Moderator Hypotheses in Aging Research: Statistical, Methodological, and Conceptual Difficulties with Comparing Separate Regressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newsom, Jason T.; Prigerson, Holly G.; Schulz, Richard; Reynolds, Charles F., III

    2003-01-01

    Many topics in aging research address questions about group differences in prediction. Such questions can be viewed in terms of interaction or moderator effects, and use of appropriate methods to test these hypotheses are necessary to arrive at accurate conclusions about age differences. This article discusses the conceptual, methodological, and…

  1. On the Aging of Scientific Personnel in Higher Education and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elstermann, Gert

    1978-01-01

    The situation of "collective aging" of the academic staff in universities and research institutes caused by the skew age distribution and the zero-growth budgets in nearly all European countries is discussed. Possible policies to palliate the negative effects are considered along with support for junior staff with temporary contracts or limited…

  2. Developing a Community-Based Participatory Research Model to Engage Transition Age Youth Using Mental Health Service in Research

    PubMed Central

    Lincoln, Alisa K.; Borg, Ryan; Delman, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We present a model for the development and conduct of a Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) project with transition age youth (TAY) mental health service users. CBPR frameworks can facilitate equitable partnerships and meaningful inclusion, but have not been fully drawn-upon in mental health research. The model included TAY as trained research associates involved in every aspect of the research process. We describe the development of the project, creation of the research team, training, the design and conduct of the study, and challenges faced. The methods developed successfully provided support for the meaningful participation of TAY in the project. PMID:25423247

  3. Ageing and oxytocin: a call for extending human oxytocin research to ageing populations--a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Huffmeijer, Renske; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2013-01-01

    Interest in oxytocin has increased rapidly over the last decades. Consequently, quite a number of studies have addressed the influence of oxytocin on social stress, perception, cognition, and decision making in healthy adults as well as in clinical samples characterized by some form of social disturbance. Surprisingly little research on oxytocin has focused on ageing populations. This is particularly striking in two areas of study: the role of oxytocin in grandparents' behavior toward and bonding with their grandchildren and the effects of oxytocin on the neurocognitive processing of socioemotional stimuli. The current mini-review offers an overview of the literature on the involvement of oxytocin in parental behavior and neurocognitive functioning, and discusses the relevance of these findings to ageing individuals. As the literature shows that oxytocin is profoundly involved in parenting and in bonding throughout life, it is highly likely that oxytocin plays a role in grandparenting and bonding between grandparents and grandchildren as well. However, results obtained with younger adults may not be directly applicable to older individuals in yet another type of relationship. The possibility that age-related changes occur in the oxytocin system (which is at present unclear) must be taken into account. In addition, ageing impairs neurocognitive processes that are profoundly affected by oxytocin (including some aspects of memory and emotion recognition) and is associated with alterations in both structure and function of the amygdala, which is prominently involved in mediating effects of oxytocin. Research investigating the ageing oxytonergic system and studies focusing on the involvement of oxytocin in socioemotional neurocognitive processes and social behavior in elderly individuals, including grandparents, are therefore urgently needed. PMID:22922544

  4. Comparative and alternative approaches and novel animal models for aging research

    PubMed Central

    Kristan, D. M.

    2008-01-01

    This special issue of AGE showcases powerful alternative or unconventional approaches to basic aging research, including the use of exceptionally long-lived animal model species and comparative methods from evolutionary biology. In this opening paper, we introduce several of these alternative aging research themes, including the comparative phylogenetic approach. This approach applies modern inferential methods for dissecting basic physiological and biochemical mechanisms correlated with phenotypic traits including longevity, slow aging, sustained somatic maintenance, and repair of molecular damage. Comparative methods can be used to assess the general relevance of specific aging mechanisms—including oxidative processes—to diverse animal species, as well as to assess their potential clinical relevance to humans and other mammals. We also introduce several other novel, underexploited approaches with particular relevance to biogerontology, including the use of model animal species or strains that retain natural genetic heterogeneity, studies of effects of infectious disease and parasites on aging and responses to caloric restriction, studies of reproductive aging, and naturally occurring sex differences in aging. We emphasize the importance of drawing inferences from aging phenomena in laboratory studies that can be applied to clinically relevant aging syndromes in long-lived, outbred animals, including humans. PMID:19424857

  5. The Influence of Age, Health Literacy, and Affluence on Adolescents' Capacity to Consent to Research.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Lance R; Stupiansky, Nathan W; Ott, Mary A

    2016-04-01

    While adults are assumed to have the capacity to consent to medical research, and young children to have no capacity, adolescents' capacity to consent is not well described. Adapting the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR), we describe adolescents' capacity to consent to medical research and factors influencing that capacity. Our pilot study included a community-based sample of 30 adolescents, 14 to 21 years of age, who completed the MacCAT-CR after undergoing a simulated informed consent process. We found that adolescents' capacity to consent to research was associated with age, health literacy, and family affluence. These findings suggest that investigators and institutional review boards should be aware that factors other than age may influence capacity to consent, and, for modifiable factors, such as health literacy, consent processes for medical research with adolescents can be modified. PMID:27009303

  6. Five years of interdisciplinary research on ageing and technology: Outcomes of the Lower Saxony Research Network Design of Environments for Ageing (GAL)--an introduction to this Special Issue on Ageing and Technology.

    PubMed

    Haux, Reinhold; Hein, Andreas; Kolb, Gerald; Künemund, Harald; Eichelberg, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This Special Issue of Informatics for Health and Social Care is presenting outcomes of the Lower Saxony Research Network Design of Environments for Ageing (abbreviated as GAL), probably one of the largest inter- and multidisciplinary research projects on aging and technology. In order to investigate and provide answers on whether new information and communication technologies can contribute to keeping, or even improving quality of life, health and self-sufficiency in ageing societies through new ways of living and new forms of care, GAL had been established as a five-year research project, running from 2008 to 2013. Ambient-assisted living technologies in personal and home environments were especially important. During the five years of research in GAL, more than seventy researchers from computer science, economics, engineering, geriatrics, gerontology, informatics, medicine, nursing science and rehabilitation pedagogy intensively collaborated in finding answers. PMID:25148555

  7. HIV and Aging: State of Knowledge and Areas of Critical Need for Research

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    HIV risk behaviors, susceptibility to HIV acquisition, progression of disease after infection, and response to anti-retroviral therapy all vary by age. In those living with HIV, current effective treatment has increased the median life expectancy to > 70 years of age. Biologic, medical, individual social and societal issues change as one ages with HIV infection, but there has been only a small amount of research in this field. Therefore, the Office of AIDS Research of the National Institutes of Health commissioned a working group to develop an outline of the current state of knowledge and areas of critical need for research in HIV and Aging; the working groups’ findings and recommendations are summarized in this report. Key overarching themes identified by the group included: multi-morbidity, poly-pharmacy and the need to emphasize maintenance of function; the complexity of assessing HIV vs. treatment effects vs. aging vs. concurrent disease; the inter-related mechanisms of immune senescence, inflammation and hypercoagulability; the utility of multi-variable indices for predicting outcomes; a need to emphasize human studies to account for complexity; and a required focus on issues of community support, caregivers and systems infrastructure. Critical resources are needed to enact this research agenda and include expanded review panel expertise in aging, functional measures and multi-morbidity, as well as facilitated use and continued funding to allow long-term follow-up of cohorts aging with HIV. PMID:22688010

  8. Aging in Place: Evolution of a Research Topic Whose Time Has Come

    PubMed Central

    Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Steinman, Bernard A.; Liebig, Phoebe S.; Pynoos, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, policy makers and professionals who provide services to older adults with chronic conditions and impairments have placed greater emphasis on conceptualizing aging in place as an attainable and worthwhile goal. Little is known, however, of the changes in how this concept has evolved in aging research. To track trends in aging in place, we examined scholarly articles published from 1980 to 2010 that included the concept in eleven academic gerontology journals. We report an increase in the absolute number and proportion of aging-in-place manuscripts published during this period, with marked growth in the 2000s. Topics related to the environment and services were the most commonly examined during 2000–2010 (35% and 31%, resp.), with a substantial increase in manuscripts pertaining to technology and health/functioning. This underscores the increase in diversity of topics that surround the concept of aging-in-place literature in gerontological research. PMID:22175020

  9. Sleep, Cognition, and Normal Aging: Integrating a Half-Century of Multidisciplinary Research

    PubMed Central

    Scullin, Michael K.; Bliwise, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is implicated in cognitive functioning in young adults. With increasing age there are substantial changes to sleep quantity and quality including changes to slow wave sleep, spindle density, and sleep continuity/fragmentation. A provocative question for the field of cognitive aging is whether such changes in sleep physiology affect cognition (e.g., memory consolidation). We review nearly a half-century of research studies across 7 diverse correlational and experimental literature domains, which historically have had little crosstalk. Broadly speaking, sleep and cognitive functions are often related in advancing age, though the prevalence of null effects (including correlations in the unexpected, negative direction) in healthy older adults indicates that age may be an effect modifier of these associations. We interpret the literature as suggesting that maintaining good sleep quality, at least in young adulthood and middle age, promotes better cognitive functioning and serves to protect against age-related cognitive declines. PMID:25620997

  10. [Research on the silk aging with x-ray diffraction spectra].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-mei; Yuan, Si-xun

    2010-01-01

    The present paper did some researches on the deterioration mechanism and the changes in crystallinity of silk fabrics by means of the X-ray diffraction analysis. The samples artificially aged and excavated from Hubei, Innermongolia, Shaanxi and Qinghai provinces were analyzed. The artificial aging was done by simulating three main natural aging factors: light, heat and hydrolysis. The analytical results show that X-ray diffraction analysis could reveal the aging process and characteristic of silk, as well as the changes in crystallinity during silk aging. The X-ray diffraction analysis is of practical value for the conservation state and aging mechanism studies of ancient silk. In addition, X-ray diffraction analysis could also provide important information on ancient technology of textile and apparel. PMID:20302128

  11. Sleep, cognition, and normal aging: integrating a half century of multidisciplinary research.

    PubMed

    Scullin, Michael K; Bliwise, Donald L

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is implicated in cognitive functioning in young adults. With increasing age, there are substantial changes to sleep quantity and quality, including changes to slow-wave sleep, spindle density, and sleep continuity/fragmentation. A provocative question for the field of cognitive aging is whether such changes in sleep physiology affect cognition (e.g., memory consolidation). We review nearly a half century of research across seven diverse correlational and experimental domains that historically have had little crosstalk. Broadly speaking, sleep and cognitive functions are often related in advancing age, though the prevalence of null effects in healthy older adults (including correlations in the unexpected, negative direction) indicates that age may be an effect modifier of these associations. We interpret the literature as suggesting that maintaining good sleep quality, at least in young adulthood and middle age, promotes better cognitive functioning and serves to protect against age-related cognitive declines. PMID:25620997

  12. Mentoring across Generations: Engaging Age 50+ Adults as Mentors. Research in Action. Issue 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that older adult volunteers are more likely to be involved in relationship building with young people who are in difficult situations, in periods of transition, and in educational endeavors than volunteers of younger ages. Research also suggests that nurturing, giving to, and serving others contributes to greater…

  13. Intrinsic Motivation and Environmental Factors Affecting Research of Social Work Faculty on Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Janice G.; Short, Glenda F. Lester

    2010-01-01

    Within the context of Self-determination Theory, this research identifies intrinsic motivation and environmental factors that support social-work-faculty research in aging. Intrinsic factors include faculty's interest in gerontology as a field of practice, the desire to advance knowledge in the field of gerontology, including producing…

  14. Age as a Factor in Second Language Acquisition: A Review of Some Recent Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, D. M.

    The assumed connection between ease of language learning and age has been investigated in recent years by researchers from a wide range of disciplines. With the exception of the findings of research that authentic accents are more easily acquired by children, studies seem to indicate that efficiency in language learning increases with maturation.…

  15. Research on aging in Latin America: Present status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Sennott-Miller, L

    1994-01-01

    This essay examines the status of aging research in Latin America. It presents a profile of the aging population in the Region in relation to societal institutions, illustrating how the aged are only marginally served by them. Most of the available information is derived from secondary sources and comes from international and national agencies, and private organizations. Data-based research includes small-sample studies of specific issues and country-specific investigations by both U.S. and Latin American researchers. Paradigms used emphasize successful/productive aging, functional ability, and, to a lesser extent, work focused on health conditions or specific situations such as poverty. The best sources of contextual information are often unpublished or not published in the mainstream literature. Future directions recommended include organizing existing data to inform policy, identifying, with Latin American researchers, the most critical research questions, formalizing collaborative relationships, and holding a working conference of those involved in Latin American aging research to develop a future agenda. PMID:24390003

  16. School nurses can address existing gaps in school-age sleep research.

    PubMed

    Willgerodt, Mayumi A; Kieckhefer, Gail M

    2013-06-01

    Sleep has been linked to a host of physical, behavioral, and emotional outcomes, and research has documented that youth across the globe are experiencing inadequate sleep. Despite this knowledge, however, very little research has been conducted on school-age children; much of the extant research has focused on infants, toddlers, preschoolers, adolescents, and adults. School-age children exhibit increasing independence around health-related behaviors, which provide health professionals the opportunity to educate and promote healthy sleep behaviors. This commentary extends previous research reviews by identifying the current gaps in sleep research, highlighting future directions needed in sleep research, and explaining why school nurses are best suited to address this growing public health issue. PMID:23054101

  17. Biological, Clinical, and Psychosocial Correlates at the Interface of Cancer and Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    Dale, William; Mohile, Supriya G.; Eldadah, Basil A.; Trimble, Edward L.; Schilsky, Richard L.; Cohen, Harvey J.; Muss, Hyman B.; Schmader, Kenneth E.; Ferrell, Betty; Extermann, Martine; Nayfield, Susan G.

    2012-01-01

    In September 2010, the Cancer and Aging Research Group, in collaboration with the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute on Aging, conducted the first of three planned conferences to discuss research methodology to generate the highest quality research in older adults with cancer and then disseminate these findings among those working in the fields of cancer and aging. Conference speakers discussed the current level of research evidence in geriatric oncology, outlined the current knowledge gaps, and put forth principles for research designs and strategies that would address these gaps within the next 10 years. It was agreed that future oncology research trials that enroll older adults should include: 1) improved standardized geriatric assessment of older oncology patients, 2) substantially enhanced biological assessment of older oncology patients, 3) specific trials for the most vulnerable and/or those older than 75 years, and 4) research infrastructure that specifically targets older adults and substantially strengthened geriatrics and oncology research collaborations. This initial conference laid the foundation for the next two meetings, which will address the research designs and collaborations needed to enhance therapeutic and intervention trials in older adults with cancer. PMID:22457474

  18. Aced Out: Censorship of Qualitative Research in the Age of "Scientifically Based Research"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceglowski, Deborah; Bacigalupa, Chiara; Peck, Emery

    2011-01-01

    In this manuscript, we examine three layers of censorship related to the publication of qualitative research studies: (a) the global level of federal legislation and the definition of the "gold standard" of educational research, (b) the decline in the number of qualitative studies published in a top-tiered early childhood educational research…

  19. Anti-aging medicine and research: a realm of conflict and profound societal implications.

    PubMed

    Binstock, Robert H

    2004-06-01

    Biogerontologists have recently launched a war of words on anti-aging medicine. They seek to discredit what they judge to be fraudulent and harmful products and therapies, and to distinguish their own research from what they regard as the pseudoscience of anti-aging injections, special mineral waters, and other services and products. Yet, many of these biogerontologists are themselves trying to develop interventions that will actually slow or arrest the fundamental processes of human aging and substantially extend average life expectancy and maximum life span. Achievement of these biogerontological goals would drastically alter the nature of individual and collective life, radically transforming virtually every social institution and norm. Biogerontologists who are engaged in anti-aging research need to undertake more active leadership in helping the public to understand their goals, to deliberately consider the implications of their fulfillment, and to begin thinking about ways to shape those ramifications in constructive fashions. PMID:15215257

  20. Aging and energetics’ ‘Top 40’ future research opportunities 2010-2013

    PubMed Central

    Allison, David B.; Antoine, Lisa H.; Ballinger, Scott W.; Bamman, Marcas M.; Biga, Peggy; Darley-Usmar, Victor M.; Fisher, Gordon; Gohlke, Julia M.; Halade, Ganesh V.; Hartman, John L.; Hunter, Gary R.; Messina, Joseph L.; Nagy, Tim R.; Plaisance, Eric P.; Powell, Mickie L.; Roth, Kevin A.; Sandel, Michael W.; Schwartz, Tonia S.; Smith, Daniel L.; Sweatt, J. David; Tollefsbol, Trygve O.; Watts, Stephen A.; Yang, Yongbin; Zhang, Jianhua; Austad, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: As part of a coordinated effort to expand our research activity at the interface of Aging and Energetics a team of investigators at The University of Alabama at Birmingham systematically assayed and catalogued the top research priorities identified in leading publications in that domain, believing the result would be useful to the scientific community at large. Objective: To identify research priorities and opportunities in the domain of aging and energetics as advocated in the 40 most cited papers related to aging and energetics in the last 4 years. Design: The investigators conducted a search for papers on aging and energetics in Scopus, ranked the resulting papers by number of times they were cited, and selected the ten most-cited papers in each of the four years that include 2010 to 2013, inclusive. Results:   Ten research categories were identified from the 40 papers.  These included: (1) Calorie restriction (CR) longevity response, (2) role of mTOR (mechanistic target of Rapamycin) and related factors in lifespan extension, (3) nutrient effects beyond energy (especially resveratrol, omega-3 fatty acids, and selected amino acids), 4) autophagy and increased longevity and health, (5) aging-associated predictors of chronic disease, (6) use and effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), (7) telomeres relative to aging and energetics, (8) accretion and effects of body fat, (9) the aging heart,  and (10) mitochondria, reactive oxygen species, and cellular energetics. Conclusion: The field is rich with exciting opportunities to build upon our existing knowledge about the relations among aspects of aging and aspects of energetics and to better understand the mechanisms which connect them. PMID:25324965

  1. The synergistic effects of HIV, diabetes, and aging on cognition: implications for practice and research.

    PubMed

    Vance, David E; Fazeli, Pariya L; Dodson, Joan E; Ackerman, Michelle; Talley, Michele; Appel, Susan J

    2014-10-01

    Thanks to highly active antiretroviral therapy, many people infected with HIV will likely live into old age. Although this is a welcome prognosis, new issues are emerging that may complicate the ability to successfully age in this clinical population. HIV and aging independently are related to cognitive impairments, so there are concerns that those aging with HIV may be more at risk of such cognitive impairments. Moreover, highly active antiretroviral therapy itself can create metabolic disorders, such as prediabetes and/or frank type 2 diabetes, which have also been linked to poorer cognitive functioning. Thus, concerns increase that, as people age with HIV and develop comorbid metabolic disorders that may lead to type 2 diabetes, they will be at triple risk of developing cognitive impairments that can impair everyday functioning and reduce quality of life. This article explores these issues and provides implications for practice and research. PMID:25099061

  2. The Critical Need to Promote Research of Aging and Aging-related Diseases to Improve Health and Longevity of the Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Kunlin; Simpkins, James W.; Ji, Xunming; Leis, Miriam; Stambler, Ilia

    2015-01-01

    Due to the aging of the global population and the derivative increase in aging-related non-communicable diseases and their economic burden, there is an urgent need to promote research on aging and aging-related diseases as a way to improve healthy and productive longevity for the elderly population. To accomplish this goal, we advocate the following policies: 1) Increasing funding for research and development specifically directed to ameliorate degenerative aging processes and to extend healthy and productive lifespan for the population; 2) Providing a set of incentives for commercial, academic, public and governmental organizations to foster engagement in such research and development; and 3) Establishing and expanding coordination and consultation structures, programs and institutions involved in aging-related research, development and education in academia, industry, public policy agencies and at governmental and supra-governmental levels. PMID:25657847

  3. Pathways to Advancing Aging Policy-Relevant Research in Academic Settings.

    PubMed

    Kietzman, Kathryn G; Troy, Lisa M; Green, Carmen R; Wallace, Steven P

    2016-01-01

    Policy-level changes have a significant influence on the health and well-being of aging populations. Yet there is often a gap between scientific knowledge and policy action. Although previous research has identified barriers and facilitators to effective knowledge translation, little attention has been given to the role of academic institutions in knowledge generation. This exploratory focus group study examines barriers and pathways to developing and maintaining an aging policy-relevant research agenda in academic settings, and additional challenges associated with minority group membership in this pursuit. Participants were personally committed to conducting policy-relevant research despite institutional barriers such as fewer funding opportunities and less value attributed to their research, particularly in the context of tenure and promotion. Although many viewed their research as an opportunity to make a difference, especially for underserved older adult populations, a number of minority group participants expressed that their policy research interests were marginalized. Participants offer individual and institutional-level strategies for addressing barriers, including collaborating with community members and colleagues and engaging mentors within and outside of their academic institutions. Reframing the valuation of policy research through the diversification of funding and publishing opportunities can better support scholars engaged in aging policy-relevant research. PMID:26849290

  4. In Silico Approaches and the Role of Ontologies in Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    Boerries, Melanie; Busch, Hauke; de Grey, Aubrey; Hahn, Udo; Hiller, Thomas; Hoeflich, Andreas; Jansen, Ludger; Janssens, Georges E.; Kaleta, Christoph; Meinema, Anne C.; Schäuble, Sascha; Simm, Andreas; Schofield, Paul N.; Smith, Barry; Sühnel, Juergen; Vera, Julio; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wönne, Eva C.; Wuttke, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The 2013 Rostock Symposium on Systems Biology and Bioinformatics in Aging Research was again dedicated to dissecting the aging process using in silico means. A particular focus was on ontologies, because these are a key technology to systematically integrate heterogeneous information about the aging process. Related topics were databases and data integration. Other talks tackled modeling issues and applications, the latter including talks focused on marker development and cellular stress as well as on diseases, in particular on diseases of kidney and skin. PMID:24188080

  5. In silico approaches and the role of ontologies in aging research.

    PubMed

    Fuellen, Georg; Boerries, Melanie; Busch, Hauke; de Grey, Aubrey; Hahn, Udo; Hiller, Thomas; Hoeflich, Andreas; Jansen, Ludger; Janssens, Georges E; Kaleta, Christoph; Meinema, Anne C; Schäuble, Sascha; Simm, Andreas; Schofield, Paul N; Smith, Barry; Sühnel, Juergen; Vera, Julio; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wönne, Eva C; Wuttke, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    The 2013 Rostock Symposium on Systems Biology and Bioinformatics in Aging Research was again dedicated to dissecting the aging process using in silico means. A particular focus was on ontologies, because these are a key technology to systematically integrate heterogeneous information about the aging process. Related topics were databases and data integration. Other talks tackled modeling issues and applications, the latter including talks focused on marker development and cellular stress as well as on diseases, in particular on diseases of kidney and skin. PMID:24188080

  6. Critical action research applied in clinical placement development in aged care facilities.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lily D; Kelton, Moira; Paterson, Jan

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop quality clinical placements in residential aged care facilities for undergraduate nursing students undertaking their nursing practicum topics. The proportion of people aged over 65 years is expected to increase steadily from 13% in 2006 to 26% of the total population in Australia in 2051. However, when demand is increasing for a nursing workforce competent in the care of older people, studies have shown that nursing students generally lack interest in working with older people. The lack of exposure of nursing students to quality clinical placements is one of the key factors contributing to this situation. Critical action research built on a partnership between an Australian university and five aged care organisations was utilised. A theoretical framework informed by Habermas' communicative action theory was utilised to guide the action research. Multiple research activities were used to support collaborative critical reflection and inform actions throughout the action research. Clinical placements in eight residential aged care facilities were developed to support 179 nursing students across three year-levels to complete their practicum topics. Findings were presented in three categories described as structures developed to govern clinical placement, learning and teaching in residential aged care facilities. PMID:23134277

  7. Progress in Research on Aging in the Behavioral and Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birren, James E.

    1980-01-01

    Proposes a biobehavioral view of research on aging which suggests that behavior depends upon the limits set by genetic heritage, the modifications and reinforcements of physical and social environments, and the self-concept achieved through the integration of past life experiences. (Author/SS)

  8. Teaching Students How to Research the Past: Historians and Librarians in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author examines some issues linked to the impact of new technologies on teaching. In a 2003 survey, respondents stressed that the priority was to understand "how new media are changing student learning." There are by now numerous studies that attempt to assess how students conduct research and learn in the digital age, but…

  9. Building a Method for Researching Attribution of Meaning by Children Aged 5 to 6 in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tertoolen, Anja; van Oers, Bert; Geldens, Jeannette; Popeijus, Herman

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the first phase of a research project in which we looked for the voices of young children, aged 5 to 6, in school. What do children experience in school? What do they see as the meaning of school? What is their motivation? Children have the right to be listened to. The question is which settings, under which circumstances,…

  10. Choosing Assessment Instruments for Anxiety Practice and Outcome Research with School-Aged Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erford, Bradley T.; Lutz, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Using effect size results from our meta-analysis for the treatment of anxiety in school-aged youth, the practical and technical aspects of five commonly used anxiety instruments were analyzed, and effect size estimates compared to indicate the best choices for use in anxiety outcome research.

  11. History of the USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Jean Mayer United States Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, while quite a mouthful, is aptly named, since it has contributed substantially to the legacy of Jean Mayer, to the scientific stature of the USDA and, in Atwater’s tradition, to the d...

  12. Older-Adult Playfulness: An Innovative Construct and Measurement for Healthy Aging Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarnal, Careen; Qian, Xinyi

    2011-01-01

    Few studies of adult playfulness exist, but limited research on older adults and playfulness suggests that playfulness in later life improves cognitive, emotional, social, and psychological functioning and healthy aging overall. Older adults represent a rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, underscoring the need to understand the aging…

  13. School-Aged Children of Alcoholics: Theory and Research. Pamphlet Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeannette L.; Bennett, Linda A.

    Despite the research documenting the occurrence of alcoholism in families, little is known about how alcoholism is transmitted from one generation to the next or what causes several members of the same family to abuse alcohol. To date, the most consistent findings among school-aged children are reports of cognitive differences. Health problems,…

  14. Children's Attitudes toward Older Adults and Aging: A Synthesis of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Cara N.; Ricketts, Kristina G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper serves as a summation of literature on children's attitudes toward older adults and aging. Research indicates that the vast amount of information available provides varying levels of understanding toward children's actual views of older adults. Differences between measurements, settings, and procedures stand as barriers in…

  15. Unmasking the 'elderly mystique': Why it is time to make the personal political in ageing research.

    PubMed

    Carney, Gemma M; Gray, Mia

    2015-12-01

    This article uses feminist scholarship to investigate 'the elderly mystique'-which contends that the potential of old age is masked by a set of false beliefs about ageing (i.e. ageism) which permeate social, economic, and political life (Cohen, 1988). The article presents a theoretical model which explores the extent to which institutionalised ageism shapes the trajectory of life after 60.(1) The hypothesis underpinning the model is simple: The challenge for ageing societies is not the average age of a given population, but rather, how age is used to structure economic, social and political life. An inter-disciplinary framework is used to examine how biological facts about ageing are used to segregate older from younger people, giving older people the status of 'other'; economically through retirement, politically through assumptions about 'the grey vote,' and socially through ageist stereotyping in the media and through denial and ridicule of the sexuality of older people. Each domain is informed by the achievements of feminist theory and research on sexism and how its successes and failures can inform critical investigations of ageism. The paper recognises the role of ageism in de-politicising the lived experience of ageing. The paper concludes that feminist scholarship, particularly work by feminists in their seventies, eighties, and nineties, has much to offer in terms of re-framing gerontology as an emancipatory project for current and future cohorts of older people. PMID:26568222

  16. What makes age diverse teams effective? Results from a six-year research program.

    PubMed

    Wegge, J; Jungmann, F; Liebermann, S; Shemla, M; Ries, B C; Diestel, S; Schmidt, K-H

    2012-01-01

    Based on a new model of productivity in age diverse tams, findings from a six-year research program are reported in which data from more than 745 natural teams with 8,848 employees in three different fields (car production, administrative work, financial services) were collected. Moreover, central assumptions of this model were tested with a representative survey of the German workforce (N = 2,000). Results support both significant advantages and disadvantages for age-mixed teams. Based on the findings, the following preconditions for the effectiveness of age diverse teams are identified: high task complexity, low salience and high appreciation of age diversity, a positive team climate, low age-discrimination, ergonomic design of work places, and the use of age differentiated leadership. Based on these insights, we developed a new training for supervisors, which addresses the aforementioned aspects and seeks to improve team performance and health of team members. It was found that the training reduces age stereotypes, team conflicts and enhances innovation. Thus, we can conclude that effective interventions for a successful integration of elderly employees in work groups are available and that combinations of measures that address ergonomic design issues, team composition and leadership are to be strongly recommended for practice. PMID:22317517

  17. Bias in the reporting of sex and age in biomedical research on mouse models.

    PubMed

    Flórez-Vargas, Oscar; Brass, Andy; Karystianis, George; Bramhall, Michael; Stevens, Robert; Cruickshank, Sheena; Nenadic, Goran

    2016-01-01

    In animal-based biomedical research, both the sex and the age of the animals studied affect disease phenotypes by modifying their susceptibility, presentation and response to treatment. The accurate reporting of experimental methods and materials, including the sex and age of animals, is essential so that other researchers can build on the results of such studies. Here we use text mining to study 15,311 research papers in which mice were the focus of the study. We find that the percentage of papers reporting the sex and age of mice has increased over the past two decades: however, only about 50% of the papers published in 2014 reported these two variables. We also compared the quality of reporting in six preclinical research areas and found evidence for different levels of sex-bias in these areas: the strongest male-bias was observed in cardiovascular disease models and the strongest female-bias was found in infectious disease models. These results demonstrate the ability of text mining to contribute to the ongoing debate about the reproducibility of research, and confirm the need to continue efforts to improve the reporting of experimental methods and materials. PMID:26939790

  18. Bias in the reporting of sex and age in biomedical research on mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Flórez-Vargas, Oscar; Brass, Andy; Karystianis, George; Bramhall, Michael; Stevens, Robert; Cruickshank, Sheena; Nenadic, Goran

    2016-01-01

    In animal-based biomedical research, both the sex and the age of the animals studied affect disease phenotypes by modifying their susceptibility, presentation and response to treatment. The accurate reporting of experimental methods and materials, including the sex and age of animals, is essential so that other researchers can build on the results of such studies. Here we use text mining to study 15,311 research papers in which mice were the focus of the study. We find that the percentage of papers reporting the sex and age of mice has increased over the past two decades: however, only about 50% of the papers published in 2014 reported these two variables. We also compared the quality of reporting in six preclinical research areas and found evidence for different levels of sex-bias in these areas: the strongest male-bias was observed in cardiovascular disease models and the strongest female-bias was found in infectious disease models. These results demonstrate the ability of text mining to contribute to the ongoing debate about the reproducibility of research, and confirm the need to continue efforts to improve the reporting of experimental methods and materials. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13615.001 PMID:26939790

  19. Twins and the paradox of dental-age estimations: a caution for researchers and clinicians.

    PubMed

    Pechníková, M; De Angelis, D; Gibelli, D; Vecchio, V; Cameriere, R; Zeqiri, B; Cattaneo, C

    2014-08-01

    The biological age difference among twins is frequently an issue in studies of genetic influence on various dental features, particularly dental development. The timing of dental development is a crucial issue also for many clinicians and researchers. The aim of this study was therefore to verify within groups of twins how dental development differs, by applying Demirjian's method, Mincer's charts of development of third molars and two of Cameriere's methods for dental age estimation, which are among the most popular methods both in the clinical and the forensic scenario. The sample consisted of 64 twin pairs: 21 monozygotic, 30 dizygotic same-sex and 13 dizygotic opposite-sex with an age range between 5.8 and 22.6 years. Dental age was determined from radiographs using the mentioned methods. Results showed that dental age of monozygotic twins is not identical even if they share all their genes. The mean intra-pair difference of monozygotic pairs was low and similar to the difference in dizygotic same-sex twins; the maximum difference between monozygotic twins, however, was surprisingly large (nearly two years). This should lead to some circumspection in the interpretation of systematic estimations of dental age both in the clinical and forensic scenario. PMID:24951409

  20. The Somatotropic Axis in Human Aging: Framework for the Current State of Knowledge and Future Research.

    PubMed

    Milman, Sofiya; Huffman, Derek M; Barzilai, Nir

    2016-06-14

    Mutations resulting in reduced signaling of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH/IGF-1) axis are associated with increased life- and healthspan across model organisms. Similar findings have been noted in human cohorts with functional mutations in the somatotropic axis, suggesting that this pathway may also be relevant to human aging and protection from age-related diseases. While epidemiological data indicate that low circulating IGF-1 level may protect aging populations from cancer, results remain inconclusive regarding most other diseases. We propose that studies in humans and animals need to consider differences in sex, pathway function, organs, and time-specific effects of GH/IGF-1 signaling in order to better define the role of the somatotropic axis in aging. Agents that modulate signaling of the GH/IGF-1 pathway are available for human use, but before they can be implemented in clinical studies that target aging and age-related diseases, researchers need to address the challenges discussed in this Review. PMID:27304500

  1. Engaging Graduate-Level Distance Learners in Research: A Collaborative Investigation of Rural Aging.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Melissa L; Fuller-Iglesias, Heather; Bishop, Alexander J; Doll, Gayle; Killian, Timothy; Margrett, Jennifer; Pearson-Scott, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Online educational programs pose challenges to nonresidential graduate students for whom research is a key professional development experience. In this article, the authors share their pedagogical approach to engaging graduate-level online distance learners in research. Five students enrolled in an online master's degree program participated in a directed research course designed to facilitate a semester-long, collaborative, hands-on research experience in gerontology. As such, students recruited participants and conducted phone interviews for a multisite study examining aging in place in rural areas. Several strategies were used to facilitate student engagement and learning, including: regular meetings with faculty mentors, creation of a research team across institutions, interactive training, and technological tools to aid in communication. The authors discuss the process of implementing the project, challenges that arose, strategies for dealing with these issues, and a pedagogical framework that could be used to guide future endeavors of this type. PMID:26865026

  2. City Initiatives in School-Age Child Care. SACC Action Research Paper No. 1. School-Age Child Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannett, Ellen

    Features contributing to the success of six city-wide, comprehensive school-age program models are highlighted. Models are Seattle, Washington's Community Partnerships for School-Age Child Care; Madison, Wisconsin's School-Age Child Care Project; Irvine, California's Irvine Child Care Project; Houston, Texas' After-School Partnership; Los Angeles,…

  3. Wild-derived mouse stocks: an underappreciated tool for aging research

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Virtually all biomedical research makes use of a relatively small pool of laboratory-adapted, inbred, isogenic stocks of mice. Although the advantages of these models are many, there are a number of disadvantages as well. When studying a multifaceted process such as aging, the problems associated with using laboratory stocks are greatly inflated. On the other hand, wild-derived mouse stocks, loosely defined here as either wild-caught individuals or the recent progeny of wild-caught individuals, have much to offer to biogerontology research. Hence, the aims of this review are threefold: (1) to (re)acquaint readers with the pros and cons of using a typical inbred laboratory mouse model for aging research; (2) to reintroduce the notion of using wild-derived mouse stocks in aging research as championed by Austad, Miller and others for more than a decade, and (3) to provide an overview of recent advances in biogerontology using wild-derived mouse stocks. PMID:19424863

  4. A Vital Legacy: Biological and Environmental Research in the Atomic Age

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1997-09-01

    This booklet presents a summary of the five decades of biological and environmental research in the atomic age. It commemorates the contributions to science and society during these decades and concludes with a view to the years ahead. The Contents includes Safety First: in the Shadow of a New Technology; A Healthy Citizenry: Gifts of the New Era; and Environmental Concerns: From Meteorology to Ecology. The conclusion is titled An Enduring Mandate: Looking to the Future.

  5. A vital legacy: Biological and environmental research in the atomic age

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughan, D.

    1997-09-01

    This booklet presents a summary of the five decades of biological and environmental research in the atomic age. It commemorates the contributions to science and society during these decades and concludes with a view to the years ahead. The Contents includes `Safety First: in the Shadow of a New Technology; A Healthy Citizenry: Gifts of the New Era; and Environmental Concerns: From Meteorology to Ecology`. The conclusion is titled `An Enduring Mandate: Looking to the Future`.

  6. Healthy ageing supported by technology – a cross-disciplinary research challenge

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade, the challenges of an ageing society became focus for extensive scientific, public and political discussions. From discussions in scientific fora within each discipline, there is now a shift towards cross-disciplinary scientific approaches. The aim of this article is therefore, to collect and describe different scientific viewpoints in this regard and to point out research gaps to be addressed in the future. The article is based on a number of review articles and keynote lectures given by the author, and complemented with informal interviews of experts from different scientific fields engaged in the field of technology and ageing. Results show that research has emerged from being technology-focussed to scenario-based taking different scientific perspectives into account. However, the biggest challenge still is to accommodate the need for a holistic integrated service which means to provide personalised services and adapt technology and content to individual needs of different stakeholders. Further, cross-disciplinary research is needed that relates informatics and technology to different stages of the aging process and that evaluates the effects of proposed technical solutions. PMID:21133765

  7. How are academic age, productivity and collaboration related to citing behavior of researchers?

    PubMed

    Milojević, Staša

    2012-01-01

    References are an essential component of research articles and therefore of scientific communication. In this study we investigate referencing (citing) behavior in five diverse fields (astronomy, mathematics, robotics, ecology and economics) based on 213,756 core journal articles. At the macro level we find: (a) a steady increase in the number of references per article over the period studied (50 years), which in some fields is due to a higher rate of usage, while in others reflects longer articles and (b) an increase in all fields in the fraction of older, foundational references since the 1980s, with no obvious change in citing patterns associated with the introduction of the Internet. At the meso level we explore current (2006-2010) referencing behavior of different categories of authors (21,562 total) within each field, based on their academic age, productivity and collaborative practices. Contrary to some previous findings and expectations we find that senior researchers use references at the same rate as their junior colleagues, with similar rates of re-citation (use of same references in multiple papers). High Modified Price Index (MPI, which measures the speed of the research front more accurately than the traditional Price Index) of senior authors indicates that their research has the similar cutting-edge aspect as that of their younger colleagues. In all fields both the productive researchers and especially those who collaborate more use a significantly lower fraction of foundational references and have much higher MPI and lower re-citation rates, i.e., they are the ones pushing the research front regardless of researcher age. This paper introduces improved bibliometric methods to measure the speed of the research front, disambiguate lead authors in co-authored papers and decouple measures of productivity and collaboration. PMID:23145111

  8. How Are Academic Age, Productivity and Collaboration Related to Citing Behavior of Researchers?

    PubMed Central

    Milojević, Staša

    2012-01-01

    References are an essential component of research articles and therefore of scientific communication. In this study we investigate referencing (citing) behavior in five diverse fields (astronomy, mathematics, robotics, ecology and economics) based on 213,756 core journal articles. At the macro level we find: (a) a steady increase in the number of references per article over the period studied (50 years), which in some fields is due to a higher rate of usage, while in others reflects longer articles and (b) an increase in all fields in the fraction of older, foundational references since the 1980s, with no obvious change in citing patterns associated with the introduction of the Internet. At the meso level we explore current (2006–2010) referencing behavior of different categories of authors (21,562 total) within each field, based on their academic age, productivity and collaborative practices. Contrary to some previous findings and expectations we find that senior researchers use references at the same rate as their junior colleagues, with similar rates of re-citation (use of same references in multiple papers). High Modified Price Index (MPI, which measures the speed of the research front more accurately than the traditional Price Index) of senior authors indicates that their research has the similar cutting-edge aspect as that of their younger colleagues. In all fields both the productive researchers and especially those who collaborate more use a significantly lower fraction of foundational references and have much higher MPI and lower re-citation rates, i.e., they are the ones pushing the research front regardless of researcher age. This paper introduces improved bibliometric methods to measure the speed of the research front, disambiguate lead authors in co-authored papers and decouple measures of productivity and collaboration. PMID:23145111

  9. Cable Polymer Aging and Condition Monitoring Research at Sandia National Laboratores Under the Nuclear Energy Plant Optimization (NEPO) Program

    SciTech Connect

    K. Gillen; R. Assink; R. Bernstein

    2005-12-23

    This report describes cable polymer aging and condition monitoring research performed at Sandia National Laboratories under the Nuclear Energy Plant Optimization (NEPO) Program from 2000 to 2005. The research results apply to low-voltage cable insulation and Program from 2000 to 2005. The research results apply to low-voltage cable insulation and jacket materials that are commonly used in U.S. nuclear power plants. The research builds upon and is liked to research performed at Sandia from 1977 through 1986, sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Aged and unaged specimens from that research remained available and were subjected to further testing under the NEPO research effort.The documented results from the earlier research were complemented by subjecting the specimens to new condition monitoring tests. Additional aging regimens were applied to additional specimens to develop aging models for key cable jacket and insulation materials

  10. The Psychology of Aging: Canadian Research in an International Context. [and] Commentary: A Historical Perspective on the US-Canada Connection in the Psychology of Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Roger A.; Cohen, Anna-Lisa

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes a broad and inclusive model of the psychology of aging and highlights ways in which Canadian research and training reflects and advances scholarly agendas. Commentary by Neil Charness highlights differences in U.S. and Canadian perspectives and the cross-fertilization between the two research communities. Contains 131 references. (JOW)

  11. Barriers to participation in mental health research: are there specific gender, ethnicity and age related barriers?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is well established that the incidence, prevalence and presentation of mental disorders differ by gender, ethnicity and age, and there is evidence that there is also differential representation in mental health research by these characteristics. The aim of this paper is to a) review the current literature on the nature of barriers to participation in mental health research, with particular reference to gender, age and ethnicity; b) review the evidence on the effectiveness of strategies used to overcome these barriers. Method Studies published up to December 2008 were identified using MEDLINE, PsycINFO and EMBASE using relevant mesh headings and keywords. Results Forty-nine papers were identified. There was evidence of a wide range of barriers including transportation difficulties, distrust and suspicion of researchers, and the stigma attached to mental illness. Strategies to overcome these barriers included the use of bilingual staff, assistance with travel, avoiding the use of stigmatising language in marketing material and a focus on education about the disorder under investigation. There were very few evaluations of such strategies, but there was evidence that ethnically matching recruiters to potential participants did not improve recruitment rates. Educational strategies were helpful and increased recruitment. Conclusion Mental health researchers should consider including caregivers in recruitment procedures where possible, provide clear descriptions of study aims and describe the representativeness of their sample when reporting study results. Studies that systematically investigate strategies to overcome barriers to recruitment are needed. PMID:21126334

  12. Overview of U.S. EPA Aging Water Infrastructure Research Program - Interfacing with the Water Industry on Technology Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    This slide presentation summarizes key elements of the EPA Office of Research and Development’s (ORD) Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) Research program. An overview of the national problems posed by aging water infrastructure is followed by a brief description of EPA’s overall r...

  13. A review of the literature on the aging adult skull and face: implications for forensic science research and applications.

    PubMed

    Albert, A Midori; Ricanek, Karl; Patterson, Eric

    2007-10-01

    This paper is a summary of findings of adult age-related craniofacial morphological changes. Our aims are two-fold: (1) through a review of the literature we address the factors influencing craniofacial aging, and (2) the general ways in which a head and face age in adulthood. We present findings on environmental and innate influences on face aging, facial soft tissue age changes, and bony changes in the craniofacial and dentoalveolar skeleton. We then briefly address the relevance of this information to forensic science research and applications, such as the development of computer facial age-progression and face recognition technologies, and contributions to forensic sketch artistry. PMID:17434276

  14. Environments for Healthy Aging: Linking Prevention Research and Public Health Practice

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Lynda A.; Belza, Basia; Bodiford, Kristin; Hooker, Steven P.; Kochtitzky, Chris S.; Marquez, David X.; Satariano, William A.

    2013-01-01

    Safe and well-designed community environments support healthful behaviors that help prevent chronic conditions and unintentional injuries and enable older adults to be active and engaged in community life for as long as possible. We describe the work of the Healthy Aging Research Network (HAN) and partners over the past decade to better understand place-based determinants of health and translate that knowledge to real-world practice, with a focus on environmental strategies. Using key components of the Knowledge to Action framework, we document the importance of a sustained, multidisciplinary, collaborative approach and ongoing interaction between researchers and communities. We share examples of practical tools and strategies designed to engage and support critical sectors with the potential to enhance the health and well-being of older adults and their communities. We conclude with a description of lessons learned in facilitating the translation of prevention research into practice. PMID:23597393

  15. [Autonomy despite multimorbidity in old age--the Berlin-based AMA research consortium].

    PubMed

    Schüz, B; Dräger, D; Richter, S; Kummer, K; Kuhlmey, A; Tesch-Römer, C

    2011-12-01

    The proportion of the population with multiple illnesses increases with age and growing numbers of people are now living to a very old age. Despite medical progress and improved living conditions, many old people have to deal with physical, psychological, and social impairments. It is a crucial challenge for health and social policy to support the elderly with health-related impairments in their desire to lead as independent a life as possible. Against this background the research consortium Autonomy Despite Multimorbidity in Old Age (AMA I) examined the extent to which the self-determined life style of multimorbid old and very old persons can be supported and maintained. In order to reflect the diversity of life worlds of the elderly, the study sample included participants who were not notably impaired in their everyday functioning, participants in need of nursing care and participants with cognitive impairments. Moreover, the sample comprised both older persons who were still living in their own homes and nursing home residents. The studies conducted within the AMA framework focused on the resources available to old persons living in different situations and on how these resources can be strengthened. This article presents findings from the first phase of funding of the AMA research consortium. In a second phase of funding (2011-2013, AMA II), sustainable practice-based interventions are being developed to mobilize resources which can help multimorbid older persons to maintain their autonomy and the practical viability of these interventions will be tested. PMID:22270971

  16. Aging Management of Nuclear Power Plant Concrete Structures - Overview and Suggested Research Topics

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, Dan J

    2008-10-01

    Nuclear power plant concrete structures are described and their operating experience noted. Primary considerations related to management of their aging are noted and an indication of their status provided: degradation mechanisms, damage models, and material performance; assessment and remediation (i.e., component selection, in-service inspection, nondestructive examinations, and remedial actions); and estimation of performance at present or some future point in time (i.e., application of structural reliability theory to the design and optimization of in-service inspection/maintenance strategies, and determination of the effects of degradation on plant risk). Several activities are identified that provide background information and data on areas of concern with respect to nondestructive examination of nuclear power plant concrete structures: inspection of thick-walled, heavily-reinforced sections, basemats, and inaccessible areas of the containment metallic pressure boundary. Topics are noted where additional research would be of benefit to aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures.

  17. The Synergistic Effects of HIV, Diabetes, and Aging on Cognition: Implications for Practice and Research

    PubMed Central

    Vance, David E.; Fazeli, Pariya L.; Dodson, Joan E.; Ackerman, Michelle; Talley, Michele; Appel, Susan J.

    2014-01-01

    In addition to the obvious health problems and/or physical limitations associated with HIV, diabetes, and aging, each of these are known to independently affect cognitive functioning. While this relationship to cognition does not necessarily mean frank cognitive impairments are inevitable with HIV, diabetes, and aging, it does entail that each of these conditions may lead to poorer cognitive performance compared to younger adults and individuals without HIV and diabetes. Many individuals may be aware of the physical symptoms associated with these diseases, but may be unaware of the cognitive outcomes associated with HIV and diabetes, especially if not controlled by medication and a healthy lifestyle. Additionally, individuals may be unaware of the significance of maintaining optimal cognitive functioning in order to maintain optimal everyday functioning abilities such as driving, cooking, managing medication regimens, and negotiating finances. Given that highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has allowed individuals with HIV to live to reach older adulthood, and that dysglycemia and/or type 2 diabetes can be a metabolic side effect of these medications (Biron et al., 2012; Norbiato, 2012; Raper, 2010), it is reasonable to assume that there is a subset of individuals aging with HIV and diabetes, which may become more prevalent as individuals continue to age with HIV in the coming decades. Thus, the purpose of this article is to inform healthcare providers and researchers about the cognitive outcomes associated with HIV, diabetes, and aging independently within the context of cognitive reserve, and then to examine the potential synergistic effects of these conditions in individuals living with all three (Figure 1). This article also incorporates potential intervention strategies to protect and possibly improve cognitive functioning, or at the very least mitigate cognitive loss, in this population. PMID:25099061

  18. An overview of NASA research related to the aging commercial transport fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles E.; Heyman, Joseph S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the research activities of the NASA Airframe Structural Integrity Program for the aging commercial transport fleet. Advanced analysis methods are under development to predict the fatigue crack growth in complex built-up shell structures. Innovative nondestructive examination technologies are under development to provide large area inspection capability to detect corrosion, disbonds, and fatigue cracks. The ultimate goal of this interdisciplinary program is to develop and transfer advanced technology to the airline operators and airframe manufacturers. The program is being conducted cooperatively with the FAA and the U.S. industry.

  19. Who theorizes age? The "socio-demographic variables" device and age-period-cohort analysis in the rhetoric of survey research.

    PubMed

    Rughiniș, Cosima; Humă, Bogdana

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we argue that quantitative survey-based social research essentializes age, through specific rhetorical tools. We outline the device of 'socio-demographic variables' and we discuss its argumentative functions, looking at scientific survey-based analyses of adult scientific literacy, in the Public Understanding of Science research field. 'Socio-demographics' are virtually omnipresent in survey literature: they are, as a rule, used and discussed as bundles of independent variables, requiring little, if any, theoretical and measurement attention. 'Socio-demographics' are rhetorically effective through their common-sense richness of meaning and inferential power. We identify their main argumentation functions as 'structure building', 'pacification', and 'purification'. Socio-demographics are used to uphold causal vocabularies, supporting the transmutation of the descriptive statistical jargon of 'effects' and 'explained variance' into 'explanatory factors'. Age can also be studied statistically as a main variable of interest, through the age-period-cohort (APC) disambiguation technique. While this approach has generated interesting findings, it did not mitigate the reductionism that appears when treating age as a socio-demographic variable. By working with age as a 'socio-demographic variable', quantitative researchers convert it (inadvertently) into a quasi-biological feature, symmetrical, as regards analytical treatment, with pathogens in epidemiological research. PMID:26568224

  20. Developing a plasma focus research training system for the fusion energy age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.

    2014-08-01

    The 3 kJ UNU/ICTP Plasma Focus Facility is the most significant device associated with the AAAPT (Asian African Association for Plasma Training). In original and modified/upgraded form it has trained generations of plasma focus (PF) researchers internationally, producing many PhD theses and peer-reviewed papers. The Lee Model code was developed for the design of this PF. This code has evolved to cover all PF machines for design, interpretation and optimization, for derivation of radiation scaling laws; and to provide insights into yield scaling limitations, radiative collapse, speed-enhanced and current-stepped PF variants. As example of fresh perspectives derivable from this code, this paper presents new results on energy transfers of the axial and radial phases of generalized PF devices. As the world moves inexorably towards the Fusion Energy Age it becomes ever more important to train plasma fusion researchers. A recent workshop in Nepal shows that demand for such training continues. Even commercial project development consultants are showing interest. We propose that the AAAPT-proven research package be upgraded, by modernizing the small PF for extreme modes of operation, switchable from the typical strong-focus mode to a slow-mode which barely pinches, thus producing a larger, more uniform plasma stream with superior deposition properties. Such a small device would be cost-effective and easily duplicated, and have the versatility of a range of experiments from intense multi-radiation generation and target damage studies to superior advanced-materials deposition. The complementary code is used to reference experiments up to the largest existing machine. This is ideal for studying machine limitations and scaling laws and to suggest new experiments. Such a modernized versatile PF machine complemented by the universally versatile code would extend the utility of the PF experience; so that AAAPT continues to provide leadership in pulsed plasma research training in

  1. Invited Commentary: Lessons for Research on Cognitive Aging From a Study of Children.

    PubMed

    Belsky, Daniel W

    2016-06-15

    As the population ages, the burden of disease from cognitive decline and dementing illness is rising. In the absence of treatments to reverse cognitive decline, prevention is a public health priority. Physical fitness and physical activity have emerged as prevention targets based on evidence of "neuroprotective" benefits in observational studies. However, observational studies linking active lifestyle with successful cognitive aging might be subject to bias from "neuroselection," in which adults with better cognitive functioning are more likely to engage in healthy behaviors and avoid unhealthy ones. In their analysis of longitudinal data on several thousand children from the United Kingdom's Millennium Cohort Study, Aggio et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2016;183(12):1075-1082) revealed that this pattern of neuroselection is already apparent in childhood. However, they also report data that suggest there are cognitive benefits to engaging in certain types of active behaviors over and above this selection. Their findings argue for greater attention to confounding by neuroselection in research on cognitive aging, and they suggest the possibility that early interventions to promote certain health behaviors may instill a virtuous cycle with benefits that accumulate across the lifespan. PMID:27226250

  2. Life at Age 100: An International Research Agenda for Centenarian Studies.

    PubMed

    Jopp, Daniela S; Boerner, Kathrin; Ribeiro, Oscar; Rott, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Living a long life is desired by many individuals, and this dream is likely to become reality in more and more industrialized societies. During the past 3 decades, the number of very old individuals has increased significantly, creating a global demographic challenge with consequences at the individual, family, and societal levels. Yet, life in very old age is still poorly understood in terms of its unique characteristics and challenges. Besides specific content areas, very old age represents an understudied field of research. This lack of knowledge may be one reason that the very old also are an underserved population. This special issue introduces an international network of three centenarian studies that describe and compare the life circumstances and characteristics of centenarians across Germany, Portugal, and the United States. Our parallel studies comprehensively assess centenarians' physical, cognitive, social, and psychological functioning to create a knowledge base regarding their capacities and needs. A specific focus lies in the investigation of psychological aspects, social resources, and societal/cultural contexts, factors that may contribute to longevity and successful aging. Determining key characteristics of this very old population and investigating similarities and differences across countries is timely and urgent, both from an applied and a policy standpoint. PMID:26984376

  3. Four-vessel occlusion model using aged male Wistar rats: a reliable model to resolve the discrepancy related to age in cerebral ischemia research.

    PubMed

    Ancer-Rodríguez, Jesús; Villarreal-Silva, Eliud Enrique; Salazar-Ybarra, Rodolfo Amador; Quiroga-García, Oscar; Rodríguez-Rocha, Humberto; García-García, Aracely; Morales-Avalos, Rodolfo; Morales-Gómez, Jesús Alberto; Quiroga-Garza, Alejandro; Saucedo-Cárdenas, Odila; Xu, Zao Cheng; Elizondo-Omaña, Rodrigo Enrique; Martínez-Ponce-de-León, Angel Raymundo; Guzmán-López, Santos

    2016-06-01

    Animal models of cerebral ischemia have typically been established and performed using young animals, even though cerebral ischemia (CI) affects primarily elderly patients. This situation represents a discrepancy that complicates the translation of novel therapeutic strategies for CI. Models of transient global CI using aged animals have demonstrated an apparent neuroprotective effect on CA1 hippocampal neurons; however, this effect is not completely understood. Our study used a model in which young (3-6 months) and aged (18-21 months) male Wistar rats were subjected to 15 min of transient global CI using the four-vessel occlusion (4 VO) model. We determined that the 4 VO model can be performed on aged rats with a slight increase in mortality rate. In aged rats, the morphological damage was completely established by the 4th day after reperfusion, displaying no difference from their younger counterparts. These results demonstrated the lack of a neuroprotective effect of aging on CA1 hippocampal neurons in aged male Wistar rats. This study determined and characterized the morphological damage to the CA1 area after 15 min of 4 VO in aged male Wistar rats, validating the use of this model in CI and aging research. PMID:25966656

  4. Progress and Prospects in Human Genetic Research into Age-Related Hearing Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Sugiura, Saiko; Ueda, Hiromi; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) is a complex, multifactorial disorder that is attributable to confounding intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The degree of impairment shows substantial variation between individuals, as is also observed in the senescence of other functions. This individual variation would seem to refute the stereotypical view that hearing deterioration with age is inevitable and may indicate that there is ample scope for preventive intervention. Genetic predisposition could account for a sizable proportion of interindividual variation. Over the past decade or so, tremendous progress has been made through research into the genetics of various forms of hearing impairment, including ARHI and our knowledge of the complex mechanisms of auditory function has increased substantially. Here, we give an overview of recent investigations aimed at identifying the genetic risk factors involved in ARHI and of what we currently know about its pathophysiology. This review is divided into the following sections: (i) genes causing monogenic hearing impairment with phenotypic similarities to ARHI; (ii) genes involved in oxidative stress, biologic stress responses, and mitochondrial dysfunction; and (iii) candidate genes for senescence, other geriatric diseases, and neurodegeneration. Progress and prospects in genetic research are discussed. PMID:25140308

  5. "What If? As If", An Approach to Action Research Practice: Becoming-Different in School-Age Childcare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Eva

    2015-01-01

    When doing research, or for that matter working in school-age childcare, the researcher/teacher is required to develop a plan for her/his work in spite of knowing that unexpected things will happen. This article aims to explore the relationship between the process of planning and unexpected events in childcare practice and action research. The…

  6. Aging Research across Disciplines: A Student-Mentor Partnership Using the United Nations Principles for Older Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupuis, Kate; Kousaie, Shanna; Wittich, Walter; Spadafora, Pat

    2007-01-01

    A grant from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research for training on communication and social interaction in healthy aging was used to support the collaboration of three students and one program mentor from various age-related backgrounds (e.g., vision, hearing, cognition, and social work) to develop a transdisciplinary and interinstitutional…

  7. Aging and orthopedics: how a lifespan development model can inform practice and research

    PubMed Central

    Gautreau, Sylvia; Gould, Odette N.; Forsythe, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Orthopedic surgical care, like all health care today, is in flux owing to an aging population and to chronic medical conditions leading to an increased number of people with illnesses that need to be managed over the lifespan. The result is an ongoing shift from curing acute illnesses to the management and care of chronic illness and conditions. Theoretical models that provide a useful and feasible vision for the future of health care and health care research are needed. This review discusses how the lifespan development model used in some disciplines within the behavioural sciences can be seen as an extension of the biopsychosocial model. We posit that the lifespan development model provides useful perspectives for both orthopedic care and research. We present key concepts and recommendations, and we discuss how the lifespan development model can contribute to new and evolving perspectives on orthopedic outcomes and to new directions for research. We also offer practical guidelines on how to implement the model in orthopedic practice. PMID:27240129

  8. Aging and orthopedics: how a lifespan development model can inform practice and research.

    PubMed

    Gautreau, Sylvia; Gould, Odette N; Forsythe, Michael E

    2016-08-01

    Orthopedic surgical care, like all health care today, is in flux owing to an aging population and to chronic medical conditions leading to an increased number of people with illnesses that need to be managed over the lifespan. The result is an ongoing shift from curing acute illnesses to the management and care of chronic illness and conditions. Theoretical models that provide a useful and feasible vision for the future of health care and health care research are needed. This review discusses how the lifespan development model used in some disciplines within the behavioural sciences can be seen as an extension of the biopsychosocial model. We posit that the lifespan development model provides useful perspectives for both orthopedic care and research. We present key concepts and recommendations, and we discuss how the lifespan development model can contribute to new and evolving perspectives on orthopedic outcomes and to new directions for research. We also offer practical guidelines on how to implement the model in orthopedic practice. PMID:27240129

  9. Successful aging in the United States and China: a theoretical basis to guide nursing research, practice, and policy.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hong; Ling, Jiying; McCarthy, Valerie Lander

    2015-03-01

    Successful aging is gaining increasing attention given the growth in the older adult population. Criteria and definitions within multiple disciplines vary greatly in Western literature, with no consensus on its meaning. Sociocultural, economic, and political differences between the Western view of successful aging and its view in China add to the confusion. Similarities and differences in the meaning of successful aging in the United States and China are examined, and potential for a common definition useful to nursing in both countries is explored. Using concept analysis, shared criteria for successful aging were the following: decreased incidence of disease and disability, life satisfaction, meaning and purpose in life, and ability to cope effectively to achieve goals based on personal values and priorities. A comprehensive, multidimensional definition of successful aging for nursing and a midrange nursing theory of successful aging were identified that may be useful to guide nursing research, practice, and policy. PMID:24841471

  10. Building a Global Community of Policymakers, Researchers and Educators to Move Education Systems into the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voogt, J.; Knezek, G.

    2013-01-01

    The EDUsummIT 2011 aimed to develop (a) recommendations for policy, practice and research that will help educational systems move into the digital age and (b) strategies to build a global community of researchers, policymakers and teachers in the field of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Education. Thematic working groups…

  11. Research and Development of Individual Growth and Development Indicators for Children between Birth to Age Eight. Technical Report #4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Scott; McEvoy, Mary; Carta, Judith J.; Greenwood, Charles R.; Kaminski, Ruth; Good, Roland H., III; Shinn, Mark

    This document provides an overview of the rationale for, and characteristics of, individual growth and development indicators (IGDIs) for children birth to age 8 and their families. Development of such indicators is part of a 5-year project by the Early Childhood Research Institute Measuring Growth and Development to conduct research on, develop,…

  12. Mars Public Mapping Project: Public Participation in Science Research; Providing Opportunities for Kids of All Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, L. D.; Valderrama Graff, P.; Bandfield, J. L.; Christensen, P. R.; Klug, S. L.; Deva, B.; Capages, C.

    2007-12-01

    build a mappable database that can be used by researchers (and the public in general) to quickly access image based data that contains particular feature types. 3) It builds a searchable database of images containing specific geologic features that the public deem to be visually appealing. Other education and public outreach programs at the Mars Space Flight Facility, such as the Rock Around the World and the Mars Student Imaging Project, have shown an increase in demand for programs that allow "kids of all ages" to participate in authentic scientific research. The Mars Public Mapping Project is a broadly accessible program that continues this theme by building a set of activities that is useful for both the public and scientists.

  13. Ten commandments for the future of ageing research in the UK: a vision for action

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increases in longevity resulting from improvements in health care and living conditions together with a decrease in fertility rates have contributed to a shift towards an aged population profile. For the first time the UK has more people over age 60 than below 16 years of age. The increase in longev...

  14. Research on sleep, circadian rhythms and aging - Applications to manned spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czeisler, Charles A.; Chiasera, August J.; Duffy, Jeanne F.

    1991-01-01

    Disorders of sleep and circadian rhythmicity are characteristic of both advancing age and manned spaceflight. Sleep fragmentation, reduced nocturnal sleep tendency and sleep efficiency, reduced daytime alertness, and increased daytime napping are common to both of these conditions. Recent research on the pathophysiology and treatment of disrupted sleep in older people has led to a better understanding of how the human circadian pacemaker regulates the timing of the daily sleep-wake cycle and how it responds to the periodic changes in the light-dark cycle to which we are ordinarily exposed. These findings have led to new treatments for some of the sleep disorders common to older individuals, using carefully timed exposure to bright light and darkness to manipulate the phase and/or amplitude of the circadian timing system. These insights and treatment approaches have direct applications in the design of countermeasures allowing astronauts to overcome some of the challenges which manned spaceflight poses for the human circadian timing system. We have conducted an operational feasibility study on the use of scheduled exposure to bright light and darkness prior to launch in order to facilitate adaptation of the circadian system of a NASA Space Shuttle crew to the altered sleep-wake schedule required for their mission. The results of this study illustrate how an understanding of the properties of the human circadian timing system and the consequences of circadian disruption can be applied to manned spaceflight.

  15. Ambulatory Assessment in the Research on Aging: Contemporary and Future Applications.

    PubMed

    Brose, Annette; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W

    2015-01-01

    Older adults have surprisingly high levels of well-being, which has been referred to as a paradox in the past. Improved emotion regulation has been suggested to underlie these high levels of well-being. Later life is also a period with enhanced exposure to critical life events, and this comes with risks. During such times, and towards the end of life, emotional well-being may and eventually does decline. We suggest that ambulatory assessment (AA) is ideally suited for the investigation of the above phenomena and for intervention purposes. More precisely, AA can be used to thoroughly examine within-person processes of emotion regulation, including the multiple levels on which emotions occur (physiology, experience, behavior, context, and nonverbal expressions). It thereby provides a basis for understanding competent emotion regulation, the well-being paradox, and emotionally critical periods. Such insights can be utilized to detect person-specific critical periods and for designing immediate person-specific interventions. Although this is still a vision, the benefits of such an approach seem invaluable. The major part of this paper is organized around three general principles that we suggest to further tap the potential of AA in aging research, namely (1) identify within-subject processes and their relations to important life outcomes; (2) capitalize on the full scope of AA technology via multivariate assessments, and (3) combine real-time monitoring with real-time interventions. PMID:25677190

  16. Meeting report: British Society for Research on Ageing (BSRA) annual scientific meeting 2012, Aston University, Birmingham, 3rd to 4th July 2012

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The focus of the British Society for Research on Ageing (BSRA) annual scientific meeting 2012 was aging mechanisms and mitigants. The themes covered included epigenetics, stem cells and regeneration, aging pathways and molecules, the aging bladder and bowel, as well as updates from the New Dynamics of Ageing (NDA) programme. The topics incorporated new directions for staple aging research in caloric restriction (CR), inflammation, immunesenescence, neurodegeneration, homeostasis and stress resistance, as well as newer research areas such as bioengineering of tissues, including the internal anal sphincter and thymus. PMID:24472617

  17. Aging Well and the Environment: Toward an Integrative Model and Research Agenda for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Hans-Werner; Iwarsson, Susanne; Oswald, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The effects of the physical-spatial-technical environment on aging well have been overlooked both conceptually and empirically. In the spirit of M. Powell Lawton's seminal work on aging and environment, this article attempts to rectify this situation by suggesting a new model of how older people interact with their…

  18. The Age-Length-Onset Problem in Research on Second Language Acquisition among Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Gillian

    2006-01-01

    Studies investigating the possible effects of age at immigration (a proxy for age at onset of second language learning) on second language acquisition among immigrants often explicitly take the effect of length of residence in the destination country (a measure of exposure to opportunities to learn the second language) into account. A third…

  19. Research on the Healthy Lifestyle Model, Active Ageing, and Loneliness of Senior Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Jui-Ying; Lu, Kuo-Song

    2014-01-01

    Taiwan has the fastest ageing population in the world. Thus, the government and local policy makers need to formulate policies not just for the nursing and care needs of the aged. They also need to actively promote the need for lifelong learning among seniors in order to achieve elderly-friendly objectives, such as health promotion and delays in…

  20. A Literature Review of Homelessness and Aging: Suggestions for a Policy and Practice-Relevant Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Grenier, Amanda; Barken, Rachel; Sussman, Tamara; Rothwell, David; Bourgeois-Guérin, Valérie; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre

    2016-03-01

    Homelessness among older people is a growing concern across Canada and is expected to rise with demographic change (Crane & Warnes, 2010; Culhane, Metraux, Byrne, Stino, & Bainbridge, 2013). Yet current knowledge, policies, and practices on homelessness largely focus on younger populations. Likewise, research and policies on aging typically overlook homelessness. Responses to homelessness among older people must address complex needs related to health, income security, and housing. Based on a comprehensive literature review, this article outlines the existing and needed research with regards to homelessness among older people. We clarify the intersections of aging and homelessness; review the relevant statistics, including estimated prevalence; discuss pathways and variations in experience; and identify gaps in knowledge. We conclude with a call for an inclusive research agenda that will help build policies and practices to reduce and ultimately to eliminate homelessness among older people in Canada. PMID:26782092

  1. The utility of positioning theory to the study of ageing: Examples from research with childless older people.

    PubMed

    Allen, Ruth E S; Wiles, Janine L

    2013-04-01

    Growing older is hard to make sense of. Opposing perspectives are presented on everything from individual to population ageing, and there is widespread ambivalence towards many aspects of ageing. Positioning theory is a research approach that can tolerate such ambiguity and provides a clear, useful framework to make sense of research data, while doing justice to its complexity. It is starting to be used in gerontology; the aim of this paper is to give gerontologists the tools and impetus to use it more. The positioning triad is outlined, comprising positions (how we position ourselves and others within a single conversation or across a lifetime), storylines (the individual and social narratives which furnish those positions), and the speech acts (and acts of research) through which storylines and positions are enacted. In addition, considering the rights and duties associated with different positions and storylines can usefully illuminate some of the tensions around competing positions on ageing. Worked examples from a qualitative study on childless older people (38 participants aged 63 to 93) in terms of their positioning of childlessness, views on residential care, and positioning of emotional support show how the complexity of such diverse topics can be usefully studied using a positioning theory framework. PMID:23561283

  2. Ensuring the Integrity, Accessibility, and Stewardship of Research Data in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2009

    2009-01-01

    As digital technologies are expanding the power and reach of research, they are also raising complex issues. These include complications in ensuring the validity of research data; standards that do not keep pace with the high rate of innovation; restrictions on data sharing that reduce the ability of researchers to verify results and build on…

  3. e-Leadership in Higher Education: The Fifth "Age" of Educational Technology Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jameson, Jill

    2013-01-01

    A discussion of the relative lack of research into e-leadership in educational technology in education is followed by an outline of selected prior literature in the field. The paper proposes that, as part of a natural evolution of educational technology research, considerably more attention needs to be focused on research and development in…

  4. Enhancing Baccalaureate Student Learning in Research and Gerontology through Partnership with an Area Agency on Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Laurie A.; McCaslin, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    Designing an effective research learning experience for undergraduate social work students is challenging. Similarly, although content on elderly adults is a natural fit in many parts of the undergraduate curriculum, doing so in a research course can be a difficult challenge. Described in this article is an undergraduate research course that has…

  5. The Council of Youth Research: Critical Literacy and Civic Agency in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Antero; Mirra, Nicole; Morrell, Ernest; Martinez, Antonio; Scorza, D'Artagnan

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between critical literacy practice, digital media production, and civic agency in the Council of Youth Research, a youth participatory action research program in which Los Angeles high school students conduct research and create dynamic, multimedia presentations as leaders of a growing youth movement for…

  6. In an Age of Open Access to Research Policies: Physician and Public Health NGO Staff Research Use and Policy Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Maggio, Lauren A.; Steinberg, Ryan M.; Willinsky, John

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Through funding agency and publisher policies, an increasing proportion of the health sciences literature is being made open access. Such an increase in access raises questions about the awareness and potential utilization of this literature by those working in health fields. Methods A sample of physicians (N=336) and public health non-governmental organization (NGO) staff (N=92) were provided with relatively complete access to the research literature indexed in PubMed, as well as access to the point-of-care service UpToDate, for up to one year, with their usage monitored through the tracking of web-log data. The physicians also participated in a one-month trial of relatively complete or limited access. Results The study found that participants' research interests were not satisfied by article abstracts alone nor, in the case of the physicians, by a clinical summary service such as UpToDate. On average, a third of the physicians viewed research a little more frequently than once a week, while two-thirds of the public health NGO staff viewed more than three articles a week. Those articles were published since the 2008 adoption of the NIH Public Access Policy, as well as prior to 2008 and during the maximum 12-month embargo period. A portion of the articles in each period was already open access, but complete access encouraged a viewing of more research articles. Conclusion Those working in health fields will utilize more research in the course of their work as a result of (a) increasing open access to research, (b) improving awareness of and preparation for this access, and (c) adjusting public and open access policies to maximize the extent of potential access, through reduction in embargo periods and access to pre-policy literature. PMID:26200794

  7. Senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM): a biogerontological resource in aging research.

    PubMed

    Takeda, T

    1999-01-01

    The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM), consisting of 14 senescence-prone inbred strains (SAMP) and 4 senescence-resistant inbred strains (SAMR) has been under development since 1970 through the selective inbreeding of AKR/J strain mice donated by the Jackson laboratory in 1968, based on the data of the grading score of senescence, life span, and pathologic phenotypes. The characteristic feature of aging common to all SAMP and SAMR mice is accelerated senescence and normal aging, respectively. Furthermore, SAMP and SAMR strains manifest various pathobiological phenotypes which include such neurobiological phenotypes as deficits in learning and memory, emotional disorders, abnormal circadian rhythms, brain atrophy, hearing impairment, etc., and are often characteristic enough to differentiate the strains. Various efforts are currently being made using the SAM model to clarify the underlying mechanisms in accelerated senescence as well as the etiopathogenic mechanisms in age-associated pathobiologies. Genetic background and significance of SAM development are discussed. PMID:10537019

  8. Age-adjustment and related epidemiology rates in education and research.

    PubMed

    Baker, John D; Kruckman, Laurence; George, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    A quick review of introductory textbooks reveals that while gerontology authors and instructors introduce some aspect of demography and epidemiology data, there is limited focus on age adjustment or other important epidemiology rates. The goal of this paper is to reintroduce a variety of basic epidemiology strategies such as incidence, prevalence, crude, age-specific and age-adjustment rates into the gerontology classroom. Background information and formulas for each rate, as well as examples of how they can be applied are provided. A recent change, encouraged by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, from a 1940 to a 2000 "standard million population" for ageadjusted rates, is reviewed. Finally, a teaching module with answers is provided for use in the gerontology classroom. PMID:16873207

  9. Sarcopenic obesity in aging population: current status and future directions for research.

    PubMed

    Kohara, Katsuhiko

    2014-02-01

    The combination of sarcopenia and obesity, an age-related change in body composition, is a concern in the aged society. Sarcopenic obesity is not the combination of two conditions, but is more related to cardio-metabolic and functional abnormalities. Sarcopenic obesity is associated with more physical functional decline than simple obesity. Sarcopenic obesity may be more insulin resistant, and have a higher risk for metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis than simple obesity. However, the prevalence of sarcopenic obesity differs substantially among studies because of the lack of a standard definition. For further understanding of the pathophysiological role of sarcopenic obesity, a standardized definition for both sarcopenia and obesity is necessary. PMID:23821364

  10. The Biology of Aging: Citizen Scientists and Their Pets as a Bridge Between Research on Model Organisms and Human Subjects.

    PubMed

    Kaeberlein, M

    2016-03-01

    A fundamental goal of research into the basic mechanisms of aging is to develop translational strategies that improve human health by delaying the onset and progression of age-related pathology. Several interventions have been discovered that increase life span in invertebrate organisms, some of which have similar effects in mice. These include dietary restriction and inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin by treatment with rapamycin. Key challenges moving forward will be to assess the extent to which these and other interventions improve healthy longevity and increase life span in mice and to develop practical strategies for extending this work to the clinic. Companion animals may provide an optimal intermediate between laboratory models and humans. By improving healthy longevity in companion animals, important insights will be gained regarding human aging while improving the quality of life for people and their pets. PMID:26077786

  11. Factors Predicting the Use of Technology: Findings From the Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE)

    PubMed Central

    Czaja, Sara J.; Charness, Neil; Fisk, Arthur D.; Hertzog, Christopher; Nair, Sankaran N.; Rogers, Wendy A.; Sharit, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    The successful adoption of technology is becoming increasingly important to functional independence. The present article reports findings from the Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE) on the use of technology among community-dwelling adults. The sample included 1,204 individuals ranging in age from 18–91 years. All participants completed a battery that included measures of demographic characteristics, self-rated health, experience with technology, attitudes toward computers, and component cognitive abilities. Findings indicate that the older adults were less likely than younger adults to use technology in general, computers, and the World Wide Web. The results also indicate that computer anxiety, fluid intelligence, and crystallized intelligence were important predictors of the use of technology. The relationship between age and adoption of technology was mediated by cognitive abilities, computer self-efficacy, and computer anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of training strategies to promote technology adoption. PMID:16768579

  12. Foreign language training as cognitive therapy for age-related cognitive decline: A hypothesis for future research

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Mark; Gunasekera, Geshri; Wong, Patrick C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Over the next fifty years, the number of older adults is set to reach record levels. Protecting older adults from the age-related effects of cognitive decline is one of the greatest challenges of the next few decades as it places increasing pressure on families, health systems, and economies on a global scale. The disease-state of age-related cognitive decline—Alzheimer's disease and other dementias—hijacks our consciousness and intellectual autonomy. However, there is evidence that cognitively stimulating activities protect against the adverse effects of cognitive decline. Similarly, bilingualism is also considered to be a safeguard. We propose that foreign language learning programs aimed at older populations are an optimal solution for building cognitive reserve because language learning engages an extensive brain network that is known to overlap with the regions negatively affected by the aging process. It is recommended that future research should test this potentially fruitful hypothesis. PMID:24051310

  13. Choosing Assessment Instruments for Depression Outcome Research with School-Age Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Brooke E.; Erford, Bradley T.

    2012-01-01

    Using effect size results from Erford et al.'s (2011) meta-analysis for treatment of depression in school-age youth, the authors analyzed 6 commonly used instruments for practical and technical strengths and weaknesses. Effect size estimates from these 6 instruments were compared to indicate likely results when used in future depression outcome…

  14. After-School Programs for School-Age Children and Parents: A Review of the Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Betty-Jo Armstrong

    Prompted by the lack of federal involvement in extended day programs for elementary school students in Chicago, this literature review presents background information on national after-school programs for school-age children. Discussed are the history of federal involvement in child care, current federal legislation and programs, the participation…

  15. Comparative Research on Mixed-Age Groups in Swedish Nursery and Compulsory Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundell, Knut

    1994-01-01

    Reviews recent studies on the effects of mixed-age grouping (MAG) in Swedish nursery and elementary schools. Although studies conducted in the 1970s and 1980s suggested that MAG was beneficial to children's learning and socioemotional development and to teachers' work satisfaction, studies conducted in the 1990s suggest that MAG does not promote…

  16. Conscientiousness and Public Health: Synthesizing Current Research to Promote Healthy Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, David; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.; Nielsen, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    In this special section, 9 studies and 6 commentaries make a unique contribution to the study of personality. They focus on the five-factor model and, in particular, one of those 5: conscientiousness. This trait has had astonishing success in the actuarial prediction of adaptive outcomes in adulthood and aging, but we have little understanding of…

  17. Introduction to the issue regarding research regarding age related macular degeneration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blindness is the second greatest fear among the elderly. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss among the elderly in most industrialized nations. AMD first compromises central high acuity vision. Subsequently, all vision may be lost. AMD is a progressive retinal d...

  18. The Aging Men of Skid Row: A Target for Research and Service Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Carl I.

    Despite the recent increase in interest about the homeless population, the last large-scale systematic studies of the older skid row man were completed more than two decades ago. A more sophisticated and comprehensive instrument for measuring the physical health, mental health, social needs, and social interaction of this aging heterogeneous…

  19. Career Counselling with Secondary School-Aged Youth: Directions for Theory, Research, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    In the midst of an information age and a global economy, people around the world continue to face significant inequities at school and in the workforce. Career counselling thus finds itself in a paradigm shift that increasingly stresses the influences of culture and sociopolitical context. One area in which the profession can advance a social…

  20. Digital Games for Young Children Ages Three to Six: From Research to Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Debra A.; Fisk, Maria Chesley; Biely, Erica

    2009-01-01

    Young children ages 3 to 6 play a wide range of digital games, which are now available on large screens, handheld screens, electronic learning systems, and electronic toys, and their time spent with games is growing. This article examines effects of digital games and how they could be designed to best serve children's needs. A small body of…

  1. Cognitive Functioning in Middle and Old Age Adults. A Review of Research Based on Piaget's Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papalia, D. E.; Bielby, D. Del Vento

    1974-01-01

    A review of literature on Piagetian cognitive functioning generally noted lower levels of functioning for elderly subjects than for comparison groups of adults. Several possible interpretations for these age differences were offered. The effects of certain demographic variables on performance were also reviewed and inconsistent results were noted.…

  2. Age-Adjustment and Related Epidemiology Rates in Education and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, John D.; Kruckman, Laurence; George, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    A quick review of introductory textbooks reveals that while gerontology authors and instructors introduce some aspect of demography and epidemiology data, there is limited focus on age adjustment or other important epidemiology rates. The goal of this paper is to reintroduce a variety of basic epidemiology strategies such as incidence, prevalence,…

  3. The Aging Process and Psychoactive Drug Use. Services Research Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Research Inst., Menlo Park, CA.

    This three-phase literature review focusses on the dangers of drug misuse or abuse by the elderly, and seeks to assist in the development of prevention and treatment strategies. The first phase focusses on the aging process and psychoactive drug use in clinical treatment. The second phase identifies and synthesizes information on the patterns of…

  4. Exercise and the Aging Brain. (The 1982 C. H. McCloy Research Lecture)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spirduso, Waneen W.

    1983-01-01

    Exercise may postpone the deterioration in response speed that generally appears in the motor system of the aging by maintaining the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in the brain. Exercise may also ameliorate symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Results of laboratory studies involving animals and rats are reported. (Author/PP)

  5. School-Age Child Care: An Examination of Philosophical Priorities. Research in Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Mick; Wallinga, Charlotte; Toledo, Carlos

    1999-01-01

    School-age child care (SACC) is a relatively new social institution, and effective SACC programs must balance academic, recreational, and enrichment needs of child development. Outcomes of a study in two states to review program operations, staffing, activities, community involvement, and evaluation indicate that programs focus on academics and…

  6. Management of acute malnutrition in infants aged under 6 months (MAMI): Current issues and future directions in policy and research

    PubMed Central

    Kerac, Marko; Mwangome, Martha; McGrath, Marie; Haider, Rukhsana; Berkley, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, some 4.7 million infants aged under 6 months are moderately wasted and 3.8 million are severely wasted. Traditionally, they have been overlooked by clinicians, nutritionists, and policy makers. Objective To present evidence and arguments for why treating acute malnutrition in infants under 6 months of age is important and outline some of the key debates and research questions needed to advance their care. Methods Narrative review. Results and conclusions Treating malnourished infants under 6 months of age is important to avoid malnutrition-associated mortality in the short term and adverse health and development outcomes in the long term. Physiological and pathological differences demand a different approach from that in older children; key among these is a focus on exclusive breastfeeding wherever possible. New World Health Organization guidelines for the management of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) include this age group for the first time and are also applicable to management of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM). Community-based breastfeeding support is the core, but not the sole, treatment. The mother–infant dyad is at the heart of approaches, but wider family and community relationships are also important. An urgent priority is to develop better case definitions; criteria based on mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) are promising but need further research. To effectively move forward, clinical trials of assessment and treatment are needed to bolster the currently sparse evidence base. In the meantime, nutrition surveys and screening at health facilities should routinely include infants under 6 months of age in order to better define the burden and outcomes of acute malnutrition in this age group. PMID:25993754

  7. A citation-based, author- and age-normalized, logarithmic index for evaluation of individual researchers independently of publication counts

    PubMed Central

    Belikov, Aleksey V.; Belikov, Vitaly V.

    2015-01-01

    The use of citation metrics for evaluation of individual researchers has dramatically increased over the last decade. However, currently existing indices either are based on misleading premises or are cumbersome to implement. This leads to poor assessment of researchers and creates dangerous trends in science, such as overproduction of low quality articles. Here we propose an index (namely, the L-index) that does not depend on the number of publications, accounts for different co-author contributions and age of publications, and scales from 0.0 to 9.9. Moreover, it can be calculated with the help of freely available software. PMID:26664709

  8. Population Aging in the European Information Societies: Towards a Comprehensive Research Agenda in eHealth Innovations for Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Vancea, Mihaela; Solé-Casals, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Population ageing is one of the major social and economic challenges of our contemporary societies. With the advent of the information society, new research and technological developments have been promoted in the field of assistive technologies and information and communication technologies of benefit to elderly people. This article examines the potentialities of new informatics developments in generating solutions to better address elderly people’s daily-life, especially those with chronic illness and/or low autonomy. The authours attempt to propose a research agenda, by exposing various strengts and weaknesses of eHealth innovations for elderly, mainly grounded in secondary sources analysis. PMID:27493837

  9. Population Aging in the European Information Societies: Towards a Comprehensive Research Agenda in eHealth Innovations for Elderly.

    PubMed

    Vancea, Mihaela; Solé-Casals, Jordi

    2016-08-01

    Population ageing is one of the major social and economic challenges of our contemporary societies. With the advent of the information society, new research and technological developments have been promoted in the field of assistive technologies and information and communication technologies of benefit to elderly people. This article examines the potentialities of new informatics developments in generating solutions to better address elderly people's daily-life, especially those with chronic illness and/or low autonomy. The authours attempt to propose a research agenda, by exposing various strengts and weaknesses of eHealth innovations for elderly, mainly grounded in secondary sources analysis. PMID:27493837

  10. Case Mining for Research Findings in a Case-based Reasoning System in the Biology of Aging.

    PubMed

    Bichindaritz, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Scientific literature has been quickly expanding as the availability of articles in electronic form has increased rapidly. For the scientific researcher and the practitioner alike, keeping track with the advancement of the research is an ongoing challenge, and for the most part, the mass of experience recorded in the scientific literature is largely untapped. In particular, novice scientists, non researchers, and students would benefit from a system proposing recommendations for the problems they are interested in resolving. This article presents the first stages of the Digital Knowledge Finder design, a case-based reasoning system to manage experience from the scientific literature. One of the main functionality of the system is to enable both to represent the experience in a declarative and searchable form, and to reason from it through reuse - the latter being a consequence of the former. This article focuses on research findings mining and results from an aging literature dataset. PMID:25488226

  11. Involving Undergraduates in Aging Research at a University in Transition: An AREA Award

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Stacey

    2006-01-01

    Involving students in research with older adults at a university in transition has its unique challenges. The goal of this paper is to discuss some of the rewards and lessons learned in undertaking a research program involving undergraduates at the University of Colorado, Colorado Springs (UC-CS). UC-CS is a regional university in transition from…

  12. Governance in the Digital Age: A Research and Action Framework for an Uncertain Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawes, Sharon S.

    2009-01-01

    Research into relationships among government, society and technology has grown substantially over the past 30 years. However, most research and most advances in practice address narrowly defined categories of concern such as government organization, citizen services, interoperability, or personal privacy. By contrast, the future presents complex…

  13. Rethinking the Library in the Information Age. Volume III. Building an Infrastructure for Library Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Anne J., Ed.

    This report is the third in a set of three reports from the project, "Issues in Library Research: Proposals for the 1990s," which was launched in September 1986 to investigate library and information science issues in order to assess the current state of the profession and identify a research agenda to lead into the next decade. This volume…

  14. Prevention, Rehabilitation, and Mitigation Strategies of Cognitive Deficits in Aging with HIV: Implications for Practice and Research

    PubMed Central

    Vance, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy has given the chance to those living with HIV to keep on living, allowing them the opportunity to age and perhaps age successfully. Yet, there are severe challenges to successful aging with HIV, one of which is cognitive deficits. Nearly half of those with HIV experience cognitive deficits that can interfere with everyday functioning, medical decision making, and quality of life. Given that cognitive deficits develop with more frequency and intensity with increasing age, concerns mount that as people age with HIV, they may experience more severe cognitive deficits. These concerns become especially germane given that by 2015, 50% of those with HIV will be 50 and older, and this older cohort of adults is expected to grow. As such, this paper focuses on the etiologies of such cognitive deficits within the context of cognitive reserve and neuroplasticity. From this, evidence-based and hypothetical prevention (i.e., cognitive prescriptions), rehabilitation (i.e., speed of processing training), and mitigation (i.e., spaced retrieval method) strategies are reviewed. Implications for nursing practice and research are posited. PMID:23431469

  15. [Virtual organization in the digital age of radiology - principle and solution for radiologic research?].

    PubMed

    Leppek, R; Krass, S; Bourquain, H; Lang, M; Wein, B; Mildenberger, P; Schaller, S; Klose, K J; Peitgen, H-O

    2003-11-01

    The research project "VICORA - Virtual Institute for Computer-Assisted Radiology", funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, was initiated in the year 2000. Its virtual organization brings together physical science, engineering, information technology, clinical radiology and the medical technology industry. In the German radiology research domain VICORA serves as a model for interdisciplinary collaboration for the changing radiology paradigm illustrated by a "radiologycube". The project does not only aim at scientific goals but also considers the infrastructure, components and human resource management within a virtual organization. The common rapid prototyping platform ILAB 4 ensures user-friendly and time-efficient software that assists with the routine radiology work-flow including full DICOM functionality. By offering a new work environment and collaborative culture based on telematics and knowledge exchange in radiology research, VICORA overcomes limitations of traditional research organization. PMID:14610709

  16. Hot Topics in Research: Preventive Neuroradiology in Brain Aging and Cognitive Decline

    PubMed Central

    Raji, Cyrus A.; Eyre, Harris; Wei, Sindy H.; Bredesen, Dale; Moylan, Steven; Law, Meng; Small, Gary; Thompson, Paul; Friedlander, Robert; Silverman, Dan H.; Baune, Bernhard T; Hoang, Thu-Anh; Salamon, Noriko; Toga, Arthur; Vernooij, Meike W.

    2015-01-01

    Preventive neuroradiology is a new concept supported by a growing literature. The main rationale of preventive neuroradiology is the application of multi-modal brain imaging towards early and subclinical detection of brain disease and subsequent preventive actions through identification of modifiable risk factors. An insightful example of this is in the area of age-related cognitive decline, mild cognitive impairment and dementia with potentially modifiable risk factors such as obesity, diet, sleep, hypertension, diabetes, depression, supplementation, smoking and physical activity. In studying this link between lifestyle and cognitive decline, brain imaging markers may be instrumental as quantitative measures or even indicators of early disease. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the major studies reflecting how lifestyle factors affect the brain and cognition ageing. In this hot topics review we will specifically focus on obesity and physical activity. PMID:26045577

  17. Hot Topics in Research: Preventive Neuroradiology in Brain Aging and Cognitive Decline.

    PubMed

    Raji, C A; Eyre, H; Wei, S H; Bredesen, D E; Moylan, S; Law, M; Small, G; Thompson, P M; Friedlander, R M; Silverman, D H; Baune, B T; Hoang, T A; Salamon, N; Toga, A W; Vernooij, M W

    2015-10-01

    Preventive neuroradiology is a new concept supported by growing literature. The main rationale of preventive neuroradiology is the application of multimodal brain imaging toward early and subclinical detection of brain disease and subsequent preventive actions through identification of modifiable risk factors. An insightful example of this is in the area of age-related cognitive decline, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia with potentially modifiable risk factors such as obesity, diet, sleep, hypertension, diabetes, depression, supplementation, smoking, and physical activity. In studying this link between lifestyle and cognitive decline, brain imaging markers may be instrumental as quantitative measures or even indicators of early disease. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the major studies reflecting how lifestyle factors affect the brain and cognition aging. In this hot topics review, we will specifically focus on obesity and physical activity. PMID:26045577

  18. The new age of spotted star research using Kepler and CHARA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roettenbacher, Rachael M.; Monnier, John D.; Harmon, Robert O.; Korhonen, Heidi H.

    2014-08-01

    With the precise, nearly-continuous photometry from the Kepler satellite and the sub-milliarcsecond resolving capabilities of the CHARA Array, astronomy is entering a new age for the imaging and understanding of stellar magnetic activity. We present first results from our Guest Observer Program, where 180 single-epoch surface image reconstructions of KIC 5110407 have revealed differential rotation and hints of magnetic activity cycles based on both spot and flare variations. Analysis of our larger, full dataset will establish in unprecedented detail how surface magnetic activity correlates with stellar age and spectral type. In addition to Kepler work, we have harnessed the power of the world's largest infrared interferometer to ``directly'' image the spotted surfaces of a few of the closest RS CVn systems, allowing a comparison of contemporaneous Doppler and light-curve inversion imaging techniques.

  19. RESEARCH PAPER: Old stellar population synthesis: new age and mass estimates for Mayall II = G1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jun; de Grijs, Richard; Fan, Zhou; Rey, Soo-Chang; Wu, Zhen-Yu; Zhou, Xu; Wu, Jiang-Hua; Jiang, Zhao-Ji; Chen, Jian-Sheng; Lee, Kyungsook; Sohn, Sangmo Tony

    2009-06-01

    Mayall II = G1 is one of the most luminous globular clusters (GCs) in M31. Here, we determine its age and mass by comparing multicolor photometry with theoretical stellar population synthesis models. Based on far- and near-ultraviolet GALEX photometry, broad-band UBVRI, and infrared JHKS 2MASS data, we construct the most extensive spectral energy distribution of G1 to date, spanning the wavelength range from 1538 to 20 000 Å. A quantitative comparison with a variety of simple stellar population (SSP) models yields a mean age which is consistent with G1 being among the oldest building blocks of M31 and having formed within ~1.7 Gyr after the Big Bang. Irrespective of the SSP model or stellar initial mass function adopted, the resulting mass estimates (of order 107 Modot) indicate that G1 is one of the most massive GCs in the Local Group. However, we speculate that the cluster's exceptionally high mass suggests that it may not be a genuine GC. Our results also suggest that G1 may contain, on average, (1.65±0.63) × 102 Lodot far-ultraviolet-bright, hot, extreme horizontal-branch stars, depending on the adopted SSP model. In addition, we demonstrate that extensive multi-passband photometry coupled with SSP analysis enables one to obtain age estimates for old SSPs that have similar accuracies as those from integrated spectroscopy or resolved stellar photometry, provided that some of the free parameters can be constrained independently.

  20. What is schizophrenia? 25 years of research into schizophrenia - the Age Beginning Course Study

    PubMed Central

    Häfner, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    We studied a population-based sample of 232 first-onset cases of schizophrenia aged 12 to 59 years at first admission retrospectively back to illness onset and prospectively up to 11.2 years later. We compared them with psychiatrically healthy age- and sex-matched population controls and equally matched first-admission patients diagnosed with major depression. At schizophrenia onset women are several years older than men. The social factors tested did not explain the finding. Women’s higher level of social development at onset is associated with a better medium-term functional and social outcome. Prodromal schizophrenia and depression are equal in length and diagnostically distinguishable only after the onset of positive symptoms. The sex difference in age at onset, invariable across cultures and ethnicities, is explained by a protective effect of oestrogen, which down-regulates D2 receptors. A higher genetic load antagonizes this effect. Long-term symptom-related illness course exhibits a plateau after three years, the positive symptom dimension after two years, the depressive and the negative dimensions do so after three to five years. The most prevalent symptom is depressive mood. Male first episodes are more frequent and more severe in the first half of life, female ones in the second half. Aetiological conclusions will be drawn. PMID:26110118

  1. The Honolulu-Asia Aging Study: Epidemiologic and Neuropathologic Research on Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Gelber, Rebecca P.; Launer, Lenore J.; White, Lon R.

    2016-01-01

    The Honolulu-Asia Aging Study (HAAS) is a longitudinal epidemiologic investigation of rates, risk factors, and neuropathologic abnormalities associated with cognitive decline and dementia in aged Japanese-American men. The project was established in 1991 and will be brought to closure in 2012. Age-specific rates of total dementia and the major specific types of dementia in HAAS participants are generally similar to those reported from other geographic, cultural, and ethnic populations. Risk factors for dementia in the HAAS include midlife hypertension and other factors previously shown to influence cardiovascular disease. The autopsy component of the project has yielded novel findings, the most illuminating of which is the demonstration of 5 important lesion types linked independently to cognitive impairment. While one of these – generalized atrophy – is strongly associated with both Alzheimer lesions and microinfarcts, it also occurs in the absence of these lesions and is independently correlated with dementia. Each lesion type is viewed as representing a distinct underlying pathogenic process. Their summed influences is an especially robust correlate of dementia in the months and years prior to death. PMID:22471866

  2. Scientific research in the age of omics: the good, the bad, and the sloppy.

    PubMed

    Witten, Daniela M; Tibshirani, Robert

    2013-01-01

    It has been claimed that most research findings are false, and it is known that large-scale studies involving omics data are especially prone to errors in design, execution, and analysis. The situation is alarming because taxpayer dollars fund a substantial amount of biomedical research, and because the publication of a research article that is later determined to be flawed can erode the credibility of an entire field, resulting in a severe and negative impact for years to come. Here, we urge the development of an online, open-access, postpublication, peer review system that will increase the accountability of scientists for the quality of their research and the ability of readers to distinguish good from sloppy science. PMID:23037799

  3. Too much information: visual research ethics in the age of wearable cameras.

    PubMed

    Mok, Tze Ming; Cornish, Flora; Tarr, Jen

    2015-06-01

    When everything you see is data, what ethical principles apply? This paper argues that first-person digital recording technologies challenge traditional institutional approaches to research ethics, but that this makes ethics governance more important, not less so. We review evolving ethical concerns across four fields: Visual ethics; ubiquitous computing; mobile health; and grey literature from applied or market research. Collectively, these bodies of literature identify new challenges to traditional notions of informed consent, anonymity, confidentiality, privacy, beneficence and maleficence. Challenges come from the ever-increasing power, breadth and multi-functional integration of recording technologies, and the ubiquity and normalization of their use by participants. Some authors argue that these evolving relationships mean that institutional ethics governance procedures are irrelevant or no longer apply. By contrast, we argue that the fundamental principles of research ethics frameworks have become even more important for the protection of research participants, and that institutional frameworks need to adapt to keep pace with the ever-increasing power of recording technologies and the consequent risks to privacy. We conclude with four recommendations for efforts to ensure that contemporary visual recording research is held appropriately accountable to ethical standards: (i) minimizing the detail, scope, integration and retention of captured data, and limiting its accessibility; (ii) formulating an approach to ethics that takes in both the 'common rule' approaches privileging anonymity and confidentiality together with principles of contextual judgement and consent as an ongoing process; (iii) developing stronger ethical regulation of research outside academia; (iv) engaging the public and research participants in the development of ethical guidelines. PMID:25537955

  4. Perspectives for environment and health research in Horizon 2020: dark ages or golden era?

    PubMed

    Smolders, Roel; De Boever, Patrick

    2014-11-01

    The European Commission recently published the first calls for proposals for the Horizon 2020 (H2020) work programme for research and innovation. When browsing through the Health programme, it became apparent that the work programme made little reference to environmental health research. In this commentary we describe major milestones of environmental health research in previous European Framework Programmes and the policy shift that took place when preparing H2020. We introduce mobile health technologies as a niche innovation to reconcile the environmental health research arena with the H2020 programme that has a clear focus on ICT. The recent economic crises urged strong policy action to reinforce Europe's economic and innovation leadership. Market-driven and job-creating ambitions became primary goals of H2020. Environmental health-related keywords referring to, e.g. human biomonitoring, exposure assessment or exposome are absent in the current H2020-calls and this may suggest a lack of opportunities for environmental health researchers. Technologies related to mobile healthcare (mhealth) are rapidly maturing and offer new research and market opportunities. In a typically technology-pushed market, these sensor technologies however require validation by a third-party and implementation in large-scale public health monitoring studies. Also, issues related to data protection need further development to warrant user rights and privacy. If the European environmental health research arena succeeds in embracing these new mhealth sensor technologies, it may not only create an opportunity to play a role as a key innovation partner in health transition technologies, but it may also support authorities to realize a transition in our healthcare with a much bigger emphasis on a preventive and sustainable system. PMID:24974373

  5. [A research on the assurance of family planning and providing for the aged].

    PubMed

    Tang, Y

    1989-09-01

    An important cause of resistance to China's family planning (FP) program in rural areas is the need to have children to support parents in their old age. Provision of insurance for old age support will facilitate the implementation of the FP program among the rural population. A trial project was initiated in five cities and counties in Fujian province i 1986. The program included schemes for both eligible couples and for single children. The township or the village pays a lump sum or monthly premium to the insurance company for each couple, which enables them to collect 30-35 Yuan/month after they reach 55 years of age. To further expand the insurance program, a survey was conducted in 1987 to determine whether rural farmers would be willing and able to pay the insurance premium themselves. 77% of the respondents reported that they could afford to pay 60% of the premium. Among them, 59% were willing to pay. It was suggested that besides individual purchase of the insurance plan, the rural communities could contribute to the payment of the premium from the fines for unplanned births, from the local tax, and from the country government budget. Preferential treatment should be given to the couples of two daughters who receives sterilization; the communities should pay for a larger share of their premium. The current insurance scheme needs to be reformed so that the plan can offer more than the individual's bank savings. To do so, the insurance company needs to be able to invest their premium income and obtain higher returns. The employees of the insurance company need to improve their work efficiency to win the trust of the people in the program. PMID:12159350

  6. Joint Analyses of Longitudinal and Time-to-Event Data in Research on Aging: Implications for Predicting Health and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Arbeev, Konstantin G.; Akushevich, Igor; Kulminski, Alexander M.; Ukraintseva, Svetlana V.; Yashin, Anatoliy I.

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal data on aging, health, and longevity provide a wealth of information to investigate different aspects of the processes of aging and development of diseases leading to death. Statistical methods aimed at analyses of time-to-event data jointly with longitudinal measurements became known as the “joint models” (JM). An important point to consider in analyses of such data in the context of studies on aging, health, and longevity is how to incorporate knowledge and theories about mechanisms and regularities of aging-related changes that accumulate in the research field into respective analytic approaches. In the absence of specific observations of longitudinal dynamics of relevant biomarkers manifesting such mechanisms and regularities, traditional approaches have a rather limited utility to estimate respective parameters that can be meaningfully interpreted from the biological point of view. A conceptual analytic framework for these purposes, the stochastic process model of aging (SPM), has been recently developed in the biodemographic literature. It incorporates available knowledge about mechanisms of aging-related changes, which may be hidden in the individual longitudinal trajectories of physiological variables and this allows for analyzing their indirect impact on risks of diseases and death. Despite, essentially, serving similar purposes, JM and SPM developed in parallel in different disciplines with very limited cross-referencing. Although there were several publications separately reviewing these two approaches, there were no publications presenting both these approaches in some detail. Here, we overview both approaches jointly and provide some new modifications of SPM. We discuss the use of stochastic processes to capture biological variation and heterogeneity in longitudinal patterns and important and promising (but still largely underused) applications of JM and SPM to predictions of individual and population mortality and health

  7. Recent fracture mechanics results from NASA research related to the aging commercial transport fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles E.

    1991-01-01

    NASA is conducting the Airframe Structural Integrity Program in support of the aging commercial transport fleet. This interdisciplinary program is being worked in cooperation with the U.S. airframe manufacturers, airline operators, and the FAA. Advanced analysis methods are under development to predict the fatigue crack growth in complex built-up shell structures. Innovative nondestructive examination technologies are also under development to provide large area inspection capability to detect corrosion, disbonds, and fatigue cracks. Recent fracture mechanics results applicable to predicting the growth of cracks initiating at the rivets of fuselage splice joints are reviewed.

  8. Fracture mechanics research at NASA related to the aging commercial transport fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, James C., Jr.; Harris, Charles E.

    1992-01-01

    NASA is conducting the Airframe Structural Integrity Program in support of the aging commercial transport fleet. This interdisciplinary program is being worked in cooperation with the U.S. airframe manufacturers, airline operators, and the FAA. Advanced analysis methods are under development and an extensive testing program is under way to study fatigue crack growth and fracture in complex built-up shell structures. Innovative nondestructive examination technologies are also being developed to provide large area inspection capability to detect corrosion, disbonds, and cracks. Recent fracture mechanics results applicable to predicting the growth of cracks under monotonic and cyclic loading at rivets in fuselage lap-splice joints are reviewed.

  9. Responsible Reporting: Neuroimaging News in the Age of Responsible Research and Innovation.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Irja Marije; Kupper, Frank; Arentshorst, Marlous; Broerse, Jacqueline

    2016-08-01

    Besides offering opportunities in both clinical and non-clinical domains, the application of novel neuroimaging technologies raises pressing dilemmas. 'Responsible Research and Innovation' (RRI) aims to stimulate research and innovation activities that take ethical and social considerations into account from the outset. We previously identified that Dutch neuroscientists interpret "responsible innovation" as educating the public on neuroimaging technologies via the popular press. Their aim is to mitigate (neuro)hype, an aim shared with the wider emerging RRI community. Here, we present results of a media-analysis undertaken to establish whether the body of articles in the Dutch popular press presents balanced conversations on neuroimaging research to the public. We found that reporting was mostly positive and framed in terms of (healthcare) progress. There was rarely a balance between technology opportunities and limitations, and even fewer articles addressed societal or ethical aspects of neuroimaging research. Furthermore, neuroimaging metaphors seem to favour oversimplification. Current reporting is therefore more likely to enable hype than to mitigate it. How can neuroscientists, given their self-ascribed social responsibility, address this conundrum? We make a case for a collective and shared responsibility among neuroscientists, journalists and other stakeholders, including funders, committed to responsible reporting on neuroimaging research. PMID:26208573

  10. The Biology of Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprott, Richard L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Thirteen articles in this special issue discuss aging theories, biomarkers of aging, aging research, disease, cancer biology, Alzheimer's disease, stress, oxidation of proteins, gene therapy, service delivery, biogerontology, and ethics and aging research. (SK)

  11. Analysis of the PET P semicrystalline morphology and thermomechanical properties for long term physical aging research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouti, S.; Kieffel, Y.; Pohlink, K.; Hiver, J. M.; Dahoun, A.; Etienne, S.

    2009-09-01

    This investigation aims at studying the mechanical and microscopic properties of PET P (polyethylene terephthalate) used for insulators in High Voltage Gas Insulated Substation before a long term physical ageing. For this reason, a basic study to understand the PET behavior in a reference state (before any thermal ageing) is definitely necessary. In a first step, the study focuses on revealing more detailed information about the PET morphology. For this purpose, PET samples have been subjected to special schemes of crystallization. In fact, after being quenched (amorphous state) from the semicrystalline state, the samples were annealed at different temperatures for several times. This controlled crystallization has shown a classical increase of the long period and the crystallinity ratio. The specimens have been characterized by different techniques, namely, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), mechanical tests, and wide and small angles X scattering (WAXS, SAXS, respectively). The second step deals with the mechanical properties. We have studied closely the thermal effects below and above the glass transition (Tg), then the tensile rate effects during true stress-true strain tests. The mechanical measurements have shown that the Young modulus and the yield stress decrease when the temperature is increased. However, the material is slightly sensitive to the tensile rate below Tg or even unaffected above Tg.

  12. A Diversified Recruitment Approach Incorporating Social Media Leads to Research Participation Among Young Adult-Aged Female Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Jessica R; Roberts, Samantha C; Dominick, Sally A; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Dietz, Andrew C; Su, H Irene

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Cancer survivors in their adolescent and young adult (AYA) years are an understudied population, possibly in part because of the high effort required to recruit them into research studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the specific recruitment strategies used in four studies recruiting AYA-aged female cancer survivors and to identify the highest yielding approaches. We also discuss challenges and recommendations. Methods: We recruited AYA-aged female cancer survivors for two studies conducted locally and two conducted nationally. Recruitment strategies included outreach and referral via: healthcare providers and clinics; social media and the internet; community and word of mouth; and a national fertility information hotline. We calculated the yield of each recruitment approach for the local and national studies by comparing the number that participated to the number of potential participants. Results: We recruited a total of 534 participants into four research studies. Seventy-one percent were diagnosed as young adults and 61% were within 3 years of their cancer diagnosis. The highest-yielding local recruitment strategy was healthcare provider and clinic referral. Nationally, social media and internet outreach yielded the highest rate of participation. Overall, internet-based recruitment resulted in the highest number and yield of participants. Conclusion: Our results suggest that outreach through social media and the internet are effective approaches to recruiting AYA-aged female cancer survivors. Forging collaborative relationships with survivor advocacy groups' members and healthcare providers also proved beneficial. PMID:24940529

  13. Pitheciid research comes of age: Past puzzles, current progress, and future priorities.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Adrian A; Boyle, Sarah A; Thompson, Cynthia L

    2016-05-01

    For a long time, members of the Pitheciidae were among the least studied of all Neotropical primates. But times have changed. Here, we trace the trajectory of this change and show how the articles in this special edition illustrate new knowledge and developments in our understanding of pitheciid ecology, behavior, and conservation. We propose new directions and priorities for future research, especially to ensure the effective conservation of pitheciids, and demonstrate how studies of this family are now the focus of hypothesis-driven research that not only allows the details of this family's biology to be explored, but will allow its biology to be compared with other primate lineages. PMID:26456235

  14. The Physiological Mechanisms of Diabetes and Aging on Brain Health and Cognition: Implications for Nursing Practice and Research.

    PubMed

    Talley, Michele; Pryor, Erica; Wadley, Virginia; Crowe, Michael; Morrison, Shannon; Vance, David

    2015-10-01

    A substantial proportion of individuals over the age of 65 years will experience some degree of cognitive impairment, and older adults with diabetes are at increased risk for these impairments. Such impairments can negatively affect activities of daily living and lead to a decrease in quality of life as well as increase caregiver burden. Cumulatively, the effects of diabetes and aging slowly diminish cognitive function, resulting in various degrees of cognitive impairment including dementia. In fact, older adults with diabetes have a 65% higher chance of developing Alzheimer disease than those without diabetes. This article reviews the synergistic effects of aging and diabetes on cognitive function. A discussion of the physiologic basis for these effects is included, in particular, the role of insulin in the brain. The final section of the article focuses on intervention strategies that can be used by nurses and allied healthcare providers to mitigate the influence of diabetes and aging so that optimal cognitive performance is maintained. Areas for future research are also discussed. PMID:26200187

  15. Psychology Citations Revisited: Behavioral Research in the Age of Electronic Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    This bibliometric study focused on the research needs of psychology faculty and quantified the availability throughout the library of articles cited recently by the faculty. More than social sciences faculty generally, psychology faculty report relying on the journal literature rather than on the monographic literature. Less than one- third of the…

  16. Rethinking the Library in the Information Age. A Summary of Issues in Library Research. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.

    This report summarizes a collection of nine essays addressing the future of libraries that were an outgrowth of a study conducted by the Office of Library Programs to develop a research agenda. The study is described in the first of three sections of this report, and abstracts of the essays are presented in the second section. Areas of concern…

  17. The Online or E-Survey: A Research Approach for the ICT Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Derek; Bush, Tony

    2005-01-01

    E-technology as a basis of research is now being more widely considered as potential respondents can be drawn from an ever widening audience. Early work by others has shown that many respondents are keen to use the medium and that response rates are generally higher than by conventional approaches. This article summarizes the experience of…

  18. Psychological research with Muslim Americans in the age of Islamophobia: trends, challenges, and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Amer, Mona M; Bagasra, Anisah

    2013-04-01

    Like other minority groups in North America, Muslim Americans have been largely ignored in the psychological literature. The overwhelming pressures faced by this group, including surveillance, hate crimes, and institutional discrimination, stimulate an urgent need for psychologists to better understand and ensure the well-being of this population. This article reviews challenges in conducting research with Muslim Americans in order to offer recommendations for culturally sensitive approaches that can enhance the growth of future scholarship. We first contextualize this endeavor by assessing trends in psychological scholarship pertinent to Muslims in North America over the past two decades. A total of 559 relevant publications were identified through a PsycINFO database search. The 10 years post 9/11 saw a more than 900% increase in the annual number of publications, paralleling a national interest in the Muslim American community subsequent to the World Trade Center attacks. Researchers who conducted these studies faced numerous barriers, including unclear definition of the target sample, unavailability of culturally sensitive measures, sampling difficulties, and obstacles to participant recruitment. To navigate these challenges, we provide a framework for effective research design along the continuum of the research process from study conceptualization to dissemination of results. The challenges and recommendations are illustrated with examples from previous studies. PMID:23586489

  19. Comparative Research for the 16-19 Age Group in Western Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Edmund J.

    1975-01-01

    Between 1970 and 1973 the Comparative Research Unit at the University of London King's College investigated the social and educational implications of rapidly increasing full-time enrollments at the upper secondary level in England, Germany, France, Italy and Sweden. The methods and results of investigation are summarized in this paper. (Editor/RK)

  20. Where Creeds Meet Incredulity: Educational Research in a Post-Utopian Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgoose, Julian

    2006-01-01

    In contrast to Jean-Francois Lyotard's classic warning, postmodern society in the United States seems increasingly influenced by metanarratives--religious metanarratives. This article examines the implications of this religious resurgence for educational researchers. It offers a competing analysis of the postmodern that draws on Harold Bloom,…

  1. How Do You Know that?: An Investigation of Student Research Practices in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Randall; Clink, Kellian

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the types of sources that English composition students use in their research essays. Unlike previous studies, this project pairs an examination of source citations with deeper analysis of source use, and both are discussed in relation to responses gathered in focus groups with participating students and teachers. The…

  2. Prediction of Preadolescent Overweight and Poor Cardiometabolic Outcome in Children up to 6 Years of Age: Research Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Wijga, Alet; Vergouwe, Yvonne; Heijmans, Martijn W; Jaddoe, Vincent WV; Twisk, Jos WR; Raat, Hein

    2016-01-01

    Background Dynamic risk estimations may enable targeting primary prevention of overweight and overweight-related adverse cardiometabolic outcome in later life, potentially serving as a valuable addition to universal primary prevention. This approach seems particularly promising in young children, as body mass index (BMI) changes at a young age are highly predictive of these outcomes, and parental lifestyle interventions at a young age are associated with improved long-term outcome. Objective This paper describes the design of our study, which aims to develop digitized tools that can be implemented in the Dutch Child Health Care (CHC) system or by pediatricians for children up to 6 years of age. These tools will enable (1) dynamically predicting the development of overweight, hypertension or prehypertension, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) values, and high total cholesterol to HDL-C ratio by early adolescence and (2) identifying children who are likely to have poor cardiometabolic outcome by the age of 5-6 years and by the age of 10 years. Methods Data will be obtained from the Generation R (n=7893) and Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA; n=3963) cohorts, two Dutch prenatally recruited cohorts. We will select candidate predictors that can be assessed during the first visit and/or during subsequent visits to the CHC center or pediatrician, including sex; parental age, education level, and BMI; smoking exposure; ethnicity; birth weight; gestational age; breastfeeding versus formula feeding; and growth data through the age of 6 years. We will design dynamic prediction models that can be updated with new information obtained during subsequent CHC visits, allowing each measurement to be added to the model. Performance of the model will be assessed in terms of discrimination and calibration. Finally, the model will be validated both internally and externally using the combined cohort data and then converted into a computer

  3. Enacting the molecular imperative: How gene-environment interaction research links bodies and environments in the post-genomic age.

    PubMed

    Darling, Katherine Weatherford; Ackerman, Sara L; Hiatt, Robert H; Lee, Sandra Soo-Jin; Shim, Janet K

    2016-04-01

    Despite a proclaimed shift from 'nature versus nurture' to 'genes and environment' paradigms within biomedical and genomic science, capturing the environment and identifying gene-environment interactions (GEIs) has remained a challenge. What does 'the environment' mean in the post-genomic age? In this paper, we present qualitative data from a study of 33 principal investigators funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health to conduct etiological research on three complex diseases (cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes). We examine their research practices and perspectives on the environment through the concept of molecularization: the social processes and transformations through which phenomena (diseases, identities, pollution, food, racial/ethnic classifications) are re-defined in terms of their molecular components and described in the language of molecular biology. We show how GEI researchers' expansive conceptualizations of the environment ultimately yield to the imperative to molecularize and personalize the environment. They seek to 'go into the body' and re-work the boundaries between bodies and environments. In the process, they create epistemic hinges to facilitate a turn from efforts to understand social and environmental exposures outside the body, to quantifying their effects inside the body. GEI researchers respond to these emergent imperatives with a mixture of excitement, ambivalence and frustration. We reflect on how GEI researchers struggle to make meaning of molecules in their work, and how they grapple with molecularization as a methodological and rhetorical imperative as well as a process transforming biomedical research practices. PMID:26994357

  4. Recent research (N = 9,305) underscores the importance of using age-stratified actuarial tables in sex offender risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Wollert, Richard; Cramer, Elliot; Waggoner, Jacqueline; Skelton, Alex; Vess, James

    2010-12-01

    A useful understanding of the relationship between age, actuarial scores, and sexual recidivism can be obtained by comparing the entries in equivalent cells from "age-stratified" actuarial tables. This article reports the compilation of the first multisample age-stratified table of sexual recidivism rates, referred to as the "multisample age-stratified table of sexual recidivism rates (MATS-1)," from recent research on Static-99 and another actuarial known as the Automated Sexual Recidivism Scale. The MATS-1 validates the "age invariance effect" that the risk of sexual recidivism declines with advancing age and shows that age-restricted tables underestimate risk for younger offenders and overestimate risk for older offenders. Based on data from more than 9,000 sex offenders, our conclusion is that evaluators should report recidivism estimates from age-stratified tables when they are assessing sexual recidivism risk, particularly when evaluating the aging sex offender. PMID:21098823

  5. Using Current Data to Define New Approach in Age Related Macular Degeneration: Need to Accelerate Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Akshay; Sharma, Kaushal; Chen, Wei; Sharma, Neel Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the major retinal degenerative disease of ageing whose complex genetic basis remains undeciphered. The involvement of various other factors like mitochondrial genes, cytoskeletal proteins and the role of epigenetics has been described in this review. Several population based AMD genetic studies have been carried out worldwide. Despite the increased publication of reports, clinical translation still eludes this davastating disease. We suggest models to address roadblocks in clinical translation hoping that these would be beneficial to drive AMD research towards innovative biomarkers and therapeutics Therefore, addressing the need large autopsy studies and combining it with efficient use of bioinformatic tools, statistical modeling and probing SNP-biomarker association are key to time bound resolution of this disease. PMID:25132797

  6. Early Intervention for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder Under 3 Years of Age: Recommendations for Practice and Research.

    PubMed

    Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bauman, Margaret L; Choueiri, Roula; Kasari, Connie; Carter, Alice; Granpeesheh, Doreen; Mailloux, Zoe; Smith Roley, Susanne; Wagner, Sheldon; Fein, Deborah; Pierce, Karen; Buie, Timothy; Davis, Patricia A; Newschaffer, Craig; Robins, Diana; Wetherby, Amy; Stone, Wendy L; Yirmiya, Nurit; Estes, Annette; Hansen, Robin L; McPartland, James C; Natowicz, Marvin R

    2015-10-01

    This article reviews current evidence for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) interventions for children aged <3 years, based on peer-reviewed articles published up to December 2013. Several groups have adapted treatments initially designed for older, preschool-aged children with ASD, integrating best practice in behavioral teaching methods into a developmental framework based on current scientific understanding of how infants and toddlers learn. The central role of parents has been emphasized, and interventions are designed to incorporate learning opportunities into everyday activities, capitalize on "teachable moments," and facilitate the generalization of skills beyond the familiar home setting. Our review identified several comprehensive and targeted treatment models with evidence of clear benefits. Although some trials were limited to 8- to 12-week outcome data, enhanced outcomes associated with some interventions were evaluated over periods as long as 2 years. Based on this review, recommendations are proposed for clinical practice and future research. PMID:26430170

  7. To Explore or to Research: Trends in modern age ocean studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, M. A.; Valette-Silver, N. J.; Lobecker, E.; Skarke, A. D.; Elliott, K.; McDonough, J.

    2013-12-01

    The recommendations of President's Panel Report on Ocean Exploration gave rise to NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration in 2001, and helped establish NOAA as the lead agency for a federal ocean exploration program. The panel defined exploration as discovery through disciplined, diverse observations and recordings of findings including rigorous, systematic observations and documentation of biological, chemical, physical, geological, and archaeological aspects of the ocean in the three dimensions of space and in time. Here we ask the question about the fine line that separates ';Exploration' and ';Research'. We contend that successful exploration aims to establish new lines of knowledge or give rise to new hypothesis as compared to research where primary goal is to prove or disprove an existing hypothesis. However, there can be considerable time lag before a hypothesis can be established after an initial observation. This creates interesting challenges for ocean exploration because instant ';return on investment' can not be readily shown. Strong media and public interest is garnered by far and apart exciting discoveries about new biological species or processes. However, most of the ocean exploration work goes to systematically extract basic information about a previously unknown area. We refer to this activity as baseline characterization in providing information about an area which can support hypothesis generation and further research to prove or disprove this hypothesis. Examples of such successful characterization include OER endeavors in the Gulf of Mexico that spanned over 10 years and it provided baseline characterization in terms of biological diversity and distribution on basin-wide scale. This baseline characterization was also conveniently used by scientists to conduct research on benthic communities to study effects of deep water horizon incident. More recently similar characterization has been attempted by NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer from 2011 - 2013 field

  8. Formative research to develop a community-based intervention for chronic disease prevention in Guatemalan school-age children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Noncommunicable diseases (NCD) are the most common causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, even in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Recent trends in health promotion emphasize community-based interventions as an important strategy for improving health outcomes. The aim of this study was to conduct formative research regarding the perceptions of NCD risk factors, their influencing factors, and community resources available to aid the development and implementation of a community-based intervention with school-age children. Methods Focus group discussions (n = 18), home visits (n = 30), and individual semi-structured interviews (n = 26) were conducted in three urban communities in Guatemala with school-age children (10–12 years of age), teachers, parents, and local community members (i.e., school principals, school food kiosk vendors, religious leaders, authority representatives). All focus groups and interviews were transcribed verbatim for thematic analysis. Results Children, parents, and teachers have general knowledge about modifiable risk factors. Adults worried more about tobacco use, as compared to unhealthy diet and physical inactivity in children. Participants identified features at the intrapersonal (e.g., negative emotional state), interpersonal (e.g., peers as role models), and organizational and community levels (e.g., high levels of crime) that influence these risk factors in children. School committees, religious leaders, and government programs and activities were among the positive community resources identified. Conclusions These findings should help researchers in Guatemala and similar LMIC to develop community-based interventions for NCD prevention in school-age children that are effective, feasible, and culturally acceptable. PMID:24485389

  9. Heart ‘omics’ in AGEing (HOMAGE): design, research objectives and characteristics of the common database

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Lotte; Thijs, Lutgarde; Jin, Yu; Zannad, Faiez; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Rouet, Philippe; Pinet, Florence; Bauters, Christophe; Pieske, Burkert; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Mamas, Mamas; Diez, Javier; McDonald, Kenneth; Cleland, John G. F.; Rocca, Hans-Peter Brunner-La; Heymans, Stephane; Latini, Roberto; Masson, Serge; Sever, Peter; Delles, Christian; Pocock, Stuart; Collier, Timothy; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Staessen, Jan A

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Heart failure is common in older people and its prevalence is increasing. The Heart ‘omics’ in AGEing (HOMAGE) project aims to provide a biomarker approach that will improve the early diagnosis of heart failure. A large clinical database, based on (1) prospective population studies or (2) cross-sectional, prospective studies or randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of patients at risk for or with overt cardiovascular disease will be constructed to determine most promising ‘omics’-based biomarkers to identify the risk of developing heart failure and/or comorbidities. Population studies, patient cohorts and RCTs are eligible for inclusion in the common database, if they received ethical approval to obtain and share data and have baseline information on cardiovascular risk factors. Currently, the HOMAGE database includes 43,065 subjects, from 20 studies in eight European countries, including healthy subjects from three population studies in France, Belgium and Italy (n  =  7,124), patients with heart failure (n  =  4,312) from four cohorts in the UK, Spain and Switzerland and patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease (n  =  31,629) in 13 cohorts. It is anticipated that more partners will join the consortium and enlarge the pooled data. This large merged database will be a useful resource with which to identify candidate biomarkers that play a role in the mechanism underlying the onset and progression of heart failure. PMID:25332706

  10. Pacesetters in the Computer Age of Nursing: Service, Education and Research

    PubMed Central

    Hott, Jacqueline Rose; O'Donohue, Nancy; Hart, Julianne M.; Lombardi, Gloria; Abbey, June C.

    1984-01-01

    MARNA, the Mid-Atlantic Regional Nursing Association, a special project grant of the Division of Nursing, U.S. Dept. of HHS, was begun in July, 1981, and has been refunded until August, 1986. A major goal of MARNA is to provide a forum for nursing issues facing its member agencies. The overall purpose of this presentation is to address issues related to the use of computers in nursing service, education and research. By learning from outstanding pacesetters, leaders in their field in the use of computers, collaborative efforts within the region can be enhanced.

  11. Communication & Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, William E.

    This extensive bibliography contains more than 1,800 entries about communication and aging. The citations include journal articles, unpublished papers, speeches, dissertations, research studies, and books that relate aging and the aged to a variety of topics, including the following: physiological deterioration, socialization, political…

  12. [German medicine of the age of romanticism (1797-1848) as research problem].

    PubMed

    Płonka-Syroka, B

    1997-01-01

    In the period between 1797 and 1848, German medicine was considerably influenced by philosophy. It absorbed ideas deriving from neo-Platonism and vitalism, as well as the modern philosophy of nature (Naturphilosophie), especially the ideas of Schelling. The article presents the main tendencies in the German medicine of that period: the distinct character of German medical thought as compared to the rest of Europe, the deductive character of medical theories, the grounding of medical thought in non-materialist philosophy and its close ties with the Protestant religion. The author's aim is investigate how German medicine of the period evolved away from European standards set by the model of medicine as an empirical science, based on the inductive method of research. The article presents the state of German medicine of the first half of the nineteenth century against the background of socio-cultural factors and relates German medical theory of the period to the social awareness of that time. PMID:11625090

  13. Research unit INTERNANO: Mobility, aging and functioning of engineered inorganic nanoparticles at the aquatic-terrestrial interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaumann, Gabriele Ellen; Metreveli, George; Baumann, Thomas; Klitzke, Sondra; Lang, Friederike; Manz, Werner; Nießner, Reinhard; Schulz, Ralf; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2013-04-01

    Engineered inorganic nanoparticles (EINP) are expected to pass the wastewater-river-topsoil-groundwater pathway. Despite their increasing release, the processes governing the EINP aging and the changes in functionality in the environment are up to now largely unknown. The objective of the interdisciplinary research unit INTERNANO funded by the DFG is to identify the processes relevant for the fate of EINP and EINP-associated pollutants in the interfacial zone between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The research unit consists of six subprojects and combines knowledge from aquatic and terrestrial sciences as well as from microbiology, ecotoxicology, physicochemistry, soil chemistry and soil physics. For the identification of key processes we will consider compartment specific flow conditions, physicochemistry and biological activity. Situations representative for a floodplain system are simulated using micromodels (μm scale) as well as incubation, soil column and joint laboratory stream microcosm experiments. These results will be transferred to a joint aquatic-terrestrial model system on EINP aging, transport and functioning across the aquatic-terrestrial transition zone. EINP isolation and characterization will be carried out via a combination of chromatographic, light scattering and microscopic methods including dynamic light scattering, elemental analysis, hydrodynamic radius chromatography, field flow fractionation as well as atomic force microscopy, Raman microscopy and electron microscopy. INTERNANO generates fundamental aquatic-terrestrial process knowledge, which will help to evaluate the environmental significance of the EINP at aquatic-terrestrial interfaces. Thus, INTERNANO provides a scientific basis to assess and predict the environmental impact of EINP release into the environment.

  14. Geoarchaeological research on Bronze Age settlement mounds in the Kolkheti lowlands at the Black Sea coast of Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laermanns, Hannes; Heisterkamp, Arne; Kirkitadze, Giorgi; Elashvili, Mikheil; Verheul, Jan; Kelterbaum, Daniel; Helmut, Brückner

    2016-04-01

    0.0.1 Situated between the Rivers Enguri in the north and Khobistsqali in the south, more than 20 settlement mounds (local name Dikhagudzuba), identified by field survey and remote sensing techniques, give evidence of a densely populated landscape in the coastal lowlands of eastern Georgia during the Bronze Age. While the existing chronology of these mounds is based on ceramic evidence obtained during a previous archaeological research, only limited information is available on their internal architecture and their palaeoenvironmental context, and the chronology of the different layers is as yet lacking. 0.0.2 Within the framework of a geoarchaeological research project, we carried out eleven vibracores on and in direct vicinity of three of the most prominent mounds, situated close to the villages of Orulu and Ergeta. Based on these sediment cores, our study aims at (i) establishing a chronostratigraphical framework for the settlements based on radiocarbon dating; (ii) reconstructing possible phases and gaps of occupation; and (iii) identifying the environmental conditions during the time of their existence. Geochemical and sedimentological analyses were carried out to decipher element contents (XRF), granulometry, and organic contents (LOI, C/N) of sediment samples, supporting the interpretation of the mounds' stratigraphical evolution and related human occupation. The three investigated settlement mounds are similar in dimension and stratigraphy, and different settlement layers could be identified in each of them. The 14C age estimates indicate that their formation occurred during the second half of the 3rd and the first half of the 2nd millennium BC, thus confirming the archaeological interpretation of their Bronze Age origin. Based on the granulometric and geochemical data, palaeoenvironmental conditions in the vicinity of the settlements were dominated by fluvial processes.

  15. The Uses of Research Sponsored by the Administration on Aging (AoA). Case Study No. 2. Older Americans Resources and Services (OARS). Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.; Heinsohn, Ingrid

    This case study, one in a series of research efforts designed to examine the utilization of the Administration on Aging's research, discusses reasons for the wide utilization of the Older Americans Resources and Services (OARS) research. (The OARS methodology assesses the levels of functioning of individual elderly persons. The resulting…

  16. The Uses of Research Sponsored by the Administration on Aging (AoA). Case Study No. 1. Transportation Services for the Elderly. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.; Heinsohn, Ingrid

    This case study, one in a series of research efforts designed to examine the utilization of the Administration on Aging's research, describes the different types of uses of materials produced by a research project on improvement of transportation services for the elderly. (The materials are a state-of-the-art report, planning handbook, and…

  17. Youth violence prevention comes of age: research, training and future directions.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kara; Rivera, Lourdes; Neighbours, Robert; Reznik, Vivian

    2007-01-01

    Youth violence is recognized as a major public health problem in the United States and the world. Over the past ten years, progress has been made in documenting the factors that contribute to violent behavior. Emerging research is deepening our understanding of the individual and societal influences that contribute to and protect against youth violence. However, much work still remains to be done in this field, both in examining potential causes and in designing effective intervention strategies. This chapter highlights specific dimensions of youth violence prevention selected by the authors because these dimensions are the focus of public attention, are emerging as critical issues in the study of youth violence, or have a unique place in the current political and social context. We focus on the developmental pathways to violence, factors that mediate and moderate youth violence, the role of culture and media in youth violence, school-based violence such as school shootings and bullying, and the training of health care professionals. PMID:17367286

  18. Multiplex assays for biomarker research and clinical application: translational science coming of age.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qin; Schoenhoff, Florian S; Savage, William J; Zhang, Pingbo; Van Eyk, Jennifer E

    2010-03-01

    Over the last decade, translational science has come into the focus of academic medicine, and significant intellectual and financial efforts have been made to initiate a multitude of bench-to-bedside projects. The quest for suitable biomarkers that will significantly change clinical practice has become one of the biggest challenges in translational medicine. Quantitative measurement of proteins is a critical step in biomarker discovery. Assessing a large number of potential protein biomarkers in a statistically significant number of samples and controls still constitutes a major technical hurdle. Multiplexed analysis offers significant advantages regarding time, reagent cost, sample requirements and the amount of data that can be generated. The two contemporary approaches in multiplexed and quantitative biomarker validation, antibody-based immunoassays and MS-based multiple (or selected) reaction monitoring, are based on different assay principles and instrument requirements. Both approaches have their own advantages and disadvantages and therefore have complementary roles in the multi-staged biomarker verification and validation process. In this review, we discuss quantitative immunoassay and multiple reaction monitoring/selected reaction monitoring assay principles and development. We also discuss choosing an appropriate platform, judging the performance of assays, obtaining reliable, quantitative results for translational research and clinical applications in the biomarker field. PMID:21137048

  19. Research unit INTERNANO: Mobility, aging and functioning of engineered inorganic nanoparticles at the aquatic-terrestrial interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaumann, G. E.; Baumann, T.; Duester, L.; Klitzke, S.; Lang, F.; Manz, W.; Nießner, R.; Schulz, R.; Vogel, H.-J.

    2012-04-01

    Engineered inorganic nanoparticles (EINP) are expected to pass the wastewater-river-topsoil-groundwater pathway. Despite their increasing release, the processes governing the EINP aging and the changes in functionality in the environment are up to now largely unknown. The objective of the interdisciplinary research unit INTERNANO funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) is to identify the processes relevant for the fate of EINP and EINP-associated pollutants in the interfacial zone between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The research unit consists of six subprojects and combines knowledge from aquatic and terrestrial sciences as well as from microbiology, ecotoxicology, physicochemistry, soil chemistry and soil physics. For the identification of key processes we will consider compartment specific flow conditions, physicochemistry and biological activity. Situations representative for a floodplain system are simulated using micromodels (μm scale) as well as incubation, soil column and joint laboratory stream microcosm experiments. These results will be transferred to a joint aquatic-terrestrial model system on EINP aging, transport and functioning across the aquatic-terrestrial transition zone. EINP isolation and characterization will be carried out via a combination of chromatographic, light scattering and microscopic methods including dynamic light scattering, elemental analysis, hydrodynamic radius chromatography, field flow fractionation as well as atomic force microscopy, Raman microscopy, dynamic light scattering methods and electron microscopy. INTERNANO generates fundamental aquatic-terrestrial process knowledge, which will help to evaluate the environmental significance of the EINP at aquatic-terrestrial interfaces. Therefore, INTERNANO serves as a qualitative basis to predict the environmental impact of EINP contamination.

  20. Questions and Answers about School-Age Children in Self-Care: A Sloan Work and Family Research Network Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan Work and Family Research Network, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Sloan Work and Family Research Network has prepared Fact Sheets that provide statistical answers to some important questions about work-family and work-life issues. This Fact Sheet includes statistics about Children in Self-Care, and answers the following questions about school-age children in self-care: (1) How many school-age children are in…

  1. A controlled experiment to evaluate the impact of summer research experiences on attitudes towards science in high school aged students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, M. A.; Tcherednichenko, I.; Hamar, M.; Taylor, M. J.; Litizzette, L.

    2006-12-01

    United States funding agencies increasingly are supporting activities designed to increase the enrollment of United States high school students in science, math, or engineering careers. However, in many cases, the likely outcomes of educational activities are unknown. A common approach within the physical and natural sciences is to provide high school aged students with a summer research experience, with the expectation that such experiences will increase student interest in science, possibly as a career choice. With funding support from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration New Investigator Grant program, we conducted a controlled experiment to test this assumption. In collaboration with Mountain Crest High School in Logan, UT, we recruited 40 students currently enrolled in science courses, assessed attitudes towards science (with informed consent), and randomly assigned 20 students to a control group and 20 students to an experimental group. Students in the experimental group were paired with faculty and graduate students in a wide range of field and laboratory research groups in natural resources and biology. Students were employed in at least two different research groups for an average of 30-40 hours per week for eight weeks in the summer of 2006. Following the completion of the summer work experience, we again assessed attitudes towards science in both groups and gathered additional information from the experimental group on satisfaction with the work experience and reasons for participating. Results are presented and discussed.

  2. Ageing and dementia in low and middle income countries - Using research to engage with public and policy makers

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Martin; Acosta, Daisy; Albanese, Emiliano; Arizaga, Raul; Ferri, Cleusa P.; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, Ks; Jimenez-Velazquez, Ivonne Z.; Rodriguez, Juan Llibre; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Sousa, Renata; Uwakwe, Richard; Van Der Poel, Rikus; Williams, Joseph; Wortmann, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Abstract While two thirds of the 24 million people with dementia worldwide live in low and middle income countries, very little research has been conducted to support policy making in these regions. Among the non-communicable diseases, dementia (in common with other chronic NCDs linked more to long-term disability than to mortality) has been relatively under-prioritized. International agreements, plans and policy guidelines have called for an end to ageist discrimination and a focus upon reducing disadvantage arising from poverty and the consequences of ill health. Social protection, access to good quality age-appropriate healthcare and addressing the problem of disability are all key issues. However, as yet, little progress has been made in addressing these concerns. In this review we outline the current international policy agenda for older individuals, and its specific relevance to those with dementia and other disabling non-communicable diseases. We consider the potential for epidemiological research to raise awareness, refine the policy agenda, and promote action, using the example of the dissemination strategy developed by the 10/66 Dementia Research Group. PMID:18925482

  3. Research on the Influence of Anti-fatigue Effect and Movement Ability of Blueberry Polysaccharides on Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bo, Bai

    2015-01-01

    This topic introduces functions, extraction and purification of polysaccharides and focuses on the effect of blue polysaccharides (BPs) on sport capacity, anti-fatigue effect and related physiological indexes in aged mice induced by D-galactose was investigated. Water extract-alcohol precipitation method was used in the experiment to extract polysaccharides from blueberry, after preliminary purification, research on polysaccharide of its vitro antioxidant activity and bacteriostasis is taken, to provide a reference for the production and application of blueberry polysaccharides. Mice were randomly divided into normal control group, aged model group, low-dose BP group, middle-dose BP group, and high-dose BP group. After the administration of BPs for 20 consecutive days, the exhaustive swimming time and fatigue indexes were determined. The results showed that BPs could extend the exhaustive swimming time, decrease the content of BUN, BLA and MDA, and obviously increase the reservation of HG, MG, SOD and LDH. To conclude, BPs has good anti-fatigue effect. This study may provide theoretical evidence for the development of anti-fatigue drugs from BPs. PMID:26998180

  4. Research on the Influence of Anti-fatigue Effect and Movement Ability of Blueberry Polysaccharides on Aged Mice.

    PubMed

    Bo, Bai

    2015-01-01

    This topic introduces functions, extraction and purification of polysaccharides and focuses on the effect of blue polysaccharides (BPs) on sport capacity, anti-fatigue effect and related physiological indexes in aged mice induced by D-galactose was investigated. Water extract-alcohol precipitation method was used in the experiment to extract polysaccharides from blueberry, after preliminary purification, research on polysaccharide of its vitro antioxidant activity and bacteriostasis is taken, to provide a reference for the production and application of blueberry polysaccharides. Mice were randomly divided into normal control group, aged model group, low-dose BP group, middle-dose BP group, and high-dose BP group. After the administration of BPs for 20 consecutive days, the exhaustive swimming time and fatigue indexes were determined. The results showed that BPs could extend the exhaustive swimming time, decrease the content of BUN, BLA and MDA, and obviously increase the reservation of HG, MG, SOD and LDH. To conclude, BPs has good anti-fatigue effect. This study may provide theoretical evidence for the development of anti-fatigue drugs from BPs. PMID:26998180

  5. International Research Project on the Effects of Chemical Ageing of Polymers on Performance Properties: Chemical and Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    Work during the past six months has included significant research in several areas aimed at further clarification of the aging and chemical failure mechanism of thermoplastics (PVDF or Tefzel) pipes. Among the areas investigated were the crystallinity changes associated with both the Coflon and Tefzel after various simulated environmental exposures using X-ray diffraction analysis. We have found that significant changes in polymer crystallinity levels occur as a function of the exposures. These crystallinity changes may have important consequences on the fracture, fatigue, tensile, and chemical resistance of the materials. We have also noted small changes in the molecular weight distribution. Again these changes may result in variations in the mechanical and chemical properties in the material. We conducted numerous analytical studies with methods including X-ray Diffraction, Gel Permeation Chromatography, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Ultra- Violet Scanning Analysis, GC/Mass Spectrometry, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermomechanical Analysis. In the ultra-violet analysis we noted the presence of an absorption band indicative of triene formation. We investigated a number of aged samples of both Tefzel and Coflon that were forwarded from MERL. We also cast films at SWT and subjected these films to a refluxing methanol 1% ethylene diamine solution. An updated literature search was conducted using Dialog and DROLLS to identify any new papers that may have been published in the open literature since the start of this project. The updated literature search and abstracts are contained in the Appendix section of this report.

  6. Manganese Exposure and Neurocognitive Outcomes in Rural School-Age Children: The Communities Actively Researching Exposure Study (Ohio, USA)

    PubMed Central

    Sucharew, Heidi; Kuhnell, Pierce; Alden, Jody; Barnas, Mary; Wright, Robert O.; Parsons, Patrick J.; Aldous, Kenneth M.; Praamsma, Meredith L.; Beidler, Caroline; Dietrich, Kim N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Manganese (Mn) plays a vital role in brain growth and development, yet excessive exposure can result in neurotoxicity. Marietta, Ohio, is home to the nation’s longest-operating ferromanganese refinery, and community concern about exposure led to the development of the research study. Objectives Our overall goal was to address the community’s primary research question: “Does Mn affect cognitive development of children?” We evaluated the relationships between Mn exposure as measured by blood and hair Mn, along with other neurotoxicants including blood lead (Pb) and serum cotinine, and child cognition. Methods Children 7–9 years of age were enrolled (n = 404) in the Communities Actively Researching Exposure Study (CARES) from Marietta and Cambridge, Ohio, and their surrounding communities from October 2008 through March 2013. Blood and hair were analyzed for Mn and Pb, and serum was analyzed for cotinine. We used penalized splines to assess potential nonlinear associations between biological measures and IQ subscale scores, followed by multivariable regression models with categorical variables based on quartiles of the distribution for biological measures with nonlinear associations and continuous variables for biological measures with linear associations. Results Geometric mean blood (n = 327) and hair Mn (n = 370) concentrations were 9.67 ± 1.27 μg/L and 416.51 ± 2.44 ng/g, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, both low and high blood and hair Mn concentrations were associated with lower Full Scale IQ and subscale scores, with significant negative associations between the highest quartile and middle two quartiles of blood Mn (β –3.51; 95% CI: –6.64, –0.38) and hair Mn (β –3.66; 95% CI: –6.9, –0.43%) and Full Scale IQ. Conclusions Both low and high Mn concentrations in blood and hair were negatively associated with child IQ scores. Serum cotinine was negatively associated with child cognitive function. Citation

  7. Research Synthesis Methods in an Age of Globalized Risks: Lessons from the Global Burden of Foodborne Disease Expert Elicitation.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    We live in an age that increasingly calls for national or regional management of global risks. This article discusses the contributions that expert elicitation can bring to efforts to manage global risks and identifies challenges faced in conducting expert elicitation at this scale. In doing so it draws on lessons learned from conducting an expert elicitation as part of the World Health Organizations (WHO) initiative to estimate the global burden of foodborne disease; a study commissioned by the Foodborne Disease Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG). Expert elicitation is designed to fill gaps in data and research using structured, transparent methods. Such gaps are a significant challenge for global risk modeling. Experience with the WHO FERG expert elicitation shows that it is feasible to conduct an expert elicitation at a global scale, but that challenges do arise, including: defining an informative, yet feasible geographical structure for the elicitation; defining what constitutes expertise in a global setting; structuring international, multidisciplinary expert panels; and managing demands on experts' time in the elicitation. This article was written as part of a workshop, "Methods for Research Synthesis: A Cross-Disciplinary Approach" held at the Harvard Center for Risk Analysis on October 13, 2013. PMID:26857339

  8. The Uses of Research Sponsored by the Administration on Aging (AoA). Case Study No. 3. Volunteer Surveys of Nursing Homes. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Roberta C.; Heinsohn, Ingrid

    This case study, one in a series of research efforts designed to examine the utilization of the Administration on Aging's research, examines the Nursing Home Information Project (NHIP), which developed a methodology whereby a local organization with access to volunteers could produce a consumer guide to nursing homes in its community. (Three…

  9. The Uses of Research Sponsored by the Administration on Aging (AoA). Case Study No. 6. The Home Equity Conversion Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Kristina; Heinsohn, Ingrid

    This case study, one in a series of research efforts designed to examine the utilization of the Administration on Aging's research, describes the different types of uses of findings of the Home Equity Conversion Project (HECP), which developed ways of converting home equity into usable income. The first chapter describes the project and overviews…

  10. Lifespan and lesions in genetically heterogeneous (four-way cross) mice: a new model for aging research.

    PubMed

    Chrisp, C E; Turke, P; Luciano, A; Swalwell, S; Peterson, J; Miller, R A

    1996-11-01

    Genetically heterogeneous animal models provide many advantages for research on aging but have been used infrequently. We present here lifespan and lesion data from a study of mice bred as a cross between (AKR/J x DBA/2J)F1 females and (C57BL/6J x SJL/J)F1 males. In such a four-way cross population, each mouse is genetically unique, but replicate populations of essentially similar genetic structure can be generated quickly, at low cost, and of arbitrary size from commercially available, genetically stable hybrid parents. We employed a protocol in which mice judged to be severely ill were euthanatized to obtain tissue in optimal condition for necropsy, and we were able to infer a likely cause of illness in 42 of 44 animals. Malignant lymphoma, including at least four histopathologically distinct subtypes, was the most common cause and was also a frequent incidental finding in mice dying of other causes. Neoplastic disease, benign or malignant, was the sole or a contributing cause of illness in 90% of the mice for which a cause could plausibly be assigned. A wide range of lethal and nonlethal degenerative lesions was also noted. The coefficient of variation for lifespan in these genetically heterogeneous mice was 26%, similar to that seen in analyses of recombinant inbred mouse lines. Baseline lifespan and pathology data on four-way cross mice is a useful prelude to the exploitation of this rodent model in tests of genetic and mechanistic hypotheses about aging. PMID:8952040

  11. Health Information Literacy and Competencies of Information Age Students: Results From the Interactive Online Research Readiness Self-Assessment (RRSA)

    PubMed Central

    O’Boyle, Irene; Casey, Anne Marie

    2006-01-01

    Background In an era of easy access to information, university students who will soon enter health professions need to develop their information competencies. The Research Readiness Self-Assessment (RRSA) is based on the Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education, and it measures proficiency in obtaining health information, evaluating the quality of health information, and understanding plagiarism. Objective This study aimed to measure the proficiency of college-age health information consumers in finding and evaluating electronic health information; to assess their ability to discriminate between peer-reviewed scholarly resources and opinion pieces or sales pitches; and to examine the extent to which they are aware of their level of health information competency. Methods An interactive 56-item online assessment, the Research Readiness Self-Assessment (RRSA), was used to measure the health information competencies of university students. We invited 400 students to take part in the study, and 308 participated, giving a response rate of 77%. The RRSA included multiple-choice questions and problem-based exercises. Declarative and procedural knowledge were assessed in three domains: finding health information, evaluating health information, and understanding plagiarism. Actual performance was contrasted with self-reported skill level. Upon answering all questions, students received a results page that summarized their numerical results and displayed individually tailored feedback composed by an experienced librarian. Results Even though most students (89%) understood that a one-keyword search is likely to return too many documents, few students were able to narrow a search by using multiple search categories simultaneously or by employing Boolean operators. In addition, nearly half of the respondents had trouble discriminating between primary and secondary sources of information as well as between references to journal articles and other published

  12. The Role of a Model's Age for Young Children's Imitation: A Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zmyj, Norbert; Seehagen, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    The influence of a model's age on young children's behaviour has been a subject of considerable debate among developmental theorists. Despite the recent surge of interest, controversy remains about the nature of peer influence in early life. This article reviews studies that investigated the influence of a model's age on young…

  13. Trends of Research on Prevention of Physiological Aging and the Value of Exercise for Fitness and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cureton, Thomas K.

    In this document, "middle age" is defined as the 26- to 65-year age span during which there is a steady decline of both physical and mental capabilities and a change for the worse in personality traits. The document summarizes the findings of recent training experiments in adult health and physical education that indicate possible ways of…

  14. Historical Roots, Rationales and Applications of Peer and Cross-Age Tutoring: A Basic Primer for Practitioners and Researchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Patricia C.; And Others

    This paper focuses on children helping children through peer and cross-age tutoring with special emphasis for programs serving the student remedial or special education setting. The historical roots of peer and cross-age tutoring are discussed. Explanations of the nature of the tutorial experience are presented, along with a discussion of the…

  15. Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis in a Mixed Methods Research Design to Explore Music in the Lives of Mature Age Amateur Keyboard Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the use of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) in a mixed methods research design with reference to five recent publications about music in the lives of mature age amateur keyboard players. It explores the links between IPA and the data-gathering methods of "Rivers of Musical Experience",…

  16. Information and communication technologies for promoting and sustaining quality of life, health and self-sufficiency in ageing societies--outcomes of the Lower Saxony Research Network Design of Environments for Ageing (GAL).

    PubMed

    Haux, Reinhold; Hein, Andreas; Kolb, Gerald; Künemund, Harald; Eichelberg, Marco; Appell, Jens-E; Appelrath, H-Jürgen; Bartsch, Christian; Bauer, Jürgen M; Becker, Marcus; Bente, Petra; Bitzer, Jörg; Boll, Susanne; Büsching, Felix; Dasenbrock, Lena; Deparade, Riana; Depner, Dominic; Elbers, Katharina; Fachinger, Uwe; Felber, Juliane; Feldwieser, Florian; Forberg, Anne; Gietzelt, Matthias; Goetze, Stefan; Gövercin, Mehmet; Helmer, Axel; Herzke, Tobias; Hesselmann, Tobias; Heuten, Wilko; Huber, Rainer; Hülsken-Giesler, Manfred; Jacobs, Gerold; Kalbe, Elke; Kerling, Arno; Klingeberg, Timo; Költzsch, Yvonne; Lammel-Polchau, Christopher; Ludwig, Wolfram; Marschollek, Michael; Martens, Birger; Meis, Markus; Meyer, Eike Michael; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Schwabedissen, Hubertus; Moritz, Niko; Müller, Heiko; Nebel, Wolfgang; Neyer, Franz J; Okken, Petra-Karin; Rahe, Julia; Remmers, Hartmut; Rölker-Denker, Lars; Schilling, Meinhard; Schöpke, Birte; Schröder, Jens; Schulze, Gisela C; Schulze, Mareike; Siltmann, Sina; Song, Bianying; Spehr, Jens; Steen, Enno-Edzard; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Tanschus, Nele-Marie; Tegtbur, Uwe; Thiel, Andreas; Thoben, Wilfried; van Hengel, Peter; Wabnik, Stefan; Wegel, Sandra; Wilken, Olaf; Winkelbach, Simon; Wist, Thorben; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Wolf, Lars; Zokoll-van der Laan, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Many societies across the world are confronted with demographic changes, usually related to increased life expectancy and, often, relatively low birth rates. Information and communication technologies (ICT) may contribute to adequately support senior citizens in aging societies with respect to quality of life and quality and efficiency of health care processes. For investigating and for providing answers on whether new information and communication technologies can contribute to keeping, or even improving quality of life, health and self-sufficiency in ageing societies through new ways of living and new forms of care, the Lower Saxony Research Network Design of Environments for Ageing (GAL) had been established as a five years research project, running from 2008 to 2013. Ambient-assisted living (AAL) technologies in personal and home environments were especially important. In this article we report on the GAL project, and present some of its major outcomes after five years of research. We report on major challenges and lessons learned in running and organizing such a large, inter- and multidisciplinary project and discuss GAL in the context of related research projects. With respect to research outcomes, we have, for example, learned new knowledge about multimodal and speech-based human-machine-interaction mechanisms for persons with functional restrictions, and identified new methods and developed new algorithms for identifying activities of daily life and detecting acute events, particularly falls. A total of 79 apartments of senior citizens had been equipped with specific "GAL technology", providing new insights into the use of sensor data for smart homes. Major challenges we had to face were to deal constructively with GAL's highly inter- and multidisciplinary aspects, with respect to research into GAL's application scenarios, shifting from theory and lab experimentation to field tests, and the complexity of organizing and, in our view, successfully managing

  17. Current research funding methods dumb down health care and rehabilitation for disabled people and aging population: a call for a change.

    PubMed

    Negrini, S; Padua, L; Kiekens, C; Michail, X; Boldrini, P

    2014-12-01

    Health care systems in Western societies are faced with two major challenges: aging populations and the growing burden of chronic conditions. This translates into more persons with disabilities and the need for more Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) services. We raise the point of how these emerging needs are faced by the actual research funding. We briefly present the results of an analysis we made about research funding by the Italian National Health Service as an interesting case study, since it relates to Italy (the financer) and the United States, where National Institutes of Health (NIH) reviewers were identified according to their classification of research topics. The topics of potentially greatest interest for aging Western societies, like chronicity, disability and rehabilitation, were among those least often funded and considered in the traditional method of financing research projects. These results could be based on those PRM peculiarities that make the specialty different from all other classical biomedical specialties, namely the bio-psycho-social approach and its specific research methodologies. Moreover, PRM researchers are spread among the different topics as usually classified, and it is probable that PRM projects are judged by non-PRM reviewers. There are at least two possible ways in which research can be better placed to meet the emerging needs of Western societies (chronicity, disability and consequently also rehabilitation). One is to create specific keywords on these topics so as to improve the match between researchers and reviewers; the second is to allocate specific funds to research in these areas. In fact, the not coherence between emerging needs and research priorities have already been periodically addressed in the past with specific "political" and/or "social" initiatives, when researchers were forced to respond to new emergencies: some historical examples include cancer or HIV and viral diseases or the recent Ebola

  18. The Society for Social Work and Research at 10 Years of Age and Counting: An Idea Whose Time Had Come

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Deborah K.

    2005-01-01

    Since its founding in 1994, the Society for Social Work and Research (SSWR) has grown dramatically, in large part because of its annual conference featuring the best in social work research. SSWR's growth has also given rise to an appreciation for greater diversity in methods. Although disparities in research infrastructure (and procurement of…

  19. Rembrandt--aging and sickness: a combined look by plastic surgeons, an art researcher and an internal medicine specialist.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Tal; Westreich, Melvyn; Lurie, Doron J; Golik, Ahuva

    2007-02-01

    Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669) left behind the largest collection of self-portraits in the history of art. These portraits were painted over a period of 41 years, using a realistic technique. To evaluate Rembrandt's aging process we studied 25 uncontested Rembrandt oil self-portraits by means of objective and descriptive techniques. By measuring brow position changes through the years, we demonstrated that brow descent started in the second half of the third decade and began to level out in the fourth decade. Based on Rembrandts' aging physiognomy, from age 22 to 63, we believe that Rembrandt did not suffer from temporal arteritis, hypothyroidism, rosacea, or rhynophima and that no other facial signs of systemic diseases are evident, contrary to the opinions expressed by other medical professionals. We suggest that Rembrandt suffered from melancholia or mild depression, and propose the possibility of chronic lead poisoning as a theoretical illness that he might have had. PMID:17348473

  20. Accuracy of early stand exam age estimates in the Swan Valley of Western Montana. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, M.; Lesica, P.

    1994-04-01

    The stand exams conducted in western Montana over 50 years ago provide a valuable source of information on prefire suppression and preharvest condition of the region's forests. Of the early exam estimates of stand origin, 52 percent were within 20 years of estimates taken from stand exams conducted in the 1980's, and 73 percent were within 60 years. There was no significant bias toward either higher or lower age estimates. The early stand exam data can give an accurate estimate of stand age distributions over large areas.

  1. The theory of bipolar disorder as an illness of accelerated aging: implications for clinical care and research.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Lucas Bortolotto; Costa, Leonardo Gazzi; Mansur, Rodrigo B; Swardfager, Walter; Belangero, Síntia Iole; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; McIntyre, Roger S; Bauer, Moisés E; Brietzke, Elisa

    2014-05-01

    Bipolar Disorder (BD) has been conceptualized as both a cyclic and a progressive disorder. Mechanisms involved in neuroprogression in BD remain largely unknown although several non-mutually exclusive models have been proposed as explanatory frameworks. In the present paper, we propose that the pathophysiological changes observed in BD (e.g. brain structural alterations, cognitive deficits, oxidative stress imbalance, amyloid metabolism, immunological deregulation, immunosenescence, neurotrophic deficiencies and telomere shortening) converge on a model of accelerated aging (AA). Aging can be understood as a multidimensional process involving physical, neuropsychological, and social changes, which can be highly variable between individuals. Determinants of successful aging (e.g environmental and genetic factors), may also confer differential vulnerability to components of BD pathophysiology and contribute to the clinical presentation of BD. Herein we discuss how the understanding of aging and senescence can contribute to the search for new and promising molecular targets to explain and ameliorate neuroprogression in BD. We also present the strengths and limitations of this concept. PMID:24548785

  2. Using Ecological Frameworks to Advance a Field of Research, Practice, and Policy on Aging-in-Place Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Emily A.

    2012-01-01

    Initiatives to promote aging in place have emerged rapidly in the United States across various health care settings (e.g., acute care hospitals, skilled nursing facilities) and broader community settings (e.g., public social service agencies). Moreover, recent federal policies include a growing number of provisions for local efforts to promote…

  3. Age in Grade Congruence and Progression in Basic Education in Bangladesh. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 48

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossain, Altaf

    2010-01-01

    In Bangladesh gross and net enrolment rates are used to measure overage and underage enrolment in the education system. However, due to the limits of these methods in exploring the issue of age in grade, the paper uses the CREATE Community and School Survey (COMSS) data from Bangladesh. COMSS was a longitudinal survey of 6,696 households with…

  4. Sleep, Cognition, and Behavioral Problems in School-Age Children: A Century of Research Meta-Analyzed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astill, Rebecca G.; Van der Heijden, Kristiaan B.; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.

    2012-01-01

    Clear associations of sleep, cognitive performance, and behavioral problems have been demonstrated in meta-analyses of studies in adults. This meta-analysis is the first to systematically summarize all relevant studies reporting on sleep, cognition, and behavioral problems in healthy school-age children (5-12 years old) and incorporates 86 studies…

  5. Using Data Analysis Exercises to Teach Research in Sociology of Aging Online: An Examination of Student Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, Tracy L.

    2006-01-01

    The present study represents an evaluation of the implementation of the integration of the American Sociological Association's (ASA) Integrating Data Analysis Project into 2 online offerings of an undergraduate sociology of aging course. This program was developed in response to concerns that students did not understand the complex relationships…

  6. Age, Gender, and Ethnicity of Counsellor Trainees and Corresponding Counselling Self-Efficacy: Research Findings and Implications for Counsellor Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Sarah; Tracz, Susan; Lucey, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the counselling self-efficacy of students in a counsellor education programme, in regard to age, gender, and ethnicity characteristics. To assess counselling self-efficacy, the Counselling Self-Estimate Inventory (COSE) of Larson "et al." ("Counsellor Education & Supervision" 41: 120-130, 1992) was…

  7. Research on Youth in an Age of Complexity: The Rockefeller Youth Task Force and Daniel Yankelovich, 1965-1975

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Theresa M.

    2008-01-01

    The period between 1965 and 1975 encompasses important events associated with the peak of the youth movement in the 1960s and its demise in the 1970s. The period was an "age of complexity" according to Daniel Yankelovich, a social scientist hired by John D. Rockefeller 3rd's Youth Task Force to study the wave of protests that Rockefeller felt…

  8. A Meta-analysis of Four Genome-Wide Association Studies of Survival to Age 90 Years or Older: The Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Stefan; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Garcia, Melissa E.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Christensen, Kaare; Arnold, Alice M.; Aspelund, Thor; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Christiansen, Lene; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Franceschini, Nora; Glazer, Nicole L.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hofman, Albert; Kaplan, Robert; Karasik, David; Kelly-Hayes, Margaret; Kiel, Douglas P.; Launer, Lenore J.; Marciante, Kristin D.; Massaro, Joseph M.; Miljkovic, Iva; Nalls, Michael A.; Hernandez, Dena; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome; Seshadri, Sudha; Smith, Albert V.; Taylor, Kent D.; Tiemeier, Henning; Uh, Hae-Won; Uitterlinden, André G.; Vaupel, James W.; Walston, Jeremy; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Harris, Tamara B.; Lumley, Thomas; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Murabito, Joanne M.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) may yield insights into longevity. Methods. We performed a meta-analysis of GWAS in Caucasians from four prospective cohort studies: the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study, the Cardiovascular Health Study, the Framingham Heart Study, and the Rotterdam Study participating in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium. Longevity was defined as survival to age 90 years or older (n = 1,836); the comparison group comprised cohort members who died between the ages of 55 and 80 years (n = 1,955). In a second discovery stage, additional genotyping was conducted in the Leiden Longevity Study cohort and the Danish 1905 cohort. Results. There were 273 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations with p < .0001, but none reached the prespecified significance level of 5 × 10−8. Of the most significant SNPs, 24 were independent signals, and 16 of these SNPs were successfully genotyped in the second discovery stage, with one association for rs9664222, reaching 6.77 × 10−7 for the combined meta-analysis of CHARGE and the stage 2 cohorts. The SNP lies in a region near MINPP1 (chromosome 10), a well-conserved gene involved in regulation of cellular proliferation. The minor allele was associated with lower odds of survival past age 90 (odds ratio = 0.82). Associations of interest in a homologue of the longevity assurance gene (LASS3) and PAPPA2 were not strengthened in the second stage. Conclusion. Survival studies of larger size or more extreme or specific phenotypes may support or refine these initial findings. PMID:20304771

  9. The Quality of School-Age Child Care in After-School Settings. Research-to-Policy Connections No. 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Priscilla M.

    2007-01-01

    This brief identifies the features of high-quality after-school settings that have emerged from the research and are reflected in program quality tools. It also examines key research linking program quality to positive developmental outcomes; it reviews current practice in program quality assessment; and it offers considerations for policymakers…

  10. Laser microbeams for DNA damage induction, optical tweezers for the search on blood pressure relaxing drugs: contributions to ageing research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigaravicius, P.; Monajembashi, S.; Hoffmann, M.; Altenberg, B.; Greulich, K. O.

    2009-08-01

    One essential cause of human ageing is the accumulation of DNA damages during lifetime. Experimental studies require quantitative induction of damages and techniques to visualize the subsequent DNA repair. A new technique, the "immuno fluorescent comet assay", is used to directly visualize DNA damages in the microscope. Using DNA repair proteins fluorescently labeled with green fluorescent protein, it could be shown that the repair of the most dangerous DNA double strand breaks starts with the inaccurate "non homologous end joining" pathway and only after 1 - 1 ½ minutes may switch to the more accurate "homologous recombination repair". One might suggest investigating whether centenarians use "homologous recombination repair" differently from those ageing at earlier years and speculate whether it is possible, for example by nutrition, to shift DNA repair to a better use of the error free pathway and thus promote healthy ageing. As a complementary technique optical tweezers, and particularly its variant "erythrocyte mediated force application", is used to simulate the effects of blood pressure on HUVEC cells representing the inner lining of human blood vessels. Stimulating one cell induces in the whole neighbourhood waves of calcium and nitric oxide, known to relax blood vessels. NIFEDIPINE and AMLODIPINE, both used as drugs in the therapy of high blood pressure, primarily a disease of the elderly, prolong the availability of nitric oxide. This partially explains their mode of action. In contrast, VERAPAMILE, also a blood pressure reducing drug, does not show this effect, indicating that obviously an alternative mechanism must be responsible for vessel relaxation.

  11. Social justice and HIV vaccine research in the age of pre-exposure prophylaxis and treatment as prevention.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Theodore C; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2013-09-01

    The advent of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and treatment as prevention (TasP) as means of HIV prevention raises issues of justice concerning how most fairly and equitably to apportion resources in support of the burgeoning variety of established HIV treatment and prevention measures and further HIV research, including HIV vaccine research. We apply contemporary approaches to social justice to assess the ethical justification for allocating resources in support of HIV vaccine research given competing priorities to support broad implementation of HIV treatment and prevention measures, including TasP and PrEP. We argue that there is prima facie reason to believe that a safe and effective preventive HIV vaccine would offer a distinct set of ethically significant benefits not provided by current HIV treatment or prevention methods. It is thereby possible to justify continued support for HIV vaccine research despite tension with priorities for treatment, prevention, and other research. We then consider a counter-argument to such a justification based on the uncertainty of successfully developing a safe and effective preventive HIV vaccine. Finally, we discuss how HIV vaccine research might now be ethically designed and conducted given the new preventive options of TasP and PrEP, focusing on the ethically appropriate standard of prevention for HIV vaccine trials. PMID:24033297

  12. Designing exercise clinical trials for older adults with cancer: Recommendations from 2015 Cancer and Aging Research Group NCI U13 Meeting.

    PubMed

    Kilari, Deepak; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Mohile, Supriya Gupta; Alibhai, Shabbir M H; Presley, Carolyn J; Wildes, Tanya M; Klepin, Heidi D; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Jatoi, Amina; Harrison, Robert; Won, Elizabeth; Mustian, Karen M

    2016-07-01

    Cancer and its treatment can lead to a myriad of adverse events and negatively impact quality of life of older cancer patients and survivors. Unmet physical activity needs vary across the cancer continuum and remain an important yet understudied area of research in this population. Exercise interventions have been shown to be effective in treating both the physical and psychological declines associated with cancer and its treatment, with a potential to improve cancer-related outcomes. Despite the current evidence, exercise is clearly underutilized due to several barriers and knowledge gaps in existing trials that include appropriate population identification, design, and outcome measures selection. The benefits of regular exercise in both the primary and secondary prevention of chronic conditions are well established in the non-cancer population. In older cancer patients and survivors, further research is needed before exercise gains widespread acceptance. The Cancer and Aging Research Group convened experts in exercise, aging and cancer to evaluate current scientific evidence and knowledge gaps in geriatric exercise oncology. This report summarizes these findings and provides future research directions. PMID:27197916

  13. Designing exercise clinical trials for older adults with cancer: Recommendations from 2015 Cancer and Aging Research Group NCI U13 Meeting

    PubMed Central

    Kilari, Deepak; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Mohile, Supriya Gupta; Alibhai, Shabbir M.H.; Presley, Carolyn J.; Wildes, Tanya M.; Klepin, Heidi D.; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Jatoi, Amina; Harrison, Robert; Won, Elizabeth; Mustian, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer and its treatment can lead to a myriad of adverse events and negatively impact quality of life of older cancer patients and survivors. Unmet physical activity needs vary across the cancer continuum and remain an important yet understudied area of research in this population. Exercise interventions have been shown to be effective in treating both the physical and psychological declines associated with cancer and its treatment, with a potential to improve cancer-related outcomes. Despite the current evidence, exercise is clearly underutilized due to several barriers and knowledge gaps in existing trials that include appropriate population identification, design, and outcome measures selection. The benefits of regular exercise in both the primary and secondary prevention of chronic conditions are well established in the non-cancer population. In older cancer patients and survivors, further research is needed before exercise gains widespread acceptance. The Cancer and Aging Research Group convened experts in exercise, aging and cancer to evaluate current scientific evidence and knowledge gaps in geriatric exercise oncology. This report summarizes these findings and provides future research directions. PMID:27197916

  14. The assessment of developmental status using the Ages and Stages questionnaire-3 in nutritional research in north Indian young children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective and background For large epidemiological studies in low and middle-income countries, inexpensive and easily administered developmental assessment tools are called for. This report evaluates the feasibility of the assessment tool Ages and Stages Questionnaire 3.edition (ASQ-3) “home procedure” in a field trial in 422 North Indian young children. Methods ASQ-3 was translated and adjusted for a North Indian Hindi setting. Three examiners were trained by a clinical psychologist to perform the assessments. During the main study, ten % of the assessments were done by two examiners to estimate inter-observer agreement. During all sessions, the examiners recorded whether the scoring was based on observation of the skill during the session, or on caregiver’s report of the child’s skill. Intra class correlation coefficient was calculated to estimate the agreement between the raters and between the raters and a gold standard. Pearson product moment correlation coefficient and standardized alphas were calculated to measure internal consistency. Principal findings Inter-observer agreement was strong both during training exercises and during the main study. In the Motor subscales and the Problem Solving subscale most items could be observed during the session. The standardized alphas for the total ASQ-3 scale across all ages were strong, while the alpha values for the different subscales and age levels varied. The correlations between the total score and the subscale scores were consistently strong, while the correlations between subscale scores were moderate. Conclusions/significance We found that the translated and adjusted ASQ-3 “home procedure” was a feasible procedure for the collection of reliable data on the developmental status in infants and young children. Examiners were effectively trained over a short period of time, and the total ASQ scores showed adequate variability. However, further adjustments are needed to obtain satisfying alpha values in

  15. Major electrocardiographic abnormalities in persons aged 65 years and older (the Cardiovascular Health Study). Cardiovascular Health Study Collaborative Research Group.

    PubMed

    Furberg, C D; Manolio, T A; Psaty, B M; Bild, D E; Borhani, N O; Newman, A; Tabatznik, B; Rautaharju, P M

    1992-05-15

    Electrocardiographic abnormalities are often found in older patients, but their prevalence in free-living elderly populations is not well-defined. In addition, the clinical significance of many of these abnormalities is uncertain. The prevalence of major electrocardiographic abnormalities was determined in 5,150 adults aged greater than or equal to 65 years from the Cardiovascular Health Study--a study of risk factors for stroke and coronary heart disease in the elderly. Ventricular conduction defects, major Q/QS waves, left ventricular hypertrophy, isolated major ST-T-wave abnormalities, atrial fibrillation and first-degree atrioventricular block were collectively categorized as major electrocardiographic abnormalities. Prevalence of any major electrocardiographic abnormality was 29% in the entire cohort, 19% among 2,413 participants who reported no history of coronary artery disease or systemic hypertension, and 37% among 2,737 participants with a history of coronary artery disease or hypertension. Prevalence of major electrocardiographic abnormalities was higher in men than in women regardless of history, and tended to increase with age. Major Q/QS waves were found in 5.2%, and more than half were in those who did not report a previous myocardial infarction. Major electrocardiographic abnormalities are common in elderly men and women irrespective of the history of heart disease. PMID:1585868

  16. A Research-Based Community Theater Performance to Promote Ageing: Is It More than Just a Show?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Susan; Radermacher, Harriet; Lorains, Felicity; Haines, Terence

    2011-01-01

    Research-based community theater can address important life issues in a safe and entertaining environment. This study investigated using a theater performance about widowhood as a medium for facilitating older people's engagement with key life events and countering negative stereotypes. Quantitative questions incorporating semistructured…

  17. The American Faculty in an Age of Globalization: Predictors of Internationalization of Research Content and Professional Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelstein, Martin J.; Walker, Elaine; Chen, Rong

    2013-01-01

    While there has been considerable policy discussion about the need to internationalize American higher education, our understanding of the internationalization in American faculty's research remains limited. This study intends to investigate the extent of internationalization in American faculty's scholarly work and what individual and…

  18. Finding Context: What Today's College Students Say about Conducting Research in the Digital Age. Project Information Literacy Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Head, Alison J.; Eisenberg, Michael B.

    2009-01-01

    A report of preliminary findings and analysis from student discussion groups held on 7 U.S. campuses in Fall 2008, as part of Project Information Literacy. Qualitative data from discussions with higher education students across the country suggest that conducting research is particularly challenging. Students' greatest challenges are related to…

  19. Universal Service in the Digital Age: The Commercialization and Geography of U.S. Internet Access. Research Brief No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library and Information Resources, Washington, DC.

    In 1997, the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) supported a project on the geographic spread of the commercial Internet Service Provider (ISP) market. This Research Brief describes some of the principle findings of a report (by Professor Shane Greenstein of the Kellogg Graduate School of Management, Northwestern University) on the…

  20. Musical Development and Learning Characteristics of Students: A Compilation of Key Points from the Research Literature Organized by Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooding, Lori; Standley, Jayne M.

    2011-01-01

    Development involves progressive changes in knowledge and abilities that occur across the life span. Current research on musical abilities suggests that the development of skills necessary for musicality begins in utero and continues through adulthood. Many of these skills, such as the ability to carry a tune, move in time to music, and respond…

  1. The ontogeny of a sexual fetish from birth to age 30 and memory processes. A research case report from a prospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Massie, H; Szajnberg, N

    1997-08-01

    From a longitudinal study that began at birth, a case is described in which a man at the age of 30 recalls the onset of a sexual fetish in his fifth or sixth year of life. The memories activated and dreams reported during the thirty-year follow-up interview, were synthesised with parent-infant film data and historical information contained in the research record concerning the child's development, his parents' behaviour and traumatic experiences. Taken together they provide a detailed description of the psychological ontogenesis of the fetish. The case provides unusual information about the manner in which early childhood events-objectively documented-interdigitate with intrapsychic processes and mental structuralisation. This also illuminates processes by which memories are retained, condensed, distorted and lost. In addition, information from other participants in the project who reported sexually anomalous histories at the age of 30 raises questions of what can be predicted from early life experiences. PMID:9306187

  2. Neurovascular pathophysiology in cerebral ischemia, dementia and the ageing brain – current trends in basic, translational and clinical research

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The 7th International Symposium on Neuroprotection and Neurorepair was held from May 2nd to May 5th, 2012 in Potsdam, Germany. The symposium, which directly continues the successful Magdeburg meeting series, attracted over 330 colleagues from 29 countries to discuss recent findings and advances in the field. The focus of the 2012 symposium was widened from stroke and traumatic brain injury to neurodegenerative diseases, notably dementia, and more generally the ageing brain. Thereby, emphasis was given on neurovascular aspects of neurodegeneration and stroke including the blood–brain barrier, recent findings regarding the pathomechanism of Alzheimer’s disease, and brain imaging approaches. In addition, neurobiochemical aspects of neuroprotection, the role of astrogliosis, the clinical progress of cell-based approaches as well as translational hurdles and opportunities were discussed in-depth. This review summarizes some of the most stimulating discussions and reports from the meeting. PMID:22883324

  3. Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    1984-01-01

    This potpourri surveys research on various topics: neurologically based curricula, midafternoon slumps in student attention, accounting for contexts in research, feelings of powerlessness among students and teachers, further equity implications of computers in schools, misreporting of research findings, and accounting for media transfer in…

  4. Not enough skeletons in the closet: collections-based anatomical research in an age of conservation conscience.

    PubMed

    Bell, Christopher J; Mead, Jim I

    2014-03-01

    The emergence of new technologies and improved computing power helped to introduce a renewed vitality in morphological research in recent decades. This is especially apparent in the new advances made in understanding the evolutionary morphology of the skeletal system in extinct and extant squamate reptiles. The new data generated as a result of the recent increase in attention are relevant not only for systematic analyses but also are valuable in their own right for contributing to holistic perspectives on organismal evolution, mosaic evolution in the rates of change in different anatomical systems, and broader patterns of macroevolution. A global community of morphological researchers now can share data through online digital collections, but opportunities for continued advance are hindered because we lack even basic data on patterns of variation of the skeletal system for virtually all squamate lineages. Most work on skeletal morphology of squamates is based on a sample size of n = 1; this is an especially noticeable phenomenon for studies relying on X-ray computed tomography technology. We need new collections of skeletal specimens, both material and digital, and new approaches to the study of skeletal morphology. Promising areas for continued research include the recent focus on skeletal elements not traditionally included in morphological studies (especially systematic analyses based upon morphological data) and efforts to elucidate patterns of variation and phylogenetically informative features of disarticulated skeletal elements. PMID:24482266

  5. Recruitment and Retention Strategies for Minority or Poor Clinical Research Participants: Lessons From the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity Across the Life Span Study

    PubMed Central

    Ejiogu, Ngozi; Norbeck, Jennifer H.; Mason, Marc A.; Cromwell, Bridget C.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Evans, Michele K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study: Investigating health disparities requires studies designed to recruit and retain racially and socioeconomically diverse cohorts. It is critical to address the barriers that disproportionately affect participation in clinical research by minorities and the socioeconomically disadvantaged. This study sought to identify and rectify these barriers to recruit and retain a biracial (African American and non-Hispanic White) and socioeconomically diverse cohort for a longitudinal study. Design and Method: The Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study is a 20-year longitudinal examination of how race and socioeconomic status influence the development of age-related health disparities. One goal was to create a multifactorial recruitment and retention strategy. The recruitment paradigm targeted known barriers and identified those unique to the study's urban environment. The retention paradigm mirrored the recruitment plan but was based on specifically developed approaches. Results: This cohort recruitment required attention to developing community partnerships, designing the research study to meet the study hypotheses and to provide benefit to participants, providing a safe community-based site for the research and creating didactics to develop staff cultural proficiency. These efforts facilitated study implementation and enhanced recruitment resulting in accrual of a biracial and socioeconomically diverse cohort of 3,722 participants. Implications: Recruiting and retaining minority or poor research participants is challenging but possible. The essential facets include clear communication of the research hypothesis, focus on providing a direct benefit for participants, and selection of a hypothesis that is directly relevant to the community studied PMID:21565817

  6. National Institute on Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Join Our Mailing List Email The Leader in Aging Research NIA, one of the 27 Institutes and ... broad scientific effort to understand the nature of aging and to extend the healthy, active years of ...

  7. Physiological and pathophysiological reactive oxygen species as probed by EPR spectroscopy: the underutilized research window on muscle ageing.

    PubMed

    A Abdel-Rahman, Engy; Mahmoud, Ali M; Khalifa, Abdulrahman M; Ali, Sameh S

    2016-08-15

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) play crucial roles in triggering, mediating and regulating physiological and pathophysiological signal transduction pathways within the cell. Within the cell, ROS efflux is firmly controlled both spatially and temporally, making the study of ROS dynamics a challenging task. Different approaches have been developed for ROS assessment; however, many of these assays are not capable of direct identification or determination of subcellular localization of different ROS. Here we highlight electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy as a powerful technique that is uniquely capable of addressing questions on ROS dynamics in different biological specimens and cellular compartments. Due to their critical importance in muscle functions and dysfunction, we discuss in some detail spin trapping of various ROS and focus on EPR detection of nitric oxide before highlighting how EPR can be utilized to probe biophysical characteristics of the environment surrounding a given stable radical. Despite the demonstrated ability of EPR spectroscopy to provide unique information on the identity, quantity, dynamics and environment of radical species, its applications in the field of muscle physiology, fatiguing and ageing are disproportionately infrequent. While reviewing the limited examples of successful EPR applications in muscle biology we conclude that the field would greatly benefit from more studies exploring ROS sources and kinetics by spin trapping, protein dynamics by site-directed spin labelling, and membrane dynamics and global redox changes by spin probing EPR approaches. PMID:26801204

  8. Bullying in the digital age: a critical review and meta-analysis of cyberbullying research among youth.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Robin M; Giumetti, Gary W; Schroeder, Amber N; Lattanner, Micah R

    2014-07-01

    Although the Internet has transformed the way our world operates, it has also served as a venue for cyberbullying, a serious form of misbehavior among youth. With many of today's youth experiencing acts of cyberbullying, a growing body of literature has begun to document the prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of this behavior, but the literature is highly fragmented and lacks theoretical focus. Therefore, our purpose in the present article is to provide a critical review of the existing cyberbullying research. The general aggression model is proposed as a useful theoretical framework from which to understand this phenomenon. Additionally, results from a meta-analytic review are presented to highlight the size of the relationships between cyberbullying and traditional bullying, as well as relationships between cyberbullying and other meaningful behavioral and psychological variables. Mixed effects meta-analysis results indicate that among the strongest associations with cyberbullying perpetration were normative beliefs about aggression and moral disengagement, and the strongest associations with cyberbullying victimization were stress and suicidal ideation. Several methodological and sample characteristics served as moderators of these relationships. Limitations of the meta-analysis include issues dealing with causality or directionality of these associations as well as generalizability for those meta-analytic estimates that are based on smaller sets of studies (k < 5). Finally, the present results uncover important areas for future research. We provide a relevant agenda, including the need for understanding the incremental impact of cyberbullying (over and above traditional bullying) on key behavioral and psychological outcomes. PMID:24512111

  9. Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc deposits through geological time: Implications from recent age-dating research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leach, D.L.; Bradley, D.; Lewchuk, Michael T.; Symons, David T. A.; De Marsily, G.; Brannon, J.

    2001-01-01

    Remarkable advances in age dating Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) lead-zinc deposits provide a new opportunity to understand how and where these deposits form in the Earth's crust. These dates are summarized and examined in a framework of global tectonics, paleogeography, fluid migration, and paleoclimate. Nineteen districts have been dated by paleomagnetic and/or radiometric methods. Of the districts that have both paleomagnetic and radiometric dates, only the Pine Point and East Tennessee districts have significant disagreements. This broad agreement between paleomagnetic and radiometric dates provides added confidence in the dating techniques used. The new dates confirm the direct connection between the genesis of MVT lead-zinc ores with global-scale tectonic events. The dates show that MVT deposits formed mainly during large contractional tectonic events at restricted times in the history of the Earth. Only the deposits in the Lennard Shelf of Australia and Nanisivik in Canada have dates that correspond to extensional tectonic events. The most important period for MVT genesis was the Devonian to Permian time, which corresponds to a series of intense tectonic events during the assimilation of Pangea. The second most important period for MVT genesis was Cretaceous to Tertiary time when microplate assimilation affected the western margin of North America and Africa-Eurasia. There is a notable paucity of MVT lead-zinc ore formation following the breakup of Rodinia and Pangea. Of the five MVT deposits hosted in Proterozoic rocks, only the Nanisivik deposit has been dated as Proterozoic. The contrast in abundance between SEDEX and MVT lead-zinc deposits in the Proterozoic questions the frequently suggested notion that the two types of ores share similar genetic paths. The ages of MVT deposits, when viewed with respect to the orogenic cycle in the adjacent orogen suggest that no single hydrologic model can be universally applied to the migration of the ore fluids

  10. Novel age-dependent learning deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease: implications for translational research

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, K. S.; Simmons, R. K.; Edwards, G.; Nicolle, M. M.; Gluck, M. A.; Myers, C. E.; Bizon, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Computational modeling predicts that the hippocampus plays an important role in the ability to apply previously learned information to novel problems and situations (referred to as the ability to generalize information or simply as ‘transfer learning’). These predictions have been tested in humans using a computer-based task on which individuals with hippocampal damage are able to learn a series of complex discriminations with two stimulus features (shape and color), but are impaired in their ability to transfer this information to newly configured problems in which one of the features is altered. This deficit occurs despite the fact that the feature predictive of the reward (the relevant information) is not changed. The goal of the current study was to develop a mouse analog of transfer learning and to determine if this new task was sensitive to pathological changes in a mouse model of AD. We describe a task in which mice were able to learn a series of concurrent discriminations that contained two stimulus features (odor and digging media) and could transfer this learned information to new problems in which the irrelevant feature in each discrimination pair was altered. Moreover, we report age-dependent deficits specific to transfer learning in APP+PS1 mice relative to nontransgenic littermates. The robust impairment in transfer learning may be more sensitive to AD-like pathology than traditional cognitive assessments in that no deficits were observed in the APP+PS1 mice on the widely used Morris water maze task. These data describe a novel and sensitive paradigm to evaluate mnemonic decline in AD mouse models that has unique translational advantages over standard species-specific cognitive assessments (e.g. water maze for rodent and delayed paragraph recall for humans). PMID:19720431

  11. An age of enlightenment for cilia: The FASEB summer research conference on the "Biology of Cilia and Flagella".

    PubMed

    Tran, Pamela V; Lechtreck, Karl F

    2016-01-15

    From July 19-24, 2015, 169 clinicians and basic scientists gathered in the vertiginous heights of Snowmass, Colorado (2502 m) for the fourth FASEB summer research conference on the 'Biology of Cilia and Flagella'. Organizers Maureen Barr (Rutgers University), Iain Drummond (Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School), and Jagesh Shah (Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical School) assembled a program filled with new data and forward-thinking ideas documenting the ongoing growth of the field. Sixty oral presentations and 77 posters covered novel aspects of cilia structure, ciliogenesis, cilia motility, cilia-mediated signaling, and cilia-related disease. In this report, we summarize the meeting, highlight exciting developments and discuss open questions. PMID:26597000

  12. Self-reported race/ethnicity in the age of genomic research: its potential impact on understanding health disparities.

    PubMed

    Mersha, Tesfaye B; Abebe, Tilahun

    2015-01-01

    This review explores the limitations of self-reported race, ethnicity, and genetic ancestry in biomedical research. Various terminologies are used to classify human differences in genomic research including race, ethnicity, and ancestry. Although race and ethnicity are related, race refers to a person's physical appearance, such as skin color and eye color. Ethnicity, on the other hand, refers to communality in cultural heritage, language, social practice, traditions, and geopolitical factors. Genetic ancestry inferred using ancestry informative markers (AIMs) is based on genetic/genomic data. Phenotype-based race/ethnicity information and data computed using AIMs often disagree. For example, self-reporting African Americans can have drastically different levels of African or European ancestry. Genetic analysis of individual ancestry shows that some self-identified African Americans have up to 99% of European ancestry, whereas some self-identified European Americans have substantial admixture from African ancestry. Similarly, African ancestry in the Latino population varies between 3% in Mexican Americans to 16% in Puerto Ricans. The implication of this is that, in African American or Latino populations, self-reported ancestry may not be as accurate as direct assessment of individual genomic information in predicting treatment outcomes. To better understand human genetic variation in the context of health disparities, we suggest using "ancestry" (or biogeographical ancestry) to describe actual genetic variation, "race" to describe health disparity in societies characterized by racial categories, and "ethnicity" to describe traditions, lifestyle, diet, and values. We also suggest using ancestry informative markers for precise characterization of individuals' biological ancestry. Understanding the sources of human genetic variation and the causes of health disparities could lead to interventions that would improve the health of all individuals. PMID:25563503

  13. Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudenbush, Stephen

    In May of 1999, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences hosted a conference on ways to improve the scientific quality of educational research. In medicine, thanks to work 40 years ago by 2 researchers, Howard Hyatt and Frederick Mosteller, the commitment of medical professionals to base their diagnoses and prescriptions on clinical trials in…

  14. MoMa: From Molecules to Man: Space Research Applied to the improvement of the Quality of Life of the Ageing Population on Earth. Evolution of a project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambito, Anna Maria; Curcio, Francesco; Meli, Antonella; Saverio Ambesi-Impiombato, Francesco

    The "MoMa" project: "From Molecules to Man: Space Research Applied to the improvement of the Quality of Life of the Ageing Population on Earth started June 16 2006 and finished right on schedule June 25 2009, has been the biggest of the three projects funded by ASI in the sector "Medicine and Biotechnology. In the last years the scientific community had formed a national chain of biomedical spatial research with different research areas. MoMa responds to the necessity of unification in ASI of the two areas "Radiobiology and Protection" and "Cellular and Molecular Biotechnology" in a line of joint research: "Biotechnological Applications" were the interests of all groups would be combined and unified in a goal of social relevance. MoMa is the largest project ever developed in the biomedical area in Italy, the idea was born thinking about the phenomenon of acceleration of the aging process observed in space, and already described in literature, and the aim of studying the effects of the space environment at cellular, molecular and human organism level. "MoMa" was divided into three primary areas of study: Molecules, Cells and Man with an industrial area alongside. This allowed to optimize the work and information flows within the scientific research more similar and more culturally homogeneous and allowed a perfect industrial integration in a project of great scientific importance. Within three scientific areas 10 scientific lines in total are identified, each of them coordinated by a subcontractor. The rapid and efficient exchange of information between different areas of science and the development of industrial applications in various areas of interest have been assured by a strong work of Scientific Coordination of System Engineering and Quality Control. After three years of intense and coordinated activities within the MoMa project, the objectives achieved are very significant not only as regards the scientific results and the important hardware produced but

  15. Research

    SciTech Connect

    1999-10-01

    Subjects covered in this section are: (1) PCAST panel promotes energy research cooperation; (2) Letter issued by ANS urges funding balance in FFTF restart consideration and (3) FESAC panel releases report on priorities and balance.

  16. Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Implications for teachers from Piagetian-oriented piagetian-oriented research on problem solving reported in an article by Eleanor Duckworth are presented. Edward de Bono's Children Solve Problems,'' a collection of examples, is also discussed. (MS)

  17. Gay aging.

    PubMed

    Haber, David

    2009-01-01

    The oldest of the baby boomers (boomers) were age 63 in 2009 and on the verge of retirement. This cohort has had a history of making societal changes throughout its life cycle, and it is unlikely that retirement, as we know it, will remain unscathed. This article highlights two events-the Stonewall Inn riots and two prominent professional associations removing homosexuality from their list of personality disorders-and how they occurred early enough in the gay boomers life cycle to change their attitudes, behaviors, and lifestyles. This article introduces the reader to a broad array of facts, research findings, and issues that inform the topic of gay aging. A summary of the discrimination and legal concerns affecting the gay community are also highlighted. Two influential community programs are identified: Services and Advocacy for Gay Elders (SAGE) and the American Society on Aging's LGBT Aging Issues Network (LAIN). Gerontological educators need to be sensitive to the needs, desires, and resources of the coming cohort of gay boomers, who are more likely to advocate for responsive services, organizations, and policies than the current cohort of gay older adults. PMID:19697188

  18. Aging & Health.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    By 2050 an estimated 83.7 million Americans will be ages sixty-five and older, up from 40.3 million in 2010. The shock wave of aging Americans will have profound implications for older people, their families, health care providers, and the economy. Researchers, policy makers, health care leaders, and others are designing responses to the challenges these actuarial shifts will create. For example, delivering health care at home could help keep more older Americans out of costly emergency departments and nursing homes. But such steps require more health care providers, a broader distribution of providers than currently exists, and better use of the resources we have. PMID:27605632

  19. Menopause Hastens Aging, Studies Suggest

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160079.html Menopause Hastens Aging, Studies Suggest Researchers found it boosted cellular aging by ... it, can speed aging in women, two new studies suggest. "For decades, scientists have disagreed over whether ...

  20. Formative research and development of an evidence-based communication strategy: the introduction of Vi typhoid fever vaccine among school-aged children in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Pach, Alfred; Tabbusam, Ghurnata; Khan, M Imran; Suhag, Zamir; Hussain, Imtiaz; Hussain, Ejaz; Mumtaz, Uzma; Haq, Inam Ul; Tahir, Rehman; Mirani, Amjad; Yousafzai, Aisha; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant; Ochiai, R Leon; Soofi, Sajid; Clemens, John D; Favorov, Michael O; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2013-01-01

    The authors conducted formative research (a) to identify stakeholders' concerns related to typhoid fever and the need for disease information and (b) to develop a communication strategy to inform stakeholders and address their concerns and motivate for support of a school-based vaccination program in Pakistan. Data were collected during interactive and semi-structured focus group discussions and interviews, followed by a qualitative analysis and multidisciplinary consultative process to identify an effective social mobilization strategy comprised of relevant media channels and messages. The authors conducted 14 focus group discussions with the parents of school-aged children and their teachers, and 13 individual interviews with school, religious, and political leaders. Parents thought that typhoid fever was a dangerous disease, but were unsure of their children's risk. They were interested in vaccination and were comfortable with a school-based vaccination if conducted under the supervision of trained and qualified staff. Teachers and leaders needed information on typhoid fever, the vaccine, procedures, and sponsors of the vaccination program. Meetings were considered the best form of information dissemination, followed by printed materials and mass media. This study shows how qualitative research findings can be translated into an effective social mobilization and communication approach. The findings of the research indicated the importance of increasing awareness of typhoid fever and the benefits of vaccination against the disease. Identification and dissemination of relevant, community-based disease and vaccination information will increase demand and use of vaccination. PMID:23330632

  1. Joint Industry/Government Research Project: Comparison of thermal aging for roof exposures and thin-specimens of experimental polyisocyanurate insulation foamed with alternative blowing agents

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, R.S.; Christian, J.E.; McElroy, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports apparent thermal conductivity (k) values from field exposures and laboratory aging of a set of industry-produced, experimental polyisocyanurate (PIR) laminated boardstock foamed with hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) as alternative to chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The k-values were determined from 0 to 50{degree}C using techniques that meet ASTM C 1114 (Thin Heater Apparatus) and ASTM C 518 (Heat Flow Meter Apparatus). The increase in k observed for field exposure in the ORNL Roof Thermal Research Apparatus (RTRA) was confirmed by independent laboratory tests. The observed laboratory increase in k was about the same, between 17 and 22%, for all three blowing agent foams for a 450 day field exposure in the RTRA. Thin specimens were planed from the industry-produced boardstock foams and aged at 24 and 65{degree}C for up to 460 days. The foams blown with alternative blowing agents exhibited long-term k-values 7 to 15% above those for CFC foams under similar conditions. Field exposures were conducted on specimens under single ply EPDM membranes in the RTRA for over 680 days. Hourly averages of panel temperature and heat flux were analyzed to obtain k as a function of mean insulation temperature on a week-by-week basis. The k-values derived from the field data provided effective diffusion coefficients for air in the foam, which were within 7% of those obtained from the thin-specimen aging procedure at 24%C except for one sample. The relative performance of test specimens of HCFC-141b under a black and under a white membrane is reported, and data suggest that differences are relatively small. 26 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Aging Brain, Aging Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selkoe, Dennis J.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the aging process related to physical changes of the human neural structure involved in learning, memory, and reasoning. Presents evidence that indicates such alterations do not necessarily signal the decline in cognitive function. Vignettes provide images of brain structures involved in learning, memory, and reasoning; hippocampal…

  3. Inner-Ages of Middle-Aged Prime-Lifers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barak, Benny

    1998-01-01

    Examines three age-role self-concepts: cognitive, ideal, and social with 40-69 year olds who consider themselves middle-aged. Reviews inner-age research and evaluates inner-age infrastructure as well as connections between inner-age and participants' characteristics in the context of eight psychographic trait sets. (Author/MKA)

  4. Submerged Medium Voltage Cable Systems at Nuclear Power Plants. A Review of Research Efforts Relevant to Aging Mechanisms and Condition Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Jason; Bernstein, Robert; White, II, Gregory Von; Glover, Steven F.; Neely, Jason C.; Pena, Gary; Williamson, Kenneth Martin; Zutavern, Fred J.; Gelbard, Fred

    2015-03-01

    In a submerged environment, power cables may experience accelerated insulation degradation due to water - related aging mechanisms . Direct contact with water or moisture intrusion in the cable insulation s ystem has been identified in the literature as a significant aging stressor that can affect performance and lifetime of electric cables . Progressive reduction of the dielectric strength is commonly a result of water treeing which involves the development of permanent hydrophilic structures in the insulation coinciding with the absorption of water into the cable . Water treeing is a phenomenon in which dendritic microvoids are formed in electric cable insulation due to electrochemic al reactions , electromechanical forces , and diffusion of contaminants over time . These reactions are caused by the combined effect s of water presence and high electrical stress es in the material . Water tree growth follow s a tree - like branching pattern , i ncreasing in volume and length over time . Although these cables can be "dried out," water tree degradation , specifically the growth of hydrophilic regions, is believed to be permanent and typically worsens over time. Based on established research , water treeing or water induced damage can occur in a variety of electric cables including XLPE, TR - XLPE and other insulating materials, such as EPR and butyl rubber . Once water trees or water induced damage form, the dielectric strength of an insulation materia l will decrease gradually with time as the water trees grow in length, which could eventually result in failure of the insulating material . Under wet conditions or i n submerged environments , several environmental and operational parameters can influence w ater tree initiation and affect water tree growth . These parameters include voltage cycling, field frequency, temperature, ion concentration and chemistry, type of insula tion material , and the characteristics of its defects. In this effort, a review of academic

  5. I'd Do Anything for Research, But I Won't Do That: Interest in Pharmacological Interventions in Older Adults Enrolled in a Longitudinal Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Calamia, Matthew; Bernstein, John P. K.; Keller, Jeffrey N.

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) ranks as the 6th leading cause of death in the United States, yet unlike other diseases in this category, there are no disease-modifying medications for AD. Currently there is significant interest in exploring the benefits of pharmacological treatment before the onset of dementia (e.g., in those with mild cognitive impairment); however, recruitment for such studies is challenging. The current study examined interest in pharmacological intervention trials relative to other types of clinical interventions. A total of 67 non-demented older adults enrolled in a longitudinal cognitive aging study completed a questionnaire assessing interest in participating in a variety of hypothetical research study designs. Consistent with past research, results showed that the opportunities for participants to advance science, receive feedback about their current health, and help themselves or others, were associated with increased interest in clinical trial participation. Some factors were not associated with change in interest (e.g., a doctor not recommending participation) while others were associated with decreased interest (e.g., having to come in for multiple visits each week). Relative to other types of interventions, pharmacological intervention trials were associated with the least interest in participation, despite pharmacological interventions being rated as more likely to result in AD treatment. Decreased interest was not predicted by subjective memory concerns, number of current medications, cardiovascular risk, or beliefs about the likely success of pharmacological treatments. These results highlight the challenges faced by researchers investigating pharmacological treatments in non-demented older individuals, and suggest future research could contribute to more effective ways of recruiting participants in AD-related clinical trials. PMID:27438465

  6. I'd Do Anything for Research, But I Won't Do That: Interest in Pharmacological Interventions in Older Adults Enrolled in a Longitudinal Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Calamia, Matthew; Bernstein, John P K; Keller, Jeffrey N

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) ranks as the 6th leading cause of death in the United States, yet unlike other diseases in this category, there are no disease-modifying medications for AD. Currently there is significant interest in exploring the benefits of pharmacological treatment before the onset of dementia (e.g., in those with mild cognitive impairment); however, recruitment for such studies is challenging. The current study examined interest in pharmacological intervention trials relative to other types of clinical interventions. A total of 67 non-demented older adults enrolled in a longitudinal cognitive aging study completed a questionnaire assessing interest in participating in a variety of hypothetical research study designs. Consistent with past research, results showed that the opportunities for participants to advance science, receive feedback about their current health, and help themselves or others, were associated with increased interest in clinical trial participation. Some factors were not associated with change in interest (e.g., a doctor not recommending participation) while others were associated with decreased interest (e.g., having to come in for multiple visits each week). Relative to other types of interventions, pharmacological intervention trials were associated with the least interest in participation, despite pharmacological interventions being rated as more likely to result in AD treatment. Decreased interest was not predicted by subjective memory concerns, number of current medications, cardiovascular risk, or beliefs about the likely success of pharmacological treatments. These results highlight the challenges faced by researchers investigating pharmacological treatments in non-demented older individuals, and suggest future research could contribute to more effective ways of recruiting participants in AD-related clinical trials. PMID:27438465

  7. Research at a Tender Age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the write-up of the relation of a particular student at a public high school in New York City with the head of the science of this school during the early 1940s. As such it forms one of twenty similar memoirs, which along with writings of Brandwein forms the contents of “One Legacy of Paul ...

  8. Research on ageing, health and gender: A long and winding road. Reply to Månsdotter's 'Further thoughts on gender and lifetime health'.

    PubMed

    Perrig-Chiello, Pasqualina; Hutchison, Sara

    2010-01-01

    This contribution is a reply to Dr. Månsdotter's comments on our discussion paper 'Health and well-being in old age: the pertinence of a gender mainstreaming approach in research' published in Gerontology [Gerontology 2010 (in press)]. Even though the comments are interesting and comprehensible, they cannot be left unanswered, this primarily because they are based on weak empirical evidence. (1) It is broadly uncontested that gender is not static. However, the conclusion that the more egalitarian division of parental duties can be viewed as an indicator for reduction of the gender gap in longevity and health is highly speculative. There is not enough empirical evidence to substantiate this position. (2) The 'caring hypothesis' proposed by Månsdotter, which holds that caring fathers develop less risky lifestyles and increased worries, is a possible, but not a sufficient explanation for gender convergence of physical and psychological health in future generations. Such a convergence seems to be heavily co-determined by the changing lifestyles of women. (3) From a lifespan developmental perspective, androgyny does not mean gender equality, but a necessary openness of an individual for the positive traits of the opposing gender role, an essential trait for successful ageing. (4) Månsdotter's doubts concerning the implementation of gender mainstreaming in gerontological research and practice because of society's limited resources are not comprehensible. Exactly because economical resources are limited, and exactly because men and women have different resources and disadvantages due to their specific bio-psycho-social realities, the most efficient way of dealing with the gender gaps in health is with a differentialapproach. (5) The concluding recommendation of Månsdotter for more openness as a scientific position regarding the impact of gender roles on human health and well-being stands in contrast to her claim for normative standpoints and prioritization of either

  9. Preventing and Lessening Exacerbations of Asthma in School-aged children Associated with a New Term (PLEASANT): Recruiting Primary Care Research Sites–the PLEASANT experience

    PubMed Central

    Horspool, Michelle J; Julious, Steven A; Mooney, Cara; May, Robin; Sully, Ben; Smithson, W Henry

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recruitment of general practices and their patients into research studies is frequently reported as a challenge. The Preventing and Lessening Exacerbations of Asthma in School-aged children Associated with a New Term (PLEASANT) trial recruited 142 general practices, across England and Wales and delivered the study intervention to time and target. Aims: To describe the process of recruitment used within the cluster randomised PLEASANT trial and present results on factors that influenced recruitment. Methods: Data were collected on the number of and types of contact used to gain expression of interest and subsequent randomisation into the PLEASANT trial. Practice size and previous research experience were also collected. Results: The mean number of contacts required to gain expression of interest were m=3.01 (s.d. 1.6) and total number of contacts from initial invitation to randomisation m=6.8 (s.d. 3.5). Previous randomised controlled trial involvement (hazard ratio (HR)=1.81 (confidence interval (CI) 95%, 1.55–2.11) P<0.001) and number of studies a practice had previously engaged in (odds ratio (OR) 1.91 (CI 95%, (1.52–2.42)) P<0.001), significantly influenced whether a practice would participate in PLEASANT. Practice size was not a significant deciding factor (OR=1.04 (95% CI 0.99–1.08) P=0.137). Conclusions: Recruitment to time and target can be achieved in general practice. The amount of resource required for site recruitment should not, however, be underestimated and multiple strategies for contacting practices should be considered. General practitioners with more research experience are more likely to participate in studies. PMID:26562491

  10. Genome-wide Studies of Verbal Declarative Memory in Nondemented Older People: The Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Debette, Stéphanie; Ibrahim Verbaas, Carla A.; Bressler, Jan; Schuur, Maaike; Smith, Albert; Bis, Joshua C.; Davies, Gail; Wolf, Christiane; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Chibnik, Lori B.; Yang, Qiong; deStefano, Anita L.; de Quervain, Dominique J.F.; Srikanth, Velandai; Lahti, Jari; Grabe, Hans J.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Priebe, Lutz; Yu, Lei; Karbalai, Nazanin; Hayward, Caroline; Wilson, James F.; Campbell, Harry; Petrovic, Katja; Fornage, Myriam; Chauhan, Ganesh; Yeo, Robin; Boxall, Ruth; Becker, James; Stegle, Oliver; Mather, Karen A.; Chouraki, Vincent; Sun, Qi; Rose, Lynda M.; Resnick, Susan; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Kirin, Mirna; Wright, Alan F.; Jonsdottir, Maria K.; Au, Rhoda; Becker, Albert; Amin, Najaf; Nalls, Mike A.; Turner, Stephen T.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Oostra, Ben; Windham, Gwen; Coker, Laura H.; Zhao, Wei; Knopman, David S.; Heiss, Gerardo; Griswold, Michael E.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Vitart, Veronique; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Zgaga, Lina; Rudan, Igor; Polasek, Ozren; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Schofield, Peter; Choi, Seung Hoan; Tanaka, Toshiko; An, Yang; Perry, Rodney T.; Kennedy, Richard E.; Sale, Michèle M.; Wang, Jing; Wadley, Virginia G.; Liewald, David C.; Ridker, Paul M.; Gow, Alan J.; Pattie, Alison; Starr, John M.; Porteous, David; Liu, Xuan; Thomson, Russell; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Assareh, Arezoo A.; Kochan, Nicole A.; Widen, Elisabeth; Palotie, Aarno; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Eriksson, Johan G.; Vogler, Christian; van Swieten, John C.; Shulman, Joshua M.; Beiser, Alexa; Rotter, Jerome; Schmidt, Carsten O.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Nöthen, Markus M.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Attia, John; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Amouyel, Philippe; Dartigues, Jean-François; Amieva, Hélène; Räikkönen, Katri; Garcia, Melissa; Wolf, Philip A.; Hofman, Albert; Longstreth, W.T.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; DeJager, Philip L.; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Schmidt, Reinhold; Breteler, Monique M.B.; Teumer, Alexander; Lopez, Oscar L.; Cichon, Sven; Chasman, Daniel I.; Grodstein, Francine; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Tzourio, Christophe; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Bennett, David A.; Ikram, Arfan M.; Deary, Ian J.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Launer, Lenore; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Seshadri, Sudha; Mosley, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Memory performance in older persons can reflect genetic influences on cognitive function and dementing processes. We aimed to identify genetic contributions to verbal declarative memory in a community setting. METHODS We conducted genome-wide association studies for paragraph or word list delayed recall in 19 cohorts from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium, comprising 29,076 dementia-and stroke-free individuals of European descent, aged ≥45 years. Replication of suggestive associations (p < 5 × 10−6) was sought in 10,617 participants of European descent, 3811 African-Americans, and 1561 young adults. RESULTS rs4420638, near APOE, was associated with poorer delayed recall performance in discovery (p = 5.57 × 10−10) and replication cohorts (p = 5.65 × 10−8). This association was stronger for paragraph than word list delayed recall and in the oldest persons. Two associations with specific tests, in subsets of the total sample, reached genome-wide significance in combined analyses of discovery and replication (rs11074779 [HS3ST4], p = 3.11 × 10−8, and rs6813517 [SPOCK3], p = 2.58 × 10−8) near genes involved in immune response. A genetic score combining 58 independent suggestive memory risk variants was associated with increasing Alzheimer disease pathology in 725 autopsy samples. Association of memory risk loci with gene expression in 138 human hippocampus samples showed cis-associations with WDR48 and CLDN5, both related to ubiquitin metabolism. CONCLUSIONS This largest study to date exploring the genetics of memory function in ~ 40,000 older individuals revealed genome-wide associations and suggested an involvement of immune and ubiquitin pathways. PMID:25648963

  11. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  12. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Change Contrast print sign up Share Healthy Aging This category offers tips on how to stay ... with Smell Problems with Taste Skin Care and Aging Sleep and Aging Taking Medicines Talking with Your ...

  13. Reliability of inferred age, and coincidence between inferred age and chronological age.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, J; Ohara, S; Shibata, S; Maie, K

    1996-06-01

    Outdoor research is restricted by many factors. The age inference was one of the biggest problems for the outdoor researchers. We have investigated the reliability of inferred age for the Japanese people, and took out the estimation formula for the age, even if it was based on the inferred age. The age classification was the most popular method for this purpose, and there were many classifications. We took the classification of young, middle aged, and elderly groups, in which classification of the SDs were rather small, that is, 4, 5, and 7 years for the young, middle aged, and elderly age groups, respectively. PMID:9551138

  14. Genotyping Informatics and Quality Control for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kvale, Mark N.; Hesselson, Stephanie; Hoffmann, Thomas J.; Cao, Yang; Chan, David; Connell, Sheryl; Croen, Lisa A.; Dispensa, Brad P.; Eshragh, Jasmin; Finn, Andrea; Gollub, Jeremy; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Lao, Richard; Lu, Yontao; Ludwig, Dana; Mathauda, Gurpreet K.; McGuire, William B.; Mei, Gangwu; Miles, Sunita; Mittman, Michael; Patil, Mohini; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C.; Shapero, Michael; Shen, Ling; Shenoy, Tanu; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Walter, Lawrence; Wan, Eunice; Webster, Teresa; Whitmer, Rachel A.; Wong, Simon; Zau, Chia; Zhan, Yiping; Schaefer, Catherine; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Risch, Neil

    2015-01-01

    The Kaiser Permanente (KP) Research Program on Genes, Environment and Health (RPGEH), in collaboration with the University of California—San Francisco, undertook genome-wide genotyping of >100,000 subjects that constitute the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort. The project, which generated >70 billion genotypes, represents the first large-scale use of the Affymetrix Axiom Genotyping Solution. Because genotyping took place over a short 14-month period, creating a near-real-time analysis pipeline for experimental assay quality control and final optimized analyses was critical. Because of the multi-ethnic nature of the cohort, four different ethnic-specific arrays were employed to enhance genome-wide coverage. All assays were performed on DNA extracted from saliva samples. To improve sample call rates and significantly increase genotype concordance, we partitioned the cohort into disjoint packages of plates with similar assay contexts. Using strict QC criteria, the overall genotyping success rate was 103,067 of 109,837 samples assayed (93.8%), with a range of 92.1–95.4% for the four different arrays. Similarly, the SNP genotyping success rate ranged from 98.1 to 99.4% across the four arrays, the variation depending mostly on how many SNPs were included as single copy vs. double copy on a particular array. The high quality and large scale of genotype data created on this cohort, in conjunction with comprehensive longitudinal data from the KP electronic health records of participants, will enable a broad range of highly powered genome-wide association studies on a diversity of traits and conditions. PMID:26092718

  15. Can aging be 'drugged'?

    PubMed

    Riera, Celine E; Dillin, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    The engines that drive the complex process of aging are being identified by model-organism research, thereby providing potential targets and rationale for drug studies. Several studies of small molecules have already been completed in animal models with the hope of finding an elixir for aging, with a few compounds showing early promise. What lessons can we learn from drugs currently being tested, and which pitfalls can we avoid in our search for a therapeutic for aging? Finally, we must also ask whether an elixir for aging would be applicable to everyone, or whether we age differently, thus potentially shortening lifespan in some individuals. PMID:26646496

  16. Encouraging early preventive dental visits for preschool-aged children enrolled in Medicaid: Using the Extended Parallel Process Model to conduct formative research

    PubMed Central

    Askelson, Natoshia M.; Chi, Donald L.; Momany, Elizabeth T.; Kuthy, Raymond A.; Ortiz, Cristina (Nina); Hanson, Jessica D.; Damiano, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Objective Preventive dental visits for preschool-aged children can result in better oral health outcomes, especially for children from lower income families. Many children, however, still do not see a dentist for preventive visits. This qualitative study examined the potential for the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) to be used to uncover potential antecedents to parents’ decisions about seeking preventive dental care. Methods Seventeen focus groups including 41 parents were conducted. The focus group protocol centered on constructs (perceived severity, perceived susceptibility, perceived self-efficacy, and perceived response efficacy) of the EPPM. Transcripts were analyzed by 3 coders who employed closed coding strategies. Results Parents’ perceptions of severity of dental issues were high, particularly regarding negative health and appearance outcomes. Parents perceived susceptibility of their children to dental problems as low, primarily because most children in this study received preventive care, which parents viewed as highly efficacious. Parents’ self-efficacy to obtain preventive care for their children was high. However, they were concerned about barriers including lack of dentists, especially dentists who are good with young children. Conclusions Findings were consistent with EPPM, which suggests this model is a potential tool for understanding parents’ decisions about seeking preventive dental care for their young children. Future research should utilize quantitative methods to test this model. PMID:22994600

  17. Aging Water Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is part of EPA’s larger effort called the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative. The SI initiative brings together drinking water and wastewater utility managers; trade associations; local watershed protection organ...

  18. Adulthood and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jeanne L.

    This textbook is designed to introduce undergraduates to the scientific study of aging in adults. Among the topics covered in the book's 15 chapters are: approaches to the study of adult development and aging (research methodology and related issues, a life-span perspective, ethical issues); theories in the study of adult development (models of…

  19. A Respectable Old Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swensen, Clifford H.

    1983-01-01

    Contrasts the relatively abundant information on the young with the paucity of research knowledge on the aged, and asserts that psychologists have too few solutions to coping with the problems of aging. Suggests the integration of older adults into all aspects of society through structural change. (Author/AOS)

  20. ADAM19 and HTR4 Variants and Pulmonary Function: The Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Targeted Sequencing Study

    PubMed Central

    London, Stephanie J.; Gao, Wei; Gharib, Sina A.; Hancock, Dana B.; Wilk, Jemma B.; House, John S.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Muzny, Donna M.; Lumley, Thomas; Franceschini, Nora; North, Kari E.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Kovar, Christie L.; Coresh, Josef; Zhou, Yanhua; Heckbert, Susan R.; Brody, Jennifer A.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Dupuis, Josée

    2014-01-01

    Background The pulmonary function measures of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and its ratio to forced vital capacity (FVC) are used in the diagnosis and monitoring of lung diseases and predict cardiovascular mortality in the general population. Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous loci associated with FEV1 and FEV1/FVC but the causal variants remain uncertain. We hypothesized that novel or rare variants poorly tagged by GWAS may explain the significant associations between FEV1/FVC and two genes: ADAM19 and HTR4. Methods and Results We sequenced ADAM19 and its promoter region along with the approximately 21 kb portion of HTR4 harboring GWAS SNPs for pulmonary function and analyzed associations with FEV1/FVC among 3,983 participants of European ancestry from Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE). Meta-analysis of common variants in each region identified statistically significant associations (316 tests, P < 1.58×10−4) with FEV1/FVC for 14 ADAM19 SNPs and 24 HTR4 SNPs. After conditioning on the sentinel GWAS hit in each gene [ADAM19 rs1422795, minor allele frequency (MAF)=0.33 and HTR4 rs11168048, MAF=0.40] one SNP remained statistically significant (ADAM19 rs13155908, MAF = 0.12, P = 1.56×10−4). Analysis of rare variants (MAF < 1%) using Sequence Kernel Association Test did not identify associations with either region. Conclusions Sequencing identified one common variant associated with FEV1/FVC independently of the sentinel ADAM19 GWAS hit and supports the original HTR4 GWAS findings. Rare variants do not appear to underlie GWAS associations with pulmonary function for common variants in ADAM19 and HTR4. PMID:24951661

  1. Targeted sequencing in candidate genes for atrial fibrillation: The Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Targeted Sequencing Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Honghuang; Sinner, Moritz F.; Brody, Jennifer A.; Arking, Dan E.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Rienstra, Michiel; Lubitz, Steven A.; Magnani, Jared W.; Sotoodehnia, Nona; McKnight, Barbara; McManus, David D.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Bis, Joshua C.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Muzny, Donna; Kovar, Christie L.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Gupta, Mayetri; Folsom, Aaron R.; Kääb, Stefan; Heckbert, Susan R.; Alonso, Alvaro; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Benjamin, Emelia J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common genetic variants that predispose to atrial fibrillation (AF). It is unclear whether rare and low-frequency variants in genes implicated by such GWAS confer additional risk of AF. Objective To study the association of genetic variants with AF at GWAS top loci. Methods In the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Targeted Sequencing Study, we selected and sequenced 77 target gene regions from GWAS loci of complex diseases or traits, including 4 genes hypothesized to be related to AF (PRRX1, CAV1, CAV2, and ZFHX3). Sequencing was performed in participants with (n = 948) and without (n = 3330) AF from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, the Cardiovascular Health Study, the Framingham Heart Study, and the Massachusetts General Hospital. Results One common variant (rs11265611; P = 1.70 × 10−6) intronic to IL6R (interleukin-6 receptor gene) was significantly associated with AF after Bonferroni correction (odds ratio 0.70; 95% confidence interval 0.58–0.85). The variant was not genotyped or imputed by prior GWAS, but it is in linkage disequilibrium (r2 = .69) with the single-nucleotide polymorphism, with the strongest association with AF so far at this locus (rs4845625). In the rare variant joint analysis, damaging variants within the PRRX1 region showed significant association with AF after Bonferroni correction (P = .01). Conclusions We identified 1 common single-nucleotide polymorphism and 1 gene region that were significantly associated with AF. Future sequencing efforts with larger sample sizes and more comprehensive genome coverage are anticipated to identify additional AF-related variants. PMID:24239840

  2. Characterizing Race/Ethnicity and Genetic Ancestry for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort.

    PubMed

    Banda, Yambazi; Kvale, Mark N; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Hesselson, Stephanie E; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Tang, Hua; Sabatti, Chiara; Croen, Lisa A; Dispensa, Brad P; Henderson, Mary; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H; Ludwig, Dana; Olberg, Diane; Quesenberry, Charles P; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C; Sciortino, Stanley; Shen, Ling; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil

    2015-08-01

    Using genome-wide genotypes, we characterized the genetic structure of 103,006 participants in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California multi-ethnic Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging Cohort and analyzed the relationship to self-reported race/ethnicity. Participants endorsed any of 23 race/ethnicity/nationality categories, which were collapsed into seven major race/ethnicity groups. By self-report the cohort is 80.8% white and 19.2% minority; 93.8% endorsed a single race/ethnicity group, while 6.2% endorsed two or more. Principal component (PC) and admixture analyses were generally consistent with prior studies. Approximately 17% of subjects had genetic ancestry from more than one continent, and 12% were genetically admixed, considering only nonadjacent geographical origins. Self-reported whites were spread on a continuum along the first two PCs, indicating extensive mixing among European nationalities. Self-identified East Asian nationalities correlated with genetic clustering, consistent with extensive endogamy. Individuals of mixed East Asian-European genetic ancestry were easily identified; we also observed a modest amount of European genetic ancestry in individuals self-identified as Filipinos. Self-reported African Americans and Latinos showed extensive European and African genetic ancestry, and Native American genetic ancestry for the latter. Among 3741 genetically identified parent-child pairs, 93% were concordant for self-reported race/ethnicity; among 2018 genetically identified full-sib pairs, 96% were concordant; the lower rate for parent-child pairs was largely due to intermarriage. The parent-child pairs revealed a trend toward increasing exogamy over time; the presence in the cohort of individuals endorsing multiple race/ethnicity categories creates interesting challenges and future opportunities for genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:26092716

  3. Research on the non-thermal DBD surface modification and the humidity-heat aging resistant performance in solar cell modules of FFC backsheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Qiong; Fei, Zhihuang; Jin, Jing; Qiu, Huayu; Zhang, Yuzheng

    2009-08-01

    The plasma generated by dielectric barrier discharge(DBD) with the atmosphere of lasting modifying materials, gives modification to the surfaces of FFC backsheet, which is formed by coating FFC (a tetra-fluoro based material with high content of fluorine) on the double-surfaces of polyester(PET). The research on the character of FFC backsheet before and after DBD modification is hold through a series analyzing ways, such as measuring the surface contact angles and surface energy of FFC backsheet with different plasma modification time and different DBD power density, comparing the preservation of surface energy of FFC backsheet with different storage medium and storage period, observing the surfaces of FFC backsheet through scanning electron microscope(SEM), making use of Fourier transform attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Meanwhile, the soalr cell modules using FFC backsheet and other backsheets are tested under the condition of 85centigrade×85%RH to make comparison between FFC backsheet and other backsheets in various aspects, like the peel strength between backsheet and EVA and so on. All the tests show both the microscopic appearance and surface chemical composition of FFC backsheet is changed after the DBD plasma modification with the atmosphere of lasting modifying materials. After the DBD plasma modifications with a power density of 4.07W/cm2 and different modification time, the water contact angle for FFC backsheet surface is reduced from 82° to 38°. Comparing with other types of backsheets as the solar cell modules encapsulant materials, FFC backsheet has obvious advantage in humit-heat aging resistant performance of the peel strength with EVA and other respects.

  4. SU-E-T-143: Effect of X-Ray and Cone Beam CT Reconstruction Parameters On Estimation of Bone Volume of Mice Used in Aging Research

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, M; Pang, M; Troen, B; Rudin, S; Ionita, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the variations in bone volume calculations in mice involved in aging research when changing cone beam micro-CT x-ray and reconstruction parameters. Methods: Mouse spines were placed on an indexed turn table that rotated 0.5° per projection and imaged by a self-built micro CT machine containing a CCD-based high-resolution x-ray detector. After the full 360° rotation data set of object images was obtained, a standard filtered back-projection cone beam reconstruction was performed. Four different kVp's between 40–70 kVp in 10kVp increments were selected. For each kVp two mAs settings were used. Each acquisition was reconstructed using two voxel sizes (12 and 25μm) and two step angles, 0.5° and 1°, respectively. A LabView program was written to determine the total bone volume contained in the mouse's total spine volume (bone plus gaps) as a measure of spine health. First, the user selected the desired 512×512 reconstruction to view the whole spine volume which was then used to select a gray-level threshold that allowed for viewing of the bone structure, then another threshold to include gaps. The program returned bone volume, bone × gap volume, and their ratio, BVF. Results: The calculated bone volume fractions were compared as a function of tube potential. Cases with 25μm slice thickness showed trials with lower kVp's had greater image contrast, which resulted in higher calculated bone volume fractions. Cases with 12μm reconstructed slice thickness were significantly noisier, and showed no clear maximum BVF. Conclusion: Using the projection images and reconstructions acquired from the micro CT, it can be shown that the micro-CT x-ray and reconstruction parameters significantly affect the total bone volume calculations. When comparing mice cohorts treated with different therapies researchers need to be aware of such details and use volumes which were acquired and processed in identical conditions.

  5. Stop Aging Disease! ICAD 2014

    PubMed Central

    Ilia, Stambler

    2015-01-01

    On November 1–2, 2014, there took place in Beijing, China, the first International Conference on Aging and Disease (ICAD 2014) of the International Society on Aging and Disease (ISOAD). The conference participants presented a wide and exciting front of work dedicated to amelioration of aging-related conditions, ranging from regenerative medicine through developing geroprotective substances, elucidating a wide range of mechanisms of aging and aging-related diseases, from energy metabolism through genetics and immunomodulation to systems biology. The conference further emphasized the need to intensify and support research on aging and aging-related diseases to provide solutions for the urgent health challenges of the aging society. PMID:25821637

  6. The Relationship between Aging and Job Satisfaction for Humanities and Social Science Faculty in the Virginia Community College System. Research Report Number 8-90.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Mary Lee

    In 1990, a survey was conducted of all full-time humanities and social sciences faculty at eight community colleges in the Virginia Community College System (VCCS). The study collected demographic data and examined the relationship between aging (both an individual's chronological age and length of time in the system) and job satisfaction through…

  7. Ten Years of Longitudinal Research on U.S. Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Developmental Correlates of Sexual Intercourse, and the Importance of Age, Gender and Ethnic Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Helfand, Mark

    2008-01-01

    We integrated findings from 35 recent, longitudinal studies of the onset of heterosexual intercourse. Correlates of adolescent sexual intercourse onset, whether in early (before age 16) or middle (ages 16-18) adolescence, included living with other than two biological parents, being less monitored by parents, having more advanced physical maturity…

  8. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  9. The Effects of Repeated Reading on the Fluency and Comprehension Skills of Elementary-Age Students with Learning Disabilities (LD), 2001-2011: A Review of Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Whitney D.; Boon, Richard T.; Spencer, Vicky G.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an extensive review of the literature on the use of repeated reading to improve the reading fluency and comprehension skills of elementary-age students with learning disabilities. A systematic review of the published literature from 2001 to 2011 was conducted and nineteen (N = 19) research-based repeated reading studies were…

  10. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  11. Creative Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, Charlene Lee; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Explores some divergent attitudes toward aging, negative as well as positive. Presents a neurophysiological framework to support the belief that aging is an active and creative process. Explores physical, psychological, and sociological aspects, and identifies three factors in the creative aging process. (Author/JAC)

  12. Mosaic aging

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Lary C.; Herndon, James G.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Although all multicellular organisms undergo structural and functional deterioration with age, senescence is not a uniform process. Rather, each organism experiences a constellation of changes that reflect the heterogeneous effects of age on molecules, cells, organs and systems, an idiosyncratic pattern that we refer to as mosaic aging. Varying genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors (local and extrinsic) contribute to the aging phenotype in a given individual, and these agents influence the type and rate of functional decline, as well as the likelihood of developing age-associated afflictions such as cardiovascular disease, arthritis, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. Identifying key factors that drive aging, clarifying their activities in different systems, and in particular understanding how they interact will enhance our comprehension of the aging process, and could yield insights into the permissive role that senescence plays in the emergence of acute and chronic diseases of the elderly. PMID:20110150

  13. Aging and consumer decision making

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Stephanie M.; Yoon, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Research on consumer decision making and aging is especially important for fostering a better understanding of ways to maintain consumer satisfaction and high decision quality across the life span. We provide a review of extant research on the effects of normal aging on cognition and decision processes and how these age-related processes are influenced by task environment, meaningfulness of the task, and consumer expertise. We consider how research centered on these topics generates insights about changes in consumption decisions that occur with aging and identify a number of gaps and directions for future research. PMID:22360794

  14. Complicity as Infiltration: The (Im)possibilities of Research with/in NSF Engineering Grants in the Age of Neoliberal Scientism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daza, Stephanie Lynn

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I use a Spivakian decolonizing perspective to take simplification to task in two ways--the simplification of methodology with/in grants and the simplification of critique that skirts the impossibility of noncomplicitous research and researchers. I posit that "neoliberal scientism"'s grants culture is colonizing research--narrowly…

  15. Aging gauge

    DOEpatents

    Betts, Robert E.; Crawford, John F.

    1989-04-04

    An aging gauge comprising a container having a fixed or a variable sized t opening with a cap which can be opened to control the sublimation rate of a thermally sublimational material contained within the container. In use, the aging gauge is stored with an item to determine total heat the item is subjected to and also the maximum temperature to which the item has been exposed. The aging gauge container contains a thermally sublimational material such as naphthalene or similar material which has a low sublimation rate over the temperature range from about 70.degree. F. to about 160.degree. F. The aging products determined by analyses of a like item aged along with the aging gauge for which the sublimation amount is determined is employed to establish a calibration curve for future aging evaluation. The aging gauge is provided with a means for determining the maximum temperature exposure (i.e., a thermally indicating material which gives an irreversible color change, Thermocolor pigment). Because of the relationship of doubling reaction rates for increases of 10.degree. C., equivalency of item used in accelerated aging evaluation can be obtained by referring to a calibration curve depicting storage temperature on the abscissa scale and multiplier on the ordinate scale.

  16. Aging gauge

    DOEpatents

    Betts, Robert E.; Crawford, John F.

    1989-01-01

    An aging gauge comprising a container having a fixed or a variable sized t opening with a cap which can be opened to control the sublimation rate of a thermally sublimational material contained within the container. In use, the aging gauge is stored with an item to determine total heat the item is subjected to and also the maximum temperature to which the item has been exposed. The aging gauge container contains a thermally sublimational material such as naphthalene or similar material which has a low sublimation rate over the temperature range from about 70.degree. F. to about 160.degree. F. The aging products determined by analyses of a like item aged along with the aging gauge for which the sublimation amount is determined is employed to establish a calibration curve for future aging evaluation. The aging gauge is provided with a means for determining the maximum temperature exposure (i.e., a thermally indicating material which gives an irreversible color change, Thermocolor pigment). Because of the relationship of doubling reaction rates for increases of 10.degree. C., equivalency of item used in accelerated aging evaluation can be obtained by referring to a calibration curve depicting storage temperature on the abscissa scale and multiplier on the ordinate scale.

  17. Menopause accelerates biological aging.

    PubMed

    Levine, Morgan E; Lu, Ake T; Chen, Brian H; Hernandez, Dena G; Singleton, Andrew B; Ferrucci, Luigi; Bandinelli, Stefania; Salfati, Elias; Manson, JoAnn E; Quach, Austin; Kusters, Cynthia D J; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Teschendorff, Andrew E; Widschwendter, Martin; Ritz, Beate R; Absher, Devin; Assimes, Themistocles L; Horvath, Steve

    2016-08-16

    Although epigenetic processes have been linked to aging and disease in other systems, it is not yet known whether they relate to reproductive aging. Recently, we developed a highly accurate epigenetic biomarker of age (known as the "epigenetic clock"), which is based on DNA methylation levels. Here we carry out an epigenetic clock analysis of blood, saliva, and buccal epithelium using data from four large studies: the Women's Health Initiative (n = 1,864); Invecchiare nel Chianti (n = 200); Parkinson's disease, Environment, and Genes (n = 256); and the United Kingdom Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (n = 790). We find that increased epigenetic age acceleration in blood is significantly associated with earlier menopause (P = 0.00091), bilateral oophorectomy (P = 0.0018), and a longer time since menopause (P = 0.017). Conversely, epigenetic age acceleration in buccal epithelium and saliva do not relate to age at menopause; however, a higher epigenetic age in saliva is exhibited in women who undergo bilateral oophorectomy (P = 0.0079), while a lower epigenetic age in buccal epithelium was found for women who underwent menopausal hormone therapy (P = 0.00078). Using genetic data, we find evidence of coheritability between age at menopause and epigenetic age acceleration in blood. Using Mendelian randomization analysis, we find that two SNPs that are highly associated with age at menopause exhibit a significant association with epigenetic age acceleration. Overall, our Mendelian randomization approach and other lines of evidence suggest that menopause accelerates epigenetic aging of blood, but mechanistic studies will be needed to dissect cause-and-effect relationships further. PMID:27457926

  18. Adjunct Questions: Help or Hinder? A Critical Review of Theoretical and Empirical Research with Specific Regard for Age and Ability of the Learner, and Level of the Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Amy S.

    Adjunct questions are test-like items interspersed at regular intervals, preceding or following prose passages, with the intention of increasing subsequent learning. In this state-of-the-art review, studies which include three major variables--age, ability, and question complexity level--are examined to determine whether a particular combination…

  19. Intergenerational Contacts and Urban Family Life among Women and Men of Different Ages in a Rapidly Changing Society. Research Report 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sysiharju, Anna-Liisa

    Following a description of the rapid transformation of the Finnish society from an agricultural to a post-industrial one, this study reports results from a secondary analysis of a representative survey collected in 1981 by the Central Statistical Office of Finland. Using a sample of 744 urban residents, the 'working age' period of 25-66 years was…

  20. Aging and immunosenescence in invertebrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most contemporary research into aging is driven by interest in the human aging process and in interventions that attenuate the normal and pathophysiological effects of aging, or senescence. Operationally, senescence is the progressive, inevitable breakdown of the organism. Among the changes associat...

  1. Confidant Relations of the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tigges, Leann M.; And Others

    The confidant relationship is a qualitatively distinct dimension of the emotional support system of the aged, yet the composition of the confidant network has been largely neglected in research on aging. Persons (N=940) 60 years of age and older were interviewed about their socio-environmental setting. From the enumeration of their relatives,…

  2. Aging and Language Production

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Deborah M.; Shafto, Meredith A.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental research and older adults’ reports of their own experience suggest that the ability to produce the spoken forms of familiar words declines with aging. Older adults experience more word-finding failures, such as tip-of-the-tongue states, than young adults do, and this and other speech production failures appear to stem from difficulties in retrieving the sounds of words. Recent evidence has identified a parallel age-related decline in retrieving the spelling of familiar words. Models of cognitive aging must explain why these aspects of language production decline with aging whereas semantic processes are well maintained. We describe a model wherein aging weakens connections among linguistic representations, thereby reducing the transmission of excitation from one representation to another. The structure of the representational systems for word phonology and orthography makes them vulnerable to transmission deficits, impairing retrieval. PMID:18414600

  3. Immunological Aging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunosenescence is associated with an increased incidence and severity of infections with common pathogens, neoplastic disease and autoimmunity. In general, aging is associated with a decline in function at the cellular level, rather than cell loss, although thymic atrophy and ...

  4. Aging Studies in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yaning; Yolitz, Jason; Wang, Cecilia; Spangler, Edward; Zhan, Ming; Zou, Sige

    2015-01-01

    Summary Drosophila is a genetically tractable system ideal for investigating the mechanisms of aging and developing interventions for promoting healthy aging. Here we describe methods commonly used in Drosophila aging research. These include basic approaches for preparation of diets and measurements of lifespan, food intake and reproductive output. We also describe some commonly used assays to measure changes in physiological and behavioral functions of Drosophila in aging, such as stress resistance and locomotor activity. PMID:23929099

  5. Towards Consensus Gene Ages

    PubMed Central

    Liebeskind, Benjamin J.; McWhite, Claire D.; Marcotte, Edward M.

    2016-01-01

    Correctly estimating the age of a gene or gene family is important for a variety of fields, including molecular evolution, comparative genomics, and phylogenetics, and increasingly for systems biology and disease genetics. However, most studies use only a point estimate of a gene’s age, neglecting the substantial uncertainty involved in this estimation. Here, we characterize this uncertainty by investigating the effect of algorithm choice on gene-age inference and calculate consensus gene ages with attendant error distributions for a variety of model eukaryotes. We use 13 orthology inference algorithms to create gene-age datasets and then characterize the error around each age-call on a per-gene and per-algorithm basis. Systematic error was found to be a large factor in estimating gene age, suggesting that simple consensus algorithms are not enough to give a reliable point estimate. We also found that different sources of error can affect downstream analyses, such as gene ontology enrichment. Our consensus gene-age datasets, with associated error terms, are made fully available at so that researchers can propagate this uncertainty through their analyses (geneages.org). PMID:27259914

  6. Towards Consensus Gene Ages.

    PubMed

    Liebeskind, Benjamin J; McWhite, Claire D; Marcotte, Edward M

    2016-01-01

    Correctly estimating the age of a gene or gene family is important for a variety of fields, including molecular evolution, comparative genomics, and phylogenetics, and increasingly for systems biology and disease genetics. However, most studies use only a point estimate of a gene's age, neglecting the substantial uncertainty involved in this estimation. Here, we characterize this uncertainty by investigating the effect of algorithm choice on gene-age inference and calculate consensus gene ages with attendant error distributions for a variety of model eukaryotes. We use 13 orthology inference algorithms to create gene-age datasets and then characterize the error around each age-call on a per-gene and per-algorithm basis. Systematic error was found to be a large factor in estimating gene age, suggesting that simple consensus algorithms are not enough to give a reliable point estimate. We also found that different sources of error can affect downstream analyses, such as gene ontology enrichment. Our consensus gene-age datasets, with associated error terms, are made fully available at so that researchers can propagate this uncertainty through their analyses (geneages.org). PMID:27259914

  7. Validation of Quality Rating and Improvement Systems for Early Care and Education and School-Age Care. Research-to-Policy, Research-to-Practice Brief. OPRE 2012-29

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellman, Gail L.; Fiene, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Quality Rating and Improvement Systems (QRIS) for early care and education and school age care programs are designed to collect information about quality and to use that information to produce program-level ratings, which are the foundation of a QRIS. The ratings are intended to make program quality transparent for parents and other stakeholders…

  8. Age Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2015-10-01

    The ages of rocks from the lunar highlands vary widely, even for a single rock sample. This makes it difficult to quantitatively test ideas for early lunar differentiation and formation of the crust. Lars Borg and Amy Gaffney (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory), and Charles Shearer (University of New Mexico) have devised a set of guidelines to apply to geochronological data that leads to a relative ranking of the reliability of the age determined for a sample. Applying their guidelines to existing data for lunar highland rocks shows an upper limit on rock ages between 4340 and 4370 million years. This is essentially the same as the so-called model ages of the formation of KREEP (a chemical component enriched in potassium, rare earth elements, and phosphorous) and of the formation of the deep source regions that melted to produce mare basalts. The numerous ages close to 4370 million years suggests a complicated and protracted cooling of the primordial lunar magma ocean or a widespread vigorous period of magmatic activity in the Moon.

  9. The Macular Degeneration and Aging Study: Design and Research Protocol of a Randomized Trial for a Psychosocial Intervention with Macular Degeneration Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sörensen, Silvia; White, Katherine; Mak, Wingyun; Zanibbi, Katherine; Tang, Wan; O’Hearn, Amanda; Hegel, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible and predictable blindness among older adults and creates serious physical and mental health consequences for this population. Visual impairment is associated with negative future outlook and depression and has serious consequences for older adults’ quality of life and, by way of depression, on long-term survival. Psychosocial interventions have the potential to alleviate and prevent depression symptoms among older AMD patients. We describe the protocol of the Macular Degeneration and Aging Study, a randomized clinical trial of a psychosocial Preventive Problem-Solving Intervention. The intervention is aimed at enhancing well-being and future planning among older adults with macular degeneration by increasing preparation for future care. Adequate randomization and therapeutic fidelity were achieved. Current retention rates were acceptable, given the vulnerability of the population. Acceptability (adherence and satisfaction) is high. Given the high public health significance and impact on quality of life among older adults with vision loss, this protocol contributes a valid test of a promising intervention for maintaining mental and physical health in this population. PMID:25812482

  10. Plutonium aging

    SciTech Connect

    Olivas, J.D.

    1999-03-01

    The author describes the plutonium aging program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The aging of plutonium components in the US nuclear weapons stockpile has become a concern due to several events: the end of the cold war, the cessation of full scale underground nuclear testing as a result of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and the closure of the Rocky Flats Plant--the site where the plutonium components were manufactured. As a result, service lifetimes for nuclear weapons have been lengthened. Dr. Olivas will present a brief primer on the metallurgy of plutonium, and will then describe the technical approach to ascertaining the long-term changes that may be attributable to self-radiation damage. Facilities and experimental techniques which are in use to study aging will be described. Some preliminary results will also be presented.

  11. Understanding aging.

    PubMed

    Strehler, B L

    2000-01-01

    Enormous advances in our understanding of human aging have occurred during the last 50 yr. From the late 19th to the mid-20th centuries only four comprehensive and important sources of information were available: 1. August Weismann's book entitled Essays on Heredity and Kindred Biological Problems (the first of these essays dealt with The Duration of Life; 1). Weissmann states (p. 10) "In the first place in regulating the length of life, the advantage to the species, and not to the individual, is alone of any importance. This must be obvious to any one who has once thoroughly thought out the process of natural selection_". 2. A highly systematized second early source of information on aging was the collection of essays edited by Cowdry and published in 1938. This 900+ page volume contains 34 chapters and was appropriately called Problems of Aging. 3. At about the same time Raymond Pearl published his book on aging (2). Pearl believed that aging was the indirect result of cell specialization and that only the germ line was resistant to aging. Unfortunately Pearl died in the late 1930s and is largely remembered now for having been the founding editor of Quarterly Review of Biology while he was at the Johns Hopkins University, this author's alma mater. 4. Alexis Carrel wrote a monumental scientific and philosophical book, Man, the Unknown (3). Carrel believed that he had demonstrated that vertebrate cells could be kept in culture and live indefinitely, a conclusion challenged by others (more on this later). PMID:22351262

  12. Platelet function and ageing.

    PubMed

    Jones, Chris I

    2016-08-01

    There are clear age-related changes in platelet count and function, driven by changes in hematopoietic tissue, the composition of the blood and vascular health. Platelet count remains relatively stable during middle age (25-60 years old) but falls in older people. The effect of age on platelet function is slightly less clear. The longstanding view is that platelet reactivity increases with age in an almost linear fashion. There are, however, serious limitations to the data supporting this dogma. We can conclude that platelet function increases during middle age, but little evidence exists on the changes in platelet responsiveness in old age (>75 years old). This change in platelet function is driven by differential mRNA and microRNA expression, an increase in oxidative stress and changes in platelet receptors. These age-related changes in platelets are particularly pertinent given that thrombotic disease and use of anti-platelet drugs is much more prevalent in the elderly population, yet the majority of platelet research is carried out in young to middle-aged (20-50 years old) human volunteers and young mice (2-6 months old). We know relatively little about exactly how platelets from people over 75 years old differ from those of middle-aged subjects, and we know even less about the mechanisms that drive these changes. Addressing these gaps in our knowledge will provide substantial understanding in how cell signalling changes during ageing and will enable the development of more precise anti-platelet therapies. PMID:27068925

  13. Superstars and Rookies of the Year: Faculty Hiring Practices in the Postmodern Age. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.10.05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgan, Mary

    2005-01-01

    Hiring new colleagues is a matter that engages individual faculty members intensely, for peer control of admission to the professoriate has been a highly successful source of academic quality in American higher education. "Super Stars and Rookies of the Year" analyzes the fixation on research acclaim as a negative version of academic hiring…

  14. Changed Lives: The Effects of the Perry Preschool Program on Youths through Age 19. Monographs of the High/Scope Educational Research Foundation, Number Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrueta-Clement, John R.; And Others

    This study is the eighth in a series of reports of longitudinal research on the long-term effects of participation versus nonparticipation in a program of high quality early childhood education, on 123 black youths from families of low socioeconomic status, who were at risk of failing in school. The study finds that young people up to 19 years of…

  15. Recruitment and Retention Strategies for Minority or Poor Clinical Research Participants: Lessons from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejiogu, Ngozi; Norbeck, Jennifer H.; Mason, Marc A.; Cromwell, Bridget C.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Evans, Michele K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study: Investigating health disparities requires studies designed to recruit and retain racially and socioeconomically diverse cohorts. It is critical to address the barriers that disproportionately affect participation in clinical research by minorities and the socioeconomically disadvantaged. This study sought to identify and…

  16. Glocalized New Age Spirituality: A Mental Map of the New Central Bus Station in Tel Aviv, Deciphered through Its Visual Codes and Based on Ethno-Visual Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Peshat, Malka; Sitton, Shoshana

    2011-01-01

    We present here the findings of an ethno-visual research study involving the creation of a mental map of images, artifacts and practices in Tel Aviv's New Central Bus Station. This huge and complex building, part bus station, part shopping mall, has become a stage for multicultural encounters and interactions among diverse communities of users.…

  17. Toward a Mixed-Methods Research Approach to Content Analysis in The Digital Age: The Combined Content-Analysis Model and its Applications to Health Care Twitter Feeds

    PubMed Central

    Hamad, Eradah O; Savundranayagam, Marie Y; Holmes, Jeffrey D; Kinsella, Elizabeth Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background Twitter’s 140-character microblog posts are increasingly used to access information and facilitate discussions among health care professionals and between patients with chronic conditions and their caregivers. Recently, efforts have emerged to investigate the content of health care-related posts on Twitter. This marks a new area for researchers to investigate and apply content analysis (CA). In current infodemiology, infoveillance and digital disease detection research initiatives, quantitative and qualitative Twitter data are often combined, and there are no clear guidelines for researchers to follow when collecting and evaluating Twitter-driven content. Objective The aim of this study was to identify studies on health care and social media that used Twitter feeds as a primary data source and CA as an analysis technique. We evaluated the resulting 18 studies based on a narrative review of previous methodological studies and textbooks to determine the criteria and main features of quantitative and qualitative CA. We then used the key features of CA and mixed-methods research designs to propose the combined content-analysis (CCA) model as a solid research framework for designing, conducting, and evaluating investigations of Twitter-driven content. Methods We conducted a PubMed search to collect studies published between 2010 and 2014 that used CA to analyze health care-related tweets. The PubMed search and reference list checks of selected papers identified 21 papers. We excluded 3 papers and further analyzed 18. Results Results suggest that the methods used in these studies were not purely quantitative or qualitative, and the mixed-methods design was not explicitly chosen for data collection and analysis. A solid research framework is needed for researchers who intend to analyze Twitter data through the use of CA. Conclusions We propose the CCA model as a useful framework that provides a straightforward approach to guide Twitter-driven studies and that

  18. Curcumin and aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Curcumin has been used commonly as a spice, food additive, and an herbal medicine worldwide. Known as a bioactive polyphenolic, curcumin has a broad range of beneficial properties to human health. Recently, active research on curcumin with respect to aging and related traits in model organisms has d...

  19. Psychological Aspects of Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Craig M.

    1980-01-01

    Psychological aspects of aging, based on gerontological hypotheses and research, are presented under three headings: intellectual abilities; emotional capacities; and motor capabilities. Consequences are discussed. Well-being throughout life depends on fulfillment of fundamental human needs; existential needs for nourishment, stimulation, rest,…

  20. Nutrition and Ageing.

    PubMed

    Minuti, Andrea; Patrone, Vania; Giuberti, Gianluca; Spigno, Giorgia; Pietri, Amedeo; Battilani, Paola; Ajmone Marsan, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The world elderly population is rapidly increasing. This demographic change represents a new challenge for the society and demands for a multisectorial intervention to promote a long, healthy, and active life span. Between the factors that contribute in fostering a long healthy life, the nutritional regime plays a central role and is recognized as a major factor in the onset of chronic diseases. A better understanding of the interaction between nutrition and ageing is essential to unravel the mechanisms responsible for these positive/negative effects and to identify diet components promoting the quality of life in the old age and to contribute to the prevention of late-life disabilities. At Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, the research activity in food science is focusing on four main objectives: food quality, food safety, functional foods and diet balancing. These objectives are the target of multidisciplinary ongoing and future research activities for a better understanding of the link between diet and ageing. Briefly, the different activities are addressed to the study of the following subjects: the most relevant factors affecting food choices and habits of old aged persons; the effects of long term low dose supplementation of conjugated linoleic acid in mouse; the use of low glycemic index and high resistant starch foods to prevent diabetes and obesity; the adjuvant effect of food bacteria for vaccination; the role of food ingredients in disease; the immunosuppression effect of mycotoxins, and its relevance in ageing people; the production of sustainable and natural antioxidant ingredients to encourage a healthy diet. Our research projects emphasize an holistic and integrated approach that, by bringing together complementary research groups, can combine the collective expertise and thus provide a comprehensive assessment of the role of nutrition in healthy ageing people. PMID:26630518

  1. Aging Secret

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The canny world of advertising has caught on to the free radical theory of aging, marketing a whole array of antioxidants for preventing anything from wrinkles to dry hair to reducing the risk of heart disease--promising to help slow the hands of time. Working with genetically engineered mice--to produce a natural antioxidant enzyme called…

  2. Gay Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, David

    2009-01-01

    The oldest of the baby boomers (boomers) were age 63 in 2009 and on the verge of retirement. This cohort has had a history of making societal changes throughout its life cycle, and it is unlikely that retirement, as we know it, will remain unscathed. This article highlights two events--the Stonewall Inn riots and two prominent professional…

  3. Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting. Volume 3, Primary system integrity; Aging research, products and applications; Structural and seismic engineering; Seismology and geology: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Monteleone, S.

    1994-04-01

    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25-27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Selected papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  4. The golden age of Drosophila research at the Universidade de São Paulo (USP): A testimonial on the decades 1940–1950

    PubMed Central

    de Magalhães, Luiz Edmundo; Vilela, Carlos Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    This article is a testimonial written by the first author regarding the research work performed with Drosophila between 1943 and 1959, at the Departamento de Biologia Geral of the Universidade de São Paulo (USP), which permitted the building of a nucleus of excellence. This research work, focused on the systematics and population genetics of the Neotropical species, began during the first of Dobzhansky’s six visits to USP. Special attention was given to the multinational megaprojects conducted during his longer stays, from August 1948 to July 1949 and from June 1955 to July 1956. The role played by the Rockefeller Foundation is duly remembered, and so is the undeniable contribution brought by Dobzhansky, to the establishment of several laboratories dedicated to research in the field of natural population genetics and to the qualification of human resources. On the other hand, important “backstage” episodes are retrieved which were omitted in the official history and occurred from the planning to the execution of the project, carried out on the Angra dos Reis islands. Special attention was given to the relationship problems which resulted from Dobzhansky’s, the leader’s, difficult personality and contributed to the failure of the second and last multinational project. PMID:24688301

  5. Organizational Climate for Successful Aging.

    PubMed

    Zacher, Hannes; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Research on successful aging at work has neglected contextual resources such as organizational climate, which refers to employees' shared perceptions of their work environment. We introduce the construct of organizational climate for successful aging (OCSA) and examine it as a buffer of the negative relationship between employee age and focus on opportunities (i.e., beliefs about future goals and possibilities at work). Moreover, we expected that focus on opportunities, in turn, positively predicts job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and motivation to continue working after official retirement age. Data came from 649 employees working in 120 companies (M age = 44 years, SD = 13). We controlled for organizational tenure, psychological climate for successful aging (i.e., individuals' perceptions), and psychological and organizational age discrimination climate. Results of multilevel analyses supported our hypotheses. Overall, our findings suggest that OCSA is an important contextual resource for successful aging at work. PMID:27458405

  6. The putative role of lutein and zeaxanthin as protective agents against age-related macular degeneration: promise of molecular genetics for guiding mechanistic and translational research in the field1234

    PubMed Central

    Neuringer, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the primary cause of vision loss in elderly people of western European ancestry. Genetic, dietary, and environmental factors affect tissue concentrations of macular xanthophylls (MXs) within retinal cell types manifesting AMD pathology. In this article we review the history and state of science on the putative role of the MXs (lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin) in AMD and report findings on AMD-associated genes encoding enzymes, transporters, ligands, and receptors affecting or affected by MXs. We then use this context to discuss emerging research opportunities that offer promise for meaningful investigation and inference in the field. PMID:23053548

  7. Quantifying the Shape of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Wrycza, Tomasz F.; Missov, Trifon I.; Baudisch, Annette

    2015-01-01

    In Biodemography, aging is typically measured and compared based on aging rates. We argue that this approach may be misleading, because it confounds the time aspect with the mere change aspect of aging. To disentangle these aspects, here we utilize a time-standardized framework and, instead of aging rates, suggest the shape of aging as a novel and valuable alternative concept for comparative aging research. The concept of shape captures the direction and degree of change in the force of mortality over age, which—on a demographic level—reflects aging. We 1) provide a list of shape properties that are desirable from a theoretical perspective, 2) suggest several demographically meaningful and non-parametric candidate measures to quantify shape, and 3) evaluate performance of these measures based on the list of properties as well as based on an illustrative analysis of a simple dataset. The shape measures suggested here aim to provide a general means to classify aging patterns independent of any particular mortality model and independent of any species-specific time-scale. Thereby they support systematic comparative aging research across different species or between populations of the same species under different conditions and constitute an extension of the toolbox available to comparative research in Biodemography. PMID:25803427

  8. Vitamin D deficiency in Malaysian adolescents aged 13 years: findings from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team study (MyHeARTs)

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Majid, Hazreen Abdul; Sim, Pei Ying; Su, Tin Tin; Dahlui, Maznah; Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzrel; Dzaki, Najat; Norbaya, Saidatul; Murray, Liam; Cantwell, Marie M; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (<37.5 nmol/L) among young adolescents in Malaysia and its association with demographic characteristics, anthropometric measures and physical activity. Design This is a cross-sectional study among Form 1 (year 7) students from 15 schools selected using a stratified random sampling design. Information regarding sociodemographic characteristics, clinical data and environmental factors was collected and blood samples were taken for total vitamin D. Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression was performed on the data. Setting National secondary schools in Peninsular Malaysia. Participants 1361 students (mean age 12.9±0.3 years) (61.4% girls) completed the consent forms and participated in this study. Students with a chronic health condition and/or who could not understand the questionnaires due to lack of literacy were excluded. Main outcome measures Vitamin D status was determined through measurement of sera 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). Body mass index (BMI) was classified according to International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria. Self-reported physical activity levels were assessed using the validated Malay version of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C). Results Deficiency in vitamin D was seen in 78.9% of the participants. The deficiency was significantly higher in girls (92.6%, p<0.001), Indian adolescents (88.6%, p<0.001) and urban-living adolescents (88.8%, p<0.001). Females (OR=8.98; 95% CI 6.48 to 12.45), adolescents with wider waist circumference (OR=2.64; 95% CI 1.65 to 4.25) and in urban areas had higher risks (OR=3.57; 95% CI 2.54 to 5.02) of being vitamin D deficient. Conclusions The study shows a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among young adolescents. Main risk factors are gender, ethnicity, place of residence and obesity. PMID:27540095

  9. Age and Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    White, Mary C.; Holman, Dawn M.; Boehm, Jennifer E.; Peipins, Lucy A.; Grossman, Melissa; Henley, S. Jane

    2015-01-01

    This article challenges the idea that cancer cannot be prevented among older adults by examining different aspects of the relationship between age and cancer. Although the sequential patterns of aging cannot be changed, several age-related factors that contribute to disease risk can be. For most adults, age is coincidentally associated with preventable chronic conditions, avoidable exposures, and modifiable risk behaviors that are causally associated with cancer. Midlife is a period of life when the prevalence of multiple cancer risk factors is high and incidence rates begin to increase for many types of cancer. However, current evidence suggests that for most adults, cancer does not have to be an inevitable consequence of growing older. Interventions that support healthy environments, help people manage chronic conditions, and promote healthy behaviors may help people make a healthier transition from midlife to older age and reduce the likelihood of developing cancer. Because the number of adults reaching older ages is increasing rapidly, the number of new cancer cases will also increase if current incidence rates remain unchanged. Thus, the need to translate the available research into practice to promote cancer prevention, especially for adults at midlife, has never been greater. PMID:24512933

  10. Relationships between Housing and Healthy Aging in Very Old Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, Frank; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Schilling, Oliver; Nygren, Carita; Fange, Agneta; Sixsmith, Andrew; Sixsmith, Judith; Szeman, Zsuzsa; Tomsone, Signe; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to examine the relationship between aspects of objective and perceived housing and aspects of healthy aging, defined as independence in daily activities and subjective well-being. Furthermore, this research examined the comparability of relationships between housing and healthy aging in the five European countries.…

  11. NATIONAL ARCHIVE OF COMPUTERIZED DATA ON AGING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Archive of Computerized Data on Aging (NACDA), located within ICPSR, is funded by the National Institute on Aging. NACDA's mission is to advance research on aging by helping researchers to profit from the under-exploited potential of a broad range of datasets. NACDA ...

  12. Aging in the Undergraduate Curriculum: Faculty Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyman, Janna C.; Gutheil, Irene A.; White-Ryan, Linda; Phipps, Colette; Guishard, Dozene

    2008-01-01

    This descriptive study of undergraduate faculty (N = 177) ascertained the extent to which aging content is taught and faculty are interested in aging. The research was the result of a collaboration among an area agency on aging, an alliance of academic and community leaders, and a university-based research center. While approximately 43% of the…

  13. Geoarchaeological research of the mid-age Ilyas Bey complex buildings with ground penetrating radar in Miletus, Aydin, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadioğlu, S.; Kadioğlu, Y. K.; Akyol, A. A.

    2008-07-01

    The ancient Miletus which were one of the most important city of ancient Iona, are today of great value from cultural standpoint of Turkey. Miletus, situated near the village of Balat in the present district of Soke was founded on a peninsula, approximately 2.5 km long. In the Byzantine period, the city boundaries were quite reduced. In 1424 Miletus was taken inside of the Ottoman Empire and was completely abandoned in the 17th century. Ancient Miletus excavation studies were first begun in 1899 by in Berlin Museum and interrupted during the World War I. At present, the extensive restoration works in Ilyas Bey Complex has applied as a project since 2006. Ilyas Bey Complex that includes Mosque, Medresah and baths situated on the archaeological area in ancient Miletus. Impressive Mosque built in 1404 by Ilyas Bey, Emir of Menteseogullari founded in 1279 and the complex was named after him, is one of the most remarkable buildings of mid-age Miletus. There are two main purposes of the study are (1) to determine archaeological remains of the study area underneath Ilyas Bey Complex and (2) to define the nature of main rock unit and their sources in the vicinity or Aegean region. After preliminary archaeometrical studies, acquired GPR profile data paralleled each other in Ilyas Bey Mosque and its around, Medresah Courtyard and inner Courtyard of the Mosque. After processing 2D parallel GPR profiles, we constructed 3D data volume by lining processed 2D profiles up to correlate remain signatures from each profile for each studied area. It was obtained transparent 3D visualisation of GPR data by assigning a new colour scale for the amplitude range and by constructing a new opacity function instead of the linear opacity function. Therefore we could successfully image the archaeological remains in an interactive transparent 3D volume and its sub-volumes, starting at different depth levels or limited profiles. The archaeometrical (geological and mineralogical, petrographical

  14. Age Stereotypes about Emotional Resilience at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauschenbach, Cornelia; Goritz, Anja S.; Hertel, Guido

    2012-01-01

    In light of an aging workforce, age stereotypes have become an important topic both for researchers and for practitioners. Among other effects, age stereotypes might predict discriminatory behavior at work. This study examined stereotypic beliefs about emotional resilience as a function of both targets' and judges' age. In a web-based study, 4,181…

  15. Nutrition and the Aging Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Vision Nutrition and the Aging Eye Past Issues / Winter ... related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of vision loss for people over 60. But new research ...

  16. Aging in a Zapotec Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Nell, C. W.

    1972-01-01

    The research on aging in a Valley Zapotec community in Mexico reported here takes into consideration the broad socio-cultural context through which life is experienced and the social psychological significance of developmental changes as these apply to people in maturity and old age. (Author)

  17. Age Identification in the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Steven K.

    Although researchers have investigated the chronological age-subjective age discrepancy in several ways, they have, for the most part, ignored where and how older persons live. The lifestyles of elderly Los Angeles residents (N=308), i.e., institutionalized, socially active in the community, or socially inactive in the community, were taken into…

  18. Organizational Climate for Successful Aging

    PubMed Central

    Zacher, Hannes; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Research on successful aging at work has neglected contextual resources such as organizational climate, which refers to employees’ shared perceptions of their work environment. We introduce the construct of organizational climate for successful aging (OCSA) and examine it as a buffer of the negative relationship between employee age and focus on opportunities (i.e., beliefs about future goals and possibilities at work). Moreover, we expected that focus on opportunities, in turn, positively predicts job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and motivation to continue working after official retirement age. Data came from 649 employees working in 120 companies (Mage = 44 years, SD = 13). We controlled for organizational tenure, psychological climate for successful aging (i.e., individuals’ perceptions), and psychological and organizational age discrimination climate. Results of multilevel analyses supported our hypotheses. Overall, our findings suggest that OCSA is an important contextual resource for successful aging at work. PMID:27458405

  19. Practical pathology of aging mice

    PubMed Central

    Pettan-Brewer, Christina; Treuting, Piper M.

    2011-01-01

    Old mice will have a subset of lesions as part of the progressive decline in organ function that defines aging. External and palpable lesions will be noted by the research, husbandry, or veterinary staff during testing, cage changing, or physical exams. While these readily observable lesions may cause alarm, not all cause undue distress or are life-threatening. In aging research, mice are maintained until near end of life that, depending on strain and genetic manipulation, can be upwards of 33 months. Aging research has unique welfare issues related to age-related decline, debilitation, fragility, and associated pain of chronic diseases. An effective aging research program includes the collaboration and education of the research, husbandry, and veterinary staff, and of the members of the institution animal care and use committee. This collaborative effort is critical to humanely maintaining older mice and preventing excessive censorship due to non-lethal diseases. Part of the educational process is becoming familiar with how old mice appear clinically, at necropsy and histopathologically. This baseline knowledge is important in making the determination of humane end points, defining health span, contributing causes of death and effects of interventions. The goal of this paper is to introduce investigators to age-associated diseases and lesion patterns in mice from clinical presentation to pathologic assessment. To do so, we present and illustrate the common clinical appearances, necropsy and histopathological lesions seen in subsets of the aging colonies maintained at the University of Washington. PMID:22953032

  20. Practical pathology of aging mice.

    PubMed

    Pettan-Brewer, Christina; Treuting, Piper M

    2011-01-01

    Old mice will have a subset of lesions as part of the progressive decline in organ function that defines aging. External and palpable lesions will be noted by the research, husbandry, or veterinary staff during testing, cage changing, or physical exams. While these readily observable lesions may cause alarm, not all cause undue distress or are life-threatening. In aging research, mice are maintained until near end of life that, depending on strain and genetic manipulation, can be upwards of 33 months. Aging research has unique welfare issues related to age-related decline, debilitation, fragility, and associated pain of chronic diseases. An effective aging research program includes the collaboration and education of the research, husbandry, and veterinary staff, and of the members of the institution animal care and use committee. This collaborative effort is critical to humanely maintaining older mice and preventing excessive censorship due to non-lethal diseases. Part of the educational process is becoming familiar with how old mice appear clinically, at necropsy and histopathologically. This baseline knowledge is important in making the determination of humane end points, defining health span, contributing causes of death and effects of interventions. The goal of this paper is to introduce investigators to age-associated diseases and lesion patterns in mice from clinical presentation to pathologic assessment. To do so, we present and illustrate the common clinical appearances, necropsy and histopathological lesions seen in subsets of the aging colonies maintained at the University of Washington. PMID:22953032

  1. Evolution of ageing since Darwin.

    PubMed

    Rose, Michael R; Burke, Molly K; Shahrestani, Parvin; Mueller, Laurence D

    2008-12-01

    In the late 19th century, the evolutionary approach to the problem of ageing was initiated by August Weismann, who argued that natural selection was more important for ageing than any physiological mechanism. In the mid-twentieth century, J. B. S. Haldane, P. B. Medawar and G. C. Williams informally argued that the force of natural selection falls with adult age. In 1966, W. D. Hamilton published formal equations that showed mathematically that two 'forces of natural selection' do indeed decline with age, though his analysis was not genetically explicit. Brian Charlesworth then developed the required mathematical population genetics for the evolution of ageing in the 1970's. In the 1980's, experiments using Drosophila showed that the rate of ageing evolves as predicted by Hamilton's 'forces of natural selection'. The discovery of the cessation of ageing late in life in the 1990's was followed by its explanation in terms of evolutionary theory based on Hamilton's forces. Recently, it has been shown that the cessation of ageing can also be manipulated experimentally using Hamilton's 'forces of natural selection'. Despite the success of evolutionary research on ageing, mainstream gerontological research has largely ignored both this work and the opportunity that it provides for effective intervention in ageing. PMID:19147926

  2. Aging women with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pentland, Wendy; Miscio, Gina; Eastabrook, Shirley; Krupa, Terry

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the aging experiences of women with schizophrenia. The research focused on how participants viewed their own aging with schizophrenia, their perceived worries and concerns and how they were coping with aging with the disorder. Using a qualitative approach, data were collected using multiple in-depth interviews with six participants selected purposefully from the client list of a community mental health center. Interview transcriptions were coded and analyzed according to the study questions using QSR Nudist 4 software. Several categories and sub-categories emerged. These included the improvement in the illness over time; physical and daily living activity limitations; specific positive and negative changes that the women report have accompanied aging; the profound losses experienced by the participants when they were younger as a result of having schizophrenia; and how these losses have affected their present lives in terms of limiting available informal support, creating dependency on formal programs and services, and participants' fears of the future. Based on the study findings, implications for mental health practice and services are considered and suggestions are made to guide future research. PMID:12653450

  3. Age Relationship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    12 June 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a group of impact craters in Aonia Planum, Mars. Remarkably, two of the craters are approximately equal in size, however, they clearly differ in age. The left (west) crater has a well-defined rim and its ejecta blanket overlies part of the less pronounced crater to its immediate east. The one with the ejecta blanket is younger. Other circular depressions in this bouldery scene are also old, eroded impact craters.

    Location near: 59.5oS, 78.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Autumn

  4. Healthy Aging in China

    PubMed Central

    Smith, James P.; Strauss, John; Zhao, Yaohui

    2014-01-01

    China has aged rapidly and the rate is accelerating in decades to come. We review positive and negative forces for healthy aging in China now and in the future. The most positive force is the spectacular growth in education over time especially for Chinese women, which should improve all dimensions of cognitive and physical health and eliminate vast gender disparities in healthy aging that currently exist. Other positive forces include increasing detection and treatment of disease and the availability of health insurance and health services so that diseases like hypertension and diabetes do not remain silent killers in China. Transparency is eased on the research level by publicly available data such as CHARLS, a sharp departure from prior scientific norm in China. Negative forces center on disturbing trends in personal health behaviors such as growing rates of smoking (among men) and obesity (for both genders), and pollution—,especially in urban centers. Public health campaigns and incentives are needed on all these fronts so that predictable long-term consequences of these behaviors on older age disease are not realized. There will not be a simple demographic fix to healthy aging in China as fertility rates are unlikely to rise much, while migration will likely continue to rise leaving growing numbers of elderly parents geographically separated from their adult children. Government policy will have to allow migration of elderly parents to live with their adult children while reducing the rigid connection of policy (health insurance and health services) with place of residence. PMID:25621202

  5. Embodied cognition of aging

    PubMed Central

    Vallet, Guillaume T.

    2015-01-01

    Embodiment is revolutionizing the way we consider cognition by incorporating the influence of our body and of the current context within cognitive processing. A growing number of studies which support this view of cognition in young adults stands in stark contrast with the lack of evidence in favor of this view in the field of normal aging and neurocognitive disorders. Nonetheless, the validation of embodiment assumptions on the whole spectrum of cognition is a mandatory step in order for embodied cognition theories to become theories of human cognition. More pragmatically, aging populations represent a perfect target to test embodied cognition theories due to concomitant changes in sensory, motor and cognitive functioning that occur in aging, since these theories predict direct interactions between them. Finally, the new perspectives on cognition provided by these theories might also open new research avenues and new clinical applications in the field of aging. The present article aims at showing the value and interest to explore embodiment in normal and abnormal aging as well as introducing some potential theoretical and clinical applications. PMID:25932019

  6. Aging blepharoplasty.

    PubMed

    Cho, Inchang

    2013-09-01

    In performing upper blepharoplasty in the elderly, looking younger and keeping the eyelids harmonious with the rest of the face have to be achieved at the same time. The most important goal in upper blepharoplasty for aging is correcting the drooping upper eyelid skin, and in this process, the surgeon may or may not create a double eyelid fold. The pros and cons have to be fully discussed with the patient, but the author personally prefers creating a double fold unless the patient refuses, because it is efficient in correcting and preventing further drooping of the skin. In most patients, the brow is elevated to compensate for the drooping eyelid, and when the drooping is corrected, brow ptosis may ensue. The surgeon has to prepare for these consequences before performing the procedure, and estimate the exact amount of skin to be excised. In the elderly, the skin and the orbicularis oculi muscle is thin, with a decreased amount of subcutaneous fat and retro-orbicularis oculi fat, and in most cases, excision of the skin alone is enough to correct the deformity. Removing large portions of soft tissue may also prolong the recovery period. Unlike younger patients, the lower skin flap should not be stretched too much in the elderly, as it may create an aggressive looking appearance. A few wrinkles in the lower flap should remain untouched to create a natural look. In this article, the author's own methods of performing an aging blepharoplasty are described specifically, with a step-by-step guide and surgical tips. PMID:24086798

  7. [Experimental models of human skin aging].

    PubMed

    Nikolakis, G; Zoschke, C; Makrantonaki, E; Hausmann, C; Schäfer-Korting, M; Zouboulis, C C

    2016-02-01

    The skin is a representative model for the study of human aging. Despite the high regenerative capacity of the skin, skin physiology changes over the course of life. Medical and cosmetic research is trying to prevent aging, to slow, to stop, or to reverse it. Effects of age-related DNA damage and of changing skin structure on pharmacological parameters are largely unknown. This review article summarizes the state of scientific knowledge in the field of experimental models of human skin aging and shows approaches to improve organotypic skin models, to develop predictive models of aging, and improve aging research. PMID:26743051

  8. INFLUENCE OF AGE AND HISTOLOGY ON OUTCOME IN ADULT NON-HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA PATIENTS UNDERGOING AUTOLOGOUS HCT: A REPORT FROM THE CENTER FOR INTERNATIONAL BLOOD & MARROW TRANSPLANT RESEARCH (CIBMTR)

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Hillard M.; Carreras, Jeanette; Boudreau, Christian; Loberiza, Fausto R.; Armitage, James O.; Bolwell, Brian J.; Freytes, César O.; Gale, Robert Peter; Gibson, John; Hale, Gregory A.; Inwards, David J.; LeMaistre, Charles F.; Maharaj, Dipnarine; Marks, David I.; Miller, Alan M.; Pavlovsky, Santiago; Schouten, Harry C.; van Besien, Koen; Vose, Julie M.; Bitran, Jacob D.; Khouri, Issa F.; McCarthy, Philip L.; Yu, Hongmei; Rowlings, Philip; Serna, Derek S.; Horowitz, Mary M.; Rizzo, J. Douglas

    2009-01-01

    To compare the clinical outcomes of older (age ≥ 55 years) non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) patients with younger NHL patients (< 55 years) receiving autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) while adjusting for patient-, disease-, and treatment-related variables. We compared autologous HCT outcomes in 805 NHL patients age ≥ 55 years to 1,949 NHL patients < 55 years during the years 1990–2000 using data reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR). In multivariate analysis, older patients with aggressive histologies were 1.86 times [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43–2.43, p<0.001] more likely than younger patients to experience treatment-related mortality. Relative death risks were 1.33 times (CI 1.04–1.71, p=0.024) and 1.50 times (CI 1.33–169, p<0.001) higher in older compared to younger patients with follicular grade I/II and aggressive histologies, respectively. Autologous HCT in older NHL patients is feasible but most disease-related outcomes are statistically inferior to younger patients. Studies addressing supportive care particular to older patients who are most likely to benefit from this approach are recommended. PMID:19041053

  9. Plutonium age dating reloaded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, Monika; Richter, Stephan; Aregbe, Yetunde; Wellum, Roger; Mayer, Klaus; Prohaska, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Although the age determination of plutonium is and has been a pillar of nuclear forensic investigations for many years, additional research in the field of plutonium age dating is still needed and leads to new insights as the present work shows: Plutonium is commonly dated with the help of the 241Pu/241Am chronometer using gamma spectrometry; in fewer cases the 240Pu/236U chronometer has been used. The age dating results of the 239Pu/235U chronometer and the 238Pu/234U chronometer are scarcely applied in addition to the 240Pu/236U chronometer, although their results can be obtained simultaneously from the same mass spectrometric experiments as the age dating result of latter. The reliability of the result can be tested when the results of different chronometers are compared. The 242Pu/238U chronometer is normally not evaluated at all due to its sensitivity to contamination with natural uranium. This apparent 'weakness' that renders the age dating results of the 242Pu/238U chronometer almost useless for nuclear forensic investigations, however turns out to be an advantage looked at from another perspective: the 242Pu/238U chronometer can be utilized as an indicator for uranium contamination of plutonium samples and even help to identify the nature of this contamination. To illustrate this the age dating results of all four Pu/U clocks mentioned above are discussed for one plutonium sample (NBS 946) that shows no signs of uranium contamination and for three additional plutonium samples. In case the 242Pu/238U chronometer results in an older 'age' than the other Pu/U chronometers, contamination with either a small amount of enriched or with natural or depleted uranium is for example possible. If the age dating result of the 239Pu/235U chronometer is also influenced the nature of the contamination can be identified; enriched uranium is in this latter case a likely cause for the missmatch of the age dating results of the Pu/U chronometers.

  10. Plagiarism in the Internet Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Rebecca Moore; Davies, Laura J.

    2009-01-01

    In an age when students gravitate to online sources for research--and when tremendous amounts of both reputable and questionable information are available online--many have come to regard the Internet itself as a culprit in students' plagiarism. Some teachers go so far as to forbid students from researching online, in the mistaken assumption that…

  11. Job Structure and Age Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, James S.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    From research findings on job design and redesign, the authors conclude that all individuals may not approve job enrichment programs which may actually decrease job satisfaction. Although job satisfaction may increase with age, individual differences and other variables make research results inconclusive. (MF)

  12. Children's Social Behavior in Relationship to Participation in Mixed-Age or Same-Age Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Diane E.; Kinsey, Susan

    Research on the social and cognitive effects of grouping children in mixed-age versus same-age classrooms is gaining interest among practitioners and researchers. This investigation used a teacher rating scale to assess children's prosocial, aggressive, and friendship behaviors in mixed- and same-age classrooms. Confounding variables such as the…

  13. [Resilience in old age].

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Jiménez, Andrea; López-Díaz, Alba L

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise and analyse articles published on resilience and old-age from 1990-2006. After a systematic search of five databases (Academic Search Premier-Ebsco Host, Medline, Psyc Articles, Ovid and Science Direct) 33 pieces of literature were included in the analysis. The selected articles had 31 different definitions of resilience, from eight disciplines, mainly health-related fields. It was also found that the research studied the association of resilience with individual (68 variables) and social/environmental factors (17 variables); the most frequent were age and health self-perception. Cultural and religious values were of special interest amongst the latter variables. The literature review demonstrated that resilience in old age is a topic having increasing research interest; this has been linked to various individual, social and cultural factors. However, this is a rapidly developing area that requires that a unified definition be established and that a theoretical and intervention model be created. PMID:22031004

  14. Is extinction age dependent?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doran, N.A.; Arnold, A.J.; Parker, W.C.; Huffer, F.W.

    2006-01-01

    Age-dependent extinction is an observation with important biological implications. Van Valen's Red Queen hypothesis triggered three decades of research testing its primary implication: that age is independent of extinction. In contrast to this, later studies with species-level data have indicated the possible presence of age dependence. Since the formulation of the Red Queen hypothesis, more powerful tests of survivorship models have been developed. This is the first report of the application of the Cox Proportional Hazards model to paleontological data. Planktonic foraminiferal morphospecies allow the taxonomic and precise stratigraphic resolution necessary for the Cox model. As a whole, planktonic foraminiferal morphospecies clearly show age-dependent extinction. In particular, the effect is attributable to the presence of shorter-ranged species (range < 4 myr) following extinction events. These shorter-ranged species also possess tests with unique morphological architecture. The morphological differences are probably epiphenomena of underlying developmental and heterochronic processes of shorter-ranged species that survived various extinction events. Extinction survivors carry developmental and morphological characteristics into postextinction recovery times, and this sets them apart from species populations established independently of extinction events. Copyright ?? 2006, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  15. Where Cognitive Development and Aging Meet: Face Learning Ability Peaks after Age 30

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germine, Laura T.; Duchaine, Bradley; Nakayama, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Research on age-related cognitive change traditionally focuses on either development or aging, where development ends with adulthood and aging begins around 55 years. This approach ignores age-related changes during the 35 years in-between, implying that this period is uninformative. Here we investigated face recognition as an ability that may…

  16. Long noncoding RNAs in aging and age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Kour, Sukhleen; Rath, Pramod C

    2016-03-01

    Aging is the universal, intrinsic, genetically-controlled, evolutionarily-conserved and time-dependent intricate biological process characterised by the cumulative decline in the physiological functions and their coordination in an organism after the attainment of adulthood resulting in the imbalance of neurological, immunological and metabolic functions of the body. Various biological processes and mechanisms along with altered levels of mRNAs and proteins have been reported to be involved in the progression of aging. It is one of the major risk factors in the patho-physiology of various diseases and disorders. Recently, the discovery of pervasive transcription of a vast pool of heterogeneous regulatory noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), including small ncRNAs (sncRNAs) and long ncRNAs (lncRNAs), in the mammalian genome have provided an alternative way to study and explore the missing links in the aging process, its mechanism(s) and related diseases in a whole new dimension. The involvement of small noncoding RNAs in aging and age-related diseases have been extensively studied and recently reviewed. However, lncRNAs, whose function is far less explored in relation to aging, have emerged as a class of major regulators of genomic functions. Here, we have described some examples of known as well as novel lncRNAs that have been implicated in the progression of the aging process and age-related diseases. This may further stimulate research on noncoding RNAs and the aging process. PMID:26655093

  17. Characteristics of the Aging Skin

    PubMed Central

    Farage, Miranda A.; Miller, Kenneth W.; Elsner, Peter; Maibach, Howard I.

    2013-01-01

    Significance Although most researches into the changes in skin with age focus on the unwelcome aesthetic aspects of the aging skin, skin deterioration with age is more than a merely cosmetic problem. Although mortality from skin disease is primarily restricted to melanoma, dermatological disorders are ubiquitous in older people with a significant impact on quality of life. The structural and functional deterioration of the skin that occurs with age has numerous clinical presentations, ranging from benign but potentially excruciating disorders like pruritus to the more threatening carcinomas and melanomas. Recent Advances The degenerative changes that occur in the aging skin are increasingly understood at both the molecular and cellular level, facilitating a deeper understanding of the structural and functional deterioration that these changes produce. Critical Issues A loss of both function and structural stability in skin proceeds unavoidably as individuals age, which is the result of both intrinsic and extrinsic processes, which contribute simultaneously to a progressive loss of skin integrity. Intrinsic aging proceeds at a genetically determined pace, primarily caused by the buildup of damaging products of cellular metabolism as well as an increasing biological aging of the cells. Estrogen levels strongly influence skin integrity in women as well; falling levels in midlife, therefore, produce premature aging as compared with similarly aged men. Extrinsic insults from the environment add to the dermatological signs of aging. Future Directions A deeper understanding of the physiological basis of skin aging will facilitate progress in the treatment of the unwelcome sequelae of aging skin, both cosmetic and pathogenic. PMID:24527317

  18. Aging in Poland.

    PubMed

    Leszko, Magdalena; Zając-Lamparska, Ludmila; Trempala, Janusz

    2015-10-01

    With 38 million residents, Poland has the eighth-largest population in Europe. A successful transition from communism to democracy, which began in 1989, has brought several significant changes to the country's economic development, demographic structure, quality of life, and public policies. As in the other European countries, Poland has been facing a rapid increase in the number of older adults. Currently, the population 65 and above is growing more rapidly than the total population and this discrepancy will have important consequences for the country's economy. As the population ages, there will be increased demands to improve Poland's health care and retirement systems. This article aims to provide a brief overview of the demographic trends in Poland as well a look at the country's major institutions of gerontology research. The article also describes key public policies concerning aging and how these may affect the well-being of Poland's older adults. PMID:26315315

  19. 75 FR 56551 - National Institute on Aging; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Aging; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to... conducted by the National Institute on Aging, including consideration of personnel qualifications and... individual investigators. Place: National Institute on Aging, Biomedical Research Center, 251...

  20. Cerebral palsy and aging

    PubMed Central

    Haak, Peterson; Lenski, Madeleine; Hidecker, Mary Jo Cooley; Li, Min; Paneth, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP), the most common major disabling motor disorder of childhood, is frequently thought of as a condition that affects only children. Deaths in children with CP, never common, have in recent years become very rare, unless the child is very severely and multiply disabled. Thus, virtually all children assigned the diagnosis of CP will survive into adulthood. Attention to the adult with CP has been sparse, and the evolution of the motor disorder as the individual moves through adolescence, young adulthood, middle age, and old age is not well understood. Nor do we know what happens to other functional domains, such as communication and eating behavior, in adults with CP. Although the brain injury that initially causes CP by definition does not progressively worsen through the lifetime, the effects of CP manifest differently throughout the life span. The aging process must inevitably interact with the motor disorder, but we lack systematic, large-scale follow-up studies of children with CP into adulthood and through adulthood with thorough assessments performed over time. In this paper we summarize what is known of the epidemiology of CP throughout the life span, beginning with mortality and life expectancy, then survey what is known of functioning, ability, and quality of life of adults with CP. We conclude by describing a framework for future research on CP and aging that is built around the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) and suggest specific tools and approaches for conducting that research in a sound manner. PMID:19740206

  1. Aging and Aged in Organized Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Menachem

    1989-01-01

    Examines problems of the aged in organized crime, basing discussion on organized crime bosses over age 60 operating in Italy, the United States, and Israel. Looks at problems stemming from normative system in organized crime, role of the aged, intergenerational problems, fears of the aged, excuses and justifications, standards of life, and…

  2. Primary Care Clinician Expectations Regarding Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Melinda M.; Bond, Lynne A.; Howard, Alan; Sarkisian, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Expectations regarding aging (ERA) in community-dwelling older adults are associated with personal health behaviors and health resource usage. Clinicians' age expectations likely influence patients' expectations and care delivery patterns; yet, limited research has explored clinicians' age expectations. The Expectations Regarding Aging…

  3. Exercise Attenuates the Major Hallmarks of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Garatachea, Nuria; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Morán, María; Emanuele, Enzo; Joyner, Michael J.; Lucia, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Regular exercise has multi-system anti-aging effects. Here we summarize how exercise impacts the major hallmarks of aging. We propose that, besides searching for novel pharmaceutical targets of the aging process, more research efforts should be devoted to gaining insights into the molecular mediators of the benefits of exercise and to implement effective exercise interventions for elderly people. PMID:25431878

  4. Oral Health and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Summer 2016 Table of Contents Jerrold H. Epstein, ... they may need. Read More "Oral Health and Aging" Articles Oral Health and Aging / 4 Myths About ...

  5. What's Your Aging IQ?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » What's Your Aging IQ? Heath and Aging What's Your Aging IQ? About this booklet We all know someone " ... at the dry cleaners. But what is normal aging? In this booklet there are several very short ...

  6. Healthy aging for older women.

    PubMed

    Young, Heather M; Cochrane, Barbara B

    2004-03-01

    Healthy aging is a multifaceted phenomenon, incorporating biological and psychosocial developmental factors. The population of older women is diverse in health, function, social context, and age. Health promotion strategies, therefore, should be customized accordingly to optimize the health of the varied subgroups of older women, according to their health trajectory and personal preferences. Research and evaluation of approaches to promote health among these subgroups is an important next step in understanding and influencing the health of older women. PMID:15062732

  7. Interbehavioral perspectives on aging.

    PubMed

    Herrick, J W

    1983-01-01

    This paper questions the assumption that behavioral, mental, or cognitive incompetence accompanies the biological aging process, a fundamental assumption underlying a great deal of the geropsychological research. Using Kantor's analysis of the history of psychological thought and systems, the philosophical, psychological, social, and cultural-historical bases to this erroneous assumption are investigated. It is concluded that gerontological psychologists have, through their uncritical use of medieval conceptions of behavior, directly contributed to the negative stereotypes of elderly persons found in our society. This has resulted in what is termed "scientific ageism". PMID:6852960

  8. Age and Stress Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Genoa is a software product that predicts progressive aging and failure in a variety of materials. It is the result of a SBIR contract between the Glenn Research Center and Alpha Star Corporation. Genoa allows designers to determine if the materials they plan on applying to a structure are up to the task or if alternate materials should be considered. Genoa's two feature applications are its progressive failure simulations and its test verification. It allows for a reduction in inspection frequency, rapid design solutions, and manufacturing with low cost materials. It will benefit the aerospace, airline, and automotive industries, with future applications for other uses.

  9. Predatory senescence in ageing wolves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacNulty, D.R.; Smith, D.W.; Vucetich, J.A.; Mech, L.D.; Stahler, D.R.; Packer, C.

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that ageing handicaps the ability of prey to escape predators, yet surprisingly little is known about how ageing affects the ability of predators to catch prey. Research into long-lived predators has assumed that adults have uniform impacts on prey regardless of age. Here we use longitudinal data from repeated observations of individually-known wolves (Canis lupus) hunting elk (Cervus elaphus) in Yellowstone National Park to demonstrate that adult predatory performance declines with age and that an increasing ratio of senescent individuals in the wolf population depresses the rate of prey offtake. Because this ratio fluctuates independently of population size, predatory senescence may cause wolf populations of equal size but different age structure to have different impacts on prey populations. These findings suggest that predatory senescence is an important, though overlooked, factor affecting predator-prey dynamics. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  10. AMPK Function in Aging Process.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Rocío; Pérez-Villegas, Eva María; Manuel Carrión, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Aging involves the progressive deterioration of physiological functions, diminishing the individual's capacity for survival. Indeed, aging is the main risk factor for cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. The discovery that the rate of aging is controlled by conserved genetic and biochemical pathways represented an unprecedented advance in aging research. The AMPK protein is a metabolic sensor that acts as a qualified cellular housekeeper, as well as controlling energy homeostasis and resistance to stress. Thus, the correct regulation of this factor enhances health and survival. In this manuscript we will review the molecular pathways regulated by AMPK that are related to the aging process, paying special attention to mitochondrial dysfunction, metabolic deregulation, cell senescence and autophagy. PMID:26521771

  11. Impact papers on aging in 2009

    PubMed Central

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.; Campisi, Judy; Sinclair, David A.; Bartke, Andrzej; Blasco, Maria A.; Bonner, William M.; Bohr, Vilhelm A.; Jr, Robert M. Brosh; Brunet, Anne; DePinho, Ronald A.; Donehower, Lawrence A.; Finch, Caleb E.; Finkel, Toren; Gorospe, Myriam; Gudkov, Andrei V.; Hall, Michael N.; Hekimi, Siegfried; Helfand, Stephen L.; Karlseder, Jan; Kenyon, Cynthia; Kroemer, Guido; Longo, Valter; Nussenzweig, Andre; Osiewacz, Heinz D.; Peeper, Daniel S.; Rando, Thomas A.; Rudolph, K Lenhard; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo; Serrano, Manuel; Sharpless, Norman E.; Skulachev, Vladimir P.; Tilly, Jonathan L.; Tower, John; Verdin, Eric; Vijg, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The editorial board of Aging reviews research papers published in 2009, which they believe have or will have a significant impact on aging research. Among many others, the topics include genes that accelerate aging or in contrast promote longevity in model organisms, DNA damage responses and telomeres, molecular mechanisms of life span extension by calorie restriction and pharmacologic interventions into aging. The emerging message in 2009 is that aging is not random but determined by a genetically-regulated longevity network and can be decelerated both genetically and pharmacologically. PMID:20351400

  12. Clinical pharmacology of old age syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Broadhurst, C; Wilson, K C M; Kinirons, M T; Wagg, A; Dhesi, J K

    2003-01-01

    Several syndromes occur in old age. They are often associated with increased mortality and in all there is a paucity of basic and clinical research. The recent developments in the clinical pharmacology of three common syndromes of old age (delirium, urinary incontinence, and falls) are discussed along with directions for future research. PMID:12919174

  13. Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binstock, Robert H., Ed.; Shanas, Ethel

    This is the first of three volumes which comprise a review of the social, psychological, and biological aspects of aging. This volume organizes, evaluates, and interprets research data, concepts, theories, and issues in aging from the perspectives of the various social sciences. Intended for use by researchers, professional practitioners,…

  14. Researcher / Researched: Repositioning Research Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meerwald, Agnes May Lin

    2013-01-01

    "Researcher / Researched" calls for a complementary research methodology by proposing autoethnography as both a method and text that crosses the boundaries of conventional and alternative methodologies in higher education. Autoethnography rearticulates the researcher / researched positions by blurring the boundary between them. This…

  15. Consequences of teen-age parenting.

    PubMed

    Nord, C W; Moore, K A; Morrison, D R; Brown, B; Myers, D E

    1992-09-01

    The changing context of teen-age childbearing and current related controversies are reviewed. Recent research about the consequences of teen-age childbearing for the teen-age mother, the father, and for the children born is examined. The article also summarizes current knowledge about the consequences of teen-age childbearing with regard to the mother's educational attainment, marital experience, subsequent fertility behavior, labor force experience and occupational attainment, and experience with poverty and welfare. PMID:1434559

  16. Correlation between Chronological Age, Dental Age and Skeletal Age among Monozygoyic and Dizygotic Twins

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mohit; Divyashree, R; Abhilash, PR; A Bijle, Mohammed Nadeem; Murali, KV

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Chronological age, dental development, height and weight measurements, sexual maturation characteristics and skeletal age are some biological indicators that have been used to identify time of growth. Many researchers have agreed that skeletal maturity is closely related to the craniofacial growth, and bones of hand and wrist are reliable parameters in assessing it. The complete hand and wrist radiograph involves 30 bones and assessment of these bones is one elaborate task. The present study is therefore, undertaken to assess the correlation between the chronological age, dental age and skeletal ages among different types of twins. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of 60 subjects (30 twins) aged 8 to 16 years, divided into group of 10 monozygotic, 10 dizygotic and 10 mixed sex twins. The sample was selected from Twin Survey- 2008 conducted by Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Chennai. Their zygosity was determined by sex, blood groups and by the parent. The chronological age was measured by the date of birth given by the parents. Panoramic and hand wrist x-rays were taken. Dental age was assessed by Demerjian et al method and skeletal age by Greulich and Pyle method. The correlation among twins in dental and skeletal ages with the chronological age was assessed using Correlation Coefficient and Student's't' Test. Results: The obtained data was fed into the computer and statistical analysis was done for the same using the SPSS version 10.0. Statistical significance was tested at P<0.05 level. Mean and Standard Deviation, Correlation Coefficient, Student's't' Test statistical methods were employed. The result showed highly significant 'p' value as <0.001 in all the correlations except for mixed pairs. Descriptive statistics in most of the areas demonstrated a non-significant result between zygosity groups. Conclusion: There is a correlation existing between the individual

  17. The environment of ageing.

    PubMed Central

    Tinker, A

    1997-01-01

    The issue of housing and the wider environment for an ageing population is one where there are many unanswered questions. In this paper a number of key issues are discussed and for each of these the focus is on three aspects. These are the current situation, its reasonableness and what research is needed in order to make decisions about policy and practice. The first three issues relate to the profile of older people themselves and the importance of home to them. The changing profile of older people is not just about an ageing population but also about the growing prominence of those with dementia, women, people from black and ethnic minority groups and one person households, yet little is known about the type of housing which should be provided. Of equal concern is the widening gap between those with a high standard of living (including housing) and those with a low standard of living. The importance of home to older people means that research must focus on how people can be enabled to remain there, and also on the costs, financial and otherwise, to carers and to society. The next three issues relate to the type of housing older people live in and moves in later life. The startling change in the tenure pattern with a growth of owner occupation brings problems as does the decline in social housing. The advantages and disadvantages of the different types of housing--mainstream and specialized--for older people are relatively well known. However the balance between the two needs more research as does that on retirement communities. While it is well known that there are peaks of migration in old age and that moves are often made in haste, little is known about the process of decision making. The final two topics concern links between housing and other aspects of older people's lives. On health more research is needed on temperature, mortality and morbidity, homelessness and accidents and especially on links between services. These topics have implications for planning

  18. Avoiding Aging? Social Psychology's Treatment of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Anne E.; Redmond, Rebecca; von Rohr, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Population aging, in conjunction with social and cultural transformations of the life course, has profound implications for social systems--from large-scale structures to micro-level processes. However, much of sociology remains fairly quiet on issues of age and aging, including the subfield of social psychology that could illuminate the impact of…

  19. [The Canadian Institute of Aging: knowledge, innovation and action].

    PubMed

    Rosa, Sophie

    2006-03-01

    Led by innovation, leadership, transparency and excellence, the Institute of Aging provides a focal point for Canadian research on aging and pursues the fundamental goal of advancing knowledge in the field of aging to improve the quality of life and health of older Canadians. The Institute has carried out a range of important national and international strategic initiatives in aging, and has become influential in leveraging funding, enhancing research capacity and creating a new impetus in research on aging in Canada. The Institute engages and supports the scientific community, encourages interdisciplinary and integrative health research and fosters not only on the creation of new knowledge, but also on the translation of that knowledge into improved health, a strengthened health care system, and new health products and services for Canadians. The IA focuses on five priority areas of research: healthy and successful aging, biological mechanisms of aging, cognitive impairment in aging, aging and maintenance of autonomy, and finally, health services and policies relating to older people. The efforts of the IA are guided by five strategic orientations: to lead in the development and definition of strategic directions for Canadian research on aging ; to build research capacity in the field of aging ; to foster the dissemination, transfer and translation of research findings in policies, interventions, services and products ; to promote the importance of, and the need for, a research community in aging ; and to develop and support capacity-building and strategic research initiatives in the field of aging. PMID:16527218

  20. Quantification of biological aging in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Belsky, Daniel W.; Caspi, Avshalom; Houts, Renate; Cohen, Harvey J.; Corcoran, David L.; Danese, Andrea; Harrington, HonaLee; Israel, Salomon; Levine, Morgan E.; Schaefer, Jonathan D.; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Ben; Yashin, Anatoli I.; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2015-01-01

    Antiaging therapies show promise in model organism research. Translation to humans is needed to address the challenges of an aging global population. Interventions to slow human aging will need to be applied to still-young individuals. However, most human aging research examines older adults, many with chronic disease. As a result, little is known about aging in young humans. We studied aging in 954 young humans, the Dunedin Study birth cohort, tracking multiple biomarkers across three time points spanning their third and fourth decades of life. We developed and validated two methods by which aging can be measured in young adults, one cross-sectional and one longitudinal. Our longitudinal measure allows quantification of the pace of coordinated physiological deterioration across multiple organ systems (e.g., pulmonary, periodontal, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, and immune function). We applied these methods to assess biological aging in young humans who had not yet developed age-related diseases. Young individuals of the same chronological age varied in their “biological aging” (declining integrity of multiple organ systems). Already, before midlife, individuals who were aging more rapidly were less physically able, showed cognitive decline and brain aging, self-reported worse health, and looked older. Measured biological aging in young adults can be used to identify causes of aging and evaluate rejuvenation therapies. PMID:26150497

  1. Healthy aging: the ultimate preventative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Kaeberlein, Matt; Rabinovitch, Peter S.; Martin, George M.

    2016-01-01

    Age is the greatest risk factor for nearly every major cause of mortality in developed nations. Despite this, most biomedical research focuses on individual disease processes without much consideration of the relationships between aging and disease. Recent discoveries in the field of Geroscience, which seeks to understand biological mechanisms of aging, have provided insights into molecular processes that underlie biological aging and, perhaps more importantly, potential interventions to delay aging and promote healthy longevity. Here we describe some of these advances along with efforts to move Geroscience from the bench to the clinic. We also propose that greater emphasis should be placed on research into basic aging processes, because interventions that slow aging will have a greater impact on quality of life than disease-specific approaches. PMID:26785476

  2. Social Relationships and Aging Well.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonucci, Toni; Akiyama, Hiroko

    1991-01-01

    Research review suggests that differences in the quality and quantity of social relations are related to well-being and aging well. Some differences are socioeconomic, cultural, racial, and ethnic. The perception versus actuality of social relationships also has an effect on well-being. (SK)

  3. Glaciology and the Ice Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carozzi, Albert V.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses: (1) the beginning of glaciology; (2) origin of erratic boulders, meteorites, volcanic explosions, floods, and drift; (3) ice age hypothesis in Europe and the United States; (4) development of glacial theory; (5) and a unified explanation of glacial events. A bibliography of classical research on glaciology is included. (BC)

  4. Teaching in a Nuclear Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musil, Robert K.

    1982-01-01

    The study of the nuclear weapons culture and of disarmament must be made central to the curriculum in the humanities, the sciences, and other subject areas. After discussing the contradictions of the nuclear age, the author suggests using consciousness-raising techniques, readings, films, and student research projects as means of reaching…

  5. Exercise and age

    MedlinePlus

    Age and exercise ... It is never too late to start exercising. Exercise has benefits at any age. Don't worry ... as you age. The right kind of regular exercise can also reduce your risk of heart disease, ...

  6. Administration on Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Back to top Older Americans Act and Aging Network To meet the diverse needs of the growing ... the OAA, and a link to National Aging Network information (State Units on Aging and Area Agencies ...

  7. Skin Care and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Age Spots and Skin Tags Click for more information Age spots, once called "liver spots," are flat, brown ... surface. They are a common occurrence as people age, especially for women. They are ... options, specific conditions, and related issues. ...

  8. Nutrients, Microglia Aging, and Brain Aging

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhou; Yu, Janchun; Zhu, Aiqin; Nakanishi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    As the life expectancy continues to increase, the cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) becomes a big major issue in the world. After cellular activation upon systemic inflammation, microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, start to release proinflammatory mediators to trigger neuroinflammation. We have found that chronic systemic inflammatory challenges induce differential age-dependent microglial responses, which are in line with the impairment of learning and memory, even in middle-aged animals. We thus raise the concept of “microglia aging.” This concept is based on the fact that microglia are the key contributor to the acceleration of cognitive decline, which is the major sign of brain aging. On the other hand, inflammation induces oxidative stress and DNA damage, which leads to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species by the numerous types of cells, including macrophages and microglia. Oxidative stress-damaged cells successively produce larger amounts of inflammatory mediators to promote microglia aging. Nutrients are necessary for maintaining general health, including the health of brain. The intake of antioxidant nutrients reduces both systemic inflammation and neuroinflammation and thus reduces cognitive decline during aging. We herein review our microglia aging concept and discuss systemic inflammation and microglia aging. We propose that a nutritional approach to controlling microglia aging will open a new window for healthy brain aging. PMID:26941889

  9. Ovarian aging and premature ovarian failure

    PubMed Central

    Şükür, Yavuz Emre; Kıvançlı, İçten Balık; Özmen, Batuhan

    2014-01-01

    Physiological reproductive aging occurs as a result of a decrease in the number and quality of oocytes in ovarian cortex follicles. Although the reason for the decrease in the quality of the pool and follicular oocytes is not fully understood, endocrine, paracrine, genetic, and metabolic factors are thought to be effective. Nowadays, in order to understand the mechanisms of ovarian aging, genomic research has gained importance. The effect of co-factors, such as telomerase and ceramide, in the ovarian aging process is only getting ascertained with new research studies. The most important tests in the assessment of ovarian aging are antral follicle count and anti-Mullerian hormone. PMID:25317048

  10. MARK-AGE biomarkers of ageing.

    PubMed

    Bürkle, Alexander; Moreno-Villanueva, María; Bernhard, Jürgen; Blasco, María; Zondag, Gerben; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Toussaint, Olivier; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix; Mocchegiani, Eugenio; Collino, Sebastiano; Gonos, Efstathios S; Sikora, Ewa; Gradinaru, Daniela; Dollé, Martijn; Salmon, Michel; Kristensen, Peter; Griffiths, Helen R; Libert, Claude; Grune, Tilman; Breusing, Nicolle; Simm, Andreas; Franceschi, Claudio; Capri, Miriam; Talbot, Duncan; Caiafa, Paola; Friguet, Bertrand; Slagboom, P Eline; Hervonen, Antti; Hurme, Mikko; Aspinall, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Many candidate biomarkers of human ageing have been proposed in the scientific literature but in all cases their variability in cross-sectional studies is considerable, and therefore no single measurement has proven to serve a useful marker to determine, on its own, biological age. A plausible reason for this is the intrinsic multi-causal and multi-system nature of the ageing process. The recently completed MARK-AGE study was a large-scale integrated project supported by the European Commission. The major aim of this project was to conduct a population study comprising about 3200 subjects in order to identify a set of biomarkers of ageing which, as a combination of parameters with appropriate weighting, would measure biological age better than any marker in isolation. PMID:25818235

  11. Hypertension and aging.

    PubMed

    Buford, Thomas W

    2016-03-01

    Hypertension is a highly prevalent condition with numerous health risks, and the incidence of hypertension is greatest among older adults. Traditional discussions of hypertension have largely focused on the risks for cardiovascular disease and associated events. However, there are a number of collateral effects, including risks for dementia, physical disability, and falls/fractures which are increasingly garnering attention in the hypertension literature. Several key mechanisms - including inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction - are common to biologic aging and hypertension development and appear to have key mechanistic roles in the development of the cardiovascular and collateral risks of late-life hypertension. The objective of the present review is to highlight the multi-dimensional risks of hypertension among older adults and discuss potential strategies for treatment and future areas of research for improving overall care for older adults with hypertension. PMID:26835847

  12. Aging Periodontium, Aging Patient: Current Concepts.

    PubMed

    Ryder, Mark

    2015-08-01

    A functioning natural dentition is essential to maintaining overall health in the elderly patient. While age-related alterations in periodontal tissues and the immune system may make an elderly patient more susceptible to periodontal breakdown, age itself is not a major risk factor for periodontal diseases. Rather, individual age-associated factors such as systemic diseases, medications and changes in behavior, motor function and cognitive function should be considered for each elderly patient when making treatment decisions. PMID:26357815

  13. Persuasion Tactics Used by College Age Females on College Age Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Erika J.; Pollard, Gloria D.; Williams, Christina M.

    This paper researched persuasive tactics used by college age females on college age males. Previous evidence indicates that nonverbal persuasion is more effective than verbal persuasion. The topics explored in previous research on persuasion consisted of physical attractiveness, indirect knowledge of influence, tactics used by children and college…

  14. Old People's Attitudes Toward Other Age Groups' Beliefs and Opinions About the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burris, Helen Brown

    The need for research which will provide old people's evaluation of what is positive or negative about beliefs and opinions of other age groups about the aged forms the basis for the research proposed in this report. Six sections are included. The introduction, section 1, covers statement of the problem, and the purpose, need, assumptions,…

  15. Aging and Cerebral Palsy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Networker, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This special edition of "The Networker" contains several articles focusing on aging and cerebral palsy (CP). "Aging and Cerebral Palsy: Pathways to Successful Aging" (Jenny C. Overeynder) reports on the National Invitational Colloquium on Aging and Cerebral Palsy held in April 1993. "Observations from an Observer" (Kathleen K. Barrett) describes…

  16. Mental health problems of aging and the aged*

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Martin

    1959-01-01

    The rapid increase in admission rates to mental hospitals in many countries in recent decades threatens to create serious problems. These may be to some extent remediable in that social factors are important in deciding the chances of admission to hospital, as well as the frequency of suicide, which reaches a peak among the aged in most countries. All communities possess valuable assets in the form of existing links between the aged and their families which may be lost by indiscriminate community planning. Although some psychological decline is inevitable during senescence, it is becoming clear that much that once passed for the ineluctable effects of mental and physical aging is due to disease that may be ameliorated or cured. The relationship between mental and physical health is particularly close in old age, and the effective treatment of the aged person with a psychiatric disorder demands the full resources of general medicine as well as psychiatry. For successful rehabilitation a full community service for the aged and proper integration of the work of the family doctor with that of preventive and hospital services are essential. The possibilities of prevention can be enhanced by fostering physical well-being and healthy adjustment during earlier stages of life, as well as by ascertaining, and remedying as far as possible, the mental and physical disorders of the aged in the early stages of their development. There is great scope for biological, medical and sociological research to define reasons for the wide variations in mental and physical well-being in old age. PMID:14439413

  17. Age dynamics in scientific creativity

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Benjamin F.; Weinberg, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    Data on Nobel Laureates show that the age–creativity relationship varies substantially more over time than across fields. The age dynamics within fields closely mirror field-specific shifts in (i) training patterns and (ii) the prevalence of theoretical contributions. These dynamics are especially pronounced in physics and coincide with the emergence of quantum mechanics. Taken together, these findings show fundamental shifts in the life cycle of research productivity, inform theories of the age–creativity relationship, and provide observable predictors for the age at which great achievements are made. PMID:22065777

  18. DNA methylation and cognitive aging

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiangru

    2015-01-01

    With ever-increasing elder population, the high incidence of age-related diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders has turned out to be a huge public concern. Especially the elders and their families dreadfully suffer from the learning, behavioral and cognitive impairments. The lack of effective therapies for such a horrible symptom makes a great demanding for biological mechanism study for cognitive aging. Epigenetics is an emerging field that broadens the dimensions of mammalian genome blueprint. It is, unlike genetics, not only inheritable but also reversible. Recent studies suggest that DNA methylation, one of major epigenetic mechanisms, plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of age-related neurodegenerations and cognitive defects. In this review, the evolving knowledge of age-related cognitive functions and the potential DNA methylation mechanism of cognitive aging are discussed. That indicates the impairment of DNA methylation may be a crucial but reversible mechanism of behavioral and cognitive related neurodegeneration. The methods to examine the dynamics of DNA methylation patterns at tissue and single cell level and at the representative scale as well as the whole genome single base resolution are also briefly discussed. Importantly, the challenges of DNA methylation mechanism of cognitive aging research are brought up, and the possible solutions to tackle these difficulties are put forward. PMID:26015403

  19. Multisensory integration mechanisms during aging

    PubMed Central

    Freiherr, Jessica; Lundström, Johan N.; Habel, Ute; Reetz, Kathrin

    2013-01-01

    The rapid demographical shift occurring in our society implies that understanding of healthy aging and age-related diseases is one of our major future challenges. Sensory impairments have an enormous impact on our lives and are closely linked to cognitive functioning. Due to the inherent complexity of sensory perceptions, we are commonly presented with a complex multisensory stimulation and the brain integrates the information from the individual sensory channels into a unique and holistic percept. The cerebral processes involved are essential for our perception of sensory stimuli and becomes especially important during the perception of emotional content. Despite ongoing deterioration of the individual sensory systems during aging, there is evidence for an increase in, or maintenance of, multisensory integration processing in aging individuals. Within this comprehensive literature review on multisensory integration we aim to highlight basic mechanisms and potential compensatory strategies the human brain utilizes to help maintain multisensory integration capabilities during healthy aging to facilitate a broader understanding of age-related pathological conditions. Further our goal was to identify where further research is needed. PMID:24379773

  20. Emerging programmed aging mechanisms and their medical implications.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Theodore C

    2016-01-01

    For many generations programmed aging in humans was considered theoretically impossible and medical attempts to treat or delay age-related diseases were based on non-programmed aging theories. However, there is now an extensive theoretical basis for programmed mammal aging and substantially funded medical research efforts based on programmed aging theories are underway. This article describes the very different disease mechanism concepts that logically result from the theories and the impacts emerging programmed aging mechanisms will have on funding and performing medical research on age-related conditions. PMID:26547271

  1. [Ageing society and laboratory medicine].

    PubMed

    Okabe, H

    2000-09-01

    An interest in the ageing process has increased greatly with increasing the population of the aged. The goal of this interest is to improve the quality of life(QOL) in the aged. In this paper, the presidential address "Ageing Society and Laboratory Medicine" at the 46th annual meeting of JSCP in Kumamoto'99 was summarized on the important research for ageing in the past decades. The paper presented was age- and gene-related changes, the latent variation of serum constituents and lipids abnormality in the ageing process. Concerning to the definition of reference value of healthy populations and the subjects who had no combined ailments, the reference interval of individuals(intra-personal), followed 5 years categorized by age, sex, and social conditions, gave a narrow range of variation than did a larger mixed populations(inter-personal). The reference intervals set would be a more sensitive reference than is the customary "normal range" for values occurring in inter-personal. Concerning to the study of the relationship between laboratory test and activity of daily living(ADL), the higher serum levels for TP, Alb, Hb, Glu, TC were observed in the higher ADL. The basic research techniques were also evaluated in the paper. The serum lipoperoxides were correlated with serum lipoprotein free radicals which caused atherosclerosis. The higher frequency of cerebral- and myocardial-infarction in the aged were observed in the higher serum LDL-C and lower serum level of arachidonic acid(AA), eicosapentaenoic acid(EPA), and AA/EPA ratio were observed in AMI patients with lower HDL-C groups than the healthy aged. Although Alzheimer(AD)'s disease had a progressive memory loss and immobile dementia and was reported the decrease of acetyltransferase activity in the brain, decrease of serum level of free choline, lyso-phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine(PC) and sphingomyelin(SM)/PC ratio were observed in spite of keeping normal serum level of SM. The decreased serum levels of

  2. The Aging Epigenome.

    PubMed

    Booth, Lauren N; Brunet, Anne

    2016-06-01

    During aging, the mechanisms that normally maintain health and stress resistance strikingly decline, resulting in decrepitude, frailty, and ultimately death. Exactly when and how this decline occurs is unknown. Changes in transcriptional networks and chromatin state lie at the heart of age-dependent decline. These epigenomic changes are not only observed during aging but also profoundly affect cellular function and stress resistance, thereby contributing to the progression of aging. We propose that the dysregulation of transcriptional and chromatin networks is a crucial component of aging. Understanding age-dependent epigenomic changes will yield key insights into how aging begins and progresses and should lead to the development of new therapeutics that delay or even reverse aging and age-related diseases. PMID:27259204

  3. Aging May Blunt Some of Exercise's Benefits

    MedlinePlus

    ... age," researcher Tinna Traustadottir, an associate professor of biology at Northern Arizona University, said in a university ... the July issue of the journal Free Radical Biology and Medicine . SOURCE: Northern Arizona University, news release, ...

  4. Education in Old Age: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luppi, Elena

    2009-01-01

    The following work outlines an analysis of education initiatives aimed at the elderly. It examines the characteristics of the old aged learner, his/her "educability" and the foundations for an educational approach for this age group. These theoretical assumptions form the basis of this research: an exploratory study into various educational and…

  5. The Aging Developmentally Disabled Person: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Thomas; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews major research data associated with aging among the developmentally disabled including prevalence, longevity patterns, morbidity profiles, mental decline, mental illness, comparative experiences of disabled persons in institutions and in community based living situations, and approaches used to define aging in this population. Discusses…

  6. The Effects of Aging on Motor Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinman, Matthew

    A review of research on the effects of aging on motor performance provided evidence that age-induced changes within the central nervous system, particularly in the functioning of the non-dominant cortical hemisphere, result in diminished fluid abilities. The loss was most clearly manifested behaviorally as a decreased capacity to perform…

  7. Knowledge Of Memory Aging In Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Karri S.; Cherry, Katie E.; Su, L. Joseph; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Jazwinski, S. Michal

    2006-01-01

    The Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire (KMAQ) measures laypersons' knowledge of memory changes in adulthood for research or educational purposes. Half of the questions pertain to normal memory aging and the other half cover pathological memory deficits due to non-normative factors, such as adult dementia. In this study, we compared memory…

  8. Age determination of raccoons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grau, G.A.; Sanderson, G.C.; Rogers, J.P.

    1970-01-01

    Age criteria, based on 61 skulls and eye lenses from 103 known-age captives, are described for separating raccoons (Procyon lotor) into eight age-classes as follows: young-of-the-year, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-7, > 7 years. Criteria studied were eye lens nitrogen, cranial suture closure, tooth wear and incisor cementum layers. Lens nitrogen increased rapidly up to 12 months of age, but at much reduced rate thereafter. Total lens nitrogen was useful only in separating young-of-the-year from adults. The closure sequence for five cranial sutures accurately divided the total known-age sample of males into seven groups, and the adults into five groups. The tooth wear criteria divided the known-age sample into five relative age groups, but aging of individuals by this method was inaccurate. Histological sectioning of known-age teeth was the best method of observing layering in the cementum tissue. The technique of basing estimation of age on cementum ring counts, although subjective, was accurate for aging individuals through their fourth year but tended to underestimate the age of animals over 4 years old. However, suture closure or tooth wear can be used to identify males over 4 years old. In field studies, technical difficulties limit the utility of age estimation by cementum layers. Maximum root thickness of the lower canine was accurate in determining the sex of individuals from 5 months to ,at least 48 months of age.

  9. Cancer and Aging: A Complex Biological Association.

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Reyes, Ana Patricia; Soto-Pérez-de-Celis, Enrique; Hurria, Arti

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in both developing and developed countries. It is also a particularly significant health problem in older populations since half of all malignancies occur in patients aged 70 years or older. Cancer is a disease of aging, and as such there is a strong biological association between the mechanisms of aging and carcinogenesis. During the past few decades, mechanisms of aging exerting pro- and anti-oncogenic effects have been described, and the role of these mechanisms in cancer treatment and prognosis is currently being investigated. In this review we describe the different theories of aging and the evidence on the biological link between these mechanisms and carcinogenesis. Additionally, we review the implications of the biology of aging on the treatment and prognosis of older adults with cancer, and the opportunities for translational research into biomarkers of aging in this patient population. PMID:27028173

  10. Mass media and healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, Laurie A; Johnson, Christine P

    2008-01-01

    Health effects associated with media use have largely focused on children and youth with little attention paid to adults, particularly older adults. However, adults aged 60 years and older report heavy television viewing, and unique health education challenges will be faced as the technically savvy baby-boomer cohort ages. Media health effects relevant to older adults include an established causative link with adiposity and correlations to increased risk of chronic disease, reduced physical activity, and undesirable food choice behaviors. Advertising has targeted older adults as a key market segment promoting anti-aging and health related products, with potential negative body image impacts. Implications for health practitioners and research are discussed in the context of these consequences. PMID:19042578

  11. Trends in Neurocognitive Aging

    PubMed Central

    Grady, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Preface The availability of neuroimaging technology has spurred a marked increase in the human cognitive neuroscience literature, including the study of cognitive aging. Although there is a growing consensus that the aging brain retains considerable plasticity of function, currently measured primarily by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging, it is less clear how age differences in brain activity relate to cognitive performance. The field also is hampered by the complexity of the aging process itself and the large number of factors that are influenced by age. In this review, current trends and unresolved issues in the cognitive neuroscience of aging are discussed. PMID:22714020

  12. FRAGILE X SYNDROME: AN AGING PERSPECTIVE

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Andrea; Ligsay, Andrew; Hagerman, Randi J.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive and behavioral correlates of molecular variations related to the FMR1 gene have been studied rather extensively, but research about the long-term outcome in individuals with fragile X spectrum disorders remains sparse. In this review, we present an overview of aging research and recent findings in regard to cellular and clinical manifestations of aging in fragile X syndrome, and the FMR1 premutation. PMID:23949830

  13. Effects of Age on Female Reproductive Success in Drosophila bipectinata

    PubMed Central

    Somashekar, K; Krishna, Ms; Hegde, Sn; Jayaramu, SC

    2011-01-01

    Female age influence on mating success, courtship activities, mating latency, copulation duration, fecundity, ovarioles number, and wing length has been studied using isofemale lines of Drosophila bipectinata collected at three different localities. It was observed that in all localities, middle-aged D. bipectinata females had significantly greater mating success, showed less rejection responses to courting male, mated faster, copulated longer, and had greater fecundity and ovariole number than young and old-aged females. Further, old-aged females had comparatively less fitness traits than young age females. This research suggests the occurrence of age specific female reproductive success as follows: middle-aged > young > old-aged. PMID:22235980

  14. Heterogeneity in Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Lowsky, David J.; Olshansky, S. Jay; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2014-01-01

    For a surprisingly large segment of the older population, chronological age is not a relevant marker for understanding, measuring, or experiencing healthy aging. Using the 2003 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and the 2004 Health and Retirement Study to examine the proportion of Americans exhibiting five markers of health and the variation in health-related quality of life across each of eight age groups, we find that a significant proportion of older Americans is healthy within every age group beginning at age 51, including among those aged 85+. For example, 48% of those aged 51–54 and 28% of those aged 85+ have excellent or very good self-reported health status; similarly, 89% of those aged 51–54 and 56% of those aged 85+ report no health-based limitations in work or housework. Also, health-related quality of life ranges widely within every age group, yet there is only a comparatively small variation in median quality of life across age groups, suggesting that older Americans today may be experiencing substantially different age-health trajectories than their predecessors. Patterns are similar for medical expenditures. Several policy implications are explored. PMID:24249734

  15. What is an anti-aging treatment?

    PubMed

    Gems, David

    2014-10-01

    Key objectives of biogerontology are to understand the biology of aging and to translate scientific insight into interventions that improve late-life health - or anti-aging treatments. In this context, when considering the problem of how to effect translational research, it is useful to have a clear, consensus view on what exactly constitutes an anti-aging treatment. This essay critically assesses the understanding of this concept common among biogerontologists, and proposes a new definition. A current conception of anti-aging treatment imagines a primary cause of aging that is causally upstream of, and the cause of, all age-related pathology. Intervening in this aging process thus protects against the totality of age-related diseases. However, this underlying aging process remains an abstraction. By contrast, what is demonstrable is that interventions in model organisms can improve late-life health and extend lifespan. Furthermore, a safe deduction is that treatments that extend lifespan do so by reducing age-related pathology, both florid and subtle. What is currently identifiable about aging (i.e. senescence) is that it is a very complex disease syndrome, likely involving a number of biological mechanisms. Treatments that substantially extend lifespan must suppress multiple pathologies that otherwise limit lifespan, but whether they suppress the entire aging process remains undemonstrated. A more pragmatic and realistic definition of anti-aging treatment is any preventative approach to reduce late-life pathology, based on the understanding that senescence is a disease syndrome. This definition would encompass preventative approaches aimed at both broad and narrow spectra of age-related pathologies. Its adoption would facilitate translation, since it would shift the emphasis to medical practice, particularly the introduction of preventative approaches. Narrow spectrum anti-aging treatments (e.g. the cardiovascular polypill) could establish a practice that

  16. Age to survive: DNA damage and aging.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Björn; Garinis, George A; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J

    2008-02-01

    Aging represents the progressive functional decline and increased mortality risk common to nearly all metazoans. Recent findings experimentally link DNA damage and organismal aging: longevity-regulating genetic pathways respond to the accumulation of DNA damage and other stress conditions and conversely influence the rate of damage accumulation and its impact for cancer and aging. This novel insight has emerged from studies on human progeroid diseases and mouse models that have deficient DNA repair pathways. Here we discuss a unified concept of an evolutionarily conserved 'survival' response that shifts the organism's resources from growth to maintenance as an adaptation to stresses, such as starvation and DNA damage. This shift protects the organism from cancer and promotes healthy aging. PMID:18192065

  17. Age-specific models for evaluating dose and risk from internal exposures to radionuclides: Report of current work of the Metabolism and Dosimetry Research Group, July 1, 1985-June 30, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, R.W.; Warren, B.P.

    1987-09-01

    A projection of the health risk to a population internally exposed to a radionuclide requires explicit or implicit use of demographic, biokinetic, dosimetric, and dose-response models. Exposure guidelines have been based on models for a reference adult with a fixed life span. In this report, we describe recent efforts to develop a comprehensive methodology for estimation of radiogenic risk to individuals and to heterogeneous populations. Emphasis is on age-dependent biokinetics and dosimetry for internal emitters, but consideration also is given to conversion of age-specific doses to estimates of risk using realistic, site-specific demographic models and best available age-specific dose-response functions. We discuss how the methods described here may also improve estimates for the reference adult usually considered in radiation protection. 159 refs.

  18. Age at Transition from Pediatric to Adult Care Has No Relationship with Mortality for Childhood-Onset Type 1 Diabetes in Japan: Diabetes Epidemiology Research International (DERI) Mortality Study

    PubMed Central

    Onda, Yoshiko; Nishimura, Rimei; Morimoto, Aya; Sano, Hironari; Utsunomiya, Kazunori; Tajima, Naoko

    2016-01-01

    Objective To follow up Japanese patients with type 1 diabetes for a maximum of 40 years to examine when they transitioned from pediatric care to adult care and to explore whether the attending physician, i.e., pediatrician or internist, was associated with prognosis. Methods Participants consisted of 1,299 patients who had been diagnosed as having type 1 diabetes at less than 15 years old between 1965 and 1979 identified through two nationwide surveys. Patients were classified as having received either pediatric care or adult care at the age of 15 and 30, and were compared for differences in mortality associated with the attending physician. Results The attending physicians were confirmed for a total of 1,093 patients at the age of 15. Of these patients, 43.8% and 40.3% received pediatric care and adult care, respectively. Of the 569 patients receiving pediatric care, 74.2%, 56.6%, 53.4%, and 51.3% continued with pediatric care at 20, 30, 40, and 50 years old, respectively. The attending physicians (pediatrician or internist) at the age of 15 and 30 had no significant impact on their survival (P = 0. 892, 0.411, respectively). Conclusions More than half of the patients who had received pediatric care at the age of 15 continued to receive pediatric care even after the age of 30, suggesting that their transition was far from smooth, while the attending physician at the age of both 15 and 30 was not a prognostic factor for mortality. Thus, the timing for transition to adult care in these patients has no relationship with mortality in Japan. PMID:26937952

  19. Federal Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    Member Agencies Federal Agency Login X Administration on Aging Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Bureau of ... National Center for Health Statistics National Institute on Aging Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning & Evaluation, ...

  20. Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research News From NIH Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of ... project sponsored by the NIH's National Institute on Aging (NIA) to learn more about the effects of ...