Science.gov

Sample records for aging risk evaluations

  1. Age associated risks of recreational scuba diving.

    PubMed

    Smerz, Richard W

    2006-05-01

    The effect of aging on risk for development of decompression illness in divers has often been reported as an incidental finding in epidemiological analyses of diving accidents. No previous publications have specifically attempted to quantify or qualify those risks if present. This study demonstrates that aging increases risk for injury overall, serious injury in particular, and lessens recovery potential.

  2. Pedestrian injury risk and the effect of age.

    PubMed

    Niebuhr, Tobias; Junge, Mirko; Rosén, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Older adults and pedestrians both represent especially vulnerable groups in traffic. In the literature, hazards are usually described by the corresponding injury risks of a collision. This paper investigates the MAIS3+F risk (the risk of sustaining at least one injury of AIS 3 severity or higher, or fatal injury) for pedestrians in full-frontal pedestrian-to-passenger car collisions. Using some assumptions, a model-based approach to injury risk, allowing for the specification of individual injury risk parameters for individuals, is presented. To balance model accuracy and sample size, the GIDAS (German In-depth Accident Study) data set is divided into three age groups; children (0-14); adults (15-60); and older adults (older than 60). For each group, individual risk curves are computed. Afterwards, the curves are re-aggregated to the overall risk function. The derived model addresses the influence of age on the outcome of pedestrian-to-car accidents. The results show that older people compared with younger people have a higher MAIS3+F injury risk at all collision speeds. The injury risk for children behaves surprisingly. Compared to other age groups, their MAIS3+F injury risk is lower at lower collision speeds, but substantially higher once a threshold has been exceeded. The resulting injury risk curve obtained by re-aggregation looks surprisingly similar to the frequently used logistic regression function computed for the overall injury risk. However, for homogenous subgroups - such as the three age groups - logistic regression describes the typical risk behavior less accurately than the introduced model-based approach. Since the effect of demographic change on traffic safety is greater nowadays, there is a need to incorporate age into established models. Thus far, this is one of the first studies incorporating traffic participant age to an explicit risk function. The presented approach can be especially useful for the modeling and prediction of risks, and for the

  3. Pedestrian injury risk and the effect of age.

    PubMed

    Niebuhr, Tobias; Junge, Mirko; Rosén, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Older adults and pedestrians both represent especially vulnerable groups in traffic. In the literature, hazards are usually described by the corresponding injury risks of a collision. This paper investigates the MAIS3+F risk (the risk of sustaining at least one injury of AIS 3 severity or higher, or fatal injury) for pedestrians in full-frontal pedestrian-to-passenger car collisions. Using some assumptions, a model-based approach to injury risk, allowing for the specification of individual injury risk parameters for individuals, is presented. To balance model accuracy and sample size, the GIDAS (German In-depth Accident Study) data set is divided into three age groups; children (0-14); adults (15-60); and older adults (older than 60). For each group, individual risk curves are computed. Afterwards, the curves are re-aggregated to the overall risk function. The derived model addresses the influence of age on the outcome of pedestrian-to-car accidents. The results show that older people compared with younger people have a higher MAIS3+F injury risk at all collision speeds. The injury risk for children behaves surprisingly. Compared to other age groups, their MAIS3+F injury risk is lower at lower collision speeds, but substantially higher once a threshold has been exceeded. The resulting injury risk curve obtained by re-aggregation looks surprisingly similar to the frequently used logistic regression function computed for the overall injury risk. However, for homogenous subgroups - such as the three age groups - logistic regression describes the typical risk behavior less accurately than the introduced model-based approach. Since the effect of demographic change on traffic safety is greater nowadays, there is a need to incorporate age into established models. Thus far, this is one of the first studies incorporating traffic participant age to an explicit risk function. The presented approach can be especially useful for the modeling and prediction of risks, and for the

  4. Being as Normal as Possible: How Young People Ages 16–25 Years Evaluate the Risks and Benefits of Treatment for Inflammatory Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    McDonagh, Janet E.; Thompson, Ben; Foster, Helen E.; Kay, Lesley; Myers, Andrea; Rapley, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore how young people (ages 16–25 years) with inflammatory arthritis evaluate the risks and benefits of treatment, particularly treatment with biologic therapies. Methods This qualitative study involved in‐depth interviews (n = 44) with young people, trusted others (e.g., parents), and health professionals; audio‐recordings (n = 4) of biologic therapy–related consultations; and focus groups (n = 4). Analysis used techniques from grounded theory (open and focused coding, constant comparison, memoing, and mapping). Results Young people aspired to live what they perceived as a “normal” life. They saw treatment as presenting both an opportunity for and a threat to achieving this. Treatment changes were therefore subject to complex and ongoing evaluation, covering administration, associated restrictions, anticipated effects, and side effects. Information sources included expert opinion (of professionals and other patients) and personal experience. Previous treatments provided important reference points. Faced with uncertain outcomes, young people made provisional decisions. Both trusted others and health professionals expressed concern that young people were too focused on short‐term outcomes. Conclusion Young people value treatment that helps them to live a “normal” life. There is more to this than controlling disease. The emotional, social, and vocational consequences of treatment can be profound and lasting: opportunities to discuss the effects of treatment should be provided early and regularly. While making every effort to ensure understanding of the long‐term clinical consequences of taking or not taking medication, the wider impact of treatment should not be dismissed. Only through understanding young people's values, preferences, and concerns can a sustainable balance between disease control and treatment burden be achieved. PMID:27040737

  5. Opposite differential risks for autism and schizophrenia based on maternal age, paternal age, and parental age differences

    PubMed Central

    Byars, Sean G.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Effects of maternal and paternal age on offspring autism and schizophrenia risks have been studied for over three decades, but inconsistent risks have often been found, precluding well-informed speculation on why these age-related risks might exist. Methodology: To help clarify this situation we analysed a massive single population sample from Denmark including the full spectrum of autistic and schizophrenic disorders (eliminating between-study confounding), used up to 30 follow-up years, controlled for over 20 potentially confounding factors and interpret the ultimate causation of the observed risk patterns using generally accepted principles of parent-offspring conflict and life-history theory. Results: We evaluated the effects of paternal age, maternal age and parental age difference on offspring mental disorders and found consistently similar risk patterns for related disorders and markedly different patterns between autistic and schizophrenic disorders. Older fathers and mothers both conferred increased risk for autistic but not schizophrenic disorders, but autism risk was reduced in younger parents and offspring of younger mothers had increased risk for many schizophrenic disorders. Risk for most disorders also increased when parents were more dissimilarly aged. Monotonically increasing autism risk is consistent with mutation accumulation as fathers’ age, but this explanation is invalid for schizophrenic disorders, which were not related to paternal age and were negatively correlated with maternal age. Conclusions and implications: We propose that the observed maternally induced risk patterns ultimately reflect a shifting ancestral life-history trade-off between current and future reproduction, mediated by an initially high but subsequently decreasing tendency to constrain foetal provisioning as women proceed from first to final pregnancy. PMID:27637201

  6. Advanced maternal age and risk perception: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Advanced maternal age (AMA) is associated with several adverse pregnancy outcomes, hence these pregnancies are considered to be “high risk.” A review of the empirical literature suggests that it is not clear how women of AMA evaluate their pregnancy risk. This study aimed to address this gap by exploring the risk perception of pregnant women of AMA. Methods A qualitative descriptive study was undertaken to obtain a rich and detailed source of explanatory data regarding perceived pregnancy risk of 15 women of AMA. The sample was recruited from a variety of settings in Winnipeg, Canada. In-depth interviews were conducted with nulliparous women aged 35 years or older, in their third trimester, and with singleton pregnancies. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim, and content analysis was used to identify themes and categories. Results Four main themes emerged: definition of pregnancy risk, factors influencing risk perception, risk alleviation strategies, and risk communication with health professionals. Conclusions Several factors may influence women's perception of pregnancy risk including medical risk, psychological elements, characteristics of the risk, stage of pregnancy, and health care provider’s opinion. Understanding these influential factors may help health professionals who care for pregnant women of AMA to gain insight into their perspectives on pregnancy risk and improve the effectiveness of risk communication strategies with this group. PMID:22988825

  7. Epidemiology of fracture risk with advancing age.

    PubMed

    Ensrud, Kristine E

    2013-10-01

    Bone loss and structural damage with advancing age lead to skeletal fragility as manifested by low bone mass and deficits in bone geometry, microarchitecture, and material properties. Skeletal fragility, in combination with a greater propensity to fall, results in an increased susceptibility to fractures with aging, known as fragility fractures. Fragility fractures exceed 2 million per year in number and account for nearly 20 billion dollars per year in health care costs in the United States. Advanced age, low bone mass, and previous fracture are strong risk factors for fractures at nearly all skeletal sites, but each type of fracture also has its own set of unique risk factors. Hip fractures are most strongly associated with adverse consequences, but these account for only a minority of fragility fractures. Vertebral fractures comprise the most common manifestation of fragility fracture, but the majority of these fractures are asymptomatic. Most research has focused on the epidemiology of fractures at the hip, vertebrae, and wrist and less is known about other fracture types, which account for 40% of total fragility fractures that are clinically recognized. Future research focused on identification of older adults at high risk of disabling fractures is warranted. PMID:23833201

  8. [Cardiovascular risk and cardiometabolic risk: an epidemiological evaluation].

    PubMed

    Vanuzzo, Diego; Pilotto, Lorenza; Mirolo, Renata; Pirelli, Salvatore

    2008-04-01

    On the basis of a critical literature review, this article deals with the concepts of global cardiovascular risk and cardiometabolic risk, pointing out their links but also their unresolved issues and discussing their usefulness in clinical practice. The global cardiovascular risk is the probability of suffering from a coronary event or stroke in a given period of time and in this sense it is an absolute risk, generally reported as percentage at 10 years. Usually risk functions are used, derived from longitudinal studies of healthy people at baseline. They consider some factors that are coherently linked with events in population analyses: among these there are some metabolic factors (total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, fasting blood glucose), some biological factors (blood pressure) and some lifestyle factors (tobacco smoking), all modifiable beyond those non-modifiable like age and gender. The chosen factors must be independent at multivariate analysis, simple and standardized to measure, and contribute to significantly increase the risk-function predictivity. To be reliable, these risk functions must be derived from the same population where they will be later administered. For this reason the Italian Progetto CUORE, in the longitudinal study section, built a database of risk factors from longitudinal comparable studies started between the mid '80s and '90s and followed up the participants for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity to estimate the Italian global cardiovascular risk (first coronary or cerebrovascular event) for men and women. Two tools have been produced, the risk charts and a score software (see www.cuore.iss.it). The ongoing epidemics of obesity and diabetes and the fact that diabetes is associated with classical risk factors like hypertension and dyslipidemia induced the American Diabetes Association and the American Heart Association to launch a "call to action" to prevent both cardiovascular disease and diabetes. In this paper, as

  9. Evaluation of cardiovascular risk in school children.

    PubMed

    Sporisević, Lutvo; Krzelj, Vjekoslav; Bajraktarević, Adnan; Jahić, Elmedina

    2009-08-01

    Atherosclerosis is a pathological condition that begins in early childhood, but clinically the disease manifests in older age. The aim of work was to determine frequency of atherosclerosis risk factors in healthy school children. Cross-sectional study included 214 children in mean age 10,99+/-2,52 years, within range 7 to 15 years. Patients body mass index, blood pressure, lipid status, dietary habits, physical activity and sedentary habits have been evaluated. Cardiovascular risk factors are significantly present in children (P<0,05) i.e. one cardiovascular risk factor is present in 47/214 (21,96%) children, two risk factors had 25/214 (11,68%) children, while 17/214 (7,94%) children had three or more cardiovascular risk factors. Obesity was present in 20/214 (9,34%) children, while overweight was present in 23/214 (10,74%) children. Hypertension was present in 10/214 (4,67%) children, and it was significantly present (p<0,05) in obese and overweight children. Total cholesterol was increased in 17/214 (7,94%) children, LDL-cholesterol was increased in 11/214 (5,14%) [corrected], increased triglycerides had 4/214 (1,86%) children, while decreased HDL-cholesterol was found in (3/214, 1,40%) children. Unhealthy dietary habits were present in 45/214 (21,02%) children, 42/214 (19,62%) children is physically inactive, while sedentary habits were shown in 39/214 (18,22%) children. Research shows that a large number within study group has one or more cardiovascular risk factors that can lead to premature atherosclerosis. Using massive screening of cardiovascular risk factors, along with adequate physical activity, healthy dietary habits, reduced sedentary habits, doctors and teacher's education, parents and children can reduce premature clinical sequels in atherosclerotic process.

  10. Nutritional Risk Factors for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ersoy, Lebriz; Lechanteur, Yara T.; Hoyng, Carel B.; Kirchhof, Bernd; den Hollander, Anneke I.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the role of nutritional factors, serum lipids, and lipoproteins in late age-related macular degeneration (late AMD). Methods. Intake of red meat, fruit, fish, vegetables, and alcohol, smoking status, and body mass index (BMI) were ascertained questionnaire-based in 1147 late AMD cases and 1773 controls from the European Genetic Database. Serum levels of lipids and lipoproteins were determined. The relationship between nutritional factors and late AMD was assessed using logistic regression. Based on multivariate analysis, area-under-the-curve (AUC) was calculated by receiver-operating-characteristics (ROC). Results. In a multivariate analysis, besides age and smoking, obesity (odds ratio (OR): 1.44, P = 0.014) and red meat intake (daily: OR: 2.34, P = 8.22 × 10−6; 2–6x/week: OR: 1.67, P = 7.98 × 10−5) were identified as risk factors for developing late AMD. Fruit intake showed a protective effect (daily: OR: 0.52, P = 0.005; 2–6x/week: OR: 0.58, P = 0.035). Serum lipid and lipoprotein levels showed no significant association with late AMD. ROC for nutritional factors, smoking, age, and BMI revealed an AUC of 0.781. Conclusion. Red meat intake and obesity were independently associated with increased risk for late AMD, whereas fruit intake was protective. A better understanding of nutritional risk factors is necessary for the prevention of AMD. PMID:25101280

  11. Software design for professional risk evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu, V.; Calea, G.; Amza, G.; Iacobescu, G.; Nitoi, D.; Dimitrescu, A.

    2016-08-01

    Professional risk evaluation represents a complex activity involving each economic operator, with important repercussion upon health and security in work. Article represents an innovative study method, regarding professional risk analyze in which cumulative working posts are evaluated. Work presents a new software that helps in putting together all the working positions from a complex organizational system and analyzing them in order to evaluate the possible risks. Using this software, a multiple analysis can be done like: risk estimation, risk evaluation, estimation of residual risks and finally searching of risk reduction measures.

  12. Veterinary drugs: disposition, biotransformation and risk evaluation.

    PubMed

    Fink-Gremmels, J; van Miert, A S

    1994-12-01

    Veterinary drugs may only be produced, distributed and administered after being licensed. This implies that, prior to marketing, a critical evaluation of the pharmaceutical quality, the clinical efficacy and the over-all pharmacological and toxicological properties of the active substances will be performed by national and/or supranational authorities. However, despite a sophisticated legal (harmonized) framework, a number of factors involved in residue formation and safety assessment remain unpredictable or dependant on the current 'state of the art' in the understanding of molecular pharmacology and toxicology. For example, drug disposition and residue formation in the target animal species may be influenced by a broad variety of physiological parameters including age, sex and diet, as well as by pathological conditions especially the acute phase response to infection. These factors affect both drug disposition and metabolite formation. Furthermore, current thinking in toxicological risk assessment is influenced by recent developments in molecular toxicology and thus by an increased but still incomplete understanding of the interaction of a toxic compound with the living organism. General recognized principles in the evaluation of potential toxicants are applied in the recommendation of withdrawal times and the establishment of maximum residue limits (MRL values). Apart from toxicological-based assessment, increasing awareness is directed to other than toxicological responses, especially the potential risk of effects of antimicrobial residues on human gastrointestinal microflora. Thus, the methodology of risk assessment is discussed in the context of the recently established legal framework within the European Union.

  13. Maternal height and age: risk factors for cephalopelvic disproportion in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Tsu, V D

    1992-10-01

    Maternal age and stature are among several factors used to screen pregnant women for potential risk of labour complications. In a population-based case-control study in Harare, Zimbabwe, multivariate analysis was carried out to evaluate the importance of maternal age and height as risk factors for cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD). Using data abstracted from the medical records of 203 women with operative deliveries due to CPD and 299 women with normal unassisted vaginal deliveries, multiple logistic regression models were developed. Although maternal age < 18 years was not a significant risk factor in this study (perhaps because there were few women in this age group), advanced maternal age (> or = 35 years) was associated with a relative risk of 2.7 compared to women 20-34, after adjusting for other demographic and obstetric factors. Maternal height < 160 cm was associated with a twofold increased risk of CPD as compared to taller women.

  14. Deciding in the Dark: Age Differences in Intuitive Risk Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Elevated levels of risky behavior in adolescence may signal developmental change in unconscious appraisal of risk. Yet, prior research examining adolescent risk judgment has used tasks that elicit conscious deliberation. The present study, in contrast, attempts to characterize age differences in (less conscious) intuitive impressions of risk.…

  15. Kevlar 49/Epoxy COPV Aging Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, James K.; Salem, Jonathan L.; Thesken, John C.; Russell, Richard W.; Littell, Justin; Ruggeri, Charles; Leifeste, Mark R.

    2008-01-01

    NASA initiated an effort to determine if the aging of Kevlar 49/Epoxy composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPV) affected their performance. This study briefly reviews the history and certification of composite pressure vessels employed on NASA Orbiters. Tests to evaluate overwrap tensile strength changes compared 30 year old samples from Orbiter vessels to new Kevlar/Epoxy pressure vessel materials. Other tests include transverse compression and thermal analyses (glass transition and moduli). Results from these tests do not indicate a noticeable effect due to aging of the overwrap materials.

  16. Risk, Reward, and Economic Decision Making in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Suzanne H.; Harbaugh, William T.; Janowsky, Jeri S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Older adults’ decision quality is considered to be worse than that of younger adults. This age-related difference is often attributed to reductions in risk tolerance. Little is known about the circumstances that affect older adults’ decisions and whether risk attitudes directly influence economic decisions. We measure the influence of risk attitudes on age-related differences in decision making in both nonsocial and social contexts. Methods. Risk attitudes and economic decision making were measured in 30 healthy older adults and 29 healthy younger adults. Results. Older adults report being less impulsive, sensation seeking and risk tolerant than younger adults. Age did not affect a measure of nonsocial economic decision making. Older adults were more likely to reject unfair divisions of money during an economic social-bargaining game and more likely to make equitable divisions of money during social-giving game. These age-related differences were determined in part by individuals’ self-reported risk taking. Discussion. We conclude that age-related differences in decision making are domain specific and that some social economic decision making is influenced by risk attitudes. Older adults are more risk avoidant, but this does not alter their willingness to wait for reward in a nonsocial context. Perceiving more risk is associated with an unwillingness to accept an unfair offer in social economic contexts and ultimately leads to poorer outcomes for older adults. PMID:21926401

  17. Bayes Method Plant Aging Risk Analysis

    1992-03-13

    DORIAN is an integrated package for performing Bayesian aging analysis of reliability data; e.g. for identifying trends in component failure rates and/or outage durations as a function of time. The user must specify several alternatives hypothesized aging models (i.e. possible trends) along with prior probabilities indicating the subjective probability that each trend is actually the correct one. DORIAN then uses component failure and/or repair data over time to update these prior probabilities and develop amore » posterior probability for each aging model, representing the probability that each model is the correct one in light of the observed data rather than a priori. Mean, median, and 5th and 95th percentile trends are also compiled from the posterior probabilities.« less

  18. Age-specific models for evaluating dose and risk from internal exposures to radionuclides: Report of current work of the Metabolism and Dosimetry Research Group, July 1, 1985-June 30, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, R.W.; Warren, B.P.

    1987-09-01

    A projection of the health risk to a population internally exposed to a radionuclide requires explicit or implicit use of demographic, biokinetic, dosimetric, and dose-response models. Exposure guidelines have been based on models for a reference adult with a fixed life span. In this report, we describe recent efforts to develop a comprehensive methodology for estimation of radiogenic risk to individuals and to heterogeneous populations. Emphasis is on age-dependent biokinetics and dosimetry for internal emitters, but consideration also is given to conversion of age-specific doses to estimates of risk using realistic, site-specific demographic models and best available age-specific dose-response functions. We discuss how the methods described here may also improve estimates for the reference adult usually considered in radiation protection. 159 refs.

  19. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis Among Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Lori W.; Wallace, Lorraine Silver; Perry, Blake Allen; Bleeker, Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the risk factors for osteoporosis among a sample of middle-aged women. Methods: Adipose tissue and bone mineral density levels at the left femur, lumbar spine, and total body were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects (n=342) were surveyed regarding a variety of osteoporosis-related risk factors.…

  20. Muscle Quality and Myosteatosis: Novel Associations With Mortality Risk: The Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik Study.

    PubMed

    Reinders, Ilse; Murphy, Rachel A; Brouwer, Ingeborg A; Visser, Marjolein; Launer, Lenore; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Jonsson, Palmi V; Lang, Thomas F; Harris, Tamara B

    2016-01-01

    Muscle composition may affect mortality risk, but prior studies have been limited to specific samples or less precise determination of muscle composition. We evaluated associations of thigh muscle composition, determined using computed tomography imaging, and knee extension strength with mortality risk among 4,824 participants aged 76.4 (standard deviation (SD), 5.5) years from the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik Study (2002-2006). Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios. After 8.8 years of follow-up, there were 1,942 deaths. For men, each SD-increment increase in muscle lean area, muscle quality, and strength was associated with lower mortality risk, with decreases ranging between 11% and 22%. Each SD-increment increase in intermuscular adipose tissue and intramuscular adipose tissue was associated with higher mortality risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.13 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 1.22) and HR = 1.23 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.30), respectively). For women, each SD-increment increase in muscle lean area, muscle quality, and strength was associated with lower mortality risk, with decreases ranging between 12% and 19%. Greater intramuscular adipose tissue was associated with an 8% higher mortality risk (HR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.16). This study shows that muscle composition is associated with mortality risk. These results also show the importance of improving muscle strength and area and lowering muscle adipose tissue infiltration.

  1. Risk assessment technique for evaluating research laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Bolander, T.W.; Meale, B.M.; Eide, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    A technique has been developed to evaluate research laboratories according to risk, where risk is defined as the product of frequency and consequence. This technique was used to evaluate several laboratories at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory under the direction of the Department of Energy, Idaho Field Office to assist in the risk management of the Science and Technology Department laboratories. With this technique, laboratories can be compared according to risk, and management can use the results to make cost effective decisions associated with the operation of the facility.

  2. Risk assessment technique for evaluating research laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Bolander, T.W.; Meale, B.M.; Eide, S.A.

    1992-09-01

    A technique has been developed to evaluate research laboratories according to risk, where risk is defined as the product of frequency and consequence. This technique was used to evaluate several laboratories at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory under the direction of the Department of Energy, Idaho Field Office to assist in the risk management of the Science and Technology Department laboratories. With this technique, laboratories can be compared according to risk, and management can use the results to make cost effective decisions associated with the operation of the facility.

  3. Age-specific risk factors for lead absorption in children

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, S.D.; Yankel, A.J.; von Lindern, I.H.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship of blood lead levels to environmental and individual characteristics is analyzed in a large sample of children residing near a lead smelting complex, with particular emphasis on the identification of age-related risk factors. Exceptional variation in both blood leads and its determinants within the study region facilitated the simultaneous detection of several significant risk factors for each year of age from 1 to 9 y. The strongest predictor of blood lead at all ages was air lead, but the secondary risk factors were age dependent. Household dustiness was significantly related to blood lead in young children, especially those under 2 y of age; soil lead may be an important source of ingested lead for children between 2 and 7 y. Other significant effects included that of pica at about 2 y of age, a slight effect of the occupational category of the fathers of 5- to 8-y-old children, and a tendency for 8- and 9-y-old boys to have higher blood leads than girls of the same age. Lead concentration in household paint was not a significant risk factor. These results suggest that a multifactorial approach to the prevention of excessive lead absorption by children is required.

  4. Evaluation of protective action risks

    SciTech Connect

    Witzig, W.F.; Shillenn, J.K.

    1987-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine how the risks of the protective action of evacuation compare with the radiological risks from a radiation release if no protective actions are taken. Evacuation risks of death and injury have been determined by identifying from newspapers and other sources 902 possible evacuation events which occurred in the US during the period January 1, 1973 through April 30, 1986. A survey form was developed to determine evacuation risks and other information relating to the evacuation events and sent to local emergency management personnel located in the vicinity of 783 events. There were 310 completed surveys received and the data summarized. This study found that the key factors for a successful evacuation included an emergency plan, good communications and coordination, practice drills, and defined authority. Few successful evacuations used the emergency broadcasting system or warning sirens to communicate the need to evacuate. Reports of panic and traffic jams during an evacuation were very few. Traffic jams occurring during reentry were more likely than during the evacuation exodus. A summary of potential societal consequences of evacuation is included in this study. 5 refs., 9 figs., 20 tabs.

  5. Second hand smoke, age of exposure and lung cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Asomaning, Kofi; Miller, David P.; Liu, Geoffrey; Wain, John C.; Lynch, Thomas J.; Su, Li; Christiani, David C.

    2008-01-01

    Background Exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) has been identified as a risk factor for lung cancer for three decades. It is also known that the lung continues to grow from birth to adulthood, when lung growth stops. We hypothesize that after adjusting for active cigarette smoking, if SHS exposure took place during the period of growth i.e. in the earlier part of life (0 to 25 years of age) the risk of lung cancer is greater compared to an exposure occurring after age 25. Method Second hand smoke exposure was self-reported for three different activities (leisure, work and at home) for this study population of 1669 cases and 1263 controls. We created variables that captured location of exposure and timing of first exposure with respect to a study participant's age (0 - 25, >25 years of age). Multiple logistic regressions were used to study the association between SHS exposure and lung cancer, adjusting for age, gender and active smoking variables. Result For study participants that were exposed to SHS at both activities (work and leisure) and compared to one or no activity, the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for lung cancer was 1.30(1.08-1.57) when exposure occurred between birth and age 25 and 0.66(0.21-1.57) if exposure occurred after age 25 years. Respective results for nonsmokers were: 1.29 (0.82-2.02) and 0.87 (0.22-3.38), and current and ex smokers combined 1.28 (1.04-1.58) and 0.66 (0.15-2.85). Conclusion All individuals exposed to SHS have a higher risk of risk of lung cancer. Furthermore, this study suggests that subjects first exposed before age 25 have a higher lung cancer risk compared to those for whom first exposure occurred after age 25 years. PMID:18191495

  6. Risk effectiveness evaluation of surveillance testing

    SciTech Connect

    Martorell, S.; Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K.; Vesely, W.E.

    1992-07-20

    In nuclear power plants surveillance tests are required to detect failures in standby safety system components as a means of assuring their availability in case of an accident. However, the performance of surveillance tests at power may have adverse impact on safety as evidenced by the operating experience of the plants. The risk associated with a test includes two different aspects: (1) a positive aspect, i.e., risk contribution detected by the test, that results from the detection of failures which occur between tests and are detected by the test, and (2) a negative aspect, i.e., risk contribution caused by the test, that includes failures and degradations which are caused by the test or are related to the performance of the test. In terms of the two different risk contributions, the risk effectiveness of a test can be simply defined as follows: a test is risk effective if the risk contribution detected by the test is greater than the risk contribution caused by the test; otherwise it is risk ineffective. The methodology presentation will focus on two important kinds of negative test risk impacts, that is, the risk impacts of test-caused transients and equipment wear-out. The evaluation results of the risk effectiveness of the test will be presented in the full paper along with the risk assessment methodology and the insights from the sensitivity analysis. These constitute the core of the NUREG/CR-5775.

  7. Autism risk associated with parental age and with increasing difference in age between the parents.

    PubMed

    Sandin, S; Schendel, D; Magnusson, P; Hultman, C; Surén, P; Susser, E; Grønborg, T; Gissler, M; Gunnes, N; Gross, R; Henning, M; Bresnahan, M; Sourander, A; Hornig, M; Carter, K; Francis, R; Parner, E; Leonard, H; Rosanoff, M; Stoltenberg, C; Reichenberg, A

    2016-05-01

    Advancing paternal and maternal age have both been associated with risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, the shape of the association remains unclear, and results on the joint associations is lacking. This study tests if advancing paternal and maternal ages are independently associated with ASD risk and estimates the functional form of the associations. In a population-based cohort study from five countries (Denmark, Israel, Norway, Sweden and Western Australia) comprising 5 766 794 children born 1985-2004 and followed up to the end of 2004-2009, the relative risk (RR) of ASD was estimated by using logistic regression and splines. Our analyses included 30 902 cases of ASD. Advancing paternal and maternal age were each associated with increased RR of ASD after adjusting for confounding and the other parent's age (mothers 40-49 years vs 20-29 years, RR=1.15 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-1.24), P-value<0.001; fathers⩾50 years vs 20-29 years, RR=1.66 (95% CI: 1.49-1.85), P-value<0.001). Younger maternal age was also associated with increased risk for ASD (mothers <20 years vs 20-29 years, RR=1.18 (95% CI: 1.08-1.29), P-value<0.001). There was a joint effect of maternal and paternal age with increasing risk of ASD for couples with increasing differences in parental ages. We did not find any support for a modifying effect by the sex of the offspring. In conclusion, as shown in multiple geographic regions, increases in ASD was not only limited to advancing paternal or maternal age alone but also to differences parental age including younger or older similarly aged parents as well as disparately aged parents.

  8. Predicting Dyslexia at Age 11 from a Risk Index Questionnaire at Age 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helland, Turid; Plante, Elena; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on predicting dyslexia in children ahead of formal literacy training. Because dyslexia is a constitutional impairment, risk factors should be seen in preschool. It was hypothesized that data gathered at age 5 using questions targeting the dyslexia endophenotype should be reliable and valid predictors of dyslexia at age 11. A…

  9. Risk for childhood leukemia associated with maternal and paternal age.

    PubMed

    Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Thomopoulos, Thomas P; Gialamas, Spyros P; Karalexi, Maria A; Biniaris-Georgallis, Stylianos-Iason; Kontogeorgi, Evangelia; Papathoma, Paraskevi; Tsilimidos, Gerasimos; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Iliadou, Anastasia N; Petridou, Eleni T

    2015-12-01

    The role of reproductive factors, such as parental age, in the pathogenesis of childhood leukemias is being intensively examined; the results of individual studies are controversial. This meta-analysis aims to quantitatively synthesize the published data on the association between parental age and risk of two major distinct childhood leukemia types in the offspring. Eligible studies were identified and pooled relative risk (RR) estimates were calculated using random-effects models, separately for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Subgroup analyses were performed by study design, geographical region, adjustment factors; sensitivity analyses and meta-regression analyses were also undertaken. 77 studies (69 case-control and eight cohort) were deemed eligible. Older maternal and paternal age were associated with increased risk for childhood ALL (pooled RR = 1.05, 95 % CI 1.01-1.10; pooled RR = 1.04, 95 % CI 1.00-1.08, per 5 year increments, respectively). The association between maternal age and risk of childhood AML showed a U-shaped pattern, with symmetrically associated increased risk in the oldest (pooled RR = 1.23, 95 % CI 1.06-1.43) and the youngest (pooled RR = 1.23, 95 % CI 1.07-1.40) extremes. Lastly, only younger fathers were at increased risk of having a child with AML (pooled RR = 1.28, 95 % CI 1.04-1.59). In conclusion, maternal and paternal age represents a meaningful risk factor for childhood leukemia, albeit of different effect size by leukemia subtype. Genetic and socio-economic factors may underlie the observed associations. Well-adjusted studies, scheduled by large consortia, are anticipated to satisfactorily address methodological issues, whereas the potential underlying genetic mechanisms should be elucidated by basic research studies.

  10. Age at Graft Loss after Pediatric Kidney Transplantation: Exploring the High-Risk Age Window

    PubMed Central

    Van Arendonk, Kyle J.; James, Nathan T.; Boyarsky, Brian J.; Garonzik-Wang, Jacqueline M.; Orandi, Babak J.; Magee, John C.; Smith, Jodi M.; Colombani, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objective The risk of graft loss after pediatric kidney transplantation increases during late adolescence and early adulthood, but the extent to which this phenomenon affects all recipients is unknown. This study explored interactions between recipient factors and this high-risk age window, searching for a recipient phenotype that may be less susceptible during this detrimental age interval. Design, setting, participants, & measurements With use of Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients data from 1987 to 2010, risk of graft loss across recipient age was quantified using a multivariable piecewise-constant hazard rate model with time-varying coefficients for recipient risk factors. Results Among 16,266 recipients, graft loss during ages ≥17 and <24 years was greater than that for both 3–17 years (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.61; P<0.001) and ≥24 years (aHR, 1.28; P<0.001). This finding was consistent across age at transplantation, sex, race, cause of renal disease, insurance type, pretransplant dialysis history, previous transplant, peak panel-reactive antibody (PRA), and type of induction immunosuppression. The high-risk window was seen in both living-donor and deceased-donor transplant recipients, at all levels of HLA mismatch, regardless of centers’ pediatric transplant volume, and consistently over time. The relationship between graft loss risk and donor type, PRA, transplant history, insurance type, and cause of renal disease was diminished upon entry into the high-risk window. Conclusions No recipient subgroups are exempt from the dramatic increase in graft loss during late adolescence and early adulthood, a high-risk window that modifies the relationship between typical recipient risk factors and graft loss. PMID:23430210

  11. Age and cancer risk: a potentially modifiable relationship.

    PubMed

    White, Mary C; Holman, Dawn M; Boehm, Jennifer E; Peipins, Lucy A; Grossman, Melissa; Henley, S Jane

    2014-03-01

    This article challenges the idea that cancer cannot be prevented among older adults by examining different aspects of the relationship between age and cancer. Although the sequential patterns of aging cannot be changed, several age-related factors that contribute to disease risk can be. For most adults, age is coincidentally associated with preventable chronic conditions, avoidable exposures, and modifiable risk behaviors that are causally associated with cancer. Midlife is a period of life when the prevalence of multiple cancer risk factors is high and incidence rates begin to increase for many types of cancer. However, current evidence suggests that for most adults, cancer does not have to be an inevitable consequence of growing older. Interventions that support healthy environments, help people manage chronic conditions, and promote healthy behaviors may help people make a healthier transition from midlife to older age and reduce the likelihood of developing cancer. Because the number of adults reaching older ages is increasing rapidly, the number of new cancer cases will also increase if current incidence rates remain unchanged. Thus, the need to translate the available research into practice to promote cancer prevention, especially for adults at midlife, has never been greater. PMID:24512933

  12. Risk Evaluation of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Gioiosa, Laura; Palanza, Paola; vom Saal, Frederick S.

    2015-01-01

    We review here our studies on early exposure to low doses of the estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemical bisphenol A (BPA) on behavior and metabolism in CD-1 mice. Mice were exposed in utero from gestation day (GD) 11 to delivery (prenatal exposure) or via maternal milk from birth to postnatal day 7 (postnatal exposure) to 10 µg/kg body weight/d of BPA or no BPA (controls). Bisphenol A exposure resulted in long-term disruption of sexually dimorphic behaviors. Females exposed to BPA pre- and postnatally showed increased anxiety and behavioral profiles similar to control males. We also evaluated metabolic effects in prenatally exposed adult male offspring of dams fed (from GD 9 to 18) with BPA at doses ranging from 5 to 50 000 µg/kg/d. The males showed an age-related significant change in a number of metabolic indexes ranging from food intake to glucose regulation at BPA doses below the no observed adverse effect level (5000 µg/kg/d). Consistent with prior findings, low but not high BPA doses produced significant effects for many outcomes. These findings provide further evidence of the potential risks that developmental exposure to low doses of the endocrine disrupter BPA may pose to human health, with fetuses and infants being highly vulnerable. PMID:26740806

  13. Behavioral risk factor surveillance of aged Medicare beneficiaries, 1995.

    PubMed

    Arday, D R; Arday, S L; Bolen, J; Rhodes, L; Chin, J; Minor, P

    1997-01-01

    The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is an ongoing State-based telephone survey of adults, administered through State health departments. The survey estimates health status and the prevalence of various risk factors among respondents, who include both fee-for-service and managed care Medicare beneficiaries. In this article the authors present an overview of the BRFSS and report 1995 regional results among respondents who were 65 years of age or over and who had health insurance. The advantages and disadvantages of using the BRFSS as a tool to monitor beneficiary health status and risk factors are also discussed.

  14. Modifiable diarrhoea risk factors in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N

    2013-12-01

    By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged <5 years attending outpatient clinics for diarrhoea were matched by age and sex with controls. Data were collected on family demographics, socioeconomic indicators, and risk behaviour practices. Two rectal swabs and a stool specimen were collected from cases and controls. Samples were cultured for bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years. PMID:23433452

  15. Modifiable diarrhoea risk factors in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N

    2013-12-01

    By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged <5 years attending outpatient clinics for diarrhoea were matched by age and sex with controls. Data were collected on family demographics, socioeconomic indicators, and risk behaviour practices. Two rectal swabs and a stool specimen were collected from cases and controls. Samples were cultured for bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

  16. D & D screening risk evaluation guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Robers, S.K.; Golden, K.M.; Wollert, D.A.

    1995-09-01

    The Screening Risk Evaluation (SRE) guidance document is a set of guidelines provided for the uniform implementation of SREs performed on decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) facilities. Although this method has been developed for D&D facilities, it can be used for transition (EM-60) facilities as well. The SRE guidance produces screening risk scores reflecting levels of risk through the use of risk ranking indices. Five types of possible risk are calculated from the SRE: current releases, worker exposures, future releases, physical hazards, and criticality. The Current Release Index (CRI) calculates the current risk to human health and the environment, exterior to the building, from ongoing or probable releases within a one-year time period. The Worker Exposure Index (WEI) calculates the current risk to workers, occupants and visitors inside contaminated D&D facilities due to contaminant exposure. The Future Release Index (FRI) calculates the hypothetical risk of future releases of contaminants, after one year, to human health and the environment. The Physical Hazards Index (PHI) calculates the risks to human health due to factors other than that of contaminants. Criticality is approached as a modifying factor to the entire SRE, due to the fact that criticality issues are strictly regulated under DOE. Screening risk results will be tabulated in matrix form, and Total Risk will be calculated (weighted equation) to produce a score on which to base early action recommendations. Other recommendations from the screening risk scores will be made based either on individual index scores or from reweighted Total Risk calculations. All recommendations based on the SRE will be made based on a combination of screening risk scores, decision drivers, and other considerations, as determined on a project-by-project basis.

  17. School-age outcomes of infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Miller, Meghan; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Young, Gregory S; Hill, Monique; Phelps Hanzel, Elise; Hutman, Ted; Johnson, Scott; Ozonoff, Sally

    2016-06-01

    Studies of infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have proliferated, but few of these samples have been followed longer-term. We conducted a follow-up study, at age 5.5-9 years, of younger siblings of children with ASD (high-risk group, n = 79) or typical development (low-risk group, n = 60), originally recruited as infants. Children with ASD were excluded because of the focus on understanding the range of non-ASD outcomes among high-risk siblings. Using examiner ratings, parent ratings, and standardized assessments, we evaluated differences in clinical outcomes, psychopathology symptoms, autism symptoms, language skills, and nonverbal cognitive abilities. After adjusting for covariates, the high-risk group had increased odds of any clinically elevated/impaired score across measures relative to the low-risk group (43% vs. 12%, respectively). The high-risk group also had increased odds of examiner-rated Clinical Concerns (CC) outcomes (e.g., ADHD concerns, broader autism phenotype, speech-language difficulties, anxiety/mood problems, learning problems) relative to the low-risk group (38% vs. 13%, respectively). The high-risk group with CC outcomes had higher parent-reported psychopathology and autism symptoms, and lower directly-assessed language skills, than the Low-Risk Typically Developing (TD) and High-Risk TD groups, which did not differ. There were no differences in nonverbal cognitive skills. For some in the high-risk group, clinical concerns persisted from early childhood, whereas for others clinical concerns were first evident at school-age. Results suggest continued vulnerability in at least a subgroup of school-age children with a family history of ASD and suggest that this population may benefit from continued screening and monitoring into the school-age years. Autism Res 2016, 9: 632-642. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Evaluation of a Genetic Risk Score to Improve Risk Prediction for Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chouraki, Vincent; Reitz, Christiane; Maury, Fleur; Bis, Joshua C.; Bellenguez, Celine; Yu, Lei; Jakobsdottir, Johanna; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Adams, Hieab H.; Choi, Seung Hoan; Larson, Eric B.; Fitzpatrick, Annette; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; de Jager, Philip L.; Hofman, Albert; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Vardarajan, Badri; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla; van der Lee, Sven J.; Lopez, Oscar; Dartigues, Jean-François; Berr, Claudine; Amouyel, Philippe; Bennett, David A.; van Duijn, Cornelia; DeStefano, Anita L.; Launer, Lenore J.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Crane, Paul K.; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Mayeux, Richard; Seshadri, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Effective prevention of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) requires the development of risk prediction tools permitting preclinical intervention. We constructed a genetic risk score (GRS) comprising common genetic variants associated with AD, evaluated its association with incident AD and assessed its capacity to improve risk prediction over traditional models based on age, sex, education, and APOE ε4. In eight prospective cohorts included in the International Genomics of Alzheimer’s Project (IGAP), we derived weighted sum of risk alleles from the 19 top SNPs reported by the IGAP GWAS in participants aged 65 and older without prevalent dementia. Hazard ratios (HR) of incident AD were estimated in Cox models. Improvement in risk prediction was measured by the difference in C-index (Δ–C), the integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) and continuous net reclassification improvement (NRI>0). Overall, 19,687 participants at risk were included, of whom 2,782 developed AD. The GRS was associated with a 17% increase in AD risk (pooled HR = 1.17; 95%CI = [1.13–1.21] per standard deviation increase in GRS; p-value = 2.86 × 10−16). This association was stronger among persons with at least one APOE ε4 allele (HRGRS = 1.24; 95%CI = [1.15–1.34]) than in others (HRGRS = 1.13; 95%CI = [1.08–1.18]; pinteraction = 3.45 × 10−2). Risk prediction after seven years of follow-up showed a small improvement when adding the GRS to age, sex, APOE ε4, and education (Δ–Cindex = 0.0043 [0.0019–0.0067]). Similar patterns were observed for IDI and NRI>0. In conclusion, a risk score incorporating common genetic variation outside the APOE ε4 locus improved AD risk prediction and may facilitate risk stratification for prevention trials. PMID:27340842

  19. Age differences in strategy selection and risk preference during risk-based decision making.

    PubMed

    Samson, Rachel D; Venkatesh, Anu; Lester, Adam W; Weinstein, A Tobias; Lipa, Peter; Barnes, Carol A

    2015-04-01

    Studies of the effects of aging on decision making suggest that choices can be altered in a variety of ways depending on the situation, the nature of the outcome and risk, or certainty levels. To better characterize how aging impacts decision making in rodents, young and aged Fischer 344 rats underwent a series of probabilistic discounting tasks in which reward magnitude and probabilities were manipulated. Young rats tended to choose 1 of 2 different strategies: (a) to press for the large/uncertain reward, regardless of the reward probability; or (b) to continually adapt their behavior according to the odds of winning. The first strategy was adopted by about half of the younger rats, the second by the remaining young animals and the entire group of aged rats. Additionally, we found that when the odds of winning were varied from uncertain to certain during a session, aged rats chose most often the lever associated with the small/certain reward. This is consistent with an interpretation of increased risk aversion. When this behavior was further characterized using a lose-shift analysis, it appears that older rats exhibited an increased sensitivity to negative feedback. In contrast, sensitivity to wins was unaltered in aged rats compared with young, suggesting that aging selectively impacts rat's behavior following losses. In line with some human aging studies, it appears that aged rats are either more risk averse or have a greater certainty bias, which may result from age differences in emotion regulation. PMID:25664565

  20. Genetic risk factors and age-related macular degeneration (AMD)

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Maryam; Armstrong, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in individuals older than 65 years of age. It is a multifactorial disorder and identification of risk factors enables individuals to make lifestyle choices that may reduce the risk of disease. Collaboration between geneticists, ophthalmologists, and optometrists suggests that genetic risk factors play a more significant role in AMD than previously thought. The most important genes are associated with immune system modulation and the complement system, e.g., complement factor H (CFH), factor B (CFB), factor C3, and serpin peptidase inhibitor (SERPING1). Genes associated with membrane transport, e.g., ATP-binding cassette protein (ABCR) and voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma 3 (CACNG3), the vascular system, e.g., fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), fibulin-5, lysyl oxidase-like gene (LOXL1) and selectin-P (SELP), and with lipid metabolism, e.g., apolipoprotein E (APOE) and hepatic lipase (LIPC) have also been implicated. In addition, several other genes exhibit some statistical association with AMD, e.g., age-related maculopathy susceptibility protein 2 (ARMS2) and DNA excision repair protein gene (ERCC6) but more research is needed to establish their significance. Modifiable risk factors for AMD should be discussed with patients whose lifestyle and/or family history place them in an increased risk category. Furthermore, calculation of AMD risk using current models should be recommended as a tool for patient education. It is likely that AMD management in future will be increasingly influenced by assessment of genetic risk as such screening methods become more widely available.

  1. Risk Factors for Urinary Incontinence among Middle-aged Women

    PubMed Central

    DANFORTH, Kim N.; TOWNSEND, Mary K.; LIFFORD, Karen; CURHAN, Gary C.; RESNICK, Neil M.; GRODSTEIN, Francine

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Identify risk factors for urinary incontinence in middle-aged women. Study Design: Cross-sectional analysis of 83,355 Nurses' Health Study II participants. Since 1989, women have provided health information on mailed questionnaires; in 2001, at age 37-54 years, information on urinary incontinence was requested. We examined adjusted odds ratios of incontinence using logistic regression. Results: 43% of women reported incontinence. After adjustment, African-American (OR=0.49, 95% CI 0.40-0.60) and Asian-American women (OR=0.57, 95% CI 0.46-0.72) were at reduced odds of severe incontinence compared to Caucasians. Increased age, body mass index, and parity were all positively associated with incontinence, as were current smoking, type 2 diabetes, and hysterectomy. Women aged 50-54 years had 1.81 times the odds of severe incontinence compared to women <40 years (95% CI 1.66-1.97); women with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 had 3.10 times the odds of severe incontinence compared to BMI 22-24 kg/m2 (95% CI 2.91-3.30). Conclusions: Urinary incontinence is highly prevalent among these middle-aged women. Potential risk factors include age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, parity, smoking, diabetes, and hysterectomy. PMID:16458626

  2. An Evaluation of Graduates of a Toddlerhood Home Visiting Program at Kindergarten Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, LaRue; Sethi, Anita; Astuto, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Overview: A recent evaluation of children who had participated in the Parent-Child Home Program (PCHP) as toddlers found that at kindergarten age, these children were performing at levels expected for their age, despite the fact that they had multiple factors putting them at risk for school failure. The Study: In the winter and spring of 2002, 135…

  3. Evaluating Alternative Risk Adjusters for Medicare.

    PubMed

    Pope, Gregory C; Adamache, Killard W; Walsh, Edith G; Khandker, Rezaul K

    1998-01-01

    In this study the authors use 3 years of the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) to evaluate alternative demographic, survey, and claims-based risk adjusters for Medicare capitation payment. The survey health-status models have three to four times the predictive power of the demographic models. The risk-adjustment model derived from claims diagnoses has 75-percent greater predictive power than a comprehensive survey model. No single model predicts average expenditures well for all beneficiary subgroups of interest, suggesting a combined model may be appropriate. More data are needed to obtain stable estimates of model parameters. Advantages and disadvantages of alternative risk adjusters are discussed.

  4. Wife killing: risk to women as a function of age.

    PubMed

    Shackelford, T K; Buss, D M; Peters, J

    2000-01-01

    Younger women, relative to older women, incur elevated risk of uxoricide-being murdered by their husbands. Some evolutionary theorists attribute this pattern to men's evolved sexual proprietariness, which inclines them to use violence to control women, especially those high in reproductive value. Other evolutionary theorists propose an evolved homicide module for wife killing. An alternative to both explanations is that young women experience elevated uxoricide risk as an incidental byproduct of marriage to younger men who commit the majority of acts of violence. We used a sample of 13,670 uxoricides to test these alternative explanations. Findings show that (a) reproductive-age women incur an elevated risk of uxoricide relative to older women; (b) younger men are overrepresented among uxoricide perpetrators; and (c) younger women, even when married to older men, still incur excess risk of uxoricide. Discussion examines competing explanations for uxoricide in light of these findings.

  5. Estimating risks of heat strain by age and sex: a population-level simulation model.

    PubMed

    Glass, Kathryn; Tait, Peter W; Hanna, Elizabeth G; Dear, Keith

    2015-05-18

    Individuals living in hot climates face health risks from hyperthermia due to excessive heat. Heat strain is influenced by weather exposure and by individual characteristics such as age, sex, body size, and occupation. To explore the population-level drivers of heat strain, we developed a simulation model that scales up individual risks of heat storage (estimated using Myrup and Morgan's man model "MANMO") to a large population. Using Australian weather data, we identify high-risk weather conditions together with individual characteristics that increase the risk of heat stress under these conditions. The model identifies elevated risks in children and the elderly, with females aged 75 and older those most likely to experience heat strain. Risk of heat strain in males does not increase as rapidly with age, but is greatest on hot days with high solar radiation. Although cloudy days are less dangerous for the wider population, older women still have an elevated risk of heat strain on hot cloudy days or when indoors during high temperatures. Simulation models provide a valuable method for exploring population level risks of heat strain, and a tool for evaluating public health and other government policy interventions.

  6. Estimating Risks of Heat Strain by Age and Sex: A Population-Level Simulation Model

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Kathryn; Tait, Peter W.; Hanna, Elizabeth G.; Dear, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Individuals living in hot climates face health risks from hyperthermia due to excessive heat. Heat strain is influenced by weather exposure and by individual characteristics such as age, sex, body size, and occupation. To explore the population-level drivers of heat strain, we developed a simulation model that scales up individual risks of heat storage (estimated using Myrup and Morgan’s man model “MANMO”) to a large population. Using Australian weather data, we identify high-risk weather conditions together with individual characteristics that increase the risk of heat stress under these conditions. The model identifies elevated risks in children and the elderly, with females aged 75 and older those most likely to experience heat strain. Risk of heat strain in males does not increase as rapidly with age, but is greatest on hot days with high solar radiation. Although cloudy days are less dangerous for the wider population, older women still have an elevated risk of heat strain on hot cloudy days or when indoors during high temperatures. Simulation models provide a valuable method for exploring population level risks of heat strain, and a tool for evaluating public health and other government policy interventions. PMID:25993102

  7. Maternal age and risk of labor and delivery complications.

    PubMed

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Spitznagel, Edward L; Bommarito, Kerry; Madden, Tessa; Olsen, Margaret A; Subramaniam, Harini; Peipert, Jeffrey F; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2015-06-01

    We utilized an updated nationally representative database to examine associations between maternal age and prevalence of maternal morbidity during complications of labor and delivery. We used hospital inpatient billing data from the 2009 United States Nationwide Inpatient Sample, part of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. To determine whether the likelihood that maternal morbidity during complications of labor and delivery differed among age groups, separate logistic regression models were run for each complication. Age was the main independent variable of interest. In analyses that controlled for demographics and clinical confounders, we found that complications with the highest odds among women, 11-18 years of age, compared to 25-29 year old women, included preterm delivery, chorioamnionitis, endometritis, and mild preeclampsia. Pregnant women who were 15-19 years old had greater odds for severe preeclampsia, eclampsia, postpartum hemorrhage, poor fetal growth, and fetal distress. Pregnant women who were ≥35 years old had greater odds for preterm delivery, hypertension, superimposed preeclampsia, severe preeclampsia, and decreased risk for chorioamnionitis. Older women (≥40 years old) had increased odds for mild preeclampsia, fetal distress, and poor fetal growth. Our findings underscore the need for pregnant women to be aware of the risks associated with extremes of age so that they can watch for signs and symptoms of such complications.

  8. Risk evaluation mitigation strategies: the evolution of risk management policy.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Kristen; Toscani, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has the primary regulatory responsibility to ensure that medications are safe and effective both prior to drug approval and while the medication is being actively marketed by manufacturers. The responsibility for safe medications prior to marketing was signed into law in 1938 under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; however, a significant risk management evolution has taken place since 1938. Additional federal rules, entitled the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act, were established in 2007 and extended the government's oversight through the addition of a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) for certain drugs. REMS is a mandated strategy to manage a known or potentially serious risk associated with a medication or biological product. Reasons for this extension of oversight were driven primarily by the FDA's movement to ensure that patients and providers are better informed of drug therapies and their specific benefits and risks prior to initiation. This article provides an historical perspective of the evolution of medication risk management policy and includes a review of REMS programs, an assessment of the positive and negative aspects of REMS, and provides suggestions for planning and measuring outcomes. In particular, this publication presents an overview of the evolution of the REMS program and its implications.

  9. Evaluation of health risks for contaminated aquifers.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T; Jacobs, T L; Medina, M A

    1997-01-01

    This review focuses on progress in the development of transport models for heterogeneous contaminated aquifers, the use of predicted contaminant concentrations in groundwater for risk assessment for heterogeneous human populations, and the evaluation of aquifer remediation technologies. Major limitations and areas for continuing research for all methods presented in this review are identified. Images Figure 2. PMID:9114282

  10. Evaluation of health risks for contaminated aquifers.

    PubMed

    Piver, W T; Jacobs, T L; Medina, M A

    1997-02-01

    This review focuses on progress in the development of transport models for heterogeneous contaminated aquifers, the use of predicted contaminant concentrations in groundwater for risk assessment for heterogeneous human populations, and the evaluation of aquifer remediation technologies. Major limitations and areas for continuing research for all methods presented in this review are identified.

  11. Evaluating Potential Health Risks in Relocatable Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katchen, Mark; LaPierre, Adrienne; Charlin, Cary; Brucker, Barry; Ferguson, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Only limited data exist describing potential exposures to chemical and biological agents when using portable classrooms or outlining how to assess and reduce associated health risks. Evaluating indoor air quality involves examining ventilating rates, volatile organic compounds, and microbiologicals. Open communication among key stakeholders is…

  12. Risk factors for small for gestational age infants.

    PubMed

    McCowan, Lesley; Horgan, Richard P

    2009-12-01

    There are many established risk factors for babies who are small for gestational age (SGA) by population birth weight centiles (usually defined as <10th centile). The confirmed maternal risk factors include short stature, low weight, Indian or Asian ethnicity, nulliparity, mother born SGA, cigarette smoking and cocaine use. Maternal medical history of: chronic hypertension, renal disease, anti-phospholipid syndrome and malaria are associated with increased SGA. Risk factors developing in pregnancy include heavy bleeding in early pregnancy, placental abruption, pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension. A short or very long inter-pregnancy interval, previous SGA infant or previous stillbirth are also risk factors. Paternal factors including changed paternity, short stature and father born SGA also contribute. Factors associated with reduced risk of SGA or increased birth weight include high maternal milk consumption and high intakes of green leafy vegetables and fruit. Future studies need to investigate risk factors for babies SGA by customised centiles as these babies have greater morbidity and mortality than babies defined as SGA by population centiles.

  13. Risk factors for small for gestational age infants.

    PubMed

    McCowan, Lesley; Horgan, Richard P

    2009-12-01

    There are many established risk factors for babies who are small for gestational age (SGA) by population birth weight centiles (usually defined as <10th centile). The confirmed maternal risk factors include short stature, low weight, Indian or Asian ethnicity, nulliparity, mother born SGA, cigarette smoking and cocaine use. Maternal medical history of: chronic hypertension, renal disease, anti-phospholipid syndrome and malaria are associated with increased SGA. Risk factors developing in pregnancy include heavy bleeding in early pregnancy, placental abruption, pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension. A short or very long inter-pregnancy interval, previous SGA infant or previous stillbirth are also risk factors. Paternal factors including changed paternity, short stature and father born SGA also contribute. Factors associated with reduced risk of SGA or increased birth weight include high maternal milk consumption and high intakes of green leafy vegetables and fruit. Future studies need to investigate risk factors for babies SGA by customised centiles as these babies have greater morbidity and mortality than babies defined as SGA by population centiles. PMID:19604726

  14. Age at first birth and melanoma risk: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhengyong; Gu, Mingjin; Cen, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Age at first birth has been shown to be correlated with melanoma risk, but the results were inconsistent. Thus, a meta-analysis was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between age at first birth and melanoma risk. Studies published up to September 6, 2014 were identified through searches of PubMed and EMBASE databases. Random-effect model was used to pool the study-specific risk estimates (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Three case-control, three nested case-control, and five cohort studies were found to be eligible. In a comparison of the oldest versus youngest age at first birth, the pooled RR for melanoma risk was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.07-2.02) in all studies, 1.37 (95% CI: 0.47-4.02) in population-based case-control studies, 2.69 (95% CI: 1.56-4.64) in hospital case-control studies, 1.38 (95% CI: 0.66-2.88) in nested case-control studies, and 1.39 (95% CI: 0.89-2.17) in cohort studies. In the subgroup analysis according to sites where studies were performed, the pooled RR was 1.44 (95% CI: 0.99-2.08), 1.18 (95% CI: 0.30-4.60), and 2.36 (95% CI: 1.42-3.93) for Europe, Americas, and Australia, respectively. In the subgroup stratified by whether the included study provided adjustment for specific potential confounders or important risk factors, the relationship between age at first birth and melanoma risk was significantly modified by age, naevi/pigmentation, sunlight exposure, and hair colour. This meta-analysis based on available observational data reveals that age at first birth is positively associated with melanoma risk. However, this finding should be interpreted cautiously, as residual confounding cannot be excluded. More investigations with well-designed are warranted to extend this finding. PMID:25664022

  15. Gasbuggy Site Assessment and Risk Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    2011-03-01

    This report describes the geologic and hydrologic conditions and evaluates potential health risks to workers in the natural gas industry in the vicinity of the Gasbuggy, New Mexico, site, where the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission detonated an underground nuclear device in 1967. The 29-kiloton detonation took place 4,240 feet below ground surface and was designed to evaluate the use of a nuclear detonation to enhance natural gas production from the Pictured Cliffs Formation in the San Juan Basin, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, on land administered by Carson National Forest. A site-specific conceptual model was developed based on current understanding of the hydrologic and geologic environment. This conceptual model was used for establishing plausible contaminant exposure scenarios, which were then evaluated for human health risk potential. The most mobile and, therefore, the most probable contaminant that could result in human exposure is tritium. Natural gas production wells were identified as having the greatest potential for bringing detonation-derived contaminants (tritium) to the ground surface in the form of tritiated produced water. Three exposure scenarios addressing potential contamination from gas wells were considered in the risk evaluation: a gas well worker during gas-well-drilling operations, a gas well worker performing routine maintenance, and a residential exposure. The residential exposure scenario was evaluated only for comparison; permanent residences on national forest lands at the Gasbuggy site are prohibited

  16. The National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs: Understanding Risk, Protection, and Substance Use among High-Risk Youth. Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, J. Fred; Sambrano, Soledad; Sale, Elizabeth; Kasim, Rafa; Hermann, Jack

    This document summarizes findings from the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention's National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs, which identified characteristics associated with strong substance abuse prevention outcomes in 48 prevention programs. Major findings include: as youth age, levels of risk and protection shift considerably,…

  17. Risk evaluation: A cost-oriented approach

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, B.H.

    1998-02-03

    This method provides a structured and cost-oriented way to determine risks associated with loss and destruction of industrial security interests consisting of material assets and human resources. Loss and destruction are assumed to be adversary perpetrated, high-impact events in which the health and safety of people or high-value property is at risk. This concept provides a process for: (1) assessing effectiveness of all integrated protection system, which includes facility operations, safety, emergency and security systems, and (2) a qualitative prioritization scheme to determine the level of consequence relative to cost and subsequent risk. The method allows managers the flexibility to establish asset protection appropriate to programmatic requirements and priorities and to decide if funding is appropriate. The evaluation objectives are to: (1) provide for a systematic, qualitative tabletop process to estimate the potential for an undesirable event and its impact; and (2) identify ineffective protection and cost-effective solutions.

  18. Credit risk evaluation based on social media.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Gu, Jing; Zhou, Zongfang

    2016-07-01

    Social media has been playing an increasingly important role in the sharing of individuals' opinions on many financial issues, including credit risk in investment decisions. This paper analyzes whether these opinions, which are transmitted through social media, can accurately predict enterprises' future credit risk. We consider financial statements oriented evaluation results based on logit and probit approaches as the benchmarks. We then conduct textual analysis to retrieve both posts and their corresponding commentaries published on two of the most popular social media platforms for financial investors in China. Professional advice from financial analysts is also investigated in this paper. We surprisingly find that the opinions extracted from both posts and commentaries surpass opinions of analysts in terms of credit risk prediction. PMID:26739372

  19. Credit risk evaluation based on social media.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Gu, Jing; Zhou, Zongfang

    2016-07-01

    Social media has been playing an increasingly important role in the sharing of individuals' opinions on many financial issues, including credit risk in investment decisions. This paper analyzes whether these opinions, which are transmitted through social media, can accurately predict enterprises' future credit risk. We consider financial statements oriented evaluation results based on logit and probit approaches as the benchmarks. We then conduct textual analysis to retrieve both posts and their corresponding commentaries published on two of the most popular social media platforms for financial investors in China. Professional advice from financial analysts is also investigated in this paper. We surprisingly find that the opinions extracted from both posts and commentaries surpass opinions of analysts in terms of credit risk prediction.

  20. Management of the aging risk factor for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Phillipson, Oliver T

    2014-04-01

    The aging risk factor for Parkinson's disease is described in terms of specific disease markers including mitochondrial and gene dysfunctions relevant to energy metabolism. This review details evidence for the ability of nutritional agents to manage these aging risk factors. The combination of alpha lipoic acid, acetyl-l-carnitine, coenzyme Q10, and melatonin supports energy metabolism via carbohydrate and fatty acid utilization, assists electron transport and adenosine triphosphate synthesis, counters oxidative and nitrosative stress, and raises defenses against protein misfolding, inflammatory stimuli, iron, and other endogenous or xenobiotic toxins. These effects are supported by gene expression via the antioxidant response element (ARE; Keap/Nrf2 pathway), and by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1 alpha (PGC-1 alpha), a transcription coactivator, which regulates gene expression for energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis, and maintains the structural integrity of mitochondria. The effectiveness and synergies of the combination against disease risks are discussed in relation to gene action, dopamine cell loss, and the accumulation and spread of pathology via misfolded alpha-synuclein. In addition there are potential synergies to support a neurorestorative role via glial derived neurotrophic factor expression.

  1. Suicide Risk and Precipitating Circumstances Among Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Male Veterans

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Bentson H.; Huguet, Nathalie; Valenstein, Marcia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of suicide among veteran men relative to nonveteran men by age and to examine the prevalence of suicide circumstances among male veterans in different age groups (18–34, 35–44, 45–64, and ≥ 65 years). Methods. Data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (2003–2008) were used to calculate age-specific suicide rates for veterans (n = 8440) and nonveterans (n = 21 668) and to calculate the age-stratified mortality ratio for veterans. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare health status, stressful life events preceding suicide, and means of death among young, middle-aged, and older veterans. Results. Veterans were at higher risk for suicide compared with nonveterans in all age groups except the oldest. Mental health, substance abuse, and financial and relationship problems were more common in younger than in older veteran suicide decedents, whereas health problems were more prevalent in the older veterans. Most male veterans used firearms for suicide, and nearly all elderly veterans did so. Conclusions. Our study highlighted heightened risk of suicide in male veterans compared with nonveterans. Within the veteran population, suicide might be influenced by different precipitating factors at various stages of life. PMID:22390587

  2. Age-Related Differences in Evaluating Developmental Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mustafic, Maida; Freund, Alexandra M.

    2013-01-01

    Two studies examined the hypothesis that the evaluation of developmental stability changes across adulthood. Results of Study 1 ("N" = 119) supported the expectation that older adults ("M"[subscript age] = 65.29 years)--compared to younger ("M"[subscript age] = 23.38 years) and middle-aged adults…

  3. Evaluating methods for estimating existential risks.

    PubMed

    Tonn, Bruce; Stiefel, Dorian

    2013-10-01

    Researchers and commissions contend that the risk of human extinction is high, but none of these estimates have been based upon a rigorous methodology suitable for estimating existential risks. This article evaluates several methods that could be used to estimate the probability of human extinction. Traditional methods evaluated include: simple elicitation; whole evidence Bayesian; evidential reasoning using imprecise probabilities; and Bayesian networks. Three innovative methods are also considered: influence modeling based on environmental scans; simple elicitation using extinction scenarios as anchors; and computationally intensive possible-worlds modeling. Evaluation criteria include: level of effort required by the probability assessors; level of effort needed to implement the method; ability of each method to model the human extinction event; ability to incorporate scientific estimates of contributory events; transparency of the inputs and outputs; acceptability to the academic community (e.g., with respect to intellectual soundness, familiarity, verisimilitude); credibility and utility of the outputs of the method to the policy community; difficulty of communicating the method's processes and outputs to nonexperts; and accuracy in other contexts. The article concludes by recommending that researchers assess the risks of human extinction by combining these methods. PMID:23551083

  4. Risk and Resilience in Preterm Children at Age 6

    PubMed Central

    Poehlmann, Julie; Gerstein, Emily D.; Burnson, Cynthia; Weymouth, Lindsay; Bolt, Daniel M.; Maleck, Sarah; Schwichtenberg, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Children born preterm are at risk for experiencing significant deleterious developmental outcomes throughout their childhood and adolescence. However, individual variation and resilience are hallmarks of the preterm population. The present study examined pathways to resilience across multiple domains (e.g. social activities, peer relations, ADHD symptomology, externalizing and internalizing behavior, sleep quality) as children born preterm reached school age. The study also examined early child and family predictors of resilience. Using a prospective longitudinal design, 173 infants born preterm and without significant neurological complications were assessed at 5 timepoints: NICU discharge, 9 months, 16 months, 24 months, and 6 years. Three pathways of adaptation emerged at 6 years: children who were resilient, those who remained at-risk, and children who exhibited significant difficulties. Resilient children were less likely to have experienced negative parenting at 9 and 16 months, more likely to delay gratification at 24 months, and more likely to experience neonatal health complications than non-resilient children. PMID:25196017

  5. Modifiable risk factors for age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Guymer, Robyn H; Chong, Elaine Wei-Tinn

    2006-05-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in Australia and other Western countries. As there is no cure for AMD, and treatments to stop its progression have met with limited success, there is an interest in identifying modifiable risk factors to prevent or slow disease progression. To date, smoking is the only proven modifiable risk factor for AMD. Other factors under study include (i) cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, body mass index, and atherosclerosis; and (ii) dietary risk factors including fat and antioxidant intake, but so far these studies have produced conflicting results. Dietary fat in relation to AMD has recently attracted media attention. Despite very limited work supporting an association between vegetable fat and AMD, widespread publicity advocating margarine as a cause of AMD and encouraging use of butter instead has caused confusion and anxiety among sufferers of AMD and the general public, as well as concern among health professionals. The antioxidant carotenoids--lutein and zeaxanthin--found in dark green or yellow vegetables exist in high concentrations in the macula and are hypothesised to play a protective role. Of nine controlled trials of supplementation with carotenoids and other antioxidants, three suggested that various combinations of antioxidants and carotenoids were protective. While a low-fat diet rich in dark green and yellow vegetables is advocated in general, any specific recommendations regarding certain fats or antioxidant supplementation and AMD are not based on consistent findings at this stage. PMID:16646746

  6. Regional white matter hyperintensities: aging, AD risk, and cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Birdsill, Alex C; Koscik, Rebecca L; Jonaitis, Erin M; Johnson, Sterling C; Okonkwo, Ozioma C; Hermann, Bruce P; LaRue, Asenath; Sager, Mark A; Bendlin, Barbara B

    2013-01-01

    White matter hyperintensities (WMH) of presumed vascular origin as seen on T2-weighted fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are known to increase with age and are elevated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The cognitive implications of these common markers are not well understood. Previous research has primarily focused on global measures of WMH burden and broad localizations that contain multiple white matter tracts. The aims of this study were to determine the pattern of WMH accumulation with age, risk for AD, and the relationship with cognitive function utilizing a voxel-wise analysis capable of identifying specific white matter regions. Three hundred and forty-nine participants underwent T1-weighted and high-resolution T2FLAIR MRI and neuropsychological testing. Increasing age and lower cognitive speed and flexibility (a component of executive function), were both significantly associated with regional WMH throughout the brain. When age was controlled, lower cognitive speed and flexibility was independently associated with WMH in the superior corona radiata. APOE4 and parental family history of AD were not associated with higher burden of WMH. The results contribute to a larger body of literature suggesting that white matter measures are linked with processing speed, and illustrate the utility of voxel-wise analysis in understanding the effect of lesion location on cognitive function. PMID:24199958

  7. [Thermal comfort in perioperatory risk's evaluation].

    PubMed

    Masia, M D; Dettori, M; Liperi, G; Deriu, G M; Posadino, S; Maida, G; Mura, I

    2009-01-01

    Studies till now conducted about operating rooms' microclimate have been focused mainly on operators' thermal comfort, considering that uneasiness conditions may compromise their working performance. In last years, nevertheless, the anesthesiologic community recalled attention on patients' risks determined by perioperatory variations of normothermia, underlining the necessity of orientating studies to individuate microclimate characteristics act to guarantee thermal comfort of the patient too. Looking at these considerations, a study has been conducted in the operating rooms of the hospital-university Firm and the n.1 USL of Sassari, finalized, on one hand, to determinate microclimate characteristics of the operating blocks and to evaluate operators' and patients' thermal comfort, on the other to individuate, through a software simulation, microclimate conditions that ensure contemporarily thermal comfort for both the categories. Results confirm the existence of a thermal "gap" among operators and patients, these last constantly submitted to "cold-stress", sometimes very accentuated. So, we underline microclimate's importance in operating rooms, because there are particular situations that can condition perioperatory risks. Moreover it can be useful to integrate risk's classes of the American Society of Anestesiology (ASA) with a score attributed to the PMV/PPD variation, reaching more real operatory risk indicators. PMID:19798902

  8. Evaluation of aging degradation of structural components

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O.K.; Shack, W.J.

    1992-03-01

    Irradiation embrittlement of the neutron shield tank (NST) A212 Grade B steel from the Shippingport reactor, as well as thermal embrittlement of CF-8 cast stainless steel components from the Shippingport and KRB reactors, has been characterized. Increases in Charpy transition temperature (CTT), yield stress, and hardness of the NST material in the low-temperature low-flux environment are consistent with the test reactor data for irradiations at < 232{degrees}C. The shift in CTT is not as severe as that observed in surveillance samples from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR): however, it shows very good agreement with the results for HFIR A212-B steel irradiated in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor. The results indicate that fluence rate has not effect on radiation embrittlement at rates as low as 2 {times} 10{sup 8} n/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}s at the low operating temperature of the Shippingport NST, i.e., 55{degrees}C. This suggest that radiation damage in Shippingport NST and HFIR surveillance samples may be different because of the neutron spectra and/or Cu and Ni content of the two materials. Cast stainless steel components show relatively modest decreases in fracture toughness and Charpy-impact properties and a small increase in tensile strength. Correlations for estimating mechanical properties of cast stainless steels predict accurate or slightly conservative values for Charpy-impact energy, tensile flow stress, fracture toughness J-R curve, and J{sub IC} of the materials. The kinetics of thermal embrittlement and degree of embrittlement at saturation, i.e., the minimum impact energy achieved after long-term aging, were established from materials that were aged further in the laboratory. The results were consistent with the estimates. The correlations successfully predict the mechanical properties of the Ringhals 2 reactor hot- and crossover-leg elbows (CF-8M steel) after service of {approx}15 y.

  9. Evaluation of aging degradation of structural components

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O.K.; Shack, W.J.

    1992-03-01

    Irradiation embrittlement of the neutron shield tank (NST) A212 Grade B steel from the Shippingport reactor, as well as thermal embrittlement of CF-8 cast stainless steel components from the Shippingport and KRB reactors, has been characterized. Increases in Charpy transition temperature (CTT), yield stress, and hardness of the NST material in the low-temperature low-flux environment are consistent with the test reactor data for irradiations at < 232{degrees}C. The shift in CTT is not as severe as that observed in surveillance samples from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR): however, it shows very good agreement with the results for HFIR A212-B steel irradiated in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor. The results indicate that fluence rate has not effect on radiation embrittlement at rates as low as 2 {times} 10{sup 8} n/cm{sup 2}{center dot}s at the low operating temperature of the Shippingport NST, i.e., 55{degrees}C. This suggest that radiation damage in Shippingport NST and HFIR surveillance samples may be different because of the neutron spectra and/or Cu and Ni content of the two materials. Cast stainless steel components show relatively modest decreases in fracture toughness and Charpy-impact properties and a small increase in tensile strength. Correlations for estimating mechanical properties of cast stainless steels predict accurate or slightly conservative values for Charpy-impact energy, tensile flow stress, fracture toughness J-R curve, and J{sub IC} of the materials. The kinetics of thermal embrittlement and degree of embrittlement at saturation, i.e., the minimum impact energy achieved after long-term aging, were established from materials that were aged further in the laboratory. The results were consistent with the estimates. The correlations successfully predict the mechanical properties of the Ringhals 2 reactor hot- and crossover-leg elbows (CF-8M steel) after service of {approx}15 y.

  10. The rules of implicit evaluation by race, religion, and age.

    PubMed

    Axt, Jordan R; Ebersole, Charles R; Nosek, Brian A

    2014-09-01

    The social world is stratified. Social hierarchies are known but often disavowed as anachronisms or unjust. Nonetheless, hierarchies may persist in social memory. In three studies (total N > 200,000), we found evidence of social hierarchies in implicit evaluation by race, religion, and age. Participants implicitly evaluated their own racial group most positively and the remaining racial groups in accordance with the following hierarchy: Whites > Asians > Blacks > Hispanics. Similarly, participants implicitly evaluated their own religion most positively and the remaining religions in accordance with the following hierarchy: Christianity > Judaism > Hinduism or Buddhism > Islam. In a final study, participants of all ages implicitly evaluated age groups following this rule: children > young adults > middle-age adults > older adults. These results suggest that the rules of social evaluation are pervasively embedded in culture and mind. PMID:25079218

  11. The rules of implicit evaluation by race, religion, and age.

    PubMed

    Axt, Jordan R; Ebersole, Charles R; Nosek, Brian A

    2014-09-01

    The social world is stratified. Social hierarchies are known but often disavowed as anachronisms or unjust. Nonetheless, hierarchies may persist in social memory. In three studies (total N > 200,000), we found evidence of social hierarchies in implicit evaluation by race, religion, and age. Participants implicitly evaluated their own racial group most positively and the remaining racial groups in accordance with the following hierarchy: Whites > Asians > Blacks > Hispanics. Similarly, participants implicitly evaluated their own religion most positively and the remaining religions in accordance with the following hierarchy: Christianity > Judaism > Hinduism or Buddhism > Islam. In a final study, participants of all ages implicitly evaluated age groups following this rule: children > young adults > middle-age adults > older adults. These results suggest that the rules of social evaluation are pervasively embedded in culture and mind.

  12. Production Risk Evaluation Program (PREP) - summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kjeldgaard, E.A.; Saloio, J.H.; Vannoni, M.G.

    1997-03-01

    Nuclear weapons have been produced in the US since the early 1950s by a network of contractor-operated Department of Energy (DOE) facilities collectively known as the Nuclear Weapon Complex (NWC). Recognizing that the failure of an essential process might stop weapon production for a substantial period of time, the DOE Albuquerque Operations office initiated the Production Risk Evaluation Program (PREP) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to assess quantitatively the potential for serious disruptions in the NWC weapon production process. PREP was conducted from 1984-89. This document is an unclassified summary of the effort.

  13. Gasbuggy Site Assessment and Risk Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    2011-03-01

    The Gasbuggy site is in northern New Mexico in the San Juan Basin, Rio Arriba County (Figure 1-1). The Gasbuggy experiment was designed to evaluate the use of a nuclear detonation to enhance natural gas production from the Pictured Cliffs Formation, a tight, gas-bearing sandstone formation. The 29-kiloton-yield nuclear device was placed in a 17.5-inch wellbore at 4,240 feet (ft) below ground surface (bgs), approximately 40 ft below the Pictured Cliffs/Lewis shale contact, in an attempt to force the cavity/chimney formed by the detonation up into the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone. The test was conducted below the southwest quarter of Section 36, Township 29 North, Range 4 West, New Mexico Principal Meridian. The device was detonated on December 10, 1967, creating a 335-ft-high chimney above the detonation point and a cavity 160 ft in diameter. The gas produced from GB-ER (the emplacement and reentry well) during the post-detonation production tests was radioactive and diluted, primarily by carbon dioxide. After 2 years, the energy content of the gas had recovered to 80 percent of the value of gas in conventionally developed wells in the area. There is currently no technology capable of remediating deep underground nuclear detonation cavities and chimneys. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) must continue to manage the Gasbuggy site to ensure that no inadvertent intrusion into the residual contamination occurs. DOE has complete control over the 1/4 section (160 acres) containing the shot cavity, and no drilling is permitted on that property. However, oil and gas leases are on the surrounding land. Therefore, the most likely route of intrusion and potential exposure would be through contaminated natural gas or contaminated water migrating into a producing natural gas well outside the immediate vicinity of ground zero. The purpose of this report is to describe the current site conditions and evaluate the potential health risks posed by the most plausible

  14. LIGA microsystems aging : evaluation and mitigation.

    SciTech Connect

    Cadden, Charles H.; Yang, Nancy Y. C.; San Marchi, Christopher W.

    2003-12-01

    The deployment of LIGA structures in DP applications requires a thorough understanding of potential long term physical and chemical changes that may occur during service. While these components are generally fabricated from simple metallic systems such as copper, nickel and nickel alloys, the electroplating process used to form them creates microstructural features which differ from those found in conventional (e.g. ingot metallurgy) processing of such materials. Physical changes in non-equilibrium microstructures may occur due to long term exposure to temperatures sufficient to permit atomic and vacancy mobility. Chemical changes, particularly at the surfaces of LIGA parts, may occur in the presence of gaseous chemical species (e.g. water vapor, HE off-gassing compounds) and contact with other metallic structures. In this study, we have characterized the baseline microstructure of several nickel-based materials that are used to fabricate LIGA structures. Solute content and distribution was found to have a major effect on the electroplated microstructures. Microstructural features were correlated to measurements of hardness and tensile strength. Dormancy testing was conducted on one of the baseline compositions, nickel-sulfamate. Groups of specimens were exposed to controlled thermal cycles; subsequent examinations compared properties of 'aged' specimens to the baseline conditions. Results of our testing indicate that exposure to ambient temperatures (-54 C to 71 C) do not result in microstructural changes that might be expected to significantly effect mechanical performance. Additionally, no localized changes in surface appearance were found as a result of contact between electroplated parts.

  15. Age-specific Parkinson disease risk in GBA mutation carriers: information for genetic counseling

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Huma Q.; Balwani, Manisha; Bier, Louise; Alcalay, Roy N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We sought to estimate age-specific risk of Parkinson disease in relatives of patients with Gaucher disease, who are obligate carriers of GBA mutations and who were not ascertained by family history of Parkinson disease. Methods A validated family history of Parkinson disease questionnaire was administered to 119 patients with Gaucher disease who were evaluated at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine from 2009 to 2012; the ages of their parents, siblings, and children, history of Parkinson disease, age at onset of Parkinson disease, and ethnic background were obtained. Kaplan–Meier survival curves were used to estimate age-specific Parkinson disease penetrance among parents of patients with Gaucher disease, who are obligatory GBA mutation carriers. Results Two participants with Gaucher disease were affected by Parkinson disease (5.4% of those who were 60 years or older). Of the 224 informative parents of patients with Gaucher disease, 11 had Parkinson disease (4.9%). Among the parents (obligatory carriers), cumulative risk of Parkinson disease by ages 65 and 85 was estimated to be 2.2% ±2.1% and 10.9% ±7.2%, respectively. Conclusion We provide useful age-specific estimates of Parkinson disease penetrance in patients with Gaucher disease and GBA heterozygous carriers for genetic counseling. Although GBA mutations may increase the risk for PD, the vast majority of patients with Gaucher disease and heterozygotes may not develop the disease. Further studies are needed to identify what modifies the risk of Parkinson disease in GBA mutation carriers. PMID:22935721

  16. Designs for Risk Evaluation and Management

    SciTech Connect

    2015-12-01

    The Designs for Risk Evaluation and Management (DREAM) tool was developed as part of the effort to quantify the risk of geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) under the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP). DREAM is an optimization tool created to identify optimal monitoring schemes that minimize the time to first detection of CO2 leakage from a subsurface storage formation. DREAM acts as a post-processer on user-provided output from subsurface leakage simulations. While DREAM was developed for CO2 leakage scenarios, it is applicable to any subsurface leakage simulation of the same output format. The DREAM tool is comprised of three main components: (1) a Java wizard used to configure and execute the simulations, (2) a visualization tool to view the domain space and optimization results, and (3) a plotting tool used to analyze the results. A secondary Java application is provided to aid users in converting common American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) output data to the standard DREAM hierarchical data format (HDF5). DREAM employs a simulated annealing approach that searches the solution space by iteratively mutating potential monitoring schemes built of various configurations of monitoring locations and leak detection parameters. This approach has proven to be orders of magnitude faster than an exhaustive search of the entire solution space. The user’s manual illustrates the program graphical user interface (GUI), describes the tool inputs, and includes an example application.

  17. Evaluation of residue drum storage safety risks

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, W.V.

    1994-06-17

    A study was conducted to determine if any potential safety problems exist in the residue drum backlog at the Rocky Flats Plant. Plutonium residues stored in 55-gallon drums were packaged for short-term storage until the residues could be processed for plutonium recovery. These residues have now been determined by the Department of Energy to be waste materials, and the residues will remain in storage until plans for disposal of the material can be developed. The packaging configurations which were safe for short-term storage may not be safe for long-term storage. Interviews with Rocky Flats personnel involved with packaging the residues reveal that more than one packaging configuration was used for some of the residues. A tabulation of packaging configurations was developed based on the information obtained from the interviews. A number of potential safety problems were identified during this study, including hydrogen generation from some residues and residue packaging materials, contamination containment loss, metal residue packaging container corrosion, and pyrophoric plutonium compound formation. Risk factors were developed for evaluating the risk potential of the various residue categories, and the residues in storage at Rocky Flats were ranked by risk potential. Preliminary drum head space gas sampling studies have demonstrated the potential for formation of flammable hydrogen-oxygen mixtures in some residue drums.

  18. Kennedy Space Center Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction Program evaluation.

    PubMed

    Calderon, Kristine S; Smallwood, Charles; Tipton, David A

    2008-01-01

    This program evaluation examined the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Risk Reduction Program which aims to identify CVD risk factors and reduce these risk factors through health education phone counseling. High risk participants (those having two or more elevated lipid values) are identified from monthly voluntary CVD screenings and counseled. Phone counseling consists of reviewing lab values with the participant, discussing dietary fat intake frequency using an intake questionnaire, and promoting the increase in exercise frequency. The participants are followed-up at two-months and five-months for relevant metrics including blood pressure, weight, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, dietary fat intake, and exercise frequency. Data for three years of the KSC CVD Program included 366 participants, average age of 49 years, 75% male, and 25% female. For those with complete two and five month follow-up data, significant baseline to two-month follow-up comparisons included decreases in systolic blood pressure (p = 0.03); diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.002); total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and dietary fat intake (all three at p < 0.0001) as well as a significant increase in exercise frequency (p = 0.04). Significant baseline to five-month follow-up comparisons included decreases in triglycerides (p = 0.05); and total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and dietary intake (all three at p < 0.0001). These program evaluation results indicate that providing brief phone health education counseling and information at the worksite to high risk CVD participants may impact CVD risk factors.

  19. Kennedy Space Center Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction Program evaluation.

    PubMed

    Calderon, Kristine S; Smallwood, Charles; Tipton, David A

    2008-01-01

    This program evaluation examined the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Risk Reduction Program which aims to identify CVD risk factors and reduce these risk factors through health education phone counseling. High risk participants (those having two or more elevated lipid values) are identified from monthly voluntary CVD screenings and counseled. Phone counseling consists of reviewing lab values with the participant, discussing dietary fat intake frequency using an intake questionnaire, and promoting the increase in exercise frequency. The participants are followed-up at two-months and five-months for relevant metrics including blood pressure, weight, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, dietary fat intake, and exercise frequency. Data for three years of the KSC CVD Program included 366 participants, average age of 49 years, 75% male, and 25% female. For those with complete two and five month follow-up data, significant baseline to two-month follow-up comparisons included decreases in systolic blood pressure (p = 0.03); diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.002); total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and dietary fat intake (all three at p < 0.0001) as well as a significant increase in exercise frequency (p = 0.04). Significant baseline to five-month follow-up comparisons included decreases in triglycerides (p = 0.05); and total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and dietary intake (all three at p < 0.0001). These program evaluation results indicate that providing brief phone health education counseling and information at the worksite to high risk CVD participants may impact CVD risk factors. PMID:18561517

  20. Radiographic Evaluation of Mandible to Predict the Gender and Age

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Jyothi Shiv; Mohan, Vinay

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study is been conducted using digital panoramic radiographs for predicting age in various age groups and the accuracy of the parameters were accessed as age advances. Materials and Methods: The selected 300 panoramic images were divided into 3 age group of Group A (25-34 years), Group B (35-44 years), and Group C (45 -54 years). Each group comprised of 100 subjects in which 50 were males & 50 females. The age changes were evaluated using five parameters collectively, which were: Gonial angle, Antegonial angle, Mental foramen, Mandibular canal, Mandibular foramen. These parameters were evaluated on panoramic radiographs for age prediction and changes in their position as age advances. Results: Among all the parameters changes in Mandibular canal and mandibular foramen was found to be highly significant (p value ≤0.05) as age advances. Conclusion: These parameters can be used to predict the age of the individual as there were significant changes in Mandibular canal and Mandibular foramen as age advances. For Further studies large sample size, and recent modalities in radiography like CBCT or CT scan are required. PMID:25478451

  1. The Association between the Lipids Levels in Blood and Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yafeng; Wang, Mingxu; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Qianyu; Nie, Jing; Zhang, Ming; Liu, Xiaohong; Ma, Le

    2016-01-01

    Lipid metabolism may be involved in the pathogenic mechanism of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, conflicting results have been reported in the associations of AMD with blood lipids. We performed a meta-analysis including a total of 19 studies to evaluate associations between blood lipids and this disease. The result reported that the high level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) obtained with an increment of 1 mmol/L could result in a significantly increase in the AMD risk of approximately 18% (relative risk (RR), 1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01 to 1.35; I2 = 53.8%; p = 0.007). High levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) were significantly associated with a decreased risk of AMD (RRs ranging from 0.92 to 0.95; all p < 0.05). The stratified analysis based on AMD subtypes showed that these blood lipids were only significantly associated with the risk of early AMD (all p < 0.05). The association between the blood lipids and AMD risk did not differ substantially based on the other characteristics of the participants. A high HDL-C level was associated with an increased AMD risk, whereas participants with high TC, LDL-C, and TG concentrations may show a decreased risk for this disease. Further well-designed large studies are warranted to confirm the conclusions. PMID:27782072

  2. Age-related deficit accumulation and the risk of late-life dementia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Many age-related health problems have been associated with dementia, leading to the hypothesis that late-life dementia may be determined less by specific risk factors, and more by the operation of multiple health deficits in the aggregate. Our study addressed (a) how the predictive value of dementia risk varies by the number of deficits considered and (b) how traditional (for example. vascular risks) and nontraditional risk factors (for example, foot problems, nasal congestion) compare in their predictive effects. Methods Older adults in the Canadian Study of Health and Aging who were cognitively healthy at baseline were analyzed (men, 2,902; women, 4,337). Over a 10-year period, 44.8% of men and 33.4% of women died; 7.4% of men and 9.1% of women without baseline cognitive impairment developed dementia. Self-rated health problems, including, but not restricted to, dementia risk factors, were coded as deficit present/absent. Different numbers of randomly selected variables were used to calculate various iterations of the index (that is, the proportion of deficits present in an individual. Risks for 10-year mortality and dementia outcomes were evaluated separately for men and women by using logistic regression, adjusted for age. The prediction accuracy was evaluated by using C-statistics. Results Age-adjusted odds ratios per additional deficit were 1.22 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.18 to 1.26) in men and 1.14 (1.11 to 1.16) in women in relation to death, and 1.18 (1.12 to 1.25) in men and 1.08 (1.04 to 1.11) in women in relation to dementia. The predictive value increased with the number (n) of deficits considered, regardless of whether they were known dementia risks, and stabilized at n > 25. The all-factor index best predicted dementia (C-statistics, 0.67 ± 0.03). Conclusions The variety of items associated with dementias suggests that some part of the risk might relate more to aberrant repair processes, than to specifically toxic results

  3. [Risk factors of serious bleeding among ambulatory patients taking antivitamin K aged 75 and over].

    PubMed

    Blas-Châtelain, C; Chauvelier, S; Foti, P; Debure, C; Hanon, O

    2014-05-01

    The benefits of anti-vitamin K (AVK) drugs have been acknowledged in several indications. Such indications increasing with increasing age, AVK prescriptions also increases with age. At the same time, conditions involving significant bleeding are common in this elderly population. It is thus essential to recognize the determining factors. This study included all patients taking AVK drugs aged 75 years and older who sought emergency care at the Cochin Hospital from January to December 2011 for significant bleeding. These patients were compared with a cohort of patients aged 75 years or older who were taking AVK drugs and who were admitted to the same unit during the same time period for other reasons. The case-control comparison included demographic data, comorbidity factors, multiple medications, emergency measured INR, and CHA2DS2VASC level. The hemorrhagic risk was evaluated by HEMORR2HAGES and HAS-BLED. A total of 34 patients were studied and compared with 70 case-controls. The Charlson comorbidity index was higher in patients than case-controls (P<0.05), with a much higher hemorrhagic risk for scores ≥ 9 (OR=2.5; P<0.05). Multiple medication was also more predominant in patients (P<0.05). The risk of serious hemorrhage was also higher when the hemorrhagic scores were high, especially for HEMORR2HAGES (P<0.0001) and HAS-BLED (P<0.001). The risk of serious hemorrhage in elderly outpatients taking AVK drugs is related to their higher comorbidity and hemorrhagic levels which need to be evaluated before starting or stopping AVK treatment.

  4. Evaluating risk of ESRD in the urban poor.

    PubMed

    Maziarz, Marlena; Black, R Anthony; Fong, Christine T; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Chertow, Glenn M; Hall, Yoshio N

    2015-06-01

    The capacity of risk prediction to guide management of CKD in underserved health settings is unknown. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 28,779 adults with nondialysis-requiring CKD who received health care in two large safety net health systems during 1996-2009 and were followed for ESRD through September of 2011. We developed and evaluated the performance of ESRD risk prediction models using recently proposed criteria designed to inform population health approaches to disease management: proportion of cases followed and proportion that needs to be followed. Overall, 1730 persons progressed to ESRD during follow-up (median follow-up=6.6 years). ESRD risk for time frames up to 5 years was highly concentrated among relatively few individuals. A predictive model using five common variables (age, sex, race, eGFR, and dipstick proteinuria) performed similarly to more complex models incorporating extensive sociodemographic and clinical data. Using this model, 80% of individuals who eventually developed ESRD were among the 5% of cohort members at the highest estimated risk for ESRD at 1 year. Similarly, a program that followed 8% and 13% of individuals at the highest ESRD risk would have included 80% of those who eventually progressed to ESRD at 3 and 5 years, respectively. In this underserved health setting, a simple five-variable model accurately predicts most cases of ESRD that develop within 5 years. Applying risk prediction using a population health approach may improve CKD surveillance and management of vulnerable groups by directing resources to a small subpopulation at highest risk for progressing to ESRD.

  5. Evaluation of Risk Factors Associated with First Episode Febrile Seizure

    PubMed Central

    Sharawat, Indar Kumar; Singh, Jitender; Singh, Amitabh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Febrile seizure (FS) is the single most common type of seizure seen in children between 6 months to 5 years of age. The purpose of our study was to identify the risk factors associated with the first episode of febrile seizures, which would help in the better management and preventive measures in children at risk for FS episodes. Aim To evaluate the risk factors associated with the first episode of febrile seizures in Indian children. Materials and Methods This was a hospital based, case control study. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with the first FS episode in children. Seventy (70) children between age 6 months to 5 years with their first episode of FS were compared with 70 children with fever but without seizures based on various risk factors. Results The mean age was 24.90±16.11 months in cases and 26.34±16.93 months in controls. Male: female ratio was 2:1. A positive family history was found in 31.4% of first degree and 11.4% in second degree relatives. Mean maximum temperature was 102.06±1.1°F and URI (upper respiratory infection) was most common cause of fever. Antenatal complication was significantly higher in the case group. RBC (Red Blood Cells) indices like lower mean haemoglobin, MCV (Mean Corpuscular Volume), MCH (Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin concentration) and higher RDW (Red Cell Distribution Width) values were seen in patients. Serum sodium, Serum calcium and random blood sugar values of the cases were significantly lower than those of controls (p<0.05). Conclusion Our study shows that male gender, family history of febrile seizures, peak body temperature, underlying cause of fever, antenatal complications, low serum calcium, sodium, blood sugar and microcytic hypochromic anaemia are the risk factors associated with the occurrence of first episode of febrile seizure and, thus, preventive measures in removing these risk factors could lead to a decrease in incidence of FS. PMID:27437319

  6. Medication Exposure in Pregnancy Risk Evaluation Program

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Susan E.; Davis, Robert L.; Cheetham, T. Craig; Cooper, William O.; Li, De-Kun; Amini, Thushi; Beaton, Sarah J.; Dublin, Sascha; Hammad, Tarek A.; Pawloski, Pamala A.; Raebel, Marsha A.; Smith, David H.; Staffa, Judy A.; Toh, Sengwee; Dashevsky, Inna; Haffenreffer, Katherine; Lane, Kimberly; Platt, Richard; Scott, Pamela E.

    2011-01-01

    To describe a program to study medication safety in pregnancy, the Medication Exposure in Pregnancy Risk Evaluation Program (MEPREP). MEPREP is a multi-site collaborative research program developed to enable the conduct of studies of medication use and outcomes in pregnancy. Collaborators include the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and researchers at the HMO Research Network, Kaiser Permanente Northern and Southern California, and Vanderbilt University. Datasets have been created at each site linking healthcare data for women delivering an infant between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2008 and infants born to these women. Standardized data files include maternal and infant characteristics, medication use, and medical care at 11 health plans within 9 states; birth certificate data were obtained from the state departments of public health. MEPREP currently involves more than 20 medication safety researchers and includes data for 1,221,156 children delivered to 933,917 mothers. Current studies include evaluations of the prevalence and patterns of use of specific medications and a validation study of data elements in the administrative and birth certificate data files. MEPREP can support multiple studies by providing information on a large, ethnically and geographically diverse population. This partnership combines clinical and research expertise and data resources to enable the evaluation of outcomes associated with medication use during pregnancy. PMID:22002179

  7. Aging evaluation of class 1E batteries: Seismic testing

    SciTech Connect

    Edson, J.L. )

    1990-08-01

    This report presents the results of a seismic testing program on naturally aged class 1E batteries obtained from a nuclear plant. The testing program is a Phase 2 activity resulting from a Phase 1 aging evaluation of class 1E batteries in safety systems of nuclear power plants, performed previously as a part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program and reported in NUREG/CR-4457. The primary purpose of the program was to evaluate the seismic ruggedness of naturally aged batteries to determine if aged batteries could have adequate electrical capacity, as determined by tests recommended by IEEE Standards, and yet have inadequate seismic ruggedness to provide needed electrical power during and after a safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) event. A secondary purpose of the program was to evaluate selected advanced surveillance methods to determine if they were likely to be more sensitive to the aging degradation that reduces seismic ruggedness. The program used twelve batteries naturally aged to about 14 years of age in a nuclear facility and tested them at four different seismic levels representative of the levels of possible earthquakes specified for nuclear plants in the United States. Seismic testing of the batteries did not cause any loss of electrical capacity. 19 refs., 29 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Occupational Complexity and Cognitive Reserve in a Middle-Aged Cohort at Risk for Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Boots, Elizabeth A; Schultz, Stephanie A; Almeida, Rodrigo P; Oh, Jennifer M; Koscik, Rebecca L; Dowling, Maritza N; Gallagher, Catherine L; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Rowley, Howard A; Bendlin, Barbara B; Asthana, Sanjay; Sager, Mark A; Hermann, Bruce P; Johnson, Sterling C; Okonkwo, Ozioma C

    2015-11-01

    Higher occupational attainment has previously been associated with increased Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology when individuals are matched for cognitive function, indicating occupation could provide cognitive reserve. We examined whether occupational complexity (OCC) associates with decreased hippocampal volume and increased whole-brain atrophy given comparable cognitive function in middle-aged adults at risk for AD. Participants (n = 323) underwent structural MRI, cognitive evaluation, and work history assessment. Three complexity ratings (work with data, people, and things) were obtained, averaged across up to 3 reported jobs, weighted by years per job, and summed to create a composite OCC rating. Greater OCC was associated with decreased hippocampal volume and increased whole-brain atrophy when matched for cognitive function; results remained substantively unchanged after adjusting for several demographic, AD risk, vascular, mental health, and socioeconomic characteristics. These findings suggest that, in people at risk for AD, OCC may confer resilience to the adverse effects of neuropathology on cognition.

  9. The Children, Youth, and Families at Risk (CYFAR) Evaluation Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marek, Lydia I.; Byrne, Richard A. W.; Marczak, Mary S.; Betts, Sherry C.; Mancini, Jay A.

    1999-01-01

    The Cooperative Extension Service's Children, Youth, and Families at Risk initiative is being assessed by the Evaluation Collaboration's three projects: state-strengthening evaluation project (resources to help states evaluate community programs); NetCon (evaluation of electronic and other networks); and National Youth at Risk Sustainability Study…

  10. Evaluation of a Community-Based Aging Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Wang, Chun-Hou; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chang, Ming-Chen; Wang, Jean

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the outcome and process of a community-based aging intervention program for the elderly in Taiwan. The program included education on nutrition and dietary behavior and on physical activities. Outcome and process evaluations were conducted. The program may have had some effects on decreasing some dietary behavioral problems and…

  11. Designs for Risk Evaluation and Management

    2015-12-01

    The Designs for Risk Evaluation and Management (DREAM) tool was developed as part of the effort to quantify the risk of geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) under the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP). DREAM is an optimization tool created to identify optimal monitoring schemes that minimize the time to first detection of CO2 leakage from a subsurface storage formation. DREAM acts as a post-processer on user-provided output from subsurface leakagemore » simulations. While DREAM was developed for CO2 leakage scenarios, it is applicable to any subsurface leakage simulation of the same output format. The DREAM tool is comprised of three main components: (1) a Java wizard used to configure and execute the simulations, (2) a visualization tool to view the domain space and optimization results, and (3) a plotting tool used to analyze the results. A secondary Java application is provided to aid users in converting common American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) output data to the standard DREAM hierarchical data format (HDF5). DREAM employs a simulated annealing approach that searches the solution space by iteratively mutating potential monitoring schemes built of various configurations of monitoring locations and leak detection parameters. This approach has proven to be orders of magnitude faster than an exhaustive search of the entire solution space. The user’s manual illustrates the program graphical user interface (GUI), describes the tool inputs, and includes an example application.« less

  12. Evaluation of Seismic Risk of Siberia Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seleznev, V. S.; Soloviev, V. M.; Emanov, A. F.

    The outcomes of modern geophysical researches of the Geophysical Survey SB RAS, directed on study of geodynamic situation in large industrial and civil centers on the territory of Siberia with the purpose of an evaluation of seismic risk of territories and prediction of origin of extreme situations of natural and man-caused character, are pre- sented in the paper. First of all it concerns the testing and updating of a geoinformation system developed by Russian Emergency Ministry designed for calculations regarding the seismic hazard and response to distructive earthquakes. The GIS database contains the catalogues of earthquakes and faults, seismic zonation maps, vectorized city maps, information on industrial and housing fund, data on character of building and popula- tion in inhabited places etc. The geoinformation system allows to solve on a basis of probabilistic approaches the following problems: - estimating the earthquake impact, required forces, facilities and supplies for life-support of injured population; - deter- mining the consequences of failures on chemical and explosion-dangerous objects; - optimization problems on assurance technology of conduct of salvage operations. Using this computer program, the maps of earthquake risk have been constructed for several seismically dangerous regions of Siberia. These maps display the data on the probable amount of injured people and relative economic damage from an earthquake, which can occur in various sites of the territory according to the map of seismic zona- tion. The obtained maps have allowed determining places where the detailed seismo- logical observations should be arranged. Along with it on the territory of Siberia the wide-ranging investigations with use of new methods of evaluation of physical state of industrial and civil establishments (buildings and structures, hydroelectric power stations, bridges, dams, etc.), high-performance detailed electromagnetic researches of ground conditions of city

  13. Predicting the risk of mild cognitive impairment in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Pankratz, V. Shane; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Knopman, David S.; Jack, Clifford R.; Geda, Yonas E.; Rocca, Walter A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We sought to develop risk scores for the progression from cognitively normal (CN) to mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: We recruited into a longitudinal cohort study a randomly selected, population-based sample of Olmsted County, MN, residents, aged 70 to 89 years on October 1, 2004. At baseline and subsequent visits, participants were evaluated for demographic, clinical, and neuropsychological measures, and were classified as CN, MCI, or dementia. Using baseline demographic and clinical variables in proportional hazards models, we derived scores that predicted the risk of progressing from CN to MCI. We evaluated the ability of these risk scores to classify participants for MCI risk. Results: Of 1,449 CN participants, 401 (27.7%) developed MCI. A basic model had a C statistic of 0.60 (0.58 for women, 0.62 for men); an augmented model resulted in a C statistic of 0.70 (0.69 for women, 0.71 for men). Both men and women in the highest vs lowest sex-specific quartiles of the augmented model's risk scores had an approximately 7-fold higher risk of developing MCI. Adding APOE ε4 carrier status improved the model (p = 0.002). Conclusions: We have developed MCI risk scores using variables easily assessable in the clinical setting and that may be useful in routine patient care. Because of variability among populations, validation in independent samples is required. These models may be useful in identifying patients who might benefit from more expensive or invasive diagnostic testing, and can inform clinical trial design. Inclusion of biomarkers or other risk factors may further enhance the models. PMID:25788555

  14. Age estimation in archaeological skeletal remains: evaluation of four non-destructive age calculation methods.

    PubMed

    Vodanović, M; Dumančić, J; Galić, I; Savić Pavičin, I; Petrovečki, M; Cameriere, R; Brkić, H

    2011-12-01

    Estimation of age at death is an essential part of reconstructing information from skeletal material. The aim of the investigation was to reconstruct the chronological age of an archaeological sample from Croatia using cranial skeletal remains as well as to make an evaluation of the methods used for age estimation. For this purpose, four age calculation methods were used: palatal suture closure, occlusal tooth wear, tooth root translucency and pulp/tooth area ratio. Cramer's V test was used to test the association between the age calculation methods. Cramer's V test showed high association (0.677) between age determination results using palatal suture closure and occlusal tooth wear, and low association (0.177) between age determination results using palatal suture closure and pulp/tooth area ratio. Simple methods like palatal suture closure can provide data about age at death for large number of individuals, but with less accuracy. More complex methods which require qualified and trained personnel can provide data about age for a smaller number of individuals, but with more accuracy. Using different (both simple and complex) age calculation methods in archaeological samples can raise the level of confidence and percentage of success in determining age.

  15. Evaluation of age determination techniques for gray wolves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landon, D.B.; Waite, C.A.; Peterson, R.O.; Mech, L.D.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated tooth wear, cranial suture fusion, closure of the canine pulp cavity, and cementum annuli as methods of age determination for known- and unknown-age gray wolves (Canis lupus) from Alaska, Minnesota, Ontario, and Isle Royale, Michigan. We developed age classes for cranial suture closure and tooth wear. We used measurement data obtained from known-age captive and wild wolves to generate a regression equation to predict age based on the degree of closure of the canine pulp cavity. Cementum annuli were studied in known- and unknown-age animals, and calcified, unstained thin sections were found to provide clear annulus patterns under polarized transmitted light. Annuli counts varied among observers, partly because of variation in the pattern of annuli in different regions of the cementum. This variation emphasizes the need for standardized models of cementum analysis. Cranial suture fusion is of limited utility in age determination, while tooth wear can be used to estimate age of adult wolves within 4 years. Wolves lt 7 years old could be aged to within 13 years with the regression equation for closure of the canine pulp cavity. Although inaccuracy remains a problem, cementum-annulus counts were the most promising means of estimating age for gray wolves.

  16. Age and HIV Risk and Protective Behaviors among African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corneille, Maya A.; Zyzniewski, Linda E.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2008-01-01

    Though HIV prevention efforts have focused on young adult women, women of all ages may engage in HIV risk behaviors and experience barriers to condom use. This article examines the effect of age on sexual risk and protective attitudes and behaviors among African American women. Unmarried heterosexual African American women between the ages of 18…

  17. Prospective study of lutein/zeaxanthin intake and risk of age-related macular degeneration2

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eunyoung; Hankinson, Susan E; Rosner, Bernard; Willett, Walter C; Colditz, Graham A

    2008-01-01

    Background The association between lutein/zeaxanthin intake and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) risk may differ by smoking status, vitamin C and E intakes, and body fatness. Objective The objective was to evaluate the association between lutein/zeaxanthin intake and AMD risk by smoking status, intake of antioxidant vitamins, and body fatness. Design We conducted a prospective follow-up study of 71 494 women and 41 564 men aged ≥50 y and had no diagnosis of AMD or cancer. Diet was assessed with a validated semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Results During up to 18 y of follow-up, we documented 673 incident cases of early AMD and 442 incident cases of neovascular AMD with a visual loss of 20/30 or worse due primarily to AMD. Lutein/zeaxanthin intake was not associated with the risk of self-reported early AMD. There was a statistically nonsignificant and nonlinear inverse association between lutein/zeaxanthin intake and neovascular AMD risk; the pooled multivariate relative risks for increasing quintiles of intake were 1.00 (referent), 0.80, 0.84, 0.97, and 0.72 (95% CI: 0.53, 0.99) (P for trend = 0.14). For early AMD, the association with lutein/zeaxanthin intake did not vary by smoking status, intakes of vitamins C and E, or body mass index. For neovascular AMD, a nonlinear inverse association was found among never smokers. Conclusions These data do not support a protective role of lutein/zeaxanthin intake on risk of self-reported early AMD. The suggestion of inverse associations related to the risk of neovascular AMD needs to be examined further. PMID:18541575

  18. The role of simple emotion recognition skills among school aged boys at risk of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Kats-Gold, Inna; Besser, Avi; Priel, Beatriz

    2007-06-01

    Poor social skills and behavioral problems are a major component of ADHD. The different explanations offered so far, such as cognitive deficits and deficient self regulation, have not been able fully to account for the various aspects of the social dysfunction, suggesting that other mechanisms might underlay this impairment. Our study sought to assess the emotion recognition of Israeli boys at risk of ADHD, and to evaluate its associations with their social skills. A group of 111 boys (grades 4 and 5) were assigned to an At-risk (n=50) and a control (n=61) group based on their scores in an ADHD symptoms questionnaire. The two groups were matched on age, socio-economic status and class and school environment. Group comparisons revealed that compared to their non-At-risk counterparts, At-risk boys have impaired emotion recognition. Finally, multiple groups Structural Equation Modeling analyses (SEM) demonstrated that emotion misrecognition plays a significant role in the At-risk children's social functioning and behavioral problems compared to its role in the social competence and behavioral problems among the comparison group. Implications for the understanding and treatment of social skills problems among children at risk of ADHD are proposed. PMID:17243015

  19. The third molar as an age marker in adolescents: new approach to age evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rozkovcova, Eva; Dostalova, Tatjana; Markova, Marie; Broukal, Zdenek

    2012-09-01

    Adolescence is a relatively short period between childhood and adulthood. It is very difficult to determine adulthood based on biological indicators. The third molar may be considered a potential age marker for the period between the ages of 16-21. Our study evaluated a set of 1700 panoramic radiographs of individuals aged between 5 and 21 years. Results confirmed the statistically significant difference in the course of third molars development. The mean deviation for individuals with one third molar agenesis is -0.98 years, for individuals with two third molars agenesis -1.89 years, and with three molars agenesis -3.28 years. Thus, the extent of the deviation is directly proportional to the number of unformed third molars. The calculation of age according to the mean of stages of all third molars could lead to the underestimation of age. No intergender differences were found. Age determination using third molars could be used for forensic purposes.

  20. Anorexia of aging: a modifiable risk factor for frailty.

    PubMed

    Martone, Anna Maria; Onder, Graziano; Vetrano, Davide Liborio; Ortolani, Elena; Tosato, Matteo; Marzetti, Emanuele; Landi, Francesco

    2013-10-14

    Anorexia of aging, defined as a loss of appetite and/or reduced food intake, affects a significant number of elderly people and is far more prevalent among frail individuals. Anorexia recognizes a multifactorial origin characterized by various combinations of medical, environmental and social factors. Given the interconnection between weight loss, sarcopenia and frailty, anorexia is a powerful, independent predictor of poor quality of life, morbidity and mortality in older persons. One of the most important goals in the management of older, frail people is to optimize their nutritional status. To achieve this objective it is important to identify subjects at risk of anorexia and to provide multi-stimulus interventions that ensure an adequate amount of food to limit and/or reverse weight loss and functional decline. Here, we provide a brief overview on the relevance of anorexia in the context of sarcopenia and frailty. Major pathways supposedly involved in the pathogenesis of anorexia are also illustrated. Finally, the importance of treating anorexia to achieve health benefits in frail elders is highlighted.

  1. RISK MANAGEMENT EVALUATION FOR CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) developed a Risk Management Evaluation (RME) to provide information needed to help plan future research in the Laboratory dealing with the environmental impact of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). Agriculture...

  2. Evaluation of Cardiovascular Risk Scores Applied to NASA's Astronant Corps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, I.; Charvat, J. M.; VanBaalen, M.; Lee, L.; Wear, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction, this analysis evaluates and compares the applicability of multiple CVD risk scores to the NASA Astronaut Corps which is extremely healthy at selection.

  3. Proteomic biomarkers for ageing the mosquito Aedes aegypti to determine risk of pathogen transmission.

    PubMed

    Hugo, Leon E; Monkman, James; Dave, Keyur A; Wockner, Leesa F; Birrell, Geoff W; Norris, Emma L; Kienzle, Vivian J; Sikulu, Maggy T; Ryan, Peter A; Gorman, Jeffery J; Kay, Brian H

    2013-01-01

    Biomarkers of the age of mosquitoes are required to determine the risk of transmission of various pathogens as each pathogen undergoes a period of extrinsic incubation in the mosquito host. Using the 2-D Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) procedure, we investigated the abundance of up to 898 proteins from the Yellow Fever and dengue virus vector, Aedes aegypti, during ageing. By applying a mixed-effects model of protein expression, we identified five common patterns of abundance change during ageing and demonstrated an age-related decrease in variance for four of these. This supported a search for specific proteins with abundance changes that remain tightly associated with ageing for use as ageing biomarkers. Using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry we identified ten candidate proteins that satisfied strict biomarker discovery criteria (identified in two out of three multivariate analysis procedures and in two cohorts of mosquitoes). We validated the abundances of the four most suitable candidates (Actin depolymerising factor; ADF, Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A; eIF5A, insect cuticle protein Q17LN8, and Anterior fat body protein; AFP) using semi-quantitative Western analysis of individual mosquitoes of six ages. The redox-response protein Manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) and electron shuttling protein Electron transfer oxidoreductase (ETO) were subject to post-translational modifications affecting their charge states with potential effects on function. For the four candidates we show remarkably consistent decreases in abundance during ageing, validating initial selections. In particular, the abundance of AFP is an ideal biomarker candidate for whether a female mosquito has lived long enough to be capable of dengue virus transmission. We have demonstrated proteins to be a suitable class of ageing biomarkers in mosquitoes and have identified candidates for epidemiological studies of dengue and the evaluation of new disease reduction projects targeting

  4. Proteomic Biomarkers for Ageing the Mosquito Aedes aegypti to Determine Risk of Pathogen Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Hugo, Leon E.; Monkman, James; Dave, Keyur A.; Wockner, Leesa F.; Birrell, Geoff W.; Norris, Emma L.; Kienzle, Vivian J.; Sikulu, Maggy T.; Ryan, Peter A.; Gorman, Jeffery J.; Kay, Brian H.

    2013-01-01

    Biomarkers of the age of mosquitoes are required to determine the risk of transmission of various pathogens as each pathogen undergoes a period of extrinsic incubation in the mosquito host. Using the 2-D Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) procedure, we investigated the abundance of up to 898 proteins from the Yellow Fever and dengue virus vector, Aedes aegypti, during ageing. By applying a mixed-effects model of protein expression, we identified five common patterns of abundance change during ageing and demonstrated an age-related decrease in variance for four of these. This supported a search for specific proteins with abundance changes that remain tightly associated with ageing for use as ageing biomarkers. Using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry we identified ten candidate proteins that satisfied strict biomarker discovery criteria (identified in two out of three multivariate analysis procedures and in two cohorts of mosquitoes). We validated the abundances of the four most suitable candidates (Actin depolymerising factor; ADF, Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A; eIF5A, insect cuticle protein Q17LN8, and Anterior fat body protein; AFP) using semi-quantitative Western analysis of individual mosquitoes of six ages. The redox-response protein Manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) and electron shuttling protein Electron transfer oxidoreductase (ETO) were subject to post-translational modifications affecting their charge states with potential effects on function. For the four candidates we show remarkably consistent decreases in abundance during ageing, validating initial selections. In particular, the abundance of AFP is an ideal biomarker candidate for whether a female mosquito has lived long enough to be capable of dengue virus transmission. We have demonstrated proteins to be a suitable class of ageing biomarkers in mosquitoes and have identified candidates for epidemiological studies of dengue and the evaluation of new disease reduction projects targeting

  5. At-Risk Youth Appearance and Job Performance Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeburg, Beth Winfrey; Workman, Jane E.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the relationship of at-risk youth workplace appearance to other job performance criteria. Employers (n = 30; each employing from 1 to 17 youths) evaluated 178 at-risk high school youths who completed a paid summer employment experience. Appearance evaluations were significantly correlated with evaluations of…

  6. The Developmental Progression of Age 14 Behavioral Disinhibition, Early Age of Sexual Initiation, and Subsequent Sexual Risk-Taking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Samek, Diana R.; Iacono, William G.; Keyes, Margaret A.; Epstein, Marina; Bornovalova, Marina A.; McGue, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Background Research has demonstrated a consistent relationship between early sexual experience and subsequent sexual risk-taking behaviors. We hypothesized that this relationship is due to a general predisposition towards behavioral disinhibition (BD), and that relationships among BD, early sex, and subsequent risky sexual behavior may be influenced by common genetic influences for males and common environmental influences for females. Methods A prospective sample of 1,512 same-sex adolescent twins (50.2% female) was used. Adolescent BD was measured by clinical symptom counts of conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and self-reported delinquent behavior (age 14). Age of sexual initiation was defined as first age of consensual oral or penetrative sex (mean age ~17). Adult risky sexual behavior was defined by sexual behaviors under the influence of drugs and alcohol and number of casual sexual partners in the past year (age 24). Results Multivariate analyses showed evidence for substantial common genetic variance among age 14 BD, age at sexual initiation, and adult risky sexual behavior for males, but not females. There was no significant difference in the degree of common environmental influence on these variables for females compared to males. Notably, age of sexual initiation was not significantly correlated with age 24 risky sexual behavior for females. Conclusion The relationship between early sex and later risky sex can be better understood through a general liability towards BD, which is influenced primarily by genetic factors for males. The association between age 14 BD and age of sexual initiation was influenced through a combination of genetic and environmental factors for females; however, age of sexual initiation does not appear to be a salient predictor of adult women’s sexual risk-taking behavior. Findings suggest that prevention programs aimed at reducing sexual risk behavior might target youth exhibiting BD by age 14, particularly males

  7. High Basal Metabolic Rate Is a Risk Factor for Mortality: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Carmelinda; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Melenovsky, Vojtech; Cherubini, Antonio; Najjar, Samer S.; Ble, Alessandro; Senin, Umberto; Longo, Dan L.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite longstanding controversies from animal studies on the relationship between basal metabolic rate (BMR) and longevity, whether BMR is a risk factor for mortality has never been tested in humans. We evaluate the longitudinal changes in BMR and the relationship between BMR and mortality in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) participants. Methods BMR and medical information were collected at the study entry and approximately every 2 years in 1227 participants (972 men) over a 40-year follow-up. BMR, expressed as kcal/m2/h, was estimated from the basal O2 consumption and CO2 production measured by open-circuit method. Data on all-cause and specific-cause mortality were also obtained. Result BMR declined with age at a rate that accelerated at older ages. Independent of age, participants who died had a higher BMR compared to those who survived. BMR was a significant risk factor for mortality independent of secular trends in mortality and other well-recognized risk factors for mortality, such as age, body mass index, smoking, white blood cell count, and diabetes. BMR was nonlinearly associated with mortality. The lowest mortality rate was found in the BMR range 31.3–33.9 kcal/m2/h. Participants with BMR in the range 33.9–36.4 kcal/m2/h and above the threshold of 36.4 kcal/m2/h experienced 28% (hazard ratio: 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.61) and 53% (hazard ratio: 1.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.19–1.96) higher mortality risk compared to participants with BMR 31.3–33.9 kcal/m2/h. Conclusion We confirm previous findings of an age-related decline of BMR. In our study, a blunted age-related decline in BMR was associated with higher mortality, suggesting that such condition reflects poor health status. PMID:18693224

  8. Evaluating emergency risk communications: a dialogue with the experts.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Craig W; Vanderford, Marsha L; Crouse Quinn, Sandra

    2008-10-01

    Evaluating emergency risk communications is fraught with challenges since communication can be approached from both a systemic and programmatic level. Therefore, one must consider stakeholders' perspectives, effectiveness issues, standards of evidence and utility, and channels of influence (e.g., mass media and law enforcement). Evaluation issues related to timing, evaluation questions, methods, measures, and accountability are raised in this dialogue with emergency risk communication specialists. Besides the usual evaluation competencies, evaluators in this area need to understand and work collaboratively with stakeholders and be attuned to the dynamic contextual nature of emergency risk communications. Sample resources and measures are provided here to aid in this emerging and exciting field of evaluation.

  9. Flavonoid intake and the risk of age-related cataract in China's Heilongjiang Province

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yingna; Gao, Weiqi; Wu, Kun; Bao, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives Epidemiological evidence suggests that diets rich in flavonoids may reduce the risk of developing age-related cataract (ARC). Flavonoids are widely distributed in foods of plant origin, and the objective of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the association between the intakes of the five flavonoid subclasses and the risk of ARC. Subjects/methods A population-based case-control study (249 cases and 66 controls) was carried out in Heilongjiang province, which is located in the northeast of China, and where intakes and availability of fresh vegetables and fruits can be limited. Dietary data gathered by food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were used to calculate flavonoid intake. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated by logistic regression. Results No linear associations between risk of developing ARC and intakes of total dietary flavonoids, anthocyanidins, flavon-3-ol, flavanone, total flavones or total flavonols were found, but quercetin and isorhamnetin intake was inversely associated with ARC risk (OR 11.78, 95% CI: 1.62–85.84, p<0.05, and OR 6.99, 95% CI: 1.12–43.44, p<0.05, quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, respectively). Conclusion As quercetin is contained in many plant foods and isorhamnetin in very few foods, we concluded that higher quercetin intake may be an important dietary factor in the reduction of the risk of ARC. PMID:26652740

  10. Risk of Developmental Delay Increases Exponentially as Gestational Age of Preterm Infants Decreases: A Cohort Study at Age 4 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerstjens, Jorien M.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Bocca-TJeertes, Inger F.; Bos, Arend F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of decreasing gestational age on the risk of developmental delay in various domains at age 4 years among children born at a wide range of gestational ages. Method: In a community-based cohort, the parents of 1439 preterm-born children (24 0/7 to 35 6/7wks) and 544 term-born children (38 0/7 to…

  11. Interactive effects of vascular risk burden and advanced age on cerebral blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Bangen, Katherine J.; Nation, Daniel A.; Clark, Lindsay R.; Harmell, Alexandrea L.; Wierenga, Christina E.; Dev, Sheena I.; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Zlatar, Zvinka Z.; Salmon, David P.; Liu, Thomas T.; Bondi, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular risk factors and cerebral blood flow (CBF) reduction have been linked to increased risk of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD); however the possible moderating effects of age and vascular risk burden on CBF in late life remain understudied. We examined the relationships among elevated vascular risk burden, age, CBF, and cognition. Seventy-one non-demented older adults completed an arterial spin labeling MR scan, neuropsychological assessment, and medical history interview. Relationships among vascular risk burden, age, and CBF were examined in a priori regions of interest (ROIs) previously implicated in aging and AD. Interaction effects indicated that, among older adults with elevated vascular risk burden (i.e., multiple vascular risk factors), advancing age was significantly associated with reduced cortical CBF whereas there was no such relationship for those with low vascular risk burden (i.e., no or one vascular risk factor). This pattern was observed in cortical ROIs including medial temporal (hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, uncus), inferior parietal (supramarginal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, angular gyrus), and frontal (anterior cingulate, middle frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus) cortices. Furthermore, among those with elevated vascular risk, reduced CBF was associated with poorer cognitive performance. Such findings suggest that older adults with elevated vascular risk burden may be particularly vulnerable to cognitive change as a function of CBF reductions. Findings support the use of CBF as a potential biomarker in preclinical AD and suggest that vascular risk burden and regionally-specific CBF changes may contribute to differential age-related cognitive declines. PMID:25071567

  12. Sex and Age Differences in the Risk Threshold for Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Thessa M. L.; Loeber, Rolf; Slotboom, Anne-Marie; Bijleveld, Catrien C. J. H.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Koot, Hans M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines sex differences in the risk threshold for adolescent delinquency. Analyses were based on longitudinal data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study (n = 503) and the Pittsburgh Girls Study (n = 856). The study identified risk factors, promotive factors, and accumulated levels of risks as predictors of delinquency and nondelinquency,…

  13. Ageing is a risk factor in imatinib mesylate cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Maharsy, Wael; Aries, Anne; Mansour, Omar; Komati, Hiba; Nemer, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Aims Chemotherapy-induced heart failure is increasingly recognized as a major clinical challenge. Cardiotoxicity of imatinib mesylate, a highly selective and effective anticancer drug belonging to the new class of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, is being reported in patients, some progressing to congestive heart failure. This represents an unanticipated challenge that could limit effective drug use. Understanding the mechanisms and risk factors of imatinib mesylate cardiotoxicity is crucial for prevention of cardiovascular complications in cancer patients. Methods and results We used genetically engineered mice and primary rat neonatal cardiomyocytes to analyse the action of imatinib on the heart. We found that treatment with imatinib (200 mg/kg/day for 5 weeks) leads to mitochondrial-dependent myocyte loss and cardiac dysfunction, as confirmed by electron microscopy, RNA analysis, and echocardiography. Imatinib cardiotoxicity was more severe in older mice, in part due to an age-dependent increase in oxidative stress. Mechanistically, depletion of the transcription factor GATA4 resulting in decreased levels of its prosurvival targets Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL was an underlying cause of imatinib toxicity. Consistent with this, GATA4 haploinsufficient mice were more susceptible to imatinib, and myocyte-specific up-regulation of GATA4 or Bcl-2 protected against drug-induced cardiotoxicity. Conclusion The results indicate that imatinib action on the heart targets cardiomyocytes and involves mitochondrial impairment and cell death that can be further aggravated by oxidative stress. This in turn offers a possible explanation for the current conflicting data regarding imatinib cardiotoxicity in cancer patients and suggests that cardiac monitoring of older patients receiving imatinib therapy may be especially warranted. PMID:24504921

  14. Roadmap to risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) success

    PubMed Central

    Balian, John D.; Malhotra, Rachpal; Perentesis, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Medical safety-related risk management is a rapidly evolving and increasingly important aspect of drug approval and market longevity. To effectively meet the challenges of this new era, we describe a risk management roadmap that proactively yet practically anticipates risk-management requirements, provides the foundation for enduring yet appropriately flexible risk-management practices, and leverages these techniques to efficiently and effectively utilize risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS)/risk minimization programs as market access enablers. This fully integrated risk-management paradigm creates exciting opportunities for newer tools, techniques, and approaches to more successfully optimize product development, approval, and commercialization, with patients as the ultimate beneficiaries. PMID:25083193

  15. Breast cancer risk in women who fulfill high-risk criteria: at what age should surveillance start?

    PubMed

    Brandt, Andreas; Lorenzo Bermejo, Justo; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari

    2010-05-01

    Family history is a strong predictor of hereditary breast cancer, particularly when it includes cases of early onset or bilateral breast cancers and multiple cases of breast or ovarian cancers. This article provides relative risks and cumulative risks of breast cancer in women whose family history indicates high risk. Specifically, the aim was to determine how many years earlier the high-risk women reach the cumulative risk of women without family history at the age at which screening in average-risk women is initiated. The women of the nation-wide Swedish Family-Cancer Database were classified according to clinical criteria based on family history suggesting high risk for hereditary breast ovarian cancer syndrome. The relative risks of breast cancer were calculated as hazard ratio using Cox regression. Cumulative risks of breast cancer were estimated with a stratified Cox model based on Tsiatis' method. The hazard ratios of breast cancer for the considered criteria ranged from 1.50 to 5.99. The cumulative risks ranged from 1 to 10% by age 50 years. The age to reach the same cumulative risk as women lacking a family history at the age of 50 years ranged between 32.0 and 40.8 years. Relative and cumulative risks of women at high risk of breast cancer associated with different clinical criteria were diverse, which may be helpful in considering when current clinical criteria are revised. According to the present results, current recommendations of starting clinical interventions 10 years earlier in high-risk women, based on expert opinions, appear justified at least for the largest high-risk groups. PMID:19641988

  16. Evaluation of NRC maintenance team inspection reports for managing aging

    SciTech Connect

    Fresco, A.; Gunther, W.

    1991-01-01

    A nuclear power plant's maintenance program is the principal vehicle through which age-related degradation is managed. Over the past two years, the NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) has evaluated the maintenance program of every nuclear power plant in the U.S. The reports issued on these in-depth team inspections have been reviewed to ascertain the strengths and weaknesses of the programs as related to the need to understand and manage the effects of aging on nuclear power plant systems, structures, and components. Selected results of this review are presented in this paper, including examples of inspection and monitoring techniques successfully used by utilities to detect degradation due to aging. Attributes of plant maintenance programs where the NRC inspectors felt that improvement was needed to properly address the aging issue are also discussed. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  17. In-service irradiated and aged material evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Haggag, F.M.; Nanstad, R.K.; Alexander, D.J.

    1995-10-01

    The objective of this task is to provide a direct assessment of actual material properties in irradiated components of nuclear reactors, including the effects of irradiation and aging. Four activities are currently in progress: (1) establishing a machining capability for contaminated or activated materials by completing procurement and installation of a computer-based milling machine in a hot cell; (2) machining and testing specimens from cladding materials removed from the Gundremmingen reactor to establish their fracture properties; (3) preparing an interpretive report on the effects of neutron irradiation on cladding; and (4) continuing the evaluation of long-term aging of austenitic structural stainless steel weld metal by metallurgically examining and testing specimens aged at 288 and 343{degrees}C and reporting the results, as well as by continuing the aging of the stainless steel cladding toward a total time of 50,000 h.

  18. Ultrasonography for the evaluation of visceral fat and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Filho, F F; Faria, A N; Kohlmann, O; Ajzen, S; Ribeiro, A B; Zanella, M T; Ferreira, S R

    2001-09-01

    Visceral fat accumulation is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Clinical evaluation of visceral fat is limited because of the lack of reliable and low-cost methods. To assess the correlation between ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) for the evaluation of visceral fat, 101 obese women, age 50.5+/-7.7 years with a body mass index of 39.2+/-5.4 kg/m(2), were submitted to ultrasonograph and CT scans. Visceral fat measured by ultrasonography, 1 cm above the umbilical knot, showed a high correlation with CT-determined visceral fat (r=0.67, P<0.0001). The ultrasonograph method showed good reproducibility with an intra-observer variation coefficient of <2%. Both ultrasonograph and CT visceral fat values were correlated with fasting insulin (r=0.29 and r=0.27, P<0.01) and plasma glucose 2 hours after oral glucose load (r=0.22 and r=0.34, P<0.05), indicating that ultrasonography is a useful method to evaluate cardiovascular risk. A significant correlation was also found between visceral fat by CT and serum sodium (r=0.18, P<0.05). A ultrasonograph-determined visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio of 2.50 was established as a cutoff value to define patients with abdominal visceral obesity. This value also identified patients with higher levels of plasma glucose, serum insulin and triglycerides and lower levels of HDL-cholesterol, which are metabolic abnormalities characteristic of the metabolic syndrome. Our data demonstrate that ultrasonography is a precise and reliable method for evaluation of visceral fat and identification of patients with adverse metabolic profile. PMID:11566963

  19. Is complexity of work associated with risk of dementia? The Canadian Study of Health And Aging.

    PubMed

    Kröger, Edeltraut; Andel, Ross; Lindsay, Joan; Benounissa, Zohra; Verreault, René; Laurin, Danielle

    2008-04-01

    The authors evaluated the association of complexity of work with data, people, and things with the incidence of dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and vascular dementia in the Canadian Study of Health and Aging, while adjusting for work-related physical activity. The Canadian Study of Health and Aging is a 10-year population study, from 1991 to 2001, of a representative sample of persons aged 65 years or older. Lifetime job history allowed application of complexity scores and classification of work-related physical activity. Analyses included 3,557 subjects, of whom 400 were incident dementia cases, including 299 with Alzheimer's disease and 93 with vascular dementia. In fully adjusted Cox regression models, high complexity of work with people or things reduced risk of dementia (hazard ratios were 0.66 (95% confidence interval: 0.44, 0.98) and 0.72 (95% confidence interval: 0.52, 0.99), respectively) but not Alzheimer's disease. For vascular dementia, hazard ratios were 0.36 (95% confidence interval: 0.15, 0.90) for high complexity of work with people and 0.50 (95% confidence interval: 0.25, 1.00) for high complexity of work with things. Subgroup analyses according to median duration (23 years) of principal occupation showed that associations with complexity varied according to duration of employment. High complexity of work appears to be associated with risk of dementia, but effects may vary according to subtype. PMID:18263600

  20. Age effects in monetary valuation of reduced mortality risks: the relevance of age-specific hazard rates.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Andrea M

    2011-08-01

    This paper highlights the relevance of age-specific hazard rates in explaining the age variation in "value of statistical life" (VSL) figures. The analysis-which refers to a stated preference framework-contributes to the ongoing discussion of whether benefits resulting from reduced mortality risk should be valued differently depending on the age of the beneficiaries. By focussing on a life-threatening environmental phenomenon I show that the consideration of the individual's age-specific hazard rate is important. If a particular risk affects all individuals regardless of their age so that their hazard rate is age-independent, VSL is rather constant for people at different age; if hazard rate varies with age, VSL estimates are sensitive to age. The results provide an explanation for the mixed outcomes in empirical studies and illustrate in which cases an adjustment to age may or may not be justified. Efficient provision of live-saving measures requires that such differences to be taken into account.

  1. Risk-Taking, Safety and Older People. Selected Bibliographies on Ageing 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Wendy, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography, which was developed as part of a series of selected bibliographies on aging for Great Britain's Centre for Policy on Ageing, contains a total of 368 entries organized under the following subject headings: risk (identification, nature, responsibilities, risk taking, security); environmental safety (hazards, design,…

  2. An Evaluation of Transplacental Carcinogenesis for Human Health Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk assessments take into account the sensitivity of the postnatal period to carcinogens through the application of age-dependent adjustment factors (ADAFs) (Barton et al. 2005). The prenatal period is also recognized to be sensitive but is typically not included into risk asse...

  3. Rural Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors: Age, Gender, and Ethnic Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzman, Stephanie A.; Girvan, James T.

    A survey of health risk behaviors was administered to a representative sample of 7,776 Idaho students in grades 8-12. Respondents were 86% White, 6% Hispanic, 4% American Indian, 3% Asian, and 2% Black. These rural adolescents reported that they had engaged in some health risk behaviors at rates comparable to those of other U.S. adolescents: 57%…

  4. Exercise in youth: High bone mass, large bone size, and low fracture risk in old age.

    PubMed

    Tveit, M; Rosengren, B E; Nilsson, J Å; Karlsson, M K

    2015-08-01

    Physical activity is favorable for peak bone mass but if the skeletal benefits remain and influence fracture risk in old age is debated. In a cross-sectional controlled mixed model design, we compared dual X-ray absorptiometry-derived bone mineral density (BMD) and bone size in 193 active and retired male elite soccer players and 280 controls, with duplicate measurements of the same individual done a mean 5 years apart. To evaluate lifetime fractures, we used a retrospective controlled study design in 397 retired male elite soccer players and 1368 controls. Differences in bone traits were evaluated by Student's t-test and fracture risk assessments by Poisson regression and Cox regression. More than 30 years after retirement from sports, the soccer players had a Z-score for total body BMD of 0.4 (0.1 to 0.6), leg BMD of 0.5 (0.2 to 0.8), and femoral neck area of 0.3 (0.0 to 0.5). The rate ratio for fracture after career end was 0.6 (0.4 to 0.9) and for any fragility fracture 0.4 (0.2 to 0.9). Exercise-associated bone trait benefits are found long term after retirement from sports together with a lower fracture risk. This indicates that physical activity in youth could reduce the burden of fragility fractures.

  5. Foster Children: Risk Factors and Development at a Preschool Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumaret, A. C.; Duyme, M.; Tomkiewicz, S.

    1997-01-01

    Examined the family backgrounds, health and developmental characteristics of 127 children from disadvantaged and deprived environments adopted after age 4. Found that parental psychosocial antecedents, medical and health problems and difficulties in infancy were more prevalent in this group than in the general population. Late age of placement,…

  6. Childhood Risk Factors for Lifetime Anorexia Nervosa by Age 30 Years in a National Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, Dasha E.; Viner, Russell M.

    2009-01-01

    Whether previously identified childhood risk factors for anorexia nervosa (AN) predict self-reported lifetime AN by age 30 is examined. The cohort confirmed four risk and two protective factors out of the 22 suggested risk factors. The study used data from the 1970 British Cohort Study.

  7. Approaches for assessing risks to sensitive populations: Lessons learned from evaluating risks in the pediatric populations*

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing the risk profiles of potentially sensitive populations requires a 'tool chest' of methodological approaches to adequately characterize and evaluate these populations. At present, there is an extensive body of literature on methodologies that apply to the evaluation of...

  8. Approaches for Assessing Risks to Sensitive Populations: Lessons Learned from Evaluating Risks in the Pediatric Population

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing the risk profiles of potentially sensitive populations requires a "tool chest" of methodological approaches to adequately characterize and evaluate these populations. At present, there is an extensive body of literature on methodologies that apply to the evaluation of t...

  9. The Age-Specific Quantitative Effects of Metabolic Risk Factors on Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes: A Pooled Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Farzadfar, Farshad; Stevens, Gretchen A.; Woodward, Mark; Wormser, David; Kaptoge, Stephen; Whitlock, Gary; Qiao, Qing; Lewington, Sarah; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; vander Hoorn, Stephen; Lawes, Carlene M. M.; Ali, Mohammed K.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Ezzati, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Background The effects of systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body mass index (BMI) on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been established in epidemiological studies, but consistent estimates of effect sizes by age and sex are not available. Methods We reviewed large cohort pooling projects, evaluating effects of baseline or usual exposure to metabolic risks on ischemic heart disease (IHD), hypertensive heart disease (HHD), stroke, diabetes, and, as relevant selected other CVDs, after adjusting for important confounders. We pooled all data to estimate relative risks (RRs) for each risk factor and examined effect modification by age or other factors, using random effects models. Results Across all risk factors, an average of 123 cohorts provided data on 1.4 million individuals and 52,000 CVD events. Each metabolic risk factor was robustly related to CVD. At the baseline age of 55–64 years, the RR for 10 mmHg higher SBP was largest for HHD (2.16; 95% CI 2.09–2.24), followed by effects on both stroke subtypes (1.66; 1.39–1.98 for hemorrhagic stroke and 1.63; 1.57–1.69 for ischemic stroke). In the same age group, RRs for 1 mmol/L higher TC were 1.44 (1.29–1.61) for IHD and 1.20 (1.15–1.25) for ischemic stroke. The RRs for 5 kg/m2 higher BMI for ages 55–64 ranged from 2.32 (2.04–2.63) for diabetes, to 1.44 (1.40–1.48) for IHD. For 1 mmol/L higher FPG, RRs in this age group were 1.18 (1.08–1.29) for IHD and 1.14 (1.01–1.29) for total stroke. For all risk factors, proportional effects declined with age, were generally consistent by sex, and differed by region in only a few age groups for certain risk factor-disease pairs. Conclusion Our results provide robust, comparable and precise estimates of the effects of major metabolic risk factors on CVD and diabetes by age group. PMID:23935815

  10. What's age got to do with it? Partner age difference, power, intimate partner violence, and sexual risk in urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Ellen M; Hardie, Thomas L; Cerulli, Catherine; Sommers, Marilyn S; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne

    2013-07-01

    Adolescent girls with older male main partners are at greater risk for adverse sexual health outcomes than other adolescent girls. One explanation for this finding is that low relationship power occurs with partner age difference. Using a cross-sectional, descriptive design, we investigated the effect of partner age difference between an adolescent girl and her male partner on sexual risk behavior through the mediators of sexual relationship power, and physical intimate partner violence (IPV), and psychological IPV severity. We chose Blanc's framework to guide this study as it depicts the links among demographic, social, economic, relationship, family and community characteristics, and reproductive health outcomes with gender-based relationship power and violence. Urban adolescent girls (N = 155) completed an anonymous computer-assisted self-interview survey to examine partner and relationship factors' effect on consistent condom use. Our sample had an average age of 16.1 years with a mean partner age of 17.8 years. Partners were predominantly African American (75%), non-Hispanic (74%), and low-income (81%); 24% of participants reported consistent condom use in the last 3 months. Descriptive, correlation, and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. Partner age difference was negatively associated with consistent condom use (-.4292, p < .01); however, the indirect effects through three proposed mediators (relationship power, physical IPV, or psychological IPV severity) were not statistically significant. Further studies are needed to explore alternative rationale explaining the relationship between partner age differences and sexual risk factors within adolescent sexual relationships. Nonetheless, for clinicians and researchers, these findings underscore the heightened risk associated with partner age differences and impact of relationship dynamics on sexual risk behavior.

  11. Age Got to Do With It? Partner Age Difference, Power, Intimate Partner Violence, and Sexual Risk in Urban Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Volpe, Ellen M.; Hardie, Thomas L.; Cerulli, Catherine; Sommers, Marilynn S.; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent girls with older male main partners are at greater risk for adverse sexual health outcomes than other adolescent girls. One explanation for this finding is that low relationship power occurs with partner age difference. Using a cross-sectional, descriptive design, we investigated the effect of partner age difference between an adolescent girl and her male partner on sexual risk behavior through the mediators of sexual relationship power, and physical intimate partner violence (IPV), and psychological IPV severity. We chose Blanc’s framework to guide this study as it depicts the links among demographic, social, economic, relationship, family and community characteristics, and reproductive health outcomes with gender-based relationship power and violence. Urban adolescent girls (N = 155) completed an anonymous computer-assisted self-interview survey to examine partner and relationship factors’ effect on consistent condom use. Our sample had an average age of 16.1 years with a mean partner age of 17.8 years. Partners were predominantly African American (75%), non-Hispanic (74%), and low-income (81%); 24% of participants reported consistent condom use in the last 3 months. Descriptive, correlation, and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. Partner age difference was negatively associated with consistent condom use (−.4292, p < .01); however, the indirect effects through three proposed mediators (relationship power, physical IPV, or psychological IPV severity) were not statistically significant. Further studies are needed to explore alternative rationale explaining the relationship between partner age differences and sexual risk factors within adolescent sexual relationships. Nonetheless, for clinicians and researchers, these findings underscore the heightened risk associated with partner age differences and impact of relationship dynamics on sexual risk behavior. PMID:23345572

  12. Reproductive aging-associated common genetic variants and the risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction A younger age at menarche and an older age at menopause are well established risk factors for breast cancer. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified several novel genetic loci associated with these two traits. However, the association between these loci and breast cancer risk is unknown. Methods In this study, we investigated 19 and 17 newly identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the ReproGen Consortium that have been associated with age at menarche and age at natural menopause, respectively, and assessed their associations with breast cancer risk in 6 population-based studies among up to 3,683 breast cancer cases and 34,174 controls in white women of European ancestry. In addition, we used these SNPs to calculate genetic risk scores (GRSs) based on their associations with each trait. Results After adjusting for age and potential population stratification, two age at menarche associated SNPs (rs1079866 and rs7821178) and one age at natural menopause associated SNP (rs2517388) were associated with breast cancer risk (p values, 0.003, 0.009 and 0.023, respectively). The odds ratios for breast cancer corresponding to per-risk-allele were 1.14 (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.24), 1.08 (95% CI, 1.02 to 1.15) and 1.10 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.20), respectively, and were in the direction predicted by their associations with age at menarche or age at natural menopause. These associations did not appear to be attenuated by further controlling for self-reported age at menarche, age at natural menopause, or known breast cancer susceptibility loci. Although we did not observe a statistically significant association between any GRS for reproductive aging and breast cancer risk, the 4th and 5th highest quintiles of the younger age at menarche GRS had odds ratios of 1.14 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.28) and 1.13 (95% CI, 1.00 to 1.27), respectively, compared to the lowest quintile. Conclusions Our study suggests that three genetic variants, independent of their

  13. Evaluation of Obesity in School-Age Children.

    PubMed

    Dobashi, Kazushige

    2016-01-01

    To prevent obesity in middle age, early precautions and interventions are required during childhood. Therefore, it is very important to accurately evaluate the degree of overweight in children. Body mass index (BMI) is widely used worldwide in adults, but not in children. Because standard BMI, which is calculated using the average height and weight for age, changes widely during growth, a constant cut-off point cannot be set for children. An international unified method defining childhood obesity has not been established. In many countries, BMI-for-age percentile (BMI%) value or Z (standard deviation) score is used, whereas in Japan, the percentage of overweight (POW), which is the modified weight-for-height method, is used. We compared BMI% values with POW values obtained using the anthropometric data of elementary and junior high school students based on the Japanese school survey conducted in 2000 and found that the values for the degree of overweight were significantly different between the two methods. It became clear that tall students were easily defined as being overweight, whereas short students tended to be evaluated as being underweight when using BMI%. POW method seemed to be more appropriate than BMI% for school-age children. Abdominal obesity, excess visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is highly associated with obesity-related complications. Waist circumference (WC) is now accepted as an appropriate guide to VAT accumulation. The cut-off value of WC defining excess VAT is 80 cm at the umbilical level in Japanese school-age children. It is not easy to decide the obesity criteria and optimum WC in school-age children. Childhood obesity should be discussed more internationally.

  14. How old are you, really? Communicating chronic risk through 'effective age' of your body and organs.

    PubMed

    Spiegelhalter, David

    2016-01-01

    In communicating chronic risks, there is increasing use of a metaphor that can be termed 'effective-age': the age of a 'healthy' person who has the same risk profile as the individual in question. Popular measures include 'real-age', 'heart-age', 'lung-age' and so on.Here we formally define this concept, and illustrate its use in a variety of areas. We explore conditions under which the years lost or gained that are associated with exposure to risk factors depends neither on current chronological age, nor the period over which the risk is defined. These conditions generally hold for all-cause adult mortality, which enables a simple and vivid translation from hazard-ratios to years lost or gained off chronological age. Finally we consider the attractiveness and impact of this concept.Under reasonable assumptions, the risks associated with specific behaviours can be expressed in terms of years gained or lost off your effective age. The idea of effective age appears a useful and attractive metaphor to vividly communicate risks to individuals. PMID:27496144

  15. How old are you, really? Communicating chronic risk through 'effective age' of your body and organs.

    PubMed

    Spiegelhalter, David

    2016-08-05

    In communicating chronic risks, there is increasing use of a metaphor that can be termed 'effective-age': the age of a 'healthy' person who has the same risk profile as the individual in question. Popular measures include 'real-age', 'heart-age', 'lung-age' and so on.Here we formally define this concept, and illustrate its use in a variety of areas. We explore conditions under which the years lost or gained that are associated with exposure to risk factors depends neither on current chronological age, nor the period over which the risk is defined. These conditions generally hold for all-cause adult mortality, which enables a simple and vivid translation from hazard-ratios to years lost or gained off chronological age. Finally we consider the attractiveness and impact of this concept.Under reasonable assumptions, the risks associated with specific behaviours can be expressed in terms of years gained or lost off your effective age. The idea of effective age appears a useful and attractive metaphor to vividly communicate risks to individuals.

  16. Pesticide/Food Risk Greatest under Age Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raloff, J.

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes the Natural Resources Defense Council's report that cancer risks from pesticides are higher than Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) criteria for children. Describes some responses of the EPA on the report. (YP)

  17. [Expert evaluation by forensic psychiatrists of aged delinquents].

    PubMed

    Lemańczyk, W; Kordacka, M

    1989-01-01

    In the period from 1970 till 1987 forensic psychiatric certification of 1333 delinquents war made in Regional Psychiatric Hospital in Cibórz. Forty experts (3%) regarded subjects aged 60 years or more. The most common crimes were those against life and health--62.5%; predominantly homicides, assaults and assaults on public functioning, as well as arson--10%. Among male delinquents 68% were under the influence of alcohol at the time of crime of arson and assaults. Other common crime were establish in 15%. Only 1 patient was accused of sexual child abuse (2.5%). Women made 20% of offenders; one half of them committed the crime against life and health, mainly menace. Mental disturbances were found in 90% of patients. Dementia was diagnosed in 20%, organic personality disorder in 30%, and pseudoneurotic syndrome in 15%. Delusional syndrome was diagnosed in 15% while 5% of patients had long history of psychiatric disorders. 35% of expertise were made during single psychiatric interview. It is our opinion that a single examination of aged delinquent does not allow the correct evaluation of the influence of complex relations between possible mental disturbances, somatic illness, drugs (often various pathology and polytherapy) and alcohol, on delinquent's soundness of mind. Taking into consideration the widespread of above mentioned disturbances in the aged population we think that every person in the age above 60 suspected of crime should undergo psychiatric evaluation and hospital observation. PMID:2631130

  18. A Scalable Distribution Network Risk Evaluation Framework via Symbolic Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Kai; Liu, Jian; Liu, Kaipei; Tan, Tianyuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Evaluations of electric power distribution network risks must address the problems of incomplete information and changing dynamics. A risk evaluation framework should be adaptable to a specific situation and an evolving understanding of risk. Methods This study investigates the use of symbolic dynamics to abstract raw data. After introducing symbolic dynamics operators, Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy and Kullback-Leibler relative entropy are used to quantitatively evaluate relationships between risk sub-factors and main factors. For layered risk indicators, where the factors are categorized into four main factors – device, structure, load and special operation – a merging algorithm using operators to calculate the risk factors is discussed. Finally, an example from the Sanya Power Company is given to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method. Conclusion Distribution networks are exposed and can be affected by many things. The topology and the operating mode of a distribution network are dynamic, so the faults and their consequences are probabilistic. PMID:25789859

  19. Heterogeneity of variation of relative risk by age at exposure in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Little, Mark P

    2009-08-01

    General reductions in cancer relative risk with increasing age at exposure are observed in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in other groups. However, there has been little evidence of heterogeneity in such trends by cancer type within the Japanese cohort, nor for cancer-type variations in other factors (sex, attained age) that modify relative risk. A recent report on the Japanese atomic bomb survivors published by Preston et al. in 2007 suggests that solid cancer relative risk exhibits a U-shaped relationship with age at exposure, and is initially decreasing and then increasing at older exposure ages. In this report, we reanalyse the latest Japanese atomic bomb survivor solid cancer mortality and incidence data analysed by Preston and co-workers, stratifying by cancer subtype where possible, the stratification being both in relation to the baseline and the radiation-associated excess. We find highly statistically significant (P < 0.001) variations of relative risk by cancer type, and statistically significant variations by cancer type in the adjustments for sex (P = 0.010) and age at exposure (P = 0.013) to the relative risk. There is no statistically significant (P > 0.2) variation by cancer type in the adjustment of relative risk for attained age. Although, for all incident solid cancers, there is marginally statistically significant (P = 0.033) variation of relative risk with a quadratic log-linear function of age at exposure, there is much weaker variation in the relative risk of solid cancer mortality (P > 0.1). However, the manner in which relative risk varies with age at exposure is qualitatively similar for incidence and mortality, so one should not make too much of these differences between the two datasets. Stratification by solid cancer type slightly weakens the evidence for quadratic variation in relative risk by age at exposure (P = 0.060).

  20. Heterogeneity of variation of relative risk by age at exposure in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Little, Mark P

    2009-08-01

    General reductions in cancer relative risk with increasing age at exposure are observed in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in other groups. However, there has been little evidence of heterogeneity in such trends by cancer type within the Japanese cohort, nor for cancer-type variations in other factors (sex, attained age) that modify relative risk. A recent report on the Japanese atomic bomb survivors published by Preston et al. in 2007 suggests that solid cancer relative risk exhibits a U-shaped relationship with age at exposure, and is initially decreasing and then increasing at older exposure ages. In this report, we reanalyse the latest Japanese atomic bomb survivor solid cancer mortality and incidence data analysed by Preston and co-workers, stratifying by cancer subtype where possible, the stratification being both in relation to the baseline and the radiation-associated excess. We find highly statistically significant (P < 0.001) variations of relative risk by cancer type, and statistically significant variations by cancer type in the adjustments for sex (P = 0.010) and age at exposure (P = 0.013) to the relative risk. There is no statistically significant (P > 0.2) variation by cancer type in the adjustment of relative risk for attained age. Although, for all incident solid cancers, there is marginally statistically significant (P = 0.033) variation of relative risk with a quadratic log-linear function of age at exposure, there is much weaker variation in the relative risk of solid cancer mortality (P > 0.1). However, the manner in which relative risk varies with age at exposure is qualitatively similar for incidence and mortality, so one should not make too much of these differences between the two datasets. Stratification by solid cancer type slightly weakens the evidence for quadratic variation in relative risk by age at exposure (P = 0.060). PMID:19471953

  1. Evaluation of an Alcohol Risk Reduction Program (PRIME for Life) in Young Swedish Military Conscripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallgren, Mats A.; Kallmen, Hakan; Leifman, Hakan; Sjolund, Torbjorn; Andreasson, Sven

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of the PRIME for Life risk reduction program in reducing alcohol consumption and improving knowledge and attitudes towards alcohol use in male Swedish military conscripts, aged 18 to 22 years. Design/methodology/approach: A quasi-experimental design was used in which 1,371…

  2. Age at menopause, reproductive history and venous thromboembolism risk among postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Canonico, Marianne; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève; O’Sullivan, Mary Jo; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Cochrane, Barbara; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate VTE risk in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and time since menopause, as well as any interaction with randomized HT assignment among postmenopausal women. Methods Using pooled data from the Women’s Health Initiative HT clinical trials including 27,035 postmenopausal women ages 50 to 79 years with no history of VTE, we assessed the risk of VTE in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and time since menopause by Cox proportional hazard models. Linear trends, quadratic relationships and interactions of reproductive life characteristics with HT on VTE risk were systematically tested. Results During the follow-up, 426 women reported a first VTE, including 294 nonprocedure-related events. No apparent interaction of reproductive life characteristics with HT assignment on VTE risk was detected and there was any significant association of VTE with age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, oophorectomy or time since menopause. However, analyses restricted to nonprocedure-related VTE showed a U-shaped relationship between age at menopause and thrombotic risk that persisted after multivariable analysis (p<0.01). Compared to women aged 40 to 49 years at menopause, those with early menopause (age<40 years) or with late menopause (age>55 years) had a significant increased VTE risk (HR=1.8;95%CI:1.2–2.7 and HR=1.5;95%CI:1.0–2.4, respectively). Conclusion Reproductive life characteristics have little association with VTE and do not seem to influence the effect of HT on thrombotic risk among postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, early and late onset of menopause might be newly identified risk factors for nonprocedure-related VTE. PMID:23760439

  3. 20 CFR 416.924b - Age as a factor of evaluation in the sequential evaluation process for children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... “corrected” chronological age; that is, the chronological age adjusted by a period of gestational prematurity... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Age as a factor of evaluation in the... Blindness Evaluation of Disability § 416.924b Age as a factor of evaluation in the sequential...

  4. 20 CFR 416.924b - Age as a factor of evaluation in the sequential evaluation process for children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... “corrected” chronological age; that is, the chronological age adjusted by a period of gestational prematurity... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Age as a factor of evaluation in the... Blindness Evaluation of Disability § 416.924b Age as a factor of evaluation in the sequential...

  5. [Evaluation of risk factors for neurosensory deafness in workers engaged into gas transport enterprise in Far North].

    PubMed

    Ikonnikova, N V; Boiko, I V; Klitsenko, O A

    2015-01-01

    Complex study of health state covered 666 workers of gas transport enterprise situated in Far North of Russian Federation, revealed risk factors of neurosensory deafness. Neurosensory deafness risk depends on intensity of occupational noise and length of service under exposure to noise, on worker's age, presence of arterial hypertension and type of lipid metabolism disorders. The study found no correlation between neurosensory deafness risk and duration of residence in Far North. The authors suggested a mathematic model to evaluate risk of neurosensory deafness.

  6. Influence of Age on the Association between Lifestyle Factors and Risk of Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Lisa; Curhan, Gary C.; Forman, John P.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although hypertension is a highly prevalent disease in older populations, risk factors for developing hypertension have been studied primarily in younger cohorts. We sought to determine whether the strength of traditional hypertensive risk factors varied with age. METHODS We analyzed the prospective association between five modifiable risk factors and hypertension incidence among 78,590 initially non-hypertensive women of different ages in the Nurses’ Health Study I cohort over 26 years. RESULTS Older age attenuated the association between incident hypertension and four of five risk factors associated with hypertension in younger women. Persons aged 50 years and under who were low risk for all five risk factor behaviors had a hazard ratio (HR) for incident hypertension of 0.13 (95% CI, 0.03-0.52), compared with others in this age group. In women 61 and older, the HR was 0.62 (95% CI, 0.51-0.75). However, the hypothetical number needed to treat (the number of women needed to join the low risk factor group for a 10 year period to prevent one hypertension case) was similar between the age groups. CONCLUSION The fraction of incident hypertension attributable to modifiable lifestyle factors decreases with age. Because the incidence of hypertension is higher in older persons, however, lifestyle modification would hypothetically prevent similar numbers of hypertension cases in younger and older populations. PMID:22789880

  7. Age-Infusion Approach to Derive Injury Risk Curves for Dummies from Human Cadaver Tests

    PubMed Central

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Banerjee, Anjishnu; Pintar, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    Injury criteria and risk curves are needed for anthropomorphic test devices (dummies) to assess injuries for improving human safety. The present state of knowledge is based on using injury outcomes and biomechanical metrics from post-mortem human subject (PMHS) and mechanical records from dummy tests. Data from these models are combined to develop dummy injury assessment risk curves (IARCs)/dummy injury assessment risk values (IARVs). This simple substitution approach involves duplicating dummy metrics for PMHS tested under similar conditions and pairing with PMHS injury outcomes. It does not directly account for the age of each specimen tested in the PMHS group. Current substitution methods for injury risk assessments use age as a covariate and dummy metrics (e.g., accelerations) are not modified so that age can be directly included in the model. The age-infusion methodology presented in this perspective article accommodates for an annual rate factor that modifies the dummy injury risk assessment responses to account for the age of the PMHS that the injury data were based on. The annual rate factor is determined using human injury risk curves. The dummy metrics are modulated based on individual PMHS age and rate factor, thus “infusing” age into the dummy data. Using PMHS injuries and accelerations from side-impact experiments, matched-pair dummy tests, and logistic regression techniques, the methodology demonstrates the process of age-infusion to derive the IARCs and IARVs. PMID:26697422

  8. Biodex Fall Risk Assessment in the Elderly With Ataxia: A New Age-Dependent Derived Index in Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Prometti, Paola; Olivares, Adriana; Gaia, Giuseppina; Bonometti, Giampietro; Comini, Laura; Scalvini, Simonetta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate if the Biodex Fall Risk Assessment could provide an age-adjusted index useful for classifying patients at “risk of fall.” This was a cohort study conducted on 61 chronic patients, in stable conditions, having a history of ataxia, difficulty in walking or loss of balance, and aged >64 years. These patients were coming from home to our Institute undergoing a period of in-hospital standard rehabilitation. Assessment of clinical parameters was performed at entry. Functional scales (Functional Independence Measure [FIM] for motor and cognitive function, Barthel G, Tinetti POMA), and the Biodex Fall Risk Index (FRI) were performed at entry and discharge. The Normalized FRI, obtained adjusting FRI to the reported maximum predictive FRI for the relevant age, identified 2 types of patients: those with a greater risk of fall than expected for that age, labeled Case 1 (Normalized FRI>1); and those with an equal or even lesser risk of fall than expected for that age, labeled Case 0 (Normalized FRI≤1). FRI, Normalized FRI as well as independent variables as age, sex, pathology group, FIM, BarthelG, were considered in a multiple regression analysis to predict the functional improvement (i.e., delta Tinetti Total score) after rehabilitation. Normalized FRI is useful in assessing patients at risk of falls both before and after rehabilitation. At admission, the Normalized FRI evidenced high fall risk in 46% of patients (Case 1) which decreased to 12% after rehabilitation, being greater than age-predicted in 7 patients (Case 1–1) despite the functional improvement observed after the rehabilitation treatment. Normalized FRI evidenced Case 1–1 patients as neurological, “very old” (86% in age-group 75–84 years), and with serious events at 18 to 24 months’ follow-up. Normalized FRI, but not FRI, at admission was a predictor of improvement in Tinetti Total scores. The normalized FRI effectively indicated patients at higher

  9. Anorexia of Aging: Risk Factors, Consequences, and Potential Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Landi, Francesco; Calvani, Riccardo; Tosato, Matteo; Martone, Anna Maria; Ortolani, Elena; Savera, Giulia; Sisto, Alex; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Older people frequently fail to ingest adequate amount of food to meet their essential energy and nutrient requirements. Anorexia of aging, defined by decrease in appetite and/or food intake in old age, is a major contributing factor to under-nutrition and adverse health outcomes in the geriatric population. This disorder is indeed highly prevalent and is recognized as an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality in different clinical settings. Even though anorexia is not an unavoidable consequence of aging, advancing age often promotes its development through various mechanisms. Age-related changes in life-style, disease conditions, as well as social and environmental factors have the potential to directly affect dietary behaviors and nutritional status. In spite of their importance, problems related to food intake and, more generally, nutritional status are seldom attended to in clinical practice. While this may be the result of an “ageist” approach, it should be acknowledged that simple interventions, such as oral nutritional supplementation or modified diets, could meaningfully improve the health status and quality of life of older persons. PMID:26828516

  10. Anorexia of Aging: Risk Factors, Consequences, and Potential Treatments.

    PubMed

    Landi, Francesco; Calvani, Riccardo; Tosato, Matteo; Martone, Anna Maria; Ortolani, Elena; Savera, Giulia; Sisto, Alex; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2016-01-27

    Older people frequently fail to ingest adequate amount of food to meet their essential energy and nutrient requirements. Anorexia of aging, defined by decrease in appetite and/or food intake in old age, is a major contributing factor to under-nutrition and adverse health outcomes in the geriatric population. This disorder is indeed highly prevalent and is recognized as an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality in different clinical settings. Even though anorexia is not an unavoidable consequence of aging, advancing age often promotes its development through various mechanisms. Age-related changes in life-style, disease conditions, as well as social and environmental factors have the potential to directly affect dietary behaviors and nutritional status. In spite of their importance, problems related to food intake and, more generally, nutritional status are seldom attended to in clinical practice. While this may be the result of an "ageist" approach, it should be acknowledged that simple interventions, such as oral nutritional supplementation or modified diets, could meaningfully improve the health status and quality of life of older persons.

  11. Effect of depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate on breast cancer risk among women 20 to 44 years of age.

    PubMed

    Li, Christopher I; Beaber, Elisabeth F; Tang, Mei Tzu Chen; Porter, Peggy L; Daling, Janet R; Malone, Kathleen E

    2012-04-15

    Depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is an injectable contraceptive that contains the same progestin as the menopausal hormone therapy regimen found to increase breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative clinical trial. However, few studies have evaluated the relationship between DMPA use and breast cancer risk. Here, we conducted a population-based case-control study among 1,028 women ages 20 to 44 years to assess the association between DMPA use and breast cancer risk. Detailed information on DMPA use and other relevant covariates was obtained through structured interviewer-administered in-person questionnaires, and unconditional logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between various aspects of DMPA use and breast cancer risk. We found that recent DMPA use for 12 months or longer was associated with a 2.2-fold [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2-4.2] increased risk of invasive breast cancer. This risk did not vary appreciably by tumor stage, size, hormone receptor expression, or histologic subtype. Although breast cancer is rare among young women and the elevated risk of breast cancer associated with DMPA appears to dissipate after discontinuation of use, our findings emphasize the importance of identifying the potential risks associated with specific forms of contraceptives given the number of available alternatives.

  12. Evaluations of mosquito age grading techniques based on morphological changes.

    PubMed

    Hugo, L E; Quick-Miles, S; Kay, B H; Ryan, P A

    2008-05-01

    Evaluations were made of the accuracy and practicality of mosquito age grading methods based on changes to mosquito morphology; including the Detinova ovarian tracheation, midgut meconium, Polovodova ovariole dilatation, ovarian injection, and daily growth line methods. Laboratory maintained Aedes vigilax (Skuse) and Culex annulirostris (Skuse) females of known chronological and physiological ages were used for these assessments. Application of the Detinova technique to laboratory reared Ae. vigilax females in a blinded trial enabled the successful identification of nulliparous and parous females in 83.7-89.8% of specimens. The success rate for identifying nulliparous females increased to 87.8-98.0% when observations of ovarian tracheation were combined with observations of the presence of midgut meconium. However, application of the Polovodova method only enabled 57.5% of nulliparous, 1-parous, 2-parous, and 3-parous Ae. vigilax females to be correctly classified, and ovarian injections were found to be unfeasible. Poor correlation was observed between the number of growth lines per phragma and the calendar age of laboratory reared Ae. vigilax females. In summary, morphological age grading methods that offer simple two-category predictions (ovarian tracheation and midgut meconium methods) were found to provide high-accuracy classifications, whereas methods that offer the separation of multiple age categories (ovariolar dilatation and growth line methods) were found to be extremely difficult and of low accuracy. The usefulness of the morphology-based methods is discussed in view of the availability of new mosquito age grading techniques based on cuticular hydrocarbon and gene transcription changes. PMID:18533427

  13. The association between statin use and risk of age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Le; Wang, Yafeng; Du, Junhui; Wang, Mingxu; Zhang, Rui; Fu, Yihao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between statin use and the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A systematic search of the PubMed, EMBASE and ISI web of science databases was used to identify eligible published literatures without language restrictions up to April 2015. Summary relative ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using a fixed-effect or random-effects model. A total of 14 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. No significant association was observed between statin use and the risk of any AMD (RR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.74–1.15); and stratified analysis showed that statins had a significantly different effects on early and late stages of AMD. For early AMD, statin use significantly reduced the risk approximately 17% (RR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.66–0.99). At the late stage, we observed a significant protective association of statin use with exudative AMD (RR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.80–0.99), in contrast with the absent association between statins and geographic atrophy (RR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.77–1.56). These results demonstrated that statin use was protective for early and exudative AMD. Additional large prospective cohort studies and RCTs are required to determine the potential effect of statins on AMD prevention. PMID:26658620

  14. The association between statin use and risk of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Ma, Le; Wang, Yafeng; Du, Junhui; Wang, Mingxu; Zhang, Rui; Fu, Yihao

    2015-12-14

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between statin use and the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A systematic search of the PubMed, EMBASE and ISI web of science databases was used to identify eligible published literatures without language restrictions up to April 2015. Summary relative ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using a fixed-effect or random-effects model. A total of 14 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. No significant association was observed between statin use and the risk of any AMD (RR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.74-1.15); and stratified analysis showed that statins had a significantly different effects on early and late stages of AMD. For early AMD, statin use significantly reduced the risk approximately 17% (RR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.66-0.99). At the late stage, we observed a significant protective association of statin use with exudative AMD (RR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.80-0.99), in contrast with the absent association between statins and geographic atrophy (RR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.77-1.56). These results demonstrated that statin use was protective for early and exudative AMD. Additional large prospective cohort studies and RCTs are required to determine the potential effect of statins on AMD prevention.

  15. Evaluation of the Mental Healthiness Aging Initiative: community program to promote awareness about mental health and aging issues.

    PubMed

    Zanjani, Faika; Kruger, Tina; Murray, Deborah

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the Mental Healthiness Aging Initiative, designed to promote community awareness and knowledge about mental health and aging issues. This study occurred during 2007-2009 in 67 of 120 counties in Kentucky. A rural region (11 counties) received the intervention, consisting of focus groups, Extension Agent training, and television-based social marketing campaign. Partial-intervention counties (29 counties) received only the television-based social marketing campaign. The control counties (27 counties) received no intervention activities. Results indicated that the intervention counties agreed more with being able to assist elder adults with a potential mental illness. Also, the intervention counties understood the risk of consuming alcohol and medications better, but had a poorer recognition of drinking problems in elder adults. These findings need to be considered within study limitations, such as measurement error, degree of intervention exposure, and regional differences across intervention groups. The study demonstrates that community interventions on mental health awareness and knowledge are feasible within majority rural regions, with Extension Agents being gatekeepers, for promoting positive messages about mental health and aging issues. PMID:21234684

  16. Evaluation of the Mental Healthiness Aging Initiative: community program to promote awareness about mental health and aging issues.

    PubMed

    Zanjani, Faika; Kruger, Tina; Murray, Deborah

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the Mental Healthiness Aging Initiative, designed to promote community awareness and knowledge about mental health and aging issues. This study occurred during 2007-2009 in 67 of 120 counties in Kentucky. A rural region (11 counties) received the intervention, consisting of focus groups, Extension Agent training, and television-based social marketing campaign. Partial-intervention counties (29 counties) received only the television-based social marketing campaign. The control counties (27 counties) received no intervention activities. Results indicated that the intervention counties agreed more with being able to assist elder adults with a potential mental illness. Also, the intervention counties understood the risk of consuming alcohol and medications better, but had a poorer recognition of drinking problems in elder adults. These findings need to be considered within study limitations, such as measurement error, degree of intervention exposure, and regional differences across intervention groups. The study demonstrates that community interventions on mental health awareness and knowledge are feasible within majority rural regions, with Extension Agents being gatekeepers, for promoting positive messages about mental health and aging issues.

  17. Evaluation of care for the aged: a multipurpose guide.

    PubMed

    Bergman, R; Golander, H

    1982-05-01

    There is a growing recognition of the need to evaluate quality of care. As the aged are a particularly vulnerable group, often dependent on care-givers for their remaining years, it is important to control related services. An interdisciplinary workgroup prepared a tool which lists cues to be considered in determining the quality of care for the age in ambulatory services, home care programmes, short-and long-term institutions. The cues fall into six domains: physical environment, psychosocial environment, basic personal care, health care, family involvement and manpower. The tool can be used by clients and families for selecting placement for care; by caregivers in choosing or remaining in a place of work; by those administratively responsible for care, such as supervisors, or licensing bodies for controlling performance and policy; and by other involved persons, such as educators, researchers, volunteers or funding agencies for their specific purposes. PMID:6811642

  18. Evaluation of volcanic risk management in Merapi and Bromo Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachri, S.; Stöetter, J.; Sartohadi, J.; Setiawan, M. A.

    2012-04-01

    Merapi (Central Java Province) and Bromo (East Java Province) volcanoes have human-environmental systems with unique characteristics, thus causing specific consequences on their risk management. Various efforts have been carried out by many parties (institutional government, scientists, and non-governmental organizations) to reduce the risk in these areas. However, it is likely that most of the actions have been done for temporary and partial purposes, leading to overlapping work and finally to a non-integrated scheme of volcanic risk management. This study, therefore, aims to identify and evaluate actions of risk and disaster reduction in Merapi and Bromo Volcanoes. To achieve this aims, a thorough literature review was carried out to identify earlier studies in both areas. Afterward, the basic concept of risk management cycle, consisting of risk assessment, risk reduction, event management and regeneration, is used to map those earlier studies and already implemented risk management actions in Merapi and Bromo. The results show that risk studies in Merapi have been developed predominantly on physical aspects of volcanic eruptions, i.e. models of lahar flows, hazard maps as well as other geophysical modeling. Furthermore, after the 2006 eruption of Merapi, research such on risk communication, social vulnerability, cultural vulnerability have appeared on the social side of risk management research. Apart from that, disaster risk management activities in the Bromo area were emphasizing on physical process and historical religious aspects. This overview of both study areas provides information on how risk studies have been used for managing the volcano disaster. This result confirms that most of earlier studies emphasize on the risk assessment and only few of them consider the risk reduction phase. Further investigation in this field work in the near future will accomplish the findings and contribute to formulate integrated volcanic risk management cycles for both

  19. Aging-related tau astrogliopathy (ARTAG): harmonized evaluation strategy.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Gabor G; Ferrer, Isidro; Grinberg, Lea T; Alafuzoff, Irina; Attems, Johannes; Budka, Herbert; Cairns, Nigel J; Crary, John F; Duyckaerts, Charles; Ghetti, Bernardino; Halliday, Glenda M; Ironside, James W; Love, Seth; Mackenzie, Ian R; Munoz, David G; Murray, Melissa E; Nelson, Peter T; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Trojanowski, John Q; Ansorge, Olaf; Arzberger, Thomas; Baborie, Atik; Beach, Thomas G; Bieniek, Kevin F; Bigio, Eileen H; Bodi, Istvan; Dugger, Brittany N; Feany, Mel; Gelpi, Ellen; Gentleman, Stephen M; Giaccone, Giorgio; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J; Heale, Richard; Hof, Patrick R; Hofer, Monika; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Jellinger, Kurt; Jicha, Gregory A; Ince, Paul; Kofler, Julia; Kövari, Enikö; Kril, Jillian J; Mann, David M; Matej, Radoslav; McKee, Ann C; McLean, Catriona; Milenkovic, Ivan; Montine, Thomas J; Murayama, Shigeo; Lee, Edward B; Rahimi, Jasmin; Rodriguez, Roberta D; Rozemüller, Annemieke; Schneider, Julie A; Schultz, Christian; Seeley, William; Seilhean, Danielle; Smith, Colin; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Takao, Masaki; Thal, Dietmar Rudolf; Toledo, Jon B; Tolnay, Markus; Troncoso, Juan C; Vinters, Harry V; Weis, Serge; Wharton, Stephen B; White, Charles L; Wisniewski, Thomas; Woulfe, John M; Yamada, Masahito; Dickson, Dennis W

    2016-01-01

    Pathological accumulation of abnormally phosphorylated tau protein in astrocytes is a frequent, but poorly characterized feature of the aging brain. Its etiology is uncertain, but its presence is sufficiently ubiquitous to merit further characterization and classification, which may stimulate clinicopathological studies and research into its pathobiology. This paper aims to harmonize evaluation and nomenclature of aging-related tau astrogliopathy (ARTAG), a term that refers to a morphological spectrum of astroglial pathology detected by tau immunohistochemistry, especially with phosphorylation-dependent and 4R isoform-specific antibodies. ARTAG occurs mainly, but not exclusively, in individuals over 60 years of age. Tau-immunoreactive astrocytes in ARTAG include thorn-shaped astrocytes at the glia limitans and in white matter, as well as solitary or clustered astrocytes with perinuclear cytoplasmic tau immunoreactivity that extends into the astroglial processes as fine fibrillar or granular immunopositivity, typically in gray matter. Various forms of ARTAG may coexist in the same brain and might reflect different pathogenic processes. Based on morphology and anatomical distribution, ARTAG can be distinguished from primary tauopathies, but may be concurrent with primary tauopathies or other disorders. We recommend four steps for evaluation of ARTAG: (1) identification of five types based on the location of either morphologies of tau astrogliopathy: subpial, subependymal, perivascular, white matter, gray matter; (2) documentation of the regional involvement: medial temporal lobe, lobar (frontal, parietal, occipital, lateral temporal), subcortical, brainstem; (3) documentation of the severity of tau astrogliopathy; and (4) description of subregional involvement. Some types of ARTAG may underlie neurological symptoms; however, the clinical significance of ARTAG is currently uncertain and awaits further studies. The goal of this proposal is to raise awareness of

  20. EVALUATING RISK IN OLDER ADULTS USING PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rapid growth in the number of older Americans has many implications for public health, including the need to better understand the risks posed by environmental exposures to older adults. An important element for evaluating risk is the understanding of the doses of environment...

  1. Trust-level risk evaluation and risk control guidance in the NHS East of England.

    PubMed

    Card, Alan J; Ward, James R; Clarkson, P John

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, the healthcare sector has adopted the use of operational risk assessment tools to help understand the systems issues that lead to patient safety incidents. But although these problem-focused tools have improved the ability of healthcare organizations to identify hazards, they have not translated into measurable improvements in patient safety. One possible reason for this is a lack of support for the solution-focused process of risk control. This article describes a content analysis of the risk management strategies, policies, and procedures at all acute (i.e., hospital), mental health, and ambulance trusts (health service organizations) in the East of England area of the British National Health Service. The primary goal was to determine what organizational-level guidance exists to support risk control practice. A secondary goal was to examine the risk evaluation guidance provided by these trusts. With regard to risk control, we found an almost complete lack of useful guidance to promote good practice. With regard to risk evaluation, the trusts relied exclusively on risk matrices. A number of weaknesses were found in the use of this tool, especially related to the guidance for scoring an event's likelihood. We make a number of recommendations to address these concerns. The guidance assessed provides insufficient support for risk control and risk evaluation. This may present a significant barrier to the success of risk management approaches in improving patient safety.

  2. Assessment of age and risk factors on bone density and bone turnover in healthy premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hansen, M A

    1994-05-01

    The influence of age and risk factors on bone density and bone turnover was evaluated in 249 healthy premenopausal women. Risk factors were assessed by standardized questionnaires and included reproductive history and lifestyle factors (intake of calcium and vitamin D supplements, consumption of caffeine, smoking habits and physical activity). Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were obtained in the distal forearm, the lumbar spine and the proximal femur. Bone turnover were assessed by plasma bone Gla proteins (pBGP) and fasting urinary hydroxyproline corrected for creatinine (fUHPr/Cr). Peak bone density seems to be achieved before the age of 30 years, whereafter we found no appreciable bone loss at any skeletal site. Accordingly, the levels of pBGP and fUHPr/Cr were increased before the age of 30, whereafter the values stabilized at a lower level. A dairy calcium intake above 660 mg/day significantly increased BMD in the spine and proximal femur by 3%-5%. Physical activity alone had no influence on BMD, but in combination with calcium intake an additive effect was observed. Women who had an active lifestyle (corresponding to at least 1 h of daily walking) and a dairy calcium intake above 660 mg/day had a 3%-7% increase in BMD compared with more sedentary women with a calcium intake below this limit. Vitamin D supplements, caffeine, smoking and reproductive history did not consistently influence BMD or bone turnover. Only pBGP was selectively reduced by smoking and current use of oral contraceptives, respectively. We conclude that there is no appreciable change in BMD before the menopause once skeletal maturity has been reached.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Risk Perceptions for Chronic Diseases in Younger and Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Jada G.; Lobel, Marci

    2016-01-01

    Perceptions of disease risk play an important role in motivating people to adopt healthy behaviors. However, little is known about psychosocial factors that influence women’s perceived risk for developing disease. The present study investigated the extent to which individual traits, social influences, objective risk factors, and demographic characteristics were associated with women’s risk perceptions for cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, and lung cancer. Using structural equation modeling, we examined hypothesized associations among 452 younger (ages 18-25 years) and 167 middle-aged (ages 40-64 years) women. A greater number and variety of factors were associated with middle-aged women’s risk perceptions compared to younger women. For both groups, some objective risk factors were associated with risk perceptions; yet, associations also existed between multiple psychosocial variables (optimism, health locus of control, social exposure to disease, perceived stigma) and risk perceptions. Results suggested that women may base their risk estimates on factors beyond those considered important by healthcare providers. PMID:26110993

  4. An evaluation of sex-age-kill (SAK) model performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Boyce, Mark S.; Hansen, Lonnie P.; Kammermeyer, Kent

    2009-01-01

    The sex-age-kill (SAK) model is widely used to estimate abundance of harvested large mammals, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Despite a long history of use, few formal evaluations of SAK performance exist. We investigated how violations of the stable age distribution and stationary population assumption, changes to male or female harvest, stochastic effects (i.e., random fluctuations in recruitment and survival), and sampling efforts influenced SAK estimation. When the simulated population had a stable age distribution and λ > 1, the SAK model underestimated abundance. Conversely, when λ < 1, the SAK overestimated abundance. When changes to male harvest were introduced, SAK estimates were opposite the true population trend. In contrast, SAK estimates were robust to changes in female harvest rates. Stochastic effects caused SAK estimates to fluctuate about their equilibrium abundance, but the effect dampened as the size of the surveyed population increased. When we considered both stochastic effects and sampling error at a deer management unit scale the resultant abundance estimates were within ±121.9% of the true population level 95% of the time. These combined results demonstrate extreme sensitivity to model violations and scale of analysis. Without changes to model formulation, the SAK model will be biased when λ ≠ 1. Furthermore, any factor that alters the male harvest rate, such as changes to regulations or changes in hunter attitudes, will bias population estimates. Sex-age-kill estimates may be precise at large spatial scales, such as the state level, but less so at the individual management unit level. Alternative models, such as statistical age-at-harvest models, which require similar data types, might allow for more robust, broad-scale demographic assessments.

  5. Age and Prostate-Specific Antigen Level Prior to Diagnosis Predict Risk of Death from Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    MacKintosh, F. Roy; Sprenkle, Preston C.; Walter, Louise C.; Rawson, Lori; Karnes, R. Jeffrey; Morrell, Christopher H.; Kattan, Michael W.; Nawaf, Cayce B.; Neville, Thomas B.

    2016-01-01

    A single early prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level has been correlated with a higher likelihood of prostate cancer diagnosis and death in younger men. PSA testing in older men has been considered of limited utility. We evaluated prostate cancer death in relation to age and PSA level immediately prior to prostate cancer diagnosis. Using the Veterans Affairs database, we identified 230,081 men aged 50–89 years diagnosed with prostate cancer and at least one prior PSA test between 1999 and 2009. Prostate cancer-specific death over time was calculated for patients stratified by age group (e.g., 50–59 years, through 80–89 years) and PSA range at diagnosis (10 ranges) using Kaplan–Meier methods. Risk of 10-year prostate cancer mortality across age and PSA was compared using log-rank tests with a Bonferroni adjustment for multiple testing. 10.5% of men diagnosed with prostate cancer died of cancer during the 10-year study period (mean follow-up = 3.7 years). Higher PSA values prior to diagnosis predict a higher risk of death in all age groups (p < 0.0001). Within the same PSA range, older age groups are at increased risk for death from prostate cancer (p < 0.0001). For PSA of 7–10 ng/mL, cancer-specific death, 10 years after diagnosis, increased from 7% for age 50–59 years to 51% for age 80–89 years. Men older than 70 years are more likely to die of prostate cancer at any PSA level than younger men, suggesting prostate cancer remains a significant problem among older men (even those aged 80+) and deserves additional study. PMID:27446803

  6. Predicting the risk of rheumatoid arthritis and its age of onset through modelling genetic risk variants with smoking.

    PubMed

    Scott, Ian C; Seegobin, Seth D; Steer, Sophia; Tan, Rachael; Forabosco, Paola; Hinks, Anne; Eyre, Stephen; Morgan, Ann W; Wilson, Anthony G; Hocking, Lynne J; Wordsworth, Paul; Barton, Anne; Worthington, Jane; Cope, Andrew P; Lewis, Cathryn M

    2013-01-01

    The improved characterisation of risk factors for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) suggests they could be combined to identify individuals at increased disease risks in whom preventive strategies may be evaluated. We aimed to develop an RA prediction model capable of generating clinically relevant predictive data and to determine if it better predicted younger onset RA (YORA). Our novel modelling approach combined odds ratios for 15 four-digit/10 two-digit HLA-DRB1 alleles, 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and ever-smoking status in males to determine risk using computer simulation and confidence interval based risk categorisation. Only males were evaluated in our models incorporating smoking as ever-smoking is a significant risk factor for RA in men but not women. We developed multiple models to evaluate each risk factor's impact on prediction. Each model's ability to discriminate anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)-positive RA from controls was evaluated in two cohorts: Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC: 1,516 cases; 1,647 controls); UK RA Genetics Group Consortium (UKRAGG: 2,623 cases; 1,500 controls). HLA and smoking provided strongest prediction with good discrimination evidenced by an HLA-smoking model area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.813 in both WTCCC and UKRAGG. SNPs provided minimal prediction (AUC 0.660 WTCCC/0.617 UKRAGG). Whilst high individual risks were identified, with some cases having estimated lifetime risks of 86%, only a minority overall had substantially increased odds for RA. High risks from the HLA model were associated with YORA (P<0.0001); ever-smoking associated with older onset disease. This latter finding suggests smoking's impact on RA risk manifests later in life. Our modelling demonstrates that combining risk factors provides clinically informative RA prediction; additionally HLA and smoking status can be used to predict the risk of younger and older onset RA, respectively. PMID:24068971

  7. Predicting the risk of rheumatoid arthritis and its age of onset through modelling genetic risk variants with smoking.

    PubMed

    Scott, Ian C; Seegobin, Seth D; Steer, Sophia; Tan, Rachael; Forabosco, Paola; Hinks, Anne; Eyre, Stephen; Morgan, Ann W; Wilson, Anthony G; Hocking, Lynne J; Wordsworth, Paul; Barton, Anne; Worthington, Jane; Cope, Andrew P; Lewis, Cathryn M

    2013-01-01

    The improved characterisation of risk factors for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) suggests they could be combined to identify individuals at increased disease risks in whom preventive strategies may be evaluated. We aimed to develop an RA prediction model capable of generating clinically relevant predictive data and to determine if it better predicted younger onset RA (YORA). Our novel modelling approach combined odds ratios for 15 four-digit/10 two-digit HLA-DRB1 alleles, 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and ever-smoking status in males to determine risk using computer simulation and confidence interval based risk categorisation. Only males were evaluated in our models incorporating smoking as ever-smoking is a significant risk factor for RA in men but not women. We developed multiple models to evaluate each risk factor's impact on prediction. Each model's ability to discriminate anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)-positive RA from controls was evaluated in two cohorts: Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC: 1,516 cases; 1,647 controls); UK RA Genetics Group Consortium (UKRAGG: 2,623 cases; 1,500 controls). HLA and smoking provided strongest prediction with good discrimination evidenced by an HLA-smoking model area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.813 in both WTCCC and UKRAGG. SNPs provided minimal prediction (AUC 0.660 WTCCC/0.617 UKRAGG). Whilst high individual risks were identified, with some cases having estimated lifetime risks of 86%, only a minority overall had substantially increased odds for RA. High risks from the HLA model were associated with YORA (P<0.0001); ever-smoking associated with older onset disease. This latter finding suggests smoking's impact on RA risk manifests later in life. Our modelling demonstrates that combining risk factors provides clinically informative RA prediction; additionally HLA and smoking status can be used to predict the risk of younger and older onset RA, respectively.

  8. Predicting the Risk of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Its Age of Onset through Modelling Genetic Risk Variants with Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Ian C.; Seegobin, Seth D.; Steer, Sophia; Tan, Rachael; Forabosco, Paola; Hinks, Anne; Eyre, Stephen; Morgan, Ann W.; Wilson, Anthony G.; Hocking, Lynne J.; Wordsworth, Paul; Barton, Anne; Worthington, Jane; Cope, Andrew P.; Lewis, Cathryn M.

    2013-01-01

    The improved characterisation of risk factors for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) suggests they could be combined to identify individuals at increased disease risks in whom preventive strategies may be evaluated. We aimed to develop an RA prediction model capable of generating clinically relevant predictive data and to determine if it better predicted younger onset RA (YORA). Our novel modelling approach combined odds ratios for 15 four-digit/10 two-digit HLA-DRB1 alleles, 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and ever-smoking status in males to determine risk using computer simulation and confidence interval based risk categorisation. Only males were evaluated in our models incorporating smoking as ever-smoking is a significant risk factor for RA in men but not women. We developed multiple models to evaluate each risk factor's impact on prediction. Each model's ability to discriminate anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)-positive RA from controls was evaluated in two cohorts: Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC: 1,516 cases; 1,647 controls); UK RA Genetics Group Consortium (UKRAGG: 2,623 cases; 1,500 controls). HLA and smoking provided strongest prediction with good discrimination evidenced by an HLA-smoking model area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.813 in both WTCCC and UKRAGG. SNPs provided minimal prediction (AUC 0.660 WTCCC/0.617 UKRAGG). Whilst high individual risks were identified, with some cases having estimated lifetime risks of 86%, only a minority overall had substantially increased odds for RA. High risks from the HLA model were associated with YORA (P<0.0001); ever-smoking associated with older onset disease. This latter finding suggests smoking's impact on RA risk manifests later in life. Our modelling demonstrates that combining risk factors provides clinically informative RA prediction; additionally HLA and smoking status can be used to predict the risk of younger and older onset RA, respectively. PMID:24068971

  9. Pneumococcal Vaccination Recommendations for Children and Adults by Age and/or Risk Factor

    MedlinePlus

    Pneumococcal Vaccination Recommendations for Children 1 and Adults by Age and/or Risk Factor Routine Recommendations for Pneumococcal Conjugate ... X X X X X 1 For PCV13 vaccination of healthy children, see “Recommen- dations for Pneumococcal ...

  10. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Risk Factors for Age-Related Disease

    PubMed Central

    Danese, Andrea; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Harrington, HonaLee; Milne, Barry J.; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Pariante, Carmine M.; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand why children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences are at elevated risk for age-related disease, such as cardiovascular disease, by testing whether adverse childhood experiences predict enduring abnormalities in stress-sensitive biological systems, namely, the nervous, immune, and endocrine/metabolic systems. Design A 32-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting New Zealand. Participants A total of 1037 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Main Exposures During their first decade of life, study members were assessed for exposure to 3 adverse psychosocial experiences: socioeconomic disadvantage, maltreatment, and social isolation. Main Outcome Measures At age 32 years, study members were assessed for the presence of 3 age-related-disease risks: major depression, high inflammation levels (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level >3 mg/L), and the clustering of metabolic risk biomarkers (overweight, high blood pressure, high total cholesterol, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high glycated hemoglobin, and low maximum oxygen consumption levels. Results Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences were at elevated risk of depression, high inflammation levels, and clustering of metabolic risk markers. Children who had experienced socioeconomic disadvantage (incidence rate ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.36–2.62), maltreatment (1.81; 1.38–2.38), or social isolation (1.87; 1.38–2.51) had elevated age-related-disease risks in adulthood. The effects of adverse childhood experiences on age-related-disease risks in adulthood were nonredundant, cumulative, and independent of the influence of established developmental and concurrent risk factors. Conclusions Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences have enduring emotional, immune, and metabolic abnormalities that contribute to explaining their elevated risk for age-related disease. The

  11. Approaches for Assessing Risks to Sensitive Populations: Lessons Learned from Evaluating Risks in the Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Ronald N.; Sargent, Dana; Autrup, Herman; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Brent, Robert L.; Doerrer, Nancy G.; Cohen Hubal, Elaine A.; Juberg, Daland R.; Laurent, Christian; Luebke, Robert; Olejniczak, Klaus; Portier, Christopher J.; Slikker, William

    2010-01-01

    Assessing the risk profiles of potentially sensitive populations requires a “tool chest” of methodological approaches to adequately characterize and evaluate these populations. At present, there is an extensive body of literature on methodologies that apply to the evaluation of the pediatric population. The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute Subcommittee on Risk Assessment of Sensitive Populations evaluated key references in the area of pediatric risk to identify a spectrum of methodological approaches. These approaches are considered in this article for their potential to be extrapolated for the identification and assessment of other sensitive populations. Recommendations as to future research needs and/or alternate methodological considerations are also made. PMID:19770482

  12. [Vascular risk of oral contraceptive agents: realities and mechanisms. I. Risk evaluation].

    PubMed

    Beaumont, V; Beaumont, J L

    1989-06-17

    The suspected risk of oral contraception was confirmed when large scale epidemiological studies became available. The present work recalls the methodology of a good evaluation, the pros and cons of retrospective and prospective studies, the different appreciations provided by measuring "relative risk" or "attributable risk". In terms of public health, the data obtained supported the necessity to include mortality related to oral contraception in an evaluation of reproductive mortality. This work compares the incidence of vascular complications evaluated through different studies, according to the criteria selected and the type of vascular disease. The advantage of lowering estrogen content is considered. PMID:2525761

  13. Evaluation of nosocomial infection risk using APACHE II scores in the neurological intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Ying; Li, Shu-Juan; Yang, Nan; Hu, Wen-Li

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of using the Acute Physiology, Age and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scoring system for predicting the risk of nosocomial infection in the neurological intensive care unit (NICU), 216 patients transferred to NICU within 24hours of admission were retrospectively evaluated. Based on admission APACHE II scores, they were classified into three groups, with higher APACHE II scores representing higher infectious risk. The device utilization ratios and device-associated infection ratios of NICU patients were analyzed and compared with published reports on patient outcome. Statistical analysis of nosocomial infection ratios showed obvious differences between the high-risk, middle-risk and low-risk groups (p<0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the APACHE II model in predicting the risk of nosocomial infection was 0.81, which proved to be reliable and consistent with the expectation. In addition, we found statistical differences in the duration of hospital stay (patient-days) and device utilization (device-days) between different risk groups (p<0.05). Thus the APACHE II scoring system was validated in predicting the risk of nosocomial infection, duration of patient-days and device-days, and providing accurate assessment of patients' condition, so that appropriate prevention strategies can be implemented based on admission APACHE II scores.

  14. COMPONENT DEGRADATION SUSCEPTIBILITIES AS THE BASES FOR MODELING REACTOR AGING RISK

    SciTech Connect

    Unwin, Stephen D.; Lowry, Peter P.; Toyooka, Michael Y.

    2010-07-18

    The extension of nuclear power plant operating licenses beyond 60 years in the United States will be necessary if we are to meet national energy needs while addressing the issues of carbon and climate. Characterizing the operating risks associated with aging reactors is problematic because the principal tool for risk-informed decision-making, Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), is not ideally-suited to addressing aging systems. The components most likely to drive risk in an aging reactor - the passives - receive limited treatment in PRA, and furthermore, standard PRA methods are based on the assumption of stationary failure rates: a condition unlikely to be met in an aging system. A critical barrier to modeling passives aging on the wide scale required for a PRA is that there is seldom sufficient field data to populate parametric failure models, and nor is there the availability of practical physics models to predict out-year component reliability. The methodology described here circumvents some of these data and modeling needs by using materials degradation metrics, integrated with conventional PRA models, to produce risk importance measures for specific aging mechanisms and component types. We suggest that these measures have multiple applications, from the risk-screening of components to the prioritization of materials research.

  15. The maternal-age-associated risk of congenital heart disease is modifiable.

    PubMed

    Schulkey, Claire E; Regmi, Suk D; Magnan, Rachel A; Danzo, Megan T; Luther, Herman; Hutchinson, Alayna K; Panzer, Adam A; Grady, Mary M; Wilson, David B; Jay, Patrick Y

    2015-04-01

    Maternal age is a risk factor for congenital heart disease even in the absence of any chromosomal abnormality in the newborn. Whether the basis of this risk resides with the mother or oocyte is unknown. The impact of maternal age on congenital heart disease can be modelled in mouse pups that harbour a mutation of the cardiac transcription factor gene Nkx2-5 (ref. 8). Here, reciprocal ovarian transplants between young and old mothers establish a maternal basis for the age-associated risk in mice. A high-fat diet does not accelerate the effect of maternal ageing, so hyperglycaemia and obesity do not simply explain the mechanism. The age-associated risk varies with the mother's strain background, making it a quantitative genetic trait. Most remarkably, voluntary exercise, whether begun by mothers at a young age or later in life, can mitigate the risk when they are older. Thus, even when the offspring carry a causal mutation, an intervention aimed at the mother can meaningfully reduce their risk of congenital heart disease.

  16. Paternal age as a risk factor for schizophrenia: how important is it?

    PubMed

    Torrey, E Fuller; Buka, Stephen; Cannon, Tyrone D; Goldstein, Jill M; Seidman, Larry J; Liu, Tianli; Hadley, Trevor; Rosso, Isabelle M; Bearden, Carrie; Yolken, Robert H

    2009-10-01

    Advanced paternal age has been widely cited as a risk factor for schizophrenia among offspring and even claimed to account for one-quarter of all cases. We carried out a new study on 25,025 offspring from the Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP), including 168 diagnosed with psychosis and 88 with narrowly defined schizophrenia. We also conducted a meta-analysis of this and nine other studies for which comparable age-cohort data were available. The mean paternal age for the CPP cases was slightly, but not significantly, higher than the matched controls (p=0.28). Meta-analyses including these new results were conducted to determine the relative risk associated with alternative definitions of advanced paternal age (35, 45 or 55 years and older). These yielded pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of 1.28 (1.10, 1.48), 1.38 (0.95, 2.01) and 2.22 (1.46, 3.37), respectively. Thus, increased paternal age appears to be a risk factor for schizophrenia primarily among offspring of fathers ages 55 and over. In these 10 studies, such fathers accounted for only 0.6% of all births. Compared with other known risk factors for schizophrenia, advanced paternal age appears to be intermediate in magnitude. Advanced paternal age is also known to be a risk factor for some chromosomal and neoplastic diseases in the offspring where the cause is thought to be chromosomal aberrations and mutations of the aging germline. Similar mechanisms may account for the relationship between advanced paternal age and schizophrenia risk.

  17. Age and gender disparities in the risk of carotid revascularization procedures.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulos, Sotirios; Katsanos, Aristeidis H; Vasdekis, Spyros N; Boviatsis, Efstathios; Voumvourakis, Konstantinos Iota; Tsivgoulis, Georgios

    2013-10-01

    The potential effect of age and gender stratification in the outcome of patients with carotid artery stenosis undergoing carotid revascularization procedures (CRP) may have important implications in clinical practice. Both European Stroke Organization and American Heart Association guidelines suggest that age and sex should be taken into account when selecting a CRP for an individual patient. We reviewed available literature data through Medline and Embase. Our search was based on the combination of terms: age, gender, sex, carotid artery stenosis, carotid artery stenting (CAS) and carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Postoperative stroke and mortality rates increased with age after any CRP (CEA or CAS), especially in patients aged over 75 years. Older patients with carotid artery stenosis undergoing CAS were found to have a nearly double risk of stroke or death compared with CEA, while CEA was found to benefit more patients aged over 70 years with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. Male patients with symptomatic or asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis had lower stroke/mortality rates and benefited more from CEA compared with females. For the periprocedural risk of stroke or death in patients with carotid artery stenosis after CAS no sex differences were found. Therefore, CEA appears to have lower perioperative risks than CAS in patients aged over 70 years, and thus should be the treatment of choice if not contraindicated. The periprocedural risk of CEA is lower in men than in women, while there was no effect of gender on the periprocedural risk of CAS.

  18. Differential Profiles of Risk of Self-Harm among Clinically Referred Primary School Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelkovska, Anne; Houghton, Stephen; Hopkins, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Risk of self-harm among clinic referred children aged 6- to 12-years-old was investigated using the recently developed Self-Harm Risk Assessment for Children (SHRAC) instrument which comprises six factors: Affect traits; verbalizing of self-harm; socialization; dissociation; self-directing; and self-appraisal. The SHRAC was completed by the…

  19. Differential DNA Methylation in Relation to Age and Health Risks of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Mansego, María Luisa; Milagro, Fermín I.; Zulet, María Ángeles; Moreno-Aliaga, María J.; Martínez, José Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether genome-wide levels of DNA methylation are associated with age and the health risks of obesity (HRO); defined according to BMI categories as “Low HRO” (overweight and class 1 obesity) versus “High HRO” (class 2 and class 3 obesity). Anthropometric measurements were assessed in a subsample of 48 volunteers from the Metabolic Syndrome Reduction in Navarra (RESMENA) study and 24 women from another independent study, Effects of Lipoic Acid and Eicosapentaenoic Acid in Human Obesity (OBEPALIP study). In the pooled population; the methylation levels of 55 CpG sites were significantly associated with age after Benjamini-Hochberg correction. In addition, DNA methylation of three CpG sites located in ELOVL2; HOXC4 and PI4KB were further negatively associated with their mRNA levels. Although no differentially methylated CpG sites were identified in relation to HRO after multiple testing correction; several nominally significant CpG sites were identified in genes related to insulin signaling; energy and lipid metabolism. Moreover, statistically significant associations between BMI or mRNA levels and two HRO-related CpG sites located in GPR133 and ITGB5 are reported. As a conclusion, these findings from two Spanish cohorts add knowledge about the important role of DNA methylation in the age-related regulation of gene expression. In addition; a relevant influence of age on DNA methylation in white blood cells was found, as well as, on a trend level, novel associations between DNA methylation and obesity. PMID:26213922

  20. Primer for evaluating ecological risk at petroleum release sites.

    PubMed

    Claff, R

    1999-02-01

    Increasingly, risk-based approaches are being used to guide decision making at sites such as service stations and petroleum product terminals, where petroleum products have been inadvertently released to the soil. For example, the API Decision Support System software, DSS, evaluates site human health risk along six different routes of exposure. The American Society for Testing and Materials' Risk-Based Corrective Action (RBCA) standard, ASTM 1739, establishes a tiered framework for evaluating petroleum release sites on the basis of human health risk. Though much of the risk assessment focus has been on human health risk, regulatory agencies recognize that protection of human health may not fully protect the environment; and EPA has developed guidance on identifying ecological resources to be protected through risk-based decision making. Not every service station or petroleum product terminal site warrants a detailed ecological risk assessment. In some cases, a simple preliminary assessment will provide sufficient information for decision making. Accordingly, the American Petroleum Institute (API) is developing a primer for site managers, to assist them in conducting this preliminary assessment, and in deciding whether more detailed ecological risk assessments are warranted. The primer assists the site manager in identifying relevant ecological receptors and habitats, in identifying chemicals and exposure pathways of concern, in developing a conceptual model of the site to guide subsequent actions, and in identifying conditions that may warrant immediate response. PMID:10189585

  1. Primer for evaluating ecological risk at petroleum release sites.

    PubMed

    Claff, R

    1999-02-01

    Increasingly, risk-based approaches are being used to guide decision making at sites such as service stations and petroleum product terminals, where petroleum products have been inadvertently released to the soil. For example, the API Decision Support System software, DSS, evaluates site human health risk along six different routes of exposure. The American Society for Testing and Materials' Risk-Based Corrective Action (RBCA) standard, ASTM 1739, establishes a tiered framework for evaluating petroleum release sites on the basis of human health risk. Though much of the risk assessment focus has been on human health risk, regulatory agencies recognize that protection of human health may not fully protect the environment; and EPA has developed guidance on identifying ecological resources to be protected through risk-based decision making. Not every service station or petroleum product terminal site warrants a detailed ecological risk assessment. In some cases, a simple preliminary assessment will provide sufficient information for decision making. Accordingly, the American Petroleum Institute (API) is developing a primer for site managers, to assist them in conducting this preliminary assessment, and in deciding whether more detailed ecological risk assessments are warranted. The primer assists the site manager in identifying relevant ecological receptors and habitats, in identifying chemicals and exposure pathways of concern, in developing a conceptual model of the site to guide subsequent actions, and in identifying conditions that may warrant immediate response.

  2. School-Age Children of Fathers with Substance Use Disorder: Are They a High Risk Population?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association between parental substance use and the increased risk among school-age children to developing psychosocial problems. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 from urban areas in Israel. The following variables were assessed by four self-report questionnaires administered to the children: …

  3. Elevated GDF11 Is a Risk Factor for Age-Related Frailty and Disease in Humans.

    PubMed

    Glass, David J

    2016-07-12

    GDF11 was reported to decline with age and to have muscle and heart rejuvenating effects. These reports were disputed. A Cell Metabolism paper now shows that in human beings, GDF11 does not decline with age and is actually a risk factor for frailty and other morbidities (Schafer et al., 2016). PMID:27411004

  4. Application of a score system to evaluate the risk of malnutrition in a multiple hospital setting

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An increased but unpredictable risk of malnutrition is associated with hospitalization, especially in children with chronic diseases. We investigated the applicability of Screening Tool for Risk of Impaired Nutritional Status and Growth (STRONGkids), an instrument proposed to estimate the risk of malnutrition in hospitalized children. We also evaluated the role of age and co-morbidities as risk for malnutrition. Methods The STRONGkids consists of 4 items providing a score that classifies a patient in low, moderate, high risk for malnutrition. A prospective observational multi-centre study was performed in 12 Italian hospitals. Children 1–18 years consecutively admitted and otherwise unselected were enrolled. Their STRONGkids score was obtained and compared with the actual nutritional status expressed as BMI and Height for Age SD-score. Results Of 144 children (75 males, mean age 6.5 ± 4.5 years), 52 (36%) had an underlying chronic disease. According to STRONGkids, 46 (32%) children were at low risk, 76 (53%) at moderate risk and 22 (15%) at high risk for malnutrition. The latter had significantly lower Height for Age values (mean SD value -1.07 ± 2.08; p = 0.008) and BMI values (mean SD-values -0.79 ± 2.09; p = 0.0021) in comparison to other groups. However, only 29 children were actually malnourished. Conclusions The STRONGkids is easy to administer. It is highly sensitive but not specific. It may be used as a very preliminary screening tool to be integrated with other clinical data in order to reliably predict the risk of malnutrition. PMID:24373709

  5. Food and Drug Administration Evaluation and Cigarette Smoking Risk Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Annette R.; Waters, Erika A.; Parascandola, Mark; Augustson, Erik M.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship between a belief about Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety evaluation of cigarettes and smoking risk perceptions. Methods: A nationally representative, random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 1046 adult current cigarette smokers. Results: Smokers reporting that the FDA does not evaluate cigarettes for…

  6. Age trends in prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Roma minority population of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Zeljko, Hrvojka Marija; Skarić-Jurić, Tatjana; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Barešić, Ana; Tomas, Zeljka; Petranović, Matea Zajc; Miličić, Jasna; Salihović, Marijana Peričić; Janićijević, Branka

    2013-07-01

    The Roma (Gypsy) are the largest European minority population characterized by poverty, social exclusion as well as by numerous life-style and cultural specificities, which all could have an adverse impact on their cardiovascular health. This study assesses the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors in community-based sample of 430 adult Roma, living in rural area of Croatia, by providing the actual and age-adjusted estimates using the European standard population. The most prominent classical CVD risk phenotypes (blood pressure, obesity, smoking, glucose and lipid profile) were selected, and the standard risk cut-offs were applied. The study has shown that compared to general population of Croatia, the Roma population bears a high CVD risk factors load related to smoking and high glucose level. The CVD risk factors prevalence in Roma also showed important sex and age patterns, the most imposing of which are the findings of higher prevalence of CVD risks in women (especially obesity and triglyceride levels) and the trend of higher body mass index (BMI) level in younger age group (18-34 years) which both stand in contrast to the trends characterizing the general population of Croatia. These findings are complemented by the trend of decreased risk in the oldest age group (65+ years) for all investigated CVD risk factors (with exception of triglycerides level) compared to the 50-64 age group. We conclude that the age and sex CVD risks pattern point to the health transition of this rural Roma population. As we expect the proportion of CVD in the Roma minority of Croatia to increase in the future along with further modernization of their lifestyle, the CVD prevention measures in this population are urgent and should be primarily targeted at women and at the younger segment of this population.

  7. Benefit/Risk Assessment for Breast Cancer Chemoprevention With Raloxifene or Tamoxifen for Women Age 50 Years or Older

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Andrew N.; Yu, Binbing; Gail, Mitchell H.; Costantino, Joseph P.; Graubard, Barry I.; Vogel, Victor G.; Anderson, Garnet L.; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) demonstrated that raloxifene was as effective as tamoxifen in reducing the risk of invasive breast cancer (IBC) in postmenopausal women and had lower risks of thromboembolic events, endometrial cancer, and cataracts but had a nonstatistically significant higher risk of noninvasive breast cancer. There is a need to summarize the risks and benefits of these agents. Patients and Methods Baseline incidence rates of IBC and other health outcomes, absent raloxifene and tamoxifen, were estimated from breast cancer chemoprevention trials; the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program; and the Women's Health Initiative. Effects of raloxifene and tamoxifen were estimated from STAR and the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial. We assigned weights to health outcomes to calculate the net benefit from raloxifene compared with placebo and tamoxifen compared with placebo. Results Risks and benefits of treatment with raloxifene or tamoxifen depend on age, race, breast cancer risk, and history of hysterectomy. Over a 5-year period, postmenopausal women with an intact uterus had a better benefit/risk index for raloxifene than for tamoxifen. For postmenopausal women without a uterus, the benefit/risk ratio was similar. The benefits and risks of raloxifene and tamoxifen are described in tables that can help identify groups of women for whom the benefits outweigh the risks. Conclusion We developed a benefit/risk index to quantify benefits from chemoprevention with tamoxifen or raloxifene. This index can complement clinical evaluation in deciding whether to initiate chemoprevention and in comparing the benefits and risks of raloxifene versus tamoxifen. PMID:21537036

  8. Risk Factors for Discontinuation of Exclusive Breastfeeding by One Month of Postnatal Age Among High Risk Newborns: An Institution Based Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Chandrika, Parul; Gathwala, Geeta; Narwal, Varun; Chaturvedi, Abhishek

    2015-01-01

    Background Beyond one month of age, there is generally a drop in the proportion of mothers providing exclusive breastfeeding to their infants. Infants with morbidities during neonatal period have been observed to be at higher risk of discontinuation. Objective To enumerate the prevalent factors behind discontinuation of breastfeeding among high risk newborns by first month of life. Materials and Methods A case control study conducted at high risk newborn followup clinic of a teaching medical institute in northern India between January and May 2013. Infants were divided on the basis of continuation (controls) or discontinuation (cases) of exclusive breastfeeding at one month of age. The socio-demographic factors along with maternal and neonatal medical factors were compared among groups. Results During the study period, 112 newborns were screened. Forty seven cases and thirty eight controls were enrolled and finally evaluated. Female gender of newborn, less educated mothers and large families were observed to be associated with discontinuation of exclusive breastfeeding during first month of life among high risk newborns. Requirement of parenteral fluids during hospital stay emerged as the only independent medical reason. Conclusion As in healthy newborns, the socio-cultural factors overshadow the medical reasons for discontinuation of exclusive breastfeeding during first month of life among high risk newborns. PMID:26266176

  9. A persistently high body mass index increases the risk of atopic asthma at school age

    PubMed Central

    Loid, Petra; Goksör, Emma; Alm, Bernt; Pettersson, Rolf; Möllborg, Per; Erdes, Laslo; Åberg, Nils; Wennergren, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Aim Being overweight has been associated with the risk of developing childhood asthma, but studies have produced conflicting results, for example with regard to possible links to allergic diseases. This study aimed to explore the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and school-age asthma. Methods Data were obtained from a prospective, longitudinal study of 5044 children born in western Sweden. The parents answered questionnaires at six months and one, four-and-a-half and eight years of age. The response rate to the final questionnaire at the age of eight was just over 80%. BMI was adjusted for age and gender, and a high BMI was defined as the 85th percentile and above. Results A multivariate analysis showed an independently increased risk of doctor-diagnosed asthma among children with a persistently high BMI, both in infancy and at school age, with an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 2.9 and a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.3–6.4. In addition, persistently high BMI was associated with an increased risk of atopic asthma (aOR 4.7, 95% CI 2.0–11.0). Conclusion A persistently high BMI during childhood increased the risk of doctor-diagnosed asthma at school age. The increased risk of atopic asthma suggests an effect mediated via the immune system. PMID:25818987

  10. Risk assessment for transboundary rivers using fuzzy synthetic evaluation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Subash P.; Sharma, Nayan; Lohani, A. K.

    2014-11-01

    Large scale urbanization has resulted in greater withdrawals of shared waters and this withdrawal has been largely dependent on the hegemony of the riparian's. The last few decades has seen the upward surge of many countries in terms of development as well as hegemony. Existing structures of established water sharing framework typically evaluate only parameters related to historic water use such as historic water demand and supply, contribution to flow, and hydrology. Water conflicts and cooperation is affected by various issues related with development and hegemony. Characterization and quantification of development and hegemony parameters is a very complex process. This paper establishes a novel approach to predict river basins at risk; the approach addresses the issue of water conflict and cooperation within a methodologically more rigorous predictive framework. Fuzzy synthetic evaluation technique is used in this paper to undertake the risk assessment of international transboundary rivers. In this paper the fuzzy domain of risk consists of two fuzzy sets - hegemony and development, indices of which are developed with the help of fuzzy synthetic evaluation techniques. Then the compositional rule-base is framed to ascertain the fuzzy risk. This fuzzy risk can be further used to prioritize all the international river basins which can help in the identification of potentially high risk basins. Risk identification of international river basins is not only scientifically valuable, but also practically highly useful. Identifying those basins that are likely to be particularly prone to conflict or cooperation is of high interest to policy makers.

  11. Socioeconomic determinants of risk of harmful alcohol drinking among people aged 50 or over in England

    PubMed Central

    Iparraguirre, José

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper looks into the socioeconomic determinants of risk of harmful alcohol drinking and of the transitions between risk categories over time among the population aged 50 or over in England. Setting Community-dwellers across England. Participants Respondents to the English Longitudinal Survey of Ageing, waves 4 and 5. Results (Confidence level at 95% or higher, except when stated): ▸ Higher risk drinking falls with age and there is a non-linear association between age and risk for men, peaking in their mid-60s. ▸ Retirement and income are positively associated with a higher risk for women but not for men. ▸ Education and smoking are positively associated for both sexes. ▸ Loneliness and depression are not associated. ▸ Caring responsibilities reduce risk among women. ▸ Single, separated or divorced men show a greater risk of harmful drinking (at 10% confidence level). ▸ For women, being younger and having a higher income at baseline increase the probability of becoming a higher risk alcohol drinker over time. ▸ For men, not eating healthily, being younger and having a higher income increase the probability of becoming a higher risk alcohol drinker. Furthermore, the presence of children living in the household, being lonely, being older and having a lower income are associated with ceasing to be a higher risk alcohol drinker over time. Conclusions Several socioeconomic factors found to be associated with high-risk alcohol consumption behaviour among older people would align with those promoted by the ‘successful ageing’ policy framework. PMID:26204909

  12. Identification by ultrasound evaluation of the carotid and femoral arteries of high-risk subjects missed by three validated cardiovascular disease risk algorithms.

    PubMed

    Postley, John E; Luo, Yanting; Wong, Nathan D; Gardin, Julius M

    2015-11-15

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events are the leading cause of death in the United States and globally. Traditional global risk algorithms may miss 50% of patients who experience ASCVD events. Noninvasive ultrasound evaluation of the carotid and femoral arteries can identify subjects at high risk for ASCVD events. We examined the ability of different global risk algorithms to identify subjects with femoral and/or carotid plaques found by ultrasound. The study population consisted of 1,464 asymptomatic adults (39.8% women) aged 23 to 87 years without previous evidence of ASCVD who had ultrasound evaluation of the carotid and femoral arteries. Three ASCVD risk algorithms (10-year Framingham Risk Score [FRS], 30-year FRS, and lifetime risk) were compared for the 939 subjects who met the algorithm age criteria. The frequency of femoral plaque as the only plaque was 18.3% in the total group and 14.8% in the risk algorithm groups (n = 939) without a significant difference between genders in frequency of femoral plaque as the only plaque. Those identified as high risk by the lifetime risk algorithm included the most men and women who had plaques either femoral or carotid (59% and 55%) but had lower specificity because the proportion of subjects who actually had plaques in the high-risk group was lower (50% and 35%) than in those at high risk defined by the FRS algorithms. In conclusion, ultrasound evaluation of the carotid and femoral arteries can identify subjects at risk of ASCVD events missed by traditional risk-predicting algorithms. The large proportion of subjects with femoral plaque only supports the use of including both femoral and carotid arteries in ultrasound evaluation.

  13. Evaluation of Risk Factors Associated with Endometriosis in Infertile Women

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafi, Mahnaz; Sadatmahalleh, Shahideh Jahanian; Akhoond, Mohammad Reza; Talebi, Mehrak

    2016-01-01

    Background Endometriosis affects women’s physical and mental wellbeing. Symptoms include dyspareunia, dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain, and infertility. The purpose of this study is to assess the correlation between some relevant factors and symptoms and risk of an endometriosis diagnosis in infertile women. Materials and Methods A retrospective study of 1282 surgical patients in an infertility Institute, Iran between 2011 and 2013 were evaluated by laparoscopy. Of these, there were 341 infertile women with endometriosis (cases) and 332 infertile women with a normal pelvis (comparison group). Chi-square and t tests were used to compare these two groups. Logistic regression was done to build a prediction model for an endometriosis diagnosis. Results Gravidity [odds ratio (OR): 0.8, confidence interval (CI): 0.6-0.9, P=0.01], parity (OR: 0.7, CI: 0.6-0.9, P=0.01), family history of endometriosis (OR: 4.9, CI: 2.1-11.3, P<0.001), history of galactorrhea (OR: 2.3, CI: 1.5-3.5, P=0.01), history of pelvic surgery (OR: 1.9, CI: 1.3-2.7, P<0.001), and shorter menstrual cycle length (OR: 0.9, CI: 0.9-0.9, P=0.04) were associated with endometriosis. Duration of natural menstruation and age of menarche were not correlated with subsequent risk of endometriosis (P>0.05). Fatigue, diarrhea, constipation, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, pelvic pain and premenstrual spotting were more significant among late-stage endometriosis patients than in those with early-stage endometriosis and more prevalent among patients with endometriosis than that of the comparison group. In the logistic regression model, gravidity, family history of endometriosis, history of galactorrhea, history of pelvic surgery, dysmenorrhoea, pelvic pain, dysparaunia, premenstrual spotting, fatigue, and diarrhea were significantly associated with endometriosis. However, the number of pregnancies was negatively related to endometriosis. Conclusion Endometriosis is a considerable public health issue because it affects many

  14. Age-graded risks for commercial sexual exploitation of male and female youth.

    PubMed

    Reid, Joan A; Piquero, Alex R

    2014-06-01

    Emerging evidence indicates male youth are affected by commercial sexual exploitation (CSE). However, most studies investigating risk markers influencing age of onset of CSE have focused on vulnerabilities of girls and women. Using a sample of 1,354 serious youthful offenders (of whom approximately 8% of males and females reported being paid for sex), the current study assessed whether risks associated with age of onset of CSE for girls and young women operated similarly in boys and young men. Findings showed that African American male youth were at heightened risk for CSE, while female youth of all races/ethnicities were at similar risk. For all youth, maternal substance use and earlier age of first sex were associated with early age of onset of CSE. For male youth, experiencing rape and substance use dependency were associated with early age of onset. Psychotic symptoms, likely experienced as social alienation, were associated with both early and late age of onset. For all youth, lower educational attainment was associated with CSE beginning in later adolescence or young adulthood. In addition, substance use dependency was linked to late age of onset for female youth. Implications of the study findings for theory development and application to CSE are noted.

  15. Age-graded risks for commercial sexual exploitation of male and female youth.

    PubMed

    Reid, Joan A; Piquero, Alex R

    2014-06-01

    Emerging evidence indicates male youth are affected by commercial sexual exploitation (CSE). However, most studies investigating risk markers influencing age of onset of CSE have focused on vulnerabilities of girls and women. Using a sample of 1,354 serious youthful offenders (of whom approximately 8% of males and females reported being paid for sex), the current study assessed whether risks associated with age of onset of CSE for girls and young women operated similarly in boys and young men. Findings showed that African American male youth were at heightened risk for CSE, while female youth of all races/ethnicities were at similar risk. For all youth, maternal substance use and earlier age of first sex were associated with early age of onset of CSE. For male youth, experiencing rape and substance use dependency were associated with early age of onset. Psychotic symptoms, likely experienced as social alienation, were associated with both early and late age of onset. For all youth, lower educational attainment was associated with CSE beginning in later adolescence or young adulthood. In addition, substance use dependency was linked to late age of onset for female youth. Implications of the study findings for theory development and application to CSE are noted. PMID:24366965

  16. Children's Moral Evaluations of Reporting the Transgressions of Peers: Age Differences in Evaluations of Tattling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loke, Ivy Chiu; Heyman, Gail D.; Forgie, Julia; McCarthy, Anjanie; Lee, Kang

    2011-01-01

    The way children evaluate the reporting of peers' transgressions to authority figures was investigated. Participants, ages 6-11 years (N = 60), were presented with a series of vignettes, each of which depicted a child who committed either a minor transgression (such as not finishing the vegetables at lunch) or a more serious transgression (such as…

  17. Cardiovascular Risk in Men Aged Over 40 in Boa Vista, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Lima Junior, Mário Maciel; Bezerra, Emanuel Araújo; Ticianeli, José Geraldo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of disease in the developed world. Early detection and risk prediction are a key component in reducing cardiovascular mortality. The Framingham Risk Score uses age, sex, cholesterol, blood pressure, diabetes, and smoking to calculate the 10-year risk probability of developing cardiovascular disease for a given patient. The aim of this study was to examine cardiovascular disease risk in men aged over 40 years in Boa Vista, Brazil and identify socioeconomic factors contributing to the risk. Methods: This was an epidemiological, cross-sectional, descriptive study. Physical examination and questionnaire survey were conducted on the participants. Results: Of the 598 participants (average age = 55.38 ± 10.77 years), 346 completed all the examinations and answered the survey, while 252 completed the survey and the physical examinations but did not undertake the laboratory tests. A large proportion of participants were overweight (42.6%) or obese (23.6%), 14.5% were hypertensive, and 71.9% were prehypertensive. Consumption of red meat and junk food was high, while participation in the exercise was low. Framingham scores ranged from −3 to 13 (mean score: 3.86 ± 3.16). A total of 204 participants (34.1%) had a low risk of cardiovascular disease, 98 (16.4%) had a medium risk, and 44 (7.4%) possessed high risk. Increased abdominal circumference (P = 0.013), resting pulse (P = 0.002), and prostate-specific antigen levels (P < 0.001) were associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Conclusions: Our study highlights a worrying trend in increasing obesity and hypertension, most likely associated with increasingly poor diet and reduced participation in exercises. As the Brazilian population ages, this will drive increasing rates of cardiovascular mortality unless these trends are reversed. This study suggests that such campaigns should focus on men over the age of 40, who are married or divorced and of

  18. The Problem of the Aging Surgeon: When Surgeon Age Becomes a Surgical Risk Factor

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The question of when a surgeon should retire has been the subject of debate for decades. Both anecdotal evidence and objective testing of surgeons suggest age causes deterioration in physical and cognitive performance. Medical education, residency and fellowship training, and technology evolve at a rapid pace, and the older a surgeon is, the more likely it is he or she is remote from his or her initial education in his or her specialty. Research also shows surgeons are reluctant to plan for retirement. Although there is no federally mandated retirement age for surgeons in the United States, surgeons must realize their skills will decline, a properly planned retirement can be satisfying, and the retired surgeon has much to offer the medical and teaching community. PMID:18975041

  19. Age at trauma exposure and PTSD risk in young adult women.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, Vivia V; Sartor, Carolyn E; Pommer, Nicole E; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Nelson, Elliot C; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the current study was to test the independent and joint contributions of 8 different types of trauma to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) risk using data from a young adult female cohort. Associations of traumatic events with PTSD onset were examined using Cox proportional hazards models. Differences in risk as a function of age at trauma were tested. Childhood sexual assault, physical abuse, and neglect were stronger predictors of PTSD onset than adolescent and early adult occurrence of these events in individual models. In a model including all traumatic events, differential risk by age remained for sexual assault and physical abuse. Early sexual assault was the strongest predictor of risk, but additional traumatic events increased risk even in its presence.

  20. Age at Trauma Exposure and PTSD Risk in a Young Adult Female Sample

    PubMed Central

    McCutcheon, Vivia V.; Sartor, Carolyn E.; Pommer, Nicole E.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to test the independent and joint contributions of 8 different types of trauma to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) risk using data from a young adult female cohort. Associations of traumatic events with PTSD onset were examined using Cox proportional hazards models. Differences in risk as a function of age at trauma were tested. Childhood sexual assault, physical abuse, and neglect were stronger predictors of PTSD onset than adolescent/early adult occurrence of these events in individual models. In a model including all traumatic events, differential risk by age remained for sexual assault and physical abuse. Early sexual assault was the strongest predictor of risk but additional traumatic events increased risk even in its presence. PMID:20963847

  1. Approach for evaluating inundation risks in urban drainage systems.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhihua; Chen, Zhihe; Chen, Xiaohong; He, Peiying

    2016-05-15

    Urban inundation is a serious challenge that increasingly confronts the residents of many cities, as well as policymakers. Hence, inundation evaluation is becoming increasingly important around the world. This comprehensive assessment involves numerous indices in urban catchments, but the high-dimensional and non-linear relationship between the indices and the risk presents an enormous challenge for accurate evaluation. Therefore, an approach is hereby proposed to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate inundation risks in urban drainage systems based on a storm water management model, the projection pursuit method, the ordinary kriging method and the K-means clustering method. This approach is tested using a residential district in Guangzhou, China. Seven evaluation indices were selected and twenty rainfall-runoff events were used to calibrate and validate the parameters of the rainfall-runoff model. The inundation risks in the study area drainage system were evaluated under different rainfall scenarios. The following conclusions are reached. (1) The proposed approach, without subjective factors, can identify the main driving factors, i.e., inundation duration, largest water flow and total flood amount in this study area. (2) The inundation risk of each manhole can be qualitatively analyzed and quantitatively calculated. There are 1, 8, 11, 14, 21, and 21 manholes at risk under the return periods of 1-year, 5-years, 10-years, 20-years, 50-years and 100-years, respectively. (3) The areas of levels III, IV and V increase with increasing rainfall return period based on analyzing the inundation risks for a variety of characteristics. (4) The relationships between rainfall intensity and inundation-affected areas are revealed by a logarithmic model. This study proposes a novel and successful approach to assessing risk in urban drainage systems and provides guidance for improving urban drainage systems and inundation preparedness. PMID:26897578

  2. Approach for evaluating inundation risks in urban drainage systems.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhihua; Chen, Zhihe; Chen, Xiaohong; He, Peiying

    2016-05-15

    Urban inundation is a serious challenge that increasingly confronts the residents of many cities, as well as policymakers. Hence, inundation evaluation is becoming increasingly important around the world. This comprehensive assessment involves numerous indices in urban catchments, but the high-dimensional and non-linear relationship between the indices and the risk presents an enormous challenge for accurate evaluation. Therefore, an approach is hereby proposed to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate inundation risks in urban drainage systems based on a storm water management model, the projection pursuit method, the ordinary kriging method and the K-means clustering method. This approach is tested using a residential district in Guangzhou, China. Seven evaluation indices were selected and twenty rainfall-runoff events were used to calibrate and validate the parameters of the rainfall-runoff model. The inundation risks in the study area drainage system were evaluated under different rainfall scenarios. The following conclusions are reached. (1) The proposed approach, without subjective factors, can identify the main driving factors, i.e., inundation duration, largest water flow and total flood amount in this study area. (2) The inundation risk of each manhole can be qualitatively analyzed and quantitatively calculated. There are 1, 8, 11, 14, 21, and 21 manholes at risk under the return periods of 1-year, 5-years, 10-years, 20-years, 50-years and 100-years, respectively. (3) The areas of levels III, IV and V increase with increasing rainfall return period based on analyzing the inundation risks for a variety of characteristics. (4) The relationships between rainfall intensity and inundation-affected areas are revealed by a logarithmic model. This study proposes a novel and successful approach to assessing risk in urban drainage systems and provides guidance for improving urban drainage systems and inundation preparedness.

  3. Risk assessment and remedial policy evaluation using predictive modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Linkov, L.; Schell, W.R.

    1996-06-01

    As a result of nuclear industry operation and accidents, large areas of natural ecosystems have been contaminated by radionuclides and toxic metals. Extensive societal pressure has been exerted to decrease the radiation dose to the population and to the environment. Thus, in making abatement and remediation policy decisions, not only economic costs but also human and environmental risk assessments are desired. This paper introduces a general framework for risk assessment and remedial policy evaluation using predictive modeling. Ecological risk assessment requires evaluation of the radionuclide distribution in ecosystems. The FORESTPATH model is used for predicting the radionuclide fate in forest compartments after deposition as well as for evaluating the efficiency of remedial policies. Time of intervention and radionuclide deposition profile was predicted as being crucial for the remediation efficiency. Risk assessment conducted for a critical group of forest users in Belarus shows that consumption of forest products (berries and mushrooms) leads to about 0.004% risk of a fatal cancer annually. Cost-benefit analysis for forest cleanup suggests that complete removal of organic layer is too expensive for application in Belarus and a better methodology is required. In conclusion, FORESTPATH modeling framework could have wide applications in environmental remediation of radionuclides and toxic metals as well as in dose reconstruction and, risk-assessment.

  4. Systematic review and meta-analysis of age at menarche and risk of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Janghorbani, Mohsen; Mansourian, Marjan; Hosseini, Elham

    2014-08-01

    The relation of early menarche with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains inconsistent across studies. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis of published population-based observational studies was to assess the association between age at menarche and T2DM risk. We searched online data bases through December 2013 and examined the reference lists of pertinent articles. Summary relative risks (RRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with a random-effects model. A total of 14 effect estimates from 10 eligible studies (three cross-sectional and seven cohort studies) included 315,428 participants and 22,085 cases of T2DM. Compared with the highest or middle category, women in the lowest category of age at menarche had higher risk of T2DM [summary RR (95 % CI) 1.22 (1.17, 1.28)]. These results were consistent between studies that conducted in the United States and in Europe. The association between age at menarche and T2DM was slightly stronger for cohort than for cross-sectional studies. These findings strongly support an association between younger age at menarche and increased risk of T2DM. Age at menarche may help identify women with increased risk of developing T2DM. PMID:24671509

  5. Risk preferences and aging: The “Certainty Effect” in older adults’ decision making

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Mara; Mazar, Nina; Gorlick, Marissa A.; Lighthall, Nichole R.; Burgeno, Jessica; Schoeke, Andrej; Ariely, Dan

    2013-01-01

    A prevalent stereotype is that people become less risk taking and more cautious as they get older. However, in laboratory studies, findings are mixed and often reveal no age differences. In the current series of experiments, we examined whether age differences in risk seeking are more likely to emerge when choices include a certain option (a sure gain or a sure loss). In four experiments, we found that age differences in risk preferences only emerged when participants were offered a choice between a risky and a certain gamble but not when offered two risky gambles. In particular, Experiments 1 and 2 included only gambles about potential gains. Here, compared with younger adults, older adults preferred a certain gain over a chance to win a larger gain and thus, exhibited more risk aversion in the domain of gains. But in Experiments 3 and 4, when offered the chance to take a small sure loss rather than risking a larger loss, older adults exhibited more risk seeking in the domain of losses than younger adults. Both their greater preference for sure gains and greater avoidance of sure losses suggest that older adults weigh certainty more heavily than younger adults. Experiment 4 also indicates that older adults focus more on positive emotions than younger adults do when considering their options and that this emotional shift can at least partially account for age differences in how much people are swayed by certainty in their choices. PMID:23066800

  6. Conceptual Model of Offshore Wind Environmental Risk Evaluation System

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Richard M.; Copping, Andrea E.; Van Cleve, Frances B.; Unwin, Stephen D.; Hamilton, Erin L.

    2010-06-01

    In this report we describe the development of the Environmental Risk Evaluation System (ERES), a risk-informed analytical process for estimating the environmental risks associated with the construction and operation of offshore wind energy generation projects. The development of ERES for offshore wind is closely allied to a concurrent process undertaken to examine environmental effects of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy generation, although specific risk-relevant attributes will differ between the MHK and offshore wind domains. During FY10, a conceptual design of ERES for offshore wind will be developed. The offshore wind ERES mockup described in this report will provide a preview of the functionality of a fully developed risk evaluation system that will use risk assessment techniques to determine priority stressors on aquatic organisms and environments from specific technology aspects, identify key uncertainties underlying high-risk issues, compile a wide-range of data types in an innovative and flexible data organizing scheme, and inform planning and decision processes with a transparent and technically robust decision-support tool. A fully functional version of ERES for offshore wind will be developed in a subsequent phase of the project.

  7. Age and Social Context Modulate the Effect of Anxiety on Risk-taking in Pediatric Samples

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Dana; Patel, Nilam; Pavletic, Nevia; Grillon, Christian; Pine, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    Although risk-taking has been studied from a developmental perspective, no study has examined how anxiety, age, risk-valence and social context interact to modulate decision-making in youths. This study probes this question using a risk-taking task, the Stunt Task, in clinically anxious children (n=17, 10 F, age=8.3–12.1 years), healthy children (n=13, 4 F, age=9.3–12.2 years), clinically anxious adolescents (n=18, 6 F, age=12.3–17.7 years), and healthy adolescents (n =14, 10 F, age=12.5–17.3 years). Social context was manipulated: in one condition, participants were led to believe that a group of peers were observing and judging their performance (peer-judge), while, in the other condition, they were led to believe that peers were not observing them (control). Only anxious children showed an influence of social context on their risk-taking behavior. Specifically, anxious children bet significantly less and had slower reaction times (RT) during the peer-judge than control condition. However, across social conditions, risk-valence modulated RT differently in function of age and diagnosis. Anxious children were slower on the positive-valence risky trial, whereas anxious adolescents were slower on the negative-valence risky trials relative to their respective healthy peers. In conclusion, clinically anxious children were the only group that was sensitive (risk-averse) to the effect of a negative peer-judge context. The negative peer-judge context did not affect risky decision-making in adolescents, whether they were anxious or healthy. Future work using a stronger aversive social context might be more effective at influencing risky behavior in this age group. PMID:26659306

  8. Sensory evaluation of a novel vegetable in school age children.

    PubMed

    Coulthard, Helen; Palfreyman, Zoe; Morizet, David

    2016-05-01

    A behavioural sensory task was undertaken to further understanding into whether children's sensory evaluation of a new vegetable is associated with tasting and food neophobia scores. A sample of ninety-five children, aged 7-11 years, was recruited from a primary school in inner city Birmingham, UK. They were asked to rate the sight, smell and feel of a familiar vegetable (carrot) and an unfamiliar vegetable (celeriac) in a randomised order to control for order effects. They were then asked to try the each vegetable, and rate its taste. It was found that children rated the sensory characteristics of the familiar vegetable more positively than the novel vegetable across all sensory domains (p < 0.05). Refusing to try the novel vegetable was associated with food neophobia scores and olfactory ratings. The ratings of the taste of the novel vegetable were associated with olfactory and tactile ratings. In addition there was a clear developmental shift in the sample with younger children being more likely to rate the novel vegetable as 'looking strange' and older children rating the novel vegetable as 'smelling strange'. This research strengthens the idea that sensory information is important in children deciding to try, and their hedonic evaluation of the taste of a new vegetable. PMID:26809143

  9. Perception of risks from electromagnetic fields: A psychometric evaluation of a risk-communication approach

    SciTech Connect

    MacGregor, D.G.; Slovic, P. ); Morgan, M.G. )

    1994-10-01

    Potential health risks from exposure to power-frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) have become an issue of significant public concern. This study evaluates a brochure designed to communicate EMF health risks from a scientific perspective. The study utilized a pretest-posttest design in which respondents judged various sources of EMF (and other) health and safety risks, both before reaching the brochure and after. Respondents assessed risks on dimensions similar to those utilized in previous studies of risk perception. In addition, detailed ratings were made that probed respondents' beliefs about the possible causal effects of EMF exposure. The findings suggest that naive beliefs about the potential of EMF exposure to cause harm were highly influenced by specific content elements of the brochure. The implications for using risk-communication approaches based on communicating scientific uncertainty are discussed. 19 refs., 1 fig., 11 tabs.

  10. Childhood trauma and suicide risk in a sample of young individuals aged 14-35 years in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Luana Porto; Quevedo, Luciana; da Silva, Giovanna Del Grande; Jansen, Karen; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares; Branco, Jerônimo; Lara, Diogo; Oses, Jean; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo

    2014-07-01

    Suicide is among the main causes of death of people aged between 15 and 44 years old. Childhood trauma is an important risk factor for suicide. Hence, the objective of this study was to verify the relationship between childhood trauma and current suicide risk (suicidal behavior and ideation) in individuals aged 14-35 years, in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional, population-based study. Sample selection was performed by clusters. Suicide risk was evaluated using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and Childhood trauma was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Moreover, the participants responded to a questionnaire concerning socioeconomic status, work, and substance use. The sample was composed of 1,380 individuals. The prevalence of suicide risk was 11.5%. The prevalence figures of childhood trauma were 15.2% (emotional neglect), 13.5% (physical neglect), 7.6% (sexual abuse), 10.1% (physical abuse), and 13.8% (emotional abuse). Suicide risk was associated (p<.001) with gender, work, alcohol abuse, tobacco use, and all types of childhood trauma. The odds of suicide risk were higher in women (OR=1.8), people who were not currently working (OR=2.3), individuals who presented alcohol abuse (OR=2.6), and among tobacco smokers (OR=3.4). Moreover, suicide risk was increased in all types of trauma: emotional neglect (OR=3.7), physical neglect (OR=2.8), sexual abuse (OR=3.4), physical abuse (OR=3.1), and emotional abuse (OR=6.6). Thus, preventing early trauma may reduce suicide risk in young individuals.

  11. Socioeconomic inequalities in coronary heart disease risk in older age: contribution of established and novel coronary risk factors

    PubMed Central

    RAMSAY, S E; MORRIS, R W; WHINCUP, P H; PAPACOSTA, O; RUMLEY, A; LENNON, L; LOWE, G; WANNAMETHEE, S G

    2009-01-01

    Background:Evidence on socioeconomic inequalities in coronary heart disease (CHD) and their pathways in the elderly is limited. Little is also known about the contributions that novel coronary risk factors (particularly inflammatory/hemostatic markers) make to socioeconomic inequalities in CHD. Objectives:To examine the extent of socioeconomic inequalities in CHD in older age, and the contributions (relative and absolute) of established and novel coronary risk factors. Methods:A population-based cohort of 3761 British men aged 60–79 years was followed up for 6.5 years for CHD mortality and incidence (fatal and non-fatal). Social class was based on longest-held occupation recorded at 40–59 years. Results:There was a graded relationship between social class and CHD incidence. The hazard ratio for CHD incidence comparing social class V (unskilled workers) with social class I (professionals) was 2.70 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.37–5.35; P-value for trend = 0.008]. This was reduced to 2.14 (95% CI 1.06–4.33; P-value for trend = 0.11) after adjustment for behavioral factors (cigarette smoking, physical activity, body mass index, and alcohol consumption), which explained 38% of the relative risk gradient (41% of absolute risk). Additional adjustment for inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and von Willebrand factor) explained 55% of the relative risk gradient (59% of absolute risk). Blood pressure and lipids made little difference to these estimates; results were similar for CHD mortality. Conclusions:Socioeconomic inequalities in CHD persist in the elderly and are at least partly explained by behavioral risk factors; novel (inflammatory) coronary risk markers made some further contribution. Reducing inequalities in behavioral factors (especially cigarette smoking) could reduce these social inequalities by at least one-third. PMID:20015318

  12. The Risk-Taking and Self-Harm Inventory for Adolescents: Development and Psychometric Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrouva, Ioanna; Fonagy, Peter; Fearon, Pasco R. M.; Roussow, Trudie

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we report on the development and psychometric evaluation of the Risk-Taking (RT) and Self-Harm (SH) Inventory for Adolescents (RTSHIA), a self-report measure designed to assess adolescent RT and SH in community and clinical settings. 651 young people from secondary schools in England ranging in age from 11.6 years to 18.7 years and…

  13. Age and metabolic risk factors associated with oxidatively damaged DNA in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Løhr, Mille; Jensen, Annie; Eriksen, Louise; Grønbæk, Morten; Loft, Steffen; Møller, Peter

    2015-02-20

    Aging is associated with oxidative stress-generated damage to DNA and this could be related to metabolic disturbances. This study investigated the association between levels of oxidatively damaged DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and metabolic risk factors in 1,019 subjects, aged 18-93 years. DNA damage was analyzed as strand breaks by the comet assay and levels of formamidopyrimidine (FPG-) and human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (hOGG1)-sensitive sites There was an association between age and levels of FPG-sensitive sites for women, but not for men. The same tendency was observed for the level of hOGG1-sensitive sites, whereas there was no association with the level of strand breaks. The effect of age on oxidatively damaged DNA in women disappeared in multivariate models, which showed robust positive associations between DNA damage and plasma levels of triglycerides, cholesterol and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). In the group of men, there were significant positive associations between alcohol intake, HbA1c and FPG-sensitive sites in multivariate analysis. The levels of metabolic risk factors were positively associated with age, yet only few subjects fulfilled all metabolic syndrome criteria. In summary, positive associations between age and levels of oxidatively damaged DNA appeared mediated by age-related increases in metabolic risk factors. PMID:25650665

  14. Age at Menopause, Reproductive Life Span, and Type 2 Diabetes Risk

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Judith S.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Sharp, Stephen J.; Ong, Ken K.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Boeing, Heiner; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Crowe, Francesca L.; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Duell, Eric J.; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W.; Grioni, Sara; Groop, Leif C.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J.; Nilsson, Peter M.; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, J. Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sánchez, María-José; Slimani, Nadia; Teucher, Birgit; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L.; Feskens, Edith J.M.; Langenberg, Claudia; Forouhi, Nita G.; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Age at menopause is an important determinant of future health outcomes, but little is known about its relationship with type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of menopausal age and reproductive life span (menopausal age minus menarcheal age) with diabetes risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data were obtained from the InterAct study, a prospective case-cohort study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. A total of 3,691 postmenopausal type 2 diabetic case subjects and 4,408 subcohort members were included in the analysis, with a median follow-up of 11 years. Prentice weighted Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for age, known risk factors for diabetes, and reproductive factors, and effect modification by BMI, waist circumference, and smoking was studied. RESULTS Mean (SD) age of the subcohort was 59.2 (5.8) years. After multivariable adjustment, hazard ratios (HRs) of type 2 diabetes were 1.32 (95% CI 1.04–1.69), 1.09 (0.90–1.31), 0.97 (0.86–1.10), and 0.85 (0.70–1.03) for women with menopause at ages <40, 40–44, 45–49, and ≥55 years, respectively, relative to those with menopause at age 50–54 years. The HR per SD younger age at menopause was 1.08 (1.02–1.14). Similarly, a shorter reproductive life span was associated with a higher diabetes risk (HR per SD lower reproductive life span 1.06 [1.01–1.12]). No effect modification by BMI, waist circumference, or smoking was observed (P interaction all > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Early menopause is associated with a greater risk of type 2 diabetes. PMID:23230098

  15. Risk evaluation of liquefaction on the site of Damien (Haiti)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean, B. J.; Boisson, D.; Thimus, J.; Schroeder, C.

    2013-12-01

    Under the proposed relocation of all faculties to the campus of Damien, owned by Université d'Etat d'Haïti (UEH), the Unité de Recherche en Géotechnique (URGéo) of the Faculté des Sciences (FDS) of UEH conducted several operations whose objective was to evaluate the risk of liquefaction on this site. This abstract presents a comprehensive and coherent manner the entire processus of assessing the risk of liquefaction. This evaluation was conducted mainly from seismic thechniques, laboratory tests and the response of a one-dimensional soil column. Then, we summarize the results of this evaluation on the various techniques through synthetic maps interpretations of MASW 1D and H/V and also measures on site response to seismic loading from the SPT test applied to evaluation of liquefaction potential.

  16. [Biologic age as a criterion for work evaluation (exemplified by titanium alloys production)].

    PubMed

    Afanas'eva, R F; Prokopenko, L V

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with results of studies concerning biologic age of workers (males) under occupational hazards of titanium alloys (jeopardy classes 3.3, 3.4.4) in Verkhne-Saldinsky metallurgic production association. Based on mathematic statistic analysis, the authors worked out an equation of multiple regression for ageing pace to forecast the ageing with consideration of age, length of service, occupation. The authors determined occupational groups characterized by premature ageing and increased risk of health disorders.

  17. Age at menarche and risk of ovarian cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ting-Ting; Wu, Qi-Jun; Vogtmann, Emily; Lin, Bei; Wang, Yong-Lai

    2013-06-15

    Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent associations between menarcheal age and ovarian cancer risk. To our knowledge, a meta-analysis for the association between menarcheal age and ovarian cancer has not been reported. Relevant published studies of menarcheal age and ovarian cancer were identified using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science through the end of April 2012. Two authors (T-T.G. and Q-J.W.) independently assessed eligibility and extracted data. We pooled the relative risks (RRs) from individual studies using a random-effects model and performed heterogeneity and publication bias analyses. A total of 27 observational studies consisting of 22 case-control and five cohort studies were included in our analysis. In a pooled analysis of all studies, a statistically significant inverse association was observed between menarcheal age (for the oldest compared to the youngest category) and ovarian cancer risk (RR = 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.75-0.97). The pooled RRs of ovarian cancer for the oldest versus the youngest categories of menarcheal age in prospective and case-control studies were 0.89 (95% CI = 0.76-1.03) and 0.84 (95% CI = 0.70-0.99), respectively. Inverse associations between menarcheal age and ovarian cancer risk were observed in most subgroups; however, the significant association was restricted to invasive and borderline serous ovarian cancer. In conclusion, findings from this meta-analysis support that menarcheal age was inversely associated with the risk of ovarian cancer. More large studies are warranted to stratify these results by different cancer grading and histotype of ovarian cancer.

  18. Stroke risk interacts with Alzheimer's disease biomarkers on brain aging outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hohman, Timothy J; Samuels, Lauren R; Liu, Dandan; Gifford, Katherine A; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Benson, Elleena M; Abel, Ty; Ruberg, Frederick L; Jefferson, Angela L

    2015-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers and stroke risk factors independently predict cognitive impairment, likely through independent disease pathways. However, limited work has sought to describe the dynamic interplay between these important risk factors. This article evaluated the interaction between stroke risk and AD biomarkers on hippocampal volume and cognitive performance. We first evaluated the interaction between stroke risk factors and AD biomarkers using data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI, n = 1202). We then extended our findings to an independent autopsy data set from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC, n = 1122) using measures of AD pathology. Stroke risk was quantified using the Framingham Stroke Risk Profile. In ADNI, stroke risk interacted with tau and amyloid levels in relation to baseline and longitudinal cognitive performance. Similarly, in NACC, stroke risk interacted with amyloid and tau positivity on cognitive performance. The effect of stroke risk factors on cognition was strongest in the absence of AD biomarkers or neuropathology, providing additional evidence that AD biomarkers and stroke risk factors relate to cognition through independent pathways.

  19. A neural network model for credit risk evaluation.

    PubMed

    Khashman, Adnan

    2009-08-01

    Credit scoring is one of the key analytical techniques in credit risk evaluation which has been an active research area in financial risk management. This paper presents a credit risk evaluation system that uses a neural network model based on the back propagation learning algorithm. We train and implement the neural network to decide whether to approve or reject a credit application, using seven learning schemes and real world credit applications from the Australian credit approval datasets. A comparison of the system performance under the different learning schemes is provided, furthermore, we compare the performance of two neural networks; with one and two hidden layers following the ideal learning scheme. Experimental results suggest that neural networks can be effectively used in automatic processing of credit applications.

  20. [Initial evaluation of febrile neutropenic patients: risk quantification].

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Lourdes; García, José Elías

    2005-12-01

    Infection in immunocompromised hosts represents a serious clinical situation due the high morbidity and mortality it produces and is one of the most frequent complications in patients with cancer. In patients treated with chemotherapy the risk of infection mainly depends on the duration and intensity of neutropenia. It is essential to evaluate which pathogens are involved so that the most appropriate treatment can be selected a priori, as well as to determine the patient's general clinical status so that more or less aggressive treatment can be provided from the beginning, bearing in mind that "low risk" patients can be managed in the home. These questions can be determined by evaluating the patient's clinical history, physical examination, laboratory investigations, and radiological tests. Prompt initiation of broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy adapted to the the patient's risk is crucial.

  1. Visible aging signs as risk markers for ischemic heart disease: Epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Christoffersen, Mette; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Association of common aging signs (i.e., male pattern baldness, hair graying, and facial wrinkles) as well as other age-related appearance factors (i.e., arcus corneae, xanthelasmata, and earlobe crease) with increased risk of ischemic heart disease was initially described in anecdotal reports from clinicians observing trends in the physical appearance of patients with ischemic heart disease. Following these early observations numerous epidemiological studies have reported these associations. Since the prevalences of both visible aging signs and ischemic heart disease have a strong correlation with increasing age, it has been extensively debated whether the observed associations could be entirely explained by a common association with age. Furthermore, the etiologies of the visible aging signs are rarely fully understood, and pathophysiological explanations for these associations remain controversial, and are mostly speculative. As a consequence of inconsistent findings and lack of mechanistic explanations for the observed associations with ischemic heart disease, consensus on the clinical importance of these visible aging signs has been lacking. The aim of this review is for each of the visible aging signs to (i) review the etiology, (ii) to discuss the current epidemiological evidence for an association with risk of ischemic heart disease, and (iii) to present possible pathophysiological explanations for these associations. Finally this review discusses the potential clinical implications of these findings.

  2. Comprehensively Assessing Cognitive and Behavioral Risks for HIV Infection among Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paniagua, Freddy A.; O'Boyle, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of HIV/AIDS with middle-aged and older adults should include six domains (e.g., factual knowledge regarding the acquisition and transmission of HIV, traditionally-accepted behavioral risks for HIV infection). A sample of 23 women (54.8%) and 19 men (45.2%), ranging in age from 51 to 85 were surveyed across such domains.…

  3. Rape Prevention with College Men: Evaluating Risk Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Kari A.; George, William H.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of a theoretically based rape prevention intervention with college men who were at high or low risk to perpetrate sexually coercive behavior. Participants (N = 146) are randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Outcomes include rape myth acceptance, victim empathy, attraction to sexual…

  4. Developing and Evaluating a Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownson, Ross C.; Mayer, Jeffrey P.; Dusseault, Patricia; Dabney, Sue; Wright, Kathleen; Jackson-Thompson, Jeannette; Malone, Bernard; Goodman, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Describes the development and baseline evaluation data from the Ozark Heart Health Project, a community-based cardiovascular disease risk reduction program in rural Missouri that targeted smoking, physical inactivity, and poor diet. Several Ozark counties participated in either intervention or control groups, and researchers conducted surveillance…

  5. [Evaluating occupational health risk in titanium alloys production workers].

    PubMed

    Bazarova, E L

    2007-01-01

    The authors present data on evaluation of personified and non-personified occupational risk of health disorders in titanium alloys production workers, concerning hygienic, medical and biologic, social and psychologic criteria. One-digit assessment of the work conditions is suggested.

  6. Field Evaluation of an Avian Risk Assessment Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted two laboratory subacute dietary toxicity tests and one outdoor subacute dietary toxicity test to determine the effectiveness of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's deterministic risk assessment model for evaluating the potential of adverse effects to birds in ...

  7. Partner age-disparity and HIV incidence risk for older women in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Harling, Guy; Newell, Marie-Louise; Tanser, Frank; Bärnighausen, Till

    2014-01-01

    While sexual partner age disparity is frequently considered as a potential risk factor for HIV amongst young women in Africa, no research has addressed this question amongst older women. Our aim was thus to determine whether sex partner age disparity was associated with subsequent HIV acquisition in women aged over 30. Methods To achieve this aim we conducted a quantitative analysis of a population-based, open cohort of women in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (n=1,737) using Cox proportional hazards models. Results As partner age rose, HIV acquisition risk fell significantly: compared to a same-aged partner, a five-year older partner was associated with a one-third reduction (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.63, 95%CI: 0.52–0.76) and a ten-year older partner with a one-half reduction (HR: 0.48, 95%CI: 0.35–0.67). This result was neither confounded nor effect-modified by women’s age or socio-demographic factors. Conclusions These findings suggest that existing HIV risk-reduction campaigns warning young women about partnering with older men may be inappropriate for older women. HIV prevention strategies interventions specifically tailored to older women are needed. PMID:25670473

  8. Aging commuter aeroplanes: Fatigue evaluation and control methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmerson, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    The loss of reliability in aircraft is caused by two broad classes of problems. There are those problems which are self evident and hazardous rather than catastrophic. These are the problem areas where characteristically there have been multiple overhauls, repairs, and replacements, and where aging really means the results of repair ineffectiveness that accumulates. The other class of the problem is the insidious and potentially catastrophic class. It includes the progressive deterioration of items that are not maintained, and often cannot be maintained because the deterioration cannot be seen. It includes the loss of physical properties in adhesives and other organic compounds, corrosion, and the response of repeated loads. Dealt with here is a currently unnecessarily troublesome aspect of that response. Although we must remain concerned about those types of aircraft which have been certified under a design standard or operational rule which embodies the elementary fail-safe concept and which have not been subjected to a subsequent structural audit, the focus here is on types of aircraft for which fatigue and damage tolerance evaluation was not required as a condition of certification.

  9. A risk methodology to evaluate sensitvity of plant risk to human errors

    SciTech Connect

    Samanta, P.; Wong, S.; Higgins, J.; Haber, S.; Luckas, W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of sensitivity of plant risk parameters, namely the core melt frequency and the accident sequence frequencies, to the human errors involved in various aspects of nuclear power plant operations. Results are provided using the Oconee-3 Probabilistic Risk Assessment model as an example application of the risk methodology described herein. Sensitivity analyses in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) involve three areas: (1) a determination of the set of input parameters; in this case, various categories of human errors signifying aspects of plant operation, (2) the range over which the input parameters vary, and (3) an assessment of the sensitivity of the plant risk parameters to the input parameters which, in this case, consist of all postulated human errors, or categories of human errors. The methodology presents a categorization scheme where human errors are categorized in terms of types of activity, location, personnel involved, etc., to relate the significance of sensitivity of risk parameters to specific aspects of human performance in the nuclear plant. Ranges of variability for human errors have been developed considering the various known causes of uncertainty in human error probability estimates in PRAs. The sensitivity of the risk parameters are assessed using the event/fault tree methodology of the PRA. The results of the risk-based sensitivity evaluation using the Oconee-3 PRA as an example show the quantitative impact on the plant risk level due to variations in human error probabilities. The relative effects of various human error categories and human error sorts within the categories are also presented to identify and characterize significant human errors for effective risk management in nuclear power plant operational activities. 8 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Correlates of Physical Activity Among Middle-Aged and Older Korean Americans at Risk for Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Benjamin; Sadarangani, Tina; Wyatt, Laura C.; Zanowiak, Jennifer M.; Kwon, Simona C.; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Lee, Linda; Islam, Nadia S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explore correlates of meeting recommended physical activity (PA) among middle-aged and older Korean Americans at risk for diabetes mellitus (DM). Design and Methods PA patterns and their correlates were assessed among 292 middle-aged and older Korean Americans at risk for DM living in New York City (NYC) using cross-sectional design of baseline information from a diabetes prevention intervention. PA was assessed by self-report of moderate and vigorous activity, results were stratified by age group (45-64 and 65-75), and bivariate analyses compared individuals performing less than sufficient PA and individuals performing sufficient PA. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios predicting sufficient PA. Findings After adjusting for sex, age group, years lived in United States, marital status, health insurance and body mass index (BMI), sufficient PA was associated with male sex, older age, lower BMI, eating vegetables daily, and many PA-specific questions (lack of barriers, confidence, and engagement). When stratified by age group, male sex and eating vegetables daily was no longer significant among Koreans age 65 to 75 years of age, and BMI was not significant for either age group. Conclusions PA interventions targeting this population may be beneficial and should consider the roles of sex, age, physical and social environment, motivation, and self-efficacy. Clinical Relevance Clinical providers should understand the unique motivations for PA among Korean Americans and recognize the importance of culturally driven strategies to enable lifestyle changes and support successful aging for diverse populations. PMID:26641597

  11. Aggression at Age 5 as a Function of Prenatal Exposure to Cocaine, Gender, and Environmental Risk

    PubMed Central

    Bendersky, Margaret; Bennett, David; Lewis, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Objective To examine childhood aggression at age 5 in a multiple risk model that includes cocaine exposure, environmental risk, and gender as predictors. Methods Aggression was assessed in 206 children by using multiple methods including teacher report, parent report, child’s response to hypothetical provocations, and child’s observed behavior. Also examined was a composite score that reflected high aggression across contexts. Results Multiple regression analyses indicated that a significant amount of variance in each of the aggression measures and the composite was explained by the predictors. The variables that were independently related differed depending on the outcome. Cocaine exposure, gender, and environmental risk were all related to the composite aggression score. Conclusions Cocaine exposure, being male, and a high-risk environment were all predictive of aggressive behavior at 5 years. It is this group of exposed boys at high environmental risk that is most likely to show continued aggression over time. PMID:15827351

  12. Prenatal risk factors for cot death in very preterm and small for gestational age infants.

    PubMed

    Wierenga, H; Brand, R; Geudeke, T; van Geijn, H P; van der Harten, H; Verloove-Vanhorick, S P

    1990-06-01

    In a nationwide prospective survey on very preterm and very-low-birthweight infants in The Netherlands, the incidence of cot death in infants discharged alive was 15%. The postnatal age at death in these infants did not differ significantly from age at death in other cot death infants. Using a case-control design, possible risk factors associated with cot death were identified: lower maternal age at first pregnancy; maternal smoking during pregnancy; hypothermia of the infant immediately after birth; decreased number of white blood cells and thrombocytes in the infant on the first day of life. Intrauterine hypoxia is hypothesized as the entity common to these factors.

  13. Age of the mother as a risk factor and timing of hypospadias repair according to severity

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Juan Carlos; Pérez-Brayfield, Marcos Raymond; Torres, Camille M.; Piñeyro-Ruiz, Coriness; Torres, Naillil

    2016-01-01

    Background & Objectives Hypospadias is characterized by a displacement of the urethral opening in males that can change from the typical position within the glans penis to a subcoronal position (Type I), to anywhere along the ventral shaft (Type II), to penoscrotal, scrotal, or perineal positions (Type III). We and others have previously reported that age of the mother (≥ 40 years old) is a risk factor for having a child with hypospadias, but there is a scarcity of reports on whether such risk is higher for having a child with the mild (Type I) or the more severe forms (Types II and III). In addition, we aimed to assess the timing of hypospadias repair according to severity. Methods Parents of children with hypospadias were interviewed by using a series of questionnaires (n = 128 cases). Severity was confirmed in the clinic and age of the mother was self-reported. Number of surgeries, age of child by the first and the last intervention was also assessed. Ordered logistic regression and the Brant test were employed to calculate risk between mild (Type I) and severe cases (Types II and III), and the assumption of proportional odds, respectively. The Mann-Whitney U Test was used to compare number of surgeries and age by the last repair between mild and severe cases. One-way ANOVA was employed to compare age of the child at the time of first surgery across severities (Types I - III). Results Women ≥ 40 years of age are 3.89 times [95% CI: 1.20-12.64] at a higher risk for having a child with the more severe forms of the condition than younger women. Repair of Type I was accomplished with 1 intervention whereas more severe cases required 1 – 4 (2 ± 0.5) surgical interventions. The timing for hypospadias repair of Type I cases occurred at an average age of 16.2 ± 4.88 months, of Type II cases occurred at an average age of 20.3 ± 8.15 months whereas the average age of the first hypospadias repair among Type III cases was 12.68 ± 2.52 months. Number of surgeries

  14. Application of IEUBK model in lead risk assessment of children aged 61-84 months old in central China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanyan; Hu, Jia; Wu, Wei; Liu, Shuyun; Li, Mei; Yao, Na; Chen, Jianwei; Ye, Linxiang; Wang, Qi; Zhou, Yikai

    2016-01-15

    Few studies have focused on the accuracy of using the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model in Chinese children with site- and age-specific exposure data. This study aimed to validate the accuracy and sensitivity of the IEUBK model in lead risk assessment of Chinese children aged 61-84 months old. A total of 760 children were enrolled from two respective counties in Central China by using random cluster sampling method. Blood lead levels (BLLs) of all subjects were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, as well as that in the environmental media, such as air, drinking water, soil, dust and food. Age- and site-specific time-activity patterns and water consumption were evaluated by using questionnaires for children. Exposure parameters including outdoor and indoor activity time, ventilation rate and water consumption in this study were different from the default values of the IEUBK model. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between the predicted and observed BLLs. Diet and soil/dust lead intake contributed approximately 83.39% (57.40%-93.84% range) and 15.18% (3.25%-41.60% range) of total lead intake, respectively. These findings showed that the IEUBK model is suitable for lead risk assessment of Chinese children aged 61-84 months old and diet acts as an important lead source.

  15. Parental age at birth and risk of breast cancer in daughters: a prospective study among US women.

    PubMed

    Colditz, G A; Willett, W C; Stampfer, M J; Hennekens, C H; Rosner, B; Speizer, F E

    1991-01-01

    We examined the relation between parental age at birth and risk of breast cancer among daughters in a population of 118,309 US women who were 30 to 55 years of age in 1976 and without prior diagnosis of cancer. During 1,140,239 person-years of follow-up, we documented 1,799 incident cases of breast cancer in this population. After adjusting for established breast cancer risk factors, we observed only a weak and nonsignificant trend in risk of breast cancer with increasing maternal age at birth and no relation for paternal age. After adjusting for other risk factors, the chi trend was 1.10, P = 0.27 for increasing maternal age at birth. Daughters born to mothers 30 to 34 years of age had an age-adjusted relative risk of breast cancer of 1.11 (95% confidence interval: 0.89, 1.37) compared to daughters born to mothers less than 20 years of age. The weak positive trend in risk with increasing maternal age was present among both pre- and postmenopausal women. These findings suggest that there is little or no association between maternal age and risk of breast cancer, and that paternal age is not related to risk of breast cancer.

  16. Closure plan evaluation for risk of acid rock drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Dwire, D.L.; Krause, A.J.; Russell, L.J.

    1999-07-01

    Control of acid rock drainage (ARD) is a long-term issue for many mine sites and is often a primary objective of remediation efforts. Some sites continue to require monitoring and management of ARD long after mine operation has ceased and closure is complete. In New Zealand, an innovative and quantitative approach was applied to evaluate the expected risk of ARD after implementation of the closure plan for the Golden Cross Mine. In addition, this future risk was compared to current operating conditions to provide an estimate of the reduction in risk provided by the remediation activities. This approach was useful to both the mine proponent and the regulatory agencies in assessing the effectiveness of the existing closure plan and providing focus on the components of greatest risk. Mine components remaining on site after closure that could potentially generate ARD under various failure scenarios were identified and evaluated. These components included the tailings decant pond, waste rock, stockpiles, open pit mine and water treatment systems. For each component, a series of initiating events and failure scenarios were identified, and a decision tree methodology was utilized to estimate the probability of ARD generation for both current and closure conditions. Due to the implementation of closure plans designed to minimize or eliminate ARD through regarding, construction of engineered covers and water management designs, the risk of ARD generation will be significantly reduced over time.

  17. Job Characteristics, Core Self-Evaluations, and Job Satisfaction: What's Age Got to Do with It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besen, Elyssa; Matz-Costa, Christina; Brown, Melissa; Smyer, Michael A.; Pitt-Catsouphes, Martha

    2013-01-01

    There is a well-established relationship between age and job satisfaction. To date, there is little research about how many well-known predictors of job satisfaction, specifically job characteristics and core self-evaluations, may vary with age. Using a multi-worksite sample of 1,873 employed adults aged 17 to 81, this study evaluated the extent…

  18. Risk of teen-age pregnancy in a rural community of India.

    PubMed

    Pratinidhi, A; Shrotri, A; Shah, U

    1990-01-01

    In India, there has been a declining trend in teenage pregnancy between 1977-79 and 1981-84. Teenage pregnancy tends to occur within marriages, often arranged by parents, and few pregnancies occur among unmarried teenagers. There are nevertheless concerns about the higher rates of nutritional and obstetric problems associated with adolescent pregnancy and the ignorance and immaturity which can result in higher morbidity and mortality among mothers and babies. The change to a minimum age of 18 years for marriage has been suggested as a means of reducing the number of adolescent pregnancies. The study sample included 5994 deliveries in the rural health district area of Sirur, Maharashtra state, India, between 1981 and 1984. Adolescent pregnancies (to women under 20 years old) amounted to 598 deliveries, or 10% of deliveries. The perinatal mortality rate among teenage first births to high-risk mothers (238) under 18 years old was 67.2 per 100 births; the neonatal mortality rate was 61.4. Risk factors such as prolonged labor, short stature, and anemia were associated more with women under 18 years old. Statistically significant differences were found in the rate of low birth weight infants, stillbirths, and late neonatal deaths among women aged under 18 years compared to other women. The perinatal mortality rate was 7-16 times greater when associated risk factors, except anemia, were present. The neonatal mortality rate was 2.5-18 times greater when associated risk factors, except anemia and edema, were present. Late neonatal mortality was 2.2 times higher among infants with mothers under 18 years old. Recommendations were to provide general health education about risks of teenage pregnancy, strictly enforce the minimum age at marriage law, screen all pregnant mothers for risk factors, and provide at-risk mothers with education about child bearing and rearing and referral to a hospital for safe delivery. Referrals are particularly important among first pregnancies

  19. Paternal aging and increased risk of congenital disease, psychiatric disorders, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Conti, Simon L; Eisenberg, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    As couples are increasingly delaying parenthood, the effect of the aging men and women on reproductive outcomes has been an area of increased interest. Advanced paternal age has been shown to independently affect the entire spectrum of male fertility as assessed by reductions in sperm quality and fertilization (both assisted and unassisted). Moreover, epidemiological data suggest that paternal age can lead to higher rates of adverse birth outcomes and congenital anomalies. Mounting evidence also suggests increased risk of specific pediatric and adult disease states ranging from cancer to behavioral traits. While disease states associated with advancing paternal age have been well described, consensus recommendations for neonatal screening have not been as widely implemented as have been with advanced maternal age. PMID:26975491

  20. Paternal aging and increased risk of congenital disease, psychiatric disorders, and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Simon L; Eisenberg, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    As couples are increasingly delaying parenthood, the effect of the aging men and women on reproductive outcomes has been an area of increased interest. Advanced paternal age has been shown to independently affect the entire spectrum of male fertility as assessed by reductions in sperm quality and fertilization (both assisted and unassisted). Moreover, epidemiological data suggest that paternal age can lead to higher rates of adverse birth outcomes and congenital anomalies. Mounting evidence also suggests increased risk of specific pediatric and adult disease states ranging from cancer to behavioral traits. While disease states associated with advancing paternal age have been well described, consensus recommendations for neonatal screening have not been as widely implemented as have been with advanced maternal age. PMID:26975491

  1. Paternal aging and increased risk of congenital disease, psychiatric disorders, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Conti, Simon L; Eisenberg, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    As couples are increasingly delaying parenthood, the effect of the aging men and women on reproductive outcomes has been an area of increased interest. Advanced paternal age has been shown to independently affect the entire spectrum of male fertility as assessed by reductions in sperm quality and fertilization (both assisted and unassisted). Moreover, epidemiological data suggest that paternal age can lead to higher rates of adverse birth outcomes and congenital anomalies. Mounting evidence also suggests increased risk of specific pediatric and adult disease states ranging from cancer to behavioral traits. While disease states associated with advancing paternal age have been well described, consensus recommendations for neonatal screening have not been as widely implemented as have been with advanced maternal age.

  2. Is Aging in Place a Resource for or Risk to Life Satisfaction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, Frank; Jopp, Daniela; Rott, Christoph; Wahl, Hans-Werner

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Given age-related health restrictions, the importance of the environment for life satisfaction may increase in later life. This study investigated whether objective and perceived physical and social environmental aspects of the home and of the surrounding neighborhood represent resources for or risks to life satisfaction among young-old…

  3. Sleep State Indices of Risk for Small-for-Gestional-Age Neonates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riese, Marilyn L.

    Full-term neonates from 37 pairs of same-sex twins, either small or appropriate for gestational age (SGA/AGA), were observed during the first sleep cycle after feeding to determine if behavioral indices of central nervous system (CNS) functioning were related to risk for the SGA infants. No differences were observed between groups for time spent…

  4. The Conception of Risk in Minority Young Adolescents Aged 12-14 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leblanc, Raymond; Drolet, Marie; Ducharme, Daphne; Arcand, Isabelle; Head, Robert; Alphonse, Jean R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the conceptualization of risk behavior held by 26 Franco-Ontarian young adolescents (12-14 years of age) who participated in Lions Quest, a program specially designed to promote physical and mental health and to prevent drug and alcohol use. More specifically, it seeks to better understand the participating adolescents'…

  5. Age- and Sex-Specific Causal Effects of Adiposity on Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Tove; Hägg, Sara; Ploner, Alexander; Mägi, Reedik; Fischer, Krista; Draisma, Harmen H.M.; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Benyamin, Beben; Ladenvall, Claes; Åkerlund, Mikael; Kals, Mart; Esko, Tõnu; Nelson, Christopher P.; Kaakinen, Marika; Huikari, Ville; Mangino, Massimo; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Kristiansson, Kati; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Kobl, Michael; Grallert, Harald; Dehghan, Abbas; Kuningas, Maris; de Vries, Paul S.; de Bruijn, Renée F.A.G.; Willems, Sara M.; Heikkilä, Kauko; Silventoinen, Karri; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Legry, Vanessa; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Goumidi, Louisa; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Strauch, Konstantin; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lichtner, Peter; Herder, Christian; Palotie, Aarno; Menni, Cristina; Uitterlinden, André G.; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Havulinna, Aki S.; Moreno, Luis A.; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Evans, Alun; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Yarnell, John W.G.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Ferrières, Jean; Veronesi, Giovanni; Perola, Markus; Arveiler, Dominique; Brambilla, Paolo; Lind, Lars; Kaprio, Jaakko; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Franco, Oscar H.; Cottel, Dominique; Dallongeville, Jean; Hall, Alistair S.; Jula, Antti; Tobin, Martin D.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Samani, Nilesh J.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Whitfield, John B.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Groop, Leif; Spector, Tim D.; Magnusson, Patrik K.; Amouyel, Philippe; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Nilsson, Peter M.; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Metspalu, Andres; Strachan, David P.; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Prokopenko, Inga; McCarthy, Mark I.

    2015-01-01

    Observational studies have reported different effects of adiposity on cardiovascular risk factors across age and sex. Since cardiovascular risk factors are enriched in obese individuals, it has not been easy to dissect the effects of adiposity from those of other risk factors. We used a Mendelian randomization approach, applying a set of 32 genetic markers to estimate the causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, glycemic indices, circulating lipid levels, and markers of inflammation and liver disease in up to 67,553 individuals. All analyses were stratified by age (cutoff 55 years of age) and sex. The genetic score was associated with BMI in both nonstratified analysis (P = 2.8 × 10−107) and stratified analyses (all P < 3.3 × 10−30). We found evidence of a causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, fasting levels of insulin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in a nonstratified analysis and in the <55-year stratum. Further, we found evidence of a smaller causal effect on total cholesterol (P for difference = 0.015) in the ≥55-year stratum than in the <55-year stratum, a finding that could be explained by biology, survival bias, or differential medication. In conclusion, this study extends previous knowledge of the effects of adiposity by providing sex- and age-specific causal estimates on cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25712996

  6. Age-Related Alteration of Risk Profile, Inflammatory Response, and Angiographic Findings in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Badran, Hala Mahfouz; Elnoamany, Mohamed Fahmy; Khalil, Tarek Salah; Eldin, Mostafa Mohamed Ezz

    2009-01-01

    Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major public health problem which in turn imposes a significant burden on health care systems because of high morbidity and mortality. Although the multifactorial etiology of CAD increases with age, but in recent years, the incidence is increasing among younger age groups. Objectives: In this study we aimed to evaluate the effect of age on risk profile, inflammatory response and the angiographic findings in patients with ACS. Patients and Methods: The study comprised 253 ACS patients. Seventy six (30%) with UA, 56 (22%) with NSTEMI and 121(48%) with STEMI diagnosis. The value of Hs-CRP, lipid profile, cardiac enzymes, risk factors, EF% and angiographic score were analyzed and compared in different age groups. Results: Group 1 (n = 68) with age <45 years, group II (n = 110) with age ≥45–<65 years and group III (n = 75) ≥65 years. Group I had more prevalence of male sex, smoking, family history, hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of HDL (P < 0.01), higher incidence of STEMI (P < 0.01) and lower prevalence of UA (P < 0.01). Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and female gender were more common in older groups. Hs-CRP was significantly lower in the young age (group I). Group I showed a preponderance of single-vessel disease, lower coronary atherosclerotic score and prevalent left anterior descending artery (LAD) involvement compared with older age groups. Hs-CRP was positively correlated to severity of CAD only in older groups. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that age, male gender, cardiac enzymes and EF% were common predictors of multivessel disease. Smoking was independent predictor in young patients <45 years while diabetes and Hs-CRP was the key predictor in older patient groups. Conclusion: Young patients with ACS had different clinical, angiographic and biochemical profile. Hs-CRP peak concentration did not correlate with angiographic findings in young patients that could be attributed to different

  7. Intervening with at-risk youth: evaluation of the youth empowerment and support program.

    PubMed

    Moody, Kimberly A; Childs, Janis C; Sepples, Susan B

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated a community-based intervention, the Youth Empowerment and Support Program (YES-P), a theoretically-based program designed to decrease drug use and strengthen connections to school in at-risk youth living in high-risk environments. The YES-P included several interventions, such as providing mentor support and social skills training; growing a positive peer culture; and developing youth in leadership roles for community service. These interventions were delivered by 10 nursing students in a weekly, after school, 2-hour, group activity for 20 weeks for 13 inner-city youth ages 10-12 years (7 girls, 6 boys). One girl identified herself as Hispanic and the others as Caucasian. Using a pre/post one-group design, data were collected in 1999 from program participants to evaluate the YES-P. Results of a 1-year pilot study suggest that the multilevel interventions were associated with positive effects on at-risk youth. In particular, respondents at the posttest reported higher levels of self-esteem, mentor support, positive peer bonding, social skills attainment, and school attachment. Attitudes against underage drug use decreased from pre-test scores revealing areas for strengthening the program. These results lend empirical support to the positive evaluation of the YES-P with at-risk youth living in high-risk environments.

  8. Non-HDL Cholesterol and Evaluation of Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as coronary heart disease (CHD), is the most frequent cause of death worldwide, especially in developed countries. The latest recommendations of European and American Cardiological Associations emphasize the role of non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C) in evaluating the risk of CVD. Although this parameter has a lot of advantages, it is rarely used by general practitioners in lipid profile assessment. The aim of this article is to present the recent informations on the usage of non-HDL-C in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and to compare its diagnostic value to traditional and new CVD risk factors.

  9. The effect of very low birth weight and social risk on neurocognitive abilities at school age.

    PubMed

    Hack, M; Breslau, N; Aram, D; Weissman, B; Klein, N; Borawski-Clark, E

    1992-12-01

    We tested the hypothesis that very low birth weight (VLBW < 1.5 kg) children would have significantly poorer neurocognitive abilities at school age than would normal birth weight full-term age mates, that differences would persist after control for neurologic impairment and social risk, and that VLBW would interact with social risk. Two hundred forty-nine VLBW children and a randomly selected sample of 363 normal birth weight age mates born 1977 through 1979 were tested at 8 years. A neurologic examination and tests of intelligence, language, speech, reading, mathematics, spelling, visual and fine motor abilities, and behavior were performed. Twenty-four (10%) VLBW had a major neurologic abnormality compared with none of the controls. VLBW had significantly poorer scores on all tests, with the exception of speech and the total behavior score. These differences persisted among VLBW children without major neurologic abnormality, with the exception of social competence, reading, and spelling. Even normal IQ, neurologically normal VLBW had significantly poorer scores than did controls in expressive language, memory, visuomotor, and fine motor function, and measures of hyperactivity. When social risk was controlled in multiple regression analyses, VLBW still had an adverse effect on all outcome measures with the exception of speech. Social risk was, however, the major determinant of outcome. We found an interaction between VLBW and social risk only in verbal IQ and in the opposite direction than hypothesized.

  10. Overcoming Learning Aversion in Evaluating and Managing Uncertain Risks.

    PubMed

    Cox, Louis Anthony Tony

    2015-10-01

    Decision biases can distort cost-benefit evaluations of uncertain risks, leading to risk management policy decisions with predictably high retrospective regret. We argue that well-documented decision biases encourage learning aversion, or predictably suboptimal learning and premature decision making in the face of high uncertainty about the costs, risks, and benefits of proposed changes. Biases such as narrow framing, overconfidence, confirmation bias, optimism bias, ambiguity aversion, and hyperbolic discounting of the immediate costs and delayed benefits of learning, contribute to deficient individual and group learning, avoidance of information seeking, underestimation of the value of further information, and hence needlessly inaccurate risk-cost-benefit estimates and suboptimal risk management decisions. In practice, such biases can create predictable regret in selection of potential risk-reducing regulations. Low-regret learning strategies based on computational reinforcement learning models can potentially overcome some of these suboptimal decision processes by replacing aversion to uncertain probabilities with actions calculated to balance exploration (deliberate experimentation and uncertainty reduction) and exploitation (taking actions to maximize the sum of expected immediate reward, expected discounted future reward, and value of information). We discuss the proposed framework for understanding and overcoming learning aversion and for implementing low-regret learning strategies using regulation of air pollutants with uncertain health effects as an example. PMID:26491992

  11. Overcoming Learning Aversion in Evaluating and Managing Uncertain Risks.

    PubMed

    Cox, Louis Anthony Tony

    2015-10-01

    Decision biases can distort cost-benefit evaluations of uncertain risks, leading to risk management policy decisions with predictably high retrospective regret. We argue that well-documented decision biases encourage learning aversion, or predictably suboptimal learning and premature decision making in the face of high uncertainty about the costs, risks, and benefits of proposed changes. Biases such as narrow framing, overconfidence, confirmation bias, optimism bias, ambiguity aversion, and hyperbolic discounting of the immediate costs and delayed benefits of learning, contribute to deficient individual and group learning, avoidance of information seeking, underestimation of the value of further information, and hence needlessly inaccurate risk-cost-benefit estimates and suboptimal risk management decisions. In practice, such biases can create predictable regret in selection of potential risk-reducing regulations. Low-regret learning strategies based on computational reinforcement learning models can potentially overcome some of these suboptimal decision processes by replacing aversion to uncertain probabilities with actions calculated to balance exploration (deliberate experimentation and uncertainty reduction) and exploitation (taking actions to maximize the sum of expected immediate reward, expected discounted future reward, and value of information). We discuss the proposed framework for understanding and overcoming learning aversion and for implementing low-regret learning strategies using regulation of air pollutants with uncertain health effects as an example.

  12. Evaluation of the risk of noise-induced hearing loss among unscreened male industrial workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prince, Mary M.; Gilbert, Stephen J.; Smith, Randall J.; Stayner, Leslie T.

    2003-02-01

    Variability in background risk and distribution of various risk factors for hearing loss may explain some of the diversity in excess risk of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). This paper examines the impact of various risk factors on excess risk estimates of NIHL using data from the 1968-1972 NIOSH Occupational Noise and Hearing Survey (ONHS). Previous analyses of a subset of these data focused on 1172 highly ``screened'' workers. In the current analysis, an additional 894 white males (609 noise-exposed and 285 controls), who were excluded for various reasons (i.e., nonoccupational noise exposure, otologic or medical conditions affecting hearing, prior occupational noise exposure) have been added (n=2066) to assess excess risk of noise-induced material impairment in an unscreened population. Data are analyzed by age, duration of exposure, and sound level (8-h TWA) for four different definitions of noise-induced hearing impairment, defined as the binaural pure-tone average (PTA) hearing threshold level greater than 25 dB for the following frequencies: (a) 1-4 kHz (PTA1234), (b) 1-3 kHz (PTA123), (c) 0.5, 1, and 2 kHz (PTA512), and (d) 3, 4, and 6 kHz (PTA346). Results indicate that populations with higher background risks of hearing loss may show lower excess risks attributable to noise relative to highly screened populations. Estimates of lifetime excess risk of hearing impairment were found to be significantly different between screened and unscreened population for noise levels greater than 90 dBA. Predicted age-related risk of material hearing impairment in the ONHS unscreened population was similar to that predicted from Annex B and C of ANSI S3.44 for ages less than 60 years. Results underscore the importance of understanding differential risk patterns for hearing loss and the use of appropriate reference (control) populations when evaluating risk of noise-induced hearing impairment among contemporary industrial populations.

  13. Erectile Dysfunction, Vascular Risk, and Cognitive Performance in Late Middle Age

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Caitlin S.; Grant, Michael D.; Zink, Tyler A.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Franz, Carol E.; Logue, Mark W.; Hauger, Richard L.; Kremen, William S.; Lyons, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Vascular disease is the most common etiology of erectile dysfunction (ED). Men with ED are at a 65% increased relative risk of developing coronary heart disease and a 43% increased risk of stroke within 10 years. Vascular disease is associated with cognitive impairment; ED—an overt manifestation of vascular dysfunction—could also signal early compromised cognition. We sought to determine whether cognitive differences existed between men with ED and healthy peers. Our sample consisted of 651 men (ages 51–60 years) from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging. ED was associated with poorer cognitive performance, particularly on attention–executive–psychomotor speed tasks. ED remained significantly associated with cognition after inclusion of other cardiovascular risk factors (including hypertension, high cholesterol, body mass index, and smoking). These findings underscore the importance of further study of ED as a predictor of cognitive and cardiovascular health. PMID:24660805

  14. Preconception Blood Pressure and Risk of Low Birth Weight and Small for Gestational Age: A Large Cohort Study in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Li, Zhiwen; Ye, Rongwei; Zhang, Le; Li, Hongtian; Zhu, Yibing; Li, Shun; Yang, Na; Liu, Jianmeng; Ren, Aiguo

    2016-10-01

    Our objective was to examine whether high blood pressure in the preconception period was associated with low birth weight (LBW) and small-for-gestational age (SGA) in Chinese women. Data were obtained from the China-US Collaborative Project for Neural Tube Defects Prevention, a large population-based cohort study. We included 43 718 singleton live births delivered at gestational ages of 28-45 weeks to women who were registered before pregnancy in 7 counties in southern China. Blood pressure was measured during registration by trained healthcare workers, and other health-related information was recorded prospectively. We used logistic regression to evaluate the associations between preconception blood pressure and the risk of LBW and SGA, adjusting for potential confounders. The prevalence of hypertension in the preconception study population was 4.62% (2019/43 718). The incidences of LBW and SGA were 2.33% and 5.05% for the hypertension group and 2.01% and 5.68% for the nonhypertension group. Compared with the nonhypertension group, the hypertension group did not show significantly increased risk for LBW overall (adjusted risk ratio =1.16, 95% confidence interval 0.86-1.57) or SGA (adjusted risk ratio =0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.73-1.09). When participants with normal blood pressure were used as the reference, the adjusted risk ratio of SGA for prehypertensive women was 1.13 (95% confidence interval 1.03-1.25). Our results do not support an association between hypertension or higher blood pressure before pregnancy and increased risk of LBW or SGA.

  15. Evaluating biomarkers to model cancer risk post cosmic ray exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, Deepa M.; Asaithamby, Aroumougame; Blattnig, Steve R.; Costes, Sylvain V.; Doetsch, Paul W.; Dynan, William S.; Hahnfeldt, Philip; Hlatky, Lynn; Kidane, Yared; Kronenberg, Amy; Naidu, Mamta D.; Peterson, Leif E.; Plante, Ianik; Ponomarev, Artem L.; Saha, Janapriya; Snijders, Antoine M.; Srinivasan, Kalayarasan; Tang, Jonathan; Werner, Erica; Pluth, Janice M.

    2016-06-01

    Robust predictive models are essential to manage the risk of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. Chronic exposure to cosmic rays in the context of the complex deep space environment may place astronauts at high cancer risk. To estimate this risk, it is critical to understand how radiation-induced cellular stress impacts cell fate decisions and how this in turn alters the risk of carcinogenesis. Exposure to the heavy ion component of cosmic rays triggers a multitude of cellular changes, depending on the rate of exposure, the type of damage incurred and individual susceptibility. Heterogeneity in dose, dose rate, radiation quality, energy and particle flux contribute to the complexity of risk assessment. To unravel the impact of each of these factors, it is critical to identify sensitive biomarkers that can serve as inputs for robust modeling of individual risk of cancer or other long-term health consequences of exposure. Limitations in sensitivity of biomarkers to dose and dose rate, and the complexity of longitudinal monitoring, are some of the factors that increase uncertainties in the output from risk prediction models. Here, we critically evaluate candidate early and late biomarkers of radiation exposure and discuss their usefulness in predicting cell fate decisions. Some of the biomarkers we have reviewed include complex clustered DNA damage, persistent DNA repair foci, reactive oxygen species, chromosome aberrations and inflammation. Other biomarkers discussed, often assayed for at longer points post exposure, include mutations, chromosome aberrations, reactive oxygen species and telomere length changes. We discuss the relationship of biomarkers to different potential cell fates, including proliferation, apoptosis, senescence, and loss of stemness, which can propagate genomic instability and alter tissue composition and the underlying mRNA signatures that contribute to cell fate decisions. Our goal is to highlight factors that are important in choosing

  16. Evaluating biomarkers to model cancer risk post cosmic ray exposure.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Deepa M; Asaithamby, Aroumougame; Blattnig, Steve R; Costes, Sylvain V; Doetsch, Paul W; Dynan, William S; Hahnfeldt, Philip; Hlatky, Lynn; Kidane, Yared; Kronenberg, Amy; Naidu, Mamta D; Peterson, Leif E; Plante, Ianik; Ponomarev, Artem L; Saha, Janapriya; Snijders, Antoine M; Srinivasan, Kalayarasan; Tang, Jonathan; Werner, Erica; Pluth, Janice M

    2016-06-01

    Robust predictive models are essential to manage the risk of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. Chronic exposure to cosmic rays in the context of the complex deep space environment may place astronauts at high cancer risk. To estimate this risk, it is critical to understand how radiation-induced cellular stress impacts cell fate decisions and how this in turn alters the risk of carcinogenesis. Exposure to the heavy ion component of cosmic rays triggers a multitude of cellular changes, depending on the rate of exposure, the type of damage incurred and individual susceptibility. Heterogeneity in dose, dose rate, radiation quality, energy and particle flux contribute to the complexity of risk assessment. To unravel the impact of each of these factors, it is critical to identify sensitive biomarkers that can serve as inputs for robust modeling of individual risk of cancer or other long-term health consequences of exposure. Limitations in sensitivity of biomarkers to dose and dose rate, and the complexity of longitudinal monitoring, are some of the factors that increase uncertainties in the output from risk prediction models. Here, we critically evaluate candidate early and late biomarkers of radiation exposure and discuss their usefulness in predicting cell fate decisions. Some of the biomarkers we have reviewed include complex clustered DNA damage, persistent DNA repair foci, reactive oxygen species, chromosome aberrations and inflammation. Other biomarkers discussed, often assayed for at longer points post exposure, include mutations, chromosome aberrations, reactive oxygen species and telomere length changes. We discuss the relationship of biomarkers to different potential cell fates, including proliferation, apoptosis, senescence, and loss of stemness, which can propagate genomic instability and alter tissue composition and the underlying mRNA signatures that contribute to cell fate decisions. Our goal is to highlight factors that are important in choosing

  17. Evaluating biomarkers to model cancer risk post cosmic ray exposure.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Deepa M; Asaithamby, Aroumougame; Blattnig, Steve R; Costes, Sylvain V; Doetsch, Paul W; Dynan, William S; Hahnfeldt, Philip; Hlatky, Lynn; Kidane, Yared; Kronenberg, Amy; Naidu, Mamta D; Peterson, Leif E; Plante, Ianik; Ponomarev, Artem L; Saha, Janapriya; Snijders, Antoine M; Srinivasan, Kalayarasan; Tang, Jonathan; Werner, Erica; Pluth, Janice M

    2016-06-01

    Robust predictive models are essential to manage the risk of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. Chronic exposure to cosmic rays in the context of the complex deep space environment may place astronauts at high cancer risk. To estimate this risk, it is critical to understand how radiation-induced cellular stress impacts cell fate decisions and how this in turn alters the risk of carcinogenesis. Exposure to the heavy ion component of cosmic rays triggers a multitude of cellular changes, depending on the rate of exposure, the type of damage incurred and individual susceptibility. Heterogeneity in dose, dose rate, radiation quality, energy and particle flux contribute to the complexity of risk assessment. To unravel the impact of each of these factors, it is critical to identify sensitive biomarkers that can serve as inputs for robust modeling of individual risk of cancer or other long-term health consequences of exposure. Limitations in sensitivity of biomarkers to dose and dose rate, and the complexity of longitudinal monitoring, are some of the factors that increase uncertainties in the output from risk prediction models. Here, we critically evaluate candidate early and late biomarkers of radiation exposure and discuss their usefulness in predicting cell fate decisions. Some of the biomarkers we have reviewed include complex clustered DNA damage, persistent DNA repair foci, reactive oxygen species, chromosome aberrations and inflammation. Other biomarkers discussed, often assayed for at longer points post exposure, include mutations, chromosome aberrations, reactive oxygen species and telomere length changes. We discuss the relationship of biomarkers to different potential cell fates, including proliferation, apoptosis, senescence, and loss of stemness, which can propagate genomic instability and alter tissue composition and the underlying mRNA signatures that contribute to cell fate decisions. Our goal is to highlight factors that are important in choosing

  18. Evaluation of Post Laryngectomy Pharyngocutaneous Fistula risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Nitassi, Sophia; Belayachi, Jihane; Chihab, Mohammed; Rkain, Ilham; Benayad, Jalila; Benbouzid, Mohammed Anas; Oujilal, Abdelillah; Essakalli, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Pharyngocutaneous fistula (PCF) is the most common complication after total laryngectomy. Its incidence is extremely variable, with values ranging from 3% and 65%. The management of this problem considerably increases the length and the cost of hospitalization. The aim of this study is to analyze the incidence, predisposing factors, and outcome of PCF in patients undergoing total laryngectomy in a Moroccan teaching hospital in Rabat, Morocco. Materials and Methods: This study is a retrospective study including 136 patients who underwent total laryngectomy for squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx in our institution, between January 2006 and December 2013. Socio-demographical, biological, surgical, and outcome data were included. Risk factors were analyzed for association with PCF formation. Results: The overall PCF rate was 27.8%. The mean age was 58 (32-82 years). Univariate analysis showed age (P= 0,028), hemoglobin (P=0,026), and previous tracheotomy (P=0,028) to be associated with the onset of PCF. However, multivariate analysis revealed that previous tracheotomy (P=0,028) and low level of preoperative hemoglobin (P=0,026) were highly associated with the occurrence of PCF. Conclusion: This is an original work performed in an African country with a large serie. Our findings suggest that age, previous tracheotomy, and low level of haemoglobin are risk factors for PCF onset after total laryngectomy in T4 squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:27280101

  19. Thrombocytosis: Diagnostic Evaluation, Thrombotic Risk Stratification, and Risk-Based Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Bleeker, Jonathan S.; Hogan, William J.

    2011-01-01

    Thrombocytosis is a commonly encountered clinical scenario, with a large proportion of cases discovered incidentally. The differential diagnosis for thrombocytosis is broad and the diagnostic process can be challenging. Thrombocytosis can be spurious, attributed to a reactive process or due to clonal disorder. This distinction is important as it carries implications for evaluation, prognosis, and treatment. Clonal thrombocytosis associated with the myeloproliferative neoplasms, especially essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera, carries a unique prognostic profile, with a markedly increased risk of thrombosis. This risk is the driving factor behind treatment strategies in these disorders. Clinical trials utilizing targeted therapies in thrombocytosis are ongoing with new therapeutic targets waiting to be explored. This paper will outline the mechanisms underlying thrombocytosis, the diagnostic evaluation of thrombocytosis, complications of thrombocytosis with a special focus on thrombotic risk as well as treatment options for clonal processes leading to thrombocytosis, including essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera. PMID:22084665

  20. Old age, high risk medication, polypharmacy: a ‘trilogy’ of risks in older patients with atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background: The safety of pharmacotherapy in atrial fibrillation (AF) is compounded by a trilogy of risks old age, high-risk medications (e.g., antithrombotics, antiarrhythmics), polypharmacy due to multiple patient comorbidities. However, to date, scarce study has investigated the use of polypharmacy (including potentially inappropriate medication (PIM)) in AF patients, and how this may contribute to their overall risk of medication misadventure. Objectives: To review the extent of polypharmacy and PIM use in older patients (65 years or older) with AF. Methods: Information was extracted from a database characterising a cohort of older AF patients treated in general practice in New South Wales, Australia. Patient characteristics, number and types of drugs, the degree of PIM use were recorded. The predictors for the use of polypharmacy in older AF patients were identified. Results: Overall, 367 patients (mean age 77.8 years) were reviewed, among which 94.8% used 5 medications or more and over half used 10 medications or more. Cardiovascular agents were most commonly used (98.9%), followed by antithrombotics (90.7%). Among agents deemed PIMs, digoxin (30.2%) was the most frequently used, followed by benzodiazepines (19.6%), and sotalol (9.8%). AF patients using polypharmacy were more likely to have low bleeding risk (OR=10.97), representing those patients in whom high-risk antithrombotics are mostly indicated. Patients with major-polypharmacy (5-9 medications) are more likely to have obstructive pulmonary diseases (OR=2.32), upper gastrointestinal diseases (OR=2.02) and poor physical function (OR=1.04), but less likely to have cognitive impairment (OR=0.27). Conclusion: Polypharmacy affects oldest AF patients, comprising medications that are indicated for AF, yet regarded as PIMs. Patients with lower risk of bleeding, obstructive pulmonary diseases, upper gastrointestinal diseases and poor physical function are also at higher risk of using higher number of

  1. Age of Partner at First Adolescent Intercourse and Adult Sexual Risk Behavior Among Women

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Adolescent females who have early sexual experiences with older male partners report high rates of sexual risk behavior during adolescence, but little is known about whether these early sexual experiences are associated with adult sexual risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether having first consensual sex with an older partner was associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood. Methods Participants were 292 women (66% African American, mean age = 26 years) attending a public sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic who reported having voluntary vaginal sex before age 18. Participants completed a computerized survey assessing child/adolescent sexual experiences and current adult sexual risk behavior. Results Participants were, on average, 14.6 years at first vaginal intercourse; their partners were, on average, 17.5 years. After controlling for covariates, a greater partner age difference at first intercourse was associated with more episodes of unprotected sex with a steady partner and a greater proportion of episodes of unprotected sex with a steady partner in the past 3 months. Conclusions Having an older first sex partner during adolescence was associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood. Early sexual experiences may be important life events that influence subsequent sexual behavior. Sexual health interventions need to target female adolescents before they initiate sexual intercourse to reduce risk for STDs and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. PMID:21128817

  2. Proactive gait strategies to mitigate risk of obstacle contact are more prevalent with advancing age.

    PubMed

    Muir, B C; Haddad, J M; Heijnen, M J H; Rietdyk, S

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine if healthy older adults adopt strategies to decrease the likelihood of obstacle contact, and to determine how these strategies are modified as a function of advancing age. Three age groups were examined: 20-25 yo (N = 19), 65-79 yo (N = 11), and 80-91 yo (N = 18). Participants stepped over a stationary, visible obstacle on a walkway. Step length and gait speed progressively decreased with advancing age; the shorter step length resulted in closer foot placement to the obstacle and an associated increased risk of obstacle contact. Lead (first limb to cross the obstacle) and trail (second) limb trajectories were examined for behavior that mitigated the risk of contact. (1) Consistent trail foot placement before the obstacle across all ages allowed space and time for the trail foot to clear the obstacle. (2) To avoid lead limb contact due to closer foot placement before and after the obstacle, the lead toe was raised more vertically after toe-off, and then the foot was extended beyond the landing position (termed lead overshoot) and retracted backwards to achieve the shortened step length. Lead overshoot progressively increased with advancing age. (3) Head angle was progressively lower with advancing age, an apparent attempt to gather more visual information during approach. Overall, a series of proactive strategies were adopted to mitigate risk of contact. However, the larger, more abrupt movements associated with a more vertical foot trajectory and lead overshoot may compromise whole body balance, indicating a possible trade-off between risk of contact and stability.

  3. Natural history of age-related lobular involution and impact on breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Radisky, Derek C; Visscher, Daniel W; Frank, Ryan D; Vierkant, Robert A; Winham, Stacey; Stallings-Mann, Melody; Hoskin, Tanya L; Nassar, Aziza; Vachon, Celine M; Denison, Lori A; Hartmann, Lynn C; Frost, Marlene H; Degnim, Amy C

    2016-02-01

    Age-related lobular involution (LI) is a physiological process in which the terminal duct lobular units of the breast regress as a woman ages. Analyses of breast biopsies from women with benign breast disease (BBD) have found that extent of LI is negatively associated with subsequent breast cancer development. Here we assess the natural course of LI within individual women, and the impact of progressive LI on breast cancer risk. The Mayo Clinic BBD cohort consists of 13,455 women with BBD from 1967 to 2001. The BBD cohort includes 1115 women who had multiple benign biopsies, 106 of whom had developed breast cancer. Within this multiple biopsy cohort, the progression of the LI process was examined by age at initial biopsy and time between biopsies. The relationship between LI progression and breast cancer risk was assessed using standardized incidence ratios and by Cox proportional hazards analysis. Women who had multiple biopsies were younger age and had a slightly higher family history of breast cancer as compared with the overall BBD cohort. Extent of LI at subsequent biopsy was greater with increasing time between biopsies and for women age 55 + at initial biopsy. Among women with multiple biopsies, there was a significant association of higher breast cancer risk among those with involution stasis (lack of progression, HR 1.63) as compared with those with involution progression, p = 0.036. The multiple biopsy BBD cohort allows for a longitudinal study of the natural progression of LI. The majority of women in the multiple biopsy cohort showed progression of LI status between benign biopsies, and extent of progression was highest for women who were in the perimenopausal age range at initial biopsy. Progression of LI status between initial and subsequent biopsy was associated with decreased breast cancer risk. PMID:26846985

  4. Risk Evaluation for CO2 Geosequestration in the Knox Supergroup, Illinois Basin Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hnottavange-Telleen, Ken; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    This report describes a process and provides seed information for identifying and evaluating risks pertinent to a hypothetical carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and sequestration (CCS) project. In the envisioned project, the target sequestration reservoir rock is the Potosi Formation of the Knox Supergroup. The Potosi is identified as a potential target formation because (1) at least locally, it contains vuggy to cavernous layers that have very high porosity, and (2) it is present in areas where the deeper Mt. Simon Sandstone (a known potential reservoir unit) is absent or nonporous. The key report content is discussed in Section 3.3, which describes two lists of Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) that should be considered during the design stage of such a project. These lists primarily highlight risk elements particular to the establishment of the Potosi as the target formation in general. The lists are consciously incomplete with respect to risk elements that would be relevant for essentially all CCS projects regardless of location or geology. In addition, other risk elements specific to a particular future project site would have to be identified. Sources for the FEPs and scenarios listed here include the iconic Quintessa FEPs list developed for the International Energy Agency Greenhouse Gas (IEAGHG) Programme; previous risk evaluation projects executed by Schlumberger Carbon Services; and new input solicited from experts currently working on aspects of CCS in the Knox geology. The projects used as sources of risk information are primarily those that have targeted carbonate reservoir rocks similar in age, stratigraphy, and mineralogy to the Knox-Potosi. Risks of using the Potosi Formation as the target sequestration reservoir for a CCS project include uncertainties about the levels of porosity and permeability of that rock unit; the lateral consistency and continuity of those properties; and the ability of the project team to identify suitable (i.e., persistently

  5. Risk Evaluation for CO{sub 2} Geosequestration in the Knox Supergroup

    SciTech Connect

    Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-01-31

    This report describes a process and provides seed information for identifying and evaluating risks pertinent to a hypothetical carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture and sequestration (CCS) project. In the envisioned project, the target sequestration reservoir rock is the Potosi Formation of the Knox Supergroup. The Potosi is identified as a potential target formation because (1) at least locally, it contains vuggy to cavernous layers that have very high porosity, and (2) it is present in areas where the deeper Mt. Simon Sandstone (a known potential reservoir unit) is absent or nonporous. The key report content is discussed in Section 3.3, which describes two lists of Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) that should be considered during the design stage of such a project. These lists primarily highlight risk elements particular to the establishment of the Potosi as the target formation in general. The lists are consciously incomplete with respect to risk elements that would be relevant for essentially all CCS projects regardless of location or geology. In addition, other risk elements specific to a particular future project site would have to be identified. Sources for the FEPs and scenarios listed here include the iconic Quintessa FEPs list developed for the International Energy Agency Greenhouse Gas (IEAGHG) Programme; previous risk evaluation projects executed by Schlumberger Carbon Services; and new input solicited from experts currently working on aspects of CCS in the Knox geology. The projects used as sources of risk information are primarily those that have targeted carbonate reservoir rocks similar in age, stratigraphy, and mineralogy to the Knox-Potosi. Risks of using the Potosi Formation as the target sequestration reservoir for a CCS project include uncertainties about the levels of porosity and permeability of that rock unit; the lateral consistency and continuity of those properties; and the ability of the project team to identify suitable (i

  6. Research and Evaluations of the Health Aspects of Disasters, Part VIII: Risk, Risk Reduction, Risk Management, and Capacity Building.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Marvin L; Loretti, Alessandro; Daily, Elaine K; O'Rourke, Ann P

    2016-06-01

    There is a cascade of risks associated with a hazard evolving into a disaster that consists of the risk that: (1) a hazard will produce an event; (2) an event will cause structural damage; (3) structural damage will create functional damages and needs; (4) needs will create an emergency (require use of the local response capacity); and (5) the needs will overwhelm the local response capacity and result in a disaster (ie, the need for outside assistance). Each step along the continuum/cascade can be characterized by its probability of occurrence and the probability of possible consequences of its occurrence, and each risk is dependent upon the preceding occurrence in the progression from a hazard to a disaster. Risk-reduction measures are interventions (actions) that can be implemented to: (1) decrease the risk that a hazard will manifest as an event; (2) decrease the amounts of structural and functional damages that will result from the event; and/or (3) increase the ability to cope with the damage and respond to the needs that result from an event. Capacity building increases the level of resilience by augmenting the absorbing and/or buffering and/or response capacities of a community-at-risk. Risks for some hazards vary by the context in which they exist and by the Societal System(s) involved. Birnbaum ML , Loretti A , Daily EK , O'Rourke AP . Research and evaluations of the health aspects of disasters, part VIII: risk, risk reduction, risk management, and capacity building. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(3):300-308. PMID:27025980

  7. Risk assessment relationships for evaluating effluents from coal industries.

    PubMed

    Cuddihy, R G

    1983-06-01

    Public awareness of the risks associated with traditional coal combustion and newer coal gasification and liquefaction industries is increasing. Assessing the health risks for people exposed to effluents from these industries generally involves four major steps: (1) characterizing the pollutant sources, (2) projecting the release and dispersion of toxic substances in workplaces and in the environment, (3) estimating their uptake by people through inhalation and ingestion and their contact with skin, and (4) evaluating their potential for causing health effects. Pollutants of special concern include toxic gases, carcinogenic organic compounds and trace metals. Relationships between the levels of pollutants released to the environment and the magnitudes of human exposures and methods of formulating exposure-dose-effect relationships for use in human risk assessment are discussed.

  8. Successful aging: the contribution of early-life and midlife risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Annie; Shipley, Martin; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Marmot, Michael G.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To test whether early life factors (education, height, father’s social position) and midlife social, behavioral and psychosocial factors were associated with entering older age without disease and good functioning. Design A longitudinal, British civil service-based cohort study. Participants were followed for 17 years to assess successful aging. This was defined as being free of major disease and in the top tertile of physical and cognitive functioning measured in 2002–4. Setting Twenty London-based Civil Service departments Participants Four thousand, one hundred and forty men and 1823 women, free of major disease at baseline in 1985–8 (mean age 44, range 35–55 years) Measurements Behavioral, biological and psychosocial risk factors, physical and cognitive functioning and disease outcomes Results 548 (12.8%) men and 246 (14.6%) women were successfully aging at follow up. This was strongly predicted by midlife socioeconomic position (age adjusted odds ratio for men highest vs. lowest 7.06, 95% CI 3.4, 14.6). Height, education (men), not smoking, diet, exercise, moderate alcohol (women) and work support (men) were related to a favorable older life after adjustment for age and socioeconomic position. Conclusion Interventions to promote adult healthy behavior may attenuate harmful effects of less modifiable risk factors and reduce social inequalities. PMID:18482302

  9. 20 CFR 416.924b - Age as a factor of evaluation in the sequential evaluation process for children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... chronological age. When we evaluate the development or linear growth of a child born prematurely, we may use a... infants. We generally use chronological age (that is, a child's age based on birth date) when we decide... children until the child's prematurity is no longer a relevant factor; generally no later than...

  10. 20 CFR 416.924b - Age as a factor of evaluation in the sequential evaluation process for children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... chronological age. When we evaluate the development or linear growth of a child born prematurely, we may use a... infants. We generally use chronological age (that is, a child's age based on birth date) when we decide... children until the child's prematurity is no longer a relevant factor; generally no later than...

  11. Active Smoking, Passive Smoking, and Breast Cancer Risk: Findings from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yingsong; Kikuchi, Shogo; Tamakoshi, Koji; Wakai, Kenji; Kondo, Takaaki; Niwa, Yoshimitsu; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Nishio, Kazuko; Suzuki, Sadao; Tokudome, Shinkan; Yamamoto, Akio; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Mori, Mitsuru; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2008-01-01

    Background Evidence is lacking regarding the relationship between cigarette smoking and breast cancer in Japanese women. We examined the association between breast cancer incidence and active and passive smoking in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk. Methods Our study comprised 34,401 women aged 40-79 years who had not been diagnosed previously with breast cancer and who provided information on smoking status at baseline (1988-1990). The subjects were followed from enrollment until December 31, 2001. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between breast cancer incidence and tobacco smoke. Results During 271,412 person-years of follow-up, we identified 208 incident cases of breast cancer. Active smoking did not increase the risk of breast cancer, with a HR for current smokers of 0.67 (95% CI: 0.32-1.38). Furthermore, an increased risk of breast cancer was not observed in current smokers who smoked a greater number of cigarettes each day. Overall, passive smoking at home or in public spaces was also not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer among nonsmokers. Women who reported passive smoking during childhood had a statistically insignificant increase in risk (HR: 1.24; 95% CI: 0.84-1.85), compared with those who had not been exposed during this time. Conclusion Smoking may not be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in this cohort of Japanese women. PMID:18403857

  12. Highway crash rates and age-related driver limitations: Literature review and evaluation of data bases

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, P.S.; Young, J.R.; Lu, An

    1993-08-01

    American society is undergoing a major demographic transformation that is resulting in a larger proportion of older individuals in the population. Moreover, recent travel surveys show that an increasing number of older individuals are licensed to drive and that they drive more than their same age cohort a decade ago. However, they continue to take shorter trips than younger drivers and they avoid driving during congested hours. This recent demographic transformation in our society, the graying of America, coupled with the increasing mobility of the older population impose a serious highway safety issue that cannot be overlooked. Some of the major concerns are the identification of ``high-risk`` older drivers and the establishment of licensing guidelines and procedures that are based on conclusive scientific evidence. Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL) objectives in this project can be characterized by the following tasks: Review and evaluate the 1980 American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators (AAMVA) and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) licensing guidelines. Determine whether the license restriction recommended in the 1980 AAMVA and NHTSA guidelines was based on scientific evidence or on judgement of medical advisors. Identify in the scientific literature any medical conditions which are found to be highly associated with highway crashes, and which are not mentioned in the 1980 guidelines. Summarize States` current licensing practices for drivers with age-related physical and mental limitations. Identify potential data sources to establish conclusive evidence on age-related functional impairments and highway crashes.

  13. Cognitive changes and dementia risk after traumatic brain injury: implications for aging military personnel.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Andrea S; Roebuck-Spencer, Tresa M; Cernich, Alison

    2014-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is recognized as an important risk factor for the long-term cognitive health of military personnel, particularly in light of growing evidence that TBI increases risk for Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. In this article, we review the neurocognitive and neuropathologic changes after TBI with particular focus on the potential risk for cognitive decline across the life span in military service members. Implications for monitoring and surveillance of cognition in the aging military population are discussed. Additional studies are needed to clarify the factors that increase risk for later life cognitive decline, define the mechanistic link between these factors and dementia, and provide empirically supported interventions to mitigate the impact of TBI on cognition across the life span.

  14. Field evaluation of an avian risk assessment model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hulse, C.S.; Borges, S.L.; Bennett, R.S.; Torrez, M.; Williams, B.I.; Leffel, R.

    2006-01-01

    We conducted two laboratory subacute dietary toxicity tests and one outdoor subacute dietary toxicity test to determine the effectiveness of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's deterministic risk assessment model for evaluating the potential of adverse effects to birds in the field. We tested technical-grade diazinon and its D Z N- 50W (50% diazinon active ingredient wettable powder) formulation on Canada goose (Branta canadensis) goslings. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was measured, and the feathers and skin, feet. and gastrointestinal contents were analyzed for diazinon residues. The dose-response curves showed that diazinon was significantly more toxic to goslings in the outdoor test than in the laboratory tests. The deterministic risk assessment method identified the potential for risk to birds in general, but the factors associated with extrapolating from the laboratory to the field, and from the laboratory test species to other species, resulted in the underestimation of risk to the goslings. The present study indicates that laboratory-based risk quotients should be interpreted with caution.

  15. Evaluating the risk of patient re-identification from adverse drug event reports

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Our objective was to develop a model for measuring re-identification risk that more closely mimics the behaviour of an adversary by accounting for repeated attempts at matching and verification of matches, and apply it to evaluate the risk of re-identification for Canada’s post-marketing adverse drug event database (ADE).Re-identification is only demonstrably plausible for deaths in ADE. A matching experiment between ADE records and virtual obituaries constructed from Statistics Canada vital statistics was simulated. A new re-identification risk is considered, it assumes that after gathering all the potential matches for a patient record (all records in the obituaries that are potential matches for an ADE record), an adversary tries to verify these potential matches. Two adversary scenarios were considered: (a) a mildly motivated adversary who will stop after one verification attempt, and (b) a highly motivated adversary who will attempt to verify all the potential matches and is only limited by practical or financial considerations. Methods The mean percentage of records in ADE that had a high probability of being re-identified was computed. Results Under scenario (a), the risk of re-identification from disclosing the province, age at death, gender, and exact date of the report is quite high, but the removal of province brings down the risk significantly. By only generalizing the date of reporting to month and year and including all other variables, the risk is always low. All ADE records have a high risk of re-identification under scenario (b), but the plausibility of that scenario is limited because of the financial and practical deterrent even for highly motivated adversaries. Conclusions It is possible to disclose Canada’s adverse drug event database while ensuring that plausible re-identification risks are acceptably low. Our new re-identification risk model is suitable for such risk assessments. PMID:24094134

  16. Donor/Recipient Delta Age: A Possible Risk for Arterial Stenosis in Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Pallotti, Giovanni; Donati, Gabriele; Capelli, Irene; Baraldi, Olga; Comai, Giorgia; Agati, Patrizia; Nichelatti, Michele; Cianciolo, Giuseppe; La Manna, Gaetano

    2015-01-01

    Different arterial wall properties can significantly increase the risk of blood turbulent fluxes leading to complications such as atherosclerosis. Since the mechanical properties of arterial vessels are influenced by age, we investigated, in a retrospective study, the effects on renal artery stenosis of an age difference >15 years between donor and recipient in a cohort of 164 patients undergoing renal transplantation between 1981 and 1991. The age difference between donor and recipient was ≤15 years in 87 patients (53.0%) (Group A) and >15 years in 77 patients (47.0%) (Group B, p = ns). None of the Group A patients developed an anastomotic arterial stenosis, whereas 8/77 Group B patients (10.4%) had an anastomotic arterial stenosis (p < 0.001). This study shows that an age difference >15 years is significantly linked to the risk of developing arterial stenosis after renal transplantation. Indeed, different wall properties can significantly increase the risk of generation of blood turbulent fluxes and involve, in the arterial vessels, the development of complications such as atherosclerosis. PMID:26933444

  17. Risk and Protective Factors Affecting Sexual Risk Behavior Among School-Aged Adolescents in Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, and Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2016-07-01

    There are limited studies on the prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behavior among adolescents in Pacific Island countries. In order to inform public sexual and reproductive health interventions, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of various sexual risk behaviors among in-school adolescents in 4 Pacific Island countries using data from the Global School-Based Health Survey. In a cross-sectional study, 6792 school-going adolescents (49.7% boys and 50.3% girls; 13-16 years old) from Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, and Vanuatu were surveyed with a self-administered questionnaire. Overall, 18.9% of students reported to ever had sex (ranging from 12.9% in Vanuatu to 57.5% in Samoa), and of those sexually active, 38.0% had an early sexual debut (<14 years), 38.1% had 2 or more sexual partners during their lifetime, 39.5% had not used a condom at last sex, 50.9% had not used birth control at last sex, and 77.8% engaged in sexually risky behavior using a composite measure. Multivariate logistic regression found that male sex, older age, tobacco use, alcohol use, mental distress, having no close friends, and truancy were associated with several of 5 or all 5 sexual risk behaviors. Sexual and reproductive health promotion programs are indicated to address the high risk of sexually transmitted infection, HIV, and pregnancy in this adolescent population. PMID:27242369

  18. Age differences in the association of obstructive sleep apnea risk with cognition and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Addison-Brown, Kristin J; Letter, Abraham J; Yaggi, Klar; McClure, Leslie A; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Howard, Virginia J; Lichtman, Judith H; Wadley, Virginia G

    2014-02-01

    Using a sample of 2925 stroke-free participants drawn from a national population-based study, we examined cross-sectional associations of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) risk with cognition and quality of life and whether these vary with age, while controlling for demographics and comorbidities. Included participants from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study were aged 47-93 years. OSA risk was categorized as high or low based on responses to the Berlin Sleep Questionnaire. Cognitive function was assessed with standardized fluency and recall measures. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the four-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was assessed with the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-12 (SF-12). Multivariate analyses of covariance (mancova) statistics were applied separately to the cognitive and quality of life dependent variables while accounting for potential confounders (demographics, comorbidities). In fully adjusted models, those at high risk for OSA had significantly lower cognitive scores (Wilks' lambda = 0.996, F3,2786  = 3.31, P < 0.05) and lower quality of life [depressive symptoms and HRQoL] (Wilks' lambda = 0.989, F3,2786  = 10.02, P < 0.0001). However, some of the associations were age-dependent. Differences in cognition and quality of life between those at high and low obstructive sleep apnea risk were most pronounced during middle age, with attenuated effects after age 70 years.

  19. Hippocampal Sclerosis of Aging, a Common Alzheimer’s Disease ‘Mimic’: Risk Genotypes are Associated with Brain Atrophy Outside the Temporal Lobe

    PubMed Central

    Nho, Kwangsik; Saykin, Andrew J.; Nelson, Peter T.

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis of aging (HS-Aging) is a common brain disease in older adults with a clinical course that is similar to Alzheimer’s disease. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have previously shown association with HS-Aging. The present study investigated structural brain changes associated with these SNPs using surface-based analysis. Participants from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohort (ADNI; n = 1,239), with both MRI scans and genotype data, were used to assess the association between brain atrophy and previously identified HS-Aging risk SNPs in the following genes: GRN, TMEM106B, ABCC9, and KCNMB2 (minor allele frequency for each is >30%). A fifth SNP (near the ABCC9 gene) was evaluated in post-hoc analysis. The GRN risk SNP (rs5848_T) was associated with a pattern of atrophy in the dorsomedial frontal lobes bilaterally, remarkable since GRN is a risk factor for frontotemporal dementia. The ABCC9 risk SNP (rs704180_A) was associated with multifocal atrophy whereas a SNP (rs7488080_A) nearby (~50 kb upstream) ABCC9 was associated with atrophy in the right entorhinal cortex. Neither TMEM106B (rs1990622_T), KCNMB2 (rs9637454_A), nor any of the non-risk alleles were associated with brain atrophy. When all four previously identified HS-Aging risk SNPs were summed into a polygenic risk score, there was a pattern of associated multifocal brain atrophy in a predominately frontal pattern. We conclude that common SNPs previously linked to HS-Aging pathology were associated with a distinct pattern of anterior cortical atrophy. Genetic variation associated with HS-Aging pathology may represent a non-Alzheimer’s disease contribution to atrophy outside of the hippocampus in older adults. PMID:27003218

  20. Interpretation of risk significance of passive component aging using probabilistic structural analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.H. ); Atwood, C.L. )

    1993-01-01

    The probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) being developed at most nuclear power plants to calculate the risk of core damage generally focus on the possible failure of active components. Except as initiating events, the possible failure of passive components is given little consideration. The NRC is sponsoring a project at INEL to investigate the risk significance of passive components as they age. For this project, we developed a technique to calculate the failure probability of passive components over time, and demonstrated the technique by applying it to a weld in the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system. A decreasing yearly rupture rate for this weld was calculated instead of the increasing rupture rate trend one might expect. We attribute this result to infant mortality; that is, most of those initial flaws that will eventually lead to rupture will do so early in life. This means that although each weld in a population may be wearing out, the population as a whole can exhibit a decreasing rupture rate. This observation has implications for passive components in commercial nuclear plants and other facilities where aging is a concern. For the population of passive components that exhibit a decreasing failure rate, risk increase is not a concern. The next step of the work is to identify the attributes that contribute to this decreasing rate, and to determine any attributes that would contribute to an increasing failure rate and thus to an increased risk.

  1. Interpretation of risk significance of passive component aging using probabilistic structural analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.H.; Atwood, C.L.

    1993-05-01

    The probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) being developed at most nuclear power plants to calculate the risk of core damage generally focus on the possible failure of active components. Except as initiating events, the possible failure of passive components is given little consideration. The NRC is sponsoring a project at INEL to investigate the risk significance of passive components as they age. For this project, we developed a technique to calculate the failure probability of passive components over time, and demonstrated the technique by applying it to a weld in the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system. A decreasing yearly rupture rate for this weld was calculated instead of the increasing rupture rate trend one might expect. We attribute this result to infant mortality; that is, most of those initial flaws that will eventually lead to rupture will do so early in life. This means that although each weld in a population may be wearing out, the population as a whole can exhibit a decreasing rupture rate. This observation has implications for passive components in commercial nuclear plants and other facilities where aging is a concern. For the population of passive components that exhibit a decreasing failure rate, risk increase is not a concern. The next step of the work is to identify the attributes that contribute to this decreasing rate, and to determine any attributes that would contribute to an increasing failure rate and thus to an increased risk.

  2. Job characteristics, core self-evaluations, and job satisfaction: what's age got to do with it?

    PubMed

    Besen, Elyssa; Matz-Costa, Christina; Brown, Melissa; Smyer, Michael A; Pitt-Catsouphes, Martha

    2013-01-01

    There is a well-established relationship between age and job satisfaction. To date, there is little research about how many well-known predictors of job satisfaction, specifically job characteristics and core self-evaluations, may vary with age. Using a multi-worksite sample of 1,873 employed adults aged 17 to 81, this study evaluated the extent to which several job characteristics and core self-evaluations varied in their relationships with job satisfaction for workers of different ages. Findings suggest that the positive relationships between job satisfaction and skill variety, autonomy, and friendship weaken as employee age increases, while the positive relationships between job satisfaction and dealing with others, task identity, task significance, feedback, and core self-evaluations did not vary with age. The findings extend previous research by examining how the factors important for job satisfaction vary for employees of different ages.

  3. Delivery by caesarean section and risk of obesity in preschool age children: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Susanna Y; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Zera, Chloe A; Edwards, Janet W Rich; Oken, Emily; Weiss, Scott T; Gillman, Matthew W

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine whether delivery by caesarean section is a risk factor for childhood obesity. Design Prospective pre-birth cohort study (Project Viva). Setting Eight outpatient multi-specialty practices based in the Boston, Massachusetts area. Participants We recruited women during early pregnancy between 1999 and 2002, and followed their children after birth. We included 1255 children with body composition measured at 3 years of age. Main outcome measures Body mass index (BMI) z-score, obesity (BMI for age and sex ≥ 95th percentile), and sum of triceps + subscapular skinfold thicknesses, at 3 years of age. Results 284 children (22.6 percent) were delivered by caesarean section. At age 3, 15.7% of children delivered by caesarean section were obese, compared with 7.5% of children born vaginally. In multivariable logistic and linear regression models adjusting for maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, birth weight, and other covariates, birth by caesarean section was associated with a higher odds of obesity at age 3 (OR 2.10, 95%CI 1.36 to 3.23), higher mean BMI z-score (0.20 units, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.33), and higher sum of triceps + subscapular skinfold thicknesses (0.94 mm, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.51). Conclusions Infants delivered by caesarean section may be at increased risk of childhood obesity. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings and to explore mechanisms underlying this association. PMID:22623615

  4. Evaluations of Risks from the Lunar and Mars Radiation Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee; Hayat, Matthew J.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2008-01-01

    Protecting astronauts from the space radiation environments requires accurate projections of radiation in future space missions. Characterization of the ionizing radiation environment is challenging because the interplanetary plasma and radiation fields are modulated by solar disturbances and the radiation doses received by astronauts in interplanetary space are likewise influenced. The galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) flux for the next solar cycle was estimated as a function of interplanetary deceleration potential, which has been derived from GCR flux and Climax neutron monitor rate measurements over the last 4 decades. For the chaotic nature of solar particle event (SPE) occurrence, the mean frequency of SPE at any given proton fluence threshold during a defined mission duration was obtained from a Poisson process model using proton fluence measurements of SPEs during the past 5 solar cycles (19-23). Analytic energy spectra of 34 historically large SPEs were constructed over broad energy ranges extending to GeV. Using an integrated space radiation model (which includes the transport codes HZETRN [1] and BRYNTRN [2], and the quantum nuclear interaction model QMSFRG[3]), the propagation and interaction properties of the energetic nucleons through various media were predicted. Risk assessment from GCR and SPE was evaluated at the specific organs inside a typical spacecraft using CAM [4] model. The representative risk level at each event size and their standard deviation were obtained from the analysis of 34 SPEs. Risks from different event sizes and their frequency of occurrences in a specified mission period were evaluated for the concern of acute health effects especially during extra-vehicular activities (EVA). The results will be useful for the development of an integrated strategy of optimizing radiation protection on the lunar and Mars missions. Keywords: Space Radiation Environments; Galactic Cosmic Radiation; Solar Particle Event; Radiation Risk; Risk

  5. Evaluation of the Reproductive and Developmental Risks of Caffeine

    PubMed Central

    Brent, Robert L; Christian, Mildred S; Diener, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    A risk analysis of in utero caffeine exposure is presented utilizing epidemiological studies and animal studies dealing with congenital malformation, pregnancy loss, and weight reduction. These effects are of interest to teratologists, because animal studies are useful in their evaluation. Many of the epidemiology studies did not evaluate the impact of the “pregnancy signal,” which identifies healthy pregnancies and permits investigators to identify subjects with low pregnancy risks. The spontaneous abortion epidemiology studies were inconsistent and the majority did not consider the confounding introduced by not considering the pregnancy signal. The animal studies do not support the concept that caffeine is an abortafacient for the wide range of human caffeine exposures. Almost all the congenital malformation epidemiology studies were negative. Animal pharmacokinetic studies indicate that the teratogenic plasma level of caffeine has to reach or exceed 60 µg/ml, which is not attainable from ingesting large amounts of caffeine in foods and beverages. No epidemiological study described the “caffeine teratogenic syndrome.” Six of the 17 recent epidemiology studies dealing with the risk of caffeine and fetal weight reduction were negative. Seven of the positive studies had growth reductions that were clinically insignificant and none of the studies cited the animal literature. Analysis of caffeine's reproductive toxicity considers reproducibility and plausibility of clinical, epidemiological, and animal data. Moderate or even high amounts of beverages and foods containing caffeine do not increase the risks of congenital malformations, miscarriage or growth retardation. Pharmacokinetic studies markedly improve the ability to perform the risk analyses. Birth Defects Res (Part B) 92:152–187, 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21370398

  6. Evaluation of the risk factors for febrile neutropenia associated with hematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yasunori; Suzuki, Kenshi; Masaoka, Toru

    2009-06-01

    Febrile neutropenia (FN) can frequently become a very serious problem. In 2002, Klastersky and colleagues established the Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) score, which consisted of risk factors for conditions that included solid tumors. However, hematopoietic tumors, in comparison to solid tumors, are plagued by such problems as the quantity and quality of abnormalities associated with leukocytes and neutrophils and the requirement for higher dosages of both radio- and chemotherapy. FN is a complication associated with hematological malignancies that can lead to a fatal outcome, but it is avoidable if the appropriate preventive treatment is performed at an early stage. The subjects of the present study consisted of 354 patients with hematopoietic malignancies who were treated at the Japanese Red Cross Medical Center Hospital, Tokyo, between August 2000 and September 2004. They were retrospectively evaluated for the risk factors of FN by applying Wilcoxon's rank sum test. A scoring index was defined and the patients were classified into high- and low-risk groups before evaluation. The following nine risk factors, which may significantly influence the relationship between the time required for defervescence and the duration of neutropenia - age; hematological diseases; the leukocyte count during the febrile period; the reduction in leukocyte count per day before the onset of FN; the prophylactic administration of antimycotic agents; sterilization of the intestinal tract; and urine albumin content, creatine level, and C-reactive protein (CRP) level - were expressed in points and their sum was termed risk points. The range of risk points was classified as 0-3 and 4-9. The time required for defervescence was 5.1 days when the risk points were in the range of 0-3 and 8.1 days when the points were in the range of 4-9. These figures were distributed normally and there was a significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.0016). FN

  7. Evaluation of the risk factors for febrile neutropenia associated with hematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yasunori; Suzuki, Kenshi; Masaoka, Toru

    2009-06-01

    Febrile neutropenia (FN) can frequently become a very serious problem. In 2002, Klastersky and colleagues established the Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) score, which consisted of risk factors for conditions that included solid tumors. However, hematopoietic tumors, in comparison to solid tumors, are plagued by such problems as the quantity and quality of abnormalities associated with leukocytes and neutrophils and the requirement for higher dosages of both radio- and chemotherapy. FN is a complication associated with hematological malignancies that can lead to a fatal outcome, but it is avoidable if the appropriate preventive treatment is performed at an early stage. The subjects of the present study consisted of 354 patients with hematopoietic malignancies who were treated at the Japanese Red Cross Medical Center Hospital, Tokyo, between August 2000 and September 2004. They were retrospectively evaluated for the risk factors of FN by applying Wilcoxon's rank sum test. A scoring index was defined and the patients were classified into high- and low-risk groups before evaluation. The following nine risk factors, which may significantly influence the relationship between the time required for defervescence and the duration of neutropenia - age; hematological diseases; the leukocyte count during the febrile period; the reduction in leukocyte count per day before the onset of FN; the prophylactic administration of antimycotic agents; sterilization of the intestinal tract; and urine albumin content, creatine level, and C-reactive protein (CRP) level - were expressed in points and their sum was termed risk points. The range of risk points was classified as 0-3 and 4-9. The time required for defervescence was 5.1 days when the risk points were in the range of 0-3 and 8.1 days when the points were in the range of 4-9. These figures were distributed normally and there was a significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.0016). FN

  8. Evaluation of aging of cast stainless steel components

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.M.

    1991-02-01

    Cast stainless steel is used extensively in nuclear reactors for primary-pressure-boundary components such as primary coolant pipes, elbows, valves, pumps, and safe ends. These components are, however, susceptible to thermal aging embrittlement in light water reactors because of the segregation of Cr atoms from Fe and Ni by spinodal decomposition in ferrite and the precipitation of Cr-rich carbides on ferrite/austenite boundaries. A recent advance in understanding the aging kinetics is presented. Aging kinetics are strongly influenced by the synergistic effects of other metallurgical reactions that occur in parallel with spinodal decomposition, i.e., clustering of Ni, Mo, and Si solute atoms and the nucleation and growth of G-phase precipitates in the ferrite phase. A number of methods are outlined for estimating aging embrittlement under end-of-life of life-extension conditions, depending on several factors such as degree of permissible conservatism, availability of component archive material, and methods of estimating and verifying the activation energy of aging. 33 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Age-related Macular Degeneration: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Fraser-Bell, Samantha; Wu, Joanne; Klein, Ronald; Azen, Stanley P.; Hooper, Claire; Foong, Athena W. P.; Varma, Rohit

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To assess the association of cardiovascular risk factors, ocular perfusion pressure with early and advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Latinos. Design Population-based, cross-sectional study. Methods Data were collected from a population-based sample of self-identified adult Latinos using standardized protocols for assessing blood pressure and intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement and stereoscopic macular photography. Hypertension was defined as either a history of hypertension or systolic blood pressure (SBP) >140mmHg +/− diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥85mmHg. Ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) was defined as the difference between mean arterial blood pressure and IOP. AMD was diagnosed from photographic grading by masked trained graders. Logistic regression was used to assess associations. Results Gradable retinal photographs were available in 5875 participants. After adjusting for age, sex, and cigarette smoking, higher DBP and uncontrolled diastolic hypertension were associated with exudative AMD (Odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1−2.8; and OR, 3.3; CI, 1.2−9.3, respectively). Higher OPP was associated with a decreased risk of GA (OR, 0.4 per 10mmHg; CI, 0.3−0.5). Low pulse pressure was associated with a lower risk of exudative AMD (OR, 0.2; CI, 0.1−0.6). Obesity was associated with increased retinal pigment (OR, 1.6; CI, 1.0−2.3). Conclusion These data suggest that in Latinos cardiovascular risk factors may play a role in advanced AMD. Given that Latinos have a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, an intervention aimed at reducing these risk factors may also have a beneficial impact on the risk of having early and advanced AMD. PMID:18222193

  10. Psychotropic drugs and the risk of fractures in old age: a prospective population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is evidence that the use of any psychotropic and the concomitant use of two or more benzodiazepines are related to an increased risk of fractures in old age. However, also controversial results exist. The aim was to describe associations between the use of a psychotropic drug, or the concomitant use of two or more of these drugs and the risk of fractures in a population aged 65 years or over. Methods This study was a part of a prospective longitudinal population-based study carried out in the municipality of Lieto, South-Western Finland. The objective was to describe gender-specific associations between the use of one psychotropic drug [benzodiazepine (BZD), antipsychotic (AP) or antidepressant (AD)] or the concomitant use of two or more psychotropic drugs and the risk of fractures in a population 65 years or over. Subjects were participants in the first wave of the Lieto study in 1990-1991, and they were followed up until the end of 1996. Information about fractures confirmed with radiology reports in 1,177 subjects (482 men and 695 women) during the follow-up was collected from medical records. Two follow-up periods (three and six years) were used, and previously found risk factors of fractures were adjusted as confounding factors separately for men and women. The Poisson regression model was used in the analyses. Results The concomitant use of two or more BZDs and the concomitant use of two or more APs were related to an increased risk of fractures during both follow-up periods after adjusting for confounding factors in men. No similar associations were found in women. Conclusions The concomitant use of several BZDs and that of several APs are associated with an increase in the risk of fractures in older men. Our findings show only risk relations. We cannot draw the conclusion that these drug combinations are causes of fractures. PMID:20602803

  11. Prevalence of Neutralizing Antibodies to Japanese Encephalitis Virus among High-Risk Age Groups in South Korea, 2010.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Ju; Cha, Go-Woon; Ju, Young Ran; Han, Myung Guk; Lee, Won-Ja; Jeong, Young Eui

    2016-01-01

    After an extensive vaccination policy, Japanese encephalitis (JE) was nearly eliminated since the mid-1980s in South Korea. Vaccination in children shifted the affected age of JE patients from children to adults. However, an abrupt increase in JE cases occurred in 2010, and this trend has continued. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to the JE virus (JEV) among high-risk age groups (≥40 years) in South Korea. A plaque reduction neutralization test was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to JEV in 945 subjects within four age groups (30-39, 40-49, 50-59, and 60-69 years) in 10 provinces. Of the 945 enrolled subjects, 927 (98.1%) exhibited antibodies against JEV. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies according to sex, age, or occupation. However, there were significant differences in the plaque reduction rate according to age and occupation; oldest age group had a higher reduction rate, and subjects who were employed in agriculture or forestry also had a higher value than the other occupations. We also found that three provinces (Gangwon, Jeonnam, and Gyeongnam) had a relatively lower plaque reduction rate than the other locations. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were conducted to determine recent viral infections and 12 (1.3%) subjects were found to have been recently infected by the virus [corrected]. In conclusion, the present study clearly indicated that the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies has been maintained at very high levels among adult age groups owing to vaccination or natural infections, or both. In the future, serosurveillance should be conducted periodically using more representative samples to better understand the population-level immunity to JE in South Korea.

  12. Risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS): educating the prescriber.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Susan C; Peterson, Janet; Yektashenas, Behin

    2012-02-01

    The US FDA Amendments Act of 2007 was signed into law on 27 September 2007. A provision of this law granted the FDA new powers to enhance drug safety by requiring the pharmaceutical industry to develop Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS). REMS are deemed necessary when a question exists as to whether the benefits of a drug outweigh its risks. REMS constitute a safety plan with several potential components, including a medication guide, a communication plan, elements to ensure safe use and an implementation system to help guide the prescribers, pharmacists and patients. This applies to existing drugs on the market, new drug applications (NDAs), abbreviated NDAs (generics) and biologics licence applications. REMS represent an 'upgrade' from previously required risk minimization action plans, based on the strengthening of FDA powers of authority and enforceability to incur monetary penalties against individuals representing the pharmaceutical industry who fail to comply. For illustrative purposes, we chose the drug romiplostim (Nplate®) to present an REMS, as all components were utilized to help assuage risks associated with the drug. Romiplostim is an FDA-approved drug used to treat thrombocytopenia in patients with chronic immune (idiopathic) thrombocytopenic purpura that has a significant adverse safety profile based on the risk of changes in bone marrow reticulin formation and bone marrow fibroses, and other associated risks. This review of current REMS policy is intended to provide the prescriber with a better understanding of current modalities in FDA-mandated drug safety programmes, which will impact day-to-day healthcare provider practices. PMID:22171604

  13. Lobular Carcinoma in Situ: A 29-Year Longitudinal Experience Evaluating Clinicopathologic Features and Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    King, Tari A.; Pilewskie, Melissa; Muhsen, Shirin; Patil, Sujata; Mautner, Starr K.; Park, Anna; Oskar, Sabine; Guerini-Rocco, Elena; Boafo, Camilla; Gooch, Jessica C.; De Brot, Marina; Reis-Filho, Jorge S.; Morrogh, Mary; Andrade, Victor P.; Sakr, Rita A.; Morrow, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The increased breast cancer risk conferred by a diagnosis of lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is poorly understood. Here, we review our 29-year longitudinal experience with LCIS to evaluate factors associated with breast cancer risk. Patients and Methods Patients participating in surveillance after an LCIS diagnosis are observed in a prospectively maintained database. Comparisons were made among women choosing surveillance, with or without chemoprevention, and those undergoing bilateral prophylactic mastectomies between 1980 and 2009. Results One thousand sixty patients with LCIS without concurrent breast cancer were identified. Median age at LCIS diagnosis was 50 years (range, 27 to 83 years). Fifty-six patients (5%) underwent bilateral prophylactic mastectomy; 1,004 chose surveillance with (n = 173) or without (n = 831) chemoprevention. At a median follow-up of 81 months (range, 6 to 368 months), 150 patients developed 168 breast cancers (63% ipsilateral, 25% contralateral, 12% bilateral), with no dominant histology (ductal carcinoma in situ, 35%; infiltrating ductal carcinoma, 29%; infiltrating lobular carcinoma, 27%; other, 9%). Breast cancer incidence was significantly reduced in women taking chemoprevention (10-year cumulative risk: 7% with chemoprevention; 21% with no chemoprevention; P < .001). In multivariable analysis, chemoprevention was the only clinical factor associated with breast cancer risk (hazard ratio, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.15 to 0.50). In a subgroup nested case-control analysis, volume of disease, which was defined as the ratio of slides with LCIS to total number of slides reviewed, was also associated with breast cancer development (P = .008). Conclusion We observed a 2% annual incidence of breast cancer among women with LCIS. Common clinical factors used for risk prediction, including age and family history, were not associated with breast cancer risk. The lower breast cancer incidence in women opting for chemoprevention highlights the

  14. Identifying risk of hospital readmission among Medicare aged patients: an approach using routinely collected data.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Adria E; Enguídanos, Susan; Wilber, Kathleen H

    2012-01-01

    Readmission provisions in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of March 2010 have created urgent fiscal accountability requirements for hospitals, dependent upon a better understanding of their specific populations, along with development of mechanisms to easily identify these at-risk patients. Readmissions are disruptive and costly to both patients and the health care system. Effectively addressing hospital readmissions among Medicare aged patients offers promising targets for resources aimed at improved quality of care for older patients. Routinely collected data, accessible via electronic medical records, were examined using logistic models of sociodemographic, clinical, and utilization factors to identify predictors among patients who required rehospitalization within 30 days. Specific comorbidities and discharge care orders in this urban, nonprofit hospital had significantly greater odds of predicting a Medicare aged patient's risk of readmission within 30 days. PMID:22656916

  15. Identifying risk of hospital readmission among Medicare aged patients: an approach using routinely collected data.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Adria E; Enguídanos, Susan; Wilber, Kathleen H

    2012-01-01

    Readmission provisions in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of March 2010 have created urgent fiscal accountability requirements for hospitals, dependent upon a better understanding of their specific populations, along with development of mechanisms to easily identify these at-risk patients. Readmissions are disruptive and costly to both patients and the health care system. Effectively addressing hospital readmissions among Medicare aged patients offers promising targets for resources aimed at improved quality of care for older patients. Routinely collected data, accessible via electronic medical records, were examined using logistic models of sociodemographic, clinical, and utilization factors to identify predictors among patients who required rehospitalization within 30 days. Specific comorbidities and discharge care orders in this urban, nonprofit hospital had significantly greater odds of predicting a Medicare aged patient's risk of readmission within 30 days.

  16. Structural patterns of the proximal femur in relation to age and hip fracture risk in women.

    PubMed

    Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Harnish, Roy; Saeed, Isra; Streeper, Timothy; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Amin, Shreyasee; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Therneau, Terry M; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Cheng, Xiaoguang; Melton, L Joseph; Keyak, Joyce H; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Khosla, Sundeep; Harris, Tamara B; Lang, Thomas F

    2013-11-01

    Fractures of the proximal femur are the most devastating outcome of osteoporosis. It is generally understood that age-related changes in hip structure confer increased risk, but there have been few explicit comparisons of such changes in healthy subjects to those with hip fracture. In this study, we used quantitative computed tomography and tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to identify three-dimensional internal structural patterns of the proximal femur associated with age and with incident hip fracture. A population-based cohort of 349 women representing a broad age range (21-97years) was included in this study, along with a cohort of 222 older women (mean age 79±7years) with (n=74) and without (n=148) incident hip fracture. Images were spatially normalized to a standardized space, and age- and fracture-specific morphometric features were identified based on statistical maps of shape features described as local changes of bone volume. Morphometric features were visualized as maps of local contractions and expansions, and significance was displayed as Student's t-test statistical maps. Significant age-related changes included local expansions of regions low in volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and local contractions of regions high in vBMD. Some significant fracture-related features resembled an accentuated aging process, including local expansion of the superior aspect of the trabecular bone compartment in the femoral neck, with contraction of the adjoining cortical bone. However, other features were observed only in the comparison of hip fracture subjects with age-matched controls including focal contractions of the cortical bone at the superior aspect of the femoral neck, the lateral cortical bone just inferior to the greater trochanter, and the anterior intertrochanteric region. Results of this study support the idea that the spatial distribution of morphometric features is relevant to age-related changes in bone and independent to fracture risk. In women

  17. Evaluating the risk-reduction benefits of wind energy

    SciTech Connect

    Brower, M.C.; Bell, K.; Bernow, S.; Duckworth, M.; Spinney P.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents preliminary results of a study to evaluate the risk-reduction benefits of wind power for a case study utility system using decision analysis techniques. The costs and risks of two alternative decisions-whether to build a 400 MW gas-fired combined cycle plant or a 1600 MW wind plant in 2003-were compared through computer simulations as fuel prices, environmental regulatory costs, wind and conventional power plant availability, and load growth were allowed to vary. Three different market scenarios were examined: traditional regulation, a short-term power pool, and fixed-price contracts of varying duration. The study concludes that, from the perspective of ratepayers, wind energy provides a net levelized risk-reduction benefit of $3.4 to $7.8/MWh under traditional regulation, and less in the other scenarios. From the perspective of the utility plant owners, wind provides a significant risk benefit in the unregulated market scenarios but none in a regulated market. The methodology and findings should help inform utility resource planning and industry restructuring efforts. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Familial Risk of Early Suicide: Variations by Age and Sex of Children and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garssen, Joop; Deerenberg, Ingeborg; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kerkhof, Ad; Kunst, Anton E.

    2011-01-01

    To determine familial risk of early suicide, data on cause of death of all Dutch residents aged 20-55 years who died between 1995 and 2001 were linked to data of their parents. Men whose father died by suicide had a higher odds of suicide themselves, relative to men whose father died of other causes (Odds Ratio (OR): 2.5; 95% confidence interval:…

  19. Paraoxonase 1 Polymorphism and Prenatal Pesticide Exposure Associated with Adverse Cardiovascular Risk Profiles at School Age

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Helle R.; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Dalgård, Christine; Christiansen, Lene; Main, Katharina M.; Nellemann, Christine; Murata, Katsuyuki; Jensen, Tina K.; Skakkebæk, Niels E.; Grandjean, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Background Prenatal environmental factors might influence the risk of developing cardiovascular disease later in life. The HDL-associated enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has anti-oxidative functions that may protect against atherosclerosis. It also hydrolyzes many substrates, including organophosphate pesticides. A common polymorphism, PON1 Q192R, affects both properties, but a potential interaction between PON1 genotype and pesticide exposure on cardiovascular risk factors has not been investigated. We explored if the PON1 Q192R genotype affects cardiovascular risk factors in school-age children prenatally exposed to pesticides. Methods Pregnant greenhouse-workers were categorized as high, medium, or not exposed to pesticides. Their children underwent a standardized examination at age 6-to-11 years, where blood pressure, skin folds, and other anthropometric parameters were measured. PON1-genotype was determined for 141 children (88 pesticide exposed and 53 unexposed). Serum was analyzed for insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), insulin and leptin. Body fat percentage was calculated from skin fold thicknesses. BMI results were converted to age and sex specific Z-scores. Results Prenatally pesticide exposed children carrying the PON1 192R-allele had higher abdominal circumference, body fat content, BMI Z-scores, blood pressure, and serum concentrations of leptin and IGF-I at school age than unexposed children. The effects were related to the prenatal exposure level. For children with the PON1 192QQ genotype, none of the variables was affected by prenatal pesticide exposure. Conclusion Our results indicate a gene-environment interaction between prenatal pesticide exposure and the PON1 gene. Only exposed children with the R-allele developed adverse cardiovascular risk profiles thought to be associated with the R-allele. PMID:22615820

  20. Lyme disease: an increasing health risk for school-age children.

    PubMed

    Hahn, D B; Pinger, R R; Hahn, E J

    1987-08-01

    Lyme disease, a bacterial infection with noticeable short-term and serious long-term consequences, is the most common tick-borne disease. First described in 1977, Lyme disease poses a significant health threat to school-age children exposed to the tick vector primarily in three specific regions of the United States. This article describes Lyme disease and its clinical signs and symptoms, and discusses the school nurse's role in identification, management, and prevention of this new health risk.

  1. Body Fatness at Young Ages and Risk of Breast Cancer Throughout Life

    PubMed Central

    Baer, Heather J.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Willett, Walter C.

    2010-01-01

    Body fatness at young ages may be related to breast cancer risk independently of adult adiposity. The authors conducted a prospective analysis among 188,860 women (7,582 breast cancer cases) in the Nurses’ Health Study (1988–2004) and Nurses’ Health Study II (1989–2005) who recalled their body fatness at ages 5, 10, and 20 years using a 9-level pictogram (level 1: most lean; level 9: most overweight). Body fatness at young ages was inversely associated with risk of both premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer (per 1-unit increase in adolescent body fatness, relative risk (RR) = 0.88 and RR = 0.91, respectively; Ptrend < 0.0001). Among all women, the RR for adolescent body fatness of level 6.5 or higher versus level 1 was 0.57 (per 1-unit increase, RR = 0.90; Ptrend < 0.0001) and was unaffected by adjustment for current body mass index. The association was stronger for women with birth weights under 8.5 pounds (<3.9 kg) than for women with birth weights of 8.5 pounds or more (≥3.9 kg) (per 1-unit increase, RR = 0.89 and RR = 0.94, respectively; Pinteraction = 0.04) and stronger for estrogen receptor-negative tumors than for estrogen receptor-positive tumors (per 1-unit increase, RR = 0.86 and RR = 0.92, respectively; Pheterogeneity = 0.03). Body fatness at young ages has a strong and independent inverse relation to breast cancer risk throughout life. PMID:20460303

  2. West Virginia Adolescents' Health Risk Behaviors: Differences by Gender, Age, Grade Level, and Level of Rurality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Merrill L.; And Others

    In 1990, the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was completed by a random sample of 1,448 West Virginia public-school students in grades 9-12. The sample was 51 percent male and 89 percent white. About 71 percent of subjects were aged 15-17; 39 percent were in the ninth grade. The YRBS covered behaviors producing vehicle-related or other injuries,…

  3. Evaluation of age estimation technique: testing traits of the acetabulum to estimate age at death in adult males.

    PubMed

    Calce, Stephanie E; Rogers, Tracy L

    2011-03-01

    This study evaluates the accuracy and precision of a skeletal age estimation method, using the acetabulum of 100 male ossa coxae from the Grant Collection (GRO) at the University of Toronto, Canada. Age at death was obtained using Bayesian inference and a computational application (IDADE2) that requires a reference population, close in geographic and temporal distribution to the target case, to calibrate age ranges from scores generated by the technique. The inaccuracy of this method is 8 years. The direction of bias indicates the acetabulum technique tends to underestimate age. The categories 46-65 and 76-90 years exhibit the smallest inaccuracy (0.2), suggesting that this method may be appropriate for individuals over 40 years. Eighty-three percent of age estimates were ±12 years of known age; 79% were ±10 years of known age; and 62% were ±5 years of known age. Identifying a suitable reference population is the most significant limitation of this technique for forensic applications.

  4. Evaluation of Mental Health Programs for the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Robert L.; Zarit, Steven H.

    This paper highlights what the authors believe are the important issues and directions of change in the evaluation of mental health programs. The rationale for such evaluation is twofold. First, it provides a scientifically rigorous method of determining the therapeutic efficacy of the treatment or program, and secondly, these results can exercise…

  5. A case-control study to assess the impact of mammographic density on breast cancer risk in women aged 40-49 at intermediate familial risk.

    PubMed

    Assi, Valentina; Massat, Nathalie J; Thomas, Susan; MacKay, James; Warwick, Jane; Kataoka, Masako; Warsi, Iqbal; Brentnall, Adam; Warren, Ruth; Duffy, Stephen W

    2015-05-15

    Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer, but its potential application in risk management is not clear, partly due to uncertainties about its interaction with other breast cancer risk factors. We aimed to quantify the impact of mammographic density on breast cancer risk in women aged 40-49 at intermediate familial risk of breast cancer (average lifetime risk of 23%), in particular in premenopausal women, and to investigate its relationship with other breast cancer risk factors in this population. We present the results from a case-control study nested with the FH01 cohort study of 6,710 women mostly aged 40-49 at intermediate familial risk of breast cancer. One hundred and three cases of breast cancer were age-matched to one or two controls. Density was measured by semiautomated interactive thresholding. Absolute density, but not percent density, was a significant risk factor for breast cancer in this population after adjusting for area of nondense tissue (OR per 10 cm(2) = 1.07, 95% CI 1.00-1.15, p = 0.04). The effect was stronger in premenopausal women, who made up the majority of the study population. Absolute density remained a significant predictor of breast cancer risk after adjusting for age at menarche, age at first live birth, parity, past or present hormone replacement therapy, and the Tyrer-Cuzick 10-year relative risk estimate of breast cancer. Absolute density can improve breast cancer risk stratification and delineation of high-risk groups alongside the Tyrer-Cuzick 10-year relative risk estimate.

  6. [Guidance of FDA risk evaluation and mitigation strategy and enlightenment to drug risk management of post-marketing Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Xie, Yanming

    2011-10-01

    The FDA risk evaluation and mitigation strategy (REMS) aims to drugs or biological products known or potential serious risk management. Analysis with the example of the content of the Onsolis REMS named FOCOS. Our country can be reference for the analysis of relevant experience and establish a scientific evaluation mechanism, strengthen the drug risk consciousness, promote the rational drug use, organic combined with the before-marketing and post-marketing evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine, and promote the evaluation of risk management of the drug development and improvement.

  7. Association Between Low Dairy Intake During Pregnancy and Risk of Small-for-Gestational-Age Infants.

    PubMed

    Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Amezcua-Prieto, Carmen; Luna-Del-Castillo, Juan de Dios; Lewis-Mikhael, Anne-Mary; Mozas-Moreno, Juan; Bueno-Cavanillas, Aurora; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan

    2016-06-01

    Background Inadequate maternal nutrition is regarded as one of the most important indicators of fetal growth. The aim of this study was to analyze the associated risk of having a small for gestational age (SGA) infant according to the mother's dairy intake during the first half of pregnancy. Methods A prospective cohort study was performed using 1175 healthy pregnant women selected from the catchment area of Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Granada (Spain). SGA was defined as neonates weighing less than the 10th percentile, adjusted for gestational age. Factors associated with SGA were analyzed using logistic regression models. Population attributable fractions of SGA according to dairy intake were estimated. Results Dairy intake among women who gave birth to SGA infants was 513.9, versus 590.3 g/day for women with appropriate size for gestational age infants (P = 0.003). An increased intake of dairy products by 100 g/day during the first half of pregnancy decreased the risk of having a SGA infant by 11.0 %, aOR = 0.89 (0.83, 0.96). A dose-response gradient between dairy intake and SGA was observed. Conclusions An inadequate intake of dairy products is associated with a higher risk of SGA. Our results suggest a possible causal relation between dairy intake during pregnancy and the weight of the newborn, although we cannot discard residual confounding. These results should be further supported by properly designed studies. PMID:26971269

  8. Association Between Low Dairy Intake During Pregnancy and Risk of Small-for-Gestational-Age Infants.

    PubMed

    Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Amezcua-Prieto, Carmen; Luna-Del-Castillo, Juan de Dios; Lewis-Mikhael, Anne-Mary; Mozas-Moreno, Juan; Bueno-Cavanillas, Aurora; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan

    2016-06-01

    Background Inadequate maternal nutrition is regarded as one of the most important indicators of fetal growth. The aim of this study was to analyze the associated risk of having a small for gestational age (SGA) infant according to the mother's dairy intake during the first half of pregnancy. Methods A prospective cohort study was performed using 1175 healthy pregnant women selected from the catchment area of Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Granada (Spain). SGA was defined as neonates weighing less than the 10th percentile, adjusted for gestational age. Factors associated with SGA were analyzed using logistic regression models. Population attributable fractions of SGA according to dairy intake were estimated. Results Dairy intake among women who gave birth to SGA infants was 513.9, versus 590.3 g/day for women with appropriate size for gestational age infants (P = 0.003). An increased intake of dairy products by 100 g/day during the first half of pregnancy decreased the risk of having a SGA infant by 11.0 %, aOR = 0.89 (0.83, 0.96). A dose-response gradient between dairy intake and SGA was observed. Conclusions An inadequate intake of dairy products is associated with a higher risk of SGA. Our results suggest a possible causal relation between dairy intake during pregnancy and the weight of the newborn, although we cannot discard residual confounding. These results should be further supported by properly designed studies.

  9. Impact of structural aging on seismic risk assessment of reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingwood, B.; Song, J.

    1996-03-01

    The Structural Aging Program is addressing the potential for degradation of concrete structural components and systems in nuclear power plants over time due to aging and aggressive environmental stressors. Structures are passive under normal operating conditions but play a key role in mitigating design-basis events, particularly those arising from external challenges such as earthquakes, extreme winds, fires and floods. Structures are plant-specific and unique, often are difficult to inspect, and are virtually impossible to replace. The importance of structural failures in accident mitigation is amplified because such failures may lead to common-cause failures of other components. Structural condition assessment and service life prediction must focus on a few critical components and systems within the plant. Components and systems that are dominant contributors to risk and that require particular attention can be identified through the mathematical formalism of a probabilistic risk assessment, or PRA. To illustrate, the role of structural degradation due to aging on plant risk is examined through the framework of a Level 1 seismic PRA of a nuclear power plant. Plausible mechanisms of structural degradation are found to increase the core damage probability by approximately a factor of two.

  10. Age and sex influence marmot antipredator behavior during periods of heightened risk.

    PubMed

    Lea, Amanda J; Blumstein, Daniel T

    2011-08-01

    Animals adjust their antipredator behavior according to environmental variation in risk, and to account for their ability to respond to threats. Intrinsic factors that influence an animal's ability to respond to predators (e.g., age, body condition) should explain variation in antipredator behavior. For example, a juvenile might allocate more time to vigilance than an adult because mortality as a result of predation is often high for this age class; however, the relationship between age/vulnerability and antipredator behavior is not always clear or as predicted. We explored the influence of intrinsic factors on yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) antipredator behavior using data pooled from 4 years of experiments. We hypothesized that inherently vulnerable animals (e.g., young, males, and individuals in poor condition) would exhibit more antipredator behavior prior to and immediately following conspecific alarm calls. As expected, males and yearlings suppressed foraging more than females and adults following alarm call playbacks. In contrast to predictions, animals in better condition respond more than animals in below average condition. Interestingly, these intrinsic properties did not influence baseline time budgets; animals of all ages, sexes, and condition levels devoted comparable amounts of time to foraging prior to alarm calls. Our results support the hypothesis that inherent differences in vulnerability influence antipredator behavior; furthermore, it appears that a crucial, but poorly acknowledged, interaction exists between risk and state-dependence. Elevated risk may be required to reveal the workings of state-dependent behavior, and studies of antipredator behavior in a single context may draw incomplete conclusions about age- or sex-specific strategies.

  11. USING BIOASSAYS TO EVALUATE THE PERFORMANCE OF EDC RISK MANAGEMENT METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Superfund risk management research, the performance of risk management techniques is typically evaluated by measuring "the concentrations of the chemicals of concern before and after risk management efforts. However, using bioassays and chemical data provides a more robust und...

  12. Risk of Developing Second Cancer From Neutron Dose in Proton Therapy as Function of Field Characteristics, Organ, and Patient Age

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharatou Jarlskog, Christina; Paganetti, Harald

    2008-09-01

    Purpose: To estimate the risk of a second malignancy after treatment of a primary brain cancer using passive scattered proton beam therapy. The focus was on the cancer risk caused by neutrons outside the treatment volume and the dependency on the patient's age. Methods and Materials: Organ-specific neutron-equivalent doses previously calculated for eight different proton therapy brain fields were considered. Organ-specific models were applied to assess the risk of developing solid cancers and leukemia. Results: The main contributors (>80%) to the neutron-induced risk are neutrons generated in the treatment head. Treatment volume can influence the risk by up to a factor of {approx}2. Young patients are subject to significantly greater risks than are adult patients because of the geometric differences and age dependency of the risk models. Breast cancer should be the main concern for females. For males, the risks of lung cancer, leukemia, and thyroid cancer were significant for pediatric patients. In contrast, leukemia was the leading risk for an adult. Most lifetime risks were <1% (70-Gy treatment). The only exceptions were breast, thyroid, and lung cancer for females. For female thyroid cancer, the treatment risk can exceed the baseline risk. Conclusion: The risk of developing a second malignancy from neutrons from proton beam therapy of a brain lesion is small (i.e., presumably outweighed by the therapeutic benefit) but not negligible (i.e., potentially greater than the baseline risk). The patient's age at treatment plays a major role.

  13. Developmental Risk and Young Children’s Regulatory Strategies: Predicting Behavior Problems at Age Five

    PubMed Central

    Gerstein, Emily D.; Arbona, Anita Pedersen y; Crnic, Keith A.; Ryu, Ehri; Baker, Bruce L.; Blacher, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Children with early developmental delays are at heightened risk for behavior problems and comorbid psychopathology. This study examined the trajectories of regulatory capabilities and their potentially mediating role in the development of behavior problems for children with and without early developmental delays. A sample of 231 children comprised of 137 typically developing children and 94 children with developmental delays were examined during mildly frustrating laboratory tasks across the preschool period (ages 3–5). Results indicated that children with delays had greater use of maladaptive strategies (distraction, distress venting) and lower use of adaptive strategies (constructive coping) than typically developing children. For both groups, strategies had similar rates of growth across time; maladaptive strategies decreased and adaptive strategies increased. The intercept of strategy use, but not the slope, was found to mediate the relation between developmental risk and externalizing behaviors. Findings support that dysregulation, rather than the developmental risk, may be responsible for the high levels of comorbid psychopathology. PMID:21107675

  14. Parity and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Middle-aged and Older Chinese Women.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lijun; Wu, Jing; Xu, Guiqiang; Song, Lulu; Yang, Siyi; Yuan, Jing; Liang, Yuan; Wang, Youjie

    2015-11-26

    Pregnancy leads to physiological changes in lipid, glucose levels, and weight, which may increase the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in later life. The purpose of this study was to examine whether parity is associated with CHD in middle-aged and older Chinese women. A total of 20,207 women aged 37 to 94 years from Dongfeng-Tongji Cohort who completed the questionnaire, were medically examined and provided blood samples, were included in our analysis. CHD cases were determined by self-report of physician diagnosis through face-to-face interviews. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between parity and CHD. The rate of CHD was 15.8%. Parity had a positive association with CHD without adjustment of covariates. After controlling for the potential confounders, increasing risk of coronary heart disease was observed in women who had two (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.41-1.93), three (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.44-2.16), and four or more live births (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.33-2.20) compared with women with just one live birth. High parity was significantly associated with increasing risk of CHD in Chinese women. This suggests that multiparity may be a risk factor for CHD among Chinese women.

  15. How perceived predation risk shapes patterns of aging in water fleas.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak, Barbara; Dawidowicz, Piotr; Prędki, Piotr; Dańko, Maciej J

    2015-09-01

    Predation is an important selection pressure which shapes aging patterns in natural populations, and it is also a significant factor in the life history decisions of individuals. Exposure to the perceived threat of size-dependent fish predation has been shown to trigger adaptive responses in animal life history including an increase in early reproductive output. In water fleas, this response to perceived predation risk appears to have a cost, as a lifespan in an environment free of predation cues is 20% longer. The aim of this study is to establish the biodemographic basis of phenotypic differences in the water flea lifespan which are induced by the cues of fish predation. We examined mortality by fitting the Gompertz-Makeham model of mortality to large cohorts of two cladoceran species, Daphnia longispina and Diaphanosoma brachyurum. Our findings indicate that perceived exposure to the threat of fish predation (induced through chemical cues) only accelerated the rate of aging in Diaphanosoma, and not in Daphnia where the treatment led to an earlier onset of aging. The second of these two phenotypic responses is consistent with the genetically based differences between Daphnia from habitats that differ with respect to predation risk. In contrast, the response of Diaphanosoma demonstrates that the cue of extrinsic mortality-in this case, fish predation-is a key factor in shaping these cladoceran life histories in the wild, and is one of the few interventions which has been shown to induce a plastic change in the rate of aging.

  16. 20 CFR 408.413 - How do we evaluate the evidence of age you give us?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How do we evaluate the evidence of age you give us? 408.413 Section 408.413 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Evidence Requirements Age § 408.413 How do we evaluate the...

  17. 20 CFR 408.413 - How do we evaluate the evidence of age you give us?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How do we evaluate the evidence of age you give us? 408.413 Section 408.413 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Evidence Requirements Age § 408.413 How do we evaluate the...

  18. 20 CFR 408.413 - How do we evaluate the evidence of age you give us?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How do we evaluate the evidence of age you give us? 408.413 Section 408.413 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Evidence Requirements Age § 408.413 How do we evaluate the...

  19. 20 CFR 408.413 - How do we evaluate the evidence of age you give us?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How do we evaluate the evidence of age you give us? 408.413 Section 408.413 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Evidence Requirements Age § 408.413 How do we evaluate the...

  20. 20 CFR 408.413 - How do we evaluate the evidence of age you give us?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do we evaluate the evidence of age you give us? 408.413 Section 408.413 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Evidence Requirements Age § 408.413 How do we evaluate the...

  1. Human telomere biology: A contributory and interactive factor in aging, disease risks, and protection.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Elizabeth H; Epel, Elissa S; Lin, Jue

    2015-12-01

    Telomeres are the protective end-complexes at the termini of eukaryotic chromosomes. Telomere attrition can lead to potentially maladaptive cellular changes, block cell division, and interfere with tissue replenishment. Recent advances in the understanding of human disease processes have clarified the roles of telomere biology, especially in diseases of human aging and in some aging-related processes. Greater overall telomere attrition predicts mortality and aging-related diseases in inherited telomere syndrome patients, and also in general human cohorts. However, genetically caused variations in telomere maintenance either raise or lower risks and progression of cancers, in a highly cancer type-specific fashion. Telomere maintenance is determined by genetic factors and is also cumulatively shaped by nongenetic influences throughout human life; both can interact. These and other recent findings highlight both causal and potentiating roles for telomere attrition in human diseases.

  2. Prehypertension in Pregnancy and Risks of Small for Gestational Age Infant and Stillbirth.

    PubMed

    Wikström, Anna-Karin; Gunnarsdottir, Johanna; Nelander, Maria; Simic, Marija; Stephansson, Olof; Cnattingius, Sven

    2016-03-01

    It is not fully known whether maternal prehypertension is associated with increased risk of adverse fetal outcomes, and it is debated whether increases in blood pressure during pregnancy influence adverse fetal outcomes. We performed a population-based cohort study in nonhypertensive women with term (≥37 weeks) singleton births (n=157 446). Using normotensive (diastolic blood pressure [DBP] <80 mm Hg) women as reference, we calculated adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals between prehypertension (DBP 80-89 mm Hg) at 36 gestational weeks (late pregnancy) and risks of a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth or stillbirth. We further estimated whether an increase in DBP from early to late pregnancy affected these risks. We found that 11% of the study population had prehypertension in late pregnancy. Prehypertension was associated with increased risks of both SGA birth and stillbirth; adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 1.69 (1.51-1.90) and 1.70 (1.16-2.49), respectively. Risks of SGA birth in term pregnancy increased by 2.0% (95% confidence intervals 1.5-2.8) per each mm Hg rise in DBP from early to late pregnancy, whereas risk of stillbirth was not affected by rise in DBP during pregnancy. We conclude that prehypertension in late pregnancy is associated with increased risks of SGA birth and stillbirth. Risk of SGA birth was also affected by rise in DBT during pregnancy. Our findings provide new insight to the relationship between maternal blood pressure and fetal well-being and suggest that impaired maternal perfusion of the placenta contribute to SGA birth and stillbirth. PMID:26831196

  3. Prehypertension in Pregnancy and Risks of Small for Gestational Age Infant and Stillbirth.

    PubMed

    Wikström, Anna-Karin; Gunnarsdottir, Johanna; Nelander, Maria; Simic, Marija; Stephansson, Olof; Cnattingius, Sven

    2016-03-01

    It is not fully known whether maternal prehypertension is associated with increased risk of adverse fetal outcomes, and it is debated whether increases in blood pressure during pregnancy influence adverse fetal outcomes. We performed a population-based cohort study in nonhypertensive women with term (≥37 weeks) singleton births (n=157 446). Using normotensive (diastolic blood pressure [DBP] <80 mm Hg) women as reference, we calculated adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals between prehypertension (DBP 80-89 mm Hg) at 36 gestational weeks (late pregnancy) and risks of a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth or stillbirth. We further estimated whether an increase in DBP from early to late pregnancy affected these risks. We found that 11% of the study population had prehypertension in late pregnancy. Prehypertension was associated with increased risks of both SGA birth and stillbirth; adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 1.69 (1.51-1.90) and 1.70 (1.16-2.49), respectively. Risks of SGA birth in term pregnancy increased by 2.0% (95% confidence intervals 1.5-2.8) per each mm Hg rise in DBP from early to late pregnancy, whereas risk of stillbirth was not affected by rise in DBP during pregnancy. We conclude that prehypertension in late pregnancy is associated with increased risks of SGA birth and stillbirth. Risk of SGA birth was also affected by rise in DBT during pregnancy. Our findings provide new insight to the relationship between maternal blood pressure and fetal well-being and suggest that impaired maternal perfusion of the placenta contribute to SGA birth and stillbirth.

  4. Evaluation of data for Sinkhole-development risk models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upchurch, Sam B.; Littlefield, James R.

    1988-10-01

    Before risk assessments for sinkhole damage and indemnification are developed, a data base must be created to predict the occurrence and distribution of sinkholes. This database must be evaluated in terms of the following questions: (1) are available records of modern sinkhole development adequate, (2) can the distribution of ancient sinks be used for predictive purposes, and (3) at what areal scale must sinkhole occurrences be evaluated for predictive and risk analysis purposes? Twelve 7.5' quadrangles with varying karst development in Hillsborough County, Florida provide insight into these questions. The area includes 179 modern sinks that developed between 1964 and 1985 and 2,303 ancient sinks. The sinks occur in urban, suburban, agricultural, and major forest wetland areas. The number of ancient sinks ranges from 0.1 to 3.2/km2 and averages 1.1/km2 for the entire area. The quadrangle area occupied by ancient sinks ranges from 0.3 to 10.2 percent. The distribution of ancient sinkholes within a quadrangle ranges from 0 to over 25 percent of the land surface. In bare karst areas, the sinks are localized along major lineaments, especially at lineament intersections. Where there is covered karst, ancient sinks may be obscured. Modern sinkholes did not uniformly through time, they ranged from 0 to 29/yr. The regional occurrence rate is 7.6/yr. Most were reported in urban or suburban areas and their locations coincide with the lineament-controlled areas of ancient karst. Moving-average analysis indicates that the distribution of modern sinks is highly localized and ranges from 0 to 1.9/km2. Chi-square tests show that the distribution of ancient sinks in bare karst areas significantly predicts the locations of modern sinks. In areas of covered karst, the locations of ancient sinkholes do not predict modern sinks. It appears that risk-assessment models for sinkhole development can use the distribution of ancient sinks where bare karst is present. In covered karst areas

  5. Altered relationships between age and functional brain activation in adolescents at clinical high risk for psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Karlsgodt, Katherine H.; van Erp, Theo G.M.; Bearden, Carrie E.; Cannon, Tyrone D.

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is considered a neurodevelopmental disorder, but whether the adolescent period, proximal to onset, is associated with aberrant development in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis is incompletely understood. While abnormal gray and white matter development has been observed, alterations in functional neuroimaging (fMRI) parameters during adolescence as related to conversion to psychosis have not yet been investigated. Twenty CHR individuals and 19 typically developing controls (TDC), (ages 14-21), were recruited from the Center for Assessment and Prevention of Prodromal States (CAPPS) at UCLA. Participants performed a Sternberg-style verbal working memory (WMem) task during fMRI and data were analyzed using a cross-sectional design to test the hypothesis that there is a deviant developmental trajectory in WMem associated neural circuitry in those at risk for psychosis. Eight of the CHR adolescents converted to psychosis within 2 years of initial assessment. A voxel-wise regression examining the relationship between age and activation revealed a significant group-by-age interaction. TDC showed a negative association between age and functional activation in the WMem circuitry while CHR adolescents showed a positive association. Moreover, CHR patients who later converted to overt psychosis showed a distinct pattern of abnormal age-associated activation in the frontal cortex relative to controls, while non-converters showed a more diffuse posterior pattern. Finding that age related variation in baseline patterns of neural activity differentiate individuals who subsequently convert to psychosis from healthy subjects suggests that these differences are likely to be clinically relevant. PMID:24144510

  6. Altered relationships between age and functional brain activation in adolescents at clinical high risk for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Karlsgodt, Katherine H; van Erp, Theo G M; Bearden, Carrie E; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2014-01-30

    Schizophrenia is considered a neurodevelopmental disorder, but whether the adolescent period, proximal to onset, is associated with aberrant development in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis is incompletely understood. While abnormal gray and white matter development has been observed, alterations in functional neuroimaging (fMRI) parameters during adolescence as related to conversion to psychosis have not yet been investigated. Twenty CHR individuals and 19 typically developing controls (TDC), (ages 14-21), were recruited from the Center for Assessment and Prevention of Prodromal States (CAPPS) at UCLA. Participants performed a Sternberg-style verbal working memory (WMem) task during fMRI and data were analyzed using a cross-sectional design to test the hypothesis that there is a deviant developmental trajectory in WMem associated neural circuitry in those at risk for psychosis. Eight of the CHR adolescents converted to psychosis within 2 years of initial assessment. A voxel-wise regression examining the relationship between age and activation revealed a significant group-by-age interaction. TDC showed a negative association between age and functional activation in the WMem circuitry while CHR adolescents showed a positive association. Moreover, CHR patients who later converted to overt psychosis showed a distinct pattern of abnormal age-associated activation in the frontal cortex relative to controls, while non-converters showed a more diffuse posterior pattern. Finding that age related variation in baseline patterns of neural activity differentiate individuals who subsequently convert to psychosis from healthy subjects suggests that these differences are likely to be clinically relevant. PMID:24144510

  7. Mathematical phantoms for evaluation of age-specific internal dose

    SciTech Connect

    Cristy, M.

    1980-01-01

    A series of mathematical phantoms representing children has been developed for use with photon transport codes. These phantoms, patterned after the Fisher-Snyder adult phantom, consist of simple mathematical expressions for the boundaries of the major organs and body sections. The location and shape of the organs are consistent with drawings depicting developmental anatomy, with the organ volumes assigned such that the masses at the various ages conform closely with the data presented in Reference Man. The explicit mathematical expressions for the various ages overcome the potential misrepresentation of organ sizes that occurred in phantoms derived from simple mathematical transformations of the adult phantom. Female breast tissue has been added to the phantoms, including the adult, now allowing assessment of doses to this organ.

  8. Comprehensive safeguards evaluation methods and societal risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J.M.

    1982-03-01

    Essential capabilities of an integrated evaluation methodology for analyzing safeguards systems are discussed. Such a methodology must be conceptually meaningful, technically defensible, discriminating and consistent. A decompostion of safeguards systems by function is mentioned as a possible starting point for methodology development. The application of a societal risk equation to safeguards systems analysis is addressed. Conceptual problems with this approach are discussed. Technical difficulties in applying this equation to safeguards systems are illustrated through the use of confidence intervals, information content, hypothesis testing and ranking and selection procedures.

  9. Assessment of Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies in Oncology: Summary of the Oncology Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Frame, James N.; Jacobson, Joseph O.; Vogel, Wendy H.; Griffith, Niesha; Wariabharaj, Darshan; Garg, Rekha; Zon, Robin; Stephens, Cyntha L.; Bialecki, Alison M.; Bruinooge, Suanna S.; Allen, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    To address oncology community stakeholder concerns regarding implementation of the Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS) program, ASCO sponsored a workshop to gather REMS experiences from representatives of professional societies, patient organizations, pharmaceutical companies, and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Stakeholder presentations and topical panel discussions addressed REMS program development, implementation processes, and practice experiences, as well as oncology drug safety processes. A draft REMS decision tool prepared by the ASCO REMS Steering Committee was presented for group discussion with facilitated, goal-oriented feedback. The workshop identified several unintended consequences resulting from current oncology REMS: (1) the release of personal health information to drug sponsors as a condition for gaining access to a needed drug; (2) risk information that is not tailored—and therefore not accessible—to all literacy levels; (3) exclusive focus on drug risk, thereby affecting patient-provider treatment discussion; (4) REMS elements that do not consider existing, widely practiced oncology safety standards, professional training, and experience; and (5) administrative burdens that divert the health care team from direct patient care activities and, in some cases, could limit patient access to important therapies. Increased provider and professional society participation should form the basis of ongoing and future REMS standardization discussions with the FDA to work toward overall improvement of risk communication. PMID:23814522

  10. Anthropometric trends and the risk of cardiovascular disease mortality in a Lithuanian urban population aged 45–64 years

    PubMed Central

    Luksiene, Dalia; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Virviciute, Dalia; Bernotiene, Gailute; Peasey, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To estimate trends in anthropometric indexes from 1992 to 2008 and to evaluate the risk of cardiovascular disease mortality in relation to anthropometric indexes (body mass index, waist circumference, waist:hip ratio, waist:height ratio). Methods: Data from the three surveys (1992–2008) are presented. A random sample of 5147 subjects aged 45–64 years was selected for statistical analysis. During follow-up there were 141 deaths from cardiovascular disease (excluding those with cardiovascular disease at entry). Cox’s regression was used to estimate the associations between anthropometric indexes and cardiovascular disease mortality. Results: During a 17-year period among men, the prevalence of obesity (body mass index ⩾30 kg/m2) increased from 18.4% to 32.1% (p<0.001) and a high level of waist:hip ratio (>0.9) from 59.3% to 72.9% (p<0.001). The risk profile of obesity did not change in women, but prevalence of a high level of waist:hip ratio (>0.85) increased from 25.9% to 41.5% (p<0.001). Multivariable-adjusted Cox’s regression models showed that body mass index, waist circumference, waist:hip ratio, waist:height ratio were associated with cardiovascular disease mortality risk only in men (hazard ratios 1.40, 1.45, 1.49, 1.46 respectively (p<0.01)). Conclusions: Our data indicate that anthropometric measures such as body mass index, waist circumference, waist:hip ratio and waist:height ratio are good indicators of cardiovascular disease mortality risk only in men aged 45–64 years. PMID:26261188

  11. Documentation Protocols to Generate Risk Indicators Regarding Degradation Processes for Cultural Heritage Risk Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kioussi, A.; Karoglou, M.; Bakolas, A.; Labropoulos, K.; Moropoulou, A.

    2013-07-01

    Sustainable maintenance and preservation of cultural heritage assets depends highly on its resilience to external or internal alterations and to various hazards. Risk assessment of a heritage asset's can be defined as the identification of all potential hazards affecting it and the evaluation of the asset's vulnerability (building materials and building structure conservation state).Potential hazards for cultural heritage are complex and varying. The risk of decay and damage associated with monuments is not limited to certain long term natural processes, sudden events and human impact (macroscale of the heritage asset) but is also a function of the degradation processes within materials and structural elements due to physical and chemical procedures. Obviously, these factors cover different scales of the problem. The deteriorating processes in materials may be triggered by external influences or caused because of internal chemical and/or physical variations of materials properties and characteristics. Therefore risk evaluation should be dealt in the direction of revealing the specific active decay and damage mechanism both in mesoscale [type of decay and damage] and microscale [decay phenomenon mechanism] level. A prerequisite for risk indicators identification and development is the existence of an organised source of comparable and interoperable data about heritage assets under observation. This unified source of information offers a knowledge based background of the asset's vulnerability through the diagnosis of building materials' and building structure's conservation state, through the identification of all potential hazards affecting these and through mapping of its possible alterations during its entire life-time. In this framework the identification and analysis of risks regarding degradation processes for the development of qualitative and quantitative indicators can be supported by documentation protocols. The data investigated by such protocols help

  12. Evaluation and simplification of the occupational slip, trip and fall risk-assessment test

    PubMed Central

    NAKAMURA, Takehiro; OYAMA, Ichiro; FUJINO, Yoshihisa; KUBO, Tatsuhiko; KADOWAKI, Koji; KUNIMOTO, Masamizu; ODOI, Haruka; TABATA, Hidetoshi; MATSUDA, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the efficacy of the occupational slip, trip and fall (STF) risk assessment test developed by the Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association (JISHA). We further intended to simplify the test to improve efficiency. Methods: A previous cohort study was performed using 540 employees aged ≥50 years who took the JISHA’s STF risk assessment test. We conducted multivariate analysis using these previous results as baseline values and answers to questionnaire items or score on physical fitness tests as variables. The screening efficiency of each model was evaluated based on the obtained receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: The area under the ROC obtained in multivariate analysis was 0.79 when using all items. Six of the 25 questionnaire items were selected for stepwise analysis, giving an area under the ROC curve of 0.77. Conclusion: Based on the results of follow-up performed one year after the initial examination, we successfully determined the usefulness of the STF risk assessment test. Administering a questionnaire alone is sufficient for screening subjects at risk of STF during the subsequent one-year period. PMID:27021057

  13. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different age groups of Danish cattle and pigs--occurrence and management associated risk factors.

    PubMed

    Maddox-Hyttel, Charlotte; Langkjaer, Rikke B; Enemark, Heidi L; Vigre, Håkan

    2006-10-10

    To obtain information both about the prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Danish cattle and pigs as well as the possible influence of different management systems on the occurrence and intensity of infection, we conducted an epidemiological survey comprising 50 randomly selected dairy and sow herds, respectively. Each herd was visited once for the collection of faecal samples and registration of basic management parameters. Faecal samples were collected from three different age groups of animals, i.e. 5 sows/cows, 10 nursing piglets/calves less than 1 month, and 10 weaner pigs 8-45 kg/calves 1-12 months. The faecal samples were purified and the number of (oo)cysts quantified. The study revealed an age-specific herd prevalence of Cryptosporidium of 16, 31 and 100% for sows, piglets and weaners, respectively, and of 14, 96 and 84% for cows, young calves and older calves, respectively. For Giardia the age-specific herd prevalence was 18, 22 and 84% for the sows, piglets and weaners, while for cattle herds the prevalence was 60, 82 and 100% for cows, young calves and older calves, correspondingly. The (oo)cyst excretion levels varied considerably both within and between herds for all age groups. Risk factors were evaluated by using proportional odds models with (oo)cyst excretion levels divided into four categories as response. Among the numerous risk factors examined, only a few were demonstrated to have a statistically significant influence, e.g. the use of an empty period in the calf pen between introduction of calves for both parasites had a protective effect in young calves. For weaners, use of straw in the pen and high pressure cleaning between batches of weaners had a preventive effect against higher Cryptosporidium oocyst excretion levels.

  14. Polygenic risk of Parkinson disease is correlated with disease age at onset

    PubMed Central

    Escott‐Price, Valentina; Nalls, Mike A.; Morris, Huw R.; Lubbe, Steven; Brice, Alexis; Gasser, Thomas; Heutink, Peter; Wood, Nicholas W.; Hardy, John; Singleton, Andrew B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We have investigated the polygenic architecture of Parkinson disease (PD) and have also explored the potential relationship between an individual's polygenic risk score and their disease age at onset. Methods This study used genotypic data from 4,294 cases and 10,340 controls obtained from the meta‐analysis of PD genome‐wide association studies. Polygenic score analysis was performed as previously described by the International Schizophrenia Consortium, testing whether the polygenic score alleles identified in 1 association study were significantly enriched in the cases relative to the controls of 3 independent studies. Linear regression was used to investigate the relationship between an individual's polygenic score for PD risk alleles and disease age at onset. Results Our polygenic score analysis has identified significant evidence for a polygenic component enriched in the cases of each of 3 independent PD genome‐wide association cohorts (minimum p = 3.76 × 10−6). Further analysis identified compelling evidence that the average polygenic score in patients with an early disease age at onset was significantly higher than in those with a late age at onset (p = 0.00014). Interpretation This provides strong support for a large polygenic contribution to the overall heritable risk of PD and also suggests that early onset forms of the illness are not exclusively caused by highly penetrant Mendelian mutations, but can also be contributed to by an accumulation of common polygenic alleles with relatively low effect sizes. Ann Neurol 2015;77:582–591 PMID:25773351

  15. Evaluation of risk factor reduction in a European City Network.

    PubMed

    Farrington, Jill L; Faskunger, Johan; Mackiewicz, Karolina

    2015-06-01

    There is a substantial and growing burden of premature mortality caused by non-communicable diseases (NCDs) globally. This paper evaluates the preventive efforts of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network during its fifth phase (2009-13), specifically for four behavioural risk factors (tobacco use, alcohol abuse, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity). Drawing on case studies, questionnaire responses and other materials, it notes which cities were involved, what worked and did not, the triggers for action, challenges met and lessons learnt. Few cities appeared to have taken comprehensive approaches to NCD prevention across multiple risk factors, or have combined population- and individual-level interventions. Work on healthy food and diet predominantly focused on children in educational or care settings, and few cities appeared to take a comprehensive approach to tackling obesity. Partnerships were a strong feature for all the NCD risk factor work, and were frequently extensive, being most diverse for the Healthy Diet and Food work. There were strong examples of engagement with communities, also involved in co-designing and shaping projects. Equity also featured strongly and there were multiple examples of how attention had been paid to the social determinants of health. There was evidence that cities continue to be significant innovative forces within their countries and drivers of change, and the mutual dependency of the national and local levels was highlighted. Interventions to promote physical activity have shifted focus from specific events and projects to being more integrated with other policy areas and based on intersectoral collaboration. PMID:26069321

  16. Low back pain: risk evaluation and preplacement screening.

    PubMed

    Himmelstein, J S; Andersson, G B

    1988-01-01

    As screening tests in a currently asymptomatic population, all of the available methods for predicting low back pain and disability have serious technical, ethical and legal limitations. From a technical point of view, none of the predictive tests appear to have sufficient sensitivity or specificity to justify routine usage. The most sensitive indicator (a past history of low back pain) lacks reliability and specificity. Muscle strength-testing may be predictive of future musculoskeletal injury as part of a well-designed program that considers specific job demands in relation to specific worker capabilities. Unfortunately, the conditions necessary for a well designed program--a large number of predictable high-risk jobs that have measurable specific demands that can be reproduced reliably in a testing situation--are rarely met. In the future, the use of computer-assisted multivariate models analogous to those used in the prediction of cardiovascular risk may be capable of integrating information about an individual's medical history, physical exam, physical capacity and other tests with specific job requirements to give us a more accurate prediction of the future risk of back pain and disability. If such predictive models are ever developed and verified, it would then be appropriate to examine various interventions and their effectiveness in modifying risks for the population and the individual worker. From a legal point of view, all of the techniques described hold potential for significant discrimination against legally protected groups. Making employment decisions with regard to a past history of low back pain or on the basis of an x-ray will lead to systematic age discrimination and discrimination against the handicapped. The use of muscle strength-testing will systematically discriminate against women and certain ethnic groups. The ethical implications of predictive screening for low back pain clearly depends on what is done with the information that is

  17. Effects of Age and Initial Risk Perception on Balloon Analog Risk Task: The Mediating Role of Processing Speed and Need for Cognitive Closure

    PubMed Central

    Koscielniak, Maciej; Rydzewska, Klara; Sedek, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    According to the dual-process theoretical perspective adopted in the presented research, the efficiency of deliberative processes in decision making declines with age, but experiential processes are relatively well-preserved. The age-related differences in deliberative and experiential processes in risky decision-making were examined in this research by applying the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART). We analyzed the influence of age on risk acceptance and decision-making performance in two age groups of female participants (younger adults, n = 81; older adults, n = 76), with additional experimental manipulation of initial risk perception. We predicted and confirmed that aging significantly worsens performance on the behavioral BART measures due to age-related decline in deliberative processes. Older participants were found to exhibit significantly higher risk aversion and lower BART performance, and the effect of age was mediated by cognitive (processing speed) and motivational (need for cognitive closure) mechanisms. Moreover, older adults adapt to the initial failure (vs. success) similarly, as younger adults due to preserved efficiency of experiential processes. These results suggest future directions for minimizing negative effects of aging in risky decision-making and indicate compensatory processes, which are preserved during aging. PMID:27199877

  18. Effects of Age and Initial Risk Perception on Balloon Analog Risk Task: The Mediating Role of Processing Speed and Need for Cognitive Closure.

    PubMed

    Koscielniak, Maciej; Rydzewska, Klara; Sedek, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    According to the dual-process theoretical perspective adopted in the presented research, the efficiency of deliberative processes in decision making declines with age, but experiential processes are relatively well-preserved. The age-related differences in deliberative and experiential processes in risky decision-making were examined in this research by applying the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART). We analyzed the influence of age on risk acceptance and decision-making performance in two age groups of female participants (younger adults, n = 81; older adults, n = 76), with additional experimental manipulation of initial risk perception. We predicted and confirmed that aging significantly worsens performance on the behavioral BART measures due to age-related decline in deliberative processes. Older participants were found to exhibit significantly higher risk aversion and lower BART performance, and the effect of age was mediated by cognitive (processing speed) and motivational (need for cognitive closure) mechanisms. Moreover, older adults adapt to the initial failure (vs. success) similarly, as younger adults due to preserved efficiency of experiential processes. These results suggest future directions for minimizing negative effects of aging in risky decision-making and indicate compensatory processes, which are preserved during aging. PMID:27199877

  19. Research Approach for Aging and Evaluating Diesel Exhaust catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne, Scott

    2000-08-20

    To determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emissions control devices that could lower emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks and buses in the 2002-2004 model years. West Virginia University is evaluating: - Diesel Oxidation Catalysts - Lean NOX Catalysts

  20. Biodex Fall Risk Assessment in the Elderly With Ataxia: A New Age-Dependent Derived Index in Rehabilitation: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Prometti, Paola; Olivares, Adriana; Gaia, Giuseppina; Bonometti, Giampietro; Comini, Laura; Scalvini, Simonetta

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if the Biodex Fall Risk Assessment could provide an age-adjusted index useful for classifying patients at "risk of fall."This was a cohort study conducted on 61 chronic patients, in stable conditions, having a history of ataxia, difficulty in walking or loss of balance, and aged >64 years. These patients were coming from home to our Institute undergoing a period of in-hospital standard rehabilitation. Assessment of clinical parameters was performed at entry. Functional scales (Functional Independence Measure [FIM] for motor and cognitive function, Barthel G, Tinetti POMA), and the Biodex Fall Risk Index (FRI) were performed at entry and discharge. The Normalized FRI, obtained adjusting FRI to the reported maximum predictive FRI for the relevant age, identified 2 types of patients: those with a greater risk of fall than expected for that age, labeled Case 1 (Normalized FRI>1); and those with an equal or even lesser risk of fall than expected for that age, labeled Case 0 (Normalized FRI≤1).FRI, Normalized FRI as well as independent variables as age, sex, pathology group, FIM, BarthelG, were considered in a multiple regression analysis to predict the functional improvement (i.e., delta Tinetti Total score) after rehabilitation.Normalized FRI is useful in assessing patients at risk of falls both before and after rehabilitation. At admission, the Normalized FRI evidenced high fall risk in 46% of patients (Case 1) which decreased to 12% after rehabilitation, being greater than age-predicted in 7 patients (Case 1-1) despite the functional improvement observed after the rehabilitation treatment. Normalized FRI evidenced Case 1-1 patients as neurological, "very old" (86% in age-group 75-84 years), and with serious events at 18 to 24 months' follow-up. Normalized FRI, but not FRI, at admission was a predictor of improvement in Tinetti Total scores.The normalized FRI effectively indicated patients at higher risk of fall, in whom health

  1. Application of Ultrasonic Guided Waves for Evaluating Aging Wire Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anastasi, Robert F.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2005-01-01

    Aging wiring has become a critical issue to the aerospace and aircraft industries due to Shuttle and aircraft incidents. The problem is that over time the insulation on wire becomes brittle and cracks. This exposes the underlying conductive wire to the potential for short circuits and fire. Popular methods of monitoring aging wire problems focuses on applying electrical sensing techniques that are sensitive to the conductor's condition, but not very sensitive to the wire insulation's condition. Measurement of wire insulation stiffness and ultrasonic properties by ultrasonic guided waves is being examined. Experimental measurements showed that the lowest order extensional mode could be sensitive to stiffness changes in the wire insulation. To test this theory conventional wire samples were heat damaged in an oven, in a range of heating conditions. The samples were 12, 16, and 20 gauge and the heat damage introduced material changes in the wire insulation that made the originally flexible insulation brittle and darker in color. Results showed that extensional mode phase velocity increased for the samples that were exposed to heat for longer duration.

  2. Parkinson disease: primacy of age as a risk factor for mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Vanitallie, Theodore B

    2008-10-01

    In 1983, it was reported that certain drug users with a history of exposure to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, a contaminant of an illicitly produced meperidine analogue, developed an irreversible syndrome resembling idiopathic Parkinson disease (PD). Soon thereafter, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine's active metabolite, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine, was shown to be a complex I inhibitor. Activity of complex I (the point of entry for most electrons that traverse the mitochondrial electron transport chain) has been found to be impaired in the substantia nigra pars compacta and also in other brain tissues in PD patients. In 2006, high temporal and spatial resolution phosphorous functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to demonstrate that, in 20 PD patients, mitochondrial dysfunction extended to the visual cortex. Epidemiologic studies have implicated a number of apparently disparate exogenous factors in the causation of PD. For example, exposure to certain pesticides and herbicides (many known to inhibit electron transport chain activity) increases PD risk. Parkinson disease risk can be doubled, tripled, or more in individuals with repeated head injuries. Over time, PD risk is almost doubled in men and women with prior type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nevertheless, despite evidence that certain exogenous and/or developmental factors play a role in causation of PD, their potential effect on PD incidence is greatly overshadowed by that of advancing age. In 1 prospective study, PD incidence rate in subjects at least 85 years old was about 14 times that observed in subjects aged 56 to 65 years. The dramatic effect of aging on PD risk may be explained in part by the fact that mitochondrial DNA deletions are abundant and cause functional impairment in aged human substantia nigra pars compacta neurons. High levels of these mutations are associated with electron transport chain deficiency, a situation that favors increased oxidative damage, Lewy

  3. Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer disease: Genotype-specific risks by age and sex

    SciTech Connect

    Bickeboeller, H. |; Babron, M.C.; Clerget-Darpoux, F.

    1997-02-01

    The distribution of apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes as a function of age and sex has been examined in a French population of 417 Alzheimer disease (AD) patients and 1,030 control subjects. When compared to the APOE {epsilon}3 allele, an increased risk associated with the APOE {epsilon}4 allele (odds ratio [OR] [{epsilon}4] = 2.7 with 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.0-3.6; P < .001) and a protective effect of the APOE {epsilon}2 allele (OR[{epsilon}2] = 0.5 with 95% CI = 0.3-0.98; P = .012) were retrieved. An effect of the {epsilon}4 allele dosage on susceptibility was confirmed (OR[{epsilon}4/{epsilon}4] vs. the {epsilon}3/{epsilon}3 genotype = 11.2 [95% CI = 4.0-31.6]; OR[{epsilon}3/{epsilon}4] vs. the {epsilon}3/{epsilon}3 genotype = 2.2 [95% Cl = 1.5-3.5]). The frequency of the {epsilon}4 allele was lower in male cases than in female cases, but, since a similar difference was found in controls, this does not lead to a difference in OR between sex. ORs for the {epsilon}4 allele versus the {epsilon}3 allele, OR({epsilon}4), were not equal in all age classes: OR({epsilon}4) in the extreme groups with onset at < 60 years or > 79 years were significantly lower than those from the age groups 60-79 years. In {epsilon}3/{epsilon}4 individuals, sex-specific lifetime risk estimates by age 85 years (i.e., sex-specific penetrances by age 85 years) were 0.14 (95% CI 0.04-0.30) for men and 0.17 (95% CI 0.09-0.28) for women. 53 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  4. Bird mercury concentrations change rapidly as chicks age: toxicological risk is highest at hatching and fledging.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2011-01-01

    Toxicological risk of methylmercury exposure to juvenile birds is complex due to the highly transient nature of mercury concentrations as chicks age. We examined total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in blood, liver, kidney, muscle, and feathers of 111 Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri), 69 black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and 43 American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) chicks as they aged from hatching through postfledging at wetlands that had either low or high mercury contamination in San Francisco Bay, California. For each waterbird species, internal tissue, and wetland, total mercury and methylmercury concentrations changed rapidly as chicks aged and exhibited a quadratic, U-shaped pattern from hatching through postfledging. Mercury concentrations were highest immediately after hatching, due to maternally deposited mercury in eggs, then rapidly declined as chicks aged and diluted their mercury body burden through growth in size and mercury depuration into growing feathers. Mercury concentrations then increased during fledging when mass gain and feather growth slowed, while chicks continued to acquire dietary mercury. In contrast to mercury in internal tissues, mercury concentrations in chick feathers were highly variable and declined linearly with age. For 58 recaptured Forster's tern chicks, the proportional change in blood mercury concentration was negatively related to the proportional change in body mass, but not to the amount of feathers or wing length. Thus, mercury concentrations declined more in chicks that gained more mass between sampling events. The U-shaped pattern of mercury concentrations from hatching to fledging indicates that juvenile birds may be at highest risk to methylmercury toxicity shortly after hatching when maternally deposited mercury concentrations are still high and again after fledging when opportunities for mass dilution and mercury excretion into feathers are limited.

  5. Understanding risk evaluation and mitigation strategies in organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gabardi, Steven

    2011-07-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Amendments Act of 2007 mandated that Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS) be required of manufacturers. These REMS are strategies implemented to manage known or potential risks associated with drugs and to ensure ongoing pharmacovigilance throughout the life of a pharmaceutical product, including once the product becomes available as generic. The elements of an individual REMS program consist of three levels: medication guide or patient package insert, communication plan, and elements to assure safe use (ETASU). A medication guide or patient package insert is used to help prevent serious adverse events, aid in patient decision making, and enhance drug adherence. Communication plans are used to educate health care providers and to encourage their compliance with REMS. The ETASU is a restrictive process that is implemented when it is deemed necessary to ensure that patients have safe access to products with known serious risks that would otherwise be unavailable. To review the components of REMS and specifically assess their impact on health care providers practicing within the organ transplantation arena, a literature search of the MEDLINE database (January 2007-December 2010) was performed, and published materials from the FDA and its Web site were also reviewed. In transplantation, REMS programs exist for both everolimus (medication guide and communication plan) and sirolimus (medication guide). The FDA has stated that all mycophenolic acid derivatives will be subject to a proposed REMS that has not yet been approved; however, both branded mycophenolic acid agents already have approved medication guides. The REMS are a permanent fixture in the development and marketing of pharmaceutical agents, and their further implementation in solid organ transplantation is inevitable. Transplantation providers should take a proactive role in patient education and implementation of REMS within the therapeutic area

  6. cAMP-PKA phosphorylation of tau confers risk for degeneration in aging association cortex

    PubMed Central

    Carlyle, Becky C.; Nairn, Angus C.; Wang, Min; Yang, Yang; Jin, Lu E.; Simen, Arthur A.; Ramos, Brian P.; Bordner, Kelly A.; Craft, George E.; Davies, Peter; Pletikos, Mihovil; Šestan, Nenad; Arnsten, Amy F. T.; Paspalas, Constantinos D.

    2014-01-01

    The pattern of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is very distinctive: neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) composed of hyperphosphorylated tau selectively affect pyramidal neurons of the aging association cortex that interconnect extensively through glutamate synapses on dendritic spines. In contrast, primary sensory cortices have few NFTs, even in late-stage disease. Understanding this selective vulnerability, and why advancing age is such a high risk factor for the degenerative process, may help to reveal disease etiology and provide targets for intervention. Our study has revealed age-related increase in cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) phosphorylation of tau at serine 214 (pS214-tau) in monkey dorsolateral prefrontal association cortex (dlPFC), which specifically targets spine synapses and the Ca2+-storing spine apparatus. This increase is mirrored by loss of phosphodiesterase 4A from the spine apparatus, consistent with increase in cAMP-Ca2+ signaling in aging spines. Phosphorylated tau was not detected in primary visual cortex, similar to the pattern observed in AD. We also report electron microscopic evidence of previously unidentified vesicular trafficking of phosphorylated tau in normal association cortex—in axons in young dlPFC vs. in spines in aged dlPFC—consistent with the transneuronal lesion spread reported in genetic rodent models. pS214-Tau was not observed in normal aged mice, suggesting that it arises with the evolutionary expansion of corticocortical connections in primates, crossing the threshold into NFTs and degeneration in humans. Thus, the cAMP-Ca2+ signaling mechanisms, needed for flexibly modulating network strength in young association cortex, confer vulnerability to degeneration when dysregulated with advancing age. PMID:24707050

  7. Risk factors associated with typhoid fever in children aged 2-16 years in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, M I; Ochiai, R L; Soofi, S B; Von-Seidlein, L; Khan, M J; Sahito, S M; Habib, M A; Puri, M K; Park, J K; You, Y A; Ali, M; Nizami, S Q; Acosta, C J; Bradley-Sack, R; Clemens, J D; Bhutta, Z A

    2012-04-01

    We analysed the data from the control group in a typhoid vaccine trial in Karachi to assess the differences in individual-, household- and cluster-level characteristics for developing typhoid fever. The annual incidence of typhoid in children aged 2-16 years in the control arm of the vaccine trial was 151/100 000 population. After adjustment, the risk of typhoid was lower with increasing age [risk ratio (RR) 0·89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·83-0·95], was higher with an increase in population density (RR 1·13, 95% CI 1·05-1·21) and was lower in the households using a safe drinking-water source (RR 0·63, 95% CI 0·41-0·99). Typhoid fever affects younger children living in areas of high population density and lack of access to safe water in Pakistan. A combination of environmental and biological interventions is required to prevent the continued epidemiological and economic impact of typhoid fever in high-risk areas of Pakistan.

  8. Multi-State Physics Models of Aging Passive Components in Probabilistic Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Unwin, Stephen D.; Lowry, Peter P.; Layton, Robert F.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.

    2011-03-13

    Multi-state Markov modeling has proved to be a promising approach to estimating the reliability of passive components - particularly metallic pipe components - in the context of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). These models consider the progressive degradation of a component through a series of observable discrete states, such as detectable flaw, leak and rupture. Service data then generally provides the basis for estimating the state transition rates. Research in materials science is producing a growing understanding of the physical phenomena that govern the aging degradation of passive pipe components. As a result, there is an emerging opportunity to incorporate these insights into PRA. This paper describes research conducted under the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization Pathway of the Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. A state transition model is described that addresses aging behavior associated with stress corrosion cracking in ASME Class 1 dissimilar metal welds – a component type relevant to LOCA analysis. The state transition rate estimates are based on physics models of weld degradation rather than service data. The resultant model is found to be non-Markov in that the transition rates are time-inhomogeneous and stochastic. Numerical solutions to the model provide insight into the effect of aging on component reliability.

  9. Risk factors for urinary incontinence in Taiwanese women aged 60 or over.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ching-Hung; Hsu, Chun-Sen; Su, Tsung-Hsien; Chang, Shao-Tung; Lee, Meng-Chih

    2007-11-01

    To determine risk factors of urinary incontinence (UI) in Taiwanese women aged 60 or over, face-to-face interviews with 1,517 women, selected by a multistage random method, were completed. The prevalence of UI in this age group was 29.8%. Factors and their prevalence associated with UI were age [odds ratio (OR)=1.04 per year], diabetes mellitus (39.8%, p = 0.002), hypertension (39.5%, p = 0.001), abdominal gynecological surgery (41.4%, p = 0.001), hysterectomy (42.4%, p = 0.003), history of drug allergy (41.3%, p = 0.001), smoking (45.5%, p = 0.010), hormone replacement therapy (41.5%, p = 0.026), and high body mass index (OR = 1.05 per unit). Alcohol consumption and marriage did not increase the risk of UI. UI is a common and costly problem in elderly women. It diminishes the quality of life of the affected women. Of the associated factors that are preventable, modifiable, or controllable, smoking, prior hysterectomy, and obesity may have the greatest impact on the prevalence of UI.

  10. Dental Caries in High-Risk School-Aged African-American Children in Alabama: A Six-Year Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghazal, Tariq S.; Levy, Steven M.; Childers, Noel K.; Broffitt, Barbara A.; Caplan, Daniel J; Warren, John J.; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Kolker, Justine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prevalence and incidence of dental caries in school-aged African-American children who received semi-annual fluoride varnish applications. Methods A cohort of six-year-old high caries-risk African-American children (n=98) was recruited in Uniontown, Alabama and followed for six years. Oral examinations were done annually by three trained/calibrated dentists. Tooth surfaces with cavitated caries, missing due to caries and with filled surfaces were recorded, using WHO criteria. Also, as part of the study, children received periodic oral health instruction, fluoride varnish applications and referral to dentists starting at baseline. Results The person-level prevalence of dmfs/DMFS was: 61.2 percent at mean age 5.9 (n=98, mean dmfs/DMFS=11.6); 63.8 percent at age 6.7 (n=80, mean dmfs/DMFS=13.2); 70.6 percent at age 7.8 (n=68, mean dmfs/DMFS=14.2); 65.7 percent at age 8.8 (n=68, mean dmfs/DMFS=11.8); 55.6 percent at age 9.7 (n=63, mean dmfs/DMFS=8.8); 40.3 percent at age 10.7 (n=62, mean dmfs/DMFS=3.4); and 37.1 percent at age 11.7 (n=62, mean dmfs/DMFS=2.3). The six-year person-level incidence of dmfs/DMFS was 32.3 percent (mean dmfs/DMFS=1.6) from age 5.9 to age 11.7 (n=62). Conclusion In spite of the oral health education and fluoride varnish applications, there was substantial new dental caries in this high-risk sample. Additional studies evaluating risk factors for caries development are ongoing. PMID:27306247

  11. Fractures of the Sacrum After Chemoradiation for Rectal Carcinoma: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Radiographic Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Han Jo; Boland, Patrick J.; Meredith, Dennis S.; Lis, Eric; Zhang Zhigang; Shi Weiji; Yamada, Yoshiya J.; Goodman, Karyn A.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Sacral insufficiency fractures after adjuvant radiation for rectal carcinoma can present similarly to recurrent disease. As a complication associated with pelvic radiation, it is important to be aware of the incidence and risk factors associated with sacral fractures in the clinical assessment of these patients. Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2007, a total of 582 patients with locally advanced rectal carcinoma received adjuvant chemoradiation and surgical excision. Of these, 492 patients had imaging studies available for review. Hospital records and imaging studies from all 492 patients were retrospectively evaluated to identify risk factors associated with developing a sacral insufficiency fracture. Results: With a median follow-up time of 3.5 years, the incidence of sacral fractures was 7.1% (35/492). The 4-year sacral fracture free rate was 0.91. Univariate analysis showed that increasing age ({>=}60 vs. <60 years), female sex, and history of osteoporosis were significantly associated with shorter time to sacral fracture (P=.01, P=.004, P=.001, respectively). There was no significant difference in the time to sacral fracture for patients based on stage, radiotherapy dose, or chemotherapy regimen. Multivariate analysis showed increasing age ({>=}60 vs. <60 years, hazard ratio [HR] = 2.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22-5.13, P=.01), female sex (HR = 2.64, CI = 1.29-5.38, P=.008), and history of osteoporosis (HR = 3.23, CI = 1.23-8.50, P=.02) were independent risk factors associated with sacral fracture. Conclusions: Sacral insufficiency fractures after pelvic radiation for rectal carcinoma occur more commonly than previously described. Independent risk factors associated with fracture were osteoporosis, female sex, and age greater than 60 years.

  12. Gender bias in the evaluation of new age music.

    PubMed

    Colley, Ann; North, Adrian; Hargreaves, David J

    2003-04-01

    Eminent composers in Western European art music continue to be predominantly male and eminence in contemporary pop music is similarly male dominated. One contributing factor may be the continuing under-valuation of women's music. Possible anti-female bias in a contemporary genre was investigated using the Goldberg paradigm to elicit judgments of New Age compositions. Since stronger stereotyping effects occur when information provided about individuals is sparse, fictitious male and female composers were presented either by name only or by name with a brief biography. Evidence for anti-female bias was found in the name-only condition and was stronger when liking for the music was controlled. Other findings were the tendency for females to give higher ratings, and the association of gender differences in liking of the music with ratings of quality in the name-only condition. These results are relevant to the design of formal assessment procedures for musical composition.

  13. Independent beneficial effects of aged garlic extract intake with regular exercise on cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dae Yun; Lee, Sung Ryul; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Baek, Yeong Ho; Kwak, Yi Sub; Ko, Tae Hee; Kim, Nari; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Ko, Kyoung Soo; Park, Byung Joo; Han, Jin

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the effects of a 12 weeks aged garlic extract (AGE) regimen with regular exercise on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in postmenopausal women. A total of 30 postmenopausal women (54.4 ± 5.4 years) were randomly divided into the following four groups: Placebo (Placebo; n = 6), AGE intake (AGEI; n = 8), exercise and placebo (Ex + Placebo; n = 8), exercise and AGE (Ex + AGE; n = 8) groups. The AGE group consume 80 mg per day, and exercise groups performed moderate exercise (aerobic and resistance) three times per week. After 12 weeks of treatment, body composition, lipid profile, and CVD risk factors were analyzed. Body weight was significantly decreased in AGEI, Ex + Placebo, and Ex + AGE groups compared to baseline. Body fat % was significantly decreased in the AGEI and Ex + Placebo groups. Body mass index (BMI) was significantly decreased in the AGEI, Ex + Placebo, and Ex + AGE groups. Fat-free mass was significantly decreased in the AGEI group. Total cholesterol (TC) was significantly lower in the Ex + Placebo compared to the Placebo group. AGE supplementation or exercise effectively reduced low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C). Triglyceride (TG) was significantly increased in the AGEI group. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly decreased in the AGEI, Ex + Placebo, and Ex + AGE compared to the placebo group. AGE supplementation reduced homocysteine levels regardless of whether the women also exercised. The present results suggest that AGE supplementation reduces cardiovascular risk factors independently of exercise in postmenopausal women. PMID:22808347

  14. Human Papillomavirus - Prevalence of High-Risk and Low-Risk Types among Females Aged 14-59 Years, National Health and ...

    MedlinePlus

    ... Archive Data & Statistics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Figure 45. Human Papillomavirus — Prevalence of High-risk and Low-risk Types Among Females Aged 14 – 59 Years, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003 – 2006 Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  15. Re-Evaluating Risk and Exploring Educational Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Mike; Fraser, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Risk is positioned as a distinguishing feature of outdoor adventure education (OAE) pedagogy. Risk defines much of what happens in OAE, from participants "taking" risks to instructors "managing" risks. The taken-for-granted centrality of risk continues to have currency due to the thrill and allure of adventurous outdoor activities. This paper…

  16. Emotional expressions preferentially elicit implicit evaluations of faces also varying in race or age.

    PubMed

    Craig, Belinda M; Lipp, Ottmar V; Mallan, Kimberley M

    2014-10-01

    Both facial cues of group membership (race, age, and sex) and emotional expressions can elicit implicit evaluations to guide subsequent social behavior. There is, however, little research addressing whether group membership cues or emotional expressions are more influential in the formation of implicit evaluations of faces when both cues are simultaneously present. The current study aimed to determine this. Emotional expressions but not race or age cues elicited implicit evaluations in a series of affective priming tasks with emotional Caucasian and African faces (Experiments 1 and 2) and young and old faces (Experiment 3). Spontaneous evaluations of group membership cues of race and age only occurred when those cues were task relevant, suggesting the preferential influence of emotional expressions in the formation of implicit evaluations of others when cues of race or age are not salient. Implications for implicit prejudice, face perception, and person construal are discussed. PMID:25046242

  17. Why is there a modifying effect of gestational age on risk factors for cerebral palsy?

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, C; Yudkin, P; Sellers, S; Impey, L; Doyle, P

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate risk factors for cerebral palsy in relation to gestational age. Design: Three case-control studies within a geographically defined cohort. Setting: The former Oxfordshire Health Authority. Participants: A total of 235 singleton children with cerebral palsy not of postnatal origin, born between 1984 and 1993, identified from the Oxford Register of Early Childhood Impairment; 646 controls matched for gestation in three bands: ⩽32 weeks; 33–36 weeks; ⩾37 weeks. Results: Markers of intrapartum hypoxia and infection were associated with an increased risk of cerebral palsy in term and preterm infants. The odds ratio (OR) for hypoxia was 12.2 (95% confidence interval 1.2 to 119) at ⩽32 weeks and 146 (7.4 to 3651) at ⩾37 weeks. Corresponding ORs for neonatal sepsis were 3.1 (1.8 to 5.4) and 10.6 (2.1 to 51.9). In contrast, pre-eclampsia carried an increased risk of cerebral palsy at ⩾37 weeks (OR 5.1 (2.2 to 12.0)) but a decreased risk at ⩽32 weeks (OR 0.4 (0.2 to 1.0)). However, all infants ⩽32 weeks with maternal pre-eclampsia were delivered electively, and their risk of cerebral palsy was no lower than that of other electively delivered ⩽32 week infants (OR 0.9 (0.3 to 2.7)). Nearly 60% of ⩽32 week controls were delivered after spontaneous preterm labour, itself an abnormal event. Conclusion: Inflammatory processes, including pre-eclampsia, are important in the aetiology of cerebral palsy. The apparent reduced risk of cerebral palsy associated with pre-eclampsia in very preterm infants is driven by the characteristics of the gestation matched control group. Use of the term "protective" in this context should be abandoned. PMID:15724038

  18. Extracting and summarizing white matter hyperintensities using supervised segmentation methods in Alzheimer’s disease risk and aging studies

    PubMed Central

    Ithapu, Vamsi; Singh, Vikas; Lindner, Christopher; Austin, Benjamin P.; Hinrichs, Chris; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Johnson, Sterling C.

    2014-01-01

    Precise detection and quantification of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) observed in T2–weighted Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) is of substantial interest in aging, and age related neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This is mainly because WMH may reflect comorbid neural injury or cerebral vascular disease burden. WMH in the older population may be small, diffuse and irregular in shape, and sufficiently heterogeneous within and across subjects. Here, we pose hyperintensity detection as a supervised inference problem and adapt two learning models, specifically, Support Vector Machines and Random Forests, for this task. Using texture features engineered by texton filter banks, we provide a suite of effective segmentation methods for this problem. Through extensive evaluations on healthy middle–aged and older adults who vary in AD risk, we show that our methods are reliable and robust in segmenting hyperintense regions. A measure of hyperintensity accumulation, referred to as normalized Effective WMH Volume, is shown to be associated with dementia in older adults and parental family history in cognitively normal subjects. We provide an open source library for hyperintensity detection and accumulation (interfaced with existing neuroimaging tools), that can be adapted for segmentation problems in other neuroimaging studies. PMID:24510744

  19. Inflammation and Infection Do Not Promote Arterial Aging and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Lean Horticulturalists

    PubMed Central

    Gurven, Michael; Kaplan, Hillard; Winking, Jeffrey; Eid Rodriguez, Daniel; Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Kim, Jung Ki; Finch, Caleb; Crimmins, Eileen

    2009-01-01

    Background Arterial aging is well characterized in industrial populations, but scantly described in populations with little access to modern medicine. Here we characterize health and aging among the Tsimane, Amazonian forager-horticulturalists with short life expectancy, high infectious loads and inflammation, but low adiposity and robust physical fitness. Inflammation has been implicated in all stages of arterial aging, atherogenesis and hypertension, and so we test whether greater inflammation associates with atherosclerosis and CVD risk. In contrast, moderate to vigorous daily activity, minimal obesity, and low fat intake predict minimal CVD risk among older Tsimane. Methods and Findings Peripheral arterial disease (PAD), based on the Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI), and hypertension were measured in Tsimane adults, and compared with rates from industrialized populations. No cases of PAD were found among Tsimane and hypertension was comparatively low (prevalence: 3.5%, 40+; 23%, 70+). Markers of infection and inflammation were much higher among Tsimane than among U.S. adults, whereas HDL was substantially lower. Regression models examine associations of ABI and BP with biomarkers of energy balance and metabolism and of inflammation and infection. Among Tsimane, obesity, blood lipids, and disease history were not significantly associated with ABI. Unlike the Tsimane case, higher cholesterol, C-reactive protein, leukocytes, cigarette smoking and systolic pressure among North Americans are all significantly associated with lower ABI. Conclusions Inflammation may not always be a risk factor for arterial degeneration and CVD, but instead may be offset by other factors: healthy metabolism, active lifestyle, favorable body mass, lean diet, low blood lipids and cardiorespiratory health. Other possibilities, including genetic susceptibility and the role of helminth infections, are discussed. The absence of PAD and CVD among Tsimane parallels anecdotal reports from other small

  20. Calculating excess risk with age-dependent adjustment factors and cumulative doses: ethylene oxide case study.

    PubMed

    Sielken, Robert L; Flores, Ciriaco Valdez

    2009-10-01

    U.S. EPA's Supplemental Guidance in 2005 documented their procedure for incorporating age-dependent adjustment factors (ADAFs) into lifetime excess risk calculations. EPA's first attempt to implement an ADAF when the dose-response model had a cumulative dose metric was for ethylene oxide and that attempt (US EPA, 2006) failed to successfully follow EPA's own guidelines. The failure suggested that the incorporation of ADAFs would increase the lifetime excess risk for ethylene oxide by approximately 66%. However, if the procedure in the guidelines were followed correctly, then the increase would have only been 0.008% or approximately 8,000 fold less. Because cumulative exposure is a common dose metric in dose-response models of epidemiological data, a correct implementation of the guidelines is of widespread importance.

  1. Relationship between the complement system, risk factors and prediction models in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Bora, Nalini S; Matta, Bharati; Lyzogubov, Valeriy V; Bora, Puran S

    2015-02-01

    Studies performed over the past decade in humans and experimental animals have been a major source of information and improved our understanding of how dysregulation of the complement system contributes to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) pathology. Drusen, the hall-mark of dry-type AMD are reported to be the by-product of complement mediated inflammatory processes. In wet AMD, unregulated complement activation results in increased production of angiogenic growth factors leading to choroidal neovascularization both in humans and in animal models. In this review article we have linked the complement system with modifiable and non-modifiable AMD risk factors as well as with prediction models of AMD. Understanding the association between the complement system, risk factors and prediction models will help improve our understanding of AMD pathology and management of this disease.

  2. Distribution pattern and the risks of OPCs, PHAs and PCBs in aged refuses from landfill.

    PubMed

    Lou, Ziyang; Li, Anding; Tai, Jun; Yuan, Wenxiang; Zhu, Nanwen; Zhao, Youcai

    2016-09-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are the urgent risk for landfill, and should be considered before the landfill reclamation and resource. In this work, the distribution pattern of selected POPs in landfill and their ecological risks were investigated and assessed. The Σ20OCPs, Σ16PAHs and Σ19PCBs were around 157.4-329.2, 4103-19,190, and 79.1-340.3μgkg(-1) in aged refuses, with the mean value of 206.6, 8645.4, and 155.1μgkg(-1). While those in soil covers were only 6.3-75.4, 125.5-515.3 and 2.6-43.4μgkg(-1), with the mean value of 33.7, 257.7, and 24.0μgkg(-1), respectively. The maximum OPCs, PHAs and PCBs were in aged refuse with 13, 7, 10 disposal years. Whereas, the corresponding top content in soil covers were in 10, 13 and 16years, meaning that aged refuses were not the direct source for soil covers. Among 20 OCPs measured, α-HCH, δ-HCH, Dieldrin, and Endrin were presented in all aged refuses, with the mean concentration of 93.6, 52.1, 3.9 and 4.7μgkg(-1), respectively. For PAHs, PHE, FLU and PYR were the main composition, and reached to 1535, 1224, 1187μgkg(-1). The Σ7CarPAHs occupied around 33.3-49.9% of total Σ16PAHs tested, and could be used as the indictor for PAHs pollutant in landfill. PCB-5 content was around 40.7-263.3μgkg(-1) in aged refuses, and occupied around 51.5-81.8% of Σ19PCBs measured. The HCHs and DDTs in aged refuses were below the national standard GB15618-1995, and the corresponding Σ19PCBs concentrations met the standard of GB 13015-91, suggesting that aged refuse are accepted for the further utilization process. PMID:26994555

  3. Advanced paternal age increases the risk of schizophrenia and obsessive–compulsive disorder in a Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuejing; Liu, Xiang; Luo, Hongrong; Deng, Wei; Zhao, Gaofeng; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Lan; Ma, Xiaohong; Liu, Xiehe; Murray, Robin A.; Collier, David A.; Li, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, patient and non-patient version (SCID-P/NP), this study investigated 351 patients with schizophrenia, 122 with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), and 238 unrelated healthy volunteers in a Chinese Han population. The relative risks posed by advanced paternal age for schizophrenia and OCD in offspring were computed under logistic regression analyses and adjusted for the participant's sex, age and co-parent age at birth. Compared to the offspring with paternal age of 25–29 years old, the relative risks rose from 2.660 to 10.183 in the paternal age range of 30–34 and ≥ 35. The relative risks for OCD increased from 2.225 to 5.413 in 30–34 and ≥ 35. For offspring with paternal age of < 25, the odds ratios of developing schizophrenia and OCD were 0.628 and 0.289 respectively, whereas an association between increased maternal age and risk for schizophrenia/OCD was not seen. Interaction analysis showed an interaction effect between paternal age and maternal age at birth. Such a tendency of risk affected by parental age for schizophrenia and OCD existed after splitting out the data of early onset patients. Sex-specific analyses found that the relative risks for schizophrenia with paternal age of 30–34 and ≥ 35 in male offspring were 2.407 and 10.893, and in female offspring were 3.080 and 9.659. The relative risks for OCD with paternal age of 30–34 and ≥ 35 in male offspring were 3.493 and 7.373, and in female offspring 2.005 and 4.404. The mean paternal age of schizophrenia/OCD patients born before the early 1980s was much greater than that of patients who were born after then. The findings illustrated that advanced paternal age is associated with increased risk for both schizophrenia and OCD in a Chinese Han population, prominently when paternal age is over 35. Biological and non-biological mechanisms may both be involved in the effects of advanced paternal age on schizophrenia and OCD. PMID

  4. Increased Waist-to-height Ratio May Contribute to Age-related Increase in Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Akhlaghi, Masoumeh; Kamali, Majid; Dastsouz, Farideh; Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Amanat, Sassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) increases with age. The objective was to determine whether lifestyle and dietary behaviors and anthropometric measures, which are affected by these behaviors, contribute to the increase of CVD risk factors across age categories of 20–50-year-old. Methods: In a cross-sectional design, 437 adults aged 20–50-year-old were selected from households living in Shiraz. Risk factors of CVD, including body mass index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), blood pressure, fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C, respectively) as well as lifestyle behaviors (physical activity and smoking), dietary habits, and food intakes were assessed across the age categories of 20–29, 30–39, and 40–50 years. Linear regression was used to examine the contribution of different variables to the age-related increase of CVD risk factors. Results: All CVD risk factors, except for HDL-C, significantly increased across age categories. Older subjects had healthier dietary habits and food intakes, but they possessed nonsignificantly lower physical activity and higher smoking rate compared to younger adults. Adjusting for physical activity, smoking, and BMI did not change the significant positive association between age and CVD risk factors but adjusting for WHtR disappeared associations for blood pressure, triglycerides, and metabolic syndrome although significant associations remained for FBG and total and LDL-C. Conclusions: Age-related increase of CVD risk factors occurred independent of lifestyle habits. WHtR, but not BMI, may partially contribute to the age-related increase in CVD risk factors. PMID:27195100

  5. Age at Last Birth in Relation to Risk of Endometrial Cancer: Pooled Analysis in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Pike, Malcolm C.; Karageorgi, Stalo; Deming, Sandra L.; Anderson, Kristin; Bernstein, Leslie; Brinton, Louise A.; Cai, Hui; Cerhan, James R.; Cozen, Wendy; Chen, Chu; Doherty, Jennifer; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Goodman, Marc T.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Lacey, James V.; Liang, Xiaolin; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Lingeng; Lurie, Galina; Mack, Thomas; Matsuno, Rayna K.; McCann, Susan; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Olson, Sara H.; Rastogi, Radhai; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Risch, Harvey; Robien, Kim; Schairer, Catherine; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Strom, Brian L.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Ursin, Giske; Webb, Penelope M.; Weiss, Noel S.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yang, Hannah P.; Yu, Herbert; Horn-Ross, Pamela L.; De Vivo, Immaculata

    2012-01-01

    Childbearing at an older age has been associated with a lower risk of endometrial cancer, but whether the association is independent of the number of births or other factors remains unclear. Individual-level data from 4 cohort and 13 case-control studies in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium were pooled. A total of 8,671 cases of endometrial cancer and 16,562 controls were included in the analysis. After adjustment for known risk factors, endometrial cancer risk declined with increasing age at last birth (Ptrend < 0.0001). The pooled odds ratio per 5-year increase in age at last birth was 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.85, 0.90). Women who last gave birth at 40 years of age or older had a 44% decreased risk compared with women who had their last birth under the age of 25 years (95% confidence interval: 47, 66). The protective association was similar across the different age-at-diagnosis groups and for the 2 major tumor histologic subtypes (type I and type II). No effect modification was observed by body mass index, parity, or exogenous hormone use. In this large pooled analysis, late age at last birth was independently associated with a reduced risk of endometrial cancer, and the reduced risk persisted for many years. PMID:22831825

  6. Diminishing risk for age-related macular degeneration with nutrition: a current view.

    PubMed

    Schleicher, Molly; Weikel, Karen; Garber, Caren; Taylor, Allen

    2013-07-02

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Clinical hallmarks of AMD are observed in one third of the elderly in industrialized countries. Preventative interventions through dietary modification are attractive strategies, because they are more affordable than clinical therapies, do not require specialists for administration and many studies suggest a benefit of micro- and macro-nutrients with respect to AMD with few, if any, adverse effects. The goal of this review is to provide information from recent literature on the value of various nutrients, particularly omega-3 fatty acids, lower glycemic index diets and, perhaps, some carotenoids, with regard to diminishing risk for onset or progression of AMD. Results from the upcoming Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) II intervention trial should be particularly informative.

  7. Television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Smith, L; Hamer, M

    2014-01-01

    Aim To investigate the longitudinal association between television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus in an elderly sample of adults in England. Methods Analyses of data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. At baseline (2008), participants reported their television viewing time and physical activity level. Diabetes mellitus was recorded from self-reported physician diagnosis at 2-year follow-up. Associations between television viewing time and combined television viewing time and physical activity level with risk of incident diabetes mellitus at follow-up were examined using adjusted logistic regression models. Results A total of 5964 participants (mean ± sd age 65 ± 9 years at baseline, 44% male) were included in the analyses. There was an association between baseline television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus at 2-year follow-up (≥ 6 h/day compared with <2 h/day; odds ratio 4.27, 95% CI 1.69, 10.77), although the association was attenuated to the null in final adjusted models that included BMI. Participants who were inactive/had high television viewing time at baseline were almost twice as likely to have diabetes mellitus at 2-year follow-up than those who were active/had low television viewing time (fully adjusted odds ratio 1.94, 95% CI 1.02, 3.68), although active participants reporting high television viewing were not at risk. Conclusion Interventions to reduce the incidence of diabetes in the elderly that focus on both increasing physical activity and reducing television viewing time might prove useful. PMID:24975987

  8. Physical activity and risk of small-for-gestational-age birth among predominantly Puerto Rican women.

    PubMed

    Gollenberg, Audra L; Pekow, Penelope; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R; Freedson, Patty S; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    To estimate the association between multiple domains of physical activity and risk of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth. We utilized data from 1,040 participants in the Latina Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Study, a prospective cohort of predominantly Puerto Rican prenatal care patients in Massachusetts. Physical activity was assessed by bilingual interviewers using a modified version of the Kaiser physical activity survey in early (mean = 15 weeks) and mid pregnancy (mean = 28 weeks). Physical activity (i.e., sports/exercise, household, occupational, and active living) in pre, early and mid pregnancy was categorized in quartiles. SGA was classified as <10th percentile of birth weight for gestational age. Pre- and early-pregnancy physical activity were not associated with SGA. In multivariable analyses, women with high total activity in mid-pregnancy had a decreased risk of SGA [risk ratio (RR) = 0.42; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21-0.82; p(trend) = 0.003] as compared to those with low total activity. Findings were similar for high household activity (RR = 0.69; 95% CI = 0.34-1.40; p(trend) = 0.26), active living (RR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.35-1.13; p(trend) = 0.04), and occupational activity (RR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.47-1.34; p(trend) = 0.26). High levels of sports/exercise were associated with an increased SGA risk without a significant dose-response association (RR = 2.14, 95% CI 1.04-4.39; p(trend) = 0.33). Results extend prior studies of physical activity and SGA to the Hispanic population.

  9. Application of systematic coronary risk evaluation chart to identify chronic myeloid leukemia patients at risk of cardiovascular diseases during nilotinib treatment.

    PubMed

    Breccia, Massimo; Molica, Matteo; Zacheo, Irene; Serrao, Alessandra; Alimena, Giuliana

    2015-03-01

    Nilotinib is currently approved for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in chronic (CP) and accelerated phase (AP) after failure of imatinib and in newly diagnosed patients. Atherosclerotic events were retrospectively reported in patients with baseline cardiovascular risk factors during nilotinib treatment. We estimated the risk of developing atherosclerotic events in patients treated with second or first-line nilotinib, with a median follow-up of 48 months, by retrospectively applying the SCORE chart proposed by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and evaluating risk factors at baseline (diabetes, obesity, smoking, and hypertension). Overall, we enrolled in the study 82 CP patients treated frontline (42 CP patients at the dose of 600 mg BID) or after failure of other tyrosine kinase inhibitors (40 CP patients treated with 400 mg BID). The SCORE chart is based on the stratification of sex (male vs female), age (from 40 to 65 years), smoker vs non-smoker, systolic pressure (from 120 to 180 mm Hg), and cholesterol (measured in mmol/l, from 150 to 300 mg/dl). For statistical purposes, we considered patients subdivided in low, moderate, high (with a score >5), and very high risk. There were 48 males and 34 females, median age 51 years (range 22-84). According to WHO classification, 42 patients were classified as normal weight (BMI <25), 26 patients were overweight (BMI 26 ≤ 30), and 14 were obese (BMI >30). Retrospective classification according to the SCORE chart revealed that 27 patients (33 %) were in the low-risk category, 30 patients (36 %) in the moderate risk category, and 24 patients (29 %) in the high risk. As regards risk factors, we revealed that 17 patients (20.7 %) had a concomitant type II controlled diabetes (without organ damage), 23 patients (28 %) were smokers, 29 patients (35 %) were receiving concomitant drugs for hypertension, and 15 patients (18 %) had concomitant dyslipidemia. Overall, the cumulative incidence of

  10. Application of systematic coronary risk evaluation chart to identify chronic myeloid leukemia patients at risk of cardiovascular diseases during nilotinib treatment.

    PubMed

    Breccia, Massimo; Molica, Matteo; Zacheo, Irene; Serrao, Alessandra; Alimena, Giuliana

    2015-03-01

    Nilotinib is currently approved for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in chronic (CP) and accelerated phase (AP) after failure of imatinib and in newly diagnosed patients. Atherosclerotic events were retrospectively reported in patients with baseline cardiovascular risk factors during nilotinib treatment. We estimated the risk of developing atherosclerotic events in patients treated with second or first-line nilotinib, with a median follow-up of 48 months, by retrospectively applying the SCORE chart proposed by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and evaluating risk factors at baseline (diabetes, obesity, smoking, and hypertension). Overall, we enrolled in the study 82 CP patients treated frontline (42 CP patients at the dose of 600 mg BID) or after failure of other tyrosine kinase inhibitors (40 CP patients treated with 400 mg BID). The SCORE chart is based on the stratification of sex (male vs female), age (from 40 to 65 years), smoker vs non-smoker, systolic pressure (from 120 to 180 mm Hg), and cholesterol (measured in mmol/l, from 150 to 300 mg/dl). For statistical purposes, we considered patients subdivided in low, moderate, high (with a score >5), and very high risk. There were 48 males and 34 females, median age 51 years (range 22-84). According to WHO classification, 42 patients were classified as normal weight (BMI <25), 26 patients were overweight (BMI 26 ≤ 30), and 14 were obese (BMI >30). Retrospective classification according to the SCORE chart revealed that 27 patients (33 %) were in the low-risk category, 30 patients (36 %) in the moderate risk category, and 24 patients (29 %) in the high risk. As regards risk factors, we revealed that 17 patients (20.7 %) had a concomitant type II controlled diabetes (without organ damage), 23 patients (28 %) were smokers, 29 patients (35 %) were receiving concomitant drugs for hypertension, and 15 patients (18 %) had concomitant dyslipidemia. Overall, the cumulative incidence of

  11. Activity Patterns of Preschool-Aged Children at Risk for Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Senso, Meghan M.; Trost, Stewart G.; Crain, A. Lauren; Seburg, Elisabeth M.; Anderson, Julie D.; Sherwood, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the prevalence of obesity in young children highlights the importance of early interventions to promote physical activity (PA), there are limited data on activity patterns in this age group. The purpose of this study is to describe activity patterns in preschool-aged children and explore differences by weight status. Methods Analyses use baseline data from Healthy Homes/Healthy Kids- Preschool, a pilot obesity prevention trial of preschool-aged children overweight or at risk for overweight. A modified parent-reported version of the previous-day PA recall was used to summarize types of activity. Accelerometry was used to summarize daily and hourly activity patterns. Results “Playing with toys” accounted for the largest proportion of a child’s previous day, followed by “meals and snacks”, and “chores”. Accelerometry-measured daily time spent in sedentary behavior, light PA, and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) was 412, 247, and 69 minutes, respectively. Percent of hourly time spent in MVPA ranged from 3% to 13%, peaking in the late morning and evening hours. There were no statistically significant MVPA differences by weight status. Conclusions This study extends our understanding of activity types, amounts, and patterns in preschool-age children and warrants further exploration of differences in physical activity patterns by weight status. PMID:25133750

  12. 20 CFR 416.924b - Age as a factor of evaluation in the sequential evaluation process for children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... limitations. (i) If the listing appropriate for evaluating your impairment is divided into specific age... meets that listing. (ii) If the listing appropriate for evaluating your impairment does not include... from the evidence that your developmental delay is the result of your medically determinable...

  13. Lifetime Prevalence, Age of Risk, and Etiology of Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Tourette Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hirschtritt, Matthew E.; Lee, Paul C.; Pauls, David L.; Dion, Yves; Grados, Marco A.; Illmann, Cornelia; King, Robert A.; Sandor, Paul; McMahon, William M.; Lyon, Gholson J.; Cath, Danielle C.; Kurlan, Roger; Robertson, Mary M.; Osiecki, Lisa; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Mathews, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by high rates of psychiatric comorbidity; however, few studies have fully characterized these comorbidities. Furthermore, most studies have included relatively few participants (<200), and none has examined the ages of highest risk for each TS-associated comorbidity or their etiologic relationship to TS. Objective To characterize the lifetime prevalence, clinical associations, ages of highest risk, and etiology of psychiatric comorbidity among individuals with TS. Design, Setting, and Participants Cross-sectional structured diagnostic interviews conducted between April 1, 1992, and December 31, 2008, of participants with TS (n = 1374) and TS-unaffected family members (n = 1142). Main Outcomes and Measures Lifetime prevalence of comorbid DSM-IV-TR disorders, their heritabilities, ages of maximal risk, and associations with symptom severity, age at onset, and parental psychiatric history. Results The lifetime prevalence of any psychiatric comorbidity among individuals with TS was 85.7%; 57.7% of the population had 2 or more psychiatric disorders. The mean (SD) number of lifetime comorbid diagnoses was 2.1 (1.6); the mean number was 0.9 (1.3) when obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were excluded, and 72.1% of the individuals met the criteria for OCD or ADHD. Other disorders, including mood, anxiety, and disruptive behavior, each occurred in approximately 30% of the participants. The age of greatest risk for the onset of most comorbid psychiatric disorders was between 4 and 10 years, with the exception of eating and substance use disorders, which began in adolescence (interquartile range, 15–19 years for both). Tourette syndrome was associated with increased risk of anxiety (odds ratio [OR], 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0–1.9; P = .04) and decreased risk of substance use disorders (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.3–0.9; P = .02) independent from comorbid OCD and ADHD; however, high rates

  14. Investigating the Use of Ultrasound for Evaluating Aging Wiring Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madaras, Eric I.; Anastasi, Robert F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews our initial efforts to investigate the use of ultrasound to evaluate wire insulation. Our initial model was a solid conductor with heat shrink tubing applied. In this model, various wave modes were identified. Subsequently, several aviation classes of wires (MIL-W- 81381, MIL-W-22759/34, and MIL-W-22759/87) were measured. The wires represented polyimide and ethylene-tetraflouroethylene insulations, and combinations of polyimide and flouropolymer plastics. Wire gages of 12, 16, and 20 AWG sizes were measured. Finally, samples of these wires were subjected to high temperatures for short periods of time to cause the insulation to degrade. Subsequent measurements indicated easily detectable changes.

  15. Bad marriage, broken heart? Age and gender differences in the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risks among older adults.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Waite, Linda

    2014-12-01

    Working from a life course perspective, we develop hypotheses about age and gender differences in the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk and test them using data from the first two waves of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. The analytic sample includes 459 married women and 739 married men (aged 57-85 in the first wave) who were interviewed in both waves. We apply Heckman-type corrections for selection bias due to mortality and marriage. Cardiovascular risk is measured as hypertension, rapid heart rate, C-reactive protein, and general cardiovascular events. Results suggest that changes in marital quality and cardiovascular risk are more closely related for older married people than for their younger counterparts and that the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk is more pronounced among women than among men at older ages. These findings fit with the gendered life course perspective and cumulative disadvantage framework.

  16. Bad Marriage, Broken Heart? Age and Gender Differences in the Link between Marital Quality and Cardiovascular Risks among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Waite, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Working from a life course perspective, we develop hypotheses about age and gender differences in the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk and test them using data from the first two waves of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. The analytic sample includes 459 married women and 739 married men (aged 57–85 in the first wave) who were interviewed in both waves. We apply Heckman-type corrections for selection bias due to mortality and marriage. Cardiovascular risk is measured as hypertension, rapid heart rate, C-reactive protein, and general cardiovascular events. Results suggest that changes in marital quality and cardiovascular risk are more closely related for older married people than for their younger counterparts; and that the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk is more pronounced among women than among men at older ages. These findings fit with the gendered life course perspective and cumulative disadvantage framework. PMID:25413802

  17. Bad marriage, broken heart? Age and gender differences in the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risks among older adults.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Waite, Linda

    2014-12-01

    Working from a life course perspective, we develop hypotheses about age and gender differences in the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk and test them using data from the first two waves of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. The analytic sample includes 459 married women and 739 married men (aged 57-85 in the first wave) who were interviewed in both waves. We apply Heckman-type corrections for selection bias due to mortality and marriage. Cardiovascular risk is measured as hypertension, rapid heart rate, C-reactive protein, and general cardiovascular events. Results suggest that changes in marital quality and cardiovascular risk are more closely related for older married people than for their younger counterparts and that the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk is more pronounced among women than among men at older ages. These findings fit with the gendered life course perspective and cumulative disadvantage framework. PMID:25413802

  18. Evaluation of the cancerogenic risk in oil tankers during refitting.

    PubMed

    Valerio, F; Raffetto, G; Puntoni, R; Vercelli, M

    1982-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) concentrations were measured in particles collected in oil tankers during refitting operations in which oxyacetylene flames were used. High levels of benzopyrene (8.3 +/- 7.2 mg/1000 m3) and nitrogen oxides (from 2 to 20 ppm) were detected. The fraction of collected smoke, soluble in cycloesane, was injected into the peritoneum of Balb/C mice. The frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induced in bone marrow cells was evaluated. A significant and dose-related increase of SCE was seen, which was comparable to that induced by pure PAH. Based on these results, the presence of other mutagenic substances in addition to benzopyrene was suspected. Chemical and biochemical results confirmed epidemiological evidence of an increased risk of lung and bladder cancer in workers operating inside oil tankers. The authors propose the use of this coordinated approach for an effective primary cancer prevention program in the work place.

  19. Risk evaluation of uranium mining: A geochemical inverse modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rillard, J.; Zuddas, P.; Scislewski, A.

    2011-12-01

    It is well known that uranium extraction operations can increase risks linked to radiation exposure. The toxicity of uranium and associated heavy metals is the main environmental concern regarding exploitation and processing of U-ore. In areas where U mining is planned, a careful assessment of toxic and radioactive element concentrations is recommended before the start of mining activities. A background evaluation of harmful elements is important in order to prevent and/or quantify future water contamination resulting from possible migration of toxic metals coming from ore and waste water interaction. Controlled leaching experiments were carried out to investigate processes of ore and waste (leached ore) degradation, using samples from the uranium exploitation site located in Caetité-Bahia, Brazil. In experiments in which the reaction of waste with water was tested, we found that the water had low pH and high levels of sulphates and aluminium. On the other hand, in experiments in which ore was tested, the water had a chemical composition comparable to natural water found in the region of Caetité. On the basis of our experiments, we suggest that waste resulting from sulphuric acid treatment can induce acidification and salinization of surface and ground water. For this reason proper storage of waste is imperative. As a tool to evaluate the risks, a geochemical inverse modelling approach was developed to estimate the water-mineral interaction involving the presence of toxic elements. We used a method earlier described by Scislewski and Zuddas 2010 (Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 74, 6996-7007) in which the reactive surface area of mineral dissolution can be estimated. We found that the reactive surface area of rock parent minerals is not constant during time but varies according to several orders of magnitude in only two months of interaction. We propose that parent mineral heterogeneity and particularly, neogenic phase formation may explain the observed variation of the

  20. Evaluating Geographically Weighted Regression Models for Environmental Chemical Risk Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Czarnota, Jenna; Wheeler, David C; Gennings, Chris

    2015-01-01

    In the evaluation of cancer risk related to environmental chemical exposures, the effect of many correlated chemicals on disease is often of interest. The relationship between correlated environmental chemicals and health effects is not always constant across a study area, as exposure levels may change spatially due to various environmental factors. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) has been proposed to model spatially varying effects. However, concerns about collinearity effects, including regression coefficient sign reversal (ie, reversal paradox), may limit the applicability of GWR for environmental chemical risk analysis. A penalized version of GWR, the geographically weighted lasso, has been proposed to remediate the collinearity effects in GWR models. Our focus in this study was on assessing through a simulation study the ability of GWR and GWL to correctly identify spatially varying chemical effects for a mixture of correlated chemicals within a study area. Our results showed that GWR suffered from the reversal paradox, while GWL overpenalized the effects for the chemical most strongly related to the outcome. PMID:25983546

  1. Adverse anthropometric risk profile in biochemically controlled acromegalic patients: comparison with an age- and gender-matched primary care population

    PubMed Central

    Sievers, C.; Wittchen, H. U.; Pieper, L.; Klotsche, J.; Roemmler, J.; Schopohl, J.; Schneider, H. J.; Stalla, G. K.

    2010-01-01

    GH and IGF-1 play an important role in the regulation of metabolism and body composition. In patients with uncontrolled acromegaly, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are increased but are supposed to be normalised after biochemical control is achieved. We aimed at comparing body composition and the cardiovascular risk profile in patients with controlled acromegaly and controls. A cross-sectional study. We evaluated anthropometric parameters (height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumference, waist to height ratio) and, additionally, cardiovascular risk biomarkers (fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and lipoprotein (a), in 81 acromegalic patients (58% cured) compared to 320 age- and gender-matched controls (ratio 1:4), sampled from the primary care patient cohort DETECT. The whole group of 81 acromegalic patients presented with significantly higher anthropometric parameters, such as weight, BMI, waist and hip circumference, but with more favourable cardiovascular risk biomarkers, such as fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL levels, in comparison to their respective controls. Biochemically controlled acromegalic patients again showed significantly higher measurements of obesity, mainly visceral adiposity, than age- and gender-matched control patients (BMI 29.5 ± 5.9 vs. 27.3 ± 5.8 kg/m2; P = 0.020; waist circumference 100.9 ± 16.8 vs. 94.8 ± 15.5 cm; P = 0.031; hip circumference 110.7 ± 9.9 vs. 105.0 ± 11.7 cm; P = 0.001). No differences in the classical cardiovascular biomarkers were detected except for fasting plasma glucose and triglycerides. This effect could not be attributed to a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the acromegalic patient group, since stratified analyses between the subgroup of patients with acromegaly and controls, both with type 2 diabetes mellitus, revealed that there were no significant differences in the

  2. An evaluation of agreement between pectoral spines and otoliths for estimating ages of catfishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olive, J.A.; Schramm, Harold; Gerard, Patrick D.; Irwin, E.

    2011-01-01

    Otoliths have been shown to provide more accurate ages than pectoral spine sections for several catfish populations; but sampling otoliths requires euthanizing the specimen, whereas spines can be sampled non-lethally. To evaluate whether, and under what conditions, spines provide the same or similar age estimates as otoliths, we examined data sets of individual fish aged from pectoral spines and otoliths for six blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus populations (n=420), 14 channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus populations (n=997), and 10 flathead catfish Pylodictus olivaris populations (n=947) from lotic and lentic waters throughout the central and eastern U.S. Logistic regression determined that agreement between ages estimated from otoliths and spines was consistently related to age, but inconsistently related to growth rate. When modeled at mean growth rate, we found at least 80% probability of no difference in spine- and otolith-assigned ages up to ages 4 and 5 for blue and channel catfish, respectively. For flathead catfish, an 80% probability of agreement between spine- and otolith-assigned ages did not occur at any age due to high incidence of differences in assigned ages even for age-1 fish. Logistic regression models predicted at least 80% probability that spine and otolith ages differed by ≤1 year up to ages 13, 16, and 9 for blue, channel, and flathead catfish, respectively. Age-bias assessment found mean spine-assigned age differed by less than 1 year from otolith-assigned age up to ages 19, 9, and 17 for blue catfish, channel catfish, and flathead catfish, respectively. These results can be used to help guide decisions about which structure is most appropriate for estimating catfish ages for particular populations and management objectives.

  3. Aging of nuclear station diesel generators: Evaluation of operating and expert experience: Phase 1, Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hoopingarner, K.R.; Vause, J.W.; Dingee, D.A.; Nesbitt, J.F.

    1987-08-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory evaluated operational and expert experience pertaining to the aging degradation of diesel generators in nuclear service. The research, sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), identified and characterized the contribution of aging to emergency diesel generator failures. This report, Volume I, reviews diesel-generator experience to identify the systems and components most subject to aging degradation and isolates the major causes of failure that may affect future operational readiness. Evaluations show that as plants age, the percent of aging-related failures increases and failure modes change. A compilation is presented of recommended corrective actions for the failures identified. This study also includes a review of current, relevant industry programs, research, and standards. Volume II reports the results of an industry-wide workshop held on May 28 and 29, 1986 to discuss the technical issues associated with aging of nuclear service emergency diesel generators.

  4. Risk factor burden in middle age and lifetime risks for cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular death (Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry).

    PubMed

    Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Dyer, Alan R; Wang, Renwei; Daviglus, Martha L; Greenland, Philip

    2007-02-15

    Few data exist regarding the association of risk factor burden in middle age with lifetime risks for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and non-CVD death. In this study, participants in the Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry aged 40 to 59 years in 1967 to 1973 were stratified into 5 groups on the basis of risk factor burden: favorable risk factor profile (untreated blood pressure or=1 unfavorable; or any 1, any 2, or >or=3 elevated (systolic >or=140 mm Hg or diastolic >or=90 mm Hg or treated hypertension; total cholesterol >or=240 mg/dl; current smoking; or body mass index >or=30 kg/m2). Remaining lifetime risks for CVD and non-CVD death were estimated through the age of 85 years. Eight thousand thirty-three men and 6,493 women were followed for 409,987 person-years; 2,582 died of CVD, and 3,955 died of non-CVD causes. A greater risk factor burden was associated with a higher incidence of CVD and non-CVD death. Compared with participants with >or=3 risk factors, those with favorable profiles had substantially lower lifetime risks for CVD death (20.5% vs 35.2% in men, 6.7% vs 31.9% in women) and markedly longer median Kaplan-Meier survival (>35 vs 26 years in men, >35 vs 28 years in women). In conclusion, having favorable risk factors in middle age is associated with a lower lifetime risk for CVD death and markedly longer survival. These results should encourage efforts aimed at preventing the development of risk factors in younger subjects to decrease CVD mortality and promote longevity.

  5. The ABC’s of Suicide Risk Assessment: Applying a Tripartite Approach to Individual Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Keith M.; Syu, Jia-Jia; Lello, Owen D.; Chew, Y. L. Eileen; Willcox, Christopher H.; Ho, Roger H. M.

    2015-01-01

    There is considerable need for accurate suicide risk assessment for clinical, screening, and research purposes. This study applied the tripartite affect-behavior-cognition theory, the suicidal barometer model, classical test theory, and item response theory (IRT), to develop a brief self-report measure of suicide risk that is theoretically-grounded, reliable and valid. An initial survey (n = 359) employed an iterative process to an item pool, resulting in the six-item Suicidal Affect-Behavior-Cognition Scale (SABCS). Three additional studies tested the SABCS and a highly endorsed comparison measure. Studies included two online surveys (Ns = 1007, and 713), and one prospective clinical survey (n = 72; Time 2, n = 54). Factor analyses demonstrated SABCS construct validity through unidimensionality. Internal reliability was high (α = .86-.93, split-half = .90-.94)). The scale was predictive of future suicidal behaviors and suicidality (r = .68, .73, respectively), showed convergent validity, and the SABCS-4 demonstrated clinically relevant sensitivity to change. IRT analyses revealed the SABCS captured more information than the comparison measure, and better defined participants at low, moderate, and high risk. The SABCS is the first suicide risk measure to demonstrate no differential item functioning by sex, age, or ethnicity. In all comparisons, the SABCS showed incremental improvements over a highly endorsed scale through stronger predictive ability, reliability, and other properties. The SABCS is in the public domain, with this publication, and is suitable for clinical evaluations, public screening, and research. PMID:26030590

  6. The risk of stillbirth and infant death by each additional week of expectant management stratified by maternal age

    PubMed Central

    Page, Jessica M.; Snowden, Jonathan M.; Cheng, Yvonne W.; Doss, Amy; Rosenstein, Melissa G.; Caughey, Aaron B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to examine fetal/infant mortality by gestational age at term stratified by maternal age. STUDY DESIGN A retrospective cohort study was conducted using 2005 US national birth certificate data. For each week of term gestation, the risk of mortality associated with delivery was compared with composite mortality risk of expectant management. The expectant management measure included stillbirth and infant death. This expectant management risk was calculated to estimate the composite mortality risk with remaining pregnant an additional week by combining the risk of stillbirth during the additional week of pregnancy and infant death risk following delivery at the next week. Maternal age was stratified by 35 years or more compared with women younger than 35 years as well as subgroup analyses of younger than 20, 20–34, 35–39, or 40 years old or older. RESULTS The fetal/infant mortality risk of expectant management is greater than the risk of infant death at 39 weeks’ gestation in women 35 years old or older (15.2 vs 10.9 of 10,000, P < .05). In women younger than 35 years old, the risk of expectant management also exceeded that of infant death at 39 weeks (21.3 vs 18.8 of 10,000, P < .05). For women younger than 35 years old, the overall expectant management risk is influenced by higher infant death risk and does not rise significantly until 41 weeks compared with women 35 years old or older in which it increased at 40 weeks. CONCLUSION Risk varies by maternal age, and delivery at 39 weeks minimizes fetal/infant mortality for both groups, although the magnitude of the risk reduction is greater in older women. PMID:23707677

  7. The Age Conundrum: A Scoping Review of Younger Age or Adolescent and Young Adult as a Risk Factor for Clinical Distress, Depression, or Anxiety in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lang, Michael J; David, Victoria; Giese-Davis, Janine

    2015-12-01

    This scoping review was conducted to understand the extent, range, and nature of current research on adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer and distress, depression, and anxiety (DDA). This information is necessary to find and aggregate valuable data on the AYA population embedded in generalized studies of DDA. Keyword searches of six relevant electronic databases identified 2156 articles, with 316 selected for abstract review and 40 for full text review. Full-text reviews and data extraction resulted in 34 studies being included, which ranged widely in design, sample size, age-range categorization, analysis methods, DDA measurement tool, overall study rigor, and quality of evidence. Studies very seldom reported using theory to guide their age categorization, with only four studies giving any rationale for their age-group definitions. All 34 studies found a significant association between at least one DDA construct and the younger age group relative to the older age groups at some point along the cancer trajectory. However, age as an independent risk factor for DDA is still unclear, as the relationship could be confounded by other age-related factors. Despite the wide range of definitions and effect sizes in the studies included in this review, one thing is clear: adolescents and young adults, however defined, are a distinct group within the cancer population with an elevated risk of DDA. Widespread adoption of a standard AYA age-range definition will be essential to any future meta-analytical psycho-oncology research in this population.

  8. The Age Conundrum: A Scoping Review of Younger Age or Adolescent and Young Adult as a Risk Factor for Clinical Distress, Depression, or Anxiety in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lang, Michael J; David, Victoria; Giese-Davis, Janine

    2015-12-01

    This scoping review was conducted to understand the extent, range, and nature of current research on adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer and distress, depression, and anxiety (DDA). This information is necessary to find and aggregate valuable data on the AYA population embedded in generalized studies of DDA. Keyword searches of six relevant electronic databases identified 2156 articles, with 316 selected for abstract review and 40 for full text review. Full-text reviews and data extraction resulted in 34 studies being included, which ranged widely in design, sample size, age-range categorization, analysis methods, DDA measurement tool, overall study rigor, and quality of evidence. Studies very seldom reported using theory to guide their age categorization, with only four studies giving any rationale for their age-group definitions. All 34 studies found a significant association between at least one DDA construct and the younger age group relative to the older age groups at some point along the cancer trajectory. However, age as an independent risk factor for DDA is still unclear, as the relationship could be confounded by other age-related factors. Despite the wide range of definitions and effect sizes in the studies included in this review, one thing is clear: adolescents and young adults, however defined, are a distinct group within the cancer population with an elevated risk of DDA. Widespread adoption of a standard AYA age-range definition will be essential to any future meta-analytical psycho-oncology research in this population. PMID:26697266

  9. [Disentangling the differential contribution of hypertension and aging on dementia risk].

    PubMed

    Viscogliosi, Giovanni

    2015-02-01

    Dementia is among the most frequent causes of disability in the elderly. Up today, there are no effective therapies that allow to modify the disease course. Great efforts have been made in studying biological correlates of dementia. A growing body of evidence is reporting that classical cardiovascular risk factors are potent predictors of several forms of dementia. Although hypertension has been the most studied in relation to cognitive function, it is yet difficult to pool results and draw strong inferences, due to relevant methodological differences across studies. The association between blood pressure and dementia seems to be complex and far from being unidirectional. Both high and low blood pressure levels have been reported to be associated with impairment in cognitive function in older subjects. Age-related changes in both blood pressure levels and cognitive function, as well as vascular brain damage and systemic arterial aging, may exert a confounding role. Future longitudinal studies are deemed necessary in order to obtain consistent results. In general, the hypothesis of dementia prevention by risk factor control at a population level needs to be established.

  10. Guidelines for the Evaluation of Dementia and Age-Related Cognitive Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Dementia in its many forms is a leading cause of functional limitation among older adults worldwide and will continue to ascend in global health importance as populations continue to age and effective cures remain elusive. The following guidelines were developed for psychologists who perform evaluations of dementia and age-related cognitive…

  11. Investigation of risk factors for mortality in aged guide dogs: A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hoummady, S; Hua, J; Muller, C; Pouchelon, J L; Blondot, M; Gilbert, C; Desquilbet, L

    2016-09-15

    The overall median lifespan of domestic dogs has been estimated to 9-12 years, but little is known about risk factors for mortality in aged and a priori healthy dogs. The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to determine which characteristics are associated with mortality in aged and a priori healthy guide dogs, in a retrospective cohort study of 116 guide dogs followed from a systematic geriatric examination at the age of 8-10 years old. A geriatric grid collected the clinical data and usual biological parameters were measured at the time of examination. Univariate (Kaplan-Meier estimates) and multivariable (Cox proportional hazard model) survival analyses were used to assess the associations with time to all-cause death. The majority of dogs were Golden Retrievers (n=48) and Labrador Retrievers (n=27). Median age at geriatric examination was 8.9 years. A total of 76 dogs died during follow-up, leading to a median survival time from geriatric examination of 4.4 years. After adjustment for demographic and biological variables, an increased alanine amionotransferase level (adjusted Hazard Ratio (adjusted HR), 6.2; 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 2.0-19.0; P<0.01), presenting skin nodules (adjusted HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.0-3.4; P=0.04), and not being a Labrador Retriever (adjusted HR, 3.3; 95%CI, 1.4-10; P<0.01) were independently associated with a shorter time to death. This study documents independent associations of alanine aminotransferase level, skin nodules and breed with mortality in aged guide dogs. These results may be useful for preventive medical care when conducting a geriatric examination in working dogs. PMID:27616361

  12. Association Between Age at Menarche and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Won, Jong Chul; Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Early menarche is strongly associated with adulthood obesity; however, the relationship between age at menarche and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Korean women remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the association between early menarche and risk factors for developing CVD during adulthood using a nationwide population database. In total, 12,336 women (weighted n = 17,483,406; weighted age, 45.7 years) who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2013 were included in this study. Participants were scored using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for metabolic syndrome. Risk of CVD was estimated using the 10-year Framingham Coronary Heart Disease Risk Point Scale (10-year FRS). Early menarche (≤11 years) was reported in 5.2% (weighted n = 917,493) of subjects. The weighted prevalences of metabolic syndrome and ≥20% 10-year FRS were 23.6% [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 22.7–24.6] and 7.7% (7.1–8.3), respectively. Women with early menarche reported a significantly higher body mass index and waist circumference, along with a higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome than those with later menarche (≥13 years). Furthermore, the prevalence of women with a ≥10% or ≥20% 10-year FRS was higher in those with early menarche than in other groups after adjusting for age, smoking, education level, and menstruation. Logistic regression analyses controlling for these and other confounding factors revealed odds ratios of 2.29 (95% CI = 1.25–4.19) and 1.78 (0.96–3.30) for ≥10% and ≥20% 10-year FRS in women with early menarche, respectively, compared with those in the latest menarche group (≥17 years). Taken together, this nationwide study revealed that women with early menarche are at increased risks of metabolic syndrome and CVD. Early menarche may therefore represent an important marker for early preventive

  13. Plain-water intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in young and middle-aged women1234

    PubMed Central

    Pan, An; Malik, Vasanti S; Schulze, Matthias B; Manson, JoAnn E; Willett, Walter C

    2012-01-01

    Background: The replacement of caloric beverages such as sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and fruit juices with noncaloric beverages such as plain water has been recommended for diabetes prevention. Objective: We evaluated the relation of plain-water intake and the substitution of plain water for SSBs and fruit juices with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) in US women. Design: We prospectively followed 82,902 women in the Nurses’ Health Study II who were free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or cancer at baseline. Diet, including various beverages, was assessed by using validated food-frequency questionnaires and updated every 4 y. Incident T2D was confirmed by using a validated supplementary questionnaire. We used a 4-y lagged analysis to minimize reverse causation (ie, increased water consumption that was due to early stage of diabetes). Results: During 1,115,427 person-years of follow-up, we documented 2718 incident T2D cases. Plain-water intake was not associated with T2D risk in the multivariable-adjusted model that included age, BMI, diet, and lifestyle factors; RRs (95% CIs) across categories (<1, 1, 2–3, 4–5, and ≥6 cups/d) were 1.00, 0.93 (0.82, 1.05), 0.93 (0.83, 1.05), 1.09 (0.96, 1.24), and 1.06 (0.91, 1.23), respectively (P-trend = 0.15). We estimated that the replacement of 1 serving SSBs and fruit juices/d by 1 cup plain water/d was associated with 7% (3%, 11%) and 8% (2%, 13%) lower risk of T2D, respectively. Conclusions: Plain-water intake, per se, was not significantly associated with risk of T2D. However, substitution of plain water for SSBs or fruit juices was estimated to be associated with modestly lower risk of T2D. PMID:22552035

  14. Control of Risks Through the Use of Procedures: A Method for Evaluating the Change in Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Praino, Gregory T.; Sharit, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    not. The model used for describing the Failure Likelihood considers how well a task was established by evaluating that task on five components. The components selected to define a well established task are: that it be defined, assigned to someone capable, that they be trained appropriately, that the actions be organized to enable proper completion and that some form of independent monitoring be performed. Validation of the method was based on the information provided by a group of experts in Space Shuttle ground processing when they were presented with 5 scenarios that identified a clause from a procedure. For each scenario, they recorded their perception of how important the associated rule was and how likely it was to fail. They then rated the components of Control Value and Failure Likelihood for all the scenarios. The order in which each reviewer ranked the scenarios Control Value and Failure Likelihood was compared to the order in which they ranked the scenarios for each of the associated components; inevitability and opportunity for Control Value and definition, assignment, training, organization and monitoring for Failure Likelihood. This order comparison showed how the components contributed to a relative relationship to the substitute risk element. With the relationship established for Space Shuttle ground processing, this method can be used to gauge if the introduction or removal of a particular rule will increase or decrease the .risk associated with the hazard it is intended to control.

  15. A New Class of Risk-Importance Measures to Support Reactor Aging Management and the Prioritization of Materials Degradation Research

    SciTech Connect

    Unwin, Stephen D.; Lowry, Peter P.; Toyooka, Michael Y.

    2010-06-07

    As the US fleet of light water reactors ages, the risks of operation might be expected to increase. Although probabilistic risk assessment has proven a critical resource in risk-informed regulatory decision-making, limitations in current methods and models have constrained their prospective value in reactor aging management. These limitations stem principally from the use of static component failure rate models (which do not allow the impact of component aging on failure rates to be represented) and a very limited treatment of passive components (which would be expected to have an increasingly significant risk contribution in an aging system). Yet, a PRA captures a substantial knowledge base that could be of significant value in addressing plant aging. In this paper we will describe a methodology and a new class of risk importance measures that allow the use of an existing PRA model to support the management of plant aging, the prioritization of improvements to non-destructive examination and monitoring techniques, and the establishment of research emphases in materials science. This methodology makes use of data resources generated under the USNRC Proactive Management of Materials Degradation program which addresses the anticipated effects of numerous aging degradation mechanisms on a wide variety of component types.

  16. Screening for colorectal cancer: possible improvements by risk assessment evaluation?

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Hans J; Jakobsen, Karen V; Christensen, Ib J; Brünner, Nils

    2011-11-01

    Emerging results indicate that screening improves survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Therefore, screening programs are already implemented or are being considered for implementation in Asia, Europe and North America. At present, a great variety of screening methods are available including colono- and sigmoidoscopy, CT- and MR-colonography, capsule endoscopy, DNA and occult blood in feces, and so on. The pros and cons of the various tests, including economic issues, are debated. Although a plethora of evaluated and validated tests even with high specificities and reasonable sensitivities are available, an international consensus on screening procedures is still not established. The rather limited compliance in present screening procedures is a significant drawback. Furthermore, some of the procedures are costly and, therefore, selection methods for these procedures are needed. Current research into improvements of screening for colorectal cancer includes blood-based biological markers, such as proteins, DNA and RNA in combination with various demographically and clinically parameters into a "risk assessment evaluation" (RAE) test. It is assumed that such a test may lead to higher acceptance among the screening populations, and thereby improve the compliances. Furthermore, the involvement of the media, including social media, may add even more individuals to the screening programs. Implementation of validated RAE and progressively improved screening methods may reform the cost/benefit of screening procedures for colorectal cancer. Therefore, results of present research, validating RAE tests, are awaited with interest. PMID:21854094

  17. Probabilistic evaluation of uncertainties and risks in aerospace components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, A. R.; Shiao, M. C.; Nagpal, V. K.; Chamis, C. C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes a methodology developed at NASA Lewis Research Center which computationally simulates the structural, material, and load uncertainties associated with Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) components. The methodology was applied to evaluate the scatter in static, buckling, dynamic, fatigue, and damage behavior of the SSME turbo pump blade. Also calculated are the probability densities of typical critical blade responses, such as effective stress, natural frequency, damage initiation, most probable damage path, etc. Risk assessments were performed for different failure modes, and the effect of material degradation on the fatigue and damage behaviors of a blade were calculated using a multi-factor interaction equation. Failure probabilities for different fatigue cycles were computed and the uncertainties associated with damage initiation and damage propagation due to different load cycle were quantified. Evaluations on the effects of mistuned blades on a rotor were made; uncertainties in the excitation frequency were found to significantly amplify the blade responses of a mistuned rotor. The effects of the number of blades on a rotor were studied. The autocorrelation function of displacements and the probability density function of the first passage time for deterministic and random barriers for structures subjected to random processes also were computed. A brief discussion was included on the future direction of probabilistic structural analysis.

  18. Proposal of a risk-factor-based analytical approach for integrating occupational health and safety into project risk evaluation.

    PubMed

    Badri, Adel; Nadeau, Sylvie; Gbodossou, André

    2012-09-01

    Excluding occupational health and safety (OHS) from project management is no longer acceptable. Numerous industrial accidents have exposed the ineffectiveness of conventional risk evaluation methods as well as negligence of risk factors having major impact on the health and safety of workers and nearby residents. Lack of reliable and complete evaluations from the beginning of a project generates bad decisions that could end up threatening the very existence of an organization. This article supports a systematic approach to the evaluation of OHS risks and proposes a new procedure based on the number of risk factors identified and their relative significance. A new concept called risk factor concentration along with weighting of risk factor categories as contributors to undesirable events are used in the analytical hierarchy process multi-criteria comparison model with Expert Choice(©) software. A case study is used to illustrate the various steps of the risk evaluation approach and the quick and simple integration of OHS at an early stage of a project. The approach allows continual reassessment of criteria over the course of the project or when new data are acquired. It was thus possible to differentiate the OHS risks from the risk of drop in quality in the case of the factory expansion project.

  19. An auditory event related potential evaluation of sonar task experience and age.

    PubMed

    Merrill, L L; Kobus, D A; McGuigan, F J

    1995-06-01

    To gauge the interaction of real-world sonar-task experience and age on brain electrical activity, the effect of sonar experience and age on event related potentials (ERP) was examined. A three-group design was used and the results suggest that sonar experience and age affect the amplitude and distribution of the ERP component. The results concerning age and ERPs support and extend the results of previous studies and suggest that age-related differences occur at a much younger age than is reported elsewhere. Attentional and stimulus evaluation processes which have been linked to parameters of the ERP component may be enhanced with real-world auditory task experience. Research on ERP should control for the possible confounds of auditory-task experience and age.

  20. The Relation of Age, Gender, Ethnicity, and Risk Behaviors to Self-Esteem among Students in Nonmainstream Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Jennifer M.; Poyrazli, Senel; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Grahame, Kamini Maraj

    2004-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated self-esteem in relation to age, gender, ethnicity, and risk behaviors among a sample of nonmainstream students. Participants were 149 students in the 6th to 12th grades from two non-mainstream schools (one charter and one alternative school). Self-esteem and youth risk behaviors were determined by using a…

  1. A developmental perspective on risk for compassion fatigue in middle-aged nurses caring for hurricane victims in Florida.

    PubMed

    Frank, Deborah I; Adkinson, Lauren F

    2007-01-01

    This research examined the risk for compassion fatigue (CF) in 55 middle-aged female nurses 40 to 60 years old who cared for victims of the 2004 hurricanes in Florida. Developmental theory and CF theory provided the framework for the study. Consistent with both theories, 76% of the nurses were at low risk for CF.

  2. Associations between Charlson Comorbidity Index and surgical risk severity and the surgical outcomes in advanced-age patients.

    PubMed

    Larson, Kelly J; Hamlin, Ryan J; Sprung, Juraj; Schroeder, Darrell R; Weingarten, Toby N

    2014-06-01

    The Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) has not been assessed for elderly (95 years of age or older) surgical patients. We examined the association between the CCI and life-threatening complications and 30-day mortality rate. Medical records of patients 95 years old or older from 2004 through 2008 were reviewed for major postoperative morbidity or death. Logistic regression analyses of age, sex, the CCI, American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Surgical Risk Stratification, and surgical urgency were performed to identify associations with poor surgical outcome. One hundred eighty-seven patients were identified (mean [standard deviation] age, 96.6 [1.9] years; median [interquartile range] CCI, 4 [2 to 6]). Ninety patients (48.1%) underwent moderate-risk and 20 (10.7%) underwent high-risk surgical procedures. Twenty patients (10.7%) died within 30 postoperative days and 20 others had major morbidity. Only moderate-risk (P = 0.045) and high-risk surgical procedures (P = 0.001) were associated with poor outcome. Patients of advanced age have high rates of morbidity and death after surgical procedures. These events are associated with surgical risk stratification and are independent of patient comorbidities. Risks, benefits, and alternatives must be considered carefully and discussed with patients and their families before deciding to proceed with high-risk surgery.

  3. Extrinsic and intrinsic risk factors associated with injuries in young dancers aged 8-16 years.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Nili; Siev-Ner, Itzhak; Peleg, Smadar; Dar, Gali; Masharawi, Youssef; Zeev, Aviva; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we tried to determine the association between joint ranges of motion, anatomical anomalies, body structure, dance discipline, and injuries in young female recreational dancers. A group of 1336 non-professional female dancers (age 8-16 years), were screened. The risk factors considered for injuries were: range of motion, body structure, anatomical anomalies, dance technique, and dance discipline. Sixty-one different types of injuries and symptoms were identified and later classified into four major categories: knee injuries, foot or ankle tendinopathy, back injuries, and non-categorized injuries. We found that 569 (42.6%) out of the 1336 screened dancers, were injured.The following factors were found to be associated with injuries (P < 0.05): (a) range of motion (e.g. dancers with hyper hip abduction are more prone to foot or ankle tendinopathies than dancers with hypo range of motion; (b) anatomical anomalies (scoliotic dancers manifested a higher rate of injuries than non-scoliotic dancers); (c) dance technique (dancers with incorrect technique of rolling-in were found to have more injuries than dancers with correct technique); (d) dance discipline (an association between time of practice en pointe and injury was observed); and (e) early age of onset of menarche decreased risk for an injury. No association between body structure and injury was found. Injuries among recreational dancers should not be overlooked, and therefore precautionary steps should be taken to reduce the risk of injury, such as screening for joint range of motion and anatomical anomalies. Certain dance positions (e.g. en pointe) should be practised only when the dancer has already acquired certain physical skills, and these practices should be time controlled.

  4. Diarrhea Prevalence, Care, and Risk Factors Among Poor Children Under 5 Years of Age in Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Colombara, Danny V; Hernández, Bernardo; McNellan, Claire R; Desai, Sima S; Gagnier, Marielle C; Haakenstad, Annie; Johanns, Casey; Palmisano, Erin B; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-03-01

    Care practices and risk factors for diarrhea among impoverished communities across Mesoamerica are unknown. Using Salud Mesoamérica Initiative baseline data, collected 2011-2013, we assessed the prevalence of diarrhea, adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines, and potential diarrhea correlates in poor and indigenous communities across Mesoamerica. This study surveyed 14,500 children under 5 years of age in poor areas of El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas State), Nicaragua, and Panama. We compared diarrhea prevalence and treatment modalities using χ(2) tests and used multivariable Poisson regression models to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for potential correlates of diarrhea. The 2-week point prevalence of diarrhea was 13% overall, with significant differences between countries (P < 0.05). Approximately one-third of diarrheal children were given oral rehydration solution and less than 3% were given zinc. Approximately 18% were given much less to drink than usual or nothing to drink at all. Antimotility medication was given to 17% of diarrheal children, while antibiotics were inappropriately given to 36%. In a multivariable regression model, compared with children 0-5 months, those 6-23 months had a 49% increased risk for diarrhea (aRR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.95). Our results call for programs to examine and remedy low adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines.

  5. Variants in GBA, SNCA, and MAPT influence Parkinson disease risk, age at onset, and progression.

    PubMed

    Davis, Albert A; Andruska, Kristin M; Benitez, Bruno A; Racette, Brad A; Perlmutter, Joel S; Cruchaga, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Multiple genetic variants have been linked to risk of Parkinson disease (PD), but known mutations do not explain a large proportion of the total PD cases. Similarly, multiple loci have been associated with PD risk by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The influence that genetic factors confer on phenotypic diversity remains unclear. Few studies have been performed to determine whether the GWAS loci are also associated with age at onset (AAO) or motor progression. We used 2 PD case-control data sets (Washington University and the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative) to determine whether polymorphisms located at the GWAS top hits (GBA, ACMSD/TMEM163, STK39, MCCC1/LAMP3, GAK/TMEM175, SNCA, and MAPT) show association with AAO or motor progression. We found associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms at the GBA and MAPT loci and PD AAO and progression. These findings reinforce the complex genetic basis of PD and suggest that distinct genes and variants explain the genetic architecture of PD risk, onset, and progression.

  6. Diarrhea Prevalence, Care, and Risk Factors Among Poor Children Under 5 Years of Age in Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Colombara, Danny V; Hernández, Bernardo; McNellan, Claire R; Desai, Sima S; Gagnier, Marielle C; Haakenstad, Annie; Johanns, Casey; Palmisano, Erin B; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-03-01

    Care practices and risk factors for diarrhea among impoverished communities across Mesoamerica are unknown. Using Salud Mesoamérica Initiative baseline data, collected 2011-2013, we assessed the prevalence of diarrhea, adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines, and potential diarrhea correlates in poor and indigenous communities across Mesoamerica. This study surveyed 14,500 children under 5 years of age in poor areas of El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas State), Nicaragua, and Panama. We compared diarrhea prevalence and treatment modalities using χ(2) tests and used multivariable Poisson regression models to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for potential correlates of diarrhea. The 2-week point prevalence of diarrhea was 13% overall, with significant differences between countries (P < 0.05). Approximately one-third of diarrheal children were given oral rehydration solution and less than 3% were given zinc. Approximately 18% were given much less to drink than usual or nothing to drink at all. Antimotility medication was given to 17% of diarrheal children, while antibiotics were inappropriately given to 36%. In a multivariable regression model, compared with children 0-5 months, those 6-23 months had a 49% increased risk for diarrhea (aRR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.95). Our results call for programs to examine and remedy low adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines. PMID:26787152

  7. Hepatitis A virus age-specific sero-prevalence and risk factors among Jordanian children.

    PubMed

    Hayajneh, Wail A; Balbeesi, Adel; Faouri, Samir

    2015-04-01

    Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) has been a significant cause of infections among the children and adolescents of Jordan. Availability of safe vaccines made it necessary to identify the ill-defined temporal immunity trends for HAV and possible age-specific prevalence transitions. This community-based cross sectional study was conducted during the period July-August 2008 on 3,066 recruited subjects from the 12 governorates of Jordan, with pre-defined criteria. Several households were chosen at random within each selected block to enroll the subjects. They were interviewed and data were collected. Their sera were tested for total antibodies against HAV. A multivariate model was then performed to identify the possible risk factors. The HAV sero-prevalence rates among the age categories-second year, 2-4 years, 5-9 years, 10-14 years, 15-19 years, and those above 20 years were 26%, 32%, 44%, 63%, 78%, and 94%, respectively. The model revealed the association of several risk factors for higher HAV sero-prevalence rates: (i) older age groups; (ii) lower maternal education levels; (iii) residing in certain governorates; (iv) using public net drinking water; and (v) avoiding use of public net sewage system. This study provided strong evidence for continuous transition of HAV epidemiology towards intermediate endemicity in Jordan, with more susceptible adolescents and adults. Following the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for countries with intermediate endemicity, large-scale hepatitis A vaccination is recommended for children in Jordan. This is strengthened by the availability of effective and safe HAV vaccines, improving the socio-economic status of the Jordanians, and increasing life expectancy among Jordanians.

  8. Socioeconomic inequalities in health after age 50: Are health risk behaviors to blame?

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Benjamin A.; McGeever, Kelly; Grubert, Elizabeth; Agahi, Neda; Fors, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that socioeconomic inequalities in health extend into the elderly population, even within the most highly developed welfare states. One potential explanation for socioeconomic inequalities in health focuses on the role of health behaviors, but little is known about the degree to which health behaviors account for health inequalities among older adults, in particular. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (N=19,245), this study examined the degree to which four behavioral risk factors – smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, and heavy drinking – are associated with socioeconomic position among adults aged 51 and older, and whether these behaviors mediate socioeconomic differences in mortality, and the onset of disability among those who were disability-free at baseline, over a 10-year period from 1998–2008. Results indicate that the odds of both smoking and physical inactivity are higher among persons with lower wealth, with similar stratification in obesity, but primarily among women. The odds of heavy drinking decrease at lower levels of wealth. Significant socioeconomic inequalities in mortality and disability onset are apparent among older men and women; however, the role that health behaviors play in accounting for these inequalities differs by age and gender. For example, these health behaviors account for between 23–45% of the mortality disparities among men and middle aged women, but only about 5% of the disparities found among women over 65 years. Meanwhile, these health behaviors appear to account for about 33% of the disparities in disability onset found among women survivors, and about 9–14% among men survivors. These findings suggest that within the U.S. elderly population, behavioral risks such as smoking and physical inactivity contribute moderately to maintaining socioeconomic inequalities in health. As such, promoting healthier lifestyles among the socioeconomically disadvantaged older adults should help

  9. Factors associated with hospitalization risk among community living middle aged and older persons: Results from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA).

    PubMed

    Hallgren, Jenny; Fransson, Eleonor I; Kåreholt, Ingemar; Reynolds, Chandra A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Dahl Aslan, Anna K

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to: (1) describe and compare individual characteristics of hospitalized and not hospitalized community living persons, and (2) to determine factors that are associated with hospitalization risk over time. We conducted a prospective study with a multifactorial approach based on the population-based longitudinal Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA). A total of 772 Swedes (mean age at baseline 69.7 years, range 46-103, 59.8% females) answered a postal questionnaire about physical and psychological health, personality and socioeconomic factors. During nine years of follow-up, information on hospitalizations and associated diagnoses were obtained from national registers. Results show that 484 persons (63%) had at least one hospital admission during the follow-up period. The most common causes of admission were cardiovascular diseases (25%) and tumors (22%). Cox proportional hazard regression models controlling for age, sex and dependency within twin pairs, showed that higher age (HR=1.02, p<0.001) and more support from relatives (HR=1.09, p=0.028) were associated with increased risk of hospitalization, while marital status (unmarried (HR=0.75, p=0.033) and widow/widower (HR=0.69, p<0.001)) and support from friends (HR=0.93, p=0.029) were associated with lower risk of hospitalization. Social factors were important for hospitalization risk even when medical factors were controlled for in the analyses. Number of diseases was not a risk in the final regression model. Hospitalization risk was also different for women and men and within different age groups. We believe that these results might be used in future interventions targeting health care utilization.

  10. Risk of Adverse Obstetric and Neonatal Outcomes by Maternal Age: Quantifying Individual and Population Level Risk Using Routine UK Maternity Data

    PubMed Central

    Penn, Nicole; Pipi, Maria; Oteng-Ntim, Eugene; Doyle, Pat

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate whether moderately increased maternal age is associated with obstetric and neonatal outcome in a contemporary population, and to consider the possible role of co-morbidities in explaining any increased risk. Study Design Secondary analysis of routinely collected data from a large maternity unit in London, UK. Data were available on 51,225 singleton deliveries (≥22 weeks) occurring to women aged ≥20 between 2004 and 2012. Modified Poisson regression was used to estimate risk ratios for the association between maternal age and obstetric and neonatal outcome (delivery type, postpartum haemorrhage, stillbirth, low birthweight, preterm birth, small for gestational age, neonatal unit admission), using the reference group 20–24 years. Population attributable fractions were calculated to quantify the population impact. Results We found an association between increasing maternal age and major postpartum haemorrhage (≥1000ml blood loss) (RR 1.36 95% CI 1.18–1.57 for age 25–29 rising to 2.41 95% CI 2.02–2.88 for age ≥40). Similar trends were observed for caesarean delivery, most notably for elective caesareans (RR 1.64 95% CI 1.36–1.96 for age 25–29 rising to 4.94 95% CI 4.09–5.96 for age ≥40). There was evidence that parity modified this association, with a higher prevalence of elective caesarean delivery in older nulliparous women. Women aged ≥35 were at increased risk of low birthweight and preterm birth. We found no evidence that the risk of stillbirth, small for gestational age, or neonatal unit admission differed by maternal age. Conclusions Our results suggest a gradual increase in the risk of caesarean delivery and postpartum haemorrhage from age 25, persisting after taking into account maternal BMI, hypertension and diabetes. The risk of low birthweight and preterm birth was elevated in women over 35. Further research is needed to understand the reasons behind the high prevalence of

  11. HIV Risk Behavior of Runaway Youth in San Francisco: Age of Onset and Relation to Sexual Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Martha W.; McFarland, William; Kellogg, Timothy; Baxter, Michael; Katz, Mitchell H.; MacKellar, Duncan; Valleroy, Linda A.

    2000-01-01

    Examined HIV risk behaviors among runaway youth by age at onset and sexual orientation. Adolescents age 12-21 years seeking health care at two clinics completed interviews and blood testing. Gay/lesbian/bisexual youth reported higher levels and earlier onset of sexual and drug-using behavior than heterosexual youth and were at exceptionally high…

  12. [Forecasting of environmental health risk on the basis of the kinetic theory of aging of living systems].

    PubMed

    Viktorov, A A; Gladkikh, V D; Ksenofontov, A I; Morozova, E E

    2014-01-01

    The method of iterative congruence of search of parameters of kinetic mathematical model of aging of living systems according to medical statistics is developed. Its opportunities for the description of risk functions of mortality and life expectancy for the person and animals depending on environment factors are illustrated. The concept of forecasting of environmental risks--risks to population health from ecological factors of influence--is formulated.

  13. Post-approval evaluation of effectiveness of risk minimisation: methods, challenges and interpretation.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Anjan Kumar; Zomerdijk, Inge M; Wooder, Stella; Ingate, Simon; Mayall, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of the effectiveness of drug risk-minimisation measures is mandatory for both risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) in the United States and risk management plans in the European Union (EU-RMPs). Such evaluations aim to assess the impact of risk-minimisation measures on the knowledge, attitudes or behaviours of healthcare professionals or patients, the incidence of safety concerns, and their impact on the overall benefit-risk balance. Although many effectiveness evaluation models and methods are available, regulatory guidance and policy are still evolving. This paper considers evaluation strategies, challenges in evaluating risk minimisation post-authorisation, possible outcome measures and their interpretation, and potential emerging regulatory policy issues. Particular challenges include appropriate data collection, perceived and real burdens of performing evaluation on clinical practice, lack of comparators and benchmarking, and uncertainty about the best outcome measures.

  14. Individually modifiable risk factors to ameliorate cognitive aging: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lehert, P; Villaseca, P; Hogervorst, E; Maki, P M; Henderson, V W

    2015-10-01

    A number of health and lifestyle factors are thought to contribute to cognitive decline associated with age but cannot be easily modified by the individual patient. We identified 12 individually modifiable interventions that can be implemented during midlife or later with the potential to ameliorate cognitive aging. For ten of these, we used PubMed databases for a systematic review of long-duration (at least 6 months), randomized, controlled trials in midlife and older adults without dementia or mild cognitive impairment with objective measures of neuropsychological performance. Using network meta-analysis, we performed a quantitative synthesis for global cognition (primary outcome) and episodic memory (secondary outcome). Of 1038 publications identified by our search strategy, 24 eligible trials were included in the network meta-analysis. Results suggested that the Mediterranean diet supplemented by olive oil and tai chi exercise may improve global cognition, and the Mediterranean diet plus olive oil and soy isoflavone supplements may improve memory. Effect sizes were no more than small (standardized mean differences 0.11-0.22). Cognitive training may have cognitive benefit as well. Most individually modifiable risk factors have not yet been adequately studied. We conclude that some interventions that can be self-initiated by healthy midlife and older adults may ameliorate cognitive aging. PMID:26361790

  15. Individually modifiable risk factors to ameliorate cognitive aging: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lehert, P; Villaseca, P; Hogervorst, E; Maki, P M; Henderson, V W

    2015-10-01

    A number of health and lifestyle factors are thought to contribute to cognitive decline associated with age but cannot be easily modified by the individual patient. We identified 12 individually modifiable interventions that can be implemented during midlife or later with the potential to ameliorate cognitive aging. For ten of these, we used PubMed databases for a systematic review of long-duration (at least 6 months), randomized, controlled trials in midlife and older adults without dementia or mild cognitive impairment with objective measures of neuropsychological performance. Using network meta-analysis, we performed a quantitative synthesis for global cognition (primary outcome) and episodic memory (secondary outcome). Of 1038 publications identified by our search strategy, 24 eligible trials were included in the network meta-analysis. Results suggested that the Mediterranean diet supplemented by olive oil and tai chi exercise may improve global cognition, and the Mediterranean diet plus olive oil and soy isoflavone supplements may improve memory. Effect sizes were no more than small (standardized mean differences 0.11-0.22). Cognitive training may have cognitive benefit as well. Most individually modifiable risk factors have not yet been adequately studied. We conclude that some interventions that can be self-initiated by healthy midlife and older adults may ameliorate cognitive aging.

  16. The generational effect on age disparate partnerships and the risk for human immunodeficiency virus and sexually transmitted infections acquisition.

    PubMed

    Street, Renée A; Reddy, Tarylee; Ramjee, Gita

    2016-08-01

    In South Africa, a large proportion of young women are in age disparate relationships, which is believed to be a risk factor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The aim of this study was to determine the generational effect of age disparity on HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) incidence. Socio-demographic and behavioural data were collected from women, aged 16 and older, who were followed for up to 24 months. Women who reported having a steady sexual partner older than themselves were categorised into: (1) non-age disparate partnerships (age difference between partners was 0-4 years); (2) intra-generational age disparate partnerships (5-9 year age gap between sexual partners); and (3) inter-generational age disparate partnerships (age gap of 10 years or more between sexual partners). Of the 1355 women included in the analysis, 759, 429 and 167 were in non-age disparate, intra-generational age disparate and inter-generational age disparate partnerships, respectively. Strong predictors of inter-generational age disparate partnerships include age, marital status and concurrency of sexual partners. No significant relationship between age disparity and risk of HIV acquisition was found. The highest crude STI incidence was observed among those in intra-generational age disparate relationships followed by those in non-age disparate relationships (31.86 [26.41-38.44] and 25.60 [21.92-29.91] per 100 person-years, respectively). Reduction of multiple partnerships remains key to HIV prevention; however, in light of partner concurrency being more prevalent than individual concurrency partnerships, female-initiated HIV prevention options remain critical.

  17. PNPLA3 I148M (rs738409) genetic variant and age at onset of at-risk alcohol consumption are independent risk factors for alcoholic cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Burza, Maria Antonella; Molinaro, Antonio; Attilia, Maria Luisa; Rotondo, Claudia; Attilia, Fabio; Ceccanti, Mauro; Ferri, Flaminia; Maldarelli, Federica; Maffongelli, Angela; De Santis, Adriano; Attili, Adolfo Francesco; Romeo, Stefano; Ginanni Corradini, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Environmental and genetic factors contribute to alcoholic cirrhosis onset. In particular, age at exposure to liver stressors has been shown to be important in progression to fibrosis in hepatitis C individuals. However, no definite data on the role of age at onset of at-risk alcohol consumption are available. Moreover, patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) I148M (rs738409) variant has been associated with alcoholic cirrhosis, but only in cross-sectional studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of age at onset of at-risk alcohol consumption and PNPLA3 I148M variant on alcoholic cirrhosis incidence. Methods A total of 384 at-risk alcohol drinkers were retrospectively examined. The association among age at onset of at-risk alcohol consumption, PNPLA3 I148M variant and cirrhosis incidence was tested. Results A higher incidence of alcoholic cirrhosis was observed in individuals with an older (≥24 years) compared with a younger (<24) age at onset of at-risk alcohol consumption (P-value < 0.001). Moreover, PNPLA3 148M allele carriers showed an increased incidence of cirrhosis (P-value < 0.001). Both age at onset of at-risk alcohol consumption and PNPLA3 148M allele were independent risk factors for developing cirrhosis (H.R. (95% C.I.): 2.76 (2.18–3.50), P-value < 0.001; 1.53(1.07–2.19), P-value = 0.021 respectively). The 148M allele was associated with a two-fold increased risk of cirrhosis in individuals with a younger compared with an older age at onset of at-risk alcohol consumption (H.R. (95% C.I.): 3.03(1.53–6.00) vs. 1.61(1.09–2.38). Conclusions Age at onset of at-risk alcohol consumption and PNPLA3 I148M genetic variant are independently associated with alcoholic cirrhosis incidence. PMID:24102786

  18. Evaluation of the Intussusception Risk after Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccination in Finnish Infants

    PubMed Central

    Leino, Tuija; Ollgren, Jukka; Strömberg, Nina; Elonsalo, Ulpu

    2016-01-01

    Background An association between rotavirus immunisation and intussusception (IS) has been suggested with present rotavirus vaccines in post-licensure studies. In Finland, rotavirus vaccination programme was implemented in September 2009 using a 2, 3, and 5 months schedule with the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine. By the end of 2013, it is estimated that 719 000 rotavirus vaccine doses have been given in the national programme of which 240 000 were first doses. Nationwide register allows us to evaluate the association between rotavirus vaccination and IS. Methods and Materials Cases of IS diagnosed during 1999–2013 were identified from National Hospital Discharge Register. All cases under 250 days of age diagnosed during 2009–2013 were confirmed by reviewing medical charts. Self-controlled case-series method was used to assess the risk of IS during 1–21 days compared to 22–42 days post vaccination. Findings In register data the relative incidence of IS at 2 months of age between the post and pre vaccination era was 9.1 (95%CI 2.0–84.3). We identified 22 verified cases with date of admission less than 43 days after any of the three rotavirus vaccine doses. The incidence of IS in the risk period after the 1st dose relative to the control period was 2.0 (95% CI 0.5–8.4; p = 0.34.) Number of excess IS cases per 100 000 first vaccine doses was therefore estimated to be 1.04 (95% CI 0.0–2.5), i.e. one additional IS case per 96 000 first doses of rotavirus vaccine (95% CI 54 600 to ∞). There was no risk detected after 2nd and 3rd doses. Conclusion The finding is in line with the recent published estimates. The benefits of rotavirus immunisation programme outweigh possible small risks of intussusception. PMID:26950702

  19. The Influence of Body Mass Index, Age and Sex on Inflammatory Disease Risk in Semi-Captive Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Obanda, Vincent; Omondi, George Paul; Chiyo, Patrick Ilukol

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and ageing are emerging issues in the management of captive primates, including Chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes. Studies on humans show that obesity and old age can independently increase the risk of inflammatory-associated diseases indicated by elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cells and proteins in the blood of older or obese compared to levels in younger or non-obese individuals. In humans, sex can influence the outcomes of these risks. Health management of these problems in chimpanzee populations requires an understanding of similarities and differences of factors influencing inflammatory disease risks in humans and in chimpanzees. We examined the relationship between age, sex and Body Mass Index (BMI) with hematological biomarkers of inflammatory disease risk established for humans which include the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and neutrophil, white blood cell (WBC), platelet microparticle and platelet counts. We found that higher values of NLR, neutrophil count and platelet microparticle count were associated with higher BMI values and older age indicating increased inflammation risk in these groups; a similar pattern to humans. There was a strong sex by age interaction on inflammation risk, with older males more at risk than older females. In contrast to human studies, total WBC count was not influenced by BMI, but like humans, WBC and platelet counts were lower in older individuals compared to younger individuals. Our findings are similar to those of humans and suggest that further insight on managing chimpanzees can be gained from extensive studies of ageing and obesity in humans. We suggest that managing BMI should be an integral part of health management in captive chimpanzee populations in order to partially reduce the risk of diseases associated with inflammation. These results also highlight parallels in inflammation risk between humans and chimpanzees and have implications for understanding the evolution of inflammation related

  20. School Age Effects of the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program for Medically Low-Risk Preterm Infants: Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    McAnulty, Gloria; Duffy, Frank H.; Kosta, Sandra; Weisenfeld, Neil I.; Warfield, Simon K.; Butler, Samantha C.; Bernstein, Jane Holmes; Zurakowski, David; Als, Heidelise

    2012-01-01

    Background: By school-age, even low-risk moderately preterm-born children show more neuro-cognitive deficits, motor impairments, academic underachievement, behavioral problems, and poor social adaptation than full-term peers. Aim: To evaluate the outcomes at school-age for moderately preterm-born children (29-33 weeks gestational age), appropriate in growth for gestational age (AGA) and medically at low-risk, randomized to Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) or standard care in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit. At school-age, the experimental (E) group will show better neuropsychological and neuro-electrophysiological function, as well as improved brain structure than the control (C) group. Materials and Methods: The original sample consisted of 30 moderately preterm-born infants (29 to 33 weeks), 23 (8C and 15E) of them were evaluated at 8 years of age, corrected-for-prematurity with neuropsychological, EEG spectral coherence, and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) measures. Results: E-performed significantly better than C-group children on the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (KABC-II) and trended towards better scores on the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test. They also showed more mature frontal and parietal brain connectivities, and more mature fiber tracts involving the internal capsule and the cingulum. Neurobehavioral results in the newborn period successfully predicted neuropsychological functioning at 8 years corrected age. Conclusion: Moderately preterm infants cared for with the NIDCAP intervention showed improved neuropsychological and neuro-electrophysiological function as well as improved brain structure at school-age. PMID:23951557

  1. Risk of Ionizing Radiation in Women of Childbearing Age undergoing Radiofrequency Ablation

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Gustavo Glotz; Gomes, Daniel Garcia; Gensas, Caroline Saltz; Simão, Mariana Fernandez; Rios, Matheus N.; Pires, Leonardo Martins; Kruse, Marcelo Lapa; Leiria, Tiago Luiz Luz

    2013-01-01

    Background The International Commission of Radiology recommends a pregnancy screening test to all female patients of childbearing age who will undergo a radiological study. Radiation is known to be teratogenic and its effect is cumulative. The teratogenic potential starts at doses close to those used during these procedures. The prevalence of positive pregnancy tests in patients undergoing electrophysiological studies and/or catheter ablation in our midst is unknown. Objective To evaluate the prevalence of positive pregnancy tests in female patients referred for electrophysiological study and/or radiofrequency ablation. Methods Cross-sectional study analyzing 2,966 patients undergoing electrophysiological study and/or catheter ablation, from June 1997 to February 2013, in the Institute of Cardiology of Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 1490 procedures were performed in women, of whom 769 were of childbearing age. All patients were screened with a pregnancy test on the day before the procedure. Results Three patients tested positive, and were therefore unable to undergo the procedure. The prevalence observed was 3.9 cases per 1,000 women of childbearing age. Conclusion Because of their safety and low cost, pregnancy screening tests are indicated for all women of childbearing age undergoing radiological studies, since the degree of ionizing radiation needed for these procedures is very close to the threshold for teratogenicity, especially in the first trimester, when the signs of pregnancy are not evident. PMID:24061686

  2. Evaluation of Parkinson disease risk variants as expression-QTLs.

    PubMed

    Latourelle, Jeanne C; Dumitriu, Alexandra; Hadzi, Tiffany C; Beach, Thomas G; Myers, Richard H

    2012-01-01

    The recent Parkinson Disease GWAS Consortium meta-analysis and replication study reports association at several previously confirmed risk loci SNCA, MAPT, GAK/DGKQ, and HLA and identified a novel risk locus at RIT2. To further explore functional consequences of these associations, we investigated modification of gene expression in prefrontal cortex brain samples of pathologically confirmed PD cases (N = 26) and controls (N = 24) by 67 associated SNPs in these 5 loci. Association between the eSNPs and expression was evaluated using a 2-degrees of freedom test of both association and difference in association between cases and controls, adjusted for relevant covariates. SNPs at each of the 5 loci were tested for cis-acting effects on all probes within 250 kb of each locus. Trans-effects of the SNPs on the 39,122 probes passing all QC on the microarray were also examined. From the analysis of cis-acting SNP effects, several SNPs in the MAPT region show significant association to multiple nearby probes, including two strongly correlated probes targeting the gene LOC644246 and the duplicated genes LRRC37A and LRRC37A2, and a third uncorrelated probe targeting the gene DCAKD. Significant cis-associations were also observed between SNPs and two probes targeting genes in the HLA region on chromosome 6. Expanding the association study to examine trans effects revealed an additional 23 SNP-probe associations reaching statistical significance (p<2.8 × 10(-8)) including SNPs from the SNCA, MAPT and RIT2 regions. These findings provide additional context for the interpretation of PD associated SNPs identified in recent GWAS as well as potential insight into the mechanisms underlying the observed SNP associations.

  3. METHODOLOGY FOR THE EVALUATION OF CUMULATIVE EPISODIC EXPOSURE TO CHEMICAL STRESSORS IN AQUATIC RISK ASSESSMENT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    An ecological risk assessment method was developed to evaluate the magnitude, duration, and episodic nature of chemical stressors on aquatic communities. The percent of an ecosystem's species at risk from a designated chemical exposure scenario is generated. In effects assessment...

  4. Healthy Lifestyle through Young Adulthood and Presence of Low Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profile in Middle Age: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in (Young) Adults (CARDIA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kiang; Daviglus, Martha L.; Loria, Catherine M.; Colangelo, Laura A.; Spring, Bonnie; Moller, Arlen C.; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

    2012-01-01

    Background A low cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile (untreated cholesterol < 200 mg/dl, untreated blood pressure < 120/<80 mmHg, never smoking, and no history of diabetes and myocardial infarction) in middle age is associated with markedly better health outcomes in older age, but few middle aged adults have this low risk profile. We examined whether adopting a healthy lifestyle throughout young adulthood is associated with presence of the low CVD risk profile in middle age. Methods and Results The CARDIA study sample consisted of 3,154 black and white participants aged 18 to 30 years at Year 0 (Y0, 1985-86) who attended the Year 0, 7 and 20 (Y0, Y7 and Y20) examinations. Healthy lifestyle factors (HLFs) defined at Y0, Y7 and Y20 included: 1) Average BMI < 25 kg/m2; 2) No or moderate alcohol intake; 3) higher healthy diet score; 4) higher physical activity score; and 5) Never smoking. Mean age (25 years) and percentage of women (56%) were comparable across groups defined by number of HLFs. The age-, sex- and race-adjusted prevalences of low CVD risk profile at Y20 were 3.0%, 14.6%, 29.5%, 39.2% and 60.7% for people with 0 or 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 HLFs, respectively (p-trend <0.0001). Similar graded relationships were observed for each sex-race group (all p-trend<0.0001). Conclusions Maintaining a healthy lifestyle throughout young adulthood is strongly associated with low CVD risk profile in middle age. Public health and individual efforts are needed to improve adoption and maintenance of healthy lifestyles in young adults. PMID:22291127

  5. Evaluating Shielding Effectiveness for Reducing Space Radiation Cancer Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Ren, Lei

    2007-01-01

    We discuss calculations of probability distribution functions (PDF) representing uncertainties in projecting fatal cancer risk from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE). The PDF s are used in significance tests of the effectiveness of potential radiation shielding approaches. Uncertainties in risk coefficients determined from epidemiology data, dose and dose-rate reduction factors, quality factors, and physics models of radiation environments are considered in models of cancer risk PDF s. Competing mortality risks and functional correlations in radiation quality factor uncertainties are treated in the calculations. We show that the cancer risk uncertainty, defined as the ratio of the 95% confidence level (CL) to the point estimate is about 4-fold for lunar and Mars mission risk projections. For short-stay lunar missions (<180 d), SPE s present the most significant risk, however one that is mitigated effectively by shielding, especially for carbon composites structures with high hydrogen content. In contrast, for long duration lunar (>180 d) or Mars missions, GCR risks may exceed radiation risk limits, with 95% CL s exceeding 10% fatal risk for males and females on a Mars mission. For reducing GCR cancer risks, shielding materials are marginally effective because of the penetrating nature of GCR and secondary radiation produced in tissue by relativistic particles. At the present time, polyethylene or carbon composite shielding can not be shown to significantly reduce risk compared to aluminum shielding based on a significance test that accounts for radiobiology uncertainties in GCR risk projection.

  6. Risk Factors for Late-Life Cognitive Decline and Variation with Age and Sex in the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study

    PubMed Central

    Lipnicki, Darren M.; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Crawford, John; Reppermund, Simone; Kochan, Nicole A.; Trollor, Julian N.; Draper, Brian; Slavin, Melissa J.; Kang, Kristan; Lux, Ora; Mather, Karen A.; Brodaty, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Introduction An aging population brings increasing burdens and costs to individuals and society arising from late-life cognitive decline, the causes of which are unclear. We aimed to identify factors predicting late-life cognitive decline. Methods Participants were 889 community-dwelling 70–90-year-olds from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study with comprehensive neuropsychological assessments at baseline and a 2-year follow-up and initially without dementia. Cognitive decline was considered as incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia, as well as decreases in attention/processing speed, executive function, memory, and global cognition. Associations with baseline demographic, lifestyle, health and medical factors were determined. Results All cognitive measures showed decline and 14% of participants developed incident MCI or dementia. Across all participants, risk factors for decline included older age and poorer smelling ability most prominently, but also more education, history of depression, being male, higher homocysteine, coronary artery disease, arthritis, low health status, and stroke. Protective factors included marriage, kidney disease, and antidepressant use. For some of these factors the association varied with age or differed between men and women. Additional risk and protective factors that were strictly age- and/or sex-dependent were also identified. We found salient population attributable risks (8.7–49.5%) for older age, being male or unmarried, poor smelling ability, coronary artery disease, arthritis, stroke, and high homocysteine. Discussion Preventing or treating conditions typically associated with aging might reduce population-wide late-life cognitive decline. Interventions tailored to particular age and sex groups may offer further benefits. PMID:23799051

  7. The Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index is associated with concurrent risk for neurocognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    MARQUINE, María J.; UMLAUF, Anya; ROONEY, Alexandra; FAZELI, Pariya L.; GOUAUX, Ben; WOODS, Steven Paul; LETENDRE, Scott L.; ELLIS, Ronald J.; GRANT, Igor; MOORE, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index is predictive of mortality, and combines age, traditional HIV biomarkers (HIV-1 plasma RNA and current CD4 count) and non-HIV biomarkers (indicators of renal and liver function, anemia, and Hepatitis C co-infection). We examined the association between the VACS Index and HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment (NCI). Design and Methods Participants included 601 HIV-infected adults enrolled in cohort studies at the UCSD HIV Neurobehavioral Research Program (Ages: 18-76 years; 88% male; 63% White; Median current CD4=364; 63% on antiretroviral therapy; AIDS=64%). Biomarkers used in calculating the VACS Index were measured in prospectively collected blood samples using conventional laboratory methods. NCI was defined using global and seven domain deficit scores. Results Higher VACS Index scores were associated with concurrent risk for global NCI (p<.001; OR=1.21, CI=1.12-1.32), even when adjusting for psychiatric comorbidities. This relation was statistically significant for most cognitive domains in adjusted models. Furthermore, the VACS Index predicted concurrent NCI beyond nadir CD4 and estimated duration of infection. Older age, lower hemoglobin and lower CD4 counts were the VACS components most strongly linked to NCI. Conclusions The findings extend prior research on the potential usefulness of the VACS Index in predicting HIV-associated outcomes to include NCI. Although the effect size was relatively small, our findings suggest that demographic information, HIV-disease factors, and common comorbidities might each play important roles in the clinical manifestation of cognitive impairment among HIV-infected individuals. Additional research is needed to determine if a more sensitive and specific index can be developed. PMID:24442225

  8. Methylmercury risk and awareness among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland northwest reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Kuntz, Sandra W.; Hill, Wade G.; Linkenbach, Jeff W.; Lande, Gary; Larsson, Laura

    2009-08-15

    American Indian women and children may be the most overrepresented among the list of disparate populations exposed to methylmercury. American Indian people fish on home reservations where a state or tribal fishing license (a source of advisory messaging) is not required. The purpose of this study was to examine fish consumption, advisory awareness, and risk communication preferences among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland Northwest reservation. For this cross-sectional descriptive study, participants (N=65) attending a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinic were surveyed between March and June 2006. An electronic questionnaire adapted from Anderson et al. (2004) was evaluated for cultural acceptability and appropriateness by tribal consultants. Regarding fish consumption, approximately half of the women surveyed (49%) indicated eating locally caught fish with the majority signifying they consumed medium- and large-size fish (75%) that could result in exposure to methylmercury. In addition, a serendipitous discovery indicated that an unanticipated route of exposure may be fish provided from a local food bank resulting from sportsman's donations. The majority of women (80%) were unaware of tribal or state fish advisory messages; the most favorable risk communication preference was information coming from doctors or healthcare providers (78%). Since the population consumes fish and has access to locally caught potentially contaminated fish, a biomonitoring study to determine actual exposure is warranted.

  9. Brain network characterization of high-risk preterm-born school-age children

    PubMed Central

    Fischi-Gomez, Elda; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Vasung, Lana; Griffa, Alessandra; Borradori-Tolsa, Cristina; Monnier, Maryline; Lazeyras, François; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Hüppi, Petra S.

    2016-01-01

    Higher risk for long-term cognitive and behavioral impairments is one of the hallmarks of extreme prematurity (EP) and pregnancy-associated fetal adverse conditions such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). While neurodevelopmental delay and abnormal brain function occur in the absence of overt brain lesions, these conditions have been recently associated with changes in microstructural brain development. Recent imaging studies indicate changes in brain connectivity, in particular involving the white matter fibers belonging to the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loop. Furthermore, EP and IUGR have been related to altered brain network architecture in childhood, with reduced network global capacity, global efficiency and average nodal strength. In this study, we used a connectome analysis to characterize the structural brain networks of these children, with a special focus on their topological organization. On one hand, we confirm the reduced averaged network node degree and strength due to EP and IUGR. On the other, the decomposition of the brain networks in an optimal set of clusters remained substantially different among groups, talking in favor of a different network community structure. However, and despite the different community structure, the brain networks of these high-risk school-age children maintained the typical small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics in all cases. Thus, our results suggest that brain reorganizes after EP and IUGR, prioritizing a tight modular structure, to maintain the small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics. By themselves, both extreme prematurity and IUGR bear a similar risk for neurocognitive and behavioral impairment, and the here defined modular network alterations confirm similar structural changes both by IUGR and EP at school age compared to control. Interestingly, the combination of both conditions (IUGR + EP) does not result in a worse outcome. In such cases, the alteration in network

  10. Risk factors for suspected developmental delay at age 2 years in a Brazilian birth cohort.

    PubMed

    de Moura, Danilo R; Costa, Jaderson C; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio J D; Matijasevich, Alicia; Halpern, Ricardo; Dumith, Samuel; Karam, Simone; Barros, Fernando C

    2010-05-01

    Many children are at risk of not achieving their full potential for development. Epidemiological studies have the advantage of being able to identify a number of associated factors potentially amenable to intervention. Our purpose was to identify risk factors for suspected developmental delay (SDD) at age 2 years among all children born in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, in 2004. This study was part of the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort. The Battelle Screening Developmental Inventory (BSDI) was administered to cohort children at age 2 years. A hierarchical model of determination for SDD with confounder adjustment was built including maternal sociodemographic, reproductive and gestational characteristics, as well as child and environmental characteristics. Multivariable analysis was carried out using Poisson regression. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] were calculated. In the results, 3.3% of the 3869 children studied screened positive for SDD. After confounder control, children more likely to show SDD were: those with positive BSDI at age 12 months (PR = 5.51 [3.59, 8.47]); with 5-min Apgar <7 (PR = 3.52 [1.70, 7.27]); with mothers who had <4 years of schooling (PR = 3.35 [1.98, 5.66]); from social classes D and E (PR = 3.00 [1.45, 6.19]); with a history of gestational diabetes (PR = 2.77 [1.34, 5.75]); born <24 months after the last sibling (PR = 2.46 [1.42, 4.27]); were not told child stories in the preceding week (PR 2.28 [1.43, 3.63]); did not have children's literature at home (PR = 2.08 [1.27, 3.39]); with low birthweight (PR = 1.75 [1.00, 3.07]); were born preterm (PR = 1.74 [1.07, 2.81]); with <6 antenatal care appointments (PR = 1.70 [1.07, 2.68]); with history of hospitalisation (PR = 1.65 [1.09, 2.50]); and of male sex (PR = 1.43 [1.00, 2.04]). These risk factors may constitute potential targets for intervention by public policies and may provide help to paediatricians in preventing developmental delay.

  11. Brain network characterization of high-risk preterm-born school-age children.

    PubMed

    Fischi-Gomez, Elda; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Vasung, Lana; Griffa, Alessandra; Borradori-Tolsa, Cristina; Monnier, Maryline; Lazeyras, François; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Hüppi, Petra S

    2016-01-01

    Higher risk for long-term cognitive and behavioral impairments is one of the hallmarks of extreme prematurity (EP) and pregnancy-associated fetal adverse conditions such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). While neurodevelopmental delay and abnormal brain function occur in the absence of overt brain lesions, these conditions have been recently associated with changes in microstructural brain development. Recent imaging studies indicate changes in brain connectivity, in particular involving the white matter fibers belonging to the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loop. Furthermore, EP and IUGR have been related to altered brain network architecture in childhood, with reduced network global capacity, global efficiency and average nodal strength. In this study, we used a connectome analysis to characterize the structural brain networks of these children, with a special focus on their topological organization. On one hand, we confirm the reduced averaged network node degree and strength due to EP and IUGR. On the other, the decomposition of the brain networks in an optimal set of clusters remained substantially different among groups, talking in favor of a different network community structure. However, and despite the different community structure, the brain networks of these high-risk school-age children maintained the typical small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics in all cases. Thus, our results suggest that brain reorganizes after EP and IUGR, prioritizing a tight modular structure, to maintain the small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics. By themselves, both extreme prematurity and IUGR bear a similar risk for neurocognitive and behavioral impairment, and the here defined modular network alterations confirm similar structural changes both by IUGR and EP at school age compared to control. Interestingly, the combination of both conditions (IUGR + EP) does not result in a worse outcome. In such cases, the alteration in network

  12. Depressive symptoms and other risk factors predicting suicide in middle-aged men: a prospective cohort study among Korean Vietnam War veterans.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Hong, Jae-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Background. Few studies have prospectively examined whether depressive symptoms and other risk factors are associated with a higher risk of suicide death in individuals other than high-risk populations such as psychiatric patients and individuals with self-harm histories. The purpose of the study is to prospectively examine whether depressive symptoms assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) are associated with greater risk of suicide death and whether depressive symptoms and other risk factors are independent predictors of suicide in general-risk populations. Another aim is to evaluate the sensitivity of the BDI for predicting suicide death. Methods. 10,238 Korean Vietnam War veterans (mean age: 56.3 years) who participated in two surveys in 2001 were followed up for suicide mortality over 7.5 years. Results. 41 men died by suicide. Severely depressed participants had a higher adjusted hazard ratio (aHR = 3.4; 95% CI [1.5-7.7]) of suicide than non-to-moderately depressed ones. Higher suicide risk was associated with more severe depressive symptoms (p for trend = 0.009). After adjustment for depressive symptoms and other factors, very poor health, low education, and past drinking were associated with higher suicide risk, while good health, body mass index, and marital status were not associated with suicide. The sensitivity at the cut-off score of 31 for detecting suicide was higher during the earlier 3.5 years of the follow-up (75%; 95% CI [50-90]) than during the latter 4 years (60%; 95% CI [41-76]). Conclusions. Depressive symptoms are a strong independent predictor and very poor health, low education, and drinking status may be independent predictors of future suicide. The BDI may have acceptable diagnostic properties as a risk assessment tool for identifying people with depression and suicidal potential among middle-aged men.

  13. Depressive symptoms and other risk factors predicting suicide in middle-aged men: a prospective cohort study among Korean Vietnam War veterans

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Background. Few studies have prospectively examined whether depressive symptoms and other risk factors are associated with a higher risk of suicide death in individuals other than high-risk populations such as psychiatric patients and individuals with self-harm histories. The purpose of the study is to prospectively examine whether depressive symptoms assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) are associated with greater risk of suicide death and whether depressive symptoms and other risk factors are independent predictors of suicide in general-risk populations. Another aim is to evaluate the sensitivity of the BDI for predicting suicide death. Methods. 10,238 Korean Vietnam War veterans (mean age: 56.3 years) who participated in two surveys in 2001 were followed up for suicide mortality over 7.5 years. Results. 41 men died by suicide. Severely depressed participants had a higher adjusted hazard ratio (aHR = 3.4; 95% CI [1.5–7.7]) of suicide than non-to-moderately depressed ones. Higher suicide risk was associated with more severe depressive symptoms (p for trend = 0.009). After adjustment for depressive symptoms and other factors, very poor health, low education, and past drinking were associated with higher suicide risk, while good health, body mass index, and marital status were not associated with suicide. The sensitivity at the cut-off score of 31 for detecting suicide was higher during the earlier 3.5 years of the follow-up (75%; 95% CI [50–90]) than during the latter 4 years (60%; 95% CI [41–76]). Conclusions. Depressive symptoms are a strong independent predictor and very poor health, low education, and drinking status may be independent predictors of future suicide. The BDI may have acceptable diagnostic properties as a risk assessment tool for identifying people with depression and suicidal potential among middle-aged men. PMID:26157634

  14. Depressive symptoms and other risk factors predicting suicide in middle-aged men: a prospective cohort study among Korean Vietnam War veterans.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Hong, Jae-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Background. Few studies have prospectively examined whether depressive symptoms and other risk factors are associated with a higher risk of suicide death in individuals other than high-risk populations such as psychiatric patients and individuals with self-harm histories. The purpose of the study is to prospectively examine whether depressive symptoms assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) are associated with greater risk of suicide death and whether depressive symptoms and other risk factors are independent predictors of suicide in general-risk populations. Another aim is to evaluate the sensitivity of the BDI for predicting suicide death. Methods. 10,238 Korean Vietnam War veterans (mean age: 56.3 years) who participated in two surveys in 2001 were followed up for suicide mortality over 7.5 years. Results. 41 men died by suicide. Severely depressed participants had a higher adjusted hazard ratio (aHR = 3.4; 95% CI [1.5-7.7]) of suicide than non-to-moderately depressed ones. Higher suicide risk was associated with more severe depressive symptoms (p for trend = 0.009). After adjustment for depressive symptoms and other factors, very poor health, low education, and past drinking were associated with higher suicide risk, while good health, body mass index, and marital status were not associated with suicide. The sensitivity at the cut-off score of 31 for detecting suicide was higher during the earlier 3.5 years of the follow-up (75%; 95% CI [50-90]) than during the latter 4 years (60%; 95% CI [41-76]). Conclusions. Depressive symptoms are a strong independent predictor and very poor health, low education, and drinking status may be independent predictors of future suicide. The BDI may have acceptable diagnostic properties as a risk assessment tool for identifying people with depression and suicidal potential among middle-aged men. PMID:26157634

  15. Evaluating Learning in the 21st Century: A Digital Age Learning Matrix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkey, Louise

    2011-01-01

    If the purpose of secondary schooling is to educate the upcoming generation to become active participants in society, evaluation of teaching and learning in the information-rich digital age should be underpinned by relevant theories and models. This article describes an evaluation tool developed using emerging ideas about knowledge creation and…

  16. Prevalence, Formation, Maintenance, and Evaluation of Interdisciplinary Student Aging Interest Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Katherine J.; Vandenberg, Edward V.; Bottsford, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe the prevalence, formation, maintenance, and evaluation of student aging interest groups. They conducted a cross-sectional electronic survey of the 46 academic medical centers funded by the Donald W. Reynolds Foundation. To evaluate their group of approximately 50 students, the authors conducted an electronic pretest and…

  17. Evaluation of Nontraditional Age Learners' Experiences in Internet-Based Clinical Social Work Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanke, Jayme; Zeman, Laura Dreuth

    2015-01-01

    This study involves an evaluation of online learners' experiences with two Internet-based clinical social work courses. The evaluation sought to discover whether there were differences in learning between traditional (under 25 years old) and nontraditional age learners (25 years and over) who completed the asynchronous online course. The study…

  18. Occupational health and safety: Designing and building with MACBETH a value risk-matrix for evaluating health and safety risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, D. F.; Oliveira, M. D.; Costa, C. A. Bana e.

    2015-05-01

    Risk matrices (RMs) are commonly used to evaluate health and safety risks. Nonetheless, they violate some theoretical principles that compromise their feasibility and use. This study describes how multiple criteria decision analysis methods have been used to improve the design and the deployment of RMs to evaluate health and safety risks at the Occupational Health and Safety Unit (OHSU) of the Regional Health Administration of Lisbon and Tagus Valley. ‘Value risk-matrices’ (VRMs) are built with the MACBETH approach in four modelling steps: a) structuring risk impacts, involving the construction of descriptors of impact that link risk events with health impacts and are informed by scientific evidence; b) generating a value measurement scale of risk impacts, by applying the MACBETH-Choquet procedure; c) building a system for eliciting subjective probabilities that makes use of a numerical probability scale that was constructed with MACBETH qualitative judgments on likelihood; d) and defining a classification colouring scheme for the VRM. A VRM built with OHSU members was implemented in a decision support system which will be used by OHSU members to evaluate health and safety risks and to identify risk mitigation actions.

  19. Age- and Parkinson's disease-related evaluation of gait by General Tau Theory.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shutao; Qian, Jinwu; Zhang, Zhen; Shen, Linyong; Wu, Xi; Hu, Xiaowu

    2016-10-01

    The degeneration of postural control in the elderly and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) can be debilitating and may lead to increased fall risk. This study evaluated the changes in postural control during gait affected by PD and aging using a new method based on the General Tau Theory. Fifteen patients with PD, 11 healthy old adults (HOs), and 15 healthy young adults (HYs) were recruited. Foot trajectories of each participant were monitored during walking by a three-camera Optotrak Certus(®) motion capture system. The anteroposterior direction of foot movement during stepping was analyzed by tau-G and tau-J guidance strategies. Two linear regression analyses suggested that the tau of the step-gap was strongly coupled onto the tau-J guidance during walking. The regression slope K could estimate the coupling ratio in the tau-coupling equation which reflects the performance of postural control during gait. The mean K value for the PD group, which was highest among the three groups, was approximately 0.5. Therefore, participants in the PD group walked with the poorest postural control and exhibited a relatively hard contact with the endpoint during stepping when compared with those in the HO and HY groups. The HY and HO groups obtained mean K values significantly lower than 0.5, which indicated that the gait was well controlled and ended at low speed with low deceleration. However, the HO group showed a decreased tendency for postural control, in which the mean K value was significantly higher than that of the HY group. The K value was moderately positively correlated with the double support time and negatively correlated with the stride length and walking speed. The tau-J coupling ratio can provide additional insight into gait disturbances and may serve as a reliable, objective, and quantitative tool to evaluate dynamic postural control during walking.

  20. A novel programme to evaluate and communicate 10-year risk of CHD reduces predicted risk and improves patients' modifiable risk factor profile

    PubMed Central

    Benner, J S; Erhardt, L; Flammer, M; Moller, R A; Rajicic, N; Changela, K; Yunis, C; Cherry, S B; Gaciong, Z; Johnson, E S; Sturkenboom, M C J M; García-Puig, J; Girerd, X

    2008-01-01

    Aims We assessed whether a novel programme to evaluate/communicate predicted coronary heart disease (CHD) risk could lower patients' predicted Framingham CHD risk vs. usual care. Methods The Risk Evaluation and Communication Health Outcomes and Utilization Trial was a prospective, controlled, cluster-randomised trial in nine European countries, among patients at moderate cardiovascular risk. Following baseline assessments, physicians in the intervention group calculated patients' predicted CHD risk and were instructed to advise patients according to a risk evaluation/communication programme. Usual care physicians did not calculate patients' risk and provided usual care only. The primary end-point was Framingham 10-year CHD risk at 6 months with intervention vs. usual care. Results Of 1103 patients across 100 sites, 524 patients receiving intervention, and 461 receiving usual care, were analysed for efficacy. After 6 months, mean predicted risks were 12.5% with intervention, and 13.7% with usual care [odds ratio = 0.896; p = 0.001, adjusted for risk at baseline (17.2% intervention; 16.9% usual care) and other covariates]. The proportion of patients achieving both blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol targets was significantly higher with intervention (25.4%) than usual care (14.1%; p < 0.001), and 29.3% of smokers in the intervention group quit smoking vs. 21.4% of those receiving usual care (p = 0.04). Conclusions A physician-implemented CHD risk evaluation/communication programme improved patients' modifiable risk factor profile, and lowered predicted CHD risk compared with usual care. By combining this strategy with more intensive treatment to reduce residual modifiable risk, we believe that substantial improvements in cardiovascular disease prevention could be achieved in clinical practice. PMID:18691228

  1. Computed tomography evaluation of the iliac crest apophysis: age estimation in living individuals.

    PubMed

    Ekizoglu, Oguzhan; Inci, Ercan; Erdil, Irem; Hocaoglu, Elif; Bilgili, Mustafa Gokhan; Kazimoglu, Cemal; Reisoglu, Ali; Can, Ismail Ozgur

    2016-07-01

    Determination of the ossification properties of the iliac apophysis is important not only in the clinical evaluation of patients undergoing orthopedic surgery but also in age estimation studies for forensic purposes. The literature includes both anthropological and radiological (conventional radiography, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging modalities) investigations of the different staging systems used for these purposes. In this study, we assessed the utility of computed tomography (CT) of the iliac crest apophysis in estimating forensic age. CT scans of the iliac crest apophysis of 380 patients (187 females, 193 males, and 10-29 years of age) were evaluated according to the four-stage system. Further subclassification did not give data properly due to the reference length measurement of the iliac wing with CT. Thus, in our series, stage 2 was first seen in 12 years of age and stage 3 in those 14 years of age in both sexes and on both sides of the pelvis. Stage 4 was first seen in 17 years of both sexes but only on the right side; on the left side, it appeared in females 18 years of age and in males 17 years of age. Present data was found consistent with previous pelvic radiographic findings. First seen ages for stage 2 and 3 are 12 and 14 years respectively which presented valuable information for legally important age thresholds. However, disadvantages of CT, including high-dose radiation exposure to gonads, the difficulty of evaluating the iliac crest, and the age boundary of 17 years, could make this method infeasible, as compared with hand wrist and pelvic radiographic methods. CT of the iliac crest has probably a greater utility where preexisting CT scans of the pelvic region are available, and it may be considered as a supportive method for age-estimation purposes. PMID:26914804

  2. Moderating Effect of Age on the Association between Alcohol Use and Sexual Risk in MSM: Evidence for Elevated Risk among Younger MSM

    PubMed Central

    Newcomb, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are substantially impacted by HIV/AIDS in the United States. Alcohol use is frequently studied as a predictor of sexual risk in MSM, but findings for this association have been mixed. Developmental differences in this effect may help to explain equivocal findings. 143 MSM (analytic sample 137) ages 16–40 completed weekly diaries of sexual encounters and associated situational factors for 12 weeks. Analyses were conducted with Hierarchical Linear Modeling. Alcohol use before sex was not associated with sexual risk across all participants. Participant age moderated this effect; alcohol use before sex was associated with increased odds of sexual risk in younger MSM only. These analyses expand on previous findings by utilizing a wider age range than most prior studies and adjusting for the effects of several theoretically-selected covariates. Young MSM are an important group to target for addressing alcohol use in the context of sexual behavior. PMID:23553348

  3. Risk management study for the retired Hanford Site facilities: Qualitative risk evaluation for the retired Hanford Site facilities. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, G.A.; Shultz, M.V.; Taylor, W.E.

    1993-09-01

    This document provides a risk evaluation of the 100 and 200 Area retired, surplus facilities on the Hanford Site. Also included are the related data that were compiled by the risk evaluation team during investigations performed on the facilities. Results are the product of a major effort performed in fiscal year 1993 to produce qualitative information that characterizes certain risks associated with these facilities. The retired facilities investigated for this evaluation are located in the 100 and 200 Areas of the 1,450-km{sup 2} (570-mi{sup 2}) Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is a semiarid tract of land in southeastern Washington State. The nearest population center is Richland, Washington, (population 32,000) 30-km (20 mi) southeast of the 200 Area. During walkdown investigations of these facilities, data on real and potential hazards that threatened human health or safety or created potential environmental release issues were identified by the risk evaluation team. Using these findings, the team categorized the identified hazards by facility and evaluated the risk associated with each hazard. The factors contributing to each risk, and the consequence and likelihood of harm associated with each hazard also are included in this evaluation.

  4. A Rat Model System to Study Complex Disease Risks, Fitness, Aging, and Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Lauren Gerard; Britton, Steven L.; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    The association between low exercise capacity and all-cause morbidity and mortality is statistically strong yet mechanistically unresolved. By connecting clinical observation with a theoretical base, we developed a working hypothesis that variation in capacity for oxygen metabolism is the central mechanistic determinant between disease and health (aerobic hypothesis). As an unbiased test, we show that two-way artificial selective breeding of rats for low and high intrinsic endurance exercise capacity also produces rats that differ for numerous disease risks including the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular complications, premature aging, and reduced longevity. This contrasting animal model system may prove to be translationally superior, relative to more widely-used simplistic models for understanding geriatric biology and medicine. PMID:22867966

  5. Relative risk site evaluations for Yakima Training Center

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.M.; Whelan, G.

    1996-11-01

    All 20 U.S. Army Yakima Training Center (YTC) sites evaluated were given a `low` relative risk. At Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 22, a `minimum` soils contaminant hazard factor was assigned even though 6,700 mg/kg TPH-diesel was found in surface soil. SWMU 22 is physically located on top of and with the fence surrounding Area of Concern (AOC) 4. Because the diesel is most likely associated with AOC 4, and plans are to clean up AOC 4, any further actions regarding these contaminated soils should be addressed as part of the planned actions for AOC 4. Contaminant hazard factors of `moderate` were assigned to the soil pathway for SWMUs 4 and 7 because dieldrin and arsenic, respectively, were found in surface soil samples at concentrations exceeding standards. A `moderate` contaminant hazard factor was also assigned to the sediment pathway for AOC 1 because arsenic detected in sediments in `Larry`s Swimming Pool` exceeded the standard. All other contaminant hazard factors were rated as minimal. The receptor factor for all sites and pathways was rated `limited,` except for SWMU 54 in which the groundwater receptor factor was rated `potential.` A `potential` rating was assigned to the groundwater pathway at this site to be conservative. The site is located on the south side of the syncline axis where the unconfined aquifer may be present and there are no monitoring wells at the site to confirm or deny the presence of groundwater contamination.

  6. Incidental emotions influence risk preference and outcome evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ding; Gu, Ruolei; Tang, Ping; Yang, Qiwei; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2016-10-01

    Incidental emotions, which are irrelevant to the current decision, play a significant role in the decision-making process. In this study, to investigate the influence of incidental emotions on behavioral, psychological, and electrophysiological responses in the process of decision making, participants were required to perform a monetary gambling task. During the selection stage, an emotional picture, which was chosen from the Chinese Affective Picture System and fell into one of three categories: negative, neutral, and positive, was presented between two alternatives (small/large amount of bet). The pictures were provided to induce incidental emotions. ERPs and self-rating emotional experiences to outcome feedback were recorded during the task. Behavioral results showed that positive incidental emotions elicited risk preference, but emotional experiences to outcome feedback were not influenced by incidental emotions. The feedback-related negativity amplitudes were larger in the positive emotion condition than in the negative and neutral emotion conditions for small outcomes (including wins and losses), whereas there was no difference between the three conditions for large outcomes. In addition, the amplitudes of P3 were reduced overall in the negative emotion condition. We suggest that incidental emotions have modulated both the option assessment stage (manifested in behavioral choices) and the outcome evaluation stage (manifested in ERP amplitudes) of decision making unconsciously (indicated by unchanged subjective emotional experiences). The current findings have expanded our understanding of the role of incidental emotion in decision making.

  7. Incidental emotions influence risk preference and outcome evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ding; Gu, Ruolei; Tang, Ping; Yang, Qiwei; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2016-10-01

    Incidental emotions, which are irrelevant to the current decision, play a significant role in the decision-making process. In this study, to investigate the influence of incidental emotions on behavioral, psychological, and electrophysiological responses in the process of decision making, participants were required to perform a monetary gambling task. During the selection stage, an emotional picture, which was chosen from the Chinese Affective Picture System and fell into one of three categories: negative, neutral, and positive, was presented between two alternatives (small/large amount of bet). The pictures were provided to induce incidental emotions. ERPs and self-rating emotional experiences to outcome feedback were recorded during the task. Behavioral results showed that positive incidental emotions elicited risk preference, but emotional experiences to outcome feedback were not influenced by incidental emotions. The feedback-related negativity amplitudes were larger in the positive emotion condition than in the negative and neutral emotion conditions for small outcomes (including wins and losses), whereas there was no difference between the three conditions for large outcomes. In addition, the amplitudes of P3 were reduced overall in the negative emotion condition. We suggest that incidental emotions have modulated both the option assessment stage (manifested in behavioral choices) and the outcome evaluation stage (manifested in ERP amplitudes) of decision making unconsciously (indicated by unchanged subjective emotional experiences). The current findings have expanded our understanding of the role of incidental emotion in decision making. PMID:27354122

  8. Automated Retinal Image Analysis for Evaluation of Focal Hyperpigmentary Changes in Intermediate Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz-Valckenberg, Steffen; Göbel, Arno P.; Saur, Stefan C.; Steinberg, Julia S.; Thiele, Sarah; Wojek, Christian; Russmann, Christoph; Holz, Frank G.; for the MODIAMD-Study Group

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop and evaluate a software tool for automated detection of focal hyperpigmentary changes (FHC) in eyes with intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods Color fundus (CFP) and autofluorescence (AF) photographs of 33 eyes with FHC of 28 AMD patients (mean age 71 years) from the prospective longitudinal natural history MODIAMD-study were included. Fully automated to semiautomated registration of baseline to corresponding follow-up images was evaluated. Following the manual circumscription of individual FHC (four different readings by two readers), a machine-learning algorithm was evaluated for automatic FHC detection. Results The overall pixel distance error for the semiautomated (CFP follow-up to CFP baseline: median 5.7; CFP to AF images from the same visit: median 6.5) was larger as compared for the automated image registration (4.5 and 5.7; P < 0.001 and P < 0.001). The total number of manually circumscribed objects and the corresponding total size varied between 637 to 1163 and 520,848 pixels to 924,860 pixels, respectively. Performance of the learning algorithms showed a sensitivity of 96% at a specificity level of 98% using information from both CFP and AF images and defining small areas of FHC (“speckle appearance”) as “neutral.” Conclusions FHC as a high-risk feature for progression of AMD to late stages can be automatically assessed at different time points with similar sensitivity and specificity as compared to manual outlining. Upon further development of the research prototype, this approach may be useful both in natural history and interventional large-scale studies for a more refined classification and risk assessment of eyes with intermediate AMD. Translational Relevance Automated FHC detection opens the door for a more refined and detailed classification and risk assessment of eyes with intermediate AMD in both natural history and future interventional studies. PMID:26966639

  9. Bullying among school-age children in the greater Beirut area: risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Khamis, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of bullying at schools in the Greater Beirut Area and the extent to which differences in children's sociodemographics, family and school environment, and coping strategies could account for variation in academic achievement, PTSD and emotional and behavioral disorders. Participants were 665 male and female children of mean age 13.8 years. Results indicated that a high proportion of children had been involved in bullying on a regular basis with victims having a higher prevalence ratio than bullies and bully/victims. Verbal bullying including spreading rumors was the most common type of victimization, followed by being rejected from a group. Being bullied about one's religion or sect comprised one of the most common bullying behaviors in schools. Students rarely tried to stop a student from being bullied and teachers were reported to have done relatively little or nothing to counteract bullying. Prevalence of bullying was more among boys than girls. School bullying was not associated with academic achievement or with having difficulties in reading and math. Children who were identified as bully/victim, victim, and bully suffered from PTSD compared to those who were not identified as being involved in bullying The study showed that both bullies and victims are at-risk for short term and long-term adjustment difficulties including hyperactivity, emotional symptoms, conduct problems and peer problems. Child's gender and emotion-focused coping stood out as risk factors for the development of bullying behaviors whereas age, problem-focused coping, family environment, and school environment were significant protective factors.

  10. Fatness, fitness, and cardiometabolic risk factors in middle-aged white men.

    PubMed

    O'Donovan, Gary; Kearney, Edward; Sherwood, Roy; Hillsdon, Melvyn

    2012-02-01

    The objective was to test the hypothesis that traditional and novel cardiometabolic risk factors would be significantly different in groups of men of different fatness and fitness. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltransferase, leptin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, fibrinogen, and insulin resistance were assessed in 183 nonsmoking white men aged 35 to 53 years, including 62 who were slim and fit (waist girth ≤90 cm and maximal oxygen consumption [VO(2)max] above average), 24 who were slim and unfit (waist girth ≤90 cm and VO(2)max average or below), 39 who were fat and fit (waist girth ≥100 cm and VO(2)max above average), and 19 who were fat and unfit (waist girth ≥100 cm and VO(2)max average or below). Seventy-six percent gave blood on 2 occasions, and the average of 1 or 2 blood tests was used in statistical tests. Waist girth (centimeters) and fitness (milliliters of oxygen per kilogram of fat-free mass) were associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, leptin, and insulin resistance after adjustment for age, saturated fat intake, and total energy intake. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase, and insulin resistance were significantly different in men who were fat and fit and those who were fat and unfit. These data suggest that differences in lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, liver function, and insulin resistance may explain why the risks of chronic disease are lower in men who are fat and fit than those who are fat and unfit. PMID:21820133

  11. Bullying among school-age children in the greater Beirut area: risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Khamis, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of bullying at schools in the Greater Beirut Area and the extent to which differences in children's sociodemographics, family and school environment, and coping strategies could account for variation in academic achievement, PTSD and emotional and behavioral disorders. Participants were 665 male and female children of mean age 13.8 years. Results indicated that a high proportion of children had been involved in bullying on a regular basis with victims having a higher prevalence ratio than bullies and bully/victims. Verbal bullying including spreading rumors was the most common type of victimization, followed by being rejected from a group. Being bullied about one's religion or sect comprised one of the most common bullying behaviors in schools. Students rarely tried to stop a student from being bullied and teachers were reported to have done relatively little or nothing to counteract bullying. Prevalence of bullying was more among boys than girls. School bullying was not associated with academic achievement or with having difficulties in reading and math. Children who were identified as bully/victim, victim, and bully suffered from PTSD compared to those who were not identified as being involved in bullying The study showed that both bullies and victims are at-risk for short term and long-term adjustment difficulties including hyperactivity, emotional symptoms, conduct problems and peer problems. Child's gender and emotion-focused coping stood out as risk factors for the development of bullying behaviors whereas age, problem-focused coping, family environment, and school environment were significant protective factors. PMID:25267164

  12. Risk perception, risk evaluation and human values: cognitive bases of acceptability of a radioactive waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Earle, T.C.; Lindell, M.K.; Rankin, W.L.

    1981-07-01

    Public acceptance of radioactive waste management alternatives depends in part on public perception of the associated risks. Three aspects of those perceived risks were explored in this study: (1) synthetic measures of risk perception based on judgments of probability and consequences; (2) acceptability of hypothetical radioactive waste policies, and (3) effects of human values on risk perception. Both the work on synthetic measures of risk perception and on the acceptability of hypothetical policies included investigations of three categories of risk: (1) Short-term public risk (affecting persons living when the wastes are created), (2) Long-term public risk (affecting persons living after the time the wastes were created), and (3) Occupational risk (affecting persons working with the radioactive wastes). The human values work related to public risk perception in general, across categories of persons affected. Respondents were selected according to a purposive sampling strategy.

  13. Risk perception, risk evaluation and human values: Cognitive bases acceptability of a radioactive waste repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earle, T. C.; Lindell, M. K.; Rankin, W. L.; Nealey, S. M.

    1981-07-01

    Public acceptance of radioactive waste management alternatives depends in part on public perception of the associated risks. Three aspects of those perceived risks were explored: (1) synthetic measures of risk perception based on judgments of probability and consequences; (2) acceptability of hypothetical radioactive waste policies; and (3) effects of human values on risk perception. Both the work on synthetic measures of risk perception and on the acceptability of hypothetical policies included investigations of three categories of risk: short term public risk (affecting persons living when the wastes are created), long term public risk (affecting persons living after the time the wastes were created), and occupational risk (affecting persons working with the radioactive wastes). The human values work related to public risk perception in general, across categories of persons affected. Respondents were selected according to a purposive sampling strategy.

  14. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Quantification of major input parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, F.T.; Breeding, R.J.; Brown, T.D.; Gregory, J.J.; Jow, H.N.; Payne, A.C.; Gorham, E.D. ); Amos, C.N. ); Helton, J. ); Boyd, G. )

    1992-06-01

    In support of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) assessment of the risk from severe accidents at commercial nuclear power plants in the US reported in NUREG-1150, the Severe Accident Risk Reduction Program (SAARP) has completed a revised calculation of the risk to the general public from severe accidents at five nuclear power plants: Surry, Sequoyah, Zion, Peach Bottom and Grand Gulf. The emphasis in this risk analysis was not on determining a point estimate of risk, but to determine the distribution of risk, and to assess the uncertainties that account for the breadth of this distribution. Off-site risk initiation by events, both internal to the power station and external to the power station. Much of this important input to the logic models was generated by expert panels. This document presents the distributions and the rationale supporting the distributions for the questions posed to the Source Term Panel.

  15. Genetic risk factors for the development of osteonecrosis in children under age 10 treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Karol, Seth E; Mattano, Leonard A; Yang, Wenjian; Maloney, Kelly W; Smith, Colton; Liu, ChengCheng; Ramsey, Laura B; Fernandez, Christian A; Chang, Tamara Y; Neale, Geoffrey; Cheng, Cheng; Mardis, Elaine; Fulton, Robert; Scheet, Paul; San Lucas, F Anthony; Larsen, Eric C; Loh, Mignon L; Raetz, Elizabeth A; Hunger, Stephen P; Devidas, Meenakshi; Relling, Mary V

    2016-02-01

    Osteonecrosis is a dose-limiting toxicity in the treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Prior studies on the genetics of osteonecrosis have focused on patients ≥10 years of age, leaving the genetic risk factors for the larger group of children <10 years incompletely understood. Here, we perform the first evaluation of genetic risk factors for osteonecrosis in children <10 years. The discovery cohort comprised 82 cases of osteonecrosis and 287 controls treated on Children's Oncology Group (COG) standard-risk ALL protocol AALL0331 (NCT00103285, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00103285), with results tested for replication in 817 children <10 years treated on COG protocol AALL0232 (NCT00075725, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00075725). The top replicated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were near bone morphogenic protein 7 [BMP7: rs75161997, P = 5.34 × 10(-8) (odds ratio [OR] 15.0) and P = .0498 (OR 8.44) in the discovery and replication cohorts, respectively] and PROX1-antisense RNA1 (PROX1-AS1: rs1891059, P = 2.28 × 10(-7) [OR 6.48] and P = .0077 [OR 3.78] for the discovery and replication cohorts, respectively). The top replicated nonsynonymous SNP, rs34144324, was in a glutamate receptor gene (GRID2, P = 8.65 × 10(-6) [OR 3.46] and P = .0136 [OR 10.8] in the discovery and replication cohorts, respectively). In a meta-analysis, the BMP7 and PROX1-AS1 variants (rs75161997 and rs1891059, respectively) met the significance threshold of <5 × 10(-8). Top replicated SNPs were enriched in enhancers active in mesenchymal stem cells, and analysis of annotated genes demonstrated enrichment in glutamate receptor and adipogenesis pathways. These data may provide new insights into the pathophysiology of osteonecrosis. PMID:26590194

  16. Genetic risk factors for the development of osteonecrosis in children under age 10 treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Karol, Seth E; Mattano, Leonard A; Yang, Wenjian; Maloney, Kelly W; Smith, Colton; Liu, ChengCheng; Ramsey, Laura B; Fernandez, Christian A; Chang, Tamara Y; Neale, Geoffrey; Cheng, Cheng; Mardis, Elaine; Fulton, Robert; Scheet, Paul; San Lucas, F Anthony; Larsen, Eric C; Loh, Mignon L; Raetz, Elizabeth A; Hunger, Stephen P; Devidas, Meenakshi; Relling, Mary V

    2016-02-01

    Osteonecrosis is a dose-limiting toxicity in the treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Prior studies on the genetics of osteonecrosis have focused on patients ≥10 years of age, leaving the genetic risk factors for the larger group of children <10 years incompletely understood. Here, we perform the first evaluation of genetic risk factors for osteonecrosis in children <10 years. The discovery cohort comprised 82 cases of osteonecrosis and 287 controls treated on Children's Oncology Group (COG) standard-risk ALL protocol AALL0331 (NCT00103285, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00103285), with results tested for replication in 817 children <10 years treated on COG protocol AALL0232 (NCT00075725, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00075725). The top replicated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were near bone morphogenic protein 7 [BMP7: rs75161997, P = 5.34 × 10(-8) (odds ratio [OR] 15.0) and P = .0498 (OR 8.44) in the discovery and replication cohorts, respectively] and PROX1-antisense RNA1 (PROX1-AS1: rs1891059, P = 2.28 × 10(-7) [OR 6.48] and P = .0077 [OR 3.78] for the discovery and replication cohorts, respectively). The top replicated nonsynonymous SNP, rs34144324, was in a glutamate receptor gene (GRID2, P = 8.65 × 10(-6) [OR 3.46] and P = .0136 [OR 10.8] in the discovery and replication cohorts, respectively). In a meta-analysis, the BMP7 and PROX1-AS1 variants (rs75161997 and rs1891059, respectively) met the significance threshold of <5 × 10(-8). Top replicated SNPs were enriched in enhancers active in mesenchymal stem cells, and analysis of annotated genes demonstrated enrichment in glutamate receptor and adipogenesis pathways. These data may provide new insights into the pathophysiology of osteonecrosis.

  17. Does our legal minimum drinking age modulate risk of first heavy drinking episode soon after drinking onset? Epidemiological evidence for the United States, 2006–2014

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hui G.

    2016-01-01

    Background. State-level ‘age 21’ drinking laws conform generally with the United States National Minimum Drinking Age Act of 1984 (US), and are thought to protect young people from adverse drinking experiences such as heavy episodic drinking (HED, sometimes called ‘binge drinking’). We shed light on this hypothesis while estimating the age-specific risk of transitioning from 1st full drink to 1st HED among 12-to-23-year-old newly incident drinkers, with challenge to a “gender gap” hypothesis and male excess described in HED prevalence reports. Methods. The study population consisted of non-institutionalized civilians in the United States, with nine independently drawn nationally representative samples of more than 40,000 12-to-23-year-olds (2006–2014). Standardized audio computer-assisted self-interviews identified 43,000 newly incident drinkers (all with 1st HED evaluated within 12 months of drinking onset). Estimated age-specific HED risk soon after first full drink is evaluated for males and females. Results. Among 12-to-23-year-old newly incident drinkers, an estimated 20–30% of females and 35–45% of males experienced their 1st HED within 12 months after drinking onset. Before mid-adolescence, there is no male excess in such HED risk. Those who postponed drinking to age 21 are not spared (27% for ‘postponer’ females; 95% CI [24–30]; 42% for ‘postponer’ males; 95% CI [38–45]). An estimated 10–18% females and 10–28% males experienced their 1st HED in the same month of their 1st drink; peak HED risk estimates are 18% for ‘postponer’ females (95% CI [15–21]) and 28% for ‘postponer’ males (95% CI [24–31]). Conclusions. In the US, one in three young new drinkers transition into HED within 12 months after first drink. Those who postpone the 1st full drink until age 21 are not protected. Furthermore, ‘postponers’ have substantial risk for very rapid transition to HED. A male excess in this transition to HED is not

  18. Malnutrition, age and the risk of parasitic disease: visceral leishmaniasis revisited.

    PubMed

    Dye, C; Williams, B G

    1993-10-22

    Children are said to be at greater risk of developing visceral leishmaniasis (VL) when they are younger and more malnourished. If malnutrition really is associated with VL, this potentially fatal and visible disease may be a general indicator of community health among the rural and suburban poor. Previous conclusions reached about the roles of malnutrition and age in VL epidemiology are questionable because they may have been confounded by transmission rate, because they have not been able to distinguish between different mechanisms of acquiring immunity, and because empirical observations have not been compared with theoretical expectations. Here we offer a framework with which to investigate these questions quantitatively, and do so with published data from endemic areas of Brazil. We conclude that children are indeed more susceptible to VL when they are younger and more malnourished, but it remains unclear whether the immunity to VL acquired with age is always acquired as a result of infection. The significance for leishmaniasis control, and for the control of other diseases associated with malnutrition, will depend on underlying mechanisms, which are not yet understood.

  19. Dose effect of allele {epsilon}4 of apolipoprotein E on risk and age at onset of Pick disease

    SciTech Connect

    Farrer, L.A.; Abraham, C.; Volicer, L.

    1994-09-01

    Pick disease (PD) is a rare progressive dementing illness characterized by severe atrophy of the frontal and temporal lobes. Brains of PD patients lack neurofibrillary tangles which are characteristic findings of Alzheimer disease (AD), but display neuronal swelling and argyrophilic inclusions (i.e., Pick bodies) which contain phosphorylated neurofilaments, tau and complex lipids. Clinically, PD is often difficult to distinguish from AD. The fact that PD is often familial and the evidence suggesting that the {epsilon}4 allele of apoE is a risk factor for AD and multi-infarct dementia prompted us to study apoE isoforms in PD. ApoE genotypes were evaluated in an autopsy series of cases (19 AD, 15 PD, and 7 {open_quotes}controls{close_quotes} with other or no pathology). All subjects were unrelated except for 2 brothers who both had PD. Age at onset in the PD patients ranged from 41 to 59 years. The frequency of {epsilon}4 is significantly higher among AD subjects (47.4%) than in Pick cases (23.3%; P=0.4) or controls (7.1%; P=.008), but the 16% difference between PD and control subjects was not significant, perhaps due to small sample sizes. Linear regression analysis showed that the number of {epsilon}4 alleles was inversely related to age at onset of PD (P=.04) and accounted for 27% of the variation in age at onset. These results suggest that {epsilon}4 may be a susceptibility factor for dementia and not specifically AD. Preliminary experiments using an antibody against apoE suggest that Pick bodies may be immunoreactive with this antibody and that apoE binds to abnormal filaments. The association of the {epsilon}4 allele with dementias other than AD and the apoE staining results support a model postulating an interaction between the {epsilon}4 isoform and tau.

  20. Along came a spider who sat down beside her: Perceived predation risk, but not female age, affects female mate choosiness.

    PubMed

    Atwell, Ashley; Wagner, William E

    2015-06-01

    Organisms often exhibit behavioral plasticity in response to changes in factors, such as predation risk, mate density, and age. Particularly, female mate choosiness (the strength of female's attraction to male traits as they deviate from preferred trait values) has repeatedly been shown to be plastic. This is due to the costs associated with searching for preferred males fluctuating with changes in such factors. Because these factors can interact naturally, it is important to understand how female mate choosiness responds to these interactions. We studied the interaction between perceived predation risk and female age on the variable field cricket, Gryllus lineaticeps. Females were either exposed or not exposed to predation cues from a sympatric, cursorial, wolf spider predator, Hogna sp. We then tested the females at one of three adult ages and measured their choosiness by recording their responsiveness to a low quality male song. We found female choosiness plasticity was affected by neither age nor the interaction between age and perceived predation risk. Perceived predation risk was the only factor to significantly affect the plasticity of female mate choosiness: females were less choosy when they perceived predation risk and were more choosy when they did not. Predation may be such a strong source of selection that, regardless of differences in other factors, most individuals respond similarly. PMID:25857998