Science.gov

Sample records for aging semantic differential

  1. Examining the Aging Semantic Differential: Suggestions for Refinement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polizzi, Kenneth G.; Steitz, Jean A.

    1998-01-01

    Review of studies using the Aging Semantic Differential to measure attitudes toward the elderly identified problems: familiarity and variety of objects, men-only design, and age of the instrument. Ways to refine it include updating adjectives and their positions, identifying attitudinal objects, and accounting for gender differences. (SK)

  2. Attitudes toward Younger and Older Adults: The German Aging Semantic Differential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluth, Sebastian; Ebner, Natalie C.; Schmiedek, Florian

    2010-01-01

    The present study used the German Aging Semantic Differential (ASD) to assess attitudes toward younger and older adults in a heterogeneous sample of n = 151 younger and n = 143 older adults. The questionnaire was administered in two versions, one referring to the evaluation of younger adults, the other to the evaluation of older adults.…

  3. Environmental Attitudes Semantic Differential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehne, Paul R.; Goulard, Cary J.

    This booklet is an evaluation instrument which utilizes semantic differential data to assess environmental attitudes. Twelve concepts are included: regulated access to beaches, urban planning, dune vegetation, wetlands, future cities, reclaiming wetlands for building development, city parks, commercial development of beaches, existing cities,…

  4. Aging and Semantic Activation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Darlene V.

    Three studies tested the theory that long term memory consists of a semantically organized network of concept nodes interconnected by leveled associations or relations, and that when a stimulus is processed, the corresponding concept node is assumed to be temporarily activated and this activation spreads to nearby semantically related nodes. In…

  5. Differential Impacts of Age of Acquisition on Letter and Semantic Fluency in Alzheimer’s Disease Patients and Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sailor, Kevin M.; Zimmerman, Molly E.; Sanders, Amy E.

    2013-01-01

    The degree to which the typical age of acquisition (AoA) of words and word frequency have separable influences on verbal production tasks has been strongly debated. To examine the overlap between these factors in verbal fluency tasks, the performance of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients (N=34) and normal elderly controls (N=36) was compared on semantic (e.g., vegetables) and letter (e.g. words that begin with F) fluency tasks. These comparisons revealed that words generated for the semantic fluency task had an earlier AoA while words generated for the letter fluency task had a higher word frequency.. Differences in AoA between AD patients and controls were larger for semantic than letter fluency. These results suggest that AoA has an effect on verbal production that is independent of word frequency and that AoA has a semantic locus. PMID:21851152

  6. A Revised Semantic Differential Scale Distinguishing between Negative and Positive God Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy; Gibson, Harry M.

    2006-01-01

    A sample of 755 school pupils between the ages of 11 and 18 years completed the Benson and Spilka semantic differential measure of God images. Factor analysis indicated the advantages of re-scoring the measure as an eight item unidimensional index, defining semantic space relating to God images ranging from negative affect to positive affect.…

  7. Lifespan development of phonemic and semantic fluency: Universal increase, differential decrease.

    PubMed

    Kavé, Gitit; Knafo-Noam, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether performance on phonemic and semantic fluency tasks follows similar lifespan trajectories. Data from 1212 Hebrew-speakers aged 5-86 years were analyzed. Both linear and curvilinear quadratic models fit the data, reflecting a general increase in ability with age, as well as an increase followed by a decrease beyond this linear rise. A significant interaction between task type and the curvilinear effect demonstrated differential lifespan patterns of performance on each task. While scores improved similarly on the phonemic and semantic tasks during childhood, late-life decline was more noticeable on the semantic task, possibly due to the unique characteristics of aging-related word retrieval difficulties. PMID:26299188

  8. Effects of Age on Cognitive Control during Semantic Categorization

    PubMed Central

    Mudar, Raksha A.; Chiang, Hsueh-Sheng; Maguire, Mandy J.; Spence, Jeffrey S.; Eroh, Justin; Michael, A. Kraut; Hart, John

    2015-01-01

    We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to study age effects of perceptual (basic-level) vs. perceptual-semantic (superordinate-level) categorization on cognitive control using the go/nogo paradigm. Twenty-two younger (11 M; 21±2.2 years) and 22 older adults (9 M; 63±5.8 years) completed two visual go/nogo tasks. In the single car task (SiC) (basic), go/nogo responses were made based on single exemplars of a car (go) and a dog (nogo). In the object animal task (ObA) (superordinate), responses were based on multiple exemplars of objects (go) and animals (nogo). Each task consisted of 200 trials: 160 (80%) ‘go’ trials that required a response through button pressing and 40 (20%) ‘nogo’ trials that required inhibition/withholding of a response. ERP data revealed significantly reduced nogo-N2 and nogo-P3 amplitudes in older compared to younger adults, whereas go-N2 and go-P3 amplitudes were comparable in both groups during both categorization tasks. Although the effects of categorization levels on behavioral data and P3 measures were similar in both groups with longer response times, lower accuracy scores, longer P3 latencies, and lower P3 amplitudes in ObA compared to SiC, N2 latency revealed age group differences moderated by the task. Older adults had longer N2 latency for ObA compared to SiC, in contrast, younger adults showed no N2 latency difference between SiC and ObA. Overall, these findings suggest that age differentially affects neural processing related to cognitive control during semantic categorization. Furthermore, in older adults, unlike in younger adults, levels of categorization modulate neural processing related to cognitive control even at the early stages (N2). PMID:25823764

  9. Semantic Richness and Aging: The Effect of Number of Features in the Lexical Decision Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Christelle; Rico Duarte, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether the effect of semantic richness in visual word recognition (i.e., words with a rich semantic representation are faster to recognize than words with a poorer semantic representation), is changed with aging. Semantic richness was investigated by manipulating the number of features of words (NOF), i.e.,…

  10. Developing a semantic web model for medical differential diagnosis recommendation.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Osama; Benlamri, Rachid

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we describe a novel model for differential diagnosis designed to make recommendations by utilizing semantic web technologies. The model is a response to a number of requirements, ranging from incorporating essential clinical diagnostic semantics to the integration of data mining for the process of identifying candidate diseases that best explain a set of clinical features. We introduce two major components, which we find essential to the construction of an integral differential diagnosis recommendation model: the evidence-based recommender component and the proximity-based recommender component. Both approaches are driven by disease diagnosis ontologies designed specifically to enable the process of generating diagnostic recommendations. These ontologies are the disease symptom ontology and the patient ontology. The evidence-based diagnosis process develops dynamic rules based on standardized clinical pathways. The proximity-based component employs data mining to provide clinicians with diagnosis predictions, as well as generates new diagnosis rules from provided training datasets. This article describes the integration between these two components along with the developed diagnosis ontologies to form a novel medical differential diagnosis recommendation model. This article also provides test cases from the implementation of the overall model, which shows quite promising diagnostic recommendation results. PMID:25178271

  11. Effects of Age of Acquisition and Semantic Transparency on Reading Characters in Chinese Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Sam-Po; Yeung, Olivia

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the age of acquisition (AOA) and semantic transparency on the reading aloud ability of a Chinese dyslexic individual, TWT, who relied on the semantic pathway to name characters. Both AOA and semantic transparency significantly predicted naming accuracy and distinguished the occurrence of correct responses and…

  12. Differential ERP Signatures Elicited by Semantic and Syntactic Processing in Scenes

    PubMed Central

    Võ, Melissa L.-H.; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2016-01-01

    In sentence processing, semantic and syntactic violations elicit differential brain responses in ERP recordings: An N400 signals semantic violations, while a P600 marks inconsistent syntactic structure. Does the brain register similar distinctions in scene perception? Participants viewed “semantic inconsistencies” created by presenting objects that were incongruent with a scene's meaning and “syntactic inconsistencies” in which an object violated structural rules. We found a clear dissociation between semantic and syntactic processing: Semantic inconsistencies produced negative deflections in the N300/N400 time window, while syntactic inconsistencies elicited a late positivity resembling the P600 found for syntax manipulations in sentence processing. Interestingly, extreme syntax violations such as a floating toast, showed an initial increase in attentional deployment, but failed to produce a P600 effect. We therefore conclude that different neural populations are active during semantic and syntactic processing in scenes and that impossible object placements may be processed categorically different from syntactically inconsistent placements. PMID:23842954

  13. A Method for Overcoming the Problem of Concept-Scale Interaction in Semantic Differential Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynner, John; Romney, David

    1972-01-01

    Data collected in a study of hospital staff attitudes to drug addicts and other types of patients are used to illustrate the problem of concept-scale interaction in semantic differential research. (Authors)

  14. Neural changes associated with semantic processing in healthy aging despite intact behavioral performance.

    PubMed

    Lacombe, Jacinthe; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Grimault, Stephan; Pineault, Jessica; Joubert, Sven

    2015-10-01

    Semantic memory recruits an extensive neural network including the left inferior prefrontal cortex (IPC) and the left temporoparietal region, which are involved in semantic control processes, as well as the anterior temporal lobe region (ATL) which is considered to be involved in processing semantic information at a central level. However, little is known about the underlying neuronal integrity of the semantic network in normal aging. Young and older healthy adults carried out a semantic judgment task while their cortical activity was recorded using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Despite equivalent behavioral performance, young adults activated the left IPC to a greater extent than older adults, while the latter group recruited the temporoparietal region bilaterally and the left ATL to a greater extent than younger adults. Results indicate that significant neuronal changes occur in normal aging, mainly in regions underlying semantic control processes, despite an apparent stability in performance at the behavioral level. PMID:26282079

  15. Differentiation of perceptual and semantic subsequent memory effects using an orthographic paradigm.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Michael C C; Liu, Karen P Y; Ting, Kin Hung; Chan, Chetwyn C H

    2012-11-27

    This study aimed to differentiate perceptual and semantic encoding processes using subsequent memory effects (SMEs) elicited by the recognition of orthographs of single Chinese characters. Participants studied a series of Chinese characters perceptually (by inspecting orthographic components) or semantically (by determining the object making sounds), and then made studied or unstudied judgments during the recognition phase. Recognition performance in terms of d-prime measure in the semantic condition was higher, though not significant, than that of the perceptual condition. The between perceptual-semantic condition differences in SMEs at P550 and late positive component latencies (700-1000ms) were not significant in the frontal area. An additional analysis identified larger SME in the semantic condition during 600-1000ms in the frontal pole regions. These results indicate that coordination and incorporation of orthographic information into mental representation is essential to both task conditions. The differentiation was also revealed in earlier SMEs (perceptual>semantic) at N3 (240-360ms) latency, which is a novel finding. The left-distributed N3 was interpreted as more efficient processing of meaning with semantically learned characters. Frontal pole SMEs indicated strategic processing by executive functions, which would further enhance memory. PMID:23063888

  16. Semantic Richness and Aging: The Effect of Number of Features in the Lexical Decision Task.

    PubMed

    Robert, Christelle; Rico Duarte, Liliana

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether the effect of semantic richness in visual word recognition (i.e., words with a rich semantic representation are faster to recognize than words with a poorer semantic representation), is changed with aging. Semantic richness was investigated by manipulating the number of features of words (NOF), i.e., the number of characteristics that describe the meaning of words. Half of the words had a high NOF and the other half had a low NOF. Young adults (19.6 years) and older adults (66.3 years) performed a lexical decision task. An interaction was found between age group and NOF on word latencies. More precisely, a facilitatory effect of NOF was observed for the young adults, but not for the older ones. These data are consistent with the assumption of an age-related decline in feedback activation from semantics to orthography. PMID:25680348

  17. The cumulative semantic interference effect in normal and pathological ageing.

    PubMed

    Mulatti, Claudio; Calia, Clara; De Caro, Maria Fara; Della Sala, Sergio

    2014-12-01

    People affected by mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a precursor of Alzheimer's Disease, present with impairments in picture naming, a lexical/semantic task which rests on the activation of perceptual, semantic, and phonological representations. The poor performance of MCI individuals in picture naming has been accounted for in terms of deficits of either the perceptual, semantic, or phonological stages. To disentangle the source of this deficit we compared the cumulative semantic interference effect (Howard et al., 2006. Cognition. 100, 464-482.) and the repetition priming effect of a group of people with MCI to that of a group of healthy elderly participants and with a group of healthy young participants. The cumulative semantic interference effect defines a linear increase in the picture naming reaction times which is function of the already named pictures belonging to the same semantic category to which the named picture belongs. The repetition priming effect refers to an increase in performance for repeated items compared to unrepeated items. Results showed that whereas the cumulative semantic interference effect was present in the healthy elderly and young samples, it was absent in the MCI sample; instead, all groups showed comparable repetition priming effects. This pattern of results suggests that the impairment in picture naming exhibited by MCI individuals is due to an inefficient semantic access. PMID:25447069

  18. The Semantic Web: Differentiating between Taxonomies and Ontologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Katherine

    2002-01-01

    Explains the concept of a semantic Web where software agents perform jobs for end-users by using hierarchies, metadata, and structured vocabularies. Discusses taxonomies; defining ontologies and taxonomies; standardized language and conceptual relationships; different points of emphasis; and topic maps as new Web infrastructure. (LRW)

  19. The Semantic Network at Work and Rest: Differential Connectivity of Anterior Temporal Lobe Subregions

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Rebecca L.; Hoffman, Paul; Pobric, Gorana

    2016-01-01

    The anterior temporal lobe (ATL) makes a critical contribution to semantic cognition. However, the functional connectivity of the ATL and the functional network underlying semantic cognition has not been elucidated. In addition, subregions of the ATL have distinct functional properties and thus the potential differential connectivity between these subregions requires investigation. We explored these aims using both resting-state and active semantic task data in humans in combination with a dual-echo gradient echo planar imaging (EPI) paradigm designed to ensure signal throughout the ATL. In the resting-state analysis, the ventral ATL (vATL) and anterior middle temporal gyrus (MTG) were shown to connect to areas responsible for multimodal semantic cognition, including bilateral ATL, inferior frontal gyrus, medial prefrontal cortex, angular gyrus, posterior MTG, and medial temporal lobes. In contrast, the anterior superior temporal gyrus (STG)/superior temporal sulcus was connected to a distinct set of auditory and language-related areas, including bilateral STG, precentral and postcentral gyri, supplementary motor area, supramarginal gyrus, posterior temporal cortex, and inferior and middle frontal gyri. Complementary analyses of functional connectivity during an active semantic task were performed using a psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis. The PPI analysis highlighted the same semantic regions suggesting a core semantic network active during rest and task states. This supports the necessity for semantic cognition in internal processes occurring during rest. The PPI analysis showed additional connectivity of the vATL to regions of occipital and frontal cortex. These areas strongly overlap with regions found to be sensitive to executively demanding, controlled semantic processing. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Previous studies have shown that semantic cognition depends on subregions of the anterior temporal lobe (ATL). However, the network of regions

  20. The origins of age of acquisition and typicality effects: Semantic processing in aphasia and the ageing brain.

    PubMed

    Räling, Romy; Schröder, Astrid; Wartenburger, Isabell

    2016-06-01

    Age of acquisition (AOA) has frequently been shown to influence response times and accuracy rates in word processing and constitutes a meaningful variable in aphasic language processing, while its origin in the language processing system is still under debate. To find out where AOA originates and whether and how it is related to another important psycholinguistic variable, namely semantic typicality (TYP), we studied healthy, elderly controls and semantically impaired individuals using semantic priming. For this purpose, we collected reaction times and accuracy rates as well as event-related potential data in an auditory category-member-verification task. The present results confirm a semantic origin of TYP, but question the same for AOA while favouring its origin at the phonology-semantics interface. The data are further interpreted in consideration of recent theories of ageing. PMID:27106392

  1. Changes in the constraints of semantic and syntactic congruity on memory across three age groups.

    PubMed

    Toyota, H

    2001-06-01

    20 college undergraduates, 25 sixth-grade, and 31 second-grade students studied targets embedded in three types of sentence contexts and then performed free recall and cued recall tests. Although there were no differences in performance of free recall among sentence types within each age group, the differences in cued recall among sentence types were observed. For sixth graders and undergraduates, both semantically congruous/syntactically congruous sentences and semantically incongruous/syntactically congruous sentences led to a better cued recall of targets than semantically incongruous/syntactically incongruous sentences. Second graders performed better in a cued recall of targets in semantically congruous/syntactically congruous sentences than for the other two sentence types. The results were interpreted as indicating changes across age groups in constraints of semantic and syntactic congruity on the spreading activation of targets in memory. PMID:11453195

  2. School-aged children can benefit from audiovisual semantic congruency during memory encoding.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Jenni; Tiippana, Kaisa

    2016-05-01

    Although we live in a multisensory world, children's memory has been usually studied concentrating on only one sensory modality at a time. In this study, we investigated how audiovisual encoding affects recognition memory. Children (n = 114) from three age groups (8, 10 and 12 years) memorized auditory or visual stimuli presented with a semantically congruent, incongruent or non-semantic stimulus in the other modality during encoding. Subsequent recognition memory performance was better for auditory or visual stimuli initially presented together with a semantically congruent stimulus in the other modality than for stimuli accompanied by a non-semantic stimulus in the other modality. This congruency effect was observed for pictures presented with sounds, for sounds presented with pictures, for spoken words presented with pictures and for written words presented with spoken words. The present results show that semantically congruent multisensory experiences during encoding can improve memory performance in school-aged children. PMID:26048162

  3. Combining a semantic differential with fMRI to investigate brands as cultural symbols

    PubMed Central

    Rotte, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, complex cultural symbols like brands are investigated with psychological approaches. Often this is done by using semantic differentials, in which participants are asked to rate a brand regarding different pairs of adjectives. Only recently, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to examine brands. In the current work we used fMRI in combination with a semantic differential to cross-validate both methods and to improve the characterization of the basic factors constituting the semantic space. To this end we presented pictures of brands while recording subject's brain activity during an fMRI experiment. Results of the semantic differential arranged the brands in a semantic space illustrating their relationships to other cultural symbols. FMRI results revealed activation of the medial prefrontal cortex for brands that loaded high on the factor ‘social competence’, suggesting an involvement of a cortical network associated with social cognitions. In contrast, brands closely related to the factor ‘potency’ showed decreased activity in the superior frontal gyri, possibly related to working memory during task performance. We discuss the results as a different engagement of the prefrontal cortex when perceiving brands as cultural symbols. PMID:20080877

  4. A Study of the Semantic Differential Based on Motivational Concepts as a Technique for Predicting Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sizemore, Oral Glen

    The purpose of this study was to develop a semantic differential scale based on achievement motivation concepts by which grade point averages could be predicted. A scale was constructed and administered to 944 freshmen at Northeastern State College in Fall 1967. Two approaches were used. One was to combine semantic differential scale scores…

  5. Semantic interference in a randomized naming task: Effects of age, order, and category

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Jean K.; Cheimariou, Spyridoula

    2014-01-01

    Lexical retrieval in production is a competitive process, requiring activation of a target word from semantic input, and its selection from amongst co-activated items. Competitors are automatically primed through spreading activation within the lexicon, but competition may be increased by the prior presentation of related items, the semantic interference effect. This has been demonstrated in tasks in which pictures grouped by semantic category are compared to unrelated pictures (blocked naming) and in tasks involving successive naming of items from the same semantic category (continuous naming). Such highly structured tasks may not be representative of the processes at work under more natural word retrieval conditions. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective examination of naming latencies from a randomized picture naming task containing a wide variety of items and categories. Our large sample of adults, ranging in age from 22 to 89 years, also allowed us to test the hypothesis that older adults, who are particularly susceptible to word-retrieval problems, experience increased difficulty resolving competition among lexical items. Semantic interference effects were evident in the interaction between semantic category and order of presentation within a block—miscellaneous items were named more quickly, whereas related items were named more slowly. This interference effect did not vary with participant age, contrary to the hypothesis that older adults are more susceptible to semantic interference. PMID:24499271

  6. Social Concepts and Judgments: A Semantic Differential Analysis of the Concepts Feminist, Man, and Woman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, W. David; Sydie, R. A.; Stratkotter, Rainer

    2003-01-01

    Male and female participants (N = 274) made judgments about the social concepts of "feminist," "man," and "woman" on 63 semantic differential items. Factor analysis identified three basic dimensions termed evaluative, potency, and activity as well as two secondary factors called expressiveness and sexuality. Results for the evaluative dimension…

  7. Some Mathematical Attitudinal Data on Eighth Grade Students in Japan Measured by a Semantic Differential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minato, Saburoh

    1983-01-01

    Subjects were 175 eighth-grade students of a public lower secondary school in Akita Prefecture, Japan. Attitudes were measured by a version of a semantic differential scale originally developed to assess attitudes of prospective elementary school teachers. The hope is expressed that the instrument will be used in the West. (Author/MP)

  8. The Case for the Semantic Differential in Organizational and Business Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Chris; Guyette, Roger W., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Attitude measurement has been and continues to be a central component in the field of social psychology. The semantic differential technique has proven to be a well-respected measuring device of attitudes since the 1960s, particularly in the social sciences. Given the importance of attitudes in the business world with reference to preferences in…

  9. Interest Inventory. [Includes Academic Interest Measure, Pupil Activity Inventory, and Semantic Differential].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    This Interest Inventory contains three inventories: Academic Interest Measure (AIM), Pupil Activity Inventory (PAI), and Semantic Differential test (SD). The AIM measures six subscales of academic interests; the PAI measures non-school activities in science; and the SD measures attitudes toward science and physics. The inventories are designed for…

  10. Semantic Differential Responses to Educational Posters on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Christopher; Stewin, Leonard L.

    1992-01-01

    Undergraduate students (n=131) responded to eight educational posters dealing with the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) using a nine-item semantic differential scale. Two posters were consistently rated as more informative, reassuring, effective, decent, and better than the others. The first utilized an objective and informative…

  11. Age-related differences in recall for words using semantics and prosody.

    PubMed

    Sober, Jonathan D; VanWormer, Lisa A; Arruda, James E

    2016-01-01

    The positivity effect is a developmental shift seen in older adults to be increasingly influenced by positive information in areas such as memory, attention, and decision-making. This study is the first to examine the age-related differences of the positivity effect for emotional prosody. Participants heard a factorial combination of words that were semantically positive or negative said with either positive or negative intonation. Results showed a semantic positivity effect for older adults, and a prosody positivity effect for younger adults. Additionally, older adults showed a significant decrease in recall for semantically negative words said in an incongruent prosodically positive tone. PMID:26786734

  12. Semantic and phonological skills in predicting reading development: from 3-16 years of age.

    PubMed

    Frost, Jørgen; Madsbjerg, Sigrid; Niedersøe, Jan; Olofsson, Ake; Sørensen, Peer Møller

    2005-05-01

    The present longitudinal study investigated the relationship between pre-school semantic skills (vocabulary, comprehension and sentence construction), phonological awareness and later word decoding and reading comprehension skills. More than 200 Danish children were followed from a speech therapist screening at the age of three, through a phonological group screening at six, word decoding tests in Grade 2, sentence reading tests in Grades 3, 4, and 6, and to a text reading test in Grade 9 (age 16). The predictor variables consisted of both standardized test results, professional ratings, and a factor of interest in books. The results showed that both the semantic variables and interest in books at the age of three and the phonological variables at the age of six predicted reading development significantly at the age of 16. In addition the results demonstrated changing main effect from semantic and phonological variables on reading development. Phonological awareness at the age of 6 seemed to have the greatest influence on reading at the beginning of Grade 2 compared to the semantic variables at the age of three. On all other measures in time, the semantic variables had the greatest influence. PMID:15918368

  13. Informatics in radiology: radiology gamuts ontology: differential diagnosis for the Semantic Web.

    PubMed

    Budovec, Joseph J; Lam, Cesar A; Kahn, Charles E

    2014-01-01

    The Semantic Web is an effort to add semantics, or "meaning," to empower automated searching and processing of Web-based information. The overarching goal of the Semantic Web is to enable users to more easily find, share, and combine information. Critical to this vision are knowledge models called ontologies, which define a set of concepts and formalize the relations between them. Ontologies have been developed to manage and exploit the large and rapidly growing volume of information in biomedical domains. In diagnostic radiology, lists of differential diagnoses of imaging observations, called gamuts, provide an important source of knowledge. The Radiology Gamuts Ontology (RGO) is a formal knowledge model of differential diagnoses in radiology that includes 1674 differential diagnoses, 19,017 terms, and 52,976 links between terms. Its knowledge is used to provide an interactive, freely available online reference of radiology gamuts ( www.gamuts.net ). A Web service allows its content to be discovered and consumed by other information systems. The RGO integrates radiologic knowledge with other biomedical ontologies as part of the Semantic Web. PMID:24428295

  14. Differential Involvement of the Anterior Temporal Lobes in Famous People Semantics.

    PubMed

    Chedid, Georges; Wilson, Maximiliano A; Provost, Jean-Sebastien; Joubert, Sven; Rouleau, Isabelle; Brambati, Simona M

    2016-01-01

    The ability to recognize a famous person occurs through semantic memory. Previous neuroimaging studies have shown that the anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) are involved in the recognition of famous people. However, it is still a matter of debate whether the semantic processing of names or pictures of famous people has an impact on the activation of ATLs. The aim of this study was to explore the pattern of activation associated with a semantic processing of famous people based on face and written name stimuli. Fifteen healthy young individuals participated in our fMRI study, in which they were asked to perform a semantic categorization judgment task, based on profession, of visually presented pictures, and names of famous people. Neuroimaging findings showed a common pattern of activation for faces and names mainly involving the inferior frontal regions, the posterior temporal lobe, the visual cortex, and the ATLs. We found that the comparison names vs. pictures lead to significant activation in the anterior superior temporal gyrus. On the other hand, faces vs. names seemed associated with increased activation in the medial ATL. Moreover, our results demonstrated that the functional connectivity network anchored to the medial ATL, compared to the anterior STG, is more connected to the bilateral occipital lobe and fusiform gyrus that are regions implicated in the visual system and visual processing of faces. This study provides critical evidence of the differential involvement of ATL regions in semantics of famous people. PMID:27625630

  15. Differential Involvement of the Anterior Temporal Lobes in Famous People Semantics

    PubMed Central

    Chedid, Georges; Wilson, Maximiliano A.; Provost, Jean-Sebastien; Joubert, Sven; Rouleau, Isabelle; Brambati, Simona M.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to recognize a famous person occurs through semantic memory. Previous neuroimaging studies have shown that the anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) are involved in the recognition of famous people. However, it is still a matter of debate whether the semantic processing of names or pictures of famous people has an impact on the activation of ATLs. The aim of this study was to explore the pattern of activation associated with a semantic processing of famous people based on face and written name stimuli. Fifteen healthy young individuals participated in our fMRI study, in which they were asked to perform a semantic categorization judgment task, based on profession, of visually presented pictures, and names of famous people. Neuroimaging findings showed a common pattern of activation for faces and names mainly involving the inferior frontal regions, the posterior temporal lobe, the visual cortex, and the ATLs. We found that the comparison names vs. pictures lead to significant activation in the anterior superior temporal gyrus. On the other hand, faces vs. names seemed associated with increased activation in the medial ATL. Moreover, our results demonstrated that the functional connectivity network anchored to the medial ATL, compared to the anterior STG, is more connected to the bilateral occipital lobe and fusiform gyrus that are regions implicated in the visual system and visual processing of faces. This study provides critical evidence of the differential involvement of ATL regions in semantics of famous people. PMID:27625630

  16. Semantic Development in Spanish-English Bilingual Children: Effects of Age and Language Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Li; Bedore, Lisa M.; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Fiestas, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This study examines semantic development in 60 Spanish-English bilingual children, ages 7 years 3 months to 9 years 11 months, who differed orthogonally in age (younger, older) and language experience (higher English experience [HEE], higher Spanish experience [HSE]). Children produced 3 associations to 12 pairs of translation equivalents. Older…

  17. Age-related differences in the neural bases of phonological and semantic processes

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Michele T.; Johnson, Micah A.; Burke, Deborah M.; Madden, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in language functions during normal aging are greater for phonological compared to semantic processes. To investigate the behavioral and neural basis for these age-related differences, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine younger and older adults who made semantic and phonological decisions about pictures. The behavioral performance of older adults was less accurate and less efficient than younger adults’ in the phonological task, but did not differ in the semantic task. In the fMRI analyses, the semantic task activated left-hemisphere language regions, while the phonological task activated bilateral cingulate and ventral precuneus. Age-related effects were widespread throughout the brain, and most often expressed as greater activation for older adults. Activation was greater for younger compared to older adults in ventral brain regions involved in visual and object processing. Although there was not a significant Age x Condition interaction in the whole-brain fMRI results, correlations examining the relationship between behavior and fMRI activation were stronger for younger compared to older adults. Our results suggest that the relationship between behavior and neural activation declines with age and this may underlie some of the observed declines in performance. PMID:24893737

  18. Integrative and semantic relations equally alleviate age-related associative memory deficits.

    PubMed

    Badham, Stephen P; Estes, Zachary; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2012-03-01

    Two experiments compared effects of integrative and semantic relations between pairs of words on lexical and memory processes in old age. Integrative relations occur when two dissimilar and unassociated words are linked together to form a coherent phrase (e.g., horse-doctor). In Experiment 1, older adults completed a lexical-decision task where prime and target words were related either integratively or semantically. The two types of relation both facilitated responses compared to a baseline condition, demonstrating that priming can occur in older adults with minimal preexisting associations between primes and targets. In Experiment 2, young and older adults completed a cued recall task with integrative, semantic, and unrelated word pairs. Both integrative and semantic pairs showed significantly smaller age differences in associative memory compared to unrelated pairs. Integrative relations facilitated older adults' memory to a similar extent as semantic relations despite having few preexisting associations in memory. Integratability of stimuli is therefore a new factor that reduces associative deficits in older adults, most likely by supporting encoding and retrieval mechanisms. PMID:21639644

  19. Conceptual Organization at 6 and 8 Years of Age: Evidence From the Semantic Priming of Object Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Naomi; McGregor, Karla K.; Graham, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine children’s knowledge of semantic relations. Method In Experiment 1, the 6-year-olds, 8-year-olds, and adults participated in an object decision task. Participants in the primed group made object decisions in response to primes that were related taxonomically, thematically, or perceptually to the target objects. Those in the unprimed group made decisions about the same stimuli without the benefit of primes. In Experiment 2, the children in the primed group explained the taxonomic and thematic relations between the prime–target pairs used in Experiment 1. Results In Experiment 1, the strength of semantic relations did not vary with type or age, as taxonomic priming was as strong as thematic priming and the degree of priming did not reliably differentiate the 3 age groups. Differential priming effects between taxonomic and perceptual conditions, the former hastening and the latter slowing responses, suggested that the relation binding object concepts into taxonomies was not reducible to common physical features. In Experiment 2, the 6-year-olds had more difficulty describing taxonomic than thematic relations, whereas the 8-year-olds described both with ease. Conclusions Contrary to the shift hypothesis, taxonomic and thematic relations-structure concepts in children as young as 6 and into adulthood. In accord with the performance hypothesis, 6-year-olds’ representations of taxonomic relations are fragile and vulnerable to high task demands. PMID:17344557

  20. Spoken Word Recognition in School-Age Children with SLI: Semantic, Phonological, and Repetition Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez, Melinda; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to contribute to the current understanding of how children with specific language impairment (SLI) organize their mental lexicons. The study examined semantic and phonological priming in children with and without SLI. Method: Thirteen children (7;0-11;3 [years;months]) with SLI and 13 age-matched children…

  1. Age-related effects on perceptual and semantic encoding in memory.

    PubMed

    Kuo, M C C; Liu, K P Y; Ting, K H; Chan, C C H

    2014-03-01

    This study examined the age-related subsequent memory effect (SME) in perceptual and semantic encoding using event-related potentials (ERPs). Seventeen younger adults and 17 older adults studied a series of Chinese characters either perceptually (by inspecting orthographic components) or semantically (by determining whether the depicted object makes sounds). The two tasks had similar levels of difficulty. The participants made studied or unstudied judgments during the recognition phase. Younger adults performed better in both conditions, with significant SMEs detected in the time windows of P2, N3, P550, and late positive component (LPC). In the older group, SMEs were observed in the P2 and N3 latencies in both conditions but were only detected in the P550 in the semantic condition. Between-group analyses showed larger frontal and central SMEs in the younger sample in the LPC latency regardless of encoding type. Aging effect appears to be stronger on influencing perceptual than semantic encoding processes. The effects seem to be associated with a decline in updating and maintaining representations during perceptual encoding. The age-related decline in the encoding function may be due in part to changes in frontal lobe function. PMID:24374080

  2. Semantic Development in Spanish-English Bilingual Children: Effects of Age and Language Experience

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Li; Bedore, Lisa M.; Peña, Elizabeth D.; Fiestas, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This study examines semantic development in 60 Spanish-English bilingual children, ages 7 years 3 months to 9 years 11 months, who differed orthogonally in age (younger, older) and language experience (HEE: higher English experience, HSE: higher Spanish experience). Children produced three associations to 12 pairs of translation equivalents. Older children produced more semantic responses and code-switched more often from Spanish to English than younger children. Within each group, children demonstrated better performance in the more frequently used than the less used language. The HEE children outperformed the HSE children in English and the HSE children outperformed the HEE children in Spanish. These effects of age and language experience are consistent with predictions of the Revised Hierarchical Model of bilingual lexical organization. PMID:23163772

  3. Semantic and Phonological Loop Effects on Verbal Working Memory in Middle-Age Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittler, Phyllis; Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Devenny, Darlynne A.

    2004-01-01

    Semantic and phonological loop effects on verbal working memory were examined among middle-age adults with Down syndrome and those with unspecified mental retardation in the context of Baddeley's working memory model. Recall was poorer for phonologically similar, semantically similar, and long words compared to recall of dissimilar short words.…

  4. [Artificial intelligence meeting neuropsychology. Semantic memory in normal and pathological aging].

    PubMed

    Aimé, Xavier; Charlet, Jean; Maillet, Didier; Belin, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    Artificial intelligence (IA) is the subject of much research, but also many fantasies. It aims to reproduce human intelligence in its learning capacity, knowledge storage and computation. In 2014, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) started the restoring active memory (RAM) program that attempt to develop implantable technology to bridge gaps in the injured brain and restore normal memory function to people with memory loss caused by injury or disease. In another IA's field, computational ontologies (a formal and shared conceptualization) try to model knowledge in order to represent a structured and unambiguous meaning of the concepts of a target domain. The aim of these structures is to ensure a consensual understanding of their meaning and a univariant use (the same concept is used by all to categorize the same individuals). The first representations of knowledge in the AI's domain are largely based on model tests of semantic memory. This one, as a component of long-term memory is the memory of words, ideas, concepts. It is the only declarative memory system that resists so remarkably to the effects of age. In contrast, non-specific cognitive changes may decrease the performance of elderly in various events and instead report difficulties of access to semantic representations that affect the semantics stock itself. Some dementias, like semantic dementia and Alzheimer's disease, are linked to alteration of semantic memory. We propose in this paper, using the computational ontologies model, a formal and relatively thin modeling, in the service of neuropsychology: 1) for the practitioner with decision support systems, 2) for the patient as cognitive prosthesis outsourced, and 3) for the researcher to study semantic memory. PMID:25786428

  5. Active Ageing in CIS Countries: Semantics, Challenges, and Responses

    PubMed Central

    Sidorenko, Alexandre; Zaidi, Asghar

    2013-01-01

    Although the CIS countries are connected together by the legacy of breaking away from the Soviet Union, they have had a distinctive transition course and are rather diverse in terms of the population ageing challenges and policy responses in place. The commonality is that a comprehensive national strategy on ageing is lacking, and many of necessary reforms were put aside owing to political uncertainties, lack of societal consensus, and financial instability. The notion of active ageing is associated with the term “accelerated ageing,” which is understood to be an individual living a life under harsh living conditions or a society experiencing rapid increases in the relative number of older persons, and therefore it carries a negative connotation. Yet, in the same spirit as the European Year for Active Ageing and Solidarity between Generations 2012, the CIS countries have initiated sectoral programmes towards enhancing employment of older workers, social participation of older people in the society in a wider sense and also measures promoting health and independent living of older persons. PMID:23346109

  6. Electrophysiological differentiation of phonological and semantic integration in word and sentence contexts

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Michele T.; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2006-01-01

    During auditory language comprehension, listeners need to rapidly extract meaning from the continuous speech-stream. It is a matter of debate when and how contextual information constrains the activation of lexical representations in meaningful contexts. Electrophysiological studies of spoken language comprehension have identified an event-related potential (ERP) that was sensitive to phonological properties of speech, which was termed the phonological mismatch negativity (PMN). With the PMN, early lexical processing could potentially be distinguished from processes of semantic integration in spoken language comprehension. However, the sensitivity of the PMN to phonological processing per se has been questioned, and it has additionally been suggested that the “PMN” is not separable from the N400, an ERP that is sensitive to semantic aspects of the input. Here, we investigated whether or not a separable PMN exists and if it reflects purely phonological aspects of the speech input. In the present experiment, ERPs were recorded from healthy young adults (N =24) while they listened to sentences and word lists, in which we manipulated semantic and phonological expectation and congruency of the final word. ERPs sensitive to phonological processing were elicited only when phonological expectancy was violated in lists of words, but not during normal sentential processing. This suggests a differential role of phonological processing in more or less meaningful contexts and indicates a very early influence of the overall context on lexical processing in sentences. PMID:16952338

  7. Reward is assessed in three dimensions that correspond to the semantic differential.

    PubMed

    Fennell, John G; Baddeley, Roland J

    2013-01-01

    If choices are to be made between alternatives like should I go for a walk or grab a coffee, a 'common currency' is needed to compare them. This quantity, often known as reward in psychology and utility in economics, is usually conceptualised as a single dimension. Here we propose that to make a comparison between different options it is important to know not only the average reward, but also both the risk and level of certainty (or control) associated with an option. Almost all objects can be the subject of choice, so if these dimensions are required in order to make a decision, they should be part of the meaning of those objects. We propose that this ubiquity is unique, so if we take an average over many concepts and domains these three dimensions (reward, risk, and uncertainty) should emerge as the three most important dimensions in the "meaning" of objects. We investigated this possibility by relating the three dimensions of reward to an old, robust and extensively studied factor analytic instrument known as the semantic differential. Across a very wide range of situations, concepts and cultures, factor analysis shows that 50% of the variance in rating scales is accounted for by just three dimensions, with these dimensions being Evaluation, Potency, and Activity [1]. Using a statistical analysis of internet blog entries and a betting experiment, we show that these three factors of the semantic differential are strongly correlated with the reward history associated with a given concept: Evaluation measures relative reward; Potency measures absolute risk; and Activity measures the uncertainty or lack of control associated with a concept. We argue that the 50% of meaning captured by the semantic differential is simply a summary of the reward history that allows decisions to be made between widely different options. PMID:23418445

  8. [Differential mortality in women of reproductive age].

    PubMed

    Morelos, J B; Ehrenfeld, N

    1994-01-01

    "This paper begins by reviewing some conceptual frameworks for the study of female mortality and indicates some of its application problems. Next it presents results of mortality of women in reproductive-age classified by age, causes of death, and socio-demographic traits (marital status, schooling, and occupation) for ten states [in Mexico] differentiated according to level of development and well-being. The data suggests differences according to age, marital status, and schooling. Finally, testing of the mutual independence and partial independence hypotheses indicates that age, marital status, and schooling correlate to the degree of development of each state." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12291772

  9. The Role of Semantic Diversity in Word Recognition across Aging and Bilingualism

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Brendan T.; Sheppard, Christine L.; Jones, Michael N.; Taler, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Frequency effects are pervasive in studies of language, with higher frequency words being recognized faster than lower frequency words. However, the exact nature of frequency effects has recently been questioned, with some studies finding that contextual information provides a better fit to lexical decision and naming data than word frequency (Adelman et al., 2006). Recent work has cemented the importance of these results by demonstrating that a measure of the semantic diversity of the contexts that a word occurs in provides a powerful measure to account for variability in word recognition latency (Johns et al., 2012, 2015; Jones et al., 2012). The goal of the current study is to extend this measure to examine bilingualism and aging, where multiple theories use frequency of occurrence of linguistic constructs as central to accounting for empirical results (Gollan et al., 2008; Ramscar et al., 2014). A lexical decision experiment was conducted with four groups of subjects: younger and older monolinguals and bilinguals. Consistent with past results, a semantic diversity variable accounted for the greatest amount of variance in the latency data. In addition, the pattern of fits of semantic diversity across multiple corpora suggests that bilinguals and older adults are more sensitive to semantic diversity information than younger monolinguals. PMID:27458392

  10. Effects of aging on value-directed modulation of semantic network activity during verbal learning.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Michael S; Rissman, Jesse; Suthana, Nanthia A; Castel, Alan D; Knowlton, Barbara J

    2016-01-15

    While impairments in memory recall are apparent in aging, older adults show a remarkably preserved ability to selectively remember information deemed valuable. Here, we use fMRI to compare brain activation in healthy older and younger adults during encoding of high and low value words to determine whether there are differences in how older adults achieve value-directed memory selectivity. We find that memory selectivity in older adults is associated with value-related changes in activation during word presentation in left hemisphere regions that are involved in semantic processing, similar to young adults. However, highly selective young adults show a relatively greater increase in semantic network activity during encoding of high-value items, whereas highly selective older adults show relatively diminished activity during encoding of low-value items. Additionally, only younger adults showed value-related increases in activity in semantic and reward processing regions during presentation of the value cue preceding each to-be-remembered word. Young adults therefore respond to cue value more proactively than do older adults, yet the magnitude of value-related differences in cue period brain activity did not predict individual differences in memory selectivity. Thus, our data also show that age-related reductions in prestimulus activity do not always lead to inefficient performance. PMID:26244278

  11. Age of acquisition's effect on memory for semantically associated word pairs.

    PubMed

    Gullick, Margaret M; Juhasz, Barbara J

    2008-08-01

    This experiment investigated the effects of age of acquisition (AoA) in memory for associated word pairs in a cued recall task. Participants studied a list of frequency-controlled early- and late-acquired words in semantically related pairs and then were asked to recall the second word of the pair when cued with the first. Reaction time effects were found, showing that a late-acquired cue for an early-acquired target word was responded to significantly faster than other combinations. Additionally, late-acquired target words resulted in significantly more accurate responses. As significant differences were found even when frequency was controlled, the effects must therefore stem from the manipulations ofAoA. Given this evidence, the implications for AoA's effects on the organization of semantic memory are explored. PMID:18609409

  12. Generation Y, wine and alcohol. A semantic differential approach to consumption analysis in Tuscany.

    PubMed

    Marinelli, Nicola; Fabbrizzi, Sara; Alampi Sottini, Veronica; Sacchelli, Sandro; Bernetti, Iacopo; Menghini, Silvio

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the study is the elicitation of the consumer's semantic perception of different alcoholic beverages in order to provide information for the definition of communication strategies for both the private sector (and specifically the wine industry) and the public decision maker. Such information can be seen as the basis of a wider social marketing construct aimed at the promotion of responsible drinking among young consumers. The semantic differential approach was used in this study. The data collection was based on a survey to 430 consumers between 18 and 35years old in Tuscany, Italy. The database was organized in a three-way structure, indexing the data in a multiway matrix. The data were processed using a Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA). Moreover, homogeneous clusters of consumers were identified using a Hierarchical Clustering on Principal Components (HCPC) approach. The results of the study highlight that beer and spirits are mainly perceived as "Young", "Social", "Euphoric", "Happy", "Appealing" and "Trendy" beverages, while wine is associated mostly with terms such as "Pleasure", "Quality" and "Comfortable". Furthermore, the cluster analysis allowed for the identification of three groups of individuals with different approaches to alcohol drinking. The results of the study supply a useful information framework for the elaboration of specific communication strategies that, based on the drinking habits of young consumers and their perception of different beverages, can use a language that is very close to the consumer typologies. Such information can be helpful for both private and public communication strategies. PMID:24370355

  13. A Diffusion Model Analysis of Adult Age Differences in Episodic and Semantic Long-Term Memory Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaniol, Julia; Madden, David J.; Voss, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments investigated adult age differences in episodic and semantic long-term memory tasks, as a test of the hypothesis of specific age-related decline in context memory. Older adults were slower and exhibited lower episodic accuracy than younger adults. Fits of the diffusion model (R. Ratcliff, 1978) revealed age-related increases in…

  14. Application of a methodology for categorizing and differentiating urban soundscapes using acoustical descriptors and semantic-differential attributes.

    PubMed

    Torija, Antonio J; Ruiz, Diego P; Ramos-Ridao, A F

    2013-07-01

    A subjective and physical categorization of an ambient sound is the first step to evaluate the soundscape and provides a basis for designing or adapting this ambient sound to match people's expectations. For this reason, the main goal of this work is to develop a categorization and differentiation analysis of soundscapes on the basis of acoustical and perceptual variables. A hierarchical cluster analysis, using 15 semantic-differential attributes and acoustical descriptors to include an equivalent sound-pressure level, maximum-minimum sound-pressure level, impulsiveness of the sound-pressure level, sound-pressure level time course, and spectral composition, was conducted to classify soundscapes into different typologies. This analysis identified 15 different soundscape typologies. Furthermore, based on a discriminant analysis the acoustical descriptors, the crest factor (impulsiveness of the sound-pressure level), and the sound level at 125 Hz were found to be the acoustical variables with the highest impact in the differentiation of the recognized types of soundscapes. Finally, to determine how the different soundscape typologies differed from each other, both subjectively and acoustically, a study was performed. PMID:23862885

  15. The Relationship Between Responses to Science Concepts on a Semantic Differential Instrument and Achievement in Freshman Physics and Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Arthur Israel

    Students taking freshman physics and freshman chemistry at The State University of New York at Buffalo (SUNYAB) were administered a science-related semantic differential instrument. This same test was administered to physics and chemistry graduate students from SUNYAB and the University of Rochester. A scoring procedure was developed which…

  16. Differential Utilization of Syntactic and Semantic Information by Skilled and Less Skilled Readers in the Intermediate Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willows, Dale M.; Ryan, Ellen Bouchard

    1981-01-01

    Matched pairs of skilled and less skilled readers read aloud material in cloze procedure format and printed in geometric transformations. Skilled readers made greater use of grammatical and contextual information. The stability of differences suggests that differential utilization of syntactic and semantic cues contributes to differences in…

  17. Differential Resting State Connectivity Patterns and Impaired Semantically Cued List Learning Test Performance in Early Course Remitted MDD

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Julia A.; Jenkins, Lisanne M.; Hymen, Erica; Feigon, Maia; Weisenbach, Sara L.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Langenecker, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is a well-known association between memory impairment and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Additionally, recent studies are also showing resting-state (rs) fMRI abnormalities in active and remitted MDD. However, no studies to date have examined both resting state connectivity and memory performance in early course remitted MDD, nor the relationship between connectivity and semantically-cued episodic memory. Method Resting state MRI (rsMRI) data from two 3.0 Tesla GE scanners were collected from 34 unmedicated young adults with remitted MDD (rMDD) and 23 healthy controls (HCs) between 18–23 years of age using bilateral seeds in the hippocampus. Participants also completed a semantically-cued list-learning test and their performance was correlated with hippocampal seed-based rsMRI. Regression models were also used to predict connectivity patterns from memory performance. Results After correcting for sex, rMDD performed worse than HCs on the total number of words recalled and recognized. rMDD demonstrated significant in-network hypoactivation between the hippocampus and multiple fronto-temporal regions, and multiple extra-network hyperconnectivities between the hippocampus and fronto-parietal regions when compared to HCs. Memory performance negatively predicted connectivity in HCs and positively predicted connectivity in rMDD. Conclusions Even when individuals with a history of MDD are no longer displaying active depressive symptoms, they continue to demonstrate worse memory performance, disruptions in hippocampal connectivity, and a differential relationship between episodic memory and hippocampal connectivity. PMID:26888619

  18. The aging mouth: differentiating normal aging from disease.

    PubMed

    Lamster, Ira B; Asadourian, Lynda; Del Carmen, Tessa; Friedman, Paula K

    2016-10-01

    Aging is the physiologic change that occurs over time. In humans, this change occurs at different rates and are related to lifestyle, environment and genetics. It can be challenging to differentiate normal aging from disease. In the oral cavity, with increasing age the teeth demonstrate wearing of the enamel, chipping and fracture lines, and a darker color. The pulp chamber and canals are reduced in size as a result of the deposition of secondary dentin. Coronal or root caries, however, represent disease. A limited amount of periodontal attachment loss occurs in association with aging, usually manifesting as recession on the buccal surface of teeth. Severe periodontitis occurs in 10.5-12% of the population, with the peak incidence being observed at 35-40 years of age. Changes to the mucosal tissue that occur with age include reduced wound-healing capacity. However, environmental factors, such as smoking, dramatically increase the risk of mucosal pathology. Reduced salivary gland function is often seen in association with medication usage, as well as with disorders such as diabetes mellitus. Both medication use and chronic disorders are more common in older adults. Masticatory function is of particular importance for older adults. Maintenance of a nutritionally complete diet is important for avoiding sarcopenia and the frailty syndrome. Successful oral aging is associated with adequate function and comfort. A reduced, but functional, dentition of 20 teeth in occlusion has been proposed as a measure of successful oral aging. Healthy oral aging is important to healthy aging from both biological and social perspectives. PMID:27501493

  19. Differential cognitive processing of Kanji and Kana words: do orthographic and semantic codes function in parallel in word matching task.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, A; Hatta, T; Kogure, T

    2001-12-01

    Relative engagements of the orthographic and semantic codes in Kanji and Hiragana word recognition were investigated. In Exp. 1, subjects judged whether the pairs of Kanji words (prime and target) presented sequentially were physically identical to each other in the word condition. In the sentence condition, subjects decided whether the target word was valid for the prime sentence presented in advance. The results showed that the response times to the target swords orthographically similar (to the prime) were significantly slower than to semantically related target words in the word condition and that this was also the case in the sentence condition. In Exp. 2, subjects judged whether the target word written in Hiragana was physically identical to the prime word in the word condition. In the sentence condition, subjects decided if the target word was valid for the previously presented prime sentence. Analysis indicated that response times to orthographically similar words were slower than to semantically related words in the word condition but not in the sentence condition wherein the response times to the semantically and orthographically similar words were largely the same. Based on these results, differential contributions of orthographic and semantic codes in cognitive processing of Japanese Kanji and Hiragana words was discussed. PMID:11806593

  20. Differential Utilization of Syntactic and Semantic Information by Skilled and Less Skilled Readers in the Intermediate Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Ellen Bouchard; Willows, Dale M.

    To assess the extent to which syntactic and semantic information guides the reading performance of skilled and less-skilled readers in the intermediate grades, a study was conducted involving 96 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students. The students were matched both within and across grade level on nonverbal IQ and within each grade level on age.…

  1. A Developmental Study of Conceptual, Semantic Differential, and Acoustical Dimensions as Encoding Categories in Short-Term Memory. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pender, Nola J.

    The purpose of this research was to investigate developmental changes in encoding processes. It attempted to determine the extent to which children of varying ages utilize semantic (denotative or connotative) and acoustical encoding categories in a short-term memory task. It appears to be a reasonable assumption that as associational hierarchies…

  2. Aging and semantic cueing during learning and retention of verbal episodic information.

    PubMed

    Woo, Ellen; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of semantic cues provided at encoding and during retention for older adults' memory. For the California Verbal Learning Test-II, participants received semantic or nonsemantic cues that were varied across groups at encoding and during the retention interval. Provision of a semantic cue at encoding led to greater semantic clustering at learning, but not increased recall performance. Providing a semantic cue during the retention interval led to better delayed free recall and greater semantic clustering. No group differences in recall or semantic clustering were found at delayed cued recall. The current findings suggest that semantic cues can be beneficial for recalling unstructured information when administered during the retention interval. PMID:18923945

  3. Complexity and Hemispheric Abilities: Evidence for a Differential Impact on Semantics and Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Tania; Monetta, Laura; Joanette, Yves

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to determine whether the phonological and semantic processing of words are similarly influenced by an increase in processing complexity. Thirty-six French-speaking young adults performed both semantic and phonological word judgment tasks, using a divided visual field procedure. The phonological complexity of words…

  4. Productive extension of semantic memory in school-aged children: Relations with reading comprehension and deployment of cognitive resources.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Patricia J; Blue, Shala N; Xu, Aoxiang; Esposito, Alena G

    2016-07-01

    We investigated 7- to 10-year-old children's productive extension of semantic memory through self-generation of new factual knowledge derived through integration of separate yet related facts learned through instruction or through reading. In Experiment 1, an experimenter read the to-be-integrated facts. Children successfully learned and integrated the information and used it to further extend their semantic knowledge, as evidenced by high levels of correct responses in open-ended and forced-choice testing. In Experiment 2, on half of the trials, the to-be-integrated facts were read by an experimenter (as in Experiment 1) and on half of the trials, children read the facts themselves. Self-generation performance was high in both conditions (experimenter- and self-read); in both conditions, self-generation of new semantic knowledge was related to an independent measure of children's reading comprehension. In Experiment 3, the way children deployed cognitive resources during reading was predictive of their subsequent recall of newly learned information derived through integration. These findings indicate self-generation of new semantic knowledge through integration in school-age children as well as relations between this productive means of extension of semantic memory and cognitive processes engaged during reading. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27253263

  5. Lexical Processing in School-Age Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Children with Specific Language Impairment: The Role of Semantics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haebig, Eileen; Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Weismer, Susan Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and specific language impairment (SLI) often have immature lexical-semantic knowledge; however, the organization of lexical-semantic knowledge is poorly understood. This study examined lexical processing in school-age children with ASD, SLI, and typical development, who were matched on receptive…

  6. Lexical Processing in School-Age Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Children with Specific Language Impairment: The Role of Semantics.

    PubMed

    Haebig, Eileen; Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2015-12-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and specific language impairment (SLI) often have immature lexical-semantic knowledge; however, the organization of lexical-semantic knowledge is poorly understood. This study examined lexical processing in school-age children with ASD, SLI, and typical development, who were matched on receptive vocabulary. Children completed a lexical decision task, involving words with high and low semantic network sizes and nonwords. Children also completed nonverbal updating and shifting tasks. Children responded more accurately to words from high than from low semantic networks; however, follow-up analyses identified weaker semantic network effects in the SLI group. Additionally, updating and shifting abilities predicted lexical processing, demonstrating similarity in the mechanisms which underlie semantic processing in children with ASD, SLI, and typical development. PMID:26210517

  7. Semantic Integration and Age of Acquisition Effects in Code-Blend Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Giezen, Marcel R; Emmorey, Karen

    2016-04-01

    Semantic and lexical decision tasks were used to investigate the mechanisms underlying code-blend facilitation: the finding that hearing bimodal bilinguals comprehend signs in American Sign Language (ASL) and spoken English words more quickly when they are presented together simultaneously than when each is presented alone. More robust facilitation effects were observed for semantic decision than for lexical decision, suggesting that lexical integration of signs and words within a code-blend occurs primarily at the semantic level, rather than at the level of form. Early bilinguals exhibited greater facilitation effects than late bilinguals for English (the dominant language) in the semantic decision task, possibly because early bilinguals are better able to process early visual cues from ASL signs and use these to constrain English word recognition. Comprehension facilitation via semantic integration of words and signs is consistent with co-speech gesture research demonstrating facilitative effects of gesture integration on language comprehension. PMID:26657077

  8. Differential Prefrontal and Frontotemporal Oxygenation Patterns during Phonemic and Semantic Verbal Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tupak, Sara V.; Badewien, Meike; Dresler, Thomas; Hahn, Tim; Ernst, Lena H.; Herrmann, Martin J.; Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Ehlis, Ann-Christine

    2012-01-01

    Movement artifacts are still considered a problematic issue for imaging research on overt language production. This motion-sensitivity can be overcome by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). In the present study, 50 healthy subjects performed a combined phonemic and semantic overt verbal fluency task while frontal and temporal cortex…

  9. Differential Prefrontal-Temporal Neural Correlates of Semantic Processing in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Booth, James R.; Burman, Douglas D.

    2006-01-01

    This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine brain-behavior correlations in a group of 16 children (9- to 12-year-olds). Activation was measured during a semantic judgment task presented in either the visual or auditory modality that required the individual to determine whether a final word was related in meaning to one…

  10. Priming Nouns and Verbs: Differential Influences of Semantic and Grammatical Cues in the Two Cerebral Hemispheres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arambel, Stella R.; Chiarello, Christine

    2006-01-01

    The current experiment investigated how sentential form-class expectancies influenced lexical-semantic priming within each hemisphere. Sentences were presented that led readers to expect a noun or a verb and the sentence-final target word was presented to one visual field/hemisphere for a lexical decision response. Noun and verb targets in the…

  11. SEMANTICS AND CRITICAL READING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FLANIGAN, MICHAEL C.

    PROFICIENCY IN CRITICAL READING CAN BE ACCELERATED BY MAKING STUDENTS AWARE OF VARIOUS SEMANTIC DEVICES THAT HELP CLARIFY MEANINGS AND PURPOSES. EXCERPTS FROM THE ARTICLE "TEEN-AGE CORRUPTION" FROM THE NINTH-GRADE SEMANTICS UNIT WRITTEN BY THE PROJECT ENGLISH DEMONSTRATION CENTER AT EUCLID, OHIO, ARE USED TO ILLUSTRATE HOW SEMANTICS RELATE TO…

  12. Beneficial effects of semantic memory support on older adults' episodic memory: Differential patterns of support of item and associative information.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Praggyan Pam; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe; Ratneshwar, Srinivasan

    2016-02-01

    The effects of two types of semantic memory support-meaningfulness of an item and relatedness between items-in mitigating age-related deficits in item and associative, memory are examined in a marketing context. In Experiment 1, participants studied less (vs. more) meaningful brand logo graphics (pictures) paired with meaningful brand names (words) and later were assessed by item (old/new) and associative (intact/recombined) memory recognition tests. Results showed that meaningfulness of items eliminated age deficits in item memory, while equivalently boosting associative memory for older and younger adults. Experiment 2, in which related and unrelated brand logo graphics and brand name pairs served as stimuli, revealed that relatedness between items eliminated age deficits in associative memory, while improving to the same degree item memory in older and younger adults. Experiment 2 also provided evidence for a probable boundary condition that could reconcile seemingly contradictory extant results. Overall, these experiments provided evidence that although the two types of semantic memory support can improve both item and associative memory in older and younger adults, older adults' memory deficits can be eliminated when the type of support provided is compatible with the type of information required to perform well on the test. PMID:26765749

  13. An Exploration of the Effect of Hemodynamic Changes Due to Normal Aging on the fNIRS Response to Semantic Processing of Words

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Mahnoush; Pouliot, Philippe; Bonnéry, Clément; Leclerc, Paul-Olivier; Desjardins, Michèle; Lesage, Frédéric; Joanette, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Like other neuroimaging techniques assessing cerebral blood oxygenation, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been applied in many neurocognitive studies. With NIRS, neural activation can be explored indirectly via hemodynamic changes in the imaged region. In studies of aging, changes in baseline physiology and brain anatomy confound NIRS measures seeking to investigate age-related changes in neuronal activity. The field is thus hampered by the complexity of the aging process itself, and statistical inferences from functional data acquired by optical imaging techniques must be interpreted with care. Multimodal integration of NIRS with both structural and baseline physiological assessments is crucial to avoid misinterpreting neuroimaging signals. In this study, a combination of two different optical techniques, anatomical MRI and Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL), was used to investigate age-related changes in activation during a lexical-semantic processing task. Quantitative analysis revealed decreased baseline oxyhemoglobin and cerebral blood flow in the older adults. Using baseline physiology measures as regressors in the investigation of functional concentration changes when doing analyses of variance, we found significant changes in task-induced areas of activity. In the right hemisphere, more significant age-related activity was observed around the junction of the inferior frontal gyrus and inferior precentral sulcus, along with engagement of Wernicke’s area. In the left hemisphere, the degree and extent of frontal activation, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and inferior frontal gyrus, differed between age groups. Measuring background physiological differences and using their values as regressors in statistical analyses allowed a more appropriate, age-corrected understanding of the functional differentiations between age groups. Age-corrected baselines are thus essential to investigate which components of the NIRS signal are altered by aging. PMID

  14. Differential Coping Patterns in Old Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staudinger, U. M.; And Others

    This study was conducted to examine how old and very old people cope with the difficult situations in their lives. The main goals of the study were to develop a measure for the identification of coping patterns in the old and very old, identify coping patterns, and investigate those patterns with respect to age and subjective well-being.…

  15. Semantic Verbal Fluency in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder: Relationship with Chronological Age and IQ

    PubMed Central

    Pastor-Cerezuela, Gemma; Fernández-Andrés, Maria-Inmaculada; Feo-Álvarez, Mireia; González-Sala, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    We administered a semantic verbal fluency (SVF) task to two groups of children (age range from 5 to 8): 47 diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD Group) and 53 with typical development (Comparison Group), matched on gender, chronological age, and non-verbal IQ. Four specific indexes were calculated from the SVF task, reflecting the different underlying cognitive strategies used: clustering (component of generativity and lexical-semantic access), and switching (executive component, cognitive flexibility). First, we compared the performance of the two groups on the different SVF task indicators, with the ASD group scoring lower than the Comparison Group, although the difference was greater on switching than on clustering. Second, we analyzed the relationships between the different SVF measures and chronological age, verbal IQ and non-verbal IQ. While in the Comparison Group chronological age was the main predictor of performance on the SVF task, in the ASD Group verbal IQ was the best predictor. In the children with ASD, therefore, greater linguistic competence would be associated with better performance on the SVF task, which should be taken into account in speech therapies designed to achieve improvements in linguistic generativity and cognitive flexibility. PMID:27379002

  16. Semantic Verbal Fluency in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder: Relationship with Chronological Age and IQ.

    PubMed

    Pastor-Cerezuela, Gemma; Fernández-Andrés, Maria-Inmaculada; Feo-Álvarez, Mireia; González-Sala, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    We administered a semantic verbal fluency (SVF) task to two groups of children (age range from 5 to 8): 47 diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD Group) and 53 with typical development (Comparison Group), matched on gender, chronological age, and non-verbal IQ. Four specific indexes were calculated from the SVF task, reflecting the different underlying cognitive strategies used: clustering (component of generativity and lexical-semantic access), and switching (executive component, cognitive flexibility). First, we compared the performance of the two groups on the different SVF task indicators, with the ASD group scoring lower than the Comparison Group, although the difference was greater on switching than on clustering. Second, we analyzed the relationships between the different SVF measures and chronological age, verbal IQ and non-verbal IQ. While in the Comparison Group chronological age was the main predictor of performance on the SVF task, in the ASD Group verbal IQ was the best predictor. In the children with ASD, therefore, greater linguistic competence would be associated with better performance on the SVF task, which should be taken into account in speech therapies designed to achieve improvements in linguistic generativity and cognitive flexibility. PMID:27379002

  17. Are There Age-Related Differences in Shallow Semantic Processing of Text? Evidence from Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daneman, Meredyth; Hannon, Brenda; Burton, Christine

    2006-01-01

    After reading text such as Amanda was bouncing all over because she had taken too many tranquilizing sedatives in one day, young adult readers frequently fail to report that they noticed the anomalous noun phrase (NP). Although young readers of all skill levels are susceptible to this kind of shallow semantic processing, less-skilled readers are…

  18. Semantic Integration and Age of Acquisition Effects in Code-Blend Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giezen, Marcel R.; Emmorey, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Semantic and lexical decision tasks were used to investigate the mechanisms underlying code-blend facilitation: the finding that hearing bimodal bilinguals comprehend signs in American Sign Language (ASL) and spoken English words more quickly when they are presented together simultaneously than when each is presented alone. More robust…

  19. Recall of Details Never Experienced: Effects of Age, Repetition, and Semantic Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Robyn E.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Brainerd, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    To test theoretical predictions about the role of meaning connections in false memory, the effects of semantic cues and list repetition on children's false memories were evaluated across early childhood to mid-adolescence using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. True recall and false recall increased from 7 to 13 years. Study list…

  20. Verbal Fluency Output in Children Aged 7-16 as a Function of the Production Criterion: Qualitative Analysis of Clustering, Switching Processes, and Semantic Network Exploitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauzeon, H.; Lestage, P.; Raboutet, C.; N'Kaoua, B.; Claverie, B.

    2004-01-01

    Developmental changes in children's verbal fluency were explored in this study. One hundred and forty children aged from 7 to 16 completed four verbal fluency tasks, each with a different the production criterion (letter, sound, semantic, and free). The age differences were analyzed both in terms of number of words produced, and clustering,…

  1. Age Invariance in Semantic and Episodic Metamemory: Both Younger and Older Adults Provide Accurate Feeling of Knowing For Names of Faces

    PubMed Central

    Eakin, Deborah K.; Hertzog, Christopher; Harris, William

    2013-01-01

    Age differences in feeling-of-knowing (FOK) accuracy were examined for both episodic memory and semantic memory. Younger and older adults either viewed pictures of famous faces (semantic memory) or associated nonfamous faces and names (episodic memory) and were tested on their memory for the name of the presented face. Participants viewed the faces again and made a FOK prediction about future recognition of the name associated with the presented face. Finally, four-alternative forced-choice recognition memory for the name, cued by the face, was tested and confidence judgments (CJs) were collected for each recognition response. Age differences were not obtained in semantic memory or the resolution of semantic FOKs, defined by within-person correlations of FOKs with recognition memory performance. Although age differences were obtained in level of episodic memory, there were no age differences in the resolution of episodic FOKs. FOKs for correctly recognized items correlated reliably with CJs for both types of materials, and did not differ by age group. The results indicate age invariance in monitoring of retrieval processes for name-face associations. PMID:23537379

  2. Differential Matrix Metalloprotease (MMP) Expression Profiles Found in Aged Gingiva

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Suhee; Ahn, Sun Hee; Lee, Jin-Sil; Song, Ji-Eun; Cho, Sung-Hyun; Jung, Seunggon; Kim, Seon-Kyu; Kim, Seok-Ho; Lee, Kwang-Pyo

    2016-01-01

    The periodontium undergoes age-related cellular and clinical changes, but the involved genes are not yet known. Here, we investigated age-related genetic changes in gingiva at the transcriptomic level. Genes that were differentially expressed between young and old human gingiva were identified by RNA sequencing and verified by real-time PCR. A total of 1939 mRNA transcripts showed significantly differential expression between young and old gingival tissues. Matrix metalloprotease (MMP) regulation was the top pathway involved in gingival aging. MMP3, MMP9, MMP12, and MMP13 were upregulated in old gingival tissues, concomitantly with interleukin-1 beta (IL1B) expression. In vitro experiments using human gingival fibroblasts (hGFs) showed that MMP12 was upregulated in old hGFs compared to young hGFs. Moreover, the MMP3, MMP9 and IL1B levels were more highly stimulated by infection with the oral bacterium, Fusobacterium nucleatum, in old hGFs compared to young hGFs. Collectively, these findings suggest that, in gingiva, the upregulation of MMP12 may be a molecular hallmark of natural aging, while the upregulations of MMP3, MMM9, and IL1B may indicate externally (e.g., infection)-induced aging. These findings contribute to our understanding of the molecular targets involved in gingival aging. PMID:27391467

  3. Uveitis in the Aging Eye: Incidence, Patterns, and Differential Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Abdulaal, Marwan R.; Abiad, Bachir H.; Hamam, Rola N.

    2015-01-01

    Uveitis is a vision threatening inflammation of the eye that carries considerable morbidity. It is responsible for 10% of legal blindness in the United States and up to 25% in the developing world. Uveitis in patients more than 60 years of age is less common. The aging body has a changing response of the immune system, which might reflect a different pattern of uveitis in the elderly population. In this paper we review the incidence and patterns of uveitis in the elderly as reported in the literature and discuss changes with time. We also delineate a thorough differential diagnosis of de novo uveitis in the elderly. PMID:26090218

  4. A database of 629 English compound words: ratings of familiarity, lexeme meaning dominance, semantic transparency, age of acquisition, imageability, and sensory experience.

    PubMed

    Juhasz, Barbara J; Lai, Yun-Hsuan; Woodcock, Michelle L

    2015-12-01

    Since the work of Taft and Forster (1976), a growing literature has examined how English compound words are recognized and organized in the mental lexicon. Much of this research has focused on whether compound words are decomposed during recognition by manipulating the word frequencies of their lexemes. However, many variables may impact morphological processing, including relational semantic variables such as semantic transparency, as well as additional form-related and semantic variables. In the present study, ratings were collected on 629 English compound words for six variables [familiarity, age of acquisition (AoA), semantic transparency, lexeme meaning dominance (LMD), imageability, and sensory experience ratings (SER)]. All of the compound words selected for this study are contained within the English Lexicon Project (Balota et al., 2007), which made it possible to use a regression approach to examine the predictive power of these variables for lexical decision and word naming performance. Analyses indicated that familiarity, AoA, imageability, and SER were all significant predictors of both lexical decision and word naming performance when they were added separately to a model containing the length and frequency of the compounds, as well as the lexeme frequencies. In addition, rated semantic transparency also predicted lexical decision performance. The database of English compound words should be beneficial to word recognition researchers who are interested in selecting items for experiments on compound words, and it will also allow researchers to conduct further analyses using the available data combined with word recognition times included in the English Lexicon Project. PMID:25361864

  5. Age of Onset of Blindness and the Development of the Semantics of Color Names.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmor, Gloria Strauss

    The relationship between age of onset of blindness and development of knowledge of color relations was examined with 16 college students who had been born totally blind, 16 who had been blinded totally at approximately 15 years of age, and 16 who had normal vision. Ss were asked to judge the similarities between color names, and judgments were…

  6. Differentiation of plant age in grasses using remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Nichola M.; Skidmore, Andrew K.; van der Werff, Harald M. A.; Groen, Thomas A.; de Boer, Willem F.; Prins, Herbert H. T.; Kohi, Edward; Peel, Mike

    2013-10-01

    Phenological or plant age classification across a landscape allows for examination of micro-topographical effects on plant growth, improvement in the accuracy of species discrimination, and will improve our understanding of the spatial variation in plant growth. In this paper six vegetation indices used in phenological studies (including the newly proposed PhIX index) were analysed for their ability to statistically differentiate grasses of different ages in the sequence of their development. Spectra of grasses of different ages were collected from a greenhouse study. These were used to determine if NDVI, NDWI, CAI, EVI, EVI2 and the newly proposed PhIX index could sequentially discriminate grasses of different ages, and subsequently classify grasses into their respective age category. The PhIX index was defined as: (AVNIRn+log(ASWIR2n))/(AVNIRn-log(ASWIR2n)), where AVNIRn and ASWIR2n are the respective normalised areas under the continuum removed reflectance curve within the VNIR (500-800 nm) and SWIR2 (2000-2210 nm) regions. The PhIX index was found to produce the highest phenological classification accuracy (Overall Accuracy: 79%, and Kappa Accuracy: 75%) and similar to the NDVI, EVI and EVI2 indices it statistically sequentially separates out the developmental age classes. Discrimination between seedling and dormant age classes and the adult and flowering classes was problematic for most of the tested indices. Combining information from the visible near infrared (VNIR) and shortwave infrared region (SWIR) region into a single phenological index captures the phenological changes associated with plant pigments and the ligno-cellulose absorption feature, providing a robust method to discriminate the age classes of grasses. This work provides a valuable contribution into mapping spatial variation and monitoring plant growth across savanna and grassland ecosystems.

  7. Age of Acquisition Effects in Picture Naming: Evidence for a Lexical-Semantic Competition Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belke, E.; Brysbaert, M.; Meyer, A.S.; Ghyselinck, M.

    2005-01-01

    In many tasks the effects of frequency and age of acquisition (AoA) on reaction latencies are similar in size. However, in picture naming the AoA-effect is often significantly larger than expected on the basis of the frequency-effect. Previous explanations of this frequency-independent AoA-effect have attributed it to the organisation of the…

  8. Epigenome-Wide Scans Identify Differentially Methylated Regions for Age and Age-Related Phenotypes in a Healthy Ageing Population

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tsun-Po; Pidsley, Ruth; Nisbet, James; Glass, Daniel; Mangino, Massimo; Zhai, Guangju; Zhang, Feng; Valdes, Ana; Shin, So-Youn; Dempster, Emma L.; Murray, Robin M.; Grundberg, Elin; Hedman, Asa K.; Nica, Alexandra; Small, Kerrin S.; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Mill, Jonathan; Spector, Tim D.; Deloukas, Panos

    2012-01-01

    Age-related changes in DNA methylation have been implicated in cellular senescence and longevity, yet the causes and functional consequences of these variants remain unclear. To elucidate the role of age-related epigenetic changes in healthy ageing and potential longevity, we tested for association between whole-blood DNA methylation patterns in 172 female twins aged 32 to 80 with age and age-related phenotypes. Twin-based DNA methylation levels at 26,690 CpG-sites showed evidence for mean genome-wide heritability of 18%, which was supported by the identification of 1,537 CpG-sites with methylation QTLs in cis at FDR 5%. We performed genome-wide analyses to discover differentially methylated regions (DMRs) for sixteen age-related phenotypes (ap-DMRs) and chronological age (a-DMRs). Epigenome-wide association scans (EWAS) identified age-related phenotype DMRs (ap-DMRs) associated with LDL (STAT5A), lung function (WT1), and maternal longevity (ARL4A, TBX20). In contrast, EWAS for chronological age identified hundreds of predominantly hyper-methylated age DMRs (490 a-DMRs at FDR 5%), of which only one (TBX20) was also associated with an age-related phenotype. Therefore, the majority of age-related changes in DNA methylation are not associated with phenotypic measures of healthy ageing in later life. We replicated a large proportion of a-DMRs in a sample of 44 younger adult MZ twins aged 20 to 61, suggesting that a-DMRs may initiate at an earlier age. We next explored potential genetic and environmental mechanisms underlying a-DMRs and ap-DMRs. Genome-wide overlap across cis-meQTLs, genotype-phenotype associations, and EWAS ap-DMRs identified CpG-sites that had cis-meQTLs with evidence for genotype–phenotype association, where the CpG-site was also an ap-DMR for the same phenotype. Monozygotic twin methylation difference analyses identified one potential environmentally-mediated ap-DMR associated with total cholesterol and LDL (CSMD1). Our results suggest that in a

  9. Neuro-Semantics and Semantics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Stewart W.

    1987-01-01

    Draws distinctions between the terms semantics (dealing with such verbal parameters as dictionaries and "laws" of logic and rhetoric), general semantics (semantics, plus the complex, dynamic, organismal properties of human beings and their physical environment), and neurosemantics (names for relations-based input from the neurosensory system, and…

  10. Common and differential electrophysiological mechanisms underlying semantic object memory retrieval probed by features presented in different stimulus types.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hsueh-Sheng; Eroh, Justin; Spence, Jeffrey S; Motes, Michael A; Maguire, Mandy J; Krawczyk, Daniel C; Brier, Matthew R; Hart, John; Kraut, Michael A

    2016-08-01

    How the brain combines the neural representations of features that comprise an object in order to activate a coherent object memory is poorly understood, especially when the features are presented in different modalities (visual vs. auditory) and domains (verbal vs. nonverbal). We examined this question using three versions of a modified Semantic Object Retrieval Test, where object memory was probed by a feature presented as a written word, a spoken word, or a picture, followed by a second feature always presented as a visual word. Participants indicated whether each feature pair elicited retrieval of the memory of a particular object. Sixteen subjects completed one of the three versions (N=48 in total) while their EEG were recorded simultaneously. We analyzed EEG data in four separate frequency bands (delta: 1-4Hz, theta: 4-7Hz; alpha: 8-12Hz; beta: 13-19Hz) using a multivariate data-driven approach. We found that alpha power time-locked to response was modulated by both cross-modality (visual vs. auditory) and cross-domain (verbal vs. nonverbal) probing of semantic object memory. In addition, retrieval trials showed greater changes in all frequency bands compared to non-retrieval trials across all stimulus types in both response-locked and stimulus-locked analyses, suggesting dissociable neural subcomponents involved in binding object features to retrieve a memory. We conclude that these findings support both modality/domain-dependent and modality/domain-independent mechanisms during semantic object memory retrieval. PMID:27329353

  11. Word Learning by Preschoolers with Specific Language Impairment: Effect of Phonological or Semantic Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Shelley

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated whether phonological or semantic encoding cues promoted better word learning for children with specific language impairment (SLI) and whether this treatment differentially affected children with SLI and normal language (NL). Method: Twenty-four preschoolers ages 4;0 (years;months) to 5;11 with SLI and 24 age- and…

  12. Testosterone and Dihydrotestosterone Differentially Improve Cognition in Aged Female Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benice, Ted S.; Raber, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Compared with age-matched male mice, female mice experience a more severe age-related cognitive decline (ACD). Since androgens are less abundant in aged female mice compared with aged male mice, androgen supplementation may enhance cognition in aged female mice. To test this, we assessed behavioral performance on a variety of tasks in 22- to…

  13. Conceptual Organization at 6 and 8 Years of Age: Evidence from the Semantic Priming of Object Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Naomi; McGregor, Karla K.; Graham, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine children's knowledge of semantic relations. Method: In Experiment 1, the 6-year-olds, 8-year-olds, and adults participated in an object decision task. Participants in the primed group made object decisions in response to primes that were related taxonomically, thematically, or perceptually to the…

  14. Young Children's Flexible Use of Semantic Cues to Word Meanings: Converging Evidence of Individual and Age Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deák, Gedeon O.; Narasimham, Gayathri

    2014-01-01

    A new test of children's flexible use of semantic cues for word learning extended previous results. In Experiment 1, three- to five-year-olds (N = 51) completed two tests of interpreting several novel words for the same stimulus arrays. Within-sentence phrasal cues implied different stimulus referent properties. Children's cue-using…

  15. Productive Extension of Semantic Memory in School-Aged Children: Relations with Reading Comprehension and Deployment of Cognitive Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Blue, Shala N.; Xu, Aoxiang; Esposito, Alena G.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated 7- to 10-year-old children's productive extension of semantic memory through self-generation of new factual knowledge derived through integration of separate yet related facts learned through instruction or through reading. In Experiment 1, an experimenter read the to-be-integrated facts. Children successfully learned and…

  16. Reading Development Electrified: Semantic and Syntactic Integration during Sentence Comprehension in School-Age Children and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanDyke, Justine M.

    2011-01-01

    Adults are able to access semantic and syntactic information rapidly as they hear or read in real-time in order to interpret sentences. Young children, on the other hand, tend to rely on syntactically-based parsing routines, adopting the first noun as the agent of a sentence regardless of plausibility, at least during oral comprehension. Little is…

  17. 29 CFR 1625.7 - Differentiations based on reasonable factors other than age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... COMMISSION AGE DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT ACT Interpretations § 1625.7 Differentiations based on reasonable... and avoid discrimination; (iii) The extent to which the employer limited supervisors' discretion...

  18. 29 CFR 1625.7 - Differentiations based on reasonable factors other than age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COMMISSION AGE DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT ACT Interpretations § 1625.7 Differentiations based on reasonable... and avoid discrimination; (iii) The extent to which the employer limited supervisors' discretion...

  19. 29 CFR 1625.7 - Differentiations based on reasonable factors other than age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... COMMISSION AGE DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT ACT Interpretations § 1625.7 Differentiations based on reasonable... and avoid discrimination; (iii) The extent to which the employer limited supervisors' discretion...

  20. A pilot study measuring changes in student impressions before and after clinical training using a questionnaire based on the semantic differential technique.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Naomi; Terashita, Takayoshi; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Students with a positive impression of their studies can become more motivated. This study measured the learning impact of clinical training by comparing student impressions before and after clinical training. The study included 32 students of radiological technology in their final year with the Division of Radiological Science and Technology, Department of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Hokkaido University. To measure student impressions of x-ray examination training, we developed a questionnaire using the semantic differential technique. The resulting factor analysis identified 2 factors that accounted for 44.9% of the 10 bipolar adjective scales. Factor 1 represented a "resistance" impression of x-ray examination training, and factor 2 represented a "responsibility" impression. The differences in factor scores before and after the clinical training suggest that student impressions are affected by clinical training. PMID:23920812

  1. Differential Effects of Aging on Processes Underlying Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Robert; Travers, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to examine the effects of aging on processes underlying task switching. The response time data revealed an age-related increase in mixing costs before controlling for general slowing and no effect of aging on switching costs. In the cue-locked epoch, the ERP data revealed little effect…

  2. Apoptotic Genes are Differentially Expressed in Aged Gingival Tissue

    PubMed Central

    González, O.A.; Stromberg, A.J.; Huggins, P.M.; Gonzalez-Martinez, J.; Novak, M.J.; Ebersole, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Cellular and molecular changes of the periodontium associated with a higher prevalence of oral diseases (e.g., chronic periodontitis) in aged populations have received little attention. Since impaired apoptosis during aging appears to be related to chronic inflammatory disorders, we hypothesized that the expression of genes associated with apoptotic processes are altered in aged healthy and periodontitis-affected gingival tissue. Ontology analysis of 88 genes related to apoptotic pathways was performed in gingival biopsies of healthy and periodontitis sites from young, adult, and aged non-human primates (Macaca mulatta), using the GeneChip® Rhesus Macaque Genome Array. Lower expression of anti-apoptotic and higher expression of pro-apoptotic genes were associated with healthy gingival tissue from young compared with aged animals. Few differences in gene expression were observed in healthy gingival tissue between adult and aged animals. Comparison between healthy and periodontitis gingival tissues showed that the up- or down-regulated apoptotic genes in diseased gingival tissue are different in adults compared with aged animals. These results suggest that apoptotic events normally occurring in gingival tissues could be reduced in aging,and unique aspects of apoptotic pathways are potentially involved in the pathophysiology of perio-dontal disease in adult vs. aged gingival tissues. PMID:21471327

  3. Brain metabolism and memory in age differentiated healthy adults

    SciTech Connect

    Riege, W.H.; Metter, E.J.; Kuhl, D.E.; Phelps, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    The (F-18)-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) scan method with positron emission tomography was used to determine age differences in factors underlying both the performances on 18 multivariate memory tests and the rates of cerebral glucose utilization in 9 left and 9 right hemispheric regions of 23 healthy adults in the age range of 27-78 years. Young persons below age 42 had higher scores than middle-aged (age 48-65 yrs) or old (age 66-78 yrs) persons on two of seven factors, reflecting memory for sequences of words or events together with metabolic indices of Broca's (and its mirror region) and Thalamic areas. Reliable correlations (critical r = 0.48, p<0.02) indicated that persons with high Superior Frontal and low Caudate-Thalamic metabolic measures were the same who performed well in tests of memory for sentences, story, designs, and complex patterns; while metabolic indices of Occipital and Posterior Temporal regions were correlated with the decision criteria adopted in testing. The mean metabolic ratio (b = -0.033, F = 5.47, p<0.03) and those of bilateral Broca's regions (b = -0.002, F = 13.65, p<0.001) significantly declined with age. The functional interrelation of frontal-subcortical metabolic ratios with memory processing was more prominent in younger persons under study and implicates decreasing thalamo-frontal interaction with age.

  4. Age-Related Differences in Achievement Goal Differentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bong, Mimi

    2009-01-01

    Validity of the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework for school-aged children and adolescents was examined, using self-report responses from 1,196 Korean elementary and middle school students. Confirmatory factor analysis models hypothesizing 4 distinct achievement goal factors demonstrated the best fit in all age groups. Nevertheless, achievement…

  5. Effect of Age on Regulation of Human Osteoclast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Ping-Lin; Zhou, Shuanhu; Eslami, Behnam; Shen, Longxiang; LeBoff, Meryl S.; Glowacki, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Human skeletal aging is characterized as a gradual loss of bone mass due to an excess of bone resorption not balanced by new bone formation. Using human marrow cells, we tested the hypothesis that there is an age-dependent increase in osteoclastogenesis due to intrinsic changes in regulatory factors [macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG)] and their receptors [c-fms and RANK]. In bone marrow cells (BMCs), c-fms (r=0.61, p=0.006) and RANK expression (r=0.59, p=0.008) were increased with age (27-82 years, n=19). In vitro generation of osteoclasts was increased with age (r=0.89, p=0.007). In enriched marrow stromal cells (MSCs), constitutive expression of RANKL was increased with age (r=0.41, p=0.049) and expression of OPG was inversely correlated with age (r=-0.43, p=0.039). Accordingly, there was an age-related increase in RANKL/OPG (r=0.56, p=0.005). These data indicate an age-related increase in human osteoclastogenesis that is associated with an intrinsic increase in expression of c-fms and RANK in osteoclast progenitors, and, in the supporting MSCs, an increase in pro-osteoclastogenic RANKL expression and a decrease in anti-osteoclastogenic OPG. These findings support the hypothesis that human marrow cells and their products can contribute to skeletal aging by increasing the generation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts. These findings help to explain underlying molecular mechanisms of progressive bone loss with advancing age in humans. PMID:24700654

  6. Semantic Desktop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauermann, Leo; Kiesel, Malte; Schumacher, Kinga; Bernardi, Ansgar

    In diesem Beitrag wird gezeigt, wie der Arbeitsplatz der Zukunft aussehen könnte und wo das Semantic Web neue Möglichkeiten eröffnet. Dazu werden Ansätze aus dem Bereich Semantic Web, Knowledge Representation, Desktop-Anwendungen und Visualisierung vorgestellt, die es uns ermöglichen, die bestehenden Daten eines Benutzers neu zu interpretieren und zu verwenden. Dabei bringt die Kombination von Semantic Web und Desktop Computern besondere Vorteile - ein Paradigma, das unter dem Titel Semantic Desktop bekannt ist. Die beschriebenen Möglichkeiten der Applikationsintegration sind aber nicht auf den Desktop beschränkt, sondern können genauso in Web-Anwendungen Verwendung finden.

  7. Semantic Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes semantic mapping, an effective strategy for vocabulary instruction that involves the categorical structuring of information in graphic form and requires students to relate new words to their own experience and prior knowledge. (HOD)

  8. Automatic processing of taxonomic and thematic relations in semantic priming - Differentiation by early N400 and late frontal negativity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingfei; Ye, Chun; Liang, Xiuling; Cao, Bihua; Lei, Yi; Li, Hong

    2014-09-16

    Most current models of knowledge organization are based on hierarchical (plant-pine) or taxonomic categories (animal-plant). Another important organizational pattern is thematic categories, which performs external or complementary roles in the same scenario or event (bee-honey). The goal of this study was to explore the processing of hierarchical categories and thematic categories under automatic processing conditions that minimize strategic influences. The Evoked response potential (ERP) procedure was used to examine the time course of semantic priming for category members with a short stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of 300ms as participants performed a lexical decision task. Six experimental conditions were compared: hierarchical relations (offspring-grandson), internal features (gold-golden), productive relations (bee-honey), script relations (room-tenant), unrelated (star-spoon), and non-word trials (star-derf). We found faster reaction times for related prime-target pairs than unrelated pairs except for productive relations. The ERP data showed that an early N400 effect (200-400ms) was more negative for unrelated words than for all related words. Furthermore, a frontal negativity (400-550ms) elicited by productive relations was smaller (more positive) than other related words. We suggest that the smaller frontal negativity in the processing of productive relations indicates their increased salience in knowledge structure compared to less prominent hierarchical relations. Indeed, the allocation of attentional resources and subsequent recruitment of additional memory processing might be two of the hallmarks of thematic relations. PMID:25234647

  9. Learning Styles in the Age of Differentiated Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landrum, Timothy J.; McDuffie, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of learning styles has tremendous logical and intuitive appeal, and educators' desire to focus on learning styles is understandable. Recently, a growing emphasis on differentiated instruction may have further increased teachers' tendency to look at learning styles as an instructionally relevant variable when individualizing instruction…

  10. Age and amount of exposure to a foreign language during childhood: behavioral and ERP data on the semantic comprehension of spoken English by Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Ojima, Shiro; Matsuba-Kurita, Hiroko; Nakamura, Naoko; Hoshino, Takahiro; Hagiwara, Hiroko

    2011-06-01

    Children's foreign-language (FL) learning is a matter of much social as well as scientific debate. Previous behavioral research indicates that starting language learning late in life can lead to problems in phonological processing. Inadequate phonological capacity may impede lexical learning and semantic processing (phonological bottleneck hypothesis). Using both behavioral and neuroimaging data, here we examine the effects of age of first exposure (AOFE) and total hours of exposure (HOE) to English, on 350 Japanese primary-school children's semantic processing of spoken English. Children's English proficiency scores and N400 event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were analyzed in multiple regression analyses. The results showed (1) that later, rather than earlier, AOFE led to higher English proficiency and larger N400 amplitudes, when HOE was controlled for; and (2) that longer HOE led to higher English proficiency and larger N400 amplitudes, whether AOFE was controlled for or not. These data highlight the important role of amount of exposure in FL learning, and cast doubt on the view that starting FL learning earlier always produces better results. PMID:21300112

  11. Neural Substrates of Semantic Prospection – Evidence from the Dementias

    PubMed Central

    Irish, Muireann; Eyre, Nadine; Dermody, Nadene; O’Callaghan, Claire; Hodges, John R.; Hornberger, Michael; Piguet, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The ability to envisage personally relevant events at a future time point represents an incredibly sophisticated cognitive endeavor and one that appears to be intimately linked to episodic memory integrity. Far less is known regarding the neurocognitive mechanisms underpinning the capacity to envisage non-personal future occurrences, known as semantic future thinking. Moreover the degree of overlap between the neural substrates supporting episodic and semantic forms of prospection remains unclear. To this end, we sought to investigate the capacity for episodic and semantic future thinking in Alzheimer’s disease (n = 15) and disease-matched behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia (n = 15), neurodegenerative disorders characterized by significant medial temporal lobe (MTL) and frontal pathology. Participants completed an assessment of past and future thinking across personal (episodic) and non-personal (semantic) domains, as part of a larger neuropsychological battery investigating episodic and semantic processing, and their performance was contrasted with 20 age- and education-matched healthy older Controls. Participants underwent whole-brain T1-weighted structural imaging and voxel-based morphometry analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between gray matter integrity and episodic and semantic future thinking. Relative to Controls, both patient groups displayed marked future thinking impairments, extending across episodic and semantic domains. Analyses of covariance revealed that while episodic future thinking deficits could be explained solely in terms of episodic memory proficiency, semantic prospection deficits reflected the interplay between episodic and semantic processing. Distinct neural correlates emerged for each form of future simulation with differential involvement of prefrontal, lateral temporal, and medial temporal regions. Notably, the hippocampus was implicated irrespective of future thinking domain, with the suggestion of

  12. Neural Substrates of Semantic Prospection - Evidence from the Dementias.

    PubMed

    Irish, Muireann; Eyre, Nadine; Dermody, Nadene; O'Callaghan, Claire; Hodges, John R; Hornberger, Michael; Piguet, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The ability to envisage personally relevant events at a future time point represents an incredibly sophisticated cognitive endeavor and one that appears to be intimately linked to episodic memory integrity. Far less is known regarding the neurocognitive mechanisms underpinning the capacity to envisage non-personal future occurrences, known as semantic future thinking. Moreover the degree of overlap between the neural substrates supporting episodic and semantic forms of prospection remains unclear. To this end, we sought to investigate the capacity for episodic and semantic future thinking in Alzheimer's disease (n = 15) and disease-matched behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia (n = 15), neurodegenerative disorders characterized by significant medial temporal lobe (MTL) and frontal pathology. Participants completed an assessment of past and future thinking across personal (episodic) and non-personal (semantic) domains, as part of a larger neuropsychological battery investigating episodic and semantic processing, and their performance was contrasted with 20 age- and education-matched healthy older Controls. Participants underwent whole-brain T1-weighted structural imaging and voxel-based morphometry analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between gray matter integrity and episodic and semantic future thinking. Relative to Controls, both patient groups displayed marked future thinking impairments, extending across episodic and semantic domains. Analyses of covariance revealed that while episodic future thinking deficits could be explained solely in terms of episodic memory proficiency, semantic prospection deficits reflected the interplay between episodic and semantic processing. Distinct neural correlates emerged for each form of future simulation with differential involvement of prefrontal, lateral temporal, and medial temporal regions. Notably, the hippocampus was implicated irrespective of future thinking domain, with the suggestion of

  13. Prostaglandin E2 Labour Induction with Intravaginal (Minprostin) versus Intracervical (Prepidil) Administration at Term: Randomized Study of Maternal and Neonatal Outcome and Patient's Perception Using the Osgood Semantic Differential Scales

    PubMed Central

    Reinhard, Joscha; Rösler, Roberta; Yuan, Juping; Schiermeier, Sven; Herrmann, Eva; Eichbaum, Michael H.; Louwen, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To compare the efficacy, safety, and patient's perception of two prostaglandin E2 application methods for induction of labour. Method. Above 36th weeks of gestation, all women, who were admitted to hospital for induction of labour, were prospectively randomised to intravaginal 1 mg or intracervical 0.5 mg irrespective of cervical Bishop score. The main outcome variables were induction-to-delivery interval, number of foetal blood samples, PDA rate, rate of oxytocin augmentation, rate of vaginal delivery, and patient's perception using semantic differential questionnaire. Results. Thirty-nine patients were enrolled in this study. There was no statistical significant difference between the two groups in regard to perceptions of induction. The median induction delivery time using intravaginal versus intracervical administration was 29.9 versus 12.8 hours, respectively (P = 0.04). No statistically difference between the groups was detected in regard to parity, gestation age, cervical Bishop score, number of foetal blood samples, PDA rate, rate of oxytocin augmentation, and mode of birth. Summary. Irrespective of the cervical Bishop Score, intracervical gel had a shorter induction delivery time without impingement on the women's perception of induction. PMID:25610872

  14. Differential Modulation of Nitric Oxide Synthases in Aging: Therapeutic Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Cau, Stefany B. A.; Carneiro, Fernando S.; Tostes, Rita C.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular aging is the term that describes the structural and functional disturbances of the vasculature with advancing aging. The molecular mechanisms of aging-associated endothelial dysfunction are complex, but reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and altered vascular expression and activity of NO synthase (NOS) enzymes have been implicated as major players. Impaired vascular relaxation in aging has been attributed to reduced endothelial NOS (eNOS)-derived NO, while increased inducible NOS (iNOS) expression seems to account for nitrosative stress and disrupted vascular homeostasis. Although eNOS is considered the main source of NO in the vascular endothelium, neuronal NOS (nNOS) also contributes to endothelial cells-derived NO, a mechanism that is reduced in aging. Pharmacological modulation of NO generation and expression/activity of NOS isoforms may represent a therapeutic alternative to prevent the progression of cardiovascular diseases. Accordingly, this review will focus on drugs that modulate NO bioavailability, such as nitrite anions and NO-releasing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, hormones (dehydroepiandrosterone and estrogen), statins, resveratrol, and folic acid, since they may be useful to treat/to prevent aging-associated vascular dysfunction. The impact of these therapies on life quality in elderly and longevity will be discussed. PMID:22737132

  15. Differential Age Effects on Spatial and Visual Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosterman, Joukje M.; Morel, Sascha; Meijer, Lisette; Buvens, Cleo; Kessels, Roy P. C.; Postma, Albert

    2011-01-01

    The present study was intended to compare age effects on visual and spatial working memory by using two versions of the same task that differed only in presentation mode. The working memory task contained both a simultaneous and a sequential presentation mode condition, reflecting, respectively, visual and spatial working memory processes. Young…

  16. Differential effects of age on involuntary and voluntary autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Schlagman, Simone; Kliegel, Matthias; Schulz, Jörg; Kvavilashvili, Lia

    2009-06-01

    Research on aging and autobiographical memory has focused almost exclusively on voluntary autobiographical memory. However, in everyday life, autobiographical memories often come to mind spontaneously without deliberate attempt to retrieve anything. In the present study, diary and word-cue methods were used to compare the involuntary and voluntary memories of 44 young and 38 older adults. The results showed that older adults reported fewer involuntary and voluntary memories than did younger adults. Additionally, the life span distribution of involuntary and voluntary memories did not differ in young adults (a clear recency effect) or in older adults (a recency effect and a reminiscence bump). Despite these similarities between involuntary and voluntary memories, there were also important differences in terms of the effects of age on some memory characteristics. Thus, older adults' voluntary memories were less specific and were recalled more slowly than those of young adults, but there were no reliable age differences in the specificity of involuntary memories. Moreover, older adults rated their involuntary memories as more positive than did young adults, but this positivity effect was not found for voluntary memories. Theoretical implications of these findings for research on autobiographical memory and cognitive aging are discussed. PMID:19485657

  17. Development of a Bone-Conducted Ultrasonic Hearing Aid for the Profoundly Deaf: Evaluation of Sound Quality Using a Semantic Differential Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Seiji; Fujiyuki, Chika; Kagomiya, Takayuki

    2013-07-01

    Bone-conducted ultrasound (BCU) is perceived even by the profoundly sensorineural deaf. A novel hearing aid using the perception of amplitude-modulated BCU (BCU hearing aid: BCUHA) has been developed. However, there is room for improvement particularly in terms of sound quality. BCU speech is accompanied by a strong high-pitched tone and contain some distortion. In this study, the sound quality of BCU speech with several types of amplitude modulation [double-sideband with transmitted carrier (DSB-TC), double-sideband with suppressed carrier (DSB-SC), and transposed modulations] and air-conducted (AC) speech was quantitatively evaluated using semantic differential and factor analysis. The results showed that all the types of BCU speech had higher metallic and lower esthetic factor scores than AC speech. On the other hand, transposed speech was closer than the other types of BCU speech to AC speech generally; the transposed speech showed a higher powerfulness factor score than the other types of BCU speech and a higher esthetic factor score than DSB-SC speech. These results provide useful information for further development of the BCUHA.

  18. Quantifying Semantic Linguistic Maturity in Children.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Kristina; Bååth, Rasmus; Löhndorf, Simone; Sahlén, Birgitta; Sikström, Sverker

    2016-10-01

    We propose a method to quantify semantic linguistic maturity (SELMA) based on a high dimensional semantic representation of words created from the co-occurrence of words in a large text corpus. The method was applied to oral narratives from 108 children aged 4;0-12;10. By comparing the SELMA measure with maturity ratings made by human raters we found that SELMA predicted the rating of semantic maturity made by human raters over and above the prediction made using a child's age and number of words produced. We conclude that the semantic content of narratives changes in a predictable pattern with children's age and argue that SELMA is a measure quantifying semantic linguistic maturity. The study opens up the possibility of using quantitative measures for studying the development of semantic representation in children's narratives, and emphasizes the importance of word co-occurrences for understanding the development of meaning. PMID:26440529

  19. Donor age and cell passage affects differentiation potential of murine bone marrow-derived stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Kretlow, James D; Jin, Yu-Qing; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Wen Jie; Hong, Tan-Hui; Zhou, Guangdong; Baggett, L Scott; Mikos, Antonios G; Cao, Yilin

    2008-01-01

    Background Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are a widely researched adult stem cell population capable of differentiation into various lineages. Because many promising applications of tissue engineering require cell expansion following harvest and involve the treatment of diseases and conditions found in an aging population, the effect of donor age and ex vivo handling must be understood in order to develop clinical techniques and therapeutics based on these cells. Furthermore, there currently exists little understanding as to how these two factors may be influenced by one another. Results Differences in the adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic differentiation capacity of murine MSCs harvested from donor animals of different age and number of passages of these cells were observed. Cells from younger donors adhered to tissue culture polystyrene better and proliferated in greater number than those from older animals. Chondrogenic and osteogenic potential decreased with age for each group, and adipogenic differentiation decreased only in cells from the oldest donors. Significant decreases in differentiation potentials due to passage were observed as well for osteogenesis of BMSCs from the youngest donors and chondrogenesis of the cells from the oldest donors. Conclusion Both increasing age and the number of passages have lineage dependent effects on BMSC differentiation potential. Furthermore, there is an obvious interplay between donor age and cell passage that in the future must be accounted for when developing cell-based therapies for clinical use. PMID:18957087

  20. Generative Semantics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagha, Karim Nazari

    2011-01-01

    Generative semantics is (or perhaps was) a research program within linguistics, initiated by the work of George Lakoff, John R. Ross, Paul Postal and later McCawley. The approach developed out of transformational generative grammar in the mid 1960s, but stood largely in opposition to work by Noam Chomsky and his students. The nature and genesis of…

  1. Donor age negatively impacts adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell expansion and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human adipose tissue is an ideal autologous source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for various regenerative medicine and tissue engineering strategies. Aged patients are one of the primary target populations for many promising applications. It has long been known that advanced age is negatively correlated with an organism’s reparative and regenerative potential, but little and conflicting information is available about the effects of age on the quality of human adipose tissue derived MSCs (hAT-MSCs). Methods To study the influence of age, the expansion and in vitro differentiation potential of hAT-MSCs from young (<30 years), adult (35-50 years) and aged (>60 years) individuals were investigated. MSCs were characterized for expression of the genes p16INK4a and p21 along with measurements of population doublings (PD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, cellular senescence and differentiation potential. Results Aged MSCs displayed senescent features when compared with cells isolated from young donors, concomitant with reduced viability and proliferation. These features were also associated with significantly reduced differentiation potential in aged MSCs compared to young MSCs. Conclusions In conclusion, advancing age negatively impacts stem cell function and such age related alterations may be detrimental for successful stem cell therapies. PMID:24397850

  2. Difficulty in differentiating trustworthiness from untrustworthiness in older age.

    PubMed

    Webb, Bianca; Hine, Alison C; Bailey, Phoebe E

    2016-06-01

    Older adults report being more trusting than young adults, and this may be particularly evident in close social relationships. This is beneficial for well-being when trust is reciprocated, but detrimental when trust is exploited. In a repeated trust game, young (n = 35) and older adults (n = 33) invested real money over repeated interactions with trustees of varying social distances (close, neutral, distant) and trustworthiness (trustworthy, untrustworthy). Young and older adults were equally proficient at learning to integrate congruent information so that by the end of the task they were investing most with close trustees who reciprocate often and least with distant trustees who rarely reciprocate. Averaged across time, however, older adults were more likely than young adults to invest with all trustees, with the one exception of close trustees who reciprocate often. In addition, among older adults, higher intelligence was correlated with larger investments with the most trustworthy trustees, and better subjective financial well-being was associated with increased investing in the most untrustworthy trustees. Although both age groups demonstrated a confirmation bias by integrating preexisting beliefs with ongoing behavior in order to determine trustworthiness, this effect was most consistent among the young adults. We discuss the potential danger, particularly for finances, when older adults discount information pertaining to trustworthiness and/or untrustworthiness. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27148780

  3. Death by color: differential cone loss in the aging mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Cunea, Alexander; Powner, Michael B; Jeffery, Glen

    2014-11-01

    Differential cell death is a common feature of aging and age-related disease. In the retina, 30% of rod photoreceptors are lost over life in humans and rodents. However, studies have failed to show age-related cell death in mouse cone photoreceptors, which is surprising because cone physiological function declines with age. Moreover in human, differential loss of short wavelength cone function is an aspect of age-related retinal disease. Here, cones are examined in young (3-month-old) and aged (12-month-old) C57 mice and also in complement factor H knock out mice (CFH-/-) that have been proposed as a murine model of age-related macular degeneration. In vivo imaging showed significant age-related reductions in outer retinal thickness in both groups over this period. Immunostaining for opsins revealed a specific significant decline of >20% for the medium/long (M/L)-wavelength cones but only in the periphery. S cones numbers were not significantly affected by age. This differential cell loss was backed up with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for the 2 opsins, again showing S opsin was unaffected, but that M/L opsin was reduced particularly in CFH-/- mice. These results demonstrate aged cone loss, but surprisingly, in both genotypes, it is only significant in the peripheral ventral retina and focused on the M/L population and not S cones. We speculate that there may be fundamental differences in differential cone loss between human and mouse that may question the validity of mouse models of human outer retinal aging and pathology. PMID:24929970

  4. The happy survivor? Effects of differential mortality on life satisfaction in older age.

    PubMed

    Segerstrom, Suzanne C; Combs, Hannah L; Winning, Ashley; Boehm, Julia K; Kubzansky, Laura D

    2016-06-01

    Older adults report higher psychological well-being than younger adults. Those highest in well-being also have the lowest risk of mortality. If those with lower well-being die earlier, it could affect the appearance of developmental change in well-being. In adults aged 50 and older (N = 4,458), we estimated effects of differential mortality on life satisfaction by imputing life satisfaction, adjusting for attrition due to death, or estimating life satisfaction using pattern-mixture modeling. There was an increase in life satisfaction with age; however, differential mortality affected the elevation of the curve. Observed life satisfaction, particularly above age 70, is affected by differential mortality. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27294716

  5. Age-related decline in differentiated neural responses to rare target versus frequent standard stimuli.

    PubMed

    Mott, Katherine K; Alperin, Brittany R; Holcomb, Phillip J; Daffner, Kirk R

    2014-10-31

    One mechanism hypothesized to contribute to cognitive aging is the failure to recruit specialized neural modules and generate differentiated neural responses to various classes of stimuli. Here, ERPs were used to examine the extent to which target and standard stimulus types were processed differently by well-matched adults ages 19-99. Subjects responded to designated visual target letters under low and high load conditions. Temporospatial PCA was used to parse the P3b component, an index of categorization/memory updating. The P3b amplitude difference between targets and standards decreased substantially as a function of age. Dedifferentiation began in middle age, and continued into old-old age. The reduced differentiation of neural responses was driven by an age-related decline in the size of the P3b to targets and an age-related increase in the P3b to standards. Larger P3b amplitude to standards among older subjects was associated with higher executive capacity and better task performance. In summary, dedifferentiation begins relatively early in adulthood and progresses in a linear fashion throughout the lifespan. The age-related augmentation of the P3b to standards appears to reflect a compensatory mechanism that helps maintain task performance. PMID:25171804

  6. Age-related decline in differentiated neural responses to rare target versus frequent standard stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Mott, Katherine K.; Alperin, Brittany R.; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Daffner, Kirk R.

    2014-01-01

    One mechanism hypothesized to contribute to cognitive aging is the failure to recruit specialized neural modules and generate differentiated neural responses to various classes of stimuli. Here, ERPs were used to examine the extent to which target and standard stimulus types were processed differently by well-matched adults ages 19–99. Subjects responded to designated visual target letters under low and high load conditions. Temporospatial PCA was used to parse the P3b component, an index of categorization/memory updating. The P3b amplitude difference between targets and standards decreased substantially as a function of age. Dedifferentiation began in middle age, and continued into old-old age. The reduced differentiation of neural responses was driven by an age-related decline in the size of the P3b to targets and an age-related increase in the P3b to standards. Larger P3b amplitude to standards among older subjects was associated with higher executive capacity and better task performance. In summary, dedifferentiation begins relatively early in adulthood and progresses in a linear fashion throughout the lifespan. The age-related augmentation of the P3b to standards appears to reflect a compensatory mechanism that helps maintain task performance. PMID:25171804

  7. Phonological Differentiation before Age Two in a Tagalog-Spanish-English Trilingual Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanari, Simona

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on a trilingual toddler's ability to differentiate her Tagalog, Spanish and English productions on phonological/phonetic grounds. Working within the articulatory phonology framework, the word-initial segments produced by the child in Tagalog, Spanish and English words at age 1;10 were narrowly transcribed by two researchers and…

  8. Stromal-epithelial interactions in aging and cancer: Senescent fibroblasts alter epithelial cell differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Parrinello, Simona; Coppe, Jean-Philippe; Krtolica, Ana; Campisi, Judith

    2004-07-14

    Cellular senescence suppresses cancer by arresting cells at risk for malignant tumorigenesis. However, senescent cells also secrete molecules that can stimulate premalignant cells to proliferate and form tumors, suggesting the senescence response is antagonistically pleiotropic. We show that premalignant mammary epithelial cells exposed to senescent human fibroblasts in mice irreversibly lose differentiated properties, become invasive and undergo full malignant transformation. Moreover, using cultured mouse or human fibroblasts and non-malignant breast epithelial cells, we show that senescent fibroblasts disrupt epithelial alveolar morphogenesis, functional differentiation, and branching morphogenesis. Further, we identify MMP-3 as the major factor responsible for the effects of senescent fibroblasts on branching morphogenesis. Our findings support the idea that senescent cells contribute to age-related pathology, including cancer, and describe a new property of senescent fibroblasts--the ability to alter epithelial differentiation--that might also explain the loss of tissue function and organization that is a hallmark of aging.

  9. Stromal-epithelial interactions in aging and cancer: senescent fibroblasts alter epithelial cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Parrinello, Simona; Coppe, Jean-Philippe; Krtolica, Ana; Campisi, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Summary Cellular senescence suppresses cancer by arresting cells at risk of malignant tumorigenesis. However, senescent cells also secrete molecules that can stimulate premalignant cells to proliferate and form tumors, suggesting the senescence response is antagonistically pleiotropic. We show that premalignant mammary epithelial cells exposed to senescent human fibroblasts in mice irreversibly lose differentiated properties, become invasive and undergo full malignant transformation. Moreover, using cultured mouse or human fibroblasts and non-malignant breast epithelial cells, we show that senescent fibroblasts disrupt epithelial alveolar morphogenesis, functional differentiation and branching morphogenesis. Furthermore, we identify MMP-3 as the major factor responsible for the effects of senescent fibroblasts on branching morphogenesis. Our findings support the idea that senescent cells contribute to age-related pathology, including cancer, and describe a new property of senescent fibroblasts – the ability to alter epithelial differentiation – that might also explain the loss of tissue function and organization that is a hallmark of aging. PMID:15657080

  10. Differential proteomics analysis of proteins from human diabetic and age-related cataractous lenses

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jing; Shao, Jun; Yao, Yong; Chu, Zhao Dong; Yu, Qian Qian; Zhao, Wei; Lin, Qing; Zhang, Zi Yin

    2013-01-01

    Backgound: To investigate the differential lens proteomics between diabetic cataract, age-related cataract, and natural subjects. Materials and Methods: Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), mass spectrometry (MS), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were employed. Total soluble proteins in lenses of type I diabetic cataract, age-related cataract (nondiabetic) patients, and normal control were extracted and subjected to 2-DE. The differential protein spots were recovered, digested with trypsin, and further applied to MALDI-TOF-MS. ELISA analysis was used to determine the levels of differential proteins in lenses of three groups. Results: 2-DE analysis reflected that lens proteins of normal control, diabetic, and age-related cataract subjects were in the section of pH 5-9 and the relative molecular weights were 14-97 kDa, while relative molecular weight of more abundant crystallines was localized at 20-31 kDa. five differential protein spots were detected and identified using MALDI-TOF-MS, including beta-crystallin A3, alpha-crystallin B chain, chain A of crystal structure of truncated human beta-B1-crystallin, beta-crystallin B1, and an interesting unnamed protein product highly similar to alpha-crystallin B chain, respectively. ELISA analysis revealed that lenses of diabetic cataract patients should contain significantly more concentrations of beta-crystallin A3, alpha-crystallin B chain, and beta-crystallin B1 than those of age-related cataract patients and normal control. Conclusion: This study clearly reflected the differential proteins of diabetic cataract, age-related cataract lenses compared with natural subjects, and it is helpful for the further research on the principles and mechanisms of different types of cataract. PMID:24520233

  11. Language Networks Associated with Computerized Semantic Indices

    PubMed Central

    Pakhomov, Serguei V. S.; Jones, David T.; Knopman, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Tests of generative semantic verbal fluency are widely used to study organization and representation of concepts in the human brain. Previous studies demonstrated that clustering and switching behavior during verbal fluency tasks is supported by multiple brain mechanisms associated with semantic memory and executive control. Previous work relied on manual assessments of semantic relatedness between words and grouping of words into semantic clusters. We investigated a computational linguistic approach to measuring the strength of semantic relatedness between words based on latent semantic analysis of word co-occurrences in a subset of a large online encyclopedia. We computed semantic clustering indices and compared them to brain network connectivity measures obtained with task-free fMRI in a sample consisting of healthy participants and those differentially affected by cognitive impairment. We found that semantic clustering indices were associated with brain network connectivity in distinct areas including fronto-temporal, fronto-parietal and fusiform gyrus regions. This study shows that computerized semantic indices complement traditional assessments of verbal fluency to provide a more complete account of the relationship between brain and verbal behavior involved organization and retrieval of lexical information from memory. PMID:25315785

  12. Effect of retinoic acid and vitamin D3 on osteoblast differentiation and activity in aging.

    PubMed

    Bosetti, Michela; Sabbatini, Maurizio; Calarco, Anna; Borrone, Alessia; Peluso, Gianfranco; Cannas, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have evidenced that in aging, osteoblast functional activity is impaired: osteoblast proliferation is slower and matrix deposition is less efficient. Because peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2) and fatty acids are important inhibitory signals in osteoblast development, we have investigated in human primary osteoblasts obtained from patients of different ages, the influence of retinoic acid and calcitriol on enzymes involved in differentiative (PPARγ2, β-catenin, and insulin-like growth factor 1) and metabolic (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1) intracellular pathways, and on transglutaminase 2, as enzyme fundamental for stabilizing the newly deposited extracellular matrix in bone. Retinoic acid and calcitriol influenced, respectively, proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, and an increase in PPARγ2 expression was observed following retinoic acid administration, whereas a decrease was observed following calcitriol administration. Aging widely influenced all parameters analyzed (the proliferation, differentiation, and new matrix deposition are significantly reduced in aged osteoblasts), with the exception of PPARγ2, which we found to be constitutively overexpressed and not modulated by retinoic acid or calcitriol administration. Our findings show the impaired ability of aged osteoblasts to perform adequate functional response and draw attention to the therapeutic approaches for bone healing in elderly patients. PMID:25691285

  13. Ageing and muscular dystrophy differentially affect murine pharyngeal muscles in a region-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Randolph, Matthew E; Luo, Qingwei; Ho, Justin; Vest, Katherine E; Sokoloff, Alan J; Pavlath, Grace K

    2014-01-01

    The inability to swallow, or dysphagia, is a debilitating and life-threatening condition that arises with ageing or disease. Dysphagia results from neurological or muscular impairment of one or more pharyngeal muscles, which function together to ensure proper swallowing and prevent the aspiration of food or liquid into the lungs. Little is known about the effects of age or disease on pharyngeal muscles as a group. Here we show ageing affected pharyngeal muscle growth and atrophy in wild-type mice depending on the particular muscle analysed. Furthermore, wild-type mice also developed dysphagia with ageing. Additionally, we studied pharyngeal muscles in a mouse model for oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy, a dysphagic disease caused by a polyalanine expansion in the RNA binding protein, PABPN1. We examined pharyngeal muscles of mice overexpressing either wild-type A10 or mutant A17 PABPN1. Overexpression of mutant A17 PABPN1 differentially affected growth of the palatopharyngeus muscle dependent on its location within the pharynx. Interestingly, overexpression of wild-type A10 PABPN1 was protective against age-related muscle atrophy in the laryngopharynx and prevented the development of age-related dysphagia. These results demonstrate that pharyngeal muscles are differentially affected by both ageing and muscular dystrophy in a region-dependent manner. These studies lay important groundwork for understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate pharyngeal muscle growth and atrophy, which may lead to novel therapies for individuals with dysphagia. PMID:25326455

  14. Human actuarial aging increases faster when background death rates are lower: a consequence of differential heterogeneity?

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Kristen; Smith, Ken R; Blevins, James K

    2012-01-01

    Many analyses of human populations have found that age-specific mortality rates increase faster across most of adulthood when overall mortality levels decline. This contradicts the relationship often expected from Williams' classic hypothesis about the effects of natural selection on the evolution of senescence. More likely, much of the within-species difference in actuarial aging is not due to variation in senescence, but to the strength of filters on the heterogeneity of frailty in older survivors. A challenge to this differential frailty hypothesis was recently posed by an analysis of life tables from historical European populations and traditional societies that reported variation in actuarial aging consistent with Williams' hypothesis after all. To investigate the challenge, we reconsidered those cases and aging measures. Here we show that the discrepancy depends on Ricklefs' aging rate measure, ω, which decreases as mortality levels drop because it is an index of mortality level itself, not the rate of increase in mortality with age. We also show unappreciated correspondence among the parameters of Gompertz-Makeham and Weibull survival models. Finally, we compare the relationships among mortality parameters of the traditional societies and the historical series, providing further suggestive evidence that differential heterogeneity has strong effects on actuarial aging. PMID:22220868

  15. Aging and insulin signaling differentially control normal and tumorous germline stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Shih-Han; Tseng, Chen-Yuan; Wan, Chih-Ling; Su, Yu-Han; Hsieh, Chang-Che; Pi, Haiwei; Hsu, Hwei-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Aging influences stem cells, but the processes involved remain unclear. Insulin signaling, which controls cellular nutrient sensing and organismal aging, regulates the G2 phase of Drosophila female germ line stem cell (GSC) division cycle in response to diet; furthermore, this signaling pathway is attenuated with age. The role of insulin signaling in GSCs as organisms age, however, is also unclear. Here, we report that aging results in the accumulation of tumorous GSCs, accompanied by a decline in GSC number and proliferation rate. Intriguingly, GSC loss with age is hastened by either accelerating (through eliminating expression of Myt1, a cell cycle inhibitory regulator) or delaying (through mutation of insulin receptor (dinR) GSC division, implying that disrupted cell cycle progression and insulin signaling contribute to age-dependent GSC loss. As flies age, DNA damage accumulates in GSCs, and the S phase of the GSC cell cycle is prolonged. In addition, GSC tumors (which escape the normal stem cell regulatory microenvironment, known as the niche) still respond to aging in a similar manner to normal GSCs, suggesting that niche signals are not required for GSCs to sense or respond to aging. Finally, we show that GSCs from mated and unmated females behave similarly, indicating that female GSC–male communication does not affect GSCs with age. Our results indicate the differential effects of aging and diet mediated by insulin signaling on the stem cell division cycle, highlight the complexity of the regulation of stem cell aging, and describe a link between ovarian cancer and aging. PMID:25470527

  16. Experiences of identification and differentiation as functions of leprosy, personality and age.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, N S; Dhar, U; Singh, Y

    1984-01-01

    It is a study of sociogenic need satisfactions that determines the homeostasis of 'being' by remaining contingent conditions of perpetuation or debasement of the social 'self'. The paper has a focus on identification satisfaction and differentiation experience of patients of the highly stigmatized leprosy. The study proceeds with an 'Experimental Group--Control-Group' randomized design. Experimental Groups are two, viz., those of Lepromatous and Non-lepromatous patients. 'Control Group' consists of 'disease-free' normal people. The three independent variables are disease types, age, personality factors. The dependent variables are two, viz., score of identification satisfaction and differentiation experience, measured by standardized tools. Each dependent variable has four '3 X 3 X 2' factorial experiments to test 56 'Null Hypotheses'. The sample consists of 360 elements for each one of the eight experiments. Leprosy elements are drawn from the Central JALMA Institute for Leprosy and the 'Kushta Seva Sadan' (Agra). The 'F' test is run for statistical verification of 'Null hypotheses'. Results show presence of 'role-reversion' and 'role negation' of age and personality factors. The disease possesses 'anti-roles'. It does not allow age and personality factors to promote identification satisfaction and to demote differentiation and experience. The disease actively promotes differentiation and demotes identification through its own 'alien system'. The senescents are the greatest sufferers. 'Social Stigma' works a 'social thanatos' and exposes senescents to substantial 'self-erosion'. PMID:6548499

  17. The semantics of biological forms.

    PubMed

    Albertazzi, Liliana; Canal, Luisa; Dadam, James; Micciolo, Rocco

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses how certain qualitative perceptual appearances of biological forms are correlated with expressions of natural language. Making use of the Osgood semantic differential, we presented the subjects with 32 drawings of biological forms and a list of 10 pairs of connotative adjectives to be put in correlations with them merely by subjective judgments. The principal components analysis made it possible to group the semantics of forms according to two distinct axes of variability: harmony and dynamicity. Specifically, the nonspiculed, nonholed, and flat forms were perceived as harmonic and static; the rounded ones were harmonic and dynamic. The elongated forms were somewhat disharmonious and somewhat static. The results suggest the existence in the general population of a correspondence between perceptual and semantic processes, and of a nonsymbolic relation between visual forms and their adjectival expressions in natural language. PMID:25669053

  18. The Trend of Age-Group Effect on Prognosis in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shi, Rong-Liang; Qu, Ning; Liao, Tian; Wei, Wen-Jun; Wang, Yu-Long; Ji, Qing-Hai

    2016-01-01

    Age has been included in various prognostic scoring systems for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study is to re-examine the relationship between age and prognosis by using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based database. We identified 51,061 DTC patients between 2004 and 2012. Patients were separated into 10-year age groups. Cancer cause-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) data were obtained. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox models were built to analyze the outcomes and risk factors. Increasing age gradient with a 10-year interval was associated with the trend of higher proportions for male gender, grade III/IV and summary stage of distant metastases. Both CSS and OS continued to worsen with increasing age, being poorest in in the oldest age group (≥71); multivariate analysis confirmed that CSS continued to fall with each age decade, significantly starting at 60 years (HR = 7.5, 95% 1.0-54.1, p = 0.047) compared to the young group (≤20). Similarly, multivariate analysis suggested that OS continued worsening with increasing age, but starting at 40 years (HR = 3.7, 95% 1.4-10.1, p = 0.009) compared to the young group. The current study suggests that an age exceeding 60 years itself represents an unfavorable prognostic factor and high risk for cancer-specific death in DTC. PMID:27272218

  19. The Trend of Age-Group Effect on Prognosis in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Rong-liang; Qu, Ning; Liao, Tian; Wei, Wen-jun; Wang, Yu-Long; Ji, Qing-hai

    2016-01-01

    Age has been included in various prognostic scoring systems for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study is to re-examine the relationship between age and prognosis by using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based database. We identified 51,061 DTC patients between 2004 and 2012. Patients were separated into 10-year age groups. Cancer cause-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) data were obtained. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox models were built to analyze the outcomes and risk factors. Increasing age gradient with a 10-year interval was associated with the trend of higher proportions for male gender, grade III/IV and summary stage of distant metastases. Both CSS and OS continued to worsen with increasing age, being poorest in in the oldest age group (≥71); multivariate analysis confirmed that CSS continued to fall with each age decade, significantly starting at 60 years (HR = 7.5, 95% 1.0–54.1, p = 0.047) compared to the young group (≤20). Similarly, multivariate analysis suggested that OS continued worsening with increasing age, but starting at 40 years (HR = 3.7, 95% 1.4–10.1, p = 0.009) compared to the young group. The current study suggests that an age exceeding 60 years itself represents an unfavorable prognostic factor and high risk for cancer-specific death in DTC. PMID:27272218

  20. Towards finding the linkage between metabolic and age-related disorders using semantic gene data network analysis

    PubMed Central

    Uzzal Hossain, Mohammad; Zaffar Shibly, Abu; Md. Omar, Taimur; Tous Zohora, Fatama; Sara Santona, Umme; Hossain, Md. Jakir; Hosen Khoka, Md. Sadek; Ara Keya, Chaman; Salimullah, Md.

    2016-01-01

    A metabolic disorder (MD) occurs when the metabolic process is disturbed. This process is carried out by thousands of enzymes participating in numerous inter-dependent metabolic pathways. Critical biochemical reactions that involve the processing and transportation of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids are affected in metabolic diseases. Therefore, it is of interest to identify the common pathways of metabolic disorders by building protein-protein interactions (PPI) for network analysis. The molecular network linkages between MD and age related diseases (ARD) are intriguing. Hence, we created networks of protein-protein interactions that are related with MD and ARD using relevant known data in the public domain. The network analysis identified known MD associated proteins and predicted genes and or its products of ARD in common pathways. The genes in the common pathways were isolated from the network and further analyzed for their co-localization and shared domains. Thus, a model hypothesis is proposed using interaction networks that are linked between MD and ARD. This data even if less conclusive finds application in understanding the molecular mechanism of known diseases in relation to observed molecular events PMID:27212841

  1. Towards finding the linkage between metabolic and age-related disorders using semantic gene data network analysis.

    PubMed

    Uzzal Hossain, Mohammad; Zaffar Shibly, Abu; Md Omar, Taimur; Tous Zohora, Fatama; Sara Santona, Umme; Hossain, Md Jakir; Hosen Khoka, Md Sadek; Ara Keya, Chaman; Salimullah, Md

    2016-01-01

    A metabolic disorder (MD) occurs when the metabolic process is disturbed. This process is carried out by thousands of enzymes participating in numerous inter-dependent metabolic pathways. Critical biochemical reactions that involve the processing and transportation of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids are affected in metabolic diseases. Therefore, it is of interest to identify the common pathways of metabolic disorders by building protein-protein interactions (PPI) for network analysis. The molecular network linkages between MD and age related diseases (ARD) are intriguing. Hence, we created networks of protein-protein interactions that are related with MD and ARD using relevant known data in the public domain. The network analysis identified known MD associated proteins and predicted genes and or its products of ARD in common pathways. The genes in the common pathways were isolated from the network and further analyzed for their co-localization and shared domains. Thus, a model hypothesis is proposed using interaction networks that are linked between MD and ARD. This data even if less conclusive finds application in understanding the molecular mechanism of known diseases in relation to observed molecular events. PMID:27212841

  2. Instrumental analysis for differentiation of beers and evaluation of beer ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreve, Simina; Voica, Cezara; Dragan, Felicia; Georgiu, Monica

    2013-11-01

    A representative selection of 5 different beers commercially available were measured spectrophotometrically in UV-Vis spectral region and by fluorescence spectroscopy, in order to determine qualitative differentiation due to the mainly iso-R-acids (with a five member ring) originating from R-acids present in hops. Minerals and trace elements analysis were also performed by ICP-MS method. The determination of the bitter organic acids in beers and of the content in metallic ions can be used as indicators for differentiation of beers and evaluation of beer ageing.

  3. Preserved Musical Semantic Memory in Semantic Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Jessica; Koenig, Phyllis; Gunawardena, Delani; McMillan, Corey; Bonner, Michael; Grossman, Murray

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the scope of semantic impairment in semantic dementia. Design Case study. Setting Academic medical center. Patient A man with semantic dementia, as demonstrated by clinical, neuropsychological, and imaging studies. Main Outcome Measures Music performance and magnetic resonance imaging results. Results Despite profoundly impaired semantic memory for words and objects due to left temporal lobe atrophy, this semiprofessional musician was creative and expressive in demonstrating preserved musical knowledge. Conclusion Long-term representations of words and objects in semantic memory may be dissociated from meaningful knowledge in other domains, such as music. PMID:21320991

  4. Differential balance of prefrontal synaptic activity in successful versus unsuccessful cognitive aging.

    PubMed

    Bories, Cyril; Husson, Zoé; Guitton, Matthieu J; De Koninck, Yves

    2013-01-23

    Normal aging is associated with a variable decline in cognitive functions. Among these, executive function, decision-making, and working memory are primarily associated with the prefrontal cortex. Although a number of studies have examined the structural substrates of cognitive decline associated with aging within this cortical area, their functional correlates remain poorly understood. To fill this gap, we aimed to identify functional synaptic substrates of age-associated frontal-dependent deficits in layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons of medial prefrontal cortex of 3-, 9-, and ≥ 23-month-old Fischer 344 rats. We combined, in the same animals, novelty recognition and exploratory behavioral tasks with assessment of structural and functional aspects of prefrontal synaptic properties. We found that subsets of aged animals displayed stereotyped exploratory behavior or memory deficits. Despite an age-dependent dendritic spine loss, patch-clamp recording of synaptic activity revealed an increase in miniature EPSC frequency restricted to aged animals with preserved exploratory behavior. In contrast, we found a strong positive relationship between miniature IPSC frequency and the occurrence of both stereotyped exploratory behavior and novelty-related memory deficits. The enhanced miniature inhibitory tone was accompanied by a deficit in activity-driven inhibition, also suggesting an impaired dynamic range for modulation of inhibition in the aged, cognitively impaired animals. Together, our data indicate that differential changes in the balance of inhibitory to excitatory synaptic tone may underlie distinct trajectories in the evolution of cognitive performance during aging. PMID:23345211

  5. Accumulation of multipotent progenitors with a basal differentiation bias during aging of human mammary epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Garbe, James C; Pepin, Francois; Pelissier, Fanny; Sputova, Klara; Fridriksdottir, Agla J; Guo, Diana E; Villadsen, Rene; Park, Morag; Petersen, Ole W; Borowsky, Alexander D.; Stampfer, Martha R; LaBarge, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Women over 50 years of age account for 75% of new breast cancer diagnoses, and the majority of these tumors are of a luminal subtype. Although age-associated changes, including endocrine profiles and alterations within the breast microenvironment, increase cancer risk, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie these observations is lacking. In this study, we generated a large collection of normal human mammary epithelial cell strains from women aged 16 to 91 years, derived from primary tissues, to investigate the molecular changes that occur in aging breast cells. We found that in finite-lifespan cultured and uncultured epithelial cells, aging is associated with a reduction of myoepithelial cells and an increase in luminal cells that express keratin 14 and integrin α6, a phenotype that is usually expressed exclusively in myoepithelial cells in women under 30. Changes to the luminal lineage resulted from age-dependent expansion of defective multipotent progenitors that gave rise to incompletely differentiated luminal or myoepithelial cells. The aging process therefore results in both a shift in the balance of luminal/myoepithelial lineages and to changes in the functional spectrum of multipotent progenitors, which together increase the potential for malignant transformation. Together, our findings provide a cellular basis to explain the observed vulnerability to breast cancer that increases with age. PMID:22552289

  6. Human neural progenitors differentiate into astrocytes and protect motor neurons in aging rats.

    PubMed

    Das, Melanie M; Avalos, Pablo; Suezaki, Patrick; Godoy, Marlesa; Garcia, Leslie; Chang, Christine D; Vit, Jean-Philippe; Shelley, Brandon; Gowing, Genevieve; Svendsen, Clive N

    2016-06-01

    Age-associated health decline presents a significant challenge to healthcare, although there are few animal models that can be used to test potential treatments. Here, we show that there is a significant reduction in both spinal cord motor neurons and motor function over time in the aging rat. One explanation for this motor neuron loss could be reduced support from surrounding aging astrocytes. Indeed, we have previously shown using in vitro models that aging rat astrocytes are less supportive to rat motor neuron function and survival over time. Here, we test whether rejuvenating the astrocyte niche can improve the survival of motor neurons in an aging spinal cord. We transplanted fetal-derived human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) into the aging rat spinal cord and found that the cells survive and differentiate into astrocytes with a much higher efficiency than when transplanted into younger animals, suggesting that the aging environment stimulates astrocyte maturation. Importantly, the engrafted astrocytes were able to protect against motor neuron loss associated with aging, although this did not result in an increase in motor function based on behavioral assays. We also transplanted hNPCs genetically modified to secrete glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) into the aging rat spinal cord, as this combination of cell and protein delivery can protect motor neurons in animal models of ALS. During aging, GDNF-expressing hNPCs protected motor neurons, though to the same extent as hNPCs alone, and again had no effect on motor function. We conclude that hNPCs can survive well in the aging spinal cord, protect motor neurons and mature faster into astrocytes when compared to transplantation into the young spinal cord. While there was no functional improvement, there were no functional deficits either, further supporting a good safety profile of hNPC transplantation even into the older patient population. PMID:27032721

  7. Differential effect of age on posterior and anterior hippocampal functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Damoiseaux, Jessica S; Viviano, Raymond P; Yuan, Peng; Raz, Naftali

    2016-06-01

    Aging is associated with declines in cognitive performance and multiple changes in the brain, including reduced default mode functional connectivity (FC). However, conflicting results have been reported regarding age differences in FC between hippocampal and default mode regions. This discrepancy may stem from the variation in selection of hippocampal regions. We therefore examined the effect of age on resting state FC of anterior and posterior hippocampal regions in an adult life-span sample. Advanced age was associated with lower FC between the posterior hippocampus and three regions: the posterior cingulate cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, and lateral parietal cortex. In addition, age-related reductions of FC between the left and right posterior hippocampus, and bilaterally along the posterior to anterior hippocampal axis were noted. Age differences in medial prefrontal and inter-hemispheric FC significantly differed between anterior and posterior hippocampus. Older age was associated with lower performance in all cognitive domains, but we observed no associations between FC and cognitive performance after controlling for age. We observed a significant effect of gender and a linear effect of COMT val158met polymorphism on hippocampal FC. Females showed higher FC of anterior and posterior hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex than males, and the dose of val allele was associated with lower posterior hippocampus - posterior cingulate FC, independent of age. Vascular and metabolic factors showed no significant effects on FC. These results suggest differential age-related reduction in the posterior hippocampal FC compared to the anterior hippocampus, and an age-independent effect of gender and COMT on hippocampal FC. PMID:27034025

  8. Donor Age of Human Platelet Lysate Affects Proliferation and Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lohmann, Michael; Walenda, Gudrun; Hemeda, Hatim; Joussen, Sylvia; Drescher, Wolf; Jockenhoevel, Stefan; Hutschenreuter, Gabriele; Zenke, Martin; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The regenerative potential declines upon aging. This might be due to cell-intrinsic changes in stem and progenitor cells or to influences by the microenvironment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) raise high hopes in regenerative medicine. They are usually culture expanded in media with fetal calf serum (FCS) or other serum supplements such as human platelet lysate (HPL). In this study, we have analyzed the impact of HPL-donor age on culture expansion. 31 single donor derived HPLs (25 to 57 years old) were simultaneously compared for culture of MSC. Proliferation of MSC did not reveal a clear association with platelet counts of HPL donors or growth factors concentrations (PDGF-AB, TGF-β1, bFGF, or IGF-1), but it was significantly higher with HPLs from younger donors (<35 years) as compared to older donors (>45 years). Furthermore, HPLs from older donors increased activity of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-βgal). HPL-donor age did not affect the fibroblastoid colony-forming unit (CFU-f) frequency, immunophenotype or induction of adipogenic differentiation, whereas osteogenic differentiation was significantly lower with HPLs from older donors. Concentrations of various growth factors (PDGF-AB, TGF-β1, bFGF, IGF-1) or hormones (estradiol, parathormone, leptin, 1,25 vitamin D3) were not associated with HPL-donor age or MSC growth. Taken together, our data support the notion that aging is associated with systemic feedback mechanisms acting on stem and progenitor cells, and this is also relevant for serum supplements in cell culture: HPLs derived from younger donors facilitate enhanced expansion and more pronounced osteogenic differentiation. PMID:22662236

  9. Defining a Valid Age Cutoff in Staging of Well-Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, Iain J.; Kuk, Deborah; Wreesmann, Volkert; Morris, Luc; Palmer, Frank L.; Ganly, Ian; Patel, Snehal G.; Singh, Bhuvanesh; Tuttle, R. Michael; Shaha, Ashok R.; Gönen, Mithat; Shah, Jatin P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Age 45 years is used as a cutoff in the staging of well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC) as it represents the median age of most datasets. The aim of this study was to determine a statistically optimized age threshold using a large dataset of patients treated at a comprehensive cancer center. Methods Overall, 1807 patients with a median follow-up of 109 months were included in the study. Recursive partitioning was used to determine which American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) variables were most predictive of disease-specific death, and whether a different cutoff for age would be found. From the resulting tree, a new age cutoff was picked and patients were restaged using this new cutoff. Results The 10-year disease-specific survival (DSS) by Union for International Cancer Control (AJCC/UICC) stage was 99.6, 100, 96, and 81 % for stages I–IV, respectively. Using recursive partitioning, the presence of distant metastasis was the most powerful predictor of DSS. For M0 patients, age was the next most powerful predictor, with a cutoff of 56 years. For M1 patients, a cutoff at 54 years was most predictive. Having reviewed the analysis, age 55 years was selected as a more robust age cutoff than 45 years. The 10-year DSS by new stage (using age 55 years as the cutoff) was 99.2, 98, 100, and 74 % for stages I–IV, respectively. Conclusion A change in age cutoff in the AJCC/UICC staging for WDTC to 55 years would improve the accuracy of the system and appropriately prevent low-risk patients being overstaged and overtreated. PMID:26215199

  10. Semantic relation vs. surprise: the differential effects of related and unrelated co-verbal gestures on neural encoding and subsequent recognition.

    PubMed

    Straube, Benjamin; Meyer, Lea; Green, Antonia; Kircher, Tilo

    2014-06-01

    Speech-associated gesturing leads to memory advantages for spoken sentences. However, unexpected or surprising events are also likely to be remembered. With this study we test the hypothesis that different neural mechanisms (semantic elaboration and surprise) lead to memory advantages for iconic and unrelated gestures. During fMRI-data acquisition participants were presented with video clips of an actor verbalising concrete sentences accompanied by iconic gestures (IG; e.g., circular gesture; sentence: "The man is sitting at the round table"), unrelated free gestures (FG; e.g., unrelated up down movements; same sentence) and no gestures (NG; same sentence). After scanning, recognition performance for the three conditions was tested. Videos were evaluated regarding semantic relation and surprise by a different group of participants. The semantic relationship between speech and gesture was rated higher for IG (IG>FG), whereas surprise was rated higher for FG (FG>IG). Activation of the hippocampus correlated with subsequent memory performance of both gesture conditions (IG+FG>NG). For the IG condition we found activation in the left temporal pole and middle cingulate cortex (MCC; IG>FG). In contrast, for the FG condition posterior thalamic structures (FG>IG) as well as anterior and posterior cingulate cortices were activated (FG>NG). Our behavioral and fMRI-data suggest different mechanisms for processing related and unrelated co-verbal gestures, both of them leading to enhanced memory performance. Whereas activation in MCC and left temporal pole for iconic co-verbal gestures may reflect semantic memory processes, memory enhancement for unrelated gestures relies on the surprise response, mediated by anterior/posterior cingulate cortex and thalamico-hippocampal structures. PMID:24746497

  11. Episodic, but not semantic, autobiographical memory is reduced in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Troyer, Angela K.; Levine, Brian; Moscovitch, Morris

    2008-01-01

    Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is characterized by decline in anterograde memory as measured by the ability to learn and remember new information. We investigated whether retrograde memory for autobiographical information was affected by aMCI. Eighteen control (age 66–84 years) and 17 aMCI (age 66–84 years) participants described a personal event from each of five periods across the lifespan. These events were transcribed and scored according to procedures that separate episodic (specific happenings) from semantic (general knowledge) elements of autobiographical memory. Although both groups generated protocols of similar length, the composition of autobiographical recall differentiated the groups. The aMCI group protocols were characterized by reduced episodic and increased semantic information relative to the control group. Both groups showed a similar pattern of recall across time periods, with no evidence that the aMCI group had more difficulty recalling recent, rather than remote, life events. These results indicate that episodic and semantic autobiographical memories are differentially affected by the early brain changes associated with aMCI. Reduced autobiographical episodic memories in aMCI may be the result of medial-temporal-lobe dysfunction, consistent with multiple trace theory, or alternatively, could be related to dysfunction of a wider related network of neocortical structures. In contrast, the preservation of autobiographical semantic memories in aMCI suggests neural systems, such as lateral temporal cortex, that support these memories, may remain relatively intact. PMID:18675285

  12. Differential effects of Cytomegalovirus carriage on the immune phenotype of middle-aged males and females

    PubMed Central

    van der Heiden, Marieke; van Zelm, Menno C.; Bartol, Sophinus J. W.; de Rond, Lia G. H.; Berbers, Guy A. M.; Boots, Annemieke M. H.; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    The elderly population is more susceptible to infections as a result of an altered immune response, commonly referred to as immunosenescence. Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-infection associated changes in blood lymphocytes are known to impact this process, but the interaction with gender remains unclear. Therefore, we analysed the effects and interaction of gender and CMV on the absolute numbers of a comprehensive set of naive and memory T- and B-cell subsets in people between 50 and 65 years of age. Enumeration and characterisation of lymphocyte subsets by flow cytometry was performed on fresh whole blood samples from 255 middle-aged persons. CMV-IgG serostatus was determined by ELISA. Gender was a major factor affecting immune cell numbers. CMV infection was mainly associated with an expansion of late-differentiated T-cell subsets. CMV+ males carried lower numbers of total CD4+, CD4+ central memory (CM) and follicular helper T-cells than females and CMV− males. Moreover, CMV+ males had significantly lower numbers of regulatory T (Treg)-cells and memory B-cells than CMV+ females. We here demonstrate an interaction between the effects of CMV infection and gender on T- and B-cells in middle-aged individuals. These differential effects on adaptive immunity between males and females may have implications for vaccination strategies at middle-age. PMID:27243552

  13. Aging impairs osteoblast differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells grown on titanium by favoring adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    ABUNA, Rodrigo Paolo Flores; STRINGHETTA-GARCIA, Camila Tami; FIORI, Leonardo Pimentel; DORNELLES, Rita Cassia Menegati; ROSA, Adalberto Luiz; BELOTI, Marcio Mateus

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aging negatively affects bone/titanium implant interactions. Our hypothesis is that the unbalance between osteogenesis and adipogenesis induced by aging may be involved in this phenomenon. Objective We investigated the osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from young and aged rats cultured on Ti. Material and Methods Bone marrow MSCs derived from 1-month and 21-month rats were cultured on Ti discs under osteogenic conditions for periods of up to 21 days and osteoblast and adipocyte markers were evaluated. Results Cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, extracellular matrix mineralization and gene expression of RUNX2, osterix, ALP, bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, and osteocalcin were reduced in cultures of 21-month rats compared with 1-month rats grown on Ti. Gene expression of PPAR-γ , adipocyte protein 2, and resistin and lipid accumulation were increased in cultures of 21-month rats compared with 1-month rats grown on the same conditions. Conclusions These results indicate that the lower osteogenic potential of MSCs derived from aged rats compared with young rats goes along with the higher adipogenic potential in cultures grown on Ti surface. This unbalance between osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation should be considered in dental implant therapy to the elderly population. PMID:27556209

  14. Circulating Growth Differentiation Factor 11/8 Levels Decline With Age

    PubMed Central

    Poggioli, Tommaso; Vujic, Ana; Yang, Peiguo; Macias-Trevino, Claudio; Uygur, Aysu; Loffredo, Francesco S.; Pancoast, James R.; Cho, Miook; Goldstein, Jill; Tandias, Rachel M.; Gonzalez, Emilia; Walker, Ryan G.; Thompson, Thomas B.; Wagers, Amy J.; Fong, Yick W.; Lee, Richard T.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) and GDF8 are members of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily sharing 89% protein sequence homology. We have previously shown that circulating GDF11 levels decrease with age in mice. However, a recent study by Egerman et al reported that GDF11/8 levels increase with age in mouse serum. Objective Here, we clarify the direction of change of circulating GDF11/8 levels with age and investigate the effects of GDF11 administration on the murine heart. Methods and Results We validated our previous finding that circulating levels of GDF11/8 decline with age in mice, rats, horses, and sheep. Furthermore, we showed by Western analysis that the apparent age-dependent increase in GDF11 levels, as reported by Egerman et al, is attributable to cross-reactivity of the anti-GDF11 antibody with immunoglobulin, which is known to increase with age. GDF11 administration in mice rapidly activated SMAD2 and SMAD3 signaling in myocardium in vivo and decreased cardiac mass in both young (2-month-old) and old (22-month-old) mice in a dose-dependent manner after only 9 days. Conclusions Our study confirms an age-dependent decline in serum GDF11/8 levels in multiple mammalian species and that exogenous GDF11 rapidly activates SMAD signaling and reduces cardiomyocyte size. Unraveling the molecular basis for the age-dependent decline in GDF11/8 could yield insight into age-dependent cardiac pathologies. PMID:26489925

  15. γ-Secretase inhibitor reverts the Notch signaling attenuation of osteogenic differentiation in aged bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhaolong; Wei, Junjun; Yu, Yunbo; Zhang, Jiankang; Liu, Lei; Tang, Wei; Long, Jie; Zheng, Xiaohui; Jing, Wei

    2016-04-01

    The age-related changes in cell viability and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) play pivotal roles in the fracture healing process, especially in geriatric individuals. This study was designed to explore the age-related changes in murine BMSCs and the regulation of osteogenic differentiation in aged BMSCs in vitro. Notch signaling pathway took part in the regulation of osteogensis, while the relationship between Notch and the osteogenic differentiation in aged BMSCs has not been reported yet. BMSCs harvested from the bone marrow of young, adult, and aged C57BL/6 mice were cultured in osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation media. Histochemical staining results indicated that the osteogenic ability of BMSCs gradually decreased with aging, whereas the adipogenic ability increased. Cell activity assays showed that the proliferative and migrated capacity did not decline with aging significantly. According to real-time PCR and Western blotting results, the aged cells exhibited higher Notch signaling expression level than the younger ones did. After the aged BMSCs being treated with γ-secretase inhibitor, however, Notch activity was changed and the aging-imparied osteogenic ability reverted to a normal level. This study demonstrated that the decreased bone formation capacity in aged BMSCs had relationship with the transdifferentiation between osteogenesis and adipogenesis, which would be regulated by Notch signaling pathway and the attenuated osteogenesis in aged BMSCs could be promoted when the inhibition of Notch pathway. PMID:26801333

  16. Therapeutic Targeting of Redox Signaling in Myofibroblast Differentiation and Age-Related Fibrotic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Natalie; Berger, Peter; Zenzmaier, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Myofibroblast activation plays a central role during normal wound healing. Whereas insufficient myofibroblast activation impairs wound healing, excessive myofibroblast activation promotes fibrosis in diverse tissues (including benign prostatic hyperplasia, BPH) leading to organ dysfunction and also promotes a stromal response that supports tumor progression. The incidence of impaired wound healing, tissue fibrosis, BPH, and certain cancers strongly increases with age. This paper summarizes findings from in vitro fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation systems that serve as cellular models to study fibrogenesis of diverse tissues. Supported by substantial in vivo data, a large body of evidence indicates that myofibroblast differentiation induced by the profibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor beta is driven by a prooxidant shift in redox homeostasis due to elevated production of NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4)-derived hydrogen peroxide and supported by concomitant decreases in nitric oxide/cGMP signaling and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes. Fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation can be inhibited and reversed by restoring redox homeostasis using antioxidants or NOX4 inactivation as well as enhancing nitric oxide/cGMP signaling via activation of soluble guanylyl cyclases or inhibition of phosphodiesterases. Current evidence indicates the therapeutic potential of targeting the prooxidant shift in redox homeostasis for the treatment of age-related diseases associated with myofibroblast dysregulation. PMID:23150749

  17. Spatial information semantic query based on SPARQL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zhifeng; Huang, Lei; Zhai, Xiaofang

    2009-10-01

    How can the efficiency of spatial information inquiries be enhanced in today's fast-growing information age? We are rich in geospatial data but poor in up-to-date geospatial information and knowledge that are ready to be accessed by public users. This paper adopts an approach for querying spatial semantic by building an Web Ontology language(OWL) format ontology and introducing SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language(SPARQL) to search spatial semantic relations. It is important to establish spatial semantics that support for effective spatial reasoning for performing semantic query. Compared to earlier keyword-based and information retrieval techniques that rely on syntax, we use semantic approaches in our spatial queries system. Semantic approaches need to be developed by ontology, so we use OWL to describe spatial information extracted by the large-scale map of Wuhan. Spatial information expressed by ontology with formal semantics is available to machines for processing and to people for understanding. The approach is illustrated by introducing a case study for using SPARQL to query geo-spatial ontology instances of Wuhan. The paper shows that making use of SPARQL to search OWL ontology instances can ensure the result's accuracy and applicability. The result also indicates constructing a geo-spatial semantic query system has positive efforts on forming spatial query and retrieval.

  18. Genetic diversity and genetic differentiation in Daphnia metapopulations with subpopulations of known age.

    PubMed

    Haag, Christoph R; Riek, Myriam; Hottinger, Jürgen W; Pajunen, V Ilmari; Ebert, Dieter

    2005-08-01

    If colonization of empty habitat patches causes genetic bottlenecks, freshly founded, young populations should be genetically less diverse than older ones that may have experienced successive rounds of immigration. This can be studied in metapopulations with subpopulations of known age. We studied allozyme variation in metapopulations of two species of water fleas (Daphnia) in the skerry archipelago of southern Finland. These populations have been monitored since 1982. Screening 49 populations of D. longispina and 77 populations of D. magna, separated by distances of 1.5-2180 m, we found that local genetic diversity increased with population age whereas pairwise differentiation among pools decreased with population age. These patterns persisted even after controlling for several potentially confounding ecological variables, indicating that extinction and recolonization dynamics decrease local genetic diversity and increase genetic differentiation in these metapopulations by causing genetic bottlenecks during colonization. We suggest that the effect of these bottlenecks may be twofold, namely decreasing genetic diversity by random sampling and leading to population-wide inbreeding. Subsequent immigration then may not only introduce new genetic material, but also lead to the production of noninbred hybrids, selection for which may cause immigrant alleles to increase in frequency, thus leading to increased genetic diversity in older populations. PMID:15937138

  19. Snapshots of Children's Changing Biases during Language Development: Differential Weighting of Perceptual and Linguistic Factors Predicts Noun Age of Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Christopher H.; Chrysikou, Evangelia G.; Reilly, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Word learning is a lifelong activity constrained by cognitive biases that people possess at particular points in development. Age of acquisition (AoA) is a psycholinguistic variable that may prove useful toward gauging the relative weighting of different phonological, semantic, and morphological factors at different phases of language acquisition…

  20. Nitrogen dynamics in arctic tundra soils of varying age: differential responses to fertilization and warming.

    PubMed

    Yano, Yuriko; Shaver, Gaius R; Rastetter, Edward B; Giblin, Anne E; Laundre, James A

    2013-12-01

    In the foothills of the Brooks Range, Alaska, different glaciation histories have created landscapes with varying soil age. Productivity of most of these landscapes is generally N limited, but varies widely, as do plant species composition and soil properties (e.g., pH). We hypothesized that the projected changes in productivity and vegetation composition under a warmer climate might be mediated through differential changes in N availability across soil age. We compared readily available [water-soluble NH4 (+), NO3 (-), and amino acids (AA)], moderately available (soluble proteins), hydrolyzable, and total N pools across three tussock-tundra landscapes with soil ages ranging from 11.5k to 300k years. The effects of fertilization and warming on these N pools were also compared for the two younger sites. Readily available N was highest at the oldest site, and AA accounted for 80-89 % of this N. At the youngest site, inorganic N constituted the majority (80-97 %) of total readily available N. This variation reflected the large differences in plant functional group composition and soil chemical properties. Long-term (8-16 years) fertilization increased the soluble inorganic N by 20- to 100-fold at the intermediate-age site, but only by twofold to threefold at the youngest site. Warming caused small and inconsistent changes in the soil C:N ratio and AA, but only in soils beneath Eriophorum vaginatum, the dominant tussock-forming sedge. These differential responses suggest that the ecological consequences of warmer climates on these tundra ecosystems are more complex than simply elevated N-mineralization rates, and that the responses of landscapes might be impacted by soil age, or time since deglaciation. PMID:23928888

  1. In-vivo differentiation of photo-aged epidermis skin by texture-based classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoman; Weng, Cuncheng; Yu, Biying; Li, Hui

    2014-11-01

    Two sets of in vivo female cheek skin epidermis images were analyzed through gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and fast fourier transform (FFT). One set was derived from women in their 20s and the other from women more than 60 years of age. GLCM was used to evaluate the texture features of the regions of interest within the cheek epidermis, and texture classification was subsequently performed. During texture classification, 25 images (320×240 pixels) in each age set were randomly selected. Three texture features, i.e., energy, contrast, and correlation, were obtained from the skin images and analyzed at four orientations (0°, 45°,90°, and 135°), accompanied by different distances between two pixels. The textures of the different aging skins were characterized by FFT, which provides the dermatoglyph orientation index. The differences in the textures between the young and old skin samples can be well described by the FFT dermatoglyph orientation index. The texture features varied among the different aging skins, which provide a versatile platform for differentiating the statuses of aging skins.

  2. Research on Individualized Product Requirement Expression Based on Semantic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qin; Pan, Xiuqin; Wei, Daozhu; Wu, Ke

    In order to establish an effective platform for individualized product development, the individualized product requirement expression forms were put forward. The diversity Semantic Network of product knowledge representation was researched based on the dualistic semantic network, and the product requirement framework model was established. Thereby the validity, reliability and consistency of the requirement expression process were ensured. Finally an example of customer requirement expression model about differential mechanism based on semantic network was described to satisfy with the individualized product design system.

  3. Is Growth Differentiation Factor 11 a Realistic Therapeutic for Aging-Dependent Muscle Defects?

    PubMed

    Harper, Shavonn C; Brack, Andrew; MacDonnell, Scott; Franti, Michael; Olwin, Bradley B; Bailey, Beth A; Rudnicki, Michael A; Houser, Steven R

    2016-04-01

    This "Controversies in Cardiovascular Research" article evaluates the evidence for and against the hypothesis that the circulating blood level of growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) decreases in old age and that restoring normal GDF11 levels in old animals rejuvenates their skeletal muscle and reverses pathological cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction. Studies supporting the original GDF11 hypothesis in skeletal and cardiac muscle have not been validated by several independent groups. These new studies have either found no effects of restoring normal GDF11 levels on cardiac structure and function or have shown that increasing GDF11 or its closely related family member growth differentiation factor 8 actually impairs skeletal muscle repair in old animals. One possible explanation for what seems to be mutually exclusive findings is that the original reagent used to measure GDF11 levels also detected many other molecules so that age-dependent changes in GDF11 are still not well known. The more important issue is whether increasing blood [GDF11] repairs old skeletal muscle and reverses age-related cardiac pathologies. There are substantial new and existing data showing that GDF8/11 can exacerbate rather than rejuvenate skeletal muscle injury in old animals. There is also new evidence disputing the idea that there is pathological hypertrophy in old C57bl6 mice and that GDF11 therapy can reverse cardiac pathologies. Finally, high [GDF11] causes reductions in body and heart weight in both young and old animals, suggestive of a cachexia effect. Our conclusion is that elevating blood levels of GDF11 in the aged might cause more harm than good. PMID:27034276

  4. Gender differentials and old age survival in the Nairobi slums, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Rachel; Chepngeno-Langat, Gloria; Evandrou, Maria; Falkingham, Jane

    2016-08-01

    This paper examines gender differentials in survival amongst older people (50+ years) in the Nairobi slums and to the best of our knowledge is the first study of its kind in an urban African setting. The results provide evidence contrary to the expected paradox of poorer self-rated health yet better survival amongst older women. Older women in the Nairobi slums have poorer self-rated health and poorer circumstances across other factors, including disability and socio-economic status. Further, older women in the slums do not have better survival. The conventional female advantage in mortality only becomes apparent after accounting for the cumulative influence of individual characteristics, social networks, health and socio-economic status, suggesting the female advantage in unadjusted old-age mortality does not apply to contexts where women experience significant disadvantage across multiple life domains. This highlights the urgent need to redress the support, status and opportunities available for women across the life course in contexts such as the Nairobi slums. In addition, a greater number of factors differentiate mortality risk amongst men than amongst women, suggesting inequality amongst slum dwelling older men and highlighting the need for gender sensitive interventions which account for the particular needs of both genders in old age. PMID:27423067

  5. Replication-dependent histone genes are actively transcribed in differentiating and aging retinal neurons.

    PubMed

    Banday, Abdul Rouf; Baumgartner, Marybeth; Al Seesi, Sahar; Karunakaran, Devi Krishna Priya; Venkatesh, Aditya; Congdon, Sean; Lemoine, Christopher; Kilcollins, Ashley M; Mandoiu, Ion; Punzo, Claudio; Kanadia, Rahul N

    2014-01-01

    In the mammalian genome, each histone family contains multiple replication-dependent paralogs, which are found in clusters where their transcription is thought to be coupled to the cell cycle. Here, we wanted to interrogate the transcriptional regulation of these paralogs during retinal development and aging. We employed deep sequencing, quantitative PCR, in situ hybridization (ISH), and microarray analysis, which revealed that replication-dependent histone genes were not only transcribed in progenitor cells but also in differentiating neurons. Specifically, by ISH analysis we found that different histone genes were actively transcribed in a subset of neurons between postnatal day 7 and 14. Interestingly, within a histone family, not all paralogs were transcribed at the same level during retinal development. For example, expression of Hist1h1b was higher embryonically, while that of Hist1h1c was higher postnatally. Finally, expression of replication-dependent histone genes was also observed in the aging retina. Moreover, transcription of replication-dependent histones was independent of rapamycin-mediated mTOR pathway inactivation. Overall, our data suggest the existence of variant nucleosomes produced by the differential expression of the replication-dependent histone genes across retinal development. Also, the expression of a subset of replication-dependent histone isotypes in senescent neurons warrants re-examining these genes as "replication-dependent." Thus, our findings underscore the importance of understanding the transcriptional regulation of replication-dependent histone genes in the maintenance and functioning of neurons. PMID:25486194

  6. Novel hydrated graphene ribbon unexpectedly promotes aged seed germination and root differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiangang; Zhou, Qixing

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that graphene (G) induces nanotoxicity towards living organisms. Here, a novel and biocompatible hydrated graphene ribbon (HGR) unexpectedly promoted aged (two years) seed germination. HGR formed at the normal temperature and pressure (120 days hydration), presented 17.1% oxygen, 0.9% nitrogen groups, disorder-layer structure, with 0.38 nm thickness ribbon morphology. Interestingly, there were bulges around the edges of HGR. Compared to G and graphene oxide (GO), HGR increased seed germination by 15% root differentiation between 52 and 59% and enhanced resistance to oxidative stress. The metabonomics analysis discovered that HGR upregulated carbohydrate, amino acid, and fatty acids metabolism that determined secondary metabolism, nitrogen sequestration, cell membrane integrity, permeability, and oxidation resistance. Hexadecanoic acid as a biomarker promoted root differentiation and increased the germination rate. Our discovery is a novel HGR that promotes aged seed germination, illustrates metabolic specificity among graphene-based materials, and inspires innovative concepts in the regulation of seed development. PMID:24445438

  7. Novel hydrated graphene ribbon unexpectedly promotes aged seed germination and root differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiangang; Zhou, Qixing

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that graphene (G) induces nanotoxicity towards living organisms. Here, a novel and biocompatible hydrated graphene ribbon (HGR) unexpectedly promoted aged (two years) seed germination. HGR formed at the normal temperature and pressure (120 days hydration), presented 17.1% oxygen, 0.9% nitrogen groups, disorder-layer structure, with 0.38 nm thickness ribbon morphology. Interestingly, there were bulges around the edges of HGR. Compared to G and graphene oxide (GO), HGR increased seed germination by 15% root differentiation between 52 and 59% and enhanced resistance to oxidative stress. The metabonomics analysis discovered that HGR upregulated carbohydrate, amino acid, and fatty acids metabolism that determined secondary metabolism, nitrogen sequestration, cell membrane integrity, permeability, and oxidation resistance. Hexadecanoic acid as a biomarker promoted root differentiation and increased the germination rate. Our discovery is a novel HGR that promotes aged seed germination, illustrates metabolic specificity among graphene-based materials, and inspires innovative concepts in the regulation of seed development.

  8. Transcriptional profiling of the age-related response to genotoxic stress points to differential DNA damage response with age.

    PubMed

    Simon, Kirk; Mukundan, Anju; Dewundara, Samantha; Van Remmen, Holly; Dombkowski, Alan A; Cabelof, Diane C

    2009-09-01

    The p53 DNA damage response attenuated with age and we have evaluated downstream factors in the DNA damage response. In old animals p21 protein accumulates in the whole cell fraction but significantly declines in the nucleus, which may alter cell cycle and apoptotic programs in response to DNA damage. We evaluated the transcriptional response to DNA damage in young and old and find 2692 genes are differentially regulated in old compared to young in response to oxidative stress (p<0.005). As anticipated, the transcriptional profile of young mice is consistent with DNA damage induced cell cycle arrest while the profile of old mice is consistent with cell cycle progression in the presence of DNA damage, suggesting the potential for catastrophic accumulation of DNA damage at the replication fork. Unique sets of DNA repair genes are induced in response to damage in old and young, suggesting the types of damage accumulating differs between young and old. The DNA repair genes upregulated in old animals point to accumulation of replication-dependent DNA double strand breaks (DSB). Expression data is consistent with loss of apoptosis following DNA damage in old animals. These data suggest DNA damage responses differ greatly in young and old animals. PMID:19679149

  9. Loquat leaf extract enhances myogenic differentiation, improves muscle function and attenuates muscle loss in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Sung, Bokyung; Hwang, Seong Yeon; Kim, Min Jo; Kim, Minjung; Jeong, Ji Won; Kim, Cheol Min; Chung, Hae Young; Kim, Nam Deuk

    2015-09-01

    A main characteristic of aging is the debilitating, progressive and generalized impairment of biological functions, resulting in an increased vulnerability to disease and death. Skeletal muscle comprises approximately 40% of the human body; thus, it is the most abundant tissue. At the age of 30 onwards, 0.5‑1% of human muscle mass is lost each year, with a marked acceleration in the rate of decline after the age of 65. Thus, novel strategies that effectively attenuate skeletal muscle loss and enhance muscle function are required to improve the quality of life of older subjects. The aim of the present study was to determine whether loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) leaf extract (LE) can prevent the loss of skeletal muscle function in aged rats. Young (5-month-old) and aged (18‑19-month-old) rats were fed LE (50 mg/kg/day) for 35 days and the changes in muscle mass and strength were evaluated. The age‑associated loss of grip strength was attenuated, and muscle mass and muscle creatine kinase (CK) activity were enhanced following the administration of LE. Histochemical analysis also revealed that LE abrogated the age‑associated decrease in cross‑sectional area (CSA) and decreased the amount of connective tissue in the muscle of aged rats. To investigate the mode of action of LE, C2C12 murine myoblasts were used to evaluate the myogenic potential of LE. The expression levels of myogenic proteins (MyoD and myogenin) and functional myosin heavy chain (MyHC) were measured by western blot analysis. LE enhanced MyoD, myogenin and MyHC expression. The changes in the expression of myogenic genes corresponded with an increase in the activity of CK, a myogenic differentiation marker. Finally, LE activated the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, which is involved in muscle protein synthesis during myogenesis. These findings suggest that LE attenuates sarcopenia by promoting myogenic differentiation and subsequently promoting muscle protein synthesis

  10. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Ageing: Targeting the "Purinome" to Promote Osteogenic Differentiation and Bone Repair.

    PubMed

    Noronha-Matos, J B; Correia-de-Sá, P

    2016-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that can differentiate into bone forming cells. Such ability is compromised in elderly individuals resulting in bone disorders such as osteoporosis, also limiting their clinical usage for cell transplantation and bone tissue engineering strategies. In bone marrow niches, adenine and uracil nucleotides are important local regulators of osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Nucleotides can be released to the extracellular milieu under both physiological and pathological conditions via (1) membrane cell damage, (2) vesicle exocytosis, (3) ATP-binding cassette transporters, and/or (4) facilitated diffusion through maxi-anion channels, hemichannels or ligand-gated receptor pores. Nucleotides and their derivatives act via adenosine P1 (A1 , A2A , A2B , and A3 ) and nucleotide-sensitive P2 purinoceptors comprising ionotropic P2X and G-protein-coupled P2Y receptors. Purinoceptors activation is terminated by membrane-bound ecto-nucleotidases and other ecto-phosphatases, which rapidly hydrolyse extracellular nucleotides to their respective nucleoside 5'-di- and mono-phosphates, nucleosides and free phosphates, or pyrophosphates. Current knowledge suggests that different players of the "purinome" cascade, namely nucleotide release sites, ecto-nucleotidases and purinoceptors, orchestrate to fine-tuning regulate the activity of MSCs in the bone microenvironment. Increasing studies, using osteoprogenitor cell lines, animal models and, more recently, non-modified MSCs from postmenopausal women, raised the possibility to target chief components of the purinergic signaling pathway to regenerate the ability of aged MSCs to differentiate into functional osteoblasts. This review summarizes the main findings of those studies, prompting for novel therapeutic strategies to control ageing disorders where bone destruction exceeds bone formation, like osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and fracture mal-union. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1852

  11. Effects of Age, Gender, and Causality on Perceptions of Persons with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panek, Paul E.; Jungers, Melissa K.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of age, gender, and causality on the perceptions of persons with mental retardation. Participants rated individuals with mental retardation using a semantic differential scale with three factors: activity, evaluation, and potency. Target individuals in each scenario varied on the variables of age (8, 20, 45),…

  12. Semantically Interoperable XML Data.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal; Wang, Fusheng; Pan, Tony; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel

    2013-09-01

    XML is ubiquitously used as an information exchange platform for web-based applications in healthcare, life sciences, and many other domains. Proliferating XML data are now managed through latest native XML database technologies. XML data sources conforming to common XML schemas could be shared and integrated with syntactic interoperability. Semantic interoperability can be achieved through semantic annotations of data models using common data elements linked to concepts from ontologies. In this paper, we present a framework and software system to support the development of semantic interoperable XML based data sources that can be shared through a Grid infrastructure. We also present our work on supporting semantic validated XML data through semantic annotations for XML Schema, semantic validation and semantic authoring of XML data. We demonstrate the use of the system for a biomedical database of medical image annotations and markups. PMID:25298789

  13. Semantically Interoperable XML Data

    PubMed Central

    Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal; Wang, Fusheng; Pan, Tony; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel

    2013-01-01

    XML is ubiquitously used as an information exchange platform for web-based applications in healthcare, life sciences, and many other domains. Proliferating XML data are now managed through latest native XML database technologies. XML data sources conforming to common XML schemas could be shared and integrated with syntactic interoperability. Semantic interoperability can be achieved through semantic annotations of data models using common data elements linked to concepts from ontologies. In this paper, we present a framework and software system to support the development of semantic interoperable XML based data sources that can be shared through a Grid infrastructure. We also present our work on supporting semantic validated XML data through semantic annotations for XML Schema, semantic validation and semantic authoring of XML data. We demonstrate the use of the system for a biomedical database of medical image annotations and markups. PMID:25298789

  14. Lexical Semantics and Irregular Inflection

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi Ting; Pinker, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Whether a word has an irregular inflection does not depend on its sound alone: compare lie-lay (recline) and lie-lied (prevaricate). Theories of morphology, particularly connectionist and symbolic models, disagree on which nonphonological factors are responsible. We test four possibilities: (1) Lexical effects, in which two lemmas differ in whether they specify an irregular form; (2) Semantic effects, in which the semantic features of a word become associated with regular or irregular forms; (3) Morphological structure effects, in which a word with a headless structure (e.g., a verb derived from a noun) blocks access to a stored irregular form; (4) Compositionality effects, in which the stored combination of an irregular word’s meaning (e.g., the verb’s inherent aspect) with the meaning of the inflection (e.g., pastness) doesn’t readily transfer to new senses with different combinations of such meanings. In four experiments, speakers were presented with existing and novel verbs and asked to rate their past-tense forms, semantic similarities, grammatical structure, and aspectual similarities. We found (1) an interaction between semantic and phonological similarity, coinciding with reported strategies of analogizing to known verbs and implicating lexical effects; (2) weak and inconsistent effects of semantic similarity; (3) robust effects of morphological structure, and (4) robust effects of aspectual compositionality. Results are consistent with theories of language that invoke lexical entries and morphological structure, and which differentiate the mode of storage of regular and irregular verbs. They also suggest how psycholinguistic processes have shaped vocabulary structure over history. PMID:21151703

  15. Evaluating Feature-Category Relations Using Semantic Fluency Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura, P.; Morais, J.; Kolinsky, R.

    2005-01-01

    The issue of the relationship between semantic features and semantic categories has been raised by Warrington and colleagues, who claimed that sensory and functional-associative features are differentially important in determining the meaning of living and nonliving things (Warrington & McCarthy, 1983, 1987; Warrington & Shallice, 1984). In the…

  16. Biomedical semantics in the Semantic Web.

    PubMed

    Splendiani, Andrea; Burger, Albert; Paschke, Adrian; Romano, Paolo; Marshall, M Scott

    2011-01-01

    The Semantic Web offers an ideal platform for representing and linking biomedical information, which is a prerequisite for the development and application of analytical tools to address problems in data-intensive areas such as systems biology and translational medicine. As for any new paradigm, the adoption of the Semantic Web offers opportunities and poses questions and challenges to the life sciences scientific community: which technologies in the Semantic Web stack will be more beneficial for the life sciences? Is biomedical information too complex to benefit from simple interlinked representations? What are the implications of adopting a new paradigm for knowledge representation? What are the incentives for the adoption of the Semantic Web, and who are the facilitators? Is there going to be a Semantic Web revolution in the life sciences?We report here a few reflections on these questions, following discussions at the SWAT4LS (Semantic Web Applications and Tools for Life Sciences) workshop series, of which this Journal of Biomedical Semantics special issue presents selected papers from the 2009 edition, held in Amsterdam on November 20th. PMID:21388570

  17. Biomedical semantics in the Semantic Web

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Semantic Web offers an ideal platform for representing and linking biomedical information, which is a prerequisite for the development and application of analytical tools to address problems in data-intensive areas such as systems biology and translational medicine. As for any new paradigm, the adoption of the Semantic Web offers opportunities and poses questions and challenges to the life sciences scientific community: which technologies in the Semantic Web stack will be more beneficial for the life sciences? Is biomedical information too complex to benefit from simple interlinked representations? What are the implications of adopting a new paradigm for knowledge representation? What are the incentives for the adoption of the Semantic Web, and who are the facilitators? Is there going to be a Semantic Web revolution in the life sciences? We report here a few reflections on these questions, following discussions at the SWAT4LS (Semantic Web Applications and Tools for Life Sciences) workshop series, of which this Journal of Biomedical Semantics special issue presents selected papers from the 2009 edition, held in Amsterdam on November 20th. PMID:21388570

  18. Differential expression and glycative damage affect specific mitochondrial proteins with aging in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Bakala, Hilaire; Ladouce, Romain; Baraibar, Martin A; Friguet, Bertrand

    2013-12-01

    Aging is accompanied by the gradual deterioration of cell functions. Particularly, mitochondrial dysfunction, associated with an accumulation of damaged proteins, is of key importance due to the central role of these organelles in cellular metabolism. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms involved in such impairment have not been completely elucidated. In the present study, proteomic analyses looking at both changes at the expression level as well as to glycative modifications of the mitochondrial proteome were performed. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis analysis revealed 16 differentially expressed proteins with aging. Thirteen exhibited a decreased expression and are crucial enzymes related to OXPHOS chain complex I/V components, TCA cycle or fatty acid β-oxidation reaction. On the other hand, 2 enzymes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation cycle were increased in aged mitochondria. Immunodetection and further identification of glycated proteins disclosed a set of advanced glycation end product-modified proteins, including 6 enzymes involved in the fatty acid β-oxidation process, and 2 enzymes of the TCA/urea cycles. A crucial antioxidant enzyme, catalase, was among the most strongly glycated proteins. In addition, several AGE-damaged enzymes (aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and 3-ketoacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) exhibited a decreased activity with age. Taken together, these data suggest that liver mitochondria in old rats suffer from a decline in their capacity for energy production, due to (i) decreased expression of OXPHOS complex I/V components and (ii) glycative damage to key fatty acid β-oxidation and TCA/urea cycle enzymes. PMID:23906978

  19. Age Differential Effects of Severity of Visual Impairment on Mortality among Older Adults in China

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Danan; Zhou, Junshan; Yong, Vanessa; Sautter, Jessica; Saito, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    We use a population-based longitudinal survey in China from 2002 to 2005 to examine age differentials in the association between severity of visual impairment and mortality risk in older adults. Controlling for numerous factors and baseline health, a substantial age difference is found. Young-old women and men aged 65–79 with severe visual impairments have 161% (hazard ratio=2.61) and 52% (hazard ratio =1.52) higher risk of death respectively as compared to their unimpaired counterparts. Mild impairment does not increase mortality risk among young-old adults, while both mild and severe impairment increase mortality risk by 33% and 32% for women and 24% and 34% for men among the oldest-old as a whole when all factors are controlled for. We conclude that visual impairment is an independent predictor of mortality and severe visual impairment likely plays a stronger role in determining mortality risk among young-old adults than among the oldest-old. PMID:25474802

  20. Neuroeconomic dissociation of semantic dementia and behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Chiong, Winston; Wood, Kristie A; Beagle, Alexander J; Hsu, Ming; Kayser, Andrew S; Miller, Bruce L; Kramer, Joel H

    2016-02-01

    Many neuropsychiatric disorders are marked by abnormal behaviour and decision-making, but prevailing diagnostic criteria for such behaviours are typically qualitative and often ambiguous. Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (also called semantic dementia) are two clinical variants of frontotemporal dementia with overlapping but distinct anatomical substrates known to cause profound changes in decision-making. We investigated whether abnormal decision-making in these syndromes could be more precisely characterized in terms of dissociable abnormalities in patients' subjective evaluations of valence (positive versus negative outcome) and of time (present versus future outcome). We presented 28 patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, 14 patients with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia, 25 patients with Alzheimer's disease (as disease controls), and 61 healthy older control subjects with experimental tasks assaying loss aversion and delay discounting. In general linear models controlling for age, gender, education and Mini-Mental State Examination score, patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia were less averse to losses than control subjects (P < 0.001), while patients with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia discounted delayed rewards more steeply than controls (P = 0.019). There was no relationship between loss aversion and delay discounting across the sample, nor in any of the subgroups. These findings suggest that abnormal behaviours in neurodegenerative disease may result from the disruption of either of two dissociable neural processes for evaluating the outcomes of action. More broadly, these findings suggest a role for computational methods to supplement traditional qualitative characterizations in the differential diagnosis of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26667277

  1. Semantic Networks and Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To illustrate the need for social network metadata within semantic metadata. Design/methodology/approach: Surveys properties of social networks and the semantic web, suggests that social network analysis applies to semantic content, argues that semantic content is more searchable if social network metadata is merged with semantic web…

  2. Age-related differential gene and protein expression in postnatal cartilage canal and osteochondral junction chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Duesterdieck-Zellmer, Katja; Semevolos, Stacy; Kinsley, Marc; Riddick, Tara

    2015-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin, Indian hedgehog (Ihh)/Parathyroid-related peptide (PTHrP) and retinoid signaling pathways regulate cartilage differentiation, growth, and function during development and play a key role in endochondral ossification. The objective of this study was to elucidate the gene and protein expression of signaling molecules of these regulatory pathways in chondrocytes surrounding cartilage canals and the osteochondral junction during neonatal and pre-adolescent development. This study revealed cell-specific and age-related differences in gene and protein expression of signaling molecules of these regulatory pathways. A trend for higher gene expression of PTHrP along the cartilage canals and Ihh along the osteochondral junction suggests the presence of paracrine feedback in articular-epiphyseal cartilage. Differential expression of canonical (β-catenin, Wnt-4, Lrp4, Lrp6) and noncanonical Wnt signaling (Wnt-5b, Wnt-11) and their inhibitors (Dkk1, Axin1, sFRP3, sFRP5, Wif-1) surrounding the cartilage canals and osteochondral junction provides evidence of the complex interactions occurring during endochondral ossification. PMID:25479004

  3. Field study of age-differentiated strain for assembly line workers in the automotive industry.

    PubMed

    Börner, Kerstin; Scherf, Christian; Leitner-Mai, Bianca; Spanner-Ulmer, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    A field study in an automotive supply industry company was conducted to explore age-differentiated strain of assembly line workers. Subjective and objective data from 23 female workers aged between 27 and 57 years were collected at the workplace belt buckle assembly during morning shifts. Subjects with medication or chronic diseases affecting heart rate and breath rate were excluded. For subjective data generation different questionnaires were used. Before the Work Ability Index and the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire were completed by the subjects. Short questionnaires (strain-ratings, NASA-TLX) directly at begin and end of the work were used for obtaining shift-related data. During the whole shift (6 a.m. - 2.45 p.m.) bodily functions were logged with a wireless chest strap. In addition, the motion of the hand-arm-system was recorded for 30 times, 3 minutes each after a fixed time-schedule. First results show that younger subjects need significant less time for assembly (mean = 14.940 s) compared to older subjects (mean = 17.040 s; t(472.026) = -9.278 , p < 0.01). PMID:22317519

  4. Semantic prosody and judgment.

    PubMed

    Hauser, David J; Schwarz, Norbert

    2016-07-01

    Some words tend to co-occur exclusively with a positive or negative context in natural language use, even though such valence patterns are not dictated by definitions or are part of the words' core meaning. These words contain semantic prosody, a subtle valenced meaning derived from co-occurrence in language. As language and thought are heavily intertwined, we hypothesized that semantic prosody can affect evaluative inferences about related ambiguous concepts. Participants inferred that an ambiguous medical outcome was more negative when it was caused, a verb with negative semantic prosody, than when it was produced, a synonymous verb with no semantic prosody (Studies 1a, 1b). Participants completed sentence fragments in a manner consistent with semantic prosody (Study 2), and semantic prosody affected various other judgments in line with evaluative inferences (estimates of an event's likelihood in Study 3). Finally, semantic prosody elicited both positive and negative evaluations of outcomes across a large set of semantically prosodic verbs (Study 4). Thus, semantic prosody can exert a strong influence on evaluative judgment. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27243765

  5. Syntax, action verbs, action semantics, and object semantics in Parkinson's disease: Dissociability, progression, and executive influences.

    PubMed

    Bocanegra, Yamile; García, Adolfo M; Pineda, David; Buriticá, Omar; Villegas, Andrés; Lopera, Francisco; Gómez, Diana; Gómez-Arias, Catalina; Cardona, Juan F; Trujillo, Natalia; Ibáñez, Agustín

    2015-08-01

    Several studies have recently shown that basal ganglia (BG) deterioration leads to distinctive impairments in the domains of syntax, action verbs, and action semantics. In particular, such disruptions have been repeatedly observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. However, it remains unclear whether these deficits are language-specific and whether they are equally dissociable from other reported disturbances -viz., processing of object semantics. To address these issues, we administered linguistic, semantic, and executive function (EFs) tasks to two groups of non-demented PD patients, with and without mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI and PD-nMCI, respectively). We compared these two groups with each other and with matched samples of healthy controls. Our results showed that PD patients exhibited linguistic and semantic deficits even in the absence of MCI. However, not all domains were equally related to EFs and MCI across samples. Whereas EFs predicted disturbances of syntax and object semantics in both PD-nMCI and PD-MCI, they had no impact on action-verb and action-semantic impairments in either group. Critically, patients showed disruptions of action-verb production and action semantics in the absence of MCI and without any executive influence, suggesting a sui generis deficit present since early stages of the disease. These findings indicate that varied language domains are differentially related to the BG, contradicting popular approaches to neurolinguistics. PMID:26103601

  6. Excess body mass is associated with T cell differentiation indicative of immune ageing in children.

    PubMed

    Spielmann, G; Johnston, C A; O'Connor, D P; Foreyt, J P; Simpson, R J

    2014-05-01

    Obesity has been associated with accelerated biological ageing and immunosenescence. As the prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing, we wanted to determine if associations between obesity and immunosenescence would manifest in children. We studied 123 Mexican American adolescents aged 10-14 (mean 12·3 ± 0·7) years, with body weights ranging from 30·1 to 115·2 kg (mean 52·5 ± 14·5 kg). Blood samples were obtained to determine proportions of naive, central memory (CM), effector memory (EM), senescent and early, intermediate and highly differentiated subsets of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Overweight and obese children had significantly lowered proportions of early CD8(+) T cells (B = -11·55 and -5·51%, respectively) compared to healthy weight. Overweight children also had more EM (B = +7·53%), late (B = +8·90%) and senescent (B = +4·86%) CD8(+) T cells than healthy weight children, while obese children had more intermediate CD8(+) (B = +4·59%), EM CD8(+) (B = +5·49%), late CD4(+) (B = +2·01%) and senescent CD4(+) (B = +0·98%) T cells compared to healthy weight children. These findings withstood adjustment for potentially confounding variables, including age, gender and latent cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus infections. We conclude that excess body mass, even in adolescence, may accelerate immunosenescence and predispose children to increased risks of incurring immune-related health problems in adulthood. PMID:24401077

  7. Activation of Phonological and Semantic Codes in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mani, Nivedita; Durrant, Samantha; Floccia, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    What are the processes underlying word recognition in the toddler lexicon? Work with adults suggests that, by 5-years of age, hearing a word leads to cascaded activation of other phonologically, semantically and phono-semantically related words (Huang & Snedeker, 2010; Marslen-Wilson & Zwitserlood, 1989). Given substantial differences in…

  8. Age at menarche in Peninsular Malaysia: time trends, ethnic differentials, and association with ages at marriage and at first birth.

    PubMed

    Tan Boon Ann; Othman, R; Butz, W P; Davanzo, J

    1983-12-01

    This study, based on respondent-reported data from the 1976-77 Malaysian Family Life Survey, analyzeed the association between age at menarche and several family-level factors. The data on mean age at menarche for birth cohorts of pre-1929 to post-1955, by ethnic group, indicate substantial declines for Chinese and Indians but virtually no change for Malays. Age at menarche has fallen by 3.25 months/decade for women born in 1926-61. Girls raised in households of higher socioeconomic status tend to experience earlier menarche. In fact, about half of the secular decline in age at menarche is attributable to improvements in socioeconomic level and, to a lesser extent, declines in the proportion of foreign births. In this sample, age at menarche was related to age at 1st marriage and age at 1st birth. Moreover, controlling for age at menarche affects the relationship between demographic and socioeconomic variables on the 1 hand and age at marriage and 1st birth on the other. When ethnicity is controlled, a 1 year delay in menarche is associated with a 3 month delay in age at marriage. When the socioeconomic status and childhood abroad indices are controlled, the coefficient of age at menarche increases by almost 1/3. When ethnicity, birthdate, childhood abroad, and socioeconomic status are controlled, each 1 year delay in menarche is associated, on average, with a 5 month delay in age at marriage. Even when socioeconomic variables are controlled, the relationship between age at menarche and at marriage is much smaller for Chinese women than for Indian or Malay women, perhaps because the average age between these 2 events is greater for Chinese (6.8 years, versus 3.5 years for Malays and 4.6 years for Indians). These findings suggest that studies that look only at the relationship between age at menarche and age at 1st marriage, without controlling for other factors, will underestimate the relationship. In addition, it is noted that the observed trend toward falling age

  9. Adult and Child Semantic Neighbors of the Kroll and Potter (1984) Nonobjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storkel, Holly L.; Adlof, Suzanne M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to determine the number of semantic neighbors, namely, "semantic set size," for 88 nonobjects (J. F. Kroll & M. C. Potter, 1984) and determine how semantic set size related to other measures and age. Method: Data were collected from 82 adults and 92 preschool children in a discrete association task. The nonobjects were…

  10. Communication: General Semantics Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, Lee, Ed.

    This book contains the edited papers from the eleventh International Conference on General Semantics, titled "A Search for Relevance." The conference questioned, as a central theme, the relevance of general semantics in a world of wars and human misery. Reacting to a fundamental Korzybski-ian principle that man's view of reality is distorted by…

  11. The Semantic Learning Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sicilia, Miguel-Angel; Lytras, Miltiadis D.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is introducing the concept of a "semantic learning organization" (SLO) as an extension of the concept of "learning organization" in the technological domain. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes existing definitions and conceptualizations of both learning organizations and Semantic Web technology to develop…

  12. Semantic Sensor Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, A.; Henson, C.; Thirunarayan, K.

    2008-12-01

    Sensors are distributed across the globe leading to an avalanche of data about our environment. It is possible today to utilize networks of sensors to detect and identify a multitude of observations, from simple phenomena to complex events and situations. The lack of integration and communication between these networks, however, often isolates important data streams and intensifies the existing problem of too much data and not enough knowledge. With a view to addressing this problem, the Semantic Sensor Web (SSW) [1] proposes that sensor data be annotated with semantic metadata that will both increase interoperability and provide contextual information essential for situational knowledge. Kno.e.sis Center's approach to SSW is an evolutionary one. It adds semantic annotations to the existing standard sensor languages of the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) defined by OGC. These annotations enhance primarily syntactic XML-based descriptions in OGC's SWE languages with microformats, and W3C's Semantic Web languages- RDF and OWL. In association with semantic annotation and semantic web capabilities including ontologies and rules, SSW supports interoperability, analysis and reasoning over heterogeneous multi-modal sensor data. In this presentation, we will also demonstrate a mashup with support for complex spatio-temporal-thematic queries [2] and semantic analysis that utilize semantic annotations, multiple ontologies and rules. It uses existing services (e.g., GoogleMap) and semantics enhanced SWE's Sensor Observation Service (SOS) over weather and road condition data from various sensors that are part of Ohio's transportation network. Our upcoming plans are to demonstrate end to end (heterogeneous sensor to application) semantics support and study scalability of SSW involving thousands of sensors to about a billion triples. Keywords: Semantic Sensor Web, Spatiotemporal thematic queries, Semantic Web Enablement, Sensor Observation Service [1] Amit Sheth, Cory Henson, Satya

  13. Order Theoretical Semantic Recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Peterson, Elena S.; Stephan, Eric G.; Thomas, Dennis G.

    2013-07-23

    Mathematical concepts of order and ordering relations play multiple roles in semantic technologies. Discrete totally ordered data characterize both input streams and top-k rank-ordered recommendations and query output, while temporal attributes establish numerical total orders, either over time points or in the more complex case of startend temporal intervals. But also of note are the fully partially ordered data, including both lattices and non-lattices, which actually dominate the semantic strcuture of ontological systems. Scalar semantic similarities over partially-ordered semantic data are traditionally used to return rank-ordered recommendations, but these require complementation with true metrics available over partially ordered sets. In this paper we report on our work in the foundations of partial order measurement in ontologies, with application to top-k semantic recommendation in workflows.

  14. Semantics, Pragmatics, and the Nature of Semantic Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spewak, David Charles, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The primary concern of this dissertation is determining the distinction between semantics and pragmatics and how context sensitivity should be accommodated within a semantic theory. I approach the question over how to distinguish semantics from pragmatics from a new angle by investigating what the objects of a semantic theory are, namely…

  15. Diet, age, and prior injury status differentially alter behavioral outcomes following concussion in rats.

    PubMed

    Mychasiuk, Richelle; Hehar, Harleen; van Waes, Linda; Esser, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or concussion affects a large portion of the population and although many of these individuals recover completely, a small subset of people experience lingering symptomology and poor outcomes. Little is known about the factors that affect individual susceptibility or resilience to poor outcomes after mTBI and there are currently no biomarkers to delineate mTBI diagnosis or prognosis. Based upon the growing literature associated with caloric intake and altered neurological aging and the ambiguous link between repetitive mTBI and progressive neurodegeneration, the current study was designed to examine the effect of a high fat diet (HFD), developmental age, and repetitive mTBI on behavioral outcomes following a mTBI. In addition, telomere length was examined before and after experimental mTBI. Sprague Dawley rats were maintained on a HFD or standard rat chow throughout life (including the prenatal period) and then experienced an mTBI/concussion at P30, P30 and P60, or only at P60. Behavioral outcomes were examined using a test battery that was administered between P61-P80 and included; beam-walking, open field, elevated plus maze, novel context mismatch, Morris water task, and forced swim task. Animals with a P30 mTBI often demonstrated lingering symptomology that was still present during testing at P80. Injuries at P30 and P60 rarely produced cumulative effects, and in some tests (i.e., beam walking), the first injury may have protected the brain from the second injury. Exposure to the high fat diet exacerbated many of the behavioral deficits associated with concussion. Finally, telomere length was shortened following mTBI and was influenced by the animal's dietary intake. Diet, age at the time of injury, and the number of prior concussion incidents differentially contribute to behavioral deficits and may help explain individual variations in susceptibility and resilience to poor outcomes following an mTBI. PMID:25270295

  16. Olfactory memory in the old and very old: relations to episodic and semantic memory and APOE genotype.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Maria; Hedner, Margareta; Papenberg, Goran; Seubert, Janina; Bäckman, Lars; Laukka, Erika J

    2016-02-01

    The neuroanatomical organization that underlies olfactory memory is different from that of other memory types. The present work examines olfactory memory in an elderly population-based sample (Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen) aged 60-100 years (n = 2280). We used structural equation modeling to investigate whether olfactory memory in old age is best conceptualized as a distinct category, differentiated from episodic and semantic memory. Further, potential olfactory dedifferentiation and genetic associations (APOE) to olfactory function in late senescence were investigated. Results are in support of a 3-factor solution where olfactory memory, as indexed by episodic odor recognition and odor identification, is modeled separately from episodic and semantic memory for visual and verbal information. Increasing age was associated with poorer olfactory memory performance, and observed age-related deficits were further exacerbated for carriers of the APOE ε4 allele; these effects tended to be larger for olfactory memory compared to episodic and semantic memory pertaining to other sensory systems (vision, auditory). Finally, stronger correlations between olfactory and episodic memory, indicating dedifferentiation, were observed in the older age groups. PMID:26827650

  17. The Differential Effects of Age and First Grade Schooling on the Development of Infralogical and Logico-Mathematical Concrete Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel; Greenbaum, Charles; Artman, Lavee; Deluya, Nilly; Gappel-Gilon, Yael

    2008-01-01

    Using the ''between-grade levels'' regression discontinuity design, this study examined the hypothesized differential sensitivity of logico-mathematical (LM) and infralogical (IL) operational tasks to the effects of chronological age and first grade schooling in a sample of 580 1st and 2nd grade Israeli children. The results indicate that the…

  18. Causes of Age-Related Decline in Adaptive Behavior of Adults with Down Syndrome: Differential Diagnoses of Dementia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V. P.; Chung, Man Cheung

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted of 201 adults with Down's syndrome to investigate the differential causes of decline in adaptive behavior. Results indicated that aging, dementia, and severity of mental retardation were significant factors, while absence of a medical illness predicted a higher level of adaptive behavior. (CR)

  19. Differentiating School-Aged Children with and without Language Impairment Using Tense and Grammaticality Measures from a Narrative Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Ling-Yu; Schneider, Phyllis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of the finite verb morphology composite (FVMC), number of errors per C-unit (Errors/CU), and percent grammatical C-units (PGCUs) in differentiating school-aged children with language impairment (LI) and those with typical language development (TL). Method: Participants were 61 six-year-olds (50 TL, 11…

  20. Sex Differences in Latent Cognitive Abilities Ages 5 to 17: Evidence from the Differential Ability Scales--Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Roberts, Lisa G.; Winter, Amanda L.; Austin, Cynthia A.

    2011-01-01

    Sex differences in the latent general and broad cognitive abilities underlying the Differential Ability Scales, Second Edition were investigated for children and youth ages 5 through 17. Multi-group mean and covariance structural equation modeling was used to investigate sex differences in latent cognitive abilities as well as changes in these…

  1. Emotional development across adulthood: differential age-related emotional reactivity and emotion regulation in a negative mood induction procedure.

    PubMed

    Kliegel, Matthias; Jäger, Theodor; Phillips, Louise H

    2007-01-01

    The present study examines the hypothesis that older adults might differentially react to a negative versus neutral mood induction procedure than younger adults. The rationale for this expectation was derived from Socioemotional Selectivity Theory (SST), which postulates differential salience of emotional information and ability to regulate emotions across adulthood. The present data support a view of differential age-related effects of negative mood inductions with greater and more heterogeneous emotional reactivity among older adults, who showed a substantially greater decrease in self-rated pleasantness, calmness, and wakefulness than younger adults. Moreover, relative to the younger adults, emotion regulation in terms of mood repair was more effective among the older adults. The age-related mood effects are discussed in terms of SST and have practical implications for the study of emotion and cognition across adulthood. PMID:17503687

  2. A Semantic Graph Query Language

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, I L

    2006-10-16

    Semantic graphs can be used to organize large amounts of information from a number of sources into one unified structure. A semantic query language provides a foundation for extracting information from the semantic graph. The graph query language described here provides a simple, powerful method for querying semantic graphs.

  3. A Defense of Semantic Minimalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Su

    2012-01-01

    Semantic Minimalism is a position about the semantic content of declarative sentences, i.e., the content that is determined entirely by syntax. It is defined by the following two points: "Point 1": The semantic content is a complete/truth-conditional proposition. "Point 2": The semantic content is useful to a theory of…

  4. A Differential Item Functional Analysis by Age of Perceived Interpersonal Discrimination in a Multi-racial/ethnic Sample of Adults.

    PubMed

    Owens, Sherry; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Hunte, Haslyn E R

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether individual items on the nine item William's Perceived Everyday Discrimination Scale (EDS) functioned differently by age (<45 vs ≥ 45) within five racial groups in the United States: Asians (n=2,017); Hispanics (n=2,688); Black Caribbeans (n=1,377); African Americans (n=3,434); and Whites (n=854). We used data from the 2001-2003 National Survey of American Lives and the 2001-2003 National Latino and Asian Studies. Multiple-indicator, multiple-cause models (MIMIC) were used to examine differential item functioning (DIF) on the EDS by age within each racial/ethnic group. Overall, Asian and Hispanic respondents reported less discrimination than Whites; on the other hand, African Americans and Black Caribbeans reported more discrimination than Whites. Regardless of race/ethnicity, the younger respondents (aged <45 years) reported less discrimination than the older respondents (aged ≥ 45 years). In terms of age by race/ethnicity, the results were mixed for 19 out of 45 tests of DIF (40%). No differences in item function were observed among Black Caribbeans. "Being called names or insulted" and others acting as "if they are afraid" of the respondents were the only two items that did not exhibit differential item functioning by age across all racial/ethnic groups. Overall, our findings suggest that the EDS scale should be used with caution in multi-age multi-racial/ethnic samples. PMID:26673317

  5. Human actuarial aging increases faster when back ground death rates are lower: a consequence of differential heterogeneity?

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Kristen; Smith, Ken R.; Blevins, James K.

    2014-01-01

    Many analyses of human populations have found that age-specific mortality rates increase faster across most of adulthood when overall mortality levels decline. This contradicts the relationship often expected from Williams′ classic hypothesis about the effects of natural selection on the evolution of senescence. More likely, much of the within-species difference in actuarial aging is not due to variation in senescence, but to the strength of filters on the heterogeneity of frailty in older survivors. A challenge to this differential frailty hypothesis was recently posed by an analysis of life tables from historical European populations and traditional societies that reported variation in actuarial aging consistent with Williams′ hypothesis after all. To investigate the challenge, we reconsidered those cases and aging measures. Here we show that the discrepancy depends on Ricklefs′ aging rate measure,ω, which decreases as mortality levels drop because it is an index of mortality level itself, not the rate of increase in mortality with age. We also show unappreciated correspondence among the parameters of Gompertz–Makeham and Weibull survival models. Finally, we compare the relationships among mortality parameters of the traditional societies and the historical series, providing further suggestive evidence that differential heterogeneity has strong effects on actuarial aging. PMID:22220868

  6. Exploring the Utility of a School-Age Narrative Microstructure Index: Proportion of Restricted Utterances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerger, Sara; Thorne, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This research attempted to replicate Hoffman's 2009 finding that the proportion of narrative utterances with semantic or syntactic errors (i.e., = 14% "restricted utterances") can differentiate school-age children with typical development from those with language impairment with a sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 88%.…

  7. Trusting Crowdsourced Geospatial Semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodhue, P.; McNair, H.; Reitsma, F.

    2015-08-01

    The degree of trust one can place in information is one of the foremost limitations of crowdsourced geospatial information. As with the development of web technologies, the increased prevalence of semantics associated with geospatial information has increased accessibility and functionality. Semantics also provides an opportunity to extend indicators of trust for crowdsourced geospatial information that have largely focused on spatio-temporal and social aspects of that information. Comparing a feature's intrinsic and extrinsic properties to associated ontologies provides a means of semantically assessing the trustworthiness of crowdsourced geospatial information. The application of this approach to unconstrained semantic submissions then allows for a detailed assessment of the trust of these features whilst maintaining the descriptive thoroughness this mode of information submission affords. The resulting trust rating then becomes an attribute of the feature, providing not only an indication as to the trustworthiness of a specific feature but is able to be aggregated across multiple features to illustrate the overall trustworthiness of a dataset.

  8. Algebraic Semantics for Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, E.

    1974-01-01

    This paper uses discussion of Edmund Spenser's "The Faerie Queene" to present a theoretical framework for explaining the semantics of narrative discourse. The algebraic theory of finite automata is used. (CK)

  9. Semantic and visual memory after alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Donat, D C

    1986-05-01

    This study compared the relative performance of 40 patients (M age = 31.7) with a history of alcohol abuse on tasks of short-term semantic and visual memory. Performance on the visual memory tasks was impaired significantly relative to the semantic memory task in a within-subjects analysis of variance. Semantic memory was unimpaired. This result is consistent with previous results obtained on tests of intelligence despite the added requirement of encoding, storing, and retrieving data inherent in the memory tasks. This result provides support for the contention that visuospatial and visuomotor skills evince primary residual impairment secondary to the abuse of alcohol. The significance of this result, in light of previous research, is discussed. PMID:3711356

  10. Development of Planning Abilities in Normal Aging: Differential Effects of Specific Cognitive Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Köstering, Lena; Stahl, Christoph; Leonhart, Rainer; Weiller, Cornelius; Kaller, Christoph P.

    2014-01-01

    In line with the frontal hypothesis of aging, the ability to plan ahead undergoes substantial change during normal aging. Although impairments on the Tower of London planning task were reported earlier, associations between age-related declines and specific cognitive demands on planning have not been studied. Here we investigated the impact of…

  11. Inhibition of cytoplasmic p53 differentially modulates Ca(2+) signaling and cellular viability in young and aged striata.

    PubMed

    Ureshino, Rodrigo Portes; Hsu, Yi-Te; do Carmo, Lúcia Garcez; Yokomizo, César Henrique; Nantes, Iseli Lourenço; Smaili, Soraya Soubhi

    2014-10-01

    The p53 protein, a transcription factor with many gene targets, can also trigger apoptosis in the cytoplasm. The disruption of cell homeostasis, such as Ca(2+) signaling and mitochondrial respiration, contributes to the loss of viability and ultimately leads to cell death. However, the link between Ca(2+) signaling and p53 signaling remains unclear. During aging, there are alterations in cell physiology that are commonly associated with a reduced adaptive stress response, thus increasing cell vulnerability. In this work, we examined the effects of a cytoplasmic p53 inhibitor (pifithrin μ) in the striatum of young and aged rats by evaluating Ca(2+) signaling, mitochondrial respiration, apoptotic protein expression, and tissue viability. Our results showed that pifithrin μ differentially modulated cytoplasmic and mitochondrial Ca(2+) in young and aged rats. Cytoplasmic p53 inhibition appeared to reduce the mitochondrial respiration rate in both groups. In addition, p53 phosphorylation and Bax protein levels were elevated upon cytoplasmic p53 inhibition and could contribute to the reduction of tissue viability. Following glutamate challenge, pifithrin μ improved cell viability in aged tissue, reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). Taken together, these results indicate that cytoplasmic p53 may have a special role in cell viability by influencing cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis and respiration and may produce differential effects in the striatum of young and aged rats. PMID:25084214

  12. Does aging impair first impression accuracy? Differentiating emotion recognition from complex social inferences.

    PubMed

    Krendl, Anne C; Rule, Nicholas O; Ambady, Nalini

    2014-09-01

    Young adults can be surprisingly accurate at making inferences about people from their faces. Although these first impressions have important consequences for both the perceiver and the target, it remains an open question whether first impression accuracy is preserved with age. Specifically, could age differences in impressions toward others stem from age-related deficits in accurately detecting complex social cues? Research on aging and impression formation suggests that young and older adults show relative consensus in their first impressions, but it is unknown whether they differ in accuracy. It has been widely shown that aging disrupts emotion recognition accuracy, and that these impairments may predict deficits in other social judgments, such as detecting deceit. However, it is unclear whether general impression formation accuracy (e.g., emotion recognition accuracy, detecting complex social cues) relies on similar or distinct mechanisms. It is important to examine this question to evaluate how, if at all, aging might affect overall accuracy. Here, we examined whether aging impaired first impression accuracy in predicting real-world outcomes and categorizing social group membership. Specifically, we studied whether emotion recognition accuracy and age-related cognitive decline (which has been implicated in exacerbating deficits in emotion recognition) predict first impression accuracy. Our results revealed that emotion recognition accuracy did not predict first impression accuracy, nor did age-related cognitive decline impair it. These findings suggest that domains of social perception outside of emotion recognition may rely on mechanisms that are relatively unimpaired by aging. PMID:25244469

  13. The systematic use of semantic and acoustic processing by younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    West, R L; Cohen, S L

    1985-01-01

    To examine age differences in semantic and acoustic processing, 80 older and 80 younger adults participated in an incidental learning study. The study compared free recall and semantic and acoustic cued recall performance after five orienting conditions. The younger adults performed better than the older adults, especially after acoustic orienting. Encoding specificity effects occurred at both age levels. The results indicated that both age groups performed better with semantic processing than acoustic processing, but that older adults relied on the semantic information far more than the younger adults. PMID:4092721

  14. Comparative clinicopathological and outcome analysis of differentiated thyroid cancer in Saudi patients aged below 60 years and above 60 years

    PubMed Central

    AL-Qahtani, Khalid Hussain; Tunio, Mutahir A; Asiri, Mushabbab Al; Bayoumi, Yasser; Balbaid, Ali; Aljohani, Naji J; Fatani, Hanadi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment outcomes of differentiated thyroid cancer in Saudi patients aged above 60 years. Materials and methods Comparative analysis was performed in 252 patients aged 46–60 years (Group A) and 118 patients aged above 60 years (Group B), who had thyroidectomy, radioactive iodine-131, and thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression therapy between July 2000 and December 2012. Different clinicopathological features, treatment, complications, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates were compared. Results Mean age of patients in Group A was 51.9 years (range: 46–60), and mean age of those in Group B was 68.6 years (range: 62–97). Group B patients had higher positive lymph nodes (43.2%), P=0.011. The frequency of extrathyroidal extension, multifocality, and lymphovascular space invasion was seen more in Group B than in Group A. Postsurgical complications (permanent hypoparathyroidism, bleeding, and wound infections) were also seen more in Group B (P=0.043, P=0.011, and P=0.021, respectively). Group B patients experienced more locoregional recurrences (11.0%, P=0.025); similarly, more distant metastases were observed in Group B (15.3%, P=0.003). The 10-year disease-free survival rates were 87.6% in Group A and 70.8% in Group B (P<0.0001). Conclusion Differentiated thyroid cancer in patients aged above 60 years are more aggressive biologically and associated with a worse prognosis, and the morbidity is significantly high as compared to patients aged below 60 years. PMID:27621604

  15. Knowledge Representation Issues in Semantic Graphs for Relationship Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Barthelemy, M; Chow, E; Eliassi-Rad, T

    2005-02-02

    An important task for Homeland Security is the prediction of threat vulnerabilities, such as through the detection of relationships between seemingly disjoint entities. A structure used for this task is a ''semantic graph'', also known as a ''relational data graph'' or an ''attributed relational graph''. These graphs encode relationships as typed links between a pair of typed nodes. Indeed, semantic graphs are very similar to semantic networks used in AI. The node and link types are related through an ontology graph (also known as a schema). Furthermore, each node has a set of attributes associated with it (e.g., ''age'' may be an attribute of a node of type ''person''). Unfortunately, the selection of types and attributes for both nodes and links depends on human expertise and is somewhat subjective and even arbitrary. This subjectiveness introduces biases into any algorithm that operates on semantic graphs. Here, we raise some knowledge representation issues for semantic graphs and provide some possible solutions using recently developed ideas in the field of complex networks. In particular, we use the concept of transitivity to evaluate the relevance of individual links in the semantic graph for detecting relationships. We also propose new statistical measures for semantic graphs and illustrate these semantic measures on graphs constructed from movies and terrorism data.

  16. Differential Effects of Aging on Fore– and Hindpaw Maps of Rat Somatosensory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    David-Jürgens, Marianne; Churs, Lydia; Berkefeld, Thomas; Zepka, Roberto F.; Dinse, Hubert R.

    2008-01-01

    Getting older is associated with a decline of cognitive and sensorimotor abilities, but it remains elusive whether age-related changes are due to accumulating degenerational processes, rendering them largely irreversible, or whether they reflect plastic, adaptational and presumably compensatory changes. Using aged rats as a model we studied how aging affects neural processing in somatosensory cortex. By multi-unit recordings in the fore- and hindpaw cortical maps we compared the effects of aging on receptive field size and response latencies. While in aged animals response latencies of neurons of both cortical representations were lengthened by approximately the same amount, only RFs of hindpaw neurons showed severe expansion with only little changes of forepaw RFs. To obtain insight into parallel changes of walking behavior, we recorded footprints in young and old animals which revealed a general age-related impairment of walking. In addition we found evidence for a limb-specific deterioration of the hindlimbs that was not observed in the forelimbs. Our results show that age-related changes of somatosensory cortical neurons display a complex pattern of regional specificity and parameter-dependence indicating that aging acts rather selectively on cortical processing of sensory information. The fact that RFs of the fore- and hindpaws do not co-vary in aged animals argues against degenerational processes on a global scale. We therefore conclude that age-related alterations are composed of plastic-adaptive alterations in response to modified use and degenerational changes developing with age. As a consequence, age-related changes need not be irreversible but can be subject to amelioration through training and stimulation. PMID:18852896

  17. The Semantic SPASE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, S.; Crichton, D.; Thieman, J.; Ramirez, P.; King, T.; Weiss, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Semantic SPASE (Space Physics Archive Search and Extract) prototype demonstrates the use of semantic web technologies to capture, document, and manage the SPASE data model, support facet- and text-based search, and provide flexible and intuitive user interfaces. The SPASE data model, under development since late 2003 by a consortium of space physics domain experts, is intended to serve as the basis for interoperability between independent data systems. To develop the Semantic SPASE prototype, the data model was first analyzed to determine the inherit object classes and their attributes. These were entered into Stanford Medical Informatics' Protege ontology tool and annotated using definitions from the SPASE documentation. Further analysis of the data model resulted in the addition of class relationships. Finally attributes and relationships that support broad-scope interoperability were added from research associated with the Object-Oriented Data Technology task. To validate the ontology and produce a knowledge base, example data products were ingested. The capture of the data model as an ontology results in a more formal specification of the model. The Protege software is also a powerful management tool and supports plug-ins that produce several graphical notations as output. The stated purpose of the semantic web is to support machine understanding of web-based information. Protege provides an export capability to RDF/XML and RDFS/XML for this purpose. Several research efforts use RDF/XML knowledge bases to provide semantic search. MIT's Simile/Longwell project provides both facet- and text-based search using a suite of metadata browsers and the text-based search engine Lucene. Using the Protege generated RDF knowledge-base a semantic search application was easily built and deployed to run as a web application. Configuration files specify the object attributes and values to be designated as facets (i.e. search) constraints. Semantic web technologies provide

  18. Differential effects of age and history of hypertension on regional brain volumes and iron

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigue, Karen M.; Haacke, E. Mark; Raz, Naftali

    2010-01-01

    Aging affects various structural and metabolic properties of the brain. However, associations among various aspects of brain aging are unclear. Moreover, those properties and associations among them may be modified by age-associated increase in vascular risk. In this study, we measured volume of brain regions that vary in their vulnerability to aging and estimated local iron content via T2* relaxometry. In 113 healthy adults (19–83 years old), we examined prefrontal cortex (PFC), primary visual cortex (VC), hippocampus (HC), entorhinal cortex (EC), caudate nucleus (Cd), and putamen (Pt). In some regions (PFC, VC, Cd, Pt) age-related differences in iron and volume followed similar patterns. However, in the medial temporal structures, volume and iron content exhibited different age trajectories. Whereas age-related volume reduction was mild in HC and absent in EC, iron content evidenced significant age-related declines. In hypertensive participants significantly greater iron content was noted in all examined regions. Thus, iron content as measured by T2* may be a sensitive index of regional brain aging and may reveal declines that are more prominent than gross anatomical shrinkage. PMID:20923707

  19. Measuring the lexical semantics of picture description in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Jean K

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Individuals with non-fluent aphasia have difficulty producing syntactically laden words, such as function words, whereas individuals with fluent aphasia often have difficulty producing semantically specific words. It is hypothesised that such dissociations arise, at least in part, from a trade-off between syntactic and semantic sources of input to lexical retrieval. AIMS: The aims of this study were (a) to identify quantitative measures of the semantic content of narrative for people with aphasia that are reliable indicators of semantic competence, independent of overall aphasia severity; (b) to determine whether these measures distinguish between fluent and non-fluent aphasia; and (c) to assess whether individuals with fluent and non-fluent aphasia show a trade-off between measures of syntactic and semantic production. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: Connected speech samples were elicited from 16 participants with aphasia, 8 fluent and 8 non-fluent. The semantic sufficiency of the samples was analysed by measuring the proportion of correct information units (CIUs), the type-token ratios (TTRs) of content words, and the proportion of semantically specific ("heavy") to semantically general ("light") verbs produced. These measures were then correlated with syntactic measures from the QPA (Berndt, Wayland, Rochon, Saffran, & Schwartz, 2000) across and within participant groups. OUTCOMES #ENTITYSTARTX00026; RESULTS: CIUs were found to reflect primarily aphasia severity, and not to differentiate between fluent and non-fluent groups. TTRs were also strongly influenced by severity among fluent, but not non-fluent, participants. The ratio of heavy to light verbs reliably distinguished the groups, and showed different patterns of correlation with the syntactic measures. CONCLUSIONS: Results show some evidence for a trade-off between syntactic and semantic inputs to word retrieval, at least among non-fluent participants. The heavy-light verb ratio

  20. Simulated Microgravity Exerts an Age-Dependent Effect on the Differentiation of Cardiovascular Progenitors Isolated from the Human Heart.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Tania I; Appleby, Nancy; Raya, Michael; Bailey, Leonard; Hasaniya, Nahidh; Stodieck, Louis; Kearns-Jonker, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Microgravity has a profound effect on cardiovascular function, however, little is known about the impact of microgravity on progenitors that reside within the heart. We investigated the effect of simulated microgravity exposure on progenitors isolated from the neonatal and adult human heart by quantifying changes in functional parameters, gene expression and protein levels after 6-7 days of 2D clinorotation. Utilization of neonatal and adult cardiovascular progenitors in ground-based studies has provided novel insight into how microgravity may affect cells differently depending on age. Simulated microgravity exposure did not impact AKT or ERK phosphorylation levels and did not influence cell migration, but elevated transcripts for paracrine factors were identified in neonatal and adult cardiovascular progenitors. Age-dependent responses surfaced when comparing the impact of microgravity on differentiation. Endothelial cell tube formation was unchanged or increased in progenitors from adults whereas neonatal cardiovascular progenitors showed a decline in tube formation (p<0.05). Von Willebrand Factor, an endothelial differentiation marker, and MLC2v and Troponin T, markers for cardiomyogenic differentiation, were elevated in expression in adult progenitors after simulated microgravity. DNA repair genes and telomerase reverse transcriptase which are highly expressed in early stem cells were increased in expression in neonatal but not adult cardiac progenitors after growth under simulated microgravity conditions. Neonatal cardiac progenitors demonstrated higher levels of MESP1, OCT4, and brachyury, markers for early stem cells. MicroRNA profiling was used to further investigate the impact of simulated microgravity on cardiovascular progenitors. Fifteen microRNAs were significantly altered in expression, including microRNAs-99a and 100 (which play a critical role in cell dedifferentiation). These microRNAs were unchanged in adult cardiac progenitors. The effect of

  1. Reduction of myoblast differentiation following multiple population doublings in mouse C2 C12 cells: a model to investigate ageing?

    PubMed

    Sharples, Adam P; Al-Shanti, Nasser; Lewis, Mark P; Stewart, Claire E

    2011-12-01

    Ageing skeletal muscle displays declines in size, strength, and functional capacity. Given the acknowledged role that the systemic environment plays in reduced regeneration (Conboy et al. [2005] Nature 433: 760-764), the role of resident satellite cells (termed myoblasts upon activation) is relatively dismissed, where, multiple cellular divisions in-vivo throughout the lifespan could also impact on muscular deterioration. Using a model of multiple population doublings (MPD) in-vitro thus provided a system in which to investigate the direct impact of extensive cell duplications on muscle cell behavior. C(2) C(12) mouse skeletal myoblasts (CON) were used fresh or following 58 population doublings (MPD). As a result of multiple divisions, reduced morphological and biochemical (creatine kinase, CK) differentiation were observed. Furthermore, MPD cells had significantly increased cells in the S and decreased cells in the G1 phases of the cell cycle versus CON, following serum withdrawal. These results suggest continued cycling rather than G1 exit and thus reduced differentiation (myotube atrophy) occurs in MPD muscle cells. These changes were underpinned by significant reductions in transcript expression of: IGF-I and myogenic regulatory factors (myoD and myogenin) together with elevated IGFBP5. Signaling studies showed that decreased differentiation in MPD was associated with decreased phosphorylation of Akt, and with later increased phosphorylation of JNK1/2. Chemical inhibition of JNK1/2 (SP600125) in MPD cells increased IGF-I expression (non-significantly), however, did not enhance differentiation. This study provides a potential model and molecular mechanisms for deterioration in differentiation capacity in skeletal muscle cells as a consequence of multiple population doublings that would potentially contribute to the ageing process. PMID:21826704

  2. Differential effects of blueberry polyphenols on age-associated neuroinflammation and cognition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term effects of oxidative stress and inflammatory insults are thought to contribute to the decrements in cognitive performance seen in aging and neurodegenerative diseases. In previous studies, we have shown the beneficial effects of various dark-colored berry fruits in reversing age-related de...

  3. Excess body mass is associated with T cell differentiation indicative of immune aging in children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity has been associated with accelerated biological ageing and immunosenescence. As the prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing, we wanted to determine if associations between obesity and immunosenescence would manifest in children. We studied 123 Mexican American adolescents aged 10–14 (m...

  4. 29 CFR 1625.7 - Differentiations based on reasonable factors other than age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the grounds that it is a “factor other than” age, and such a practice has an adverse impact on... practice is justified by a reasonable factor other than age is unavailable. (d) When an employment practice... forth at part 1607 of this title. (e) When the exception of “a reasonable factor other than age”...

  5. 29 CFR 1625.7 - Differentiations based on reasonable factors other than age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the grounds that it is a “factor other than” age, and such a practice has an adverse impact on... practice is justified by a reasonable factor other than age is unavailable. (d) When an employment practice... forth at part 1607 of this title. (e) When the exception of “a reasonable factor other than age”...

  6. Ablations of ghrelin and ghrelin receptor exhibit differential metabolic phenotypes and thermogenic capacity during aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is a hallmark of aging in many Western societies, and is a precursor to numerous serious age-related diseases. Ghrelin ("Ghrl"), via its receptor (growth hormone secretagogue receptor, GHS-R), is shown to stimulate GH secretion and appetite. Surprisingly, our previous studies showed that "Gh...

  7. Unsafe abortion differentials in 2008 by age and developing country region: high burden among young women.

    PubMed

    Shah, Iqbal H; Ahman, Elisabeth

    2012-06-01

    Each year, nearly 22 million women worldwide have an unsafe abortion, almost all of which occur in developing countries. This paper estimates the incidence and rates of unsafe abortion by five-year age groups among women aged 15-44 years in developing country regions in 2008. Forty-one per cent of unsafe abortions in developing regions are among young women aged 15-24 years, 15% among those aged 15-19 years and 26% among those aged 20-24 years. Among the 3.2 million unsafe abortions in young women 15-19 years old, almost 50% are in the Africa region. 22% of all unsafe abortions in Africa compared to 11% of those in Asia (excluding Eastern Asia) and 16% of those in Latin America and the Caribbean are among adolescents aged 15-19 years. The number of adolescent women globally is approaching 300 million. Adolescents suffer the most from the negative consequences of unsafe abortion. Efforts are urgently needed to provide contraceptive information and services to adolescents, who have a high unmet need for family planning, and to women of all ages, with interventions tailored by age group. Efforts to make abortion safe in developing countries are also urgently needed. PMID:22789095

  8. An experimental set-up to analyse the oxygen consumption of elastomers during ageing by using a differential oxygen analyser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzig, Alexander; Johlitz, Michael; Lion, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Ageing of polymers becomes more and more important. This can be seen by the increasing number of research projects dealing with this topic. However, the influence of oxygen on changes in the mechanical performance is undisputable and important with respect to the lifetime of polymer products. Therefore, a respirometer offers the potential to detect the smallest amounts of oxygen changes in the polymers' ambient air. It will be used to analyse the oxygen consumption of rubber which is exposed for different times to elevated temperatures. In this contribution, virgin rubber samples are aged for various times in a sealed chamber at temperatures of 60, 80 and 100°C. The decline of the oxygen concentration in the ambient air is measured by flushing the chamber with dried and cleaned air which is conducted into the respirometer. The oxygen concentration is compared with that in a reference chamber, which is exposed to the same ageing conditions as the sample under investigation. The absorbed oxygen is relevant for ageing and a considerable factor for further investigations. For this reason, an experimental set-up using a differential oxygen analyser is developed, which allows for ageing several samples simultaneously in external climate chambers. The comparison of the change in the mechanical material behaviour after ageing can provide an important contribution for improving constitutive models or ongoing researches on the fatigue strength of polymers. This work shows the development of an improved method for combining mechanical testing and the measurement of oxygen consumption.

  9. From cell senescence to age-related diseases: differential mechanisms of action of senescence-associated secretory phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Hae-Ok; Lee, Young-Kyoung; Kim, Jeong-Min; Yoon, Gyesoon

    2015-01-01

    Cellular senescence is a process by which cells enter a state of permanent cell cycle arrest. It is commonly believed to underlie organismal aging and age-associated diseases. However, the mechanism by which cellular senescence contributes to aging and age-associated pathologies remains unclear. Recent studies showed that senescent cells exert detrimental effects on the tissue microenvironment, generating pathological facilitators or aggravators. The most significant environmental effector resulting from senescent cells is the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), which is constituted by a strikingly increased expression and secretion of diverse pro-inflammatory cytokines. Careful investigation into the components of SASPs and their mechanism of action, may improve our understanding of the pathological backgrounds of age-associated diseases. In this review, we focus on the differential expression of SASP-related genes, in addition to SASP components, during the progress of senescence. We also provide a perspective on the possible action mechanisms of SASP components, and potential contributions of SASP-expressing senescent cells, to age-associated pathologies. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(10): 549-558] PMID:26129674

  10. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

    2007-08-07

    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  11. 5-azacytidine improves the osteogenic differentiation potential of aged human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells by DNA demethylation.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xueying; Ehnert, Sabrina; Culmes, Mihaela; Bachmann, Anastasia; Seeliger, Claudine; Schyschka, Lilianna; Wang, Zhiyong; Rahmanian-Schwarz, Afshin; Stöckle, Ulrich; De Sousa, Paul A; Pelisek, Jaroslav; Nussler, Andreas K

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic value of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Ad-MSCs) for bone regeneration is critically discussed. A possible reason for reduced osteogenic potential may be an age-related deterioration of the Ad-MSCs. In long term in vitro culture, epigenomic changes in DNA methylation are known to cause gene silencing, affecting stem cell growth as well as the differentiation potential. In this study, we observed an age-related decline in proliferation of primary human Ad-MSCs. Decreased Nanog, Oct4 and Lin28A and increased Sox2 gene-expression was accompanied by an impaired osteogenic differentiation potential of Ad-MSCs isolated from old donors (>60 a) as compared to Ad-MSCs isolated from younger donors (<45 a). 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5 hmC) and 5-methylcytonsine (5 mC) distribution as well as TET gene expression were evaluated to assess the evidence of active DNA demethylation. We observed a decrease of 5 hmC in Ad-MSCs from older donors. Incubation of these cells with 5-Azacytidine induced proliferation and improved the osteogenic differentiation potential in these cells. The increase in AP activity and matrix mineralization was associated with an increased presence of 5 hmC as well as with an increased TET2 and TET3 gene expression. Our data show, for the first time, a decrease of DNA hydroxymethylation in Ad-MSCs which correlates with donor-age and that treatment with 5-Azacytidine provides an approach which could be used to rejuvenate Ad-MSCs from aged donors. PMID:24603866

  12. 5-Azacytidine Improves the Osteogenic Differentiation Potential of Aged Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells by DNA Demethylation

    PubMed Central

    Culmes, Mihaela; Bachmann, Anastasia; Seeliger, Claudine; Schyschka, Lilianna; Wang, Zhiyong; Rahmanian-Schwarz, Afshin; Stöckle, Ulrich; De Sousa, Paul A.; Pelisek, Jaroslav; Nussler, Andreas K.

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic value of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Ad-MSCs) for bone regeneration is critically discussed. A possible reason for reduced osteogenic potential may be an age-related deterioration of the Ad-MSCs. In long term in vitro culture, epigenomic changes in DNA methylation are known to cause gene silencing, affecting stem cell growth as well as the differentiation potential. In this study, we observed an age-related decline in proliferation of primary human Ad-MSCs. Decreased Nanog, Oct4 and Lin28A and increased Sox2 gene-expression was accompanied by an impaired osteogenic differentiation potential of Ad-MSCs isolated from old donors (>60 a) as compared to Ad-MSCs isolated from younger donors (<45 a). 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5 hmC) and 5-methylcytonsine (5 mC) distribution as well as TET gene expression were evaluated to assess the evidence of active DNA demethylation. We observed a decrease of 5 hmC in Ad-MSCs from older donors. Incubation of these cells with 5-Azacytidine induced proliferation and improved the osteogenic differentiation potential in these cells. The increase in AP activity and matrix mineralization was associated with an increased presence of 5 hmC as well as with an increased TET2 and TET3 gene expression. Our data show, for the first time, a decrease of DNA hydroxymethylation in Ad-MSCs which correlates with donor-age and that treatment with 5-Azacytidine provides an approach which could be used to rejuvenate Ad-MSCs from aged donors. PMID:24603866

  13. Differential aging of bite and jump performance in virgin and mated Teleogryllus commodus crickets.

    PubMed

    Lailvaux, Simon P; Zajitschek, Felix; Dessman, Josephine; Brooks, Robert

    2011-11-01

    Evolutionary theories of aging state that the force of natural selection declines with age, resulting in trait senescence. However, sexual selection theory predicts that costly traits that signal mate value should increase in expression as survival prospects decline. Mortality rates and fertility tend to show strong signatures of senescence, whereas sexual signaling traits increase with age, but how the expression of traits such as whole-organism performance measures that are subject to both sexual and nonsexual selection should change with age is unclear. We examined the effects of both a key life-history event (mating) and diet quality (male and female optimal diets) on aging in two whole-organism performance traits (bite force and jump take-off velocity) in male and female Teleogryllus commodus crickets. We found no evidence for diet effects on any of the measured traits. Aging effects were more evident in females than in males for both jumping and biting, and constitute a mix of senescence and terminal investment patterns depending on sex/mating class. Sex and mating therefore have important implications for resource allocation to performance traits, and hence for aging of those traits, and interactions between these two factors can result in complex changes in trait expression over individual lifetimes. PMID:22023581

  14. Age of onset differentially influences the progression of regional dysfunction in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Daichi; Atsuta, Naoki; Watanabe, Hazuki; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Hirakawa, Akihiro; Ito, Mizuki; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Katsuno, Masahisa; Izumi, Yuishin; Morita, Mitsuya; Taniguchi, Akira; Oda, Masaya; Abe, Koji; Mizoguchi, Kouichi; Kano, Osamu; Kuwabara, Satoshi; Kaji, Ryuji; Sobue, Gen

    2016-06-01

    The clinical courses of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) show extensive variability. Our objective was to elucidate how age of onset influences the progression of regional symptoms and functional losses in sporadic ALS. We included 648 patients with sporadic ALS from a multicenter prospective ALS cohort. We investigated the distribution of initial symptoms and analyzed the time from onset to events affecting activities of daily living (ADL) as well as the longitudinal changes in each regional functional rating score among four groups with different ages of onset. The frequencies of dysarthria and dysphagia as initial symptoms were higher in the older age groups, whereas weakness of upper limbs was the most common initial symptom in the youngest age group. The survival times and the times from onset to loss of speech and swallowing were significantly shorter in the older age group (p < 0.001), although the times from onset to loss of upper limb function were not significantly different among the age groups. According to joint modeling analysis, the bulbar score declined faster in the older age groups (<50 vs. 60-69 years: p = 0.029, <50 vs. ≥70 years: p < 0.001), whereas there was no significant correlation between the age of onset and decline in the upper limb score. Our results showed that age of onset had a significant influence on survival time and the progression of bulbar symptoms, but had no influence on upper limb function in sporadic ALS. PMID:27083563

  15. Value Differentiation in Adolescence: The Role of Age and Cultural Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Ella; Schiefer, David; Mollering, Anna; Benish-Weisman, Maya; Boehnke, Klaus; Knafo, Ariel

    2012-01-01

    Living in complex social worlds, individuals encounter discordant values across life contexts, potentially resulting in different importance of values across contexts. Value differentiation is defined here as the degree to which values receive different importance depending on the context in which they are considered. Early and mid-adolescents (N…

  16. Interacting effects of latitude, mass, age, and sex on winter survival of Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata): Implications for differential migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uher-Koch, Brian D.; Esler, Daniel N.; Iverson, Samuel A.; Ward, David; Boyd, Sean; Kirk, Molly; Lewis, Tyler L.; VanStratt, Corey S.; Brodhead, Katherine M.; Hupp, Jerry; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2016-01-01

    We quantified variation in winter survival of Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata (L., 1758)) across nearly 30° of latitude on the Pacific coast of North America to evaluate potential effects on winter distributions, including observed differential distributions of age and sex classes. We monitored fates of 297 radio-marked Surf Scoters at three study sites: (1) near the northern periphery of their wintering range in southeast Alaska, USA, (2) the range core in British Columbia, Canada, and (3) the southern periphery in Baja California, Mexico. We detected 34 mortalities and determined that survival averaged lower at the range peripheries than in the range core, was lower during mid-winter than during late winter at all sites, and was positively correlated with body mass within locations. Although neither age nor sex class had direct effects, mass effects led to differential survival patterns among classes. When simultaneously incorporating these interacting influences, adult males of mean mass for their location had highest survival at the northern range periphery in Alaska, whereas adult females and juveniles had higher survival at the range core and the southern periphery. Our observations help to explain patterns of differential migration and distribution reported for this species and highlight seasonal periods (mid-winter) and locations (range peripheries) of elevated levels of mortality for demographically important age–sex classes (adult females).

  17. Semantic Webs and Study Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, John J.; Rabideau, Debra K.

    1995-01-01

    Principles for ensuring effective use of semantic webbing in meeting study skill needs of students with learning problems are noted. Important study skills are listed, along with suggested semantic web topics for which subordinate ideas may be developed. Two semantic webs are presented, illustrating the study skills of multiple choice test-taking…

  18. Semantic Search of Web Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Ke

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses semantic search of Web services using natural language processing. We first survey various existing approaches, focusing on the fact that the expensive costs of current semantic annotation frameworks result in limited use of semantic search for large scale applications. We then propose a vector space model based service…

  19. Right Hemispheric Participation in Semantic Decision Improves Performance

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Kiely M.; Allendorfer, Jane B.; Szaflarski, Jerzy P.

    2011-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies in healthy adults demonstrate involvement of a left-lateralized network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions during a variety of semantic processing tasks. While these areas are believed to be fundamental to semantic processing, it is unclear if task performance is correlated with differential recruitment of these or other brain regions. The objective of this study was to identify the structures underlying improved accuracy on a semantic decision task. We also investigated whether extra-scanner performance on the Boston Naming Test (BNT) and Semantic Fluency Test (SFT), neuropsychological measures of semantic retrieval, is correlated with specific areas of activation during the semantic decision/tone decision (SDTD) fMRI task. Fifty-two healthy, right-handed individuals performed a block-design SDTD task. Regression analyses revealed that increased performance on this task was associated with activation in the right inferior parietal lobule. Higher SFT performance resulted in greater recruitment of right frontal regions; improved performance on BNT was associated with more widespread activation in prefrontal, temporal, and parietal cortex bilaterally, although this activation appeared to be stronger in the right hemisphere. Overall, our results suggest that improved performance on both intra- and extra-scanner measures of semantic processing are associated with increased recruitment of right hemispheric regions. PMID:21937029

  20. Semantic Knowledge Influences Prewired Hedonic Responses to Odors

    PubMed Central

    Poncelet, Johan; Rinck, Fanny; Ziessel, Anne; Joussain, Pauline; Thévenet, Marc; Rouby, Catherine; Bensafi, Moustafa

    2010-01-01

    Background Odor hedonic perception relies on decoding the physicochemical properties of odorant molecules and can be influenced in humans by semantic knowledge. The effect of semantic knowledge on such prewired hedonic processing over the life span has remained unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings The present study measured hedonic response to odors in different age groups (children, teenagers, young adults, and seniors) and found that children and seniors, two age groups characterized by either low level of (children) or weak access to (seniors) odor semantic knowledge, processed odor hedonics more on the basis of their physicochemical properties. In contrast, in teenagers and young adults, who show better levels of semantic odor representation, the role of physicochemical properties was less marked. Conclusions/Significance These findings demonstrate for the first time that the biological determinants that make an odor pleasant or unpleasant are more powerful at either end of the life span. PMID:21079734

  1. Differentiation of aged fibers by Raman spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Federica; Riboni, Nicolò; Trolla, Valentina; Furlan, Giada; Avantaggiato, Giorgio; Iacobellis, Giuliano; Careri, Maria

    2016-07-01

    Raman spectroscopy followed by multivariate data analysis was used to analyze cotton fibers dyed using similar formulations and submitted to different aging conditions. Spectra were collected on a commercial instrument using a near-infrared laser with a 780nm light source. Discriminant analysis allowed to correctly classify the aged fibers 100% of the time. The prediction ability of the calculated model was estimated to be 100% by the "leave-one-out" cross-validation for 3 out of the 4 series under investigation. Finally, reliability of the developed approach for the discrimination of aged vs new fibers was confirmed by the analysis of commercial polyamide and polyester textiles submitted to the same aging process. PMID:27154701

  2. Musicians' Enhanced Neural Differentiation of Speech Sounds Arises Early in Life: Developmental Evidence from Ages 3 to 30

    PubMed Central

    Strait, Dana L.; O'Connell, Samantha; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    The perception and neural representation of acoustically similar speech sounds underlie language development. Music training hones the perception of minute acoustic differences that distinguish sounds; this training may generalize to speech processing given that adult musicians have enhanced neural differentiation of similar speech syllables compared with nonmusicians. Here, we asked whether this neural advantage in musicians is present early in life by assessing musically trained and untrained children as young as age 3. We assessed auditory brainstem responses to the speech syllables /ba/ and /ga/ as well as auditory and visual cognitive abilities in musicians and nonmusicians across 3 developmental time-points: preschoolers, school-aged children, and adults. Cross-phase analyses objectively measured the degree to which subcortical responses differed to these speech syllables in musicians and nonmusicians for each age group. Results reveal that musicians exhibit enhanced neural differentiation of stop consonants early in life and with as little as a few years of training. Furthermore, the extent of subcortical stop consonant distinction correlates with auditory-specific cognitive abilities (i.e., auditory working memory and attention). Results are interpreted according to a corticofugal framework for auditory learning in which subcortical processing enhancements are engendered by strengthened cognitive control over auditory function in musicians. PMID:23599166

  3. Musicians' enhanced neural differentiation of speech sounds arises early in life: developmental evidence from ages 3 to 30.

    PubMed

    Strait, Dana L; O'Connell, Samantha; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Kraus, Nina

    2014-09-01

    The perception and neural representation of acoustically similar speech sounds underlie language development. Music training hones the perception of minute acoustic differences that distinguish sounds; this training may generalize to speech processing given that adult musicians have enhanced neural differentiation of similar speech syllables compared with nonmusicians. Here, we asked whether this neural advantage in musicians is present early in life by assessing musically trained and untrained children as young as age 3. We assessed auditory brainstem responses to the speech syllables /ba/ and /ga/ as well as auditory and visual cognitive abilities in musicians and nonmusicians across 3 developmental time-points: preschoolers, school-aged children, and adults. Cross-phase analyses objectively measured the degree to which subcortical responses differed to these speech syllables in musicians and nonmusicians for each age group. Results reveal that musicians exhibit enhanced neural differentiation of stop consonants early in life and with as little as a few years of training. Furthermore, the extent of subcortical stop consonant distinction correlates with auditory-specific cognitive abilities (i.e., auditory working memory and attention). Results are interpreted according to a corticofugal framework for auditory learning in which subcortical processing enhancements are engendered by strengthened cognitive control over auditory function in musicians. PMID:23599166

  4. Semantator: annotating clinical narratives with semantic web ontologies.

    PubMed

    Song, Dezhao; Chute, Christopher G; Tao, Cui

    2012-01-01

    To facilitate clinical research, clinical data needs to be stored in a machine processable and understandable way. Manual annotating clinical data is time consuming. Automatic approaches (e.g., Natural Language Processing systems) have been adopted to convert such data into structured formats; however, the quality of such automatically extracted data may not always be satisfying. In this paper, we propose Semantator, a semi-automatic tool for document annotation with Semantic Web ontologies. With a loaded free text document and an ontology, Semantator supports the creation/deletion of ontology instances for any document fragment, linking/disconnecting instances with the properties in the ontology, and also enables automatic annotation by connecting to the NCBO annotator and cTAKES. By representing annotations in Semantic Web standards, Semantator supports reasoning based upon the underlying semantics of the owl:disjointWith and owl:equivalentClass predicates. We present discussions based on user experiences of using Semantator. PMID:22779043

  5. Semantator: Annotating Clinical Narratives with Semantic Web Ontologies

    PubMed Central

    Song, Dezhao; Chute, Christopher G.; Tao, Cui

    2012-01-01

    To facilitate clinical research, clinical data needs to be stored in a machine processable and understandable way. Manual annotating clinical data is time consuming. Automatic approaches (e.g., Natural Language Processing systems) have been adopted to convert such data into structured formats; however, the quality of such automatically extracted data may not always be satisfying. In this paper, we propose Semantator, a semi-automatic tool for document annotation with Semantic Web ontologies. With a loaded free text document and an ontology, Semantator supports the creation/deletion of ontology instances for any document fragment, linking/disconnecting instances with the properties in the ontology, and also enables automatic annotation by connecting to the NCBO annotator and cTAKES. By representing annotations in Semantic Web standards, Semantator supports reasoning based upon the underlying semantics of the owl:disjointWith and owl:equivalentClass predicates. We present discussions based on user experiences of using Semantator. PMID:22779043

  6. SELF-CONCEPT DIFFERENTIATION AND SELF-CONCEPT CLARITY ACROSS ADULTHOOD: ASSOCIATIONS WITH AGE AND PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING*

    PubMed Central

    DIEHL, MANFRED; HAY, ELIZABETH L.

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on the identification of conceptually meaningful groups of individuals based on their joint self-concept differentiation (SCD) and self-concept clarity (SCC) scores. Notably, we examined whether membership in different SCD-SCC groups differed by age and also was associated with differences in psychological well-being (PWB). Cluster analysis revealed five distinct SCD-SCC groups: a self-assured, unencumbered, fragmented-only, confused-only, and fragmented and confused group. Individuals in the self-assured group had the highest mean scores for positive PWB and the lowest mean scores for negative PWB, whereas individuals in the fragmented and confused group showed the inverse pattern. Findings showed that it was psychologically advantageous to belong to the self-assured group at all ages. As hypothesized, older adults were more likely than young adults to be in the self-assured cluster, whereas young adults were more likely to be in the fragmented and confused cluster. Thus, consistent with extant theorizing, age was positively associated with psychologically adaptive self-concept profiles. This study examined whether conceptually meaningful subgroups of individuals can be identified based on their joint scores on self-concept differentiation (SCD) and self-concept clarity (SCC). Specifically, we considered whether individuals within such subgroups differed systematically from one another on measures of positive and negative psychological well-being (PWB). Of interest to us was also whether there were age differences in the distribution of adults across the SCD-SCC groups and whether age moderated the association between PWB and SCD-SCC grouping. PMID:22010361

  7. Mechanosensory Neuron Aging: Differential Trajectories with Lifespan-Extending Alaskan Berry and Fungal Treatments in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Scerbak, Courtney; Vayndorf, Elena M; Hernandez, Alicia; McGill, Colin; Taylor, Barbara E

    2016-01-01

    Many nutritional interventions that increase lifespan are also proposed to postpone age-related declines in motor and cognitive function. Potential sources of anti-aging compounds are the plants and fungi that have adapted to extreme environments. We studied the effects of four commonly consumed and culturally relevant Interior Alaska berry and fungus species (bog blueberry, lowbush cranberry, crowberry, and chaga) on the decline in overall health and neuron function and changes in touch receptor neuron morphology associated with aging. We observed increased wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan and improved markers of healthspan upon treatment with Alaskan blueberry, lowbush cranberry, and chaga extracts. Interestingly, although all three treatments increased lifespan, they differentially affected the development of aberrant morphologies in touch receptor neurons. Blueberry treatments decreased anterior mechanosensory neuron (ALM) aberrations (i.e., extended outgrowths and abnormal cell bodies) while lowbush cranberry treatment increased posterior mechanosensory neuron (PLM) aberrations, namely process branching. Chaga treatment both decreased ALM aberrations (i.e., extended outgrowths) and increased PLM aberrations (i.e., process branching and loops). These results support the large body of knowledge positing that there are multiple cellular strategies and mechanisms for promoting health with age. Importantly, these results also demonstrate that although an accumulation of abnormal neuron morphologies is associated with aging and decreased health, not all of these morphologies are detrimental to neuronal and organismal health. PMID:27486399

  8. Mechanosensory Neuron Aging: Differential Trajectories with Lifespan-Extending Alaskan Berry and Fungal Treatments in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Scerbak, Courtney; Vayndorf, Elena M.; Hernandez, Alicia; McGill, Colin; Taylor, Barbara E.

    2016-01-01

    Many nutritional interventions that increase lifespan are also proposed to postpone age-related declines in motor and cognitive function. Potential sources of anti-aging compounds are the plants and fungi that have adapted to extreme environments. We studied the effects of four commonly consumed and culturally relevant Interior Alaska berry and fungus species (bog blueberry, lowbush cranberry, crowberry, and chaga) on the decline in overall health and neuron function and changes in touch receptor neuron morphology associated with aging. We observed increased wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan and improved markers of healthspan upon treatment with Alaskan blueberry, lowbush cranberry, and chaga extracts. Interestingly, although all three treatments increased lifespan, they differentially affected the development of aberrant morphologies in touch receptor neurons. Blueberry treatments decreased anterior mechanosensory neuron (ALM) aberrations (i.e., extended outgrowths and abnormal cell bodies) while lowbush cranberry treatment increased posterior mechanosensory neuron (PLM) aberrations, namely process branching. Chaga treatment both decreased ALM aberrations (i.e., extended outgrowths) and increased PLM aberrations (i.e., process branching and loops). These results support the large body of knowledge positing that there are multiple cellular strategies and mechanisms for promoting health with age. Importantly, these results also demonstrate that although an accumulation of abnormal neuron morphologies is associated with aging and decreased health, not all of these morphologies are detrimental to neuronal and organismal health. PMID:27486399

  9. Phospho1 deficiency transiently modifies bone architecture yet produces consistent modification in osteocyte differentiation and vascular porosity with ageing

    PubMed Central

    Javaheri, B.; Carriero, A.; Staines, K.A.; Chang, Y.-M.; Houston, D.A.; Oldknow, K.J.; Millan, J.L.; Kazeruni, Bassir N.; Salmon, P.; Shefelbine, S.; Farquharson, C.; Pitsillides, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    PHOSPHO1 is one of principal proteins involved in initiating bone matrix mineralisation. Recent studies have found that Phospho1 KO mice (Phospho1-R74X) display multiple skeletal abnormalities with spontaneous fractures, bowed long bones, osteomalacia and scoliosis. These analyses have however been limited to young mice and it remains unclear whether the role of PHOSPHO1 is conserved in the mature murine skeleton where bone turnover is limited. In this study, we have used ex-vivo computerised tomography to examine the effect of Phospho1 deletion on tibial bone architecture in mice at a range of ages (5, 7, 16 and 34 weeks of age) to establish whether its role is conserved during skeletal growth and maturation. Matrix mineralisation has also been reported to influence terminal osteoblast differentiation into osteocytes and we have also explored whether hypomineralised bones in Phospho1 KO mice exhibit modified osteocyte lacunar and vascular porosity. Our data reveal that Phospho1 deficiency generates age-related defects in trabecular architecture and compromised cortical microarchitecture with greater porosity accompanied by marked alterations in osteocyte shape, significant increases in osteocytic lacuna and vessel number. Our in vitro studies examining the behaviour of osteoblast derived from Phospho1 KO and wild-type mice reveal reduced levels of matrix mineralisation and modified osteocytogenic programming in cells deficient in PHOSPHO1. Together our data suggest that deficiency in PHOSPHO1 exerts modifications in bone architecture that are transient and depend upon age, yet produces consistent modification in lacunar and vascular porosity. It is possible that the inhibitory role of PHOSPHO1 on osteocyte differentiation leads to these age-related changes in bone architecture. It is also intriguing to note that this apparent acceleration in osteocyte differentiation evident in the hypomineralised bones of Phospho1 KO mice suggests an uncoupling of the interplay

  10. Sweet Dopamine: Sucrose Preferences Relate Differentially to Striatal D2 Receptor Binding and Age in Obesity.

    PubMed

    Pepino, Marta Y; Eisenstein, Sarah A; Bischoff, Allison N; Klein, Samuel; Moerlein, Stephen M; Perlmutter, Joel S; Black, Kevin J; Hershey, Tamara

    2016-09-01

    Alterations in dopaminergic circuitry play a critical role in food reward and may contribute to susceptibility to obesity. Ingestion of sweets releases dopamine in striatum, and both sweet preferences and striatal D2 receptors (D2R) decline with age and may be altered in obesity. Understanding the relationships between these variables and the impact of obesity on these relationships may reveal insight into the neurobiological basis of sweet preferences. We evaluated sucrose preferences, perception of sweetness intensity, and striatal D2R binding potential (D2R BPND) using positron emission tomography with a D2R-selective radioligand insensitive to endogenous dopamine, (N-[(11)C] methyl)benperidol, in 20 subjects without obesity (BMI 22.5 ± 2.4 kg/m(2); age 28.3 ± 5.4 years) and 24 subjects with obesity (BMI 40.3 ± 5.0 kg/m(2); age 31.2 ± 6.3 years). The groups had similar sucrose preferences, sweetness intensity perception, striatal D2R BPND, and age-related D2R BPND declines. However, both striatal D2R BPND and age correlated with sucrose preferences in subjects without obesity, explaining 52% of their variance in sucrose preference. In contrast, these associations were absent in the obese group. In conclusion, the age-related decline in D2R was not linked to the age-related decline in sweetness preferences, suggesting that other, as-yet-unknown mechanisms play a role and that these mechanisms are disrupted in obesity. PMID:27307220

  11. Computer Program for the Semantic Differential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, E. D.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Copies of the program in FORTRAN IV with descriptive comments and sample data as run on the CDC 6400 are available on request from George H. Golden, Jr., Computer Center, State University College, Fredonia, New York 14063. (Authors)

  12. Differential expression of the regulator of G protein signaling RGS9 protein in nociceptive pathways of different age rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Jun; Moriyama, Kumi; Han, Kyung Ream; Sharma, Manohar; Han, Xiaokang; Xie, Guo-xi; Palmer, Pamela Pierce

    2005-11-01

    Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins are GTPase-activating proteins which act as modulators of G-protein-coupled receptors. RGS9 has two alternative splicing variants. RGS9-1 is expressed in the retina. RGS9-2 is expressed in the brain, especially abundant in the striatum. It is believed to be an essential regulatory component of dopamine and opioid signaling. In this study, we compared the expression of RGS9 proteins in the nervous system of different age groups of rats employing immunocytochemistry. In both 3-week- and 1-year-old rats, RGS9 is expressed abundantly in caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, and olfactory tubercle. It is also expressed abundantly in the ventral horn of the spinal cord and the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells. Quantitative analysis showed that the intensities of RGS9 expression in 1-year-old rats are higher than those in the 3-week-old rats in caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, periaqueductal gray, and gray matter of the spinal cord. In contrast, in thalamic nuclei and locus coeruleus, the intensities of RGS9 immunostaining in 3-week-old rats are higher than in 1-year-old rats. In DRG cells, there is no significant difference between the two age groups. These data suggest that RGS9 is differentially expressed with age. Such differential expression may play an important role in neuronal differentiation and development as well as in neuronal function, such as dopamine and opioid signaling. PMID:16153714

  13. Personal semantics: Is it distinct from episodic and semantic memory? An electrophysiological study of memory for autobiographical facts and repeated events in honor of Shlomo Bentin.

    PubMed

    Renoult, Louis; Tanguay, Annick; Beaudry, Myriam; Tavakoli, Paniz; Rabipour, Sheida; Campbell, Kenneth; Moscovitch, Morris; Levine, Brian; Davidson, Patrick S R

    2016-03-01

    Declarative memory is thought to consist of two independent systems: episodic and semantic. Episodic memory represents personal and contextually unique events, while semantic memory represents culturally-shared, acontextual factual knowledge. Personal semantics refers to aspects of declarative memory that appear to fall somewhere in between the extremes of episodic and semantic. Examples include autobiographical knowledge and memories of repeated personal events. These two aspects of personal semantics have been studied little and rarely compared to both semantic and episodic memory. We recorded the event-related potentials (ERPs) of 27 healthy participants while they verified the veracity of sentences probing four types of questions: general (i.e., semantic) facts, autobiographical facts, repeated events, and unique (i.e., episodic) events. Behavioral results showed equivalent reaction times in all 4 conditions. True sentences were verified faster than false sentences, except for unique events for which no significant difference was observed. Electrophysiological results showed that the N400 (which is classically associated with retrieval from semantic memory) was maximal for general facts and the LPC (which is classically associated with retrieval from episodic memory) was maximal for unique events. For both ERP components, the two personal semantic conditions (i.e., autobiographical facts and repeated events) systematically differed from semantic memory. In addition, N400 amplitudes also differentiated autobiographical facts from unique events. Autobiographical facts and repeated events did not differ significantly from each other but their corresponding scalp distributions differed from those associated with general facts. Our results suggest that the neural correlates of personal semantics can be distinguished from those of semantic and episodic memory, and may provide clues as to how unique events are transformed to semantic memory. PMID:26277459

  14. Universal Semantics in Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhenying

    2009-01-01

    What and how we translate are questions often argued about. No matter what kind of answers one may give, priority in translation should be granted to meaning, especially those meanings that exist in all concerned languages. In this paper the author defines them as universal sememes, and the study of them as universal semantics, of which…

  15. Latent Semantic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumais, Susan T.

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA): (1) LSA overview; (2) applications of LSA, including information retrieval (IR), information filtering, cross-language retrieval, and other IR-related LSA applications; (3) modeling human memory, including the relationship of LSA to other…

  16. Learning Semantic Query Suggestions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meij, Edgar; Bron, Marc; Hollink, Laura; Huurnink, Bouke; de Rijke, Maarten

    An important application of semantic web technology is recognizing human-defined concepts in text. Query transformation is a strategy often used in search engines to derive queries that are able to return more useful search results than the original query and most popular search engines provide facilities that let users complete, specify, or reformulate their queries. We study the problem of semantic query suggestion, a special type of query transformation based on identifying semantic concepts contained in user queries. We use a feature-based approach in conjunction with supervised machine learning, augmenting term-based features with search history-based and concept-specific features. We apply our method to the task of linking queries from real-world query logs (the transaction logs of the Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision) to the DBpedia knowledge base. We evaluate the utility of different machine learning algorithms, features, and feature types in identifying semantic concepts using a manually developed test bed and show significant improvements over an already high baseline. The resources developed for this paper, i.e., queries, human assessments, and extracted features, are available for download.

  17. Semantic Space Analyst

    2004-04-15

    The Semantic Space Analyst (SSA) is software for analyzing a text corpus, discovering relationships among terms, and allowing the user to explore that information in different ways. It includes features for displaying and laying out terms and relationships visually, for generating such maps from manual queries, for discovering differences between corpora. Data can also be exported to Microsoft Excel.

  18. Implications of Differential Age Distribution of Disease-Associated Meningococcal Lineages for Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Trotter, Caroline L.; Ramsay, Mary E.; Chandra, Manosree; Jolley, Keith A.; van der Ende, Arie; Carion, Françoise; Berthelsen, Lene; Hoffmann, Steen; Harðardóttir, Hjördís; Vazquez, Julio A.; Murphy, Karen; Toropainen, Maija; Caniça, Manuela; Ferreira, Eugenia; Diggle, Mathew; Edwards, Giles F.; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Stefanelli, Paola; Kriz, Paula; Gray, Steve J.; Fox, Andrew J.; Jacobsson, Susanne; Claus, Heike; Vogel, Ulrich; Tzanakaki, Georgina; Heuberger, Sigrid; Caugant, Dominique A.; Frosch, Matthias; Maiden, Martin C. J.

    2014-01-01

    New vaccines targeting meningococci expressing serogroup B polysaccharide have been developed, with some being licensed in Europe. Coverage depends on the distribution of disease-associated genotypes, which may vary by age. It is well established that a small number of hyperinvasive lineages account for most disease, and these lineages are associated with particular antigens, including vaccine candidates. A collection of 4,048 representative meningococcal disease isolates from 18 European countries, collected over a 3-year period, were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Age data were available for 3,147 isolates. The proportions of hyperinvasive lineages, identified as particular clonal complexes (ccs) by MLST, differed among age groups. Subjects <1 year of age experienced lower risk of sequence type 11 (ST-11) cc, ST-32 cc, and ST-269 cc disease and higher risk of disease due to unassigned STs, 1- to 4-year-olds experienced lower risk of ST-11 cc and ST-32 cc disease, 5- to 14-year-olds were less likely to experience ST-11 cc and ST-269 cc disease, and ≥25-year-olds were more likely to experience disease due to less common ccs and unassigned STs. Younger and older subjects were vulnerable to a more diverse set of genotypes, indicating the more clonal nature of genotypes affecting adolescents and young adults. Knowledge of temporal and spatial diversity and the dynamics of meningococcal populations is essential for disease control by vaccines, as coverage is lineage specific. The nonrandom age distribution of hyperinvasive lineages has consequences for the design and implementation of vaccines, as different variants, or perhaps targets, may be required for different age groups. PMID:24695776

  19. An Investigation into Semantic and Phonological Processing in Individuals with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cheryl S.; Binder, Katherine S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The current study examined semantic and phonological processing in individuals with Williams syndrome (WS). Previous research in language processing in individuals with WS suggests a complex linguistic system characterized by "deviant" semantic organization and differential phonological processing. Method: Two experiments…

  20. Overt vs. Null Direct Objects in Spoken Brazilian Portuguese: A Semantic/Pragmatic Account.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwenter, Scott A.; Silva, Glaucia

    2002-01-01

    Examines the semantic/pragmatic constraints on null objects spoken in Brazilian Portuguese (BP) in detail, and situates BP null objects in the broader crosslinguistic perspective of differential object marking. Demonstrates that semantic/pragmatic dimensions of animacy and specificity, and in particular their interaction, must be taken into…

  1. Design-Based Guidelines for the Semantic Perception of Emergency Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chin-Wei; Hsiao, Hung-Yi; Tang, Chieh-Hsin; Chuang, Ying-Ji; Lin, Ching-Yuan

    2010-01-01

    The current study applies semantic differential to explore the semantic perception of emergency signs, in an attempt to analyze the meanings of emergency signs in regard to the psychological exigencies of the general public. The results indicate that problems concerning recognition accuracy have been observed, but also that the evaluation of the…

  2. Differential Item Functioning in Terms of Age in the Certificate in Advanced English Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geranpayeh, Ardeshir; Kunnan, Antony John

    2007-01-01

    When standardized English-language tests are administered to test takers worldwide, the test-taking population could be varied on a number of personal and educational characteristics such as age, gender, first language, and academic discipline. As test tasks and test items may not always be prepared keeping this diversity of characteristics in…

  3. Auditory Middle Latency Responses in Chronic Smokers Compared to Nonsmokers: Differential Effects of Stimulus and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Beverly, Brenda L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Effects of clicks and tonebursts on early and late auditory middle latency response (AMLR) components were evaluated in young and older cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. Method: Participants ( n = 49) were categorized by smoking and age into 4 groups: (a) older smokers, (b) older nonsmokers, (c) young smokers, and (d) young nonsmokers.…

  4. Differential Effects of Intelligence, Perceptual Speed and Age on Growth in Attentional Speed and Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhammer, Frank; Rauch, Wolfgang A.; Schweizer, Karl; Moosbrugger, Helfried

    2010-01-01

    The study investigates the effects of intelligence, perceptual speed and age on intraindividual growth in attentional speed and attentional accuracy over the course of a 6-minute testing session. A sample of 193 subjects completed the Advanced Progressive Matrices and the Vienna Matrices Test representing intelligence, the tests Alertness and…

  5. Differential Expression of Social Dominance as a Function of Age and Maltreatment Experience

    PubMed Central

    Teisl, Michael; Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Cicchetti, Dante

    2013-01-01

    Recent perspectives on social dominance in normative populations suggest a developmental progression from using primarily coercive strategies to incorporation of more socially competent strategies to attain material and social resources. Parental influences on the resource control strategies children use have been proposed, but not investigated empirically. The present study examined age- and gender-related differences in dominance strategies in 470 children from high-risk neighborhoods who were between 6 and 13 years of age, and approximately half of whom had experienced maltreatment. A Q-sort measure of social dominance was developed and received preliminary support. Consistent with predictions from resource control theory, age-related differences in dominance-related behavior were demonstrated in both non-maltreated and maltreated children. Maltreated children were more likely than non-maltreated children to be identified as dominant bullies at any age. Dominance and bullying were not more likely to be associated for children who had experienced physical and sexual abuse relative to those who were neglected or emotionally maltreated. Results are discussed in terms of the influence of maltreatment on the social development of children and intervention approaches for limiting these deleterious effects are recommended. PMID:21823792

  6. Differential Profiles of Risk of Self-Harm among Clinically Referred Primary School Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelkovska, Anne; Houghton, Stephen; Hopkins, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Risk of self-harm among clinic referred children aged 6- to 12-years-old was investigated using the recently developed Self-Harm Risk Assessment for Children (SHRAC) instrument which comprises six factors: Affect traits; verbalizing of self-harm; socialization; dissociation; self-directing; and self-appraisal. The SHRAC was completed by the…

  7. Differential expression of social dominance as a function of age and maltreatment experience.

    PubMed

    Teisl, Michael; Rogosch, Fred A; Oshri, Assaf; Cicchetti, Dante

    2012-03-01

    Recent perspectives on social dominance in normative populations have suggested a developmental progression from using primarily coercive strategies to incorporation of more socially competent strategies to attain material and social resources. Parental influences on the resource control strategies children use have been proposed but not investigated empirically. The present study examined age- and gender-related differences in dominance strategies in 470 children from high-risk neighborhoods who were between 6 and 13 years of age, approximately half of whom had experienced maltreatment. A Q-sort measure of social dominance was developed and received preliminary support. Consistent with predictions from resource control theory, age-related differences in dominance-related behavior were demonstrated in both nonmaltreated and maltreated children. Maltreated children were more likely than nonmaltreated children to be identified as dominant bullies at any age. Dominance and bullying were not more likely to be associated for children who had experienced physical and sexual abuse relative to those who were neglected or emotionally maltreated. Results are discussed in terms of the influence of maltreatment on the social development of children, and intervention approaches for limiting these deleterious effects are recommended. PMID:21823792

  8. Age-Dependent Decline in Mouse Lung Regeneration with Loss of Lung Fibroblast Clonogenicity and Increased Myofibroblastic Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Paxson, Julia A.; Gruntman, Alisha; Parkin, Christopher D.; Mazan, Melissa R.; Davis, Airiel; Ingenito, Edward P.; Hoffman, Andrew M.

    2011-01-01

    While aging leads to a reduction in the capacity for regeneration after pneumonectomy (PNX) in most mammals, this biological phenomenon has not been characterized over the lifetime of mice. We measured the age-specific (3, 9, 24 month) effects of PNX on physiology, morphometry, cell proliferation and apoptosis, global gene expression, and lung fibroblast phenotype and clonogenicity in female C57BL6 mice. The data show that only 3 month old mice were fully capable of restoring lung volumes by day 7 and total alveolar surface area by 21 days. By 9 months, the rate of regeneration was slower (with incomplete regeneration by 21 days), and by 24 months there was no regrowth 21 days post-PNX. The early decline in regeneration rate was not associated with changes in alveolar epithelial cell type II (AECII) proliferation or apoptosis rate. However, significant apoptosis and lack of cell proliferation was evident after PNX in both total cells and AECII cells in 24 mo mice. Analysis of gene expression at several time points (1, 3 and 7 days) post-PNX in 9 versus 3 month mice was consistent with a myofibroblast signature (increased Tnc, Lox1, Col3A1, Eln and Tnfrsf12a) and more alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA) positive myofibroblasts were present after PNX in 9 month than 3 month mice. Isolated lung fibroblasts showed a significant age-dependent loss of clonogenicity. Moreover, lung fibroblasts isolated from 9 and 17 month mice exhibited higher αSMA, Col3A1, Fn1 and S100A expression, and lower expression of the survival gene Mdk consistent with terminal differentiation. These data show that concomitant loss of clonogenicity and progressive myofibroblastic differentiation contributes to the age-dependent decline in the rate of lung regeneration. PMID:21912590

  9. The Abilities and Differential Difficulties of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Children with Specific Language Impairment to Use Semantic and Social Contexts to Infer and Recall Novel Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Melody R.

    2010-01-01

    Two studies assessed the ability of 12 pre-school children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD; N = 7) or Specific Language Impairment (SLI; N = 5) to use semantic context and eye gaze to infer the meanings of novel nouns, and to recall those meanings after a 24-hour delay. In Experiment 1, the children heard statements containing a familiar,…

  10. Growth differentiation factor 6 derived from mesenchymal stem/stromal cells reduces age-related functional deterioration in multiple tissues

    PubMed Central

    Hisamatsu, Daisuke; Ohno-Oishi, Michiko; Nakamura, Shiho; Mabuchi, Yo; Naka-Kaneda, Hayato

    2016-01-01

    The senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) has attracted attention as a mechanism that connects cellular senescence to tissue dysfunction, and specific SASP factors have been identified as systemic pro-aging factors. However, little is known about the age-dependent changes in the secretory properties of stem cells. Young, but not old, mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are a well-known source of critical regenerative factors, but the identity of these factors remains elusive. In this study, we identified growth differentiation factor 6 (Gdf6; also known as Bmp13 and CDMP-2) as a regenerative factor secreted from young MSCs. The expression of specific secretory factors, including Gdf6, was regulated by the microRNA (miRNA) miR-17, whose expression declined with age. Upregulation of Gdf6 restored the osteogenic capacity of old MSCs in vitro and exerted positive effects in vivo on aging-associated pathologies such as reduced lymphopoiesis, insufficient muscle repair, reduced numbers of neural progenitors in the brain, and chronic inflammation. Our results suggest that manipulation of miRNA could enable control of the SASP, and that regenerative factors derived from certain types of young cells could be used to treat geriatric diseases. PMID:27311402

  11. Differential Effects of E2 on MAPK Activity in the Brain and Heart of Aged Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shults, Cody L.; Rao, Yathindar S.; Pak, Toni R.

    2016-01-01

    Aging and the coincident loss of circulating estrogens at menopause lead to increased risks for neurological and cardiovascular pathologies. Clinical studies show that estrogen therapy (ET) can be beneficial in mitigating these negative effects, in both the brain and heart, when it is initiated shortly after the perimenopausal transition. However, this same therapy is detrimental when initiated >10 years postmenopause. Importantly, the molecular mechanisms underlying this age-related switch in ET efficacy are unknown. Estrogen receptors (ERs) mediate the neuroprotective and cardioprotective functions of estrogens by modulating gene transcription or, non-genomically, by activating second messenger signaling pathways, such as mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK). These kinases are critical regulators of cell signaling pathways and have widespread downstream effects. Our hypothesis is that age and estrogen deprivation following menopause alters the expression and activation of the MAPK family members p38 and ERK in the brain and heart. To test this hypothesis, we used a surgically induced model of menopause in 18 month old rats through bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) followed by an acute dose of 17β-estradiol (E2) administered at varying time points post-OVX (1 week, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, or 12 weeks). Age and E2 treatment differentially regulated kinase activity in both the brain and heart, and the effects were also brain region specific. MAPK signaling plays an integral role in aging, and the aberrant regulation of those signaling pathways might be involved in age-related disorders. Clinical studies show benefits of ET during early menopause but detrimental effects later, which might be reflective of changes in kinase expression and activation status. PMID:27487271

  12. Self-reported physical activity and objective aerobic fitness: differential associations with gray matter density in healthy aging

    PubMed Central

    Zlatar, Zvinka Z.; McGregor, Keith M.; Towler, Stephen; Nocera, Joe R.; Dzierzewski, Joseph M.; Crosson, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic fitness (AF) and self-reported physical activity (srPA) do not represent the same construct. However, many exercise and brain aging studies interchangeably use AF and srPA measures, which may be problematic with regards to how these metrics are associated with brain outcomes, such as morphology. If AF and PA measures captured the same phenomena, regional brain volumes associated with these measures should directly overlap. This study employed the general linear model to examine the differential association between objectively-measured AF (treadmill assessment) and srPA (questionnaire) with gray matter density (GMd) in 29 cognitively unimpaired community-dwelling older adults using voxel based morphometry. The results show significant regional variance in terms of GMd when comparing AF and srPA as predictors. Higher AF was associated with greater GMd in the cerebellum only, while srPA displayed positive associations with GMd in occipito-temporal, left perisylvian, and frontal regions after correcting for age. Importantly, only AF level, and not srPA, modified the relationship between age and GMd, such that higher levels of AF were associated with increased GMd in older age, while decreased GMd was seen in those with lower AF as a function of age. These results support existing literature suggesting that both AF and PA exert beneficial effects on GMd, but only AF served as a buffer against age-related GMd loss. Furthermore, these results highlight the need for use of objective PA measurement and comparability of tools across studies, since results vary dependent upon the measures used and whether these are objective or subjective in nature. PMID:25691866

  13. Differential Range Use between Age Classes of Southern African Bearded Vultures Gypaetus barbatus

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Sonja; Reid, Timothy; Amar, Arjun

    2014-01-01

    Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus movements were investigated in southern Africa to determine whether an individual's age, sex or breeding status influenced its ranging behaviour and to provide the information required to guide conservation activities. Data from satellite transmitters fitted to 18 individuals of four age classes were used to determine range size and use. Because of the nature of the movements of marked individuals, these data could be used to determine the overall foraging range of the entire population, which was estimated to be 51 767 km2. Although juvenile, immature and sub-adult birds used different parts of the overall range, their combined foraging range was 65% (33 636 km2) of the overall range. Average adult home ranges (286 km2) were only around 1% the size of the average foraging ranges of non-adults (10 540 –25 985 km2), with those of breeding adults being even smaller (95 km2). Home ranges of breeding adults did not vary in size between seasons but adults utilized their home range more intensively whilst breeding, moving greater distances during the incubation and chick hatching period. Range size and use increased as non-adults aged. Immatures and sub-adults had larger range sizes during winter, but range use of non-adults did not vary seasonally. Range size and use did not differ between the sexes in any of the age classes. Information on home range size and use enables specific areas within the species' range to be targeted for management planning, education and conservation action. PMID:25551614

  14. Differential range use between age classes of southern African Bearded Vultures Gypaetus barbatus.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Sonja; Reid, Timothy; Amar, Arjun

    2014-01-01

    Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus movements were investigated in southern Africa to determine whether an individual's age, sex or breeding status influenced its ranging behaviour and to provide the information required to guide conservation activities. Data from satellite transmitters fitted to 18 individuals of four age classes were used to determine range size and use. Because of the nature of the movements of marked individuals, these data could be used to determine the overall foraging range of the entire population, which was estimated to be 51 767 km(2). Although juvenile, immature and sub-adult birds used different parts of the overall range, their combined foraging range was 65% (33 636 km(2)) of the overall range. Average adult home ranges (286 km(2)) were only around 1% the size of the average foraging ranges of non-adults (10 540 -25 985 km(2)), with those of breeding adults being even smaller (95 km(2)). Home ranges of breeding adults did not vary in size between seasons but adults utilized their home range more intensively whilst breeding, moving greater distances during the incubation and chick hatching period. Range size and use increased as non-adults aged. Immatures and sub-adults had larger range sizes during winter, but range use of non-adults did not vary seasonally. Range size and use did not differ between the sexes in any of the age classes. Information on home range size and use enables specific areas within the species' range to be targeted for management planning, education and conservation action. PMID:25551614

  15. Differential sex- and age-related migration of Bluethroats Luscinia svecica at Eilat, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovets, Mikhail L.; Zduniak, Piotr; Yosef, Reuven

    2008-07-01

    This paper examines the phenology and biometrics of Bluethroats staging in the Eilat region. This is of special interest because of the extreme conditions with which this temperate zone breeding species has to contend because Eilat is a desert habitat and is the last green area before the crossing of the deserts in autumn or after it in spring. Data were collected during 20 spring and 18 autumn migration seasons in the years 1984-2003, and a total of 7,464 Bluethroat were recorded. The number of trapped birds was much higher in autumn than in spring. The majority of Bluethroats caught in both the autumn and spring migrations were juveniles. We found differences in sex ratio in the individual age classes only in the autumn wherein among both adults and juveniles, males were in greater numbers. We also found significant differences in the dates of ringed birds from different sex-age classes in the spring and in autumn migrations. In spring, males from both age classes were caught earlier than females. In autumn, adult birds arrived earlier than juveniles. We think that it is important to identify and conserve the high quality stopover habitats such as Eilat wherein not only Bluethroats have been shown to stopover but also several hundred other species.

  16. Differential patterns of implicit emotional processing in Alzheimer's disease and healthy aging.

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, Beatriz; Fusari, Anna; Rodríguez, Beatriz; Hernández, José Martín Zurdo; Ellgring, Heiner

    2009-01-01

    Implicit memory for emotional facial expressions (EFEs) was investigated in young adults, healthy old adults, and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Implicit memory is revealed by the effect of experience on performance by studying previously encoded versus novel stimuli, a phenomenon referred to as perceptual priming. The aim was to assess the changes in the patterns of priming as a function of aging and dementia. Participants identified EFEs taken from the Facial Action Coding System and the stimuli used represented the emotions of happiness, sadness, surprise, fear, anger, and disgust. In the study phase, participants rated the pleasantness of 36 faces using a Likert-type scale. Subsequently, the response to the 36 previously studied and 36 novel EFEs was tested when they were randomly presented in a cued naming task. The results showed that implicit memory for EFEs is preserved in AD and aging, and no specific age-related effects on implicit memory for EFEs were observed. However, different priming patterns were evident in AD patients that may reflect pathological brain damage and the effect of stimulus complexity. These findings provide evidence of how progressive neuropathological changes in the temporal and frontal areas may affect emotional processing in more advanced stages of the disease. PMID:19584450

  17. Path Complexity in Virtual Water Maze Navigation: Differential Associations with Age, Sex, and Regional Brain Volume.

    PubMed

    Daugherty, Ana M; Yuan, Peng; Dahle, Cheryl L; Bender, Andrew R; Yang, Yiqin; Raz, Naftali

    2015-09-01

    Studies of human navigation in virtual maze environments have consistently linked advanced age with greater distance traveled between the start and the goal and longer duration of the search. Observations of search path geometry suggest that routes taken by older adults may be unnecessarily complex and that excessive path complexity may be an indicator of cognitive difficulties experienced by older navigators. In a sample of healthy adults, we quantify search path complexity in a virtual Morris water maze with a novel method based on fractal dimensionality. In a two-level hierarchical linear model, we estimated improvement in navigation performance across trials by a decline in route length, shortening of search time, and reduction in fractal dimensionality of the path. While replicating commonly reported age and sex differences in time and distance indices, a reduction in fractal dimension of the path accounted for improvement across trials, independent of age or sex. The volumes of brain regions associated with the establishment of cognitive maps (parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus) were related to path dimensionality, but not to the total distance and time. Thus, fractal dimensionality of a navigational path may present a useful complementary method of quantifying performance in navigation. PMID:24860019

  18. Differential effects of age on large artery stiffness and minimal vascular resistance in normotensive and mildly hypertensive individuals.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, Morten B; Khatir, Dinah S; Peters, Christian D; Christensen, Kent L; Buus, Niels H

    2015-09-01

    Large artery stiffness and small artery structural changes are both cardiovascular risk factors. Arterial stiffness increases with age and blood pressure (BP), but it is unclear in which way large artery pulse wave velocity (PWV) and peripheral vascular resistance are related and whether age has any influence. In a cross-sectional study, PWV and forearm minimum vascular resistance (Rmin ) was compared with emphasis on the impact of age. Normotensive (n = 53) and untreated hypertensive (n = 23) subjects were included based on 24-h BP measurements. Age ranged from 21 to 79 years with an even distribution from each age decade. PWV was assessed using tonometry. Forearm Rmin was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography at maximal vasodilatation induced by 10 min of ischaemia in combination with skin heating and hand grip exercise. In both normotensive and hypertensive subjects, PWV correlated significantly with age and BP. Based on median age, both groups were assigned into two equally large subgroups. Normotensive older (66 ± 7 years) and younger (35 ± 10 years) persons had different carotid-femoral PWV (7.9 ± 1.8 versus 5.7 ± 0.9 m/s, P<0.01), but similar Rmin values (3.7 ± 0.9 versus 3.6 ± 1.2 mmHg/ml/min/100 ml). Hypertensive older (63 ± 6 years) and younger (40 ± 10 years) also had different PWV (8.0 ± 1.5 versus 6.7 ± 1.1 m/s, P<0.05), but the older had lower Rmin (3.1 ± 0.8 versus 4.7 ± 2.2 mmHg/ml/min/100 ml, P<0.05). In a regression analysis adjusting for age, BP, gender and heart rate, no correlation was seen between PWV and Rmin . The data suggest that age differentially affects PWV and Rmin and that BP can increase in older persons without affecting Rmin . PMID:24863666

  19. From Data to Semantic Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floridi, Luciano

    2003-06-01

    There is no consensus yet on the definition of semantic information. This paper contributes to the current debate by criticising and revising the Standard Definition of semantic Information (SDI) as meaningful data, in favour of the Dretske-Grice approach: meaningful and well-formed data constitute semantic information only if they also qualify as contingently truthful. After a brief introduction, SDI is criticised for providing necessary but insufficient conditions for the definition of semantic information. SDI is incorrect because truth-values do not supervene on semantic information, and misinformation (that is, false semantic information) is not a type of semantic information, but pseudo-information, that is not semantic information at all. This is shown by arguing that none of the reasons for interpreting misinformation as a type of semantic information is convincing, whilst there are compelling reasons to treat it as pseudo-information. As a consequence, SDI is revised to include a necessary truth-condition. The last section summarises the main results of the paper and indicates the important implications of the revised definition for the analysis of the deflationary theories of truth, the standard definition of knowledge and the classic, quantitative theory of semantic information.

  20. Time-varying effective connectivity during visual object naming as a function of semantic demands.

    PubMed

    Poch, Claudia; Garrido, Marta I; Igoa, José Manuel; Belinchón, Mercedes; García-Morales, Irene; Campo, Pablo

    2015-06-10

    Accumulating evidence suggests that visual object understanding involves a rapid feedforward sweep, after which subsequent recurrent interactions are necessary. The extent to which recurrence plays a critical role in object processing remains to be determined. Recent studies have demonstrated that recurrent processing is modulated by increasing semantic demands. Differentially from previous studies, we used dynamic causal modeling to model neural activity recorded with magnetoencephalography while 14 healthy humans named two sets of visual objects that differed in the degree of semantic accessing demands, operationalized in terms of the values of basic psycholinguistic variables associated with the presented objects (age of acquisition, frequency, and familiarity). This approach allowed us to estimate the directionality of the causal interactions among brain regions and their associated connectivity strengths. Furthermore, to understand the dynamic nature of connectivity (i.e., the chronnectome; Calhoun et al., 2014) we explored the time-dependent changes of effective connectivity during a period (200-400 ms) where adding semantic-feature information improves modeling and classifying visual objects, at 50 ms increments. First, we observed a graded involvement of backward connections, that became active beyond 200 ms. Second, we found that semantic demands caused a suppressive effect in the backward connection from inferior frontal cortex (IFC) to occipitotemporal cortex over time. These results complement those from previous studies underscoring the role of IFC as a common source of top-down modulation, which drives recurrent interactions with more posterior regions during visual object recognition. Crucially, our study revealed the inhibitory modulation of this interaction in situations that place greater demands on the conceptual system. PMID:26063911

  1. Identification of differentially expressed genes in ovaries of chicken attaining sexual maturity at different ages.

    PubMed

    Kang, Li; Zhang, Yujie; Zhang, Ningbo; Zang, Li; Wang, Meng; Cui, Xinxing; Jiang, Yunliang

    2012-03-01

    In poultry as well as in other birds, sexual maturity is one of the important factors influencing female reproduction and egg production. In this study, cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) differential display approach was used to identify genes related to sexual maturity. Using 54 EcoR I/Mse I selective primer combinations, totally 403 differentially expressed transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were isolated, 27 of which belong to 25 unigenes. By real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), the expression pattern of 13 genes was confirmed; among them, four genes including ZNF183 (P < 0.01), KIAA0700, CCT6A, and 23e 15 (P < 0.05) are significantly up-regulated and one gene (Loc418883) is significantly down-regulated (P < 0.01) in sexually mature ovaries compared to immature ones. The mRNA expression dynamics of ZNF183, CCT6A, 23e 15 and Loc418883 were further investigated in ovaries of 70-, 300- and 500-day-old commercial egg-laying hens: the expression level of CCT6A was the highest in 300-day-old hens (P < 0.05), while that of Loc418883 in 500-day-old hens was significantly higher than the other two stages (P < 0.01). The expression levels of ZNF183 and 23e 15 in ovary increase significantly from 70-day-old hens (P < 0.01) and 300-day-old (P < 0.05) to 500-day-old hens, respectively. The consistence of CCT6A expression and egg-laying performance suggests that CCT6A likely plays important role in sexual maturity in hens. PMID:21691707

  2. Differential Changes with Age in Multiscale Entropy of Electromyography Signals from Leg Muscles during Treadmill Walking

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyun Gu; Dingwell, Jonathan B.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related gait changes may be due to the loss of complexity in the neuromuscular system. This theory is disputed due to inconsistent results from single-scale analyses. Also, behavioral adaptations may confound these changes. We examined whether EMG dynamics during gait is less complex in older adults over a range of timescales using the multiscale entropy method, and whether slower walking attenuates this effect. Surface EMG was measured from the left vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF), gastrocnemius (GA), and tibialis anterior (TA) in 17 young and 18 older adults as they walked on a treadmill for 5 minutes at 0.8x-1.2x of preferred speed. Sample entropy (SE) and the complexity index (CI) of the EMG signals were calculated after successive coarse-graining to extract dynamics at timescales of 27 to 270 Hz, with m = 2 and r = 0.15 SD. SE and CI were lower across the timescales in older adults in VL and BF, but higher in GA (all p<0.001); these results held for VL and GA even after accounting for longer EMG burst durations in older adults. CI was higher during slower walking speed in VL and BF (p<0.001). Results were mostly similar for m = 3 and r = 0.01–0.35. Smaller r was more sensitive to age-related differences. The decrease in complexity with aging in the timescales studied was limited to proximal muscles, particularly VL. The increase in GA may be driven by other factors. Walking slower may reflect a behavioral adaptation that allows the nervous system to function with greater complexity. PMID:27570974

  3. Differential Changes with Age in Multiscale Entropy of Electromyography Signals from Leg Muscles during Treadmill Walking.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun Gu; Dingwell, Jonathan B

    2016-01-01

    Age-related gait changes may be due to the loss of complexity in the neuromuscular system. This theory is disputed due to inconsistent results from single-scale analyses. Also, behavioral adaptations may confound these changes. We examined whether EMG dynamics during gait is less complex in older adults over a range of timescales using the multiscale entropy method, and whether slower walking attenuates this effect. Surface EMG was measured from the left vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF), gastrocnemius (GA), and tibialis anterior (TA) in 17 young and 18 older adults as they walked on a treadmill for 5 minutes at 0.8x-1.2x of preferred speed. Sample entropy (SE) and the complexity index (CI) of the EMG signals were calculated after successive coarse-graining to extract dynamics at timescales of 27 to 270 Hz, with m = 2 and r = 0.15 SD. SE and CI were lower across the timescales in older adults in VL and BF, but higher in GA (all p<0.001); these results held for VL and GA even after accounting for longer EMG burst durations in older adults. CI was higher during slower walking speed in VL and BF (p<0.001). Results were mostly similar for m = 3 and r = 0.01-0.35. Smaller r was more sensitive to age-related differences. The decrease in complexity with aging in the timescales studied was limited to proximal muscles, particularly VL. The increase in GA may be driven by other factors. Walking slower may reflect a behavioral adaptation that allows the nervous system to function with greater complexity. PMID:27570974

  4. Differential Effects of Radiation and Age on Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Peiffer, Ann M; Shi, Lei; Olson, John; Brunso-Bechtold, Judy K

    2010-01-01

    Greater than 50% of adults and ∼100% of children who survive >6 months after fractionated partial or whole-brain radiotherapy develop cognitive impairments. Noninvasive methods are needed for detecting and tracking the radiation-induced brain injury associated with these impairments. Using magnetic resonance imaging, we sought to detect structural changes associated with brain injury in our rodent model of fractionated whole-brain irradiation (fWBI) induced cognitive impairment and to compare those changes with alterations that occur during the aging process. Middle aged rats were given a clinically relevant dose of fWBI (40 Gy: two 5 Gy fractions/wk for 4 wk) and scanned approximately one year post-irradiation to obtain whole-brain T2 and diffusion tensor images (DTI); control groups of sham-irradiated age-matched and young rats were also scanned. No gross structural changes were evident in the T2 structural images, and no detectable fWBI-induced DTI changes in fractional anisotropy (FA) were found in heavily myelinated white matter (corpus callosum, cingulum, and deep cortical white matter). However, significant fWBI-induced variability in FA distribution was present in the superficial parietal cortex due to an fWBI-induced decline in FA in the more anterior slices through parietal cortex. Young rats had significantly lower FA values relative to both groups of older rats, but only within the corpus callosum. These findings suggest that targets of the fWBI-induced change in this model may be the less myelinated or unmyelinated axons, extracellular matrix, or synaptic fields rather than heavily myelinated tracts. PMID:20599817

  5. ADNP: A major autism mutated gene is differentially distributed (age and gender) in the songbird brain.

    PubMed

    Kleiman, Gal Hacohen; Barnea, Anat; Gozes, Illana

    2015-10-01

    ADNP is a protein necessary for brain development, important for brain plasticity, cognitive and social functioning, characteristics that are all impaired in autism and in the Adnp(+/-) mouse model, in a sex-dependent manner. ADNP was originally discovered as a protein that is secreted from glial cells in response to vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). VIP is a major neuroprotective peptide in the CNS and PNS and was also associated with social recognition in rodents and aggression, pair-bonding and parental behaviors in birds. Comparative sequence alignment revealed high evolutionary conservation of ADNP in Chordata. Despite its importance in brain function, ADNP has never been studied in birds. Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) are highly social songbirds that have a sexually dichotomous anatomical brain structure, with males demonstrating a developed song system, presenting a model to study behavior and potential sexually dependent fundamental differences. Here, using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), we discovered sexually dichotomous and age related differences in ADNP mRNA expression in three different regions of the song bird brain-cerebellum, cerebrum, and brain stem. Higher levels of ADNP mRNA were specifically found in young male compared to the female cerebrum, while aging caused a significant 2 and 3-fold decrease in the female and male cerebrum, respectively. Furthermore, a comparison between the three tested brain regions revealed unique sex-dependent ADNP mRNA distribution patterns, affected by aging. Future studies are aimed at deciphering the function of ADNP in birds, toward a better molecular understanding of sexual dichotomy in singing behavior in birds. PMID:25895853

  6. Differential age susceptibility to influenza B/Victoria lineage viruses in the 2015 Australian influenza season.

    PubMed

    Barr, Ian G; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Sullivan, Sheena G

    2016-01-01

    Influenza B viruses make up an important part of the burden from seasonal influenza globally. The 2015 season in Australia saw an unusual predominance of influenza B with a distinctive switch during the season from B/Yamagata/16/88 lineage viruses to B/Victoria/2/87 lineage viruses. We also noted significant differences in the age groups infected by the different B lineages, with B/Victoria infecting a younger population than B/Yamagata, that could not be explained by potential prior exposure. PMID:26848118

  7. Brain gene expression patterns differentiate Mild Cognitive Impairment from normal Aged and Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Berchtold, Nicole C.; Sabbagh, Marwan N.; Beach, Thomas G.; Kim, Ronald C.; Cribbs, David H.; Cotman, Carl W.

    2014-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) represents a cognitive state intermediate between normal aging and early Alzheimer Disease (AD). To investigate if the molecular signature of MCI parallels the clinical picture, we use microarrays to extensively profile gene expression in 4 cortical brain regions (entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, superior frontal gyrus, post-central gyrus) using post-mortem tissue from cognitively normal aged controls, MCI, and AD cases. Our data reveal that gene expression patterns in MCI are not an extension of aging, and for the most part, are not intermediate between aged controls and AD. Functional enrichment analysis of significant genes revealed prominent upregulation in MCI brains of genes associated with anabolic and biosynthetic pathways (notably transcription, protein biosynthesis, protein trafficking and turnover) as well as mitochondrial energy generation. In addition, many synaptic genes showed altered expression in MCI, predominantly upregulation, including genes for central components of the vesicle fusion machinery at the synapse, synaptic vesicle trafficking, neurotransmitter receptors, and synaptic structure and stabilization. These data suggest that there is a rebalancing of synaptic transmission in the MCI brain. To investigate if synaptic gene expression levels in MCI were related to cognitive function, Pearson’s correlation coefficient between MMSE and region-specific mRNA expression were computed for MCI cases. A number of synaptic genes showed strong significant correlations (r>0.8, p<0.01) most notably in the EC, with fewer in the HC, and very few in neocortical regions. The synaptic genes with highly significant correlations were predominantly related to synaptic transmission and plasticity, and myelin composition. Unexpectedly, we found that gene expression changes that facilitate synaptic excitability and plasticity were overwhelmingly associated with poorer MMSE, and conversely that gene expression changes that inhibit

  8. Live Social Semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alani, Harith; Szomszor, Martin; Cattuto, Ciro; van den Broeck, Wouter; Correndo, Gianluca; Barrat, Alain

    Social interactions are one of the key factors to the success of conferences and similar community gatherings. This paper describes a novel application that integrates data from the semantic web, online social networks, and a real-world contact sensing platform. This application was successfully deployed at ESWC09, and actively used by 139 people. Personal profiles of the participants were automatically generated using several Web 2.0 systems and semantic academic data sources, and integrated in real-time with face-to-face contact networks derived from wearable sensors. Integration of all these heterogeneous data layers made it possible to offer various services to conference attendees to enhance their social experience such as visualisation of contact data, and a site to explore and connect with other participants. This paper describes the architecture of the application, the services we provided, and the results we achieved in this deployment.

  9. Living With Semantic Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Sage, Karen; Wilkinson, Ray; Keady, John

    2014-01-01

    Semantic dementia is a variant of frontotemporal dementia and is a recently recognized diagnostic condition. There has been some research quantitatively examining care partner stress and burden in frontotemporal dementia. There are, however, few studies exploring the subjective experiences of family members caring for those with frontotemporal dementia. Increased knowledge of such experiences would allow service providers to tailor intervention, support, and information better. We used a case study design, with thematic narrative analysis applied to interview data, to describe the experiences of a wife and son caring for a husband/father with semantic dementia. Using this approach, we identified four themes: (a) living with routines, (b) policing and protecting, (c) making connections, and (d) being adaptive and flexible. Each of these themes were shared and extended, with the importance of routines in everyday life highlighted. The implications for policy, practice, and research are discussed. PMID:24532121

  10. Semantic interpretation of nominalizations

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, R.D.; Gomez, F.

    1996-12-31

    A computational approach to the semantic interpretation of nominalizations is described. Interpretation of normalizations involves three tasks: deciding whether the normalization is being used in a verbal or non-verbal sense; disambiguating the normalized verb when a verbal sense is used; and determining the fillers of the thematic roles of the verbal concept or predicate of the nominalization. A verbal sense can be recognized by the presence of modifiers that represent the arguments of the verbal concept. It is these same modifiers which provide the semantic clues to disambiguate the normalized verb. In the absence of explicit modifiers, heuristics are used to discriminate between verbal and non-verbal senses. A correspondence between verbs and their nominalizations is exploited so that only a small amount of additional knowledge is needed to handle the nominal form. These methods are tested in the domain of encyclopedic texts and the results are shown.

  11. Practical Semantic Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Matthew; Gray, N.; Burke, D.

    2010-01-01

    Many activities in the era of data-intensive astronomy are predicated upon some transference of domain knowledge and expertise from human to machine. The semantic infrastructure required to support this is no longer a pipe dream of computer science but a set of practical engineering challenges, more concerned with deployment and performance details than AI abstractions. The application of such ideas promises to help in such areas as contextual data access, exploiting distributed annotation and heterogeneous sources, and intelligent data dissemination and discovery. In this talk, we will review the status and use of semantic technologies in astronomy, particularly to address current problems in astroinformatics, with such projects as SKUA and AstroCollation.

  12. Differential development of visual attention skills in school-age children

    PubMed Central

    Dye, Matthew W. G.; Bavelier, Daphne

    2009-01-01

    Children aged 7–17 years and adults aged 18–22 years were tested on three aspects of visual attention: the ability to distribute visual attention across the field to search for a target, the time required for attention to recover from being directed towards a target, and the number of objects to which attention can be simultaneously allocated. The data suggested different developmental trajectories for these components of visual attention within the same set of participants. This suggests that, to some extent, spatial, temporal and object-based attentional processes are subserved by different neural resources which develop at different rate. In addition, participants who played action games showed enhanced performance on all aspects of attention tested as compared to non-gamers. These findings reveal a potential facilitation of development of attentional skills in children who are avid players of action video games. As these games are predominantly drawing a male audience, young girls are at risk of underperforming on such tests, calling for a careful control of video game usage when assessing gender differences in attentional tasks. PMID:19836409

  13. Increased prolyl 4-hydroxylase expression and differential regulation of hypoxia-inducible factors in the aged rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Ndubuizu, Obinna I.; Chavez, Juan C.; LaManna, Joseph C.

    2009-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are heterodimeric transcription factors that mediate the adaptive response of mammalian cells and tissues to changes in tissue oxygenation. In the present study, we show an age-dependent decline in cortical HIF-1α accumulation and activation of HIF target genes in response to hypoxia. This inducible response is significantly attenuated in the cerebral cortex of 18-mo-old Fischer 344 rat yet virtually absent in the cerebral cortex of 24-mo-old Fischer 344 rat. This attenuated HIF-1α response had no effect on mRNA upregulation of HIF-independent genes in the aged cortex. We have provided evidence that this absent HIF-1α response is directly correlated with an increase in the expression of the HIF regulatory enzyme, prolyl 4-hydroxylase (PHD). In addition, our study shows that cortical HIF-2α expression in senescent normoxic controls is also significantly greater than that of younger normoxic controls, despite no difference in HIF-2α mRNA levels. The posttranslational regulation of HIF-2α under normoxic conditions seems to be attenuated in the aged rat brain, which is an in vivo demonstration of differential regulation of HIF-1α and HIF-2α. PMID:19420289

  14. [Molecular diagnosis as a strategy for differential diagnosis and at early ages of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)].

    PubMed

    Gómez, Martha; Batista, Oriana

    2015-10-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), is a haploinsufficient and multisystemic disease, caused by inherited or sporadic mutations in the NF1 gene. Its incidence is one in 2,500 to 3,000 individuals, it has an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, high clinical variability, complete penetrance and age-dependent complications. Neurofibromin is the product of the NF1 gene and is believed to act as a tumor suppressor since the loss of its function has been associated with benign and malignant tumors in neural crest-derived tissues. Only two correlations between clinical phenotype and mutant alleles in the NF1 gene have been observed. The established criteria for disease diagnosis are very efficient in adults and children older than 3 years of age, but not for children under this age. Mutational analysis is therefore recommended to confirm the disease in young children with a negative family history. A pathogenic mutation in the NF1 should be added to the list of diagnostic criteria. Mutational analysis is also recommended for differential diagnosis and for prenatal or pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, taking into consideration the family history and the type of method to be applied. Molecular studies of this disease using different complimentary molecular techniques and bioinformatics tools have characterized NF1 gene mutations at both the DNA and mRNA levels, increasing the mutational spectrum. Consequently, about 1,289 defects have been reported to date, mainly nonsense/missense mutations, deletions and splice site defects. PMID:26633276

  15. Age and duration of inflammatory environment differentially affect the neuroimmune response and catecholaminergic neurons in the midbrain and brainstem.

    PubMed

    Bardou, Isabelle; Kaercher, Roxanne M; Brothers, Holly M; Hopp, Sarah C; Royer, Sarah; Wenk, Gary L

    2014-05-01

    Neuroinflammation and degeneration of ascending catecholaminergic systems occur early in the neurodegenerative process. Age and the duration of a pro-inflammatory environment induced by continuous intraventricular lipopolysaccharide (LPS) differentially affect the expression profile of pro- and anti-inflammatory genes and proteins as well as the number of activated microglia (express major histocompatibility complex II; MHC II) and the integrity and density of ascending catecholaminergic neural systems originating from the locus coeruleus (LC) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) in rats. LPS infusion increased gene expression and/or protein levels for both pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers. Although LPS infusion stimulated a robust increase in IL-1ß gene and protein expression, this increase was blunted with age. LPS infusion also increased the density of activated microglia cells throughout the midbrain and brainstem. Corresponding to the development of a pro-inflammatory environment, LC and SNpc neurons immunopositive for tyrosine-hydroxylase (the rate-limiting synthetic enzyme for dopamine and norepinephrine) decreased in number, along with a decrease in tyrosine-hydroxylase gene expression in the midbrain and/or brainstem region. Our data support the concept that continuous exposure to a pro-inflammatory environment drives exaggerated changes in the production and release of inflammatory mediators that interact with age to impair functional capacity of the SNpc and LC. PMID:24315728

  16. Incidence estimation using a single cross-sectional age-specific prevalence survey with differential mortality.

    PubMed

    Turner, Elizabeth L; Sweeting, Michael J; Lindfield, Robert J; Deangelis, Daniela

    2014-02-10

    Here, we present a method for incidence estimation of a curable, non-recurring disease when data from a single cross-sectional survey are used together with population-level mortality rates and an assumption of differential mortality of diseased versus non-diseased individuals. The motivating example is cataract, and the VISION2020 goal to eliminate avoidable blindness globally by 2020. Reliable estimates of current and future cataract disease burden are required to predict how many surgeries would need to be performed to meet the VISION2020 goals. However, incidence estimates, needed to derive future burden, are not as easily available, due to the cost of conducting cohort studies. Disease is defined at the person-level in accordance with the WHO person-level definition of blindness. An extension of the standard time homogeneous illness-death model to a four-state model is described, which allows the disease to be cured, whereby surgery is performed on at least one diseased eye. Incidence is estimated, and the four-state model is used to predict disease burden assuming different surgical strategies whilst accounting for the competing risk of death. The method is applied to data from approximately 10,000 people from a survey of visual impairment in Nigeria. PMID:24009063

  17. The semantic basis of taste-shape associations.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Carlos; Woods, Andy T; Marks, Lawrence E; Cheok, Adrian David; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Previous research shows that people systematically match tastes with shapes. Here, we assess the extent to which matched taste and shape stimuli share a common semantic space and whether semantically congruent versus incongruent taste/shape associations can influence the speed with which people respond to both shapes and taste words. In Experiment 1, semantic differentiation was used to assess the semantic space of both taste words and shapes. The results suggest a common semantic space containing two principal components (seemingly, intensity and hedonics) and two principal clusters, one including round shapes and the taste word "sweet," and the other including angular shapes and the taste words "salty," "sour," and "bitter." The former cluster appears more positively-valenced whilst less potent than the latter. In Experiment 2, two speeded classification tasks assessed whether congruent versus incongruent mappings of stimuli and responses (e.g., sweet with round versus sweet with angular) would influence the speed of participants' responding, to both shapes and taste words. The results revealed an overall effect of congruence with congruent trials yielding faster responses than their incongruent counterparts. These results are consistent with previous evidence suggesting a close relation (or crossmodal correspondence) between tastes and shape curvature that may derive from common semantic coding, perhaps along the intensity and hedonic dimensions. PMID:26966646

  18. The semantic basis of taste-shape associations

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Andy T.; Marks, Lawrence E.; Cheok, Adrian David; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Previous research shows that people systematically match tastes with shapes. Here, we assess the extent to which matched taste and shape stimuli share a common semantic space and whether semantically congruent versus incongruent taste/shape associations can influence the speed with which people respond to both shapes and taste words. In Experiment 1, semantic differentiation was used to assess the semantic space of both taste words and shapes. The results suggest a common semantic space containing two principal components (seemingly, intensity and hedonics) and two principal clusters, one including round shapes and the taste word “sweet,” and the other including angular shapes and the taste words “salty,” “sour,” and “bitter.” The former cluster appears more positively-valenced whilst less potent than the latter. In Experiment 2, two speeded classification tasks assessed whether congruent versus incongruent mappings of stimuli and responses (e.g., sweet with round versus sweet with angular) would influence the speed of participants’ responding, to both shapes and taste words. The results revealed an overall effect of congruence with congruent trials yielding faster responses than their incongruent counterparts. These results are consistent with previous evidence suggesting a close relation (or crossmodal correspondence) between tastes and shape curvature that may derive from common semantic coding, perhaps along the intensity and hedonic dimensions. PMID:26966646

  19. The age of the martian meteorite Northwest Africa 1195 and the differentiation history of the shergottites

    SciTech Connect

    Symes, S; Borg, L; Shearer, C; Irving, A

    2007-04-05

    Samarium-neodymium isotopic analyses of unleached and acid-leached mineral fractions from the recently identified olivine-bearing shergottite Northwest Africa 1195 yield a crystallization age of 348 {+-} 19 Ma and an {var_epsilon}{sub Nd}{sup 143} value of +40.1 {+-} 1.3. Maskelynite fractions do not lie on the Sm-Nd isochron and appear to contain a martian surface component with low {sup 147}Sm/{sup 144}Nd and {sup 143}Nd/{sup 144}Nd ratios that was added during shock. The Rb-Sr system is disturbed and does not yield an isochron. Terrestrial Sr appears to have affected all of the mineral fractions, although a maximum initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio of 0.701614 {+-} 16 is estimated by passing a 348 Ma reference isochron through the maskelynite fraction that is least affected by contamination. The high initial {var_epsilon}{sub Nd}{sup 143} value and the low initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio, combined with the geologically young crystallization age, indicate that Northwest Africa 1195 is derived from a source region characterized by a long-term incompatible element depletion. The age and initial Sr and Nd isotopic compositions of Northwest Africa 1195 are very similar to those of Queen Alexandra Range 94201, indicating these samples were derived from source regions with nearly identical Sr-Nd isotopic systematics. These similarities suggest that these two meteorites share a close petrogenetic relationship and might have been erupted from a common volcano. The meteorites Yamato 980459, Dar al Gani 476, Sayh al Uhaymir 005/008, and Dhofar 019 also have relatively old ages between 474-575 Ma and trace element and/or isotopic systematics that are indicative of derivation from incompatible-element-depleted sources. This suggests that the oldest group of meteorites is more closely related to one another than they are to the younger meteorites that are derived from less incompatible-element-depleted sources. Closed-system fractional crystallization of this suite of

  20. Aging.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-09-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  1. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  2. Arithmetic knowledge in semantic dementia: is it invariably preserved?

    PubMed

    Julien, C L; Thompson, J C; Neary, D; Snowden, J S

    2008-09-01

    There is accumulating evidence of preserved arithmetic knowledge in semantic dementia (SD), contrasting with patients' striking impairment in other domains of semantic memory. This important finding exemplifies domain specificity in the breakdown of semantic memory and supports notions of the functional independence of semantic number knowledge. Nevertheless, evidence for preserved arithmetic knowledge in SD comes largely from single case studies. It is not known whether such preservation is a universal finding, or whether it persists irrespective of disease severity. The present study examined performance of 14 SD patients, varying in the severity of their semantic impairment, on tasks assessing knowledge of arithmetic signs, and on single-digit and multi-digit calculation problems, permitting evaluation of fact retrieval and use of procedures. SD patients performed generally well compared to 10 healthy controls on tests of addition and subtraction. However, abnormalities were elicited, which were not explained by education or hemispheric side of atrophy, but increased as a function of semantic severity. Patients had difficulty identifying arithmetic signs. They used increasingly basic, inflexible strategies to retrieve multiplication table 'facts', and in multi-digit calculations they made procedural errors that pointed to a failure to understand the differential weighting of left and right hand columns. The pattern of responses and error types mirrors in reverse that found in children as they acquire arithmetic competence, and suggests a progressive degradation in conceptual understanding of arithmetic. Longitudinal study of two SD patients demonstrated an association between semantic decline and impaired arithmetic performance. The findings challenge the notion of arithmetic knowledge as a totally separate semantic domain and suggest that the temporal lobes play an important role in arithmetic understanding. PMID:18586284

  3. Environmental contributions to preschoolers' semantic fluency.

    PubMed

    Kavé, Gitit; Shalmon, Moran; Knafo, Ariel

    2013-01-01

    Semantic fluency was examined in Hebrew-speaking 5-year-old monozygotic and dizygotic twins (N = 396, 198 pairs), 22% of them with mother-reported speech-related problems. There were positive correlations of similar magnitudes among monozygotic, same-sex dizygotic, and opposite-sex dizygotic twins. Analyses showed no genetic effects, alongside significant shared (39%) and non-shared environmental (61%) effects on fluency scores. The presence of speech-related problems in one twin affected the fluency score of the co-twin. A multivariate regression analysis revealed that parental education and length of stay at daycare significantly predicted fluency scores. We suggest that semantic fluency performance is highly affected by environmental factors at age 5 although genetic effects might emerge later on. PMID:23278934

  4. Development of Category-based Induction and Semantic Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Anna V.; Godwin, Karrie E.; Matlen, Bryan J.; Unger, Layla

    2015-01-01

    Category-based induction is a hallmark of mature cognition; however, little is known about its origins. This study evaluated the hypothesis that category-based induction is related to semantic development. Computational studies suggest that early on there is little differentiation among concepts, but learning and development lead to increased…

  5. Nonverbal sound processing in semantic dementia: A functional MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Goll, Johanna C.; Ridgway, Gerard R.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Theunissen, Frederic E.; Warren, Jason D.

    2012-01-01

    Semantic dementia (SD) is a unique neurodegenerative syndrome accompanied by relatively selective loss of the meaning of objects and concepts. The brain mechanisms that underpin the syndrome have not been defined: a better understanding of these mechanisms would inform our understanding of both the organisation of the human semantic system and its vulnerability to neurodegenerative disease. In this fMRI study, we investigated brain correlates of sensory object processing in nine patients with SD compared with healthy control subjects, using the paradigm of nonverbal sound. Compared with healthy controls, patients with SD showed differential activation of cortical areas surrounding the superior temporal sulcus, both for perceptual processing of spectrotemporally complex but meaningless sounds and for semantic processing of environmental sound category (animal sounds versus tool sounds). Our findings suggest that defective processing of sound objects in SD spans pre-semantic perceptual processing and semantic category formation. This disease model illustrates that antero-lateral temporal cortical mechanisms are critical for representing and differentiating sound categories. The breakdown of these mechanisms constitutes a network-level functional signature of this neurodegenerative disease. PMID:22405732

  6. The role of p38b MAPK in age-related modulation of intestinal stem cell proliferation and differentiation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Park, Joung-Sun; Kim, Young-Shin; Yoo, Mi-Ae

    2009-07-01

    It is important to understand how age-related changes in intestinal stem cells (ISCs) may contribute to age-associated intestinal diseases, including cancer. Drosophila midgut is an excellent model system for the study of ISC proliferation and differentiation. Recently, age-related changes in the Drosophila midgut have been shown to include an increase in ISC proliferation and accumulation of mis-differentiated ISC daughter cells. Here, we show that the p38b MAPK pathway contributes to the age-related changes in ISC and progenitor cells in Drosophila. D-p38b MAPK is required for an age-related increase of ISC proliferation. In addition, this pathway is involved in age and oxidative stress-associated mis-differentiation of enterocytes and upregulation of Delta, a Notch receptor ligand. Furthermore, we also show that D-p38b acts downstream of PVF2/PVR signaling in these age-related changes. Taken together, our findings suggest that p38 MAPK plays a crucial role in the balance between ISC proliferation and proper differentiation in the adult Drosophila midgut. PMID:20157545

  7. DiffVar: a new method for detecting differential variability with application to methylation in cancer and aging.

    PubMed

    Phipson, Belinda; Oshlack, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Methylation of DNA is known to be essential to development and dramatically altered in cancers. The Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip has been used extensively as a cost-effective way to profile nearly half a million CpG sites across the human genome. Here we present DiffVar, a novel method to test for differential variability between sample groups. DiffVar employs an empirical Bayes model framework that can take into account any experimental design and is robust to outliers. We applied DiffVar to several datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas, as well as an aging dataset. DiffVar is available in the missMethyl Bioconductor R package. PMID:25245051

  8. Spatiotemporal Signatures of Lexical-Semantic Prediction.

    PubMed

    Lau, Ellen F; Weber, Kirsten; Gramfort, Alexandre; Hämäläinen, Matti S; Kuperberg, Gina R

    2016-04-01

    Although there is broad agreement that top-down expectations can facilitate lexical-semantic processing, the mechanisms driving these effects are still unclear. In particular, while previous electroencephalography (EEG) research has demonstrated a reduction in the N400 response to words in a supportive context, it is often challenging to dissociate facilitation due to bottom-up spreading activation from facilitation due to top-down expectations. The goal of the current study was to specifically determine the cortical areas associated with facilitation due to top-down prediction, using magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings supplemented by EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a semantic priming paradigm. In order to modulate expectation processes while holding context constant, we manipulated the proportion of related pairs across 2 blocks (10 and 50% related). Event-related potential results demonstrated a larger N400 reduction when a related word was predicted, and MEG source localization of activity in this time-window (350-450 ms) localized the differential responses to left anterior temporal cortex. fMRI data from the same participants support the MEG localization, showing contextual facilitation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus for the high expectation block only. Together, these results provide strong evidence that facilitatory effects of lexical-semantic prediction on the electrophysiological response 350-450 ms postonset reflect modulation of activity in left anterior temporal cortex. PMID:25316341

  9. Non-semantic contributions to "semantic" redundancy gain.

    PubMed

    Shepherdson, Peter; Miller, Jeff

    2016-08-01

    Recently, two groups of researchers have reported redundancy gains (enhanced performance with multiple, redundant targets) in tasks requiring semantic categorization. Here we report two experiments aimed at determining whether the gains found by one of these groups resulted from some form of semantic coactivation. We asked undergraduate psychology students to complete choice RT tasks requiring the semantic categorization of visually presented words, and compared performance with redundant targets from the same semantic category to performance with redundant targets from different semantic categories. If the redundancy gains resulted from the combination of information at a semantic level, they should have been greater in the former than the latter situation. However, our results showed no significant differences in redundancy gain (for latency and accuracy) between same-category and different-category conditions, despite gains appearing in both conditions. Thus, we suggest that redundancy gain in the semantic categorization task may result entirely from statistical facilitation or combination of information at non-semantic levels. PMID:26339718

  10. Etiological Subgroups of Small-for-Gestational-Age: Differential Neurodevelopmental Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiuhong; Eiden, Rina D.; Epstein, Leonard H.; Shenassa, Edmond D.; Xie, Chuanbo; Wen, Xiaozhong

    2016-01-01

    Objectives It remains unclear why substantial variations in neurodevelopmental outcomes exist within small-for-gestational-age (SGA) children. We prospectively compared 5-y neurodevelopmental outcomes across SGA etiological subgroups. Methods Children born SGA (N = 1050) from U.S. Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001–2007) was divided into etiological subgroups by each of 7 well-established prenatal risk factors. We fit linear regression models to compare 5-y reading, math, gross motor and fine motor scores across SGA subgroups, adjusting for socio-demographic confounders. Results Compared to singleton SGA subgroup, multiple-birth SGA subgroup had lower mean reading (adjusted mean difference, -4.08 [95% confidence interval, -6.10, -2.06]) and math (-2.22 [-3.61, -0.84]) scores. These disadvantages in reading and math existed only among multiple-birth SGA subgroup without ovulation stimulation (reading, -4.50 [-6.64, -2.36]; math, -2.91 [-4.37, -1.44]), but not among those with ovulation stimulation (reading, -2.33 [-6.24, 1.57]; math 0.63 [-1.86, 3.12]). Compared to singleton SGA subgroup without maternal smoking and inadequate gestational weight gain, singleton SGA subgroup with co-occurrence of maternal smoking and inadequate gestational weight gain (GWG) had lower mean reading (-4.81 [-8.50, -1.12]) and math (-2.95 [-5.51, -0.38]) scores. These differences were not mediated by Apgar score. Conclusions Multiple-birth SGA subgroups (vs. singleton SGA) or singleton SGA subgroup with co-occurrence of smoking and inadequate GWG (vs. singleton SGA subgroup without maternal smoking and inadequate gestational weight gain) have poorer cognitive development up to 5 y. PMID:27501456

  11. HTRA1 promoter variant differentiates polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy from exudative age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Tsz Kin; Liang, Xiao Ying; Lai, Timothy Y. Y.; Ma, Li; Tam, Pancy O. S.; Wang, Jian Xiong; Chen, Li Jia; Chen, Haoyu; Pang, Chi Pui

    2016-01-01

    Exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) share similar abnormal choroidal vasculature, but responses to treatments are different. In this study, we sequenced the whole HTRA1 gene and its promoter by direct sequencing in a Hong Kong Chinese PCV cohort. We identified rs11200638, c.34delCinsTCCT, c.59C>T, rs1049331 and rs2293870 significantly associated with PCV. Notably, rs2672598 was significantly associated with exudative AMD (p = 1.31 × 10−4) than PCV (p = 0.11). Logistic regression indicated that rs2672598 (p = 2.27 × 10−3) remained significant after adjusting for rs11200638 in exudative AMD. Moreover, the rs11200638-rs2672598 joint genotype AA-CC conferred higher risk to exudative AMD (43.11 folds) than PCV (3.68 folds). Promoter analysis showed that rs2672598 C-allele showed higher luciferase expression than wildtype T-allele (p = 0.026), independent of rs11200638 genotype (p = 0.621). Coherently, vitreous humor HTRA1 expression with rs2672598 CC genotype was significantly higher than that with TT genotype by 2.56 folds (p = 0.02). Furthermore, rs2672598 C-allele was predicted to alter the transcription factor binding sites, but not rs11200638 A-allele. Our results revealed that HTRA1 rs2672598 is more significantly associated with exudative AMD than PCV in ARMS2/HTRA1 region, and it is responsible for elevated HTRA1 transcriptional activity and HTRA1 protein expression. PMID:27338780

  12. HTRA1 promoter variant differentiates polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy from exudative age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tsz Kin; Liang, Xiao Ying; Lai, Timothy Y Y; Ma, Li; Tam, Pancy O S; Wang, Jian Xiong; Chen, Li Jia; Chen, Haoyu; Pang, Chi Pui

    2016-01-01

    Exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) share similar abnormal choroidal vasculature, but responses to treatments are different. In this study, we sequenced the whole HTRA1 gene and its promoter by direct sequencing in a Hong Kong Chinese PCV cohort. We identified rs11200638, c.34delCinsTCCT, c.59C>T, rs1049331 and rs2293870 significantly associated with PCV. Notably, rs2672598 was significantly associated with exudative AMD (p = 1.31 × 10(-4)) than PCV (p = 0.11). Logistic regression indicated that rs2672598 (p = 2.27 × 10(-3)) remained significant after adjusting for rs11200638 in exudative AMD. Moreover, the rs11200638-rs2672598 joint genotype AA-CC conferred higher risk to exudative AMD (43.11 folds) than PCV (3.68 folds). Promoter analysis showed that rs2672598 C-allele showed higher luciferase expression than wildtype T-allele (p = 0.026), independent of rs11200638 genotype (p = 0.621). Coherently, vitreous humor HTRA1 expression with rs2672598 CC genotype was significantly higher than that with TT genotype by 2.56 folds (p = 0.02). Furthermore, rs2672598 C-allele was predicted to alter the transcription factor binding sites, but not rs11200638 A-allele. Our results revealed that HTRA1 rs2672598 is more significantly associated with exudative AMD than PCV in ARMS2/HTRA1 region, and it is responsible for elevated HTRA1 transcriptional activity and HTRA1 protein expression. PMID:27338780

  13. Differential FDDNP PET patterns in non-demented middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Ercoli, Linda M.; Siddarth, Prabha; Kepe, Vladimir; Miller, Karen J.; Huang, S.-C.; Cole, Gregory M.; Lavretsky, Helen; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Kim, Jeanne; Phelps, Michael E.; Barrio, Jorge R.; Small, Gary W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We explored whether positron emission tomography (PET) with 2-(1-{6-[(2-[F-18]fluoroethyl)(methyl) amino]-2-naphthyl} ethylidene)malononitrile (FDDNP), a molecule that binds to plaques and tangles in vitro, might identify homogeneous subgroups of persons in middle-aged and older persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or normal cognition. Participants Fifty-six subjects (MCI, N = 29; normal cognition, N = 27). Measurements FDDNP-PET scans were performed. Logan parametric images were produced using cerebellum as a reference region, and relative distribution volumes were obtained for regions of interest (ROIs) known to accumulate plaques and tangles in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Cluster analysis was used to identify subgroups of subjects according to FDDNP signal distribution. Once the FDDNP clusters were indentified, we then characterized the clusters also with respect to diagnosis and cognitive test performances and conducted analyses on cluster differences on these variables. Results We identified three FDDNP clusters: high signal in lateral temporal and posterior cingulate ROIs (high temporal-posterior cingulate HT/PC); low signal in all ROIs (low global cluster, LG); high frontal and parietal signal with intermediate temporal and posterior cingulate signal (HF/PA). Most MCI subjects belonged to the HT/PC and HF/PA clusters, while most cognitively normal subjects were in the LG cluster. On cognitive tests, the HT/PC and HF/PA clusters performed significantly worse than LG; but did not significantly differ from each other. Conclusions This approach may be useful in identifying potential high risk imaging cluster patterns. Longitudinal follow-up would be performed to determine the association of these subgroups with diagnostic and functional outcome. PMID:19390297

  14. Two cases of food aversion with semantic dementia.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Alexandra E; Clark, Camilla N; Hardy, Christopher J; Fletcher, Phillip D; Greene, John; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Warren, Jason D

    2016-06-01

    Accounts of altered eating behavior in semantic dementia generally emphasize gluttony and abnormal food preferences. Here we describe two female patients with no past history of eating disorders who developed early prominent aversion to food in the context of an otherwise typical semantic dementia syndrome. One patient (aged 57) presented features in line with anorexia nervosa while the second patient (aged 58) presented with a syndrome more suggestive of bulimia nervosa. These cases add to the growing spectrum of apparently dichotomous behavior patterns in the frontotemporal dementias and illustrate a potentially under-recognized cause of eating disorders presenting in later life. PMID:26963051

  15. Two cases of food aversion with semantic dementia

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Alexandra E.; Clark, Camilla N.; Hardy, Christopher J.; Fletcher, Phillip D.; Greene, John; Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Warren, Jason D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Accounts of altered eating behavior in semantic dementia generally emphasize gluttony and abnormal food preferences. Here we describe two female patients with no past history of eating disorders who developed early prominent aversion to food in the context of an otherwise typical semantic dementia syndrome. One patient (aged 57) presented features in line with anorexia nervosa while the second patient (aged 58) presented with a syndrome more suggestive of bulimia nervosa. These cases add to the growing spectrum of apparently dichotomous behavior patterns in the frontotemporal dementias and illustrate a potentially under-recognized cause of eating disorders presenting in later life. PMID:26963051

  16. The Role of Self-Teaching in Learning Orthographic and Semantic Aspects of New Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Jessie; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Pimperton, Hannah; Nation, Kate

    2011-01-01

    This study explores how children learn the meaning (semantics) and spelling patterns (orthography) of novel words encountered in story context. English-speaking children (N = 88) aged 7 to 8 years read 8 stories and each story contained 1 novel word repeated 4 times. Semantic cues were provided by the story context such that children could infer…

  17. Orthographic Learning in Learning to Spell: The Roles of Semantics and Type of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette, Gene

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relevance of type of practice and presence of semantic representation for orthographic learning in learning to spell. A total of 36 students in Grade 2 (mean age = 7 years 10 months) were exposed to 10 novel nonwords, 5 of which were paired with semantic information. Half of the participants practiced reading these new…

  18. Episodic and Semantic Autobiographical Memory in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Laura; Goddard, Lorna

    2008-01-01

    Episodic and semantic autobiographical memories were examined in a group of adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and a control group matched for age, gender and IQ. Results demonstrated a personal episodic memory deficit in the ASD group in the absence of a personal semantic memory deficit, suggesting a deficit dissociation between these…

  19. Receptive vocabulary and semantic knowledge in children with SLI and children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Laws, Glynis; Briscoe, Josie; Ang, Su-Yin; Brown, Heather; Hermena, Ehab; Kapikian, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Receptive vocabulary and associated semantic knowledge were compared within and between groups of children with specific language impairment (SLI), children with Down syndrome (DS), and typically developing children. To overcome the potential confounding effects of speech or language difficulties on verbal tests of semantic knowledge, a novel task was devised based on picture-based semantic association tests used to assess adult patients with semantic dementia. Receptive vocabulary, measured by word-picture matching, of children with SLI was weak relative to chronological age and to nonverbal mental age but their semantic knowledge, probed across the same lexical items, did not differ significantly from that of vocabulary-matched typically developing children. By contrast, although receptive vocabulary of children with DS was a relative strength compared to nonverbal cognitive abilities (p < .0001), DS was associated with a significant deficit in semantic knowledge (p < .0001) indicative of dissociation between word-picture matching vocabulary and depth of semantic knowledge. Overall, these data challenge the integrity of semantic-conceptual development in DS and imply that contemporary theories of semantic cognition should also seek to incorporate evidence from atypical conceptual development. PMID:24830646

  20. Differential Effect of Endurance Training on Mitochondrial Protein Damage, Degradation, and Acetylation in the Context of Aging.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew L; Irving, Brian A; Lanza, Ian R; Vendelbo, Mikkel H; Konopka, Adam R; Robinson, Matthew M; Henderson, Gregory C; Klaus, Katherine A; Morse, Dawn M; Heppelmann, Carrie; Bergen, H Robert; Dasari, Surendra; Schimke, Jill M; Jakaitis, Daniel R; Nair, K Sreekumaran

    2015-11-01

    Acute aerobic exercise increases reactive oxygen species and could potentially damage proteins, but exercise training (ET) enhances mitochondrial respiration irrespective of age. Here, we report a differential impact of ET on protein quality in young and older participants. Using mass spectrometry we measured oxidative damage to skeletal muscle proteins before and after 8 weeks of ET and find that young but not older participants reduced oxidative damage to both total skeletal muscle and mitochondrial proteins. Young participants showed higher total and mitochondrial derived semitryptic peptides and 26S proteasome activity indicating increased protein degradation. ET however, increased the activity of the endogenous antioxidants in older participants. ET also increased skeletal muscle content of the mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 in both groups. A reduction in the acetylation of isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 was observed following ET that may counteract the effect of acute oxidative stress. In conclusion aging is associated with an inability to improve skeletal muscle and mitochondrial protein quality in response to ET by increasing degradation of damaged proteins. ET does however increase muscle and mitochondrial antioxidant capacity in older individuals, which provides increased buffering from the acute oxidative effects of exercise. PMID:25504576

  1. Age-related Differential Item Functioning for the Patient-Reported Outcomes Information System (PROMIS®) Physical Functioning Items

    PubMed Central

    Paz, Sylvia H; Spritzer, Karen L; Morales, Leo S; Hays, Ron D

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the equivalence of the PROMIS® wave 1 physical functioning item bank, by age (50 years or older versus 18-49). Materials and methods A total of 114 physical functioning items with 5 response choices were administered to English- (n=1504) and Spanish-language (n=640) adults. Item frequencies, means and standard deviations, item-scale correlations, and internal consistency reliability were estimated. Differential Item Functioning (DIF) by age was evaluated. Results Thirty of the 114 items were fagged for DIF based on an R-squared of 0.02 or above criterion. The expected total score was higher for those respondents who were 18-49 than those who were 50 or older. Conclusions Those who were 50 years or older versus 18-49 years old with the same level of physical functioning responded differently to 30 of the 114 items in the PROMIS® physical functioning item bank. This study yields essential information about the equivalence of the physical functioning items in older versus younger individuals. PMID:24052925

  2. Audio-Visual and Meaningful Semantic Context Enhancements in Older and Younger Adults

    PubMed Central

    Smayda, Kirsten E.; Van Engen, Kristin J.; Maddox, W. Todd; Chandrasekaran, Bharath

    2016-01-01

    Speech perception is critical to everyday life. Oftentimes noise can degrade a speech signal; however, because of the cues available to the listener, such as visual and semantic cues, noise rarely prevents conversations from continuing. The interaction of visual and semantic cues in aiding speech perception has been studied in young adults, but the extent to which these two cues interact for older adults has not been studied. To investigate the effect of visual and semantic cues on speech perception in older and younger adults, we recruited forty-five young adults (ages 18–35) and thirty-three older adults (ages 60–90) to participate in a speech perception task. Participants were presented with semantically meaningful and anomalous sentences in audio-only and audio-visual conditions. We hypothesized that young adults would outperform older adults across SNRs, modalities, and semantic contexts. In addition, we hypothesized that both young and older adults would receive a greater benefit from a semantically meaningful context in the audio-visual relative to audio-only modality. We predicted that young adults would receive greater visual benefit in semantically meaningful contexts relative to anomalous contexts. However, we predicted that older adults could receive a greater visual benefit in either semantically meaningful or anomalous contexts. Results suggested that in the most supportive context, that is, semantically meaningful sentences presented in the audiovisual modality, older adults performed similarly to young adults. In addition, both groups received the same amount of visual and meaningful benefit. Lastly, across groups, a semantically meaningful context provided more benefit in the audio-visual modality relative to the audio-only modality, and the presence of visual cues provided more benefit in semantically meaningful contexts relative to anomalous contexts. These results suggest that older adults can perceive speech as well as younger adults when

  3. Semantic Research for Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the need for semantic research in digital libraries to help overcome interoperability problems. Highlights include federal initiatives; semantic analysis; knowledge representations; human-computer interactions and information visualization; and the University of Illinois DLI (Digital Libraries Initiative) project through partnership with…

  4. Semantic Analysis in Machine Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skorokhodko, E. F.

    1970-01-01

    In many cases machine-translation does not produce satisfactory results within the framework of purely formal (morphological and syntaxic) analysis, particularly, in the case of syntaxic and lexical homonomy. An algorithm for syntaxic-semantic analysis is proposed, and its principles of operation are described. The syntaxico-semantic structure is…

  5. Semantic Feature Distinctiveness and Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Katherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Lexical access is the process in which basic components of meaning in language, the lexical entries (words) are activated. This activation is based on the organization and representational structure of the lexical entries. Semantic features of words, which are the prominent semantic characteristics of a word concept, provide important information…

  6. Semantic Tools in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinoff, Morris; Stone, Don C.

    This report discusses the problem of the meansings of words used in information retrieval systems, and shows how semantic tools can aid in the communication which takes place between indexers and searchers via index terms. After treating the differing use of semantic tools in different types of systems, two tools (classification tables and…

  7. Semantic Processing of Mathematical Gestures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Vanessa K.; Wilson, Anna J.; Hamm, Jeff P.; Phillips, Nicola; Iwabuchi, Sarina J.; Corballis, Michael C.; Arzarello, Ferdinando; Thomas, Michael O. J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether or not university mathematics students semantically process gestures depicting mathematical functions (mathematical gestures) similarly to the way they process action gestures and sentences. Semantic processing was indexed by the N400 effect. Results: The N400 effect elicited by words primed with mathematical gestures…

  8. The semantic planetary data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, J. Steven; Crichton, Daniel; Kelly, Sean; Mattmann, Chris

    2005-01-01

    This paper will provide a brief overview of the PDS data model and the PDS catalog. It will then describe the implentation of the Semantic PDS including the development of the formal ontology, the generation of RDFS/XML and RDF/XML data sets, and the buiding of the semantic search application.

  9. Silicate-bearing IIE Irons: Early Mixing and Differentiation in a Core-Mantle Environment and Shock Resetting of Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, T. J.

    1995-09-01

    The small group of IIE irons [1] are important since many contain silicate inclusions. A wide variety of inclusions occur in Netscha vo [2], Techado [3], Watson [4], Elga, Kodaikanal, Weekeroo Station, and Colomera [5,6]. Miles contains uncharacterized silicate inclusions [7]. Most siderophile elements do not follow fractional crystallization trends, suggesting formation by impact [1]. Ages from 3.67-4.51 Ga [see 8] are taken by some authors [4] as the time of silicate-metal mixing. I have conducted petrographic studies on silicate inclusions of all silicate-bearing IIE's except Elga and propose an alternative history of heating, melting, silicate differentiation and metal-silicate mixing ~4.55 Ga ago in a core-mantle environment followed by shock heating and chronometer resetting. The chondritic IIE precursor was probably not identical to H chondrites [1,3]. Mafic silicate compositions in "primitive" IIE's (Netschaevo, Techado) and Delta 17O in all silicate-bearing IIE's (0.59+/-0.08 [3,4,9,10]) are less than or overlap H chondrites. The IIE body was heated to >=900 degrees C, metamorphosing and partially melting the mantle and forming a small Fe,Ni-FeS core ~4.55 Ga ago. Slow metallographic cooling rates (1-100 degrees C/Ma [1,3]) for IIE's with unaltered metal (e.g., Techado, Weekeroo Station, Miles) and fractional crystallization trends for some elements (e.g., Au-Ni) support a core origin, not a near-surface, impact model. Comparison of other siderophile element trends in IAB, IIICD and IIE indicate similar origins [1], but IAB and IIICD may also have originated in cores [11,12]. Silicates differentiated in the mantle and/or after mixing with metal. The degree of differentiation increases from Netschaevo (unmelted, chondritic clasts [2]) to Techado (unmelted silicates; Fe,Ni-FeS melting [3]) to Watson (nearly-total melting; no silicate differentiation; Fe,Ni-FeS lost [4]) to Miles and Weekeroo Station (opx-cpx-plag partial melts [5]) to Kodaikanal, Colomera

  10. Target disruption of ribosomal protein pNO40 accelerates aging and impairs osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Ming; Wu, Chih-Ching; Chang, Yu-Chen; Wu, Chu-Han; Ho, Hsien Li; Hu, Ji Wei; Chang, Ren-Chi; Wang, Chung-Ta; Ouyang, Pin

    2016-01-22

    pNO40/PS1D, a novel nucleolar protein, has been characterized as a core protein of eukaryotic 60S ribosome and at least two splicing forms of pNO40 mRNAs with alternative starting sites have been identified. Through production of knockout (ko) mice with either exon 2 (△E2), exon 4 (△E4) or △E2+E4 targeted disruption we identified a cryptic splicing product occurring in the ko tissues examined which in general cannot be observed in regular RT-PCR detection of wild-type (wt) animals. Among ko animals, △E4 null embryos exhibited prominent senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining, a marker for senescent cells, in notochord, forelimbs and heart while bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from △E4 null mice developed accelerated aging and osteogenic differentiation defects compared to those from wt and other isoform mutant mice. Examination of the causal relationship between pNO40 deficiency and MSC-accelerated aging revealed △E4 null disruption in MSCs elicits high levels of ROS and elevated expression levels of p16 and Rb but not p53. Further analysis with iTraq identified CYP1B1, a component of the cytochrome p450 system, as a potential molecule mediating ROS generation in pNO40 deficient MSCs. We herein established a mouse model of MSC aging through pNO40-targeted depletion and demonstrated the effects of loss of pNO40 on bone homeostasis. PMID:26721440

  11. Disorders of semantic memory.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, R A; Warrington, E K

    1994-10-29

    It is now established that selective disorders of semantic memory may arise after focal cerebral lesions. Debate and dissension remain on three principal issues: category specificity, the status of modality-dependent knowledge, and the stability and sufficiency of stored information. Theories of category specificity have focused on the frequently reported dissociation between living things and man-made objects. However, other dimensions need theoretical integration. Impairments can be both finer-grain and broader in range. A second variable of importance is stimulus modality. Reciprocal interactive dissociations between vision and language and between animals and objects will be described. These indicate that the derivation of semantic information is constrained by input modality: we appear to have evolved separable databases for the visual and the verbal world. Thirdly, an orthogonal distinction has been drawn between degradation disorders, where representations are insufficient for comprehension, and access deficits, in which representations have become unstable. These issues may have their parallel in the acquisition of knowledge by the developing child. PMID:7886158

  12. Latent semantic analysis.

    PubMed

    Evangelopoulos, Nicholas E

    2013-11-01

    This article reviews latent semantic analysis (LSA), a theory of meaning as well as a method for extracting that meaning from passages of text, based on statistical computations over a collection of documents. LSA as a theory of meaning defines a latent semantic space where documents and individual words are represented as vectors. LSA as a computational technique uses linear algebra to extract dimensions that represent that space. This representation enables the computation of similarity among terms and documents, categorization of terms and documents, and summarization of large collections of documents using automated procedures that mimic the way humans perform similar cognitive tasks. We present some technical details, various illustrative examples, and discuss a number of applications from linguistics, psychology, cognitive science, education, information science, and analysis of textual data in general. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:683-692. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1254 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26304272

  13. "Pre-Semantic" Cognition Revisited: Critical Differences between Semantic Aphasia and Semantic Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T.; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal "pre-semantic" tasks, e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are…

  14. Semantic context facilitates odor identification in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Goubet, Nathalie; McCall, Daniel D; Ducz, Jennifer K; Bingham, Megan L

    2014-04-01

    The current study investigated the influence of semantic cues on odor identification in preschool-aged children and adults. We tested the hypothesis that odor identification in a multiple-choice task is facilitated when choices belong to different semantic categories compared to when they belong to the same category. Participants were shown three color pictures, one of which represented the target odor and the other two depicted items that were either from the same or different semantic categories as the target odor. After smelling the target odor, participants were asked to identify the odor they had just smelled by pointing to one of the three pictures. Results indicated that while adults outperformed children, performance in both age groups was better when the picture of the target odor was semantically unrelated to the foil pictures. These data support the idea that well-known deficits in odor identification may result from weak associations between the olfactory percept and semantic memory rather than from poor olfactory perception per se. PMID:23775043

  15. Generalisation of fear and avoidance along a semantic continuum.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Sean; Roche, Bryan; Dymond, Simon; Hermans, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Directly conditioned fear and avoidance readily generalises to dissimilar but conceptually related stimuli. Here, for the first time, we examined the conceptual/semantic generalisation of both fear and avoidance using real words (synonyms). Participants were first exposed to a differential fear conditioning procedure in which one word (e.g., "broth"; CS+) was followed with brief electric shock [unconditioned stimulus (US)] and another was not (e.g., "assist"; CS-). Next, an instrumental conditioning phase taught avoidance in the presence the CS+ but not the CS-. During generalisation testing, synonyms of the CS+ (e.g., "soup"; GCS+) and CS- (e.g., "help"; GCS-) were presented in the absence of shock. Conditioned fear and avoidance, measured via skin conductance responses, behavioural avoidance and US expectancy ratings, generalised to the semantically related, but not to the semantically unrelated, synonyms. Findings have implications for how natural language categories and concepts mediate the expansion of fear and avoidance repertoires in clinical contexts. PMID:25648156

  16. Mapping the Structure of Semantic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morais, Ana Sofia; Olsson, Henrik; Schooler, Lael J.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregating snippets from the semantic memories of many individuals may not yield a good map of an individual's semantic memory. The authors analyze the structure of semantic networks that they sampled from individuals through a new snowball sampling paradigm during approximately 6 weeks of 1-hr daily sessions. The semantic networks of individuals…

  17. Semantic enrichment for medical ontologies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yugyung; Geller, James

    2006-04-01

    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) contains two separate but interconnected knowledge structures, the Semantic Network (upper level) and the Metathesaurus (lower level). In this paper, we have attempted to work out better how the use of such a two-level structure in the medical field has led to notable advances in terminologies and ontologies. However, most ontologies and terminologies do not have such a two-level structure. Therefore, we present a method, called semantic enrichment, which generates a two-level ontology from a given one-level terminology and an auxiliary two-level ontology. During semantic enrichment, concepts of the one-level terminology are assigned to semantic types, which are the building blocks of the upper level of the auxiliary two-level ontology. The result of this process is the desired new two-level ontology. We discuss semantic enrichment of two example terminologies and how we approach the implementation of semantic enrichment in the medical domain. This implementation performs a major part of the semantic enrichment process with the medical terminologies, with difficult cases left to a human expert. PMID:16185937

  18. Expression and traffic of cellular prolyl oligopeptidase are regulated during cerebellar granule cell differentiation, maturation, and aging.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Baylach, M J; Felipo, V; Männistö, P T; García-Horsman, J A

    2008-10-15

    Prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) is an endopeptidase which cleaves short proline-containing neuropeptides, and it is involved in memory and learning. POP also has an intercellular function mediated through the inositol pathway, and has been involved in cell death. POP has been early considered as a housekeeping enzyme, but the recent research indicates that POP expression is regulated across tissues and intracellularly. In the brain, POP is exclusively expressed in neurons and most abundantly in pyramidal neurons of cerebral cortex, in the CA1 field neurons of hippocampus and in cerebellar Purkinje's cells. Intracellularly, POP is mainly present in the cytoplasm and some in intracellular membranes, like rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. In this paper, we systematically studied the levels of expression of POP along the life of cerebellar granule cells (CGC) in culture and the distribution of POP within different intracellular compartments. We used the tight-binding inhibitor JTP-4819 covalently coupled with fluorescein (FJTP) as a tool to study the changes on expression and localization of POP protein. Our results indicate that POP activity levels are regulated during the life of the neurons. POP was found mainly in cytoplasm and neuronal projections, but at an early developmental phase significant amounts were found also in nuclei. Along the life of the neurons, POP activity fluctuated in 7-day cycles. In young neurons, the cytosolic POP activity was low but increased by maturation so that the activity peak coincided with full differentiation. Over aging, cytoplasmic POP was concentrated around nucleus, but the activity decreased with time. POP was also present in vesicles across the neuron. No major changes were seen in the nuclear or membrane bound POP over aging until activity disappeared upon neuronal death. This is the first time when POP was found in the nuclei of human neuronal cells. PMID:18718510

  19. Exploiting Recurring Structure in a Semantic Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, Richard M.

    2004-01-01

    With the growing popularity of the Semantic Web, an increasing amount of information is becoming available in machine interpretable, semantically structured networks. Within these semantic networks are recurring structures that could be mined by existing or novel knowledge discovery methods. The mining of these semantic structures represents an interesting area that focuses on mining both for and from the Semantic Web, with surprising applicability to problems confronting the developers of Semantic Web applications. In this paper, we present representative examples of recurring structures and show how these structures could be used to increase the utility of a semantic repository deployed at NASA.

  20. The Influence of rTMS over Prefrontal and Motor Areas in a Morphological Task: Grammatical vs. Semantic Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoGerfo, Emanuele; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Torriero, Sara; Salerno, Silvia; Koch, Giacomo; Caltagirone, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the differential role of two frontal regions in the processing of grammatical and semantic knowledge. Given the documented specificity of the prefrontal cortex for the grammatical class of verbs, and of the primary motor cortex for the semantic class of action words, we sought to investigate whether the prefrontal cortex is also…

  1. Altered semantic integration in autism beyond language: a cross-modal event-related potentials study.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Tatiane C; Valasek, Claudia A; Minati, Ludovico; Boggio, Paulo S

    2013-05-29

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by impaired communication, particularly pragmatic and semantic language, resulting in verbal comprehension deficits. Semantic processing in these conditions has been studied extensively, but mostly limited only to linguistic material. Emerging evidence, however, suggests that semantic integration deficits may extend beyond the verbal domain. Here, we explored cross-modal semantic integration using visual targets preceded by musical and linguistic cues. Particularly, we have recorded the event-related potentials to evaluate whether the N400 and late positive potential (LPP) components, two widely studied electrophysiological markers of semantic processing, are differently sensitive to congruence with respect to typically developing children. Seven ASD patients and seven neurotypical participants matched by age, education and intelligence quotient provided usable data. Neuroelectric activity was recorded in response to visual targets that were related or unrelated to a preceding spoken sentence or musical excerpt. The N400 was sensitive to semantic congruence in the controls but not the patients, whereas the LPP showed a complementary pattern. These results suggest that semantic processing in ASD children is also altered in the context of musical and visual stimuli, and point to a functional decoupling between the generators of the N400 and LPP, which may indicate delayed semantic processing. These novel findings underline the importance of exploring semantic integration across multiple modalities in ASDs and provide motivation for further investigation in large clinical samples. PMID:23629689

  2. From autopoiesis to semantic closure.

    PubMed

    Stewart, J

    2000-01-01

    This article addresses the question of providing an adequate mathematical formulation for the concepts of autopoiesis and closure under efficient cause. What is required is metaphorically equivalent to reducing the act of writing to a set of mathematical equations, habitually effected by a human mathematician, within the ongoing function of the system itself. This, in turn, raises the question of the relationship between autopoiesis and semantics. The hypothesis suggested is that whereas semantics clearly requires autopoiesis, it may be also be the case that autopoiesis itself can only be materially realized in a system that is characterized by a semantic dimension. PMID:10818567

  3. Workspaces in the Semantic Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, RIchard M.

    2005-01-01

    Due to the recency and relatively limited adoption of Semantic Web technologies. practical issues related to technology scaling have received less attention than foundational issues. Nonetheless, these issues must be addressed if the Semantic Web is to realize its full potential. In particular, we concentrate on the lack of scoping methods that reduce the size of semantic information spaces so they are more efficient to work with and more relevant to an agent's needs. We provide some intuition to motivate the need for such reduced information spaces, called workspaces, give a formal definition, and suggest possible methods of deriving them.

  4. High Performance Descriptive Semantic Analysis of Semantic Graph Databases

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Adolf, Robert D.; al-Saffar, Sinan; Feo, John T.; Haglin, David J.; Mackey, Greg E.; Mizell, David W.

    2011-06-02

    As semantic graph database technology grows to address components ranging from extant large triple stores to SPARQL endpoints over SQL-structured relational databases, it will become increasingly important to be able to understand their inherent semantic structure, whether codified in explicit ontologies or not. Our group is researching novel methods for what we call descriptive semantic analysis of RDF triplestores, to serve purposes of analysis, interpretation, visualization, and optimization. But data size and computational complexity makes it increasingly necessary to bring high performance computational resources to bear on this task. Our research group built a novel high performance hybrid system comprising computational capability for semantic graph database processing utilizing the large multi-threaded architecture of the Cray XMT platform, conventional servers, and large data stores. In this paper we describe that architecture and our methods, and present the results of our analyses of basic properties, connected components, namespace interaction, and typed paths such for the Billion Triple Challenge 2010 dataset.

  5. Semantic Knowledge as a Determinant of Developmental Differences in Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceci, Stephen J.; Howe, Michael J. A.

    1978-01-01

    Two experiments examined the possible role of children's semantic knowledge and their ability to encode it in a cued-recall test. Performance of children aged 7, 10, and 13 years was observed in encoding specificity tasks which used homographs as the to-be-remembered words. (MP)

  6. Verbal Memory and Semantic Organization of Children with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polychroni, Fotini; Economou, Alexandra; Printezi, Anna; Koutlidi, Ifigeneia

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the verbal learning performance and the semantic organization used by Greek reading-disabled readers as compared to a control group using a list-learning task. The sample consisted of 45 elementary school children with reading difficulties and 45 comparison children matched for age and gender. Tests of reading ability,…

  7. Lexical-Semantic Organization in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Li; McGregor, Karla K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) show deficits in lexical-semantic organization and, if so, whether these deficits are commensurate with their delay in vocabulary size and whether the deficits affect all children with SLI. Method: Fourteen children with SLI, 14 age matches (AM), and 14 expressive…

  8. Phonological and Semantic Priming in Children with Reading Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betjemann, Rebecca S.; Keenan, Janice M.

    2008-01-01

    Lexical priming was assessed in children with reading disability (RD) and in age-matched controls (M= 11.5 years), in visual and auditory lexical decision tasks. In the visual task, children with RD were found to have deficits in semantic (SHIP-BOAT), phonological/graphemic (GOAT-BOAT), and combined (FLOAT-BOAT) priming. The same pattern of…

  9. Semantics of Word Order in Co-ordination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsong, David

    Evidence of semantically based orderings of phrasal coordinations in child speech is explored. Speech samples from two children are analyzed to show that such sequences occur frequently, are internally consistent, and are part of children's active repertoire of referential and expressive acts at an early age. The samples were obtained from one…

  10. Systematizing Semantic Knowledge: Changes over Time in the Child's Organization of Word Meaning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowerman, Melissa

    1978-01-01

    Selected spontaneous errors of word choice made between the ages of two and five by two children whose language development had been followed longitudinally were analyzed for clues to semantic developmnet. (JMB)

  11. Differential Prediction of Alcohol vs. Hard Drug Use Levels in a General Youth Sample via the HEW Youth Development Model's Community Youth Program Impact Scales, Age, and Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truckenmiller, James L.

    Recent national surveys have found marked increases in the use of illicit drugs and alcohol among adolescents. To investigate differential prediction of alcohol versus hard drug use amoung youths, 6% of the youths, aged 10-19, from a Pennsylvania county school system (N=1,689) were assessed on the HEW Community Youth Program Impact Scales. The 12…

  12. Aging stability of complete blood count and white blood cell differential parameters analyzed by Abbott CELL-DYN Sapphire hematology analyzer.

    PubMed

    Hedberg, P; Lehto, T

    2009-02-01

    This study presents the results of an aging stability study of complete blood count (CBC) and leukocyte differential parameters using the Abbott CELL-DYN Sapphire hematology analyzer. Stability studies showed no substantial change in CBC parameters up to 24-48 h at +23 +/- 2 degrees C (room temperature), except for optical platelet count (PLTo). For specimens aged over 24, the value of impedance platelet count yielded more reliable results than the routine PLTo. White blood cell (WBC) differential parameters, except eosinophils, were stable for up to 48 h at +23 +/- 2 degrees C. CBC parameters were stable for 72 h, except mean platelet volume, which slightly increased between 48 and 72 h, at +4 degrees C. WBC differentials were stable 48-72 h, with a slight decrease observed in absolute neutrophils and lymphocytes at +4 degrees C. PMID:18190587

  13. Does semantic redundancy gain result from multiple semantic priming?

    PubMed

    Schröter, Hannes; Bratzke, Daniel; Fiedler, Anja; Birngruber, Teresa

    2015-10-01

    Fiedler, Schröter, and Ulrich (2013) reported faster responses to a single written word when the semantic content of this word (e.g., "elephant") matched both targets (e.g., "animal", "gray") as compared to a single target (e.g., "animal", "brown"). This semantic redundancy gain was explained by statistical facilitation due to a race of independent memory retrieval processes. The present experiment addresses one alternative explanation, namely that semantic redundancy gain results from multiple pre-activation of words that match both targets. In different blocks of trials, participants performed a redundant-targets task and a lexical decision task. The targets of the redundant-targets task served as primes in the lexical decision task. Replicating the findings of Fiedler et al., a semantic redundancy gain was observed in the redundant-targets task. Crucially, however, there was no evidence of a multiple semantic priming effect in the lexical decision task. This result suggests that semantic redundancy gain cannot be explained by multiple pre-activation of words that match both targets. PMID:26342771

  14. Dissociating the effects of semantic grouping and rehearsal strategies on event-related brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Schleepen, T M J; Markus, C R; Jonkman, L M

    2014-12-01

    The application of elaborative encoding strategies during learning, such as grouping items on similar semantic categories, increases the likelihood of later recall. Previous studies have suggested that stimuli that encourage semantic grouping strategies had modulating effects on specific ERP components. However, these studies did not differentiate between ERP activation patterns evoked by elaborative working memory strategies like semantic grouping and more simple strategies like rote rehearsal. Identification of neurocognitive correlates underlying successful use of elaborative strategies is important to understand better why certain populations, like children or elderly people, have problems applying such strategies. To compare ERP activation during the application of elaborative versus more simple strategies subjects had to encode either four semantically related or unrelated pictures by respectively applying a semantic category grouping or a simple rehearsal strategy. Another goal was to investigate if maintenance of semantically grouped vs. ungrouped pictures modulated ERP-slow waves differently. At the behavioral level there was only a semantic grouping benefit in terms of faster responding on correct rejections (i.e. when the memory probe stimulus was not part of the memory set). At the neural level, during encoding semantic grouping only had a modest specific modulatory effect on a fronto-central Late Positive Component (LPC), emerging around 650 ms. Other ERP components (i.e. P200, N400 and a second Late Positive Component) that had been earlier related to semantic grouping encoding processes now showed stronger modulation by rehearsal than by semantic grouping. During maintenance semantic grouping had specific modulatory effects on left and right frontal slow wave activity. These results stress the importance of careful control of strategy use when investigating the neural correlates of elaborative encoding. PMID:25242500

  15. Active maintenance of semantic representations.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Ryoji

    2014-12-01

    In research on verbal working memory, articulatory rehearsal, a maintenance mechanism for phonological representations, has undergone intensive and excellent study. Possible mechanisms for semantic representation have received less attention. However, several studies have reported a double dissociation in types of memory deficits (semantic memory difficulties vs. phonological memory difficulties). This suggests the separability of two maintenance mechanisms. The present study focused on this separability in individuals with normal memory abilities, using a dual-task interference paradigm. The results indicate a crossover interaction between memory and interference task effects: Preventing articulatory rehearsal more strongly disrupted the phonological memory task, whereas performing a tapping task that interfered with attentional control more strongly disrupted semantic memory. These results suggest that semantic representations are actively maintained by a mechanism other than phonological maintenance. PMID:24687734

  16. Distributed semantic networks and CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, James; Rodriguez, Tony

    1991-01-01

    Semantic networks of frames are commonly used as a method of reasoning in many problems. In most of these applications the semantic network exists as a single entity in a single process environment. Advances in workstation hardware provide support for more sophisticated applications involving multiple processes, interacting in a distributed environment. In these applications the semantic network may well be distributed over several concurrently executing tasks. This paper describes the design and implementation of a frame based, distributed semantic network in which frames are accessed both through C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) expert systems and procedural C++ language programs. The application area is a knowledge based, cooperative decision making model utilizing both rule based and procedural experts.

  17. Problem Solving with General Semantics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewson, David

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how to use general semantics formulations to improve problem solving at home or at work--methods come from the areas of artificial intelligence/computer science, engineering, operations research, and psychology. (PA)

  18. Semantic wireless body area networks.

    PubMed

    Nimmala, Venkatarama S R; Penders, Julien; van Hyfte, Dirk; Brands, Michael; Gyselinckx, Bert

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of semantic Wireless Body Area Network (sWBAN). First the method for semantic interpretation of body sensor data is developed. This method is then illustrated for the case of ECG monitoring, providing the user with real-time monitoring and interpretation of heart activity. Finally, possible extensions of the method to data fusion and context-aware monitoring are discussed. PMID:19163441

  19. NASA and The Semantic Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashish, Naveen

    2005-01-01

    We provide an overview of several ongoing NASA endeavors based on concepts, systems, and technology from the Semantic Web arena. Indeed NASA has been one of the early adopters of Semantic Web Technology and we describe ongoing and completed R&D efforts for several applications ranging from collaborative systems to airspace information management to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and discovery systems at NASA.

  20. Age-related decreases of serum-response factor levels in human mesenchymal stem cells are involved in skeletal muscle differentiation and engraftment capacity.

    PubMed

    Ting, Chiao-Hsuan; Ho, Pai-Jiun; Yen, Betty Linju

    2014-06-01

    Skeletal muscle (SkM) comprise ∼40% of human body weight. Injury or damage to this important tissue can result in physical disability, and in severe cases is difficult for its endogenous stem cell-the satellite cell-to reverse effectively. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are postnatal progenitor/stem cells that possess multilineage mesodermal differentiation capacity, including toward SkM. Adult bone marrow (BM) is the best-studied source of MSCs; however, aging also decreases BMMSC numbers and can adversely affect differentiation capacity. Therefore, we asked whether human sources of developmentally early stage mesenchymal stem cells (hDE-MSCs) isolated from embryonic stem cells, fetal bone, and term placenta could be cellular sources for SkM repair. Under standard muscle-inducing conditions, hDE-MPCs differentiate toward a SkM lineage rather than cardiomyocytic or smooth muscle lineages, as evidenced by increased expression of SkM-associated markers and in vitro myotube formation. In vivo transplantation revealed that SkM-differentiated hDE-MSCs can efficiently incorporate into host SkM tissue in a mouse model of SkM injury. In contrast, adult BMMSCs do not express SkM-associated genes after in vitro SkM differentiation nor engraft in vivo. Further investigation of possible factors responsible for this difference in SkM differentiation potential revealed that, compared with adult BMMSCs, hDE-MSCs expressed higher levels of serum response factor (SRF), a transcription factor critical for SkM lineage commitment. Moreover, knockdown of SRF in hDE-MSCs resulted in decreased expression of SkM-related genes after in vitro differentiation and decreased in vivo engraftment. Our results implicate SRF as a key factor in age-related SkM differentiation capacity of MSCs, and demonstrate that hDE-MSCs are possible candidates for SkM repair. PMID:24576136

  1. COTARD SYNDROME IN SEMANTIC DEMENTIA

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Mario F.; Ramírez-Bermúdez, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    Background Semantic dementia is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of meaning of words or concepts. semantic dementia can offer potential insights into the mechanisms of content-specific delusions. Objective The authors present a rare case of semantic dementia with Cotard syndrome, a delusion characterized by nihilism or self-negation. Method The semantic deficits and other features of semantic dementia were evaluated in relation to the patient's Cotard syndrome. Results Mrs. A developed the delusional belief that she was wasting and dying. This occurred after she lost knowledge for her somatic discomforts and sensations and for the organs that were the source of these sensations. Her nihilistic beliefs appeared to emerge from her misunderstanding of her somatic sensations. Conclusion This unique patient suggests that a mechanism for Cotard syndrome is difficulty interpreting the nature and source of internal pains and sensations. We propose that loss of semantic knowledge about one's own body may lead to the delusion of nihilism or death. PMID:22054629

  2. Semantic preview benefit during reading.

    PubMed

    Hohenstein, Sven; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    Word features in parafoveal vision influence eye movements during reading. The question of whether readers extract semantic information from parafoveal words was studied in 3 experiments by using a gaze-contingent display change technique. Subjects read German sentences containing 1 of several preview words that were replaced by a target word during the saccade to the preview (boundary paradigm). In the 1st experiment the preview word was semantically related or unrelated to the target. Fixation durations on the target were shorter for semantically related than unrelated previews, consistent with a semantic preview benefit. In the 2nd experiment, half the sentences were presented following the rules of German spelling (i.e., previews and targets were printed with an initial capital letter), and the other half were presented completely in lowercase. A semantic preview benefit was obtained under both conditions. In the 3rd experiment, we introduced 2 further preview conditions, an identical word and a pronounceable nonword, while also manipulating the text contrast. Whereas the contrast had negligible effects, fixation durations on the target were reliably different for all 4 types of preview. Semantic preview benefits were greater for pretarget fixations closer to the boundary (large preview space) and, although not as consistently, for long pretarget fixation durations (long preview time). The results constrain theoretical proposals about eye movement control in reading. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23895448

  3. [Relationships among self concept, perception of aging and physical aging].

    PubMed

    Lee, Y H; Kim, M S; Choi, Y H

    1988-12-01

    Although everyone grows old, perception about the aging process and aging as measured physiologically vary widely. Perceptions of aging have psychologically influence on physical aging. This study was to examine the relationships between, self-concept, perception of aging, and physical aging in the elderly and to contribute to the theory development which may direct nursing intervention to promote well-being of the aged. Subjects were 70 women residents of a nursing home for the elderly in Seoul. Data collection was done from May 15 to June 15, 1988 using interview schedules and mechanical instruments. The instruments were selected items from the Health Self Concept Scale developed by Jacox and Stewart for self concept, and Secord and Jourad's Body Cathexis Scale and Osgood's Semantic Differential Scale for perception of aging. Physical aging was measured by mechanical instruments, inspection, questions, and palpation. The data were analysed for mean, t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson Correlation Coefficient using an S.P.S.S computerized program. The results of the analysis were as follows. 1. The mean level of self concept for the subject group was 16.97 (SD = +/- 6.17) in a range from 6-30. The mean level of perception of aging was 39.6. (SD = +/- 6.51) in a range from 13-65. The mean level of physical aging was 14.09 (SD = +/- 2.05) in a range from 8-40. 2. Relationships among self-concept, perception of aging, and physical aging. 1) There was a positive relationship between self-concept and perception of aging (r = 0.4461, p = 0.000). 2) There was a negative relationship between physical aging and perception of aging (r = -0.2975, p = 0.006). 3) There was a tendency toward a negative relationship between physical aging and self-concept, but not a significant relationship (r = -0.1033, p = 0.197). 3. 1) No general characteristic variables were related to self concept. 2) The general characteristic variable related to the level of perception of aging was religion (t = 4

  4. Soluble cluster of differentiation 36 concentrations are not associated with cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged subjects

    PubMed Central

    ALKHATATBEH, MOHAMMAD J.; AYOUB, NEHAD M.; MHAIDAT, NIZAR M.; SAADEH, NESREEN A.; LINCZ, LISA F.

    2016-01-01

    Cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) is involved in the development of atherosclerosis by enhancing macrophage endocytosis of oxidized low-density lipoproteins and foam cell formation. Soluble CD36 (sCD36) was found to be elevated in type 2 diabetic patients and possibly acted as a marker of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. In young subjects, sCD36 was associated with cardiovascular risk factors including obesity and hypertriglyceridemia. The present study was conducted to further investigate the association between plasma sCD36 and cardiovascular risk factors among middle-aged patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and healthy controls. sCD36 concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for 41 patients with MetS and 36 healthy controls. Data for other variables were obtained from patient medical records. sCD36 concentrations were relatively low compared to the majority of other studies and were not significantly different between the MetS group and controls (P=0.17). sCD36 was also not correlated with age, body mass index, glucose, lipid profile, serum electrolytes and blood counts. sCD36 was not significantly different between subjects with obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension or cardiovascular disease, and those without these abnormalities (P>0.05). The inconsistency between results reported in the present study and other studies may be unique to the study population or be a result of the lack of a reliable standardized method for determining absolute sCD36 concentrations. However, further investigations are required to assess CD36 tissue expression in the study population and to assess the accuracy of various commercially available sCD36 ELISA kits. Thus, the availability of a standardized simple sCD36 ELISA that could be performed in any basic laboratory would be more favorable to the specialized flow cytometry methods that detect CD36+ microparticles if it was to be used as a biomarker. PMID:27123261

  5. Episodic and semantic memory in bilingual and monolingual children.

    PubMed

    Kormi-Nouri, Reza; Moniri, Sadegheh; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2003-02-01

    Although bilinguality has been reported to confer advantages upon children with respect to various cognitive abilities, much less is known about the relation between memory and bilinguality. In this study, 60 (30 girls and 30 boys) bilingual and 60 (30 girls and 30 boys) monolingual children in three age groups (mean ages 8.5, 10.5 and 12.5 years) were compared on episodic memory and semantic memory tasks. Episodic memory was assessed using subject-performed tasks (with real or imaginary objects) and verbal tasks, with retrieval by both free recall and cued recall. Semantic memory was assessed by word fluency tests. Positive effects of bilingualism were found on both episodic memory and semantic memory at all age levels. These findings suggest that bilingual children integrate and/or organize the information of two languages, and so bilingualism creates advantages in terms of cognitive abilities (including memory). Some sex differences were also found in episodic memory but not in semantic memory. This episodic memory difference was found with younger children. PMID:12603003

  6. The cognitive and neural expression of semantic memory impairment in mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Joubert, Sven; Brambati, Simona M; Ansado, Jennyfer; Barbeau, Emmanuel J; Felician, Olivier; Didic, Mira; Lacombe, Jacinthe; Goldstein, Rachel; Chayer, Céline; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne

    2010-03-01

    Semantic deficits in Alzheimer's disease have been widely documented, but little is known about the integrity of semantic memory in the prodromal stage of the illness. The aims of the present study were to: (i) investigate naming abilities and semantic memory in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), early Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared to healthy older subjects; (ii) investigate the association between naming and semantic knowledge in aMCI and AD; (iii) examine if the semantic impairment was present in different modalities; and (iv) study the relationship between semantic performance and grey matter volume using voxel-based morphometry. Results indicate that both naming and semantic knowledge of objects and famous people were impaired in aMCI and early AD groups, when compared to healthy age- and education-matched controls. Item-by-item analyses showed that anomia in aMCI and early AD was significantly associated with underlying semantic knowledge of famous people but not with semantic knowledge of objects. Moreover, semantic knowledge of the same concepts was impaired in both the visual and the verbal modalities. Finally, voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed that semantic impairment in aMCI and AD was associated with cortical atrophy in the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) region as well as in the inferior prefrontal cortex (IPC), some of the key regions of the semantic cognition network. These findings suggest that the semantic impairment in aMCI may result from a breakdown of semantic knowledge of famous people and objects, combined with difficulties in the selection, manipulation and retrieval of this knowledge. PMID:19954747

  7. Semantic Processing in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children: Large N400 Mismatch Effects in Brain Responses, Despite Poor Semantic Ability

    PubMed Central

    Kallioinen, Petter; Olofsson, Jonas; Nakeva von Mentzer, Cecilia; Lindgren, Magnus; Ors, Marianne; Sahlén, Birgitta S.; Lyxell, Björn; Engström, Elisabet; Uhlén, Inger

    2016-01-01

    Difficulties in auditory and phonological processing affect semantic processing in speech comprehension for deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children. However, little is known about brain responses related to semantic processing in this group. We investigated event-related potentials (ERPs) in DHH children with cochlear implants (CIs) and/or hearing aids (HAs), and in normally hearing controls (NH). We used a semantic priming task with spoken word primes followed by picture targets. In both DHH children and controls, cortical response differences between matching and mismatching targets revealed a typical N400 effect associated with semantic processing. Children with CI had the largest mismatch response despite poor semantic abilities overall; Children with CI also had the largest ERP differentiation between mismatch types, with small effects in within-category mismatch trials (target from same category as prime) and large effects in between-category mismatch trials (where target is from a different category than prime), compared to matching trials. Children with NH and HA had similar responses to both mismatch types. While the large and differentiated ERP responses in the CI group were unexpected and should be interpreted with caution, the results could reflect less precision in semantic processing among children with CI, or a stronger reliance on predictive processing. PMID:27559320

  8. Semantic Processing in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children: Large N400 Mismatch Effects in Brain Responses, Despite Poor Semantic Ability.

    PubMed

    Kallioinen, Petter; Olofsson, Jonas; Nakeva von Mentzer, Cecilia; Lindgren, Magnus; Ors, Marianne; Sahlén, Birgitta S; Lyxell, Björn; Engström, Elisabet; Uhlén, Inger

    2016-01-01

    Difficulties in auditory and phonological processing affect semantic processing in speech comprehension for deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children. However, little is known about brain responses related to semantic processing in this group. We investigated event-related potentials (ERPs) in DHH children with cochlear implants (CIs) and/or hearing aids (HAs), and in normally hearing controls (NH). We used a semantic priming task with spoken word primes followed by picture targets. In both DHH children and controls, cortical response differences between matching and mismatching targets revealed a typical N400 effect associated with semantic processing. Children with CI had the largest mismatch response despite poor semantic abilities overall; Children with CI also had the largest ERP differentiation between mismatch types, with small effects in within-category mismatch trials (target from same category as prime) and large effects in between-category mismatch trials (where target is from a different category than prime), compared to matching trials. Children with NH and HA had similar responses to both mismatch types. While the large and differentiated ERP responses in the CI group were unexpected and should be interpreted with caution, the results could reflect less precision in semantic processing among children with CI, or a stronger reliance on predictive processing. PMID:27559320

  9. Semantic Similarity in Biomedical Ontologies

    PubMed Central

    Pesquita, Catia; Faria, Daniel; Falcão, André O.; Lord, Phillip; Couto, Francisco M.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, ontologies have become a mainstream topic in biomedical research. When biological entities are described using a common schema, such as an ontology, they can be compared by means of their annotations. This type of comparison is called semantic similarity, since it assesses the degree of relatedness between two entities by the similarity in meaning of their annotations. The application of semantic similarity to biomedical ontologies is recent; nevertheless, several studies have been published in the last few years describing and evaluating diverse approaches. Semantic similarity has become a valuable tool for validating the results drawn from biomedical studies such as gene clustering, gene expression data analysis, prediction and validation of molecular interactions, and disease gene prioritization. We review semantic similarity measures applied to biomedical ontologies and propose their classification according to the strategies they employ: node-based versus edge-based and pairwise versus groupwise. We also present comparative assessment studies and discuss the implications of their results. We survey the existing implementations of semantic similarity measures, and we describe examples of applications to biomedical research. This will clarify how biomedical researchers can benefit from semantic similarity measures and help them choose the approach most suitable for their studies. Biomedical ontologies are evolving toward increased coverage, formality, and integration, and their use for annotation is increasingly becoming a focus of both effort by biomedical experts and application of automated annotation procedures to create corpora of higher quality and completeness than are currently available. Given that semantic similarity measures are directly dependent on these evolutions, we can expect to see them gaining more relevance and even becoming as essential as sequence similarity is today in biomedical research. PMID:19649320

  10. Emotional Development across Adulthood: Differential Age-Related Emotional Reactivity and Emotion Regulation in a Negative Mood Induction Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliegel, Matthias; Jager, Theodor; Phillips, Louise H.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examines the hypothesis that older adults might differentially react to a negative versus neutral mood induction procedure than younger adults. The rationale for this expectation was derived from Socioemotional Selectivity Theory (SST), which postulates differential salience of emotional information and ability to regulate…

  11. Visual Discrimination Predicts Naming and Semantic Association Accuracy in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Harnish, Stacy M.; Neils-Strunjas, Jean; Eliassen, James; Reilly, Jamie; Meinzer, Marcus; Clark, John Greer; Joseph, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Objective Language impairment is a common symptom of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and is thought to be related to semantic processing. The present study examines the contribution of another process, namely visual perception, on measures of confrontation naming and semantic association abilities in persons with probable AD. Methods Twenty individuals with probable mild-moderate Alzheimer’s disease and twenty age-matched controls completed a battery of neuropsychological measures assessing visual perception, naming, and semantic association ability. Visual discrimination tasks that varied in the degree to which they likely accessed stored structural representations were used to gauge whether structural processing deficits could account for deficits in naming and in semantic association in AD. Results Visual discrimination abilities of nameable objects in AD strongly predicted performance on both picture naming and semantic association ability but lacked the same predictive value for controls. Although impaired, performance on visual discrimination tests of abstract shapes and novel faces showed no significant relationship with picture naming and semantic association. These results provide additional evidence to support that structural processing deficits exist in AD and may contribute to object recognition and naming deficits. Conclusions Our findings suggest that there is a common deficit in discrimination of pictures using nameable objects, picture naming and semantic association of pictures in AD. Disturbances in structural processing of pictured items may be associated with lexical-semantic impairment in AD due to degraded internal storage of structural knowledge. PMID:21042208

  12. A test of the differential accuracy of the maxillary versus the mandibular dentition in age estimations of immature skeletal remains based on developing tooth length.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Hugo F V

    2007-03-01

    Liversidge and colleagues developed a method for predicting the age of immature skeletal remains based on the length of developing teeth. This quantitative method combines dental data from both jaws, except for the permanent lateral incisor, and because there are reasons to suspect that these two types of data are not identical and should not be combined, it raises concerns regarding the accuracy of the technique when applied differently to each jaw. In this study, the differential accuracy of the method was test when applied to the maxillary and mandibular dentition. The test sample is comprised of 57 Portuguese subadult skeletons of known age at death. Results suggest an overall high consistency between estimates obtained from both jaws, but for the permanent dentition only. In the deciduous dentition the age estimates obtained from the maxillary teeth tend to be greater than the age estimates obtained from the mandibular pair, and the differences are significant for the incisors and canine. Additionally, ages obtained from the maxillary deciduous canine also differ significantly from true chronological age. In the permanent dentition there were no differences between the ages provided by both jaws but both the maxillary and mandibular second molars show a significant tendency to underestimate true chronological age. Although this study cannot validate completely the method presented by Liversidge and colleagues, it does provide an important test to its accuracy and calls for further research into its overall performance, particularly with respect to the results obtained from both jaws. PMID:17316246

  13. The Relation between Content and Structure in Language Production: An Analysis of Speech Errors in Semantic Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meteyard, Lotte; Patterson, Karalyn

    2009-01-01

    In order to explore the impact of a degraded semantic system on the structure of language production, we analysed transcripts from autobiographical memory interviews to identify naturally-occurring speech errors by eight patients with semantic dementia (SD) and eight age-matched normal speakers. Relative to controls, patients were significantly…

  14. Web Feature Service Semantic Mediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobona, G.; Bermudez, L. E.; Brackin, R.; Percivall, G. S.

    2012-12-01

    Scientists from different organizations and disciplines need to work together to find the solutions to complex problems. Multi-disciplinary science typically involves users with specialized tools and their own preferred view of the data including unique characteristics of the user's information model and symbology. Even though organizations use web services to expose data, there are still semantic inconsistencies that need to be solved. Recent activities within the OGC Interoperability Program (IP) have helped advance semantic mediation solutions when using OGC services to help solve complex problems. The OGC standards development process is influenced by the feedback of activities within the Interoperability Program, which conducts international interoperability initiatives such as Testbeds, Pilot Projects, Interoperability Experiments, and Interoperability Support Services. These activities are designed to encourage rapid development, testing, validation, demonstration and adoption of open, consensus based standards and best practices. Two recent Testbeds, the OGC Web Services Phase 8 and Phase 9, have advanced the use of semantic mediation approaches to increase semantic interoperability among geospatial communities. The Cross-Community Interoperability (CCI) thread within these two testbeds, advanced semantic mediation approaches for data discovery, access and use of heterogeneous data models and heterogeneous metadata models. This presentation will provide an overview of the interoperability program, the CCI Thread and will explain the methodology to mediate heterogeneous GML Application Profiles served via WFS, including discovery of services via a catalog standard interface and mediating symbology applicable to each application profile.

  15. Mobility and age of black carbon in two temperate grassland soils revealed by differential scanning calorimetry and radiocarbon dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leifeld, Jens; Feng, Xiaojuan; Eglinton, Timothy; Wacker, Lukas

    2015-04-01

    Black carbon (BC) is a natural component of soil organic matter (SOM) and abundant in many ecosystems. Its stability, due to its relative resistance to microbial decomposition, means it plays an important role in soil C sequestration. A recent review suggests that BC may be mobile in soil; hence, its contribution to a stable SOM pool may change over time due to its lateral or vertical reallocation (Rumpel et al. 2014). However, direct evidence of the mobility of BC, particularly with reference to its vertical mobility, is scarce. We studied the amount of BC in two temperate grassland fields (eutric clayey Camibsol,) that were established in 2001 on former cropland. Volumetric soil samples (0-50 cm, 5 cm increments) were taken at 10 spots in each field in 2001, 2006 and 2011. One of the fields was ploughed in 2007 and the sward was re-sown. BC content was measured by differential scanning calorimetry for a total number of c. 500 samples. The mean BC/OC ratio was 0.10 (±0.05) and reached 0.25 in some samples. Radiocarbon measurements from 24 bulk soil samples revealed relatively small 14C contents in 2001 (92±2.7 pMC) which increased over time (2006: 99.0±1.1 pMC; 2011: 99.1±1.1 pMC). Thermal fractionation of BC by DSC revealed calibrated BC ages of 400 to 1000 years (pMC 87-94), suggesting that BC originates from medieval and post-medieval fire clearings. The change in soil signature may have been caused by a preferential transport of old BC down the soil profile, leading to a selective enrichment of younger soil C over time. In line with this interpretation the DSC measurements suggest that in both fields, BC concentrations significantly decreased for most layers between 2001 and 2006. However, between 2006 and 2011, no further vertical reallocation was observed in the continuous grassland, whereas BC contents of the field ploughed in 2007 significantly increased in the top layers. Together, these data suggest that ploughing in 2001 triggered subsequent

  16. Pregnancy and lactation differentially modify the transcriptional regulation of steroidogenic enzymes through DNA methylation mechanisms in the hippocampus of aged rats.

    PubMed

    Rossetti, María F; Varayoud, Jorgelina; Lazzarino, Gisela P; Luque, Enrique H; Ramos, Jorge G

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, we examined the mRNA expression and DNA methylation state of steroidogenic enzymes in the hippocampus of young adult (90-days-old) and middle-aged (450-days-old) nulliparous rats, and middle-aged multiparous rats subjected to three pregnancies with and without lactation. Aging decreased the mRNA levels of steroidogenic-related genes, while pregnancy and lactation significantly reduced the effect of aging, maintaining high expression levels of cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc), steroid 5α-reductase-1 (5αR-1), cytochrome P450arom (P450arom) and aldosterone synthase (P450(11β)-2). In addition, pregnancy and lactation diminished the methylation state of the 5αR-1 promoter and increased the transcription of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, synaptophysin and spinophilin. Pregnancy without lactation increased P450scc and 5αR-1 gene expression and decreased the methylation of their promoters. We concluded that the age-related decrease in the mRNA expression of steroidogenic enzymes is differentially attenuated by pregnancy and lactation in the rat hippocampus and that differential methylation mechanisms could be involved. PMID:27040308

  17. Semantic Services for Wikipedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haofen; Penin, Thomas; Fu, Linyun; Liu, Qiaoling; Xue, Guirong; Yu, Yong

    Wikipedia, a killer application in Web 2.0, has embraced the power of collaborative editing to harness collective intelligence. It features many attractive characteristics, like entity-based link graph, abundant categorization and semi-structured layout, and can serve as an ideal data source to extract high quality and well-structured data. In this chapter, we first propose several solutions to extract knowledge from Wikipedia. We do not only consider information from the relational summaries of articles (infoboxes) but also semi-automatically extract it from the article text using the structured content available. Due to differences with information extraction from the Web, it is necessary to tackle new problems, like the lack of redundancy in Wikipedia that is dealt with by extending traditional machine learning algorithms to work with few labeled data. Furthermore, we also exploit the widespread categories as a complementary way to discover additional knowledge. Benefiting from both structured and textural information, we additionally provide a suggestion service for Wikipedia authoring. With the aim to facilitate semantic reuse, our proposal provides users with facilities such as link, categories and infobox content suggestions. The proposed enhancements can be applied to attract more contributors and lighten the burden of professional editors. Finally, we developed an enhanced search system, which can ease the process of exploiting Wikipedia. To provide a user-friendly interface, it extends the faceted search interface with relation navigation and let the user easily express his complex information needs in an interactive way. In order to achieve efficient query answering, it extends scalable IR engines to index and search both the textual and structured information with an integrated ranking support.

  18. Differential changes and interactions of autonomic functioning and sleep architecture before and after 50 years of age.

    PubMed

    Kuo, T B J; Li, Jia-Yi; Kuo, Hsu-Ko; Chern, Chang-Ming; Yang, C C H

    2016-02-01

    We hypothesize that the time when age-related changes in autonomic functioning and in sleep structure occur are different and that autonomic functioning modulates sleep architecture differently before and after 50 years of age. Sixty-eight healthy subjects (aged 20 to 79 years old, 49 of them women) were enrolled. Correlation analysis revealed that wake after sleep onset, the absolute and relative value of stage 1 (S1; S1%), and relative value of stage 2 (S2) were positively correlated with age; however, sleep efficiency, stage 3 (S3), S3%, and rapid-eye-movement latency (REML) were negatively correlated with age. Significant degenerations of sleep during normal aging were occurred after 50 years of age; however, significant declines of autonomic activity were showed before 50 years of age. Before 50 years of age, vagal function during sleep was negatively correlated with arousal index; however, after 50 years of age, it was positively correlated with S1 and S1%. In addition, sympathetic activity during wake stage was positively related to S2% only after 50 years of age. Our results imply that the age-related changes in autonomic functioning decline promptly as individuals leave the younger part of their adult life span and that age-related changes in sleep slowly develop as individuals enter the older part of their adult life span. Furthermore, while various aspects of sleep architecture are modulated by both the sympathetic and vagal nervous systems during adult life span, the sleep quality is mainly correlated with the sympathetic division after 50 years of age. PMID:26728397

  19. Did I say dog or cat? A study of semantic error detection and correction in children.

    PubMed

    Hanley, J Richard; Cortis, Cathleen; Budd, Mary-Jane; Nozari, Nazbanou

    2016-02-01

    Although naturalistic studies of spontaneous speech suggest that young children can monitor their speech, the mechanisms for detection and correction of speech errors in children are not well understood. In particular, there is little research on monitoring semantic errors in this population. This study provides a systematic investigation of detection and correction of semantic errors in children between the ages of 5 and 8years as they produced sentences to describe simple visual events involving nine highly familiar animals (the moving animals task). Results showed that older children made fewer errors and corrected a larger proportion of the errors that they made than younger children. We then tested the prediction of a production-based account of error monitoring that the strength of the language production system, and specifically its semantic-lexical component, should be correlated with the ability to detect and repair semantic errors. Strength of semantic-lexical mapping, as well as lexical-phonological mapping, was estimated individually for children by fitting their error patterns, obtained from an independent picture-naming task, to a computational model of language production. Children's picture-naming performance was predictive of their ability to monitor their semantic errors above and beyond age. This relationship was specific to the strength of the semantic-lexical part of the system, as predicted by the production-based monitor. PMID:26476973

  20. A Semantic Web Blackboard System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Craig; Preece, Alun; Gray, Peter

    In this paper, we propose a Blackboard Architecture as a means for coordinating hybrid reasoning over the Semantic Web. We describe the components of traditional blackboard systems (Knowledge Sources, Blackboard, Controller) and then explain how we have enhanced these by incorporating some of the principles of the Semantic Web to pro- duce our Semantic Web Blackboard. Much of the framework is already in place to facilitate our research: the communication protocol (HTTP); the data representation medium (RDF); a rich expressive description language (OWL); and a method of writing rules (SWRL). We further enhance this by adding our own constraint based formalism (CIF/SWRL) into the mix. We provide an example walk-though of our test-bed system, the AKTive Workgroup Builder and Blackboard(AWB+B), illustrating the interaction and cooperation of the Knowledge Sources and providing some context as to how the solution is achieved. We conclude with the strengths and weaknesses of the architecture.

  1. Distinct loci of lexical and semantic access deficits in aphasia: Evidence from voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping and diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Denise Y; Schnur, Tatiana T

    2015-06-01

    comprehension. These neuroanatomical-behavioral findings have implications for models of the lexical-semantic language network by demonstrating that semantic interference in language production and comprehension involves different representations which differentially recruit a cognitive control mechanism for interference resolution. PMID:25880795

  2. The neural basis of surface dyslexia in semantic dementia

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Stephen M.; Brambati, Simona M.; Henry, Roland G.; Handwerker, Daniel A.; Agosta, Federica; Miller, Bruce L.; Wilkins, David P.; Ogar, Jennifer M.

    2009-01-01

    Semantic dementia (SD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by atrophy of anterior temporal regions and progressive loss of semantic memory. SD patients often present with surface dyslexia, a relatively selective impairment in reading low-frequency words with exceptional or atypical spelling-to-sound correspondences. Exception words are typically ‘over-regularized’ in SD and pronounced as they are spelled (e.g. ‘sew’ is pronounced as ‘sue’). This suggests that in the absence of sufficient item-specific knowledge, exception words are read by relying mainly on subword processes for regular mapping of orthography to phonology. In this study, we investigated the functional anatomy of surface dyslexia in SD using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and studied its relationship to structural damage with voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Five SD patients and nine healthy age-matched controls were scanned while they read regular words, exception words and pseudowords in an event-related design. Vocal responses were recorded and revealed that all patients were impaired in reading low-frequency exception words, and made frequent over-regularization errors. Consistent with prior studies, fMRI data revealed that both groups activated a similar basic network of bilateral occipital, motor and premotor regions for reading single words. VBM showed that these regions were not significantly atrophied in SD. In control subjects, a region in the left intraparietal sulcus was activated for reading pseudowords and low-frequency regular words but not exception words, suggesting a role for this area in subword mapping from orthographic to phonological representations. In SD patients only, this inferior parietal region, which was not atrophied, was also activated by reading low-frequency exception words, especially on trials where over-regularization errors occurred. These results suggest that the left intraparietal sulcus is involved in subword reading processes

  3. Changes in Search Path Complexity and Length During Learning of a Virtual Water Maze: Age Differences and Differential Associations with Hippocampal Subfield Volumes.

    PubMed

    Daugherty, Ana M; Bender, Andrew R; Yuan, Peng; Raz, Naftali

    2016-06-01

    Impairment of hippocampus-dependent cognitive processes has been proposed to underlie age-related deficits in navigation. Animal studies suggest a differential role of hippocampal subfields in various aspects of navigation, but that hypothesis has not been tested in humans. In this study, we examined the association between volume of hippocampal subfields and age differences in virtual spatial navigation. In a sample of 65 healthy adults (age 19-75 years), advanced age was associated with a slower rate of improvement operationalized as shortening of the search path over 25 learning trials on a virtual Morris water maze task. The deficits were partially explained by greater complexity of older adults' search paths. Larger subiculum and entorhinal cortex volumes were associated with a faster decrease in search path complexity, which in turn explained faster shortening of search distance. Larger Cornu Ammonis (CA)1-2 volume was associated with faster distance shortening, but not in path complexity reduction. Age differences in regional volumes collectively accounted for 23% of the age-related variance in navigation learning. Independent of subfield volumes, advanced age was associated with poorer performance across all trials, even after reaching the asymptote. Thus, subiculum and CA1-2 volumes were associated with speed of acquisition, but not magnitude of gains in virtual maze navigation. PMID:25838036

  4. Chinese Character Decoding: A Semantic Bias?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Clay; Bever, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The effects of semantic and phonetic radicals on Chinese character decoding were examined. Our results suggest that semantic and phonetic radicals are each available for access when a corresponding task emphasizes one or the other kind of radical. But in a more neutral lexical recognition task, the semantic radical is more informative. Semantic…

  5. Examining Lateralized Semantic Access Using Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovseth, Kyle; Atchley, Ruth Ann

    2010-01-01

    A divided visual field (DVF) experiment examined the semantic processing strategies employed by the cerebral hemispheres to determine if strategies observed with written word stimuli generalize to other media for communicating semantic information. We employed picture stimuli and vary the degree of semantic relatedness between the picture pairs.…

  6. Semantic and Visual Memory After Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donat, Dennis C.

    1986-01-01

    Compared the relative performance of 40 patients with a history of alcohol abuse on tasks of short-term semantic and visual memory. Performance on the visual memory tasks was impaired significantly relative to the semantic memory task in a within-subjects analysis of variance. Semantic memory was unimpaired. (Author/ABB)

  7. Semantic Weight and Verb Retrieval in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barde, Laura H. F.; Schwartz, Myrna F.; Boronat, Consuelo B.

    2006-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic aphasia may have difficulty with verb production in comparison to nouns. Additionally, they may have greater difficulty producing verbs that have fewer semantic components (i.e., are semantically "light") compared to verbs that have greater semantic weight. A connectionist verb-production model proposed by Gordon and…

  8. Semantic Relatedness for Evaluation of Course Equivalencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Beibei

    2012-01-01

    Semantic relatedness, or its inverse, semantic distance, measures the degree of closeness between two pieces of text determined by their meaning. Related work typically measures semantics based on a sparse knowledge base such as WordNet or Cyc that requires intensive manual efforts to build and maintain. Other work is based on a corpus such as the…

  9. Metasemantics: On the Limits of Semantic Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, T.

    2009-01-01

    METASEMANTICS is a wake-up call for semantic theory: It reveals that some semantic questions have no adequate answer. (This is meant to be the "epistemic" point that certain semantic questions cannot be "settled"--not a metaphysical point about whether there is a fact-of-the-matter.) METASEMANTICS thus checks our default "optimism" that any…

  10. Bootstrapping to a Semantic Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Schwidder, Jens; Talbott, Tara; Myers, James D.

    2005-02-28

    The Scientific Annotation Middleware (SAM) is a set of components and services that enable researchers, applications, problem solving environments (PSE) and software agents to create metadata and annotations about data objects and document the semantic relationships between them. Developed starting in 2001, SAM allows applications to encode metadata within files or to manage metadata at the level of individual relationships as desired. SAM then provides mechanisms to expose metadata and relation¬ships encoded either way as WebDAV properties. In this paper, we report on work to further map this metadata into RDF and discuss the role of middleware such as SAM in bridging between traditional and semantic grid applications.

  11. Conversational characteristics of children with semantic-pragmatic disorder. I: Exchange structure, turntaking, repairs and cohesion.

    PubMed

    Adams, C; Bishop, D V

    1989-12-01

    Conversational samples were obtained from 57 children aged from 8 to 12 years with specific language impairment, and 67 control children aged from 4 to 12 years. Fourteen of the language-impaired children fitted the clinical description of semantic-pragmatic disorder. It was found that exchange structure, turntaking, conversational repair and use of cohesive devices could be assessed with adequate inter-rater and test-retest reliability. Children with semantic-pragmatic disorder produced more initiations than other children. Some of these children also violated turntaking rules by interrupting the conversational partner to an unusual degree. Use of cohesion was normal for children with semantic-pragmatic disorder, but limited in other language-impaired children. Analysis of conversations may be more useful than conventional language tests for identifying linguistic abnormalities in children with semantic-pragmatic disorder. PMID:2627544

  12. Behavioural and magnetoencephalographic evidence for the interaction between semantic and episodic memory in healthy elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    La Corte, Valentina; Dalla Barba, Gianfranco; Lemaréchal, Jean-Didier; Garnero, Line; George, Nathalie

    2012-10-01

    The relationship between episodic and semantic memory systems has long been debated. Some authors argue that episodic memory is contingent on semantic memory (Tulving 1984), while others postulate that both systems are independent since they can be selectively damaged (Squire 1987). The interaction between these memory systems is particularly important in the elderly, since the dissociation of episodic and semantic memory defects characterize different aging-related pathologies. Here, we investigated the interaction between semantic knowledge and episodic memory processes associated with faces in elderly subjects using an experimental paradigm where the semantic encoding of famous and unknown faces was compared to their episodic recognition. Results showed that the level of semantic awareness of items affected the recognition of those items in the episodic memory task. Event-related magnetic fields confirmed this interaction between episodic and semantic memory: ERFs related to the old/new effect during the episodic task were markedly different for famous and unknown faces. The old/new effect for famous faces involved sustained activities maximal over right temporal sensors, showing a spatio-temporal pattern partly similar to that found for famous versus unknown faces during the semantic task. By contrast, an old/new effect for unknown faces was observed on left parieto-occipital sensors. These findings suggest that the episodic memory for famous faces activated the retrieval of stored semantic information, whereas it was based on items' perceptual features for unknown faces. Overall, our results show that semantic information interfered markedly with episodic memory processes and suggested that the neural substrates of these two memory systems overlap. PMID:22426946

  13. Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 and Histone Deacetylase 9c Regulate Age-Dependent Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation into Osteoblasts and Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Huey; Chung, Chiao-Chen; Liu, Yu-Chia; Yeh, Su-Peng; Hsu, Jennifer L; Hung, Mien-Chie; Su, Hong-Lin; Li, Long-Yuan

    2016-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent precursors that can undergo multilineage differentiation, including osteogenesis and adipogenesis, which are two mutually exclusive events. Previously, we demonstrated that enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), the catalytic component of the Polycomb-repressive complex 2, mediates epigenetic silencing of histone deacetylase 9c (HDAC9c) in adipocytes but not in osteoblasts and that HDAC9c accelerates osteogenesis while attenuating adipogenesis of MSCs through inactivation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 activity. Importantly, disrupting the balance between adipogenesis and osteogenesis can lead to age-associated bone loss (osteoporosis) and obesity. Here, we investigated the relationship between age, and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential of MSCs by comparing EZH2 and HDAC9c expression in osteoblasts and adipocytes of both human and mice origins to determine whether the EZH2-HDAC9c axis regulates age-associated osteoporosis and obesity. Our findings indicated that a decline in HDAC9c expression over time was accompanied by increased EZH2 expression and suggested that a therapeutic intervention for age-associated osteoporosis and obesity may be feasible by targeting the EZH2-HDAC9c axis. Stem Cells 2016;34:2183-2193. PMID:27250566

  14. Is Age Kinder to the Initially More Able? Differential Ageing of Verbal Ability in the Healthy Old People in Edinburgh Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian; MacLennan, William J.; Starr, John M.

    1998-01-01

    Results from a study of 387 healthy old people studied at baseline and four years later in Edinburgh (Scotland) suggest that, those with higher baseline ability, in higher social-class groups, with more education, and those who are younger are relatively protected from a decline in verbal intelligence, measured by an adult reading test, with age.…

  15. A Comparison of Differential Treatment Approaches for Impulsive Responding of Hyperactive Children at Two Age Levels. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ronald T.

    The study examined the effectiveness of two psychoeducational treatment approaches and drug therapy on the impulsivity of 120 hyperactive emotionally disturbed children in two age groups (mean ages 13 and 8 years old). The psychoeducational approaches tested were modeling of reflective behavior and a specific instructional procedure to increase…

  16. Gender and Age Effects Interact in Preschoolers' Help-Seeking: Evidence for Differential Responses to Changes in Task Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, R. Bruce; Cothran, Thomas; McCall, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This study explored preschool age and gender differences in help-seeking within the theoretical framework of scaffolded problem-solving and self-regulation (Bruner, 1986; Rogoff, 1990; Vygotsky, 1978; 1986). Within-subject analyses tracked changes in help-seeking among 62 preschoolers (34 boys, 28 girls, mean age 4.22 years) solving a challenging…

  17. Age-related differential sensitivity to MK-801-induced locomotion and stereotypy in C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Chunting; Zou, Hong; Zhang, Ruizhong; Zhao, Guoping; Jin, Meilei; Yu, Lei

    2009-01-01

    Psychomotor effects elicited by systemic administration of the noncompetitive NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor antagonist MK-801 (dizocilpine maleate) represent perturbation of glutamatergic pathways, providing an animal model for psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. Hyperlocomotion and stereotypy are the two main psychomotor behaviors induced by MK-801. This study compared MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion and stereotypy in young (1-month old) and aged mice (12-month old), in order to determine how the aging process may influence these behaviors. The tested MK-801 doses ranged from 0.015 to 1 mg/kg. The data indicated that MK-801 impacted the aged mice more pronouncedly than the young mice, as both hyperlocomotion and stereotypy were increased significantly more in the aged mice relative to the young mice. These results suggest an age-related increase in MK-801 sensitivity in mice. PMID:18053981

  18. Semantic embodiment, disembodiment or misembodiment? In search of meaning in modules and neuron circuits.

    PubMed

    Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2013-10-01

    "Embodied" proposals claim that the meaning of at least some words, concepts and constructions is grounded in knowledge about actions and objects. An alternative "disembodied" position locates semantics in a symbolic system functionally detached from sensorimotor modules. This latter view is not tenable theoretically and has been empirically falsified by neuroscience research. A minimally-embodied approach now claims that action-perception systems may "color", but not represent, meaning; however, such minimal embodiment (misembodiment?) still fails to explain why action and perception systems exert causal effects on the processing of symbols from specific semantic classes. Action perception theory (APT) offers neurobiological mechanisms for "embodied" referential, affective and action semantics along with "disembodied" mechanisms of semantic abstraction, generalization and symbol combination, which draw upon multimodal brain systems. In this sense, APT suggests integrative-neuromechanistic explanations of why both sensorimotor and multimodal areas of the human brain differentially contribute to specific facets of meaning and concepts. PMID:23932167

  19. In serum veritas—in serum sanitas? Cell non-autonomous aging compromises differentiation and survival of mesenchymal stromal cells via the oxidative stress pathway

    PubMed Central

    Geißler, S; Textor, M; Schmidt-Bleek, K; Klein, O; Thiele, M; Ellinghaus, A; Jacobi, D; Ode, A; Perka, C; Dienelt, A; Klose, J; Kasper, G; Duda, G N; Strube, P

    2013-01-01

    Even tissues capable of complete regeneration, such as bone, show an age-related reduction in their healing capacity. Here, we hypothesized that this decline is primarily due to cell non-autonomous (extrinsic) aging mediated by the systemic environment. We demonstrate that culture of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in serum from aged Sprague–Dawley rats negatively affects their survival and differentiation ability. Proteome analysis and further cellular investigations strongly suggest that serum from aged animals not only changes expression of proteins related to mitochondria, unfolded protein binding or involved in stress responses, it also significantly enhances intracellular reactive oxygen species production and leads to the accumulation of oxidatively damaged proteins. Conversely, reduction of oxidative stress levels in vitro markedly improved MSC function. These results were validated in an in vivo model of compromised bone healing, which demonstrated significant increase regeneration in aged animals following oral antioxidant administration. These observations indicate the high impact of extrinsic aging on cellular functions and the process of endogenous (bone) regeneration. Thus, addressing the cell environment by, for example, systemic antioxidant treatment is a promising approach to enhance tissue regeneration and to regain cellular function especially in elderly patients. PMID:24357801

  20. Semantic Fission through Dialect Fusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Michael D.

    The linguistic atlas projects have provided much information on the regional distribution of pronunciation, vocabulary, and syntax and have given important evidence for a greater understanding of problems involved in semantic change, particularly in pointing out transition areas where dialects become fused. In a study supplementary to that…

  1. Semantic Preview Benefit during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohenstein, Sven; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    Word features in parafoveal vision influence eye movements during reading. The question of whether readers extract semantic information from parafoveal words was studied in 3 experiments by using a gaze-contingent display change technique. Subjects read German sentences containing 1 of several preview words that were replaced by a target word…

  2. The Semantic Web in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohler, Jason

    2008-01-01

    The semantic web or Web 3.0 makes information more meaningful to people by making it more understandable to machines. In this article, the author examines the implications of Web 3.0 for education. The author considers three areas of impact: knowledge construction, personal learning network maintenance, and personal educational administration.…

  3. Generative Semantics and Dialect Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ney, James W.

    An extrinsic relationship between generative semantics and dialect geography should be exploited because contemporary transformational grammarians have too easily ignored the work of the dialectologist and have been too readily satisfied with what might be called armchair evidence. The work of the dialect geographers needs to be taken into…

  4. Semantic Borders and Incomplete Understanding.

    PubMed

    Silva-Filho, Waldomiro J; Dazzani, Maria Virgínia

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we explore a fundamental issue of Cultural Psychology, that is our "capacity to make meaning", by investigating a thesis from contemporary philosophical semantics, namely, that there is a decisive relationship between language and rationality. Many philosophers think that for a person to be described as a rational agent he must understand the semantic content and meaning of the words he uses to express his intentional mental states, e.g., his beliefs and thoughts. Our argument seeks to investigate the thesis developed by Tyler Burge, according to which our mastery or understanding of the semantic content of the terms which form our beliefs and thoughts is an "incomplete understanding". To do this, we discuss, on the one hand, the general lines of anti-individualism or semantic externalism and, on the other, criticisms of the Burgean notion of incomplete understanding - one radical and the other moderate. We defend our understanding that the content of our beliefs must be described in the light of the limits and natural contingencies of our cognitive capacities and the normative nature of our rationality. At heart, anti-individualism leads us to think about the fact that we are social creatures, living in contingent situations, with important, but limited, cognitive capacities, and that we receive the main, and most important, portion of our knowledge simply from what others tell us. Finally, we conclude that this discussion may contribute to the current debate about the notion of borders. PMID:26111737

  5. Incrementally Dissociating Syntax and Semantics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Jonathan R.

    2010-01-01

    A basic challenge for research into the neurobiology of language is understanding how the brain combines words to make complex representations. Linguistic theory divides this task into several computations including syntactic structure building and semantic composition. The close relationship between these computations, however, poses a strong…

  6. Entanglement as a Semantic Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Chiara, Maria Luisa; Giuntini, Roberto; Ledda, Antonio; Leporini, Roberto; Sergioli, Giuseppe

    2010-10-01

    The characteristic holistic features of the quantum theoretic formalism and the intriguing notion of entanglement can be applied to a field that is far from microphysics: logical semantics. Quantum computational logics are new forms of quantum logic that have been suggested by the theory of quantum logical gates in quantum computation. In the standard semantics of these logics, sentences denote quantum information quantities: systems of qubits ( quregisters) or, more generally, mixtures of quregisters ( qumixes), while logical connectives are interpreted as special quantum logical gates (which have a characteristic reversible and dynamic behavior). In this framework, states of knowledge may be entangled, in such a way that our information about the whole determines our information about the parts; and the procedure cannot be, generally, inverted. In spite of its appealing properties, the standard version of the quantum computational semantics is strongly “Hilbert-space dependent”. This certainly represents a shortcoming for all applications, where real and complex numbers do not generally play any significant role (as happens, for instance, in the case of natural and of artistic languages). We propose an abstract version of quantum computational semantics, where abstract qumixes, quregisters and registers are identified with some special objects (not necessarily living in a Hilbert space), while gates are reversible functions that transform qumixes into qumixes. In this framework, one can give an abstract definition of the notions of superposition and of entangled pieces of information, quite independently of any numerical values. We investigate three different forms of abstract holistic quantum computational logic.

  7. Semantic Relationships between Contextual Synonyms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeng, Xian-mo

    2007-01-01

    Contextual synonym is a linguistic phenomenon often applied but rarely discussed. This paper is to discuss the semantic relationships between contextual synonyms and the requirements under which words can be used as contextual synonyms between each other. The three basic relationships are embedment, intersection and non-coherence. The requirements…

  8. Semantic Annotation of Computational Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderbilt, Peter; Mehrotra, Piyush

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology to specify machine-processable semantic descriptions of computational components to enable them to be shared and reused. A particular focus of this scheme is to enable automatic compositon of such components into simple work-flows.

  9. The Effect of Age on Osteogenic and Adipogenic Differentiation Potential of Human Adipose Derived Stromal Stem Cells (hASCs) and the Impact of Stress Factors in the Course of the Differentiation Process.

    PubMed

    Kornicka, Katarzyna; Marycz, Krzysztof; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof Andrzej; Marędziak, Monika; Śmieszek, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Human adipose tissue is a great source of autologous mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs), which are recognized for their vast therapeutic applications. Their ability to self-renew and differentiate into several lineages makes them a promising tool for cell-based therapies in different types of degenerative diseases. Thus it is crucial to evaluate age-related changes in hASCs, as the elderly are a group that will benefit most from their considerable potential. In this study we investigated the effect of donor age on growth kinetics, cellular senescence marker levels, and osteogenic and adipogenic potential of hASCs. It also has been known that, during life, organisms accumulate oxidative damage that negatively affects cell metabolism. Taking this into consideration, we evaluated the levels of nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, and superoxide dismutase activity. We observed that ROS and NO increase with aging, while SOD activity is significantly reduced. Moreover cells obtained from older patients displayed senescence associated features, for example, β-galactosidase activity, enlarged morphology, and p53 protein upregulation. All of those characteristics seem to contribute to decreased proliferation potential of those cells. Our results suggest that due to aging some cellular modification may be required before applying aged cells efficiently in therapies such as tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:26246868

  10. The Effect of Age on Osteogenic and Adipogenic Differentiation Potential of Human Adipose Derived Stromal Stem Cells (hASCs) and the Impact of Stress Factors in the Course of the Differentiation Process

    PubMed Central

    Kornicka, Katarzyna; Marycz, Krzysztof; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof Andrzej; Marędziak, Monika; Śmieszek, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Human adipose tissue is a great source of autologous mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs), which are recognized for their vast therapeutic applications. Their ability to self-renew and differentiate into several lineages makes them a promising tool for cell-based therapies in different types of degenerative diseases. Thus it is crucial to evaluate age-related changes in hASCs, as the elderly are a group that will benefit most from their considerable potential. In this study we investigated the effect of donor age on growth kinetics, cellular senescence marker levels, and osteogenic and adipogenic potential of hASCs. It also has been known that, during life, organisms accumulate oxidative damage that negatively affects cell metabolism. Taking this into consideration, we evaluated the levels of nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, and superoxide dismutase activity. We observed that ROS and NO increase with aging, while SOD activity is significantly reduced. Moreover cells obtained from older patients displayed senescence associated features, for example, β-galactosidase activity, enlarged morphology, and p53 protein upregulation. All of those characteristics seem to contribute to decreased proliferation potential of those cells. Our results suggest that due to aging some cellular modification may be required before applying aged cells efficiently in therapies such as tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:26246868

  11. Differentiating drusen: Drusen and drusen-like appearances associated with ageing, age-related macular degeneration, inherited eye disease and other pathological processes.

    PubMed

    Khan, Kamron N; Mahroo, Omar A; Khan, Rehna S; Mohamed, Moin D; McKibbin, Martin; Bird, Alan; Michaelides, Michel; Tufail, Adnan; Moore, Anthony T

    2016-07-01

    Drusen are discussed frequently in the context of their association with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Some types may, however, be regarded as a normal consequence of ageing; others may be observed in young age groups. They also occur in a number of inherited disorders and some systemic conditions. Whilst drusen are classically located external (sclerad) to the retinal pigment epithelium, accumulations of material internal (vitread to) this layer can display a drusen-like appearance, having been variously termed pseudodrusen or subretinal drusenoid deposits. This review first briefly presents an overview of drusen biogenesis and subclinical deposit. The (frequently overlapping) subtypes of clinically detectable deposit, seen usually in the context of ageing or AMD, are then described in more detail, together with appearance on imaging modalities: these include hard and soft drusen, cuticular drusen, reticular pseudodrusen and "ghost drusen". Eye disorders other than AMD which may exhibit drusen or drusen-like features are subsequently discussed: these include monogenic conditions as well as conditions with undefined inheritance, the latter including some types of early onset drusen such as large colloid drusen. A number of systemic conditions in which drusen-like deposits may be seen are also considered. Throughout this review, high resolution images are presented for most of the conditions discussed, particularly the rarer ones, providing a useful reference library for images of the range of conditions associated with drusen-like appearances. In the final section, some common themes are highlighted, as well as a brief discussion of some future avenues for research. PMID:27173377

  12. MicroRNA-7 inhibition rescues age-associated loss of epidermal growth factor receptor and hyaluronan-dependent differentiation in fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Midgley, Adam C; Bowen, Timothy; Phillips, Aled O; Steadman, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Age-related defects in fibroblast differentiation were previously shown to be associated with impaired hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) function, with both required for normal fibroblast functionality. In fibroblasts, transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1)-dependent phenotypic activation uses two distinct but co-operating pathways that involve TGF-β receptor (TGF-βR)/Smad2 activation and HA-mediated CD44-EGFR co-localization and signalling through extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). The HA-mediated CD44-EGFR pathway was found to be compromised with in vitro aging, through loss of EGFR expression and a reduced movement of CD44 throughout the cellular membrane. Here, we also investigate the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in age-related loss of differentiation, through investigation of miRNA-7 (miR-7) regulation of the HA-mediated EGFR-signalling pathway. The transcription of miR-7 was found to be upregulated in aged cells. In young cells, age-related loss of differentiation could be mimicked through transfection of pre-miR-7, and in aged cells, could be reversed through transfection of locked nucleic acids (LNA) targeting miR-7. Additionally, miR-7 was found to be involved in the regulation of CD44 membrane motility, which was downregulated in instances of miR-7 upregulation, and partially restorable through either miR-7 inhibition or HAS2 overexpression. The altered dynamics of CD44 in the cell membrane demonstrated a further action of miR-7 in regulating the HA-dependent CD44/EGFR pathway. We explain this novel mechanism of age-associated functional consequence due to miR-7 upregulation and demonstrate that it is reversible; highlighting miR-7 as a potential target for restoring the healing capabilities in chronic wounds in the elderly. PMID:24134702

  13. Higher-Order Factor Structure of the Differential Ability Scales-II: Consistency across Ages 4 to 17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.; Low, Justin A.; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Patel, Puja G.; Ridley, Kristen P.

    2010-01-01

    The recently published second edition of the Differential Abilities Scale (DAS-II) is designed to measure multiple broad and general abilities from Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory. Although the technical manual presents information supporting the test's structure, additional research is needed to determine the constructs measured by the test and…

  14. Semantic facilitation in bilingual first language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Bilson, Samuel; Yoshida, Hanako; Tran, Crystal D; Woods, Elizabeth A; Hills, Thomas T

    2015-07-01

    Bilingual first language learners face unique challenges that may influence the rate and order of early word learning relative to monolinguals. A comparison of the productive vocabularies of 435 children between the ages of 6 months and 7 years-181 of which were bilingual English learners-found that monolinguals learned both English words and all-language concepts faster than bilinguals. However, bilinguals showed an enhancement of an effect previously found in monolinguals-the preference for learning words with more associative cues. Though both monolinguals and bilinguals were best fit by a similar model of word learning, semantic network structure and growth indicated that the two groups were learning English words in a different order. Further, in comparison with a model of two-monolinguals-in-one-mind, bilinguals overproduced translational equivalents. Our results support an emergent account of bilingual first language acquisition, where learning a word in one language facilitates its acquisition in a second language. PMID:25909582

  15. The role of the right hemisphere in semantic control: A case-series comparison of right and left hemisphere stroke

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Hannah E.; Henshall, Lauren; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Semantic control processes guide conceptual retrieval so that we are able to focus on non-dominant associations and features when these are required for the task or context, yet the neural basis of semantic control is not fully understood. Neuroimaging studies have emphasised the role of left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in controlled retrieval, while neuropsychological investigations of semantic control deficits have almost exclusively focussed on patients with left-sided damage (e.g., patients with semantic aphasia, SA). Nevertheless, activation in fMRI during demanding semantic tasks typically extends to right IFG. To investigate the role of the right hemisphere (RH) in semantic control, we compared nine RH stroke patients with 21 left-hemisphere SA patients, 11 mild SA cases and 12 healthy, aged-matched controls on semantic and executive tasks, plus experimental tasks that manipulated semantic control in paradigms particularly sensitive to RH damage. RH patients had executive deficits to parallel SA patients but they performed well on standard semantic tests. Nevertheless, multimodal semantic control deficits were found in experimental tasks involving facial emotions and the ‘summation’ of meaning across multiple items. On these tasks, RH patients showed effects similar to those in SA cases – multimodal deficits that were sensitive to distractor strength and cues and miscues, plus increasingly poor performance in cyclical matching tasks which repeatedly probed the same set of concepts. Thus, despite striking differences in single-item comprehension, evidence presented here suggests semantic control is bilateral, and disruption of this component of semantic cognition can be seen following damage to either hemisphere. PMID:26945505

  16. The role of the right hemisphere in semantic control: A case-series comparison of right and left hemisphere stroke.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Hannah E; Henshall, Lauren; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Semantic control processes guide conceptual retrieval so that we are able to focus on non-dominant associations and features when these are required for the task or context, yet the neural basis of semantic control is not fully understood. Neuroimaging studies have emphasised the role of left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in controlled retrieval, while neuropsychological investigations of semantic control deficits have almost exclusively focussed on patients with left-sided damage (e.g., patients with semantic aphasia, SA). Nevertheless, activation in fMRI during demanding semantic tasks typically extends to right IFG. To investigate the role of the right hemisphere (RH) in semantic control, we compared nine RH stroke patients with 21 left-hemisphere SA patients, 11 mild SA cases and 12 healthy, aged-matched controls on semantic and executive tasks, plus experimental tasks that manipulated semantic control in paradigms particularly sensitive to RH damage. RH patients had executive deficits to parallel SA patients but they performed well on standard semantic tests. Nevertheless, multimodal semantic control deficits were found in experimental tasks involving facial emotions and the 'summation' of meaning across multiple items. On these tasks, RH patients showed effects similar to those in SA cases - multimodal deficits that were sensitive to distractor strength and cues and miscues, plus increasingly poor performance in cyclical matching tasks which repeatedly probed the same set of concepts. Thus, despite striking differences in single-item comprehension, evidence presented here suggests semantic control is bilateral, and disruption of this component of semantic cognition can be seen following damage to either hemisphere. PMID:26945505

  17. Children Use Statistics and Semantics in the Retreat from Overgeneralization

    PubMed Central

    Blything, Ryan P.; Ambridge, Ben; Lieven, Elena V. M.

    2014-01-01

    How do children learn to restrict their productivity and avoid ungrammatical utterances? The present study addresses this question by examining why some verbs are used with un- prefixation (e.g., unwrap) and others are not (e.g., *unsqueeze). Experiment 1 used a priming methodology to examine children's (3–4; 5–6) grammatical restrictions on verbal un- prefixation. To elicit production of un-prefixed verbs, test trials were preceded by a prime sentence, which described reversal actions with grammatical un- prefixed verbs (e.g., Marge folded her arms and then she unfolded them). Children then completed target sentences by describing cartoon reversal actions corresponding to (potentially) un- prefixed verbs. The younger age-group's production probability of verbs in un- form was negatively related to the frequency of the target verb in bare form (e.g., squeez/e/ed/es/ing), while the production probability of verbs in un- form for both age groups was negatively predicted by the frequency of synonyms to a verb's un- form (e.g., release/*unsqueeze). In Experiment 2, the same children rated the grammaticality of all verbs in un- form. The older age-group's grammaticality judgments were (a) positively predicted by the extent to which each verb was semantically consistent with a semantic “cryptotype” of meanings - where “cryptotype” refers to a covert category of overlapping, probabilistic meanings that are difficult to access - hypothesised to be shared by verbs which take un-, and (b) negatively predicted by the frequency of synonyms to a verb's un- form. Taken together, these experiments demonstrate that children as young as 4;0 employ pre-emption and entrenchment to restrict generalizations, and that use of a semantic cryptotype to guide judgments of overgeneralizations is also evident by age 6;0. Thus, even early developmental accounts of children's restriction of productivity must encompass a mechanism in which a verb's semantic and statistical properties

  18. Children use statistics and semantics in the retreat from overgeneralization.

    PubMed

    Blything, Ryan P; Ambridge, Ben; Lieven, Elena V M

    2014-01-01

    How do children learn to restrict their productivity and avoid ungrammatical utterances? The present study addresses this question by examining why some verbs are used with un- prefixation (e.g., unwrap) and others are not (e.g., *unsqueeze). Experiment 1 used a priming methodology to examine children's (3-4; 5-6) grammatical restrictions on verbal un- prefixation. To elicit production of un-prefixed verbs, test trials were preceded by a prime sentence, which described reversal actions with grammatical un- prefixed verbs (e.g., Marge folded her arms and then she unfolded them). Children then completed target sentences by describing cartoon reversal actions corresponding to (potentially) un- prefixed verbs. The younger age-group's production probability of verbs in un- form was negatively related to the frequency of the target verb in bare form (e.g., squeez/e/ed/es/ing), while the production probability of verbs in un- form for both age groups was negatively predicted by the frequency of synonyms to a verb's un- form (e.g., release/*unsqueeze). In Experiment 2, the same children rated the grammaticality of all verbs in un- form. The older age-group's grammaticality judgments were (a) positively predicted by the extent to which each verb was semantically consistent with a semantic "cryptotype" of meanings - where "cryptotype" refers to a covert category of overlapping, probabilistic meanings that are difficult to access - hypothesised to be shared by verbs which take un-, and (b) negatively predicted by the frequency of synonyms to a verb's un- form. Taken together, these experiments demonstrate that children as young as 4;0 employ pre-emption and entrenchment to restrict generalizations, and that use of a semantic cryptotype to guide judgments of overgeneralizations is also evident by age 6;0. Thus, even early developmental accounts of children's restriction of productivity must encompass a mechanism in which a verb's semantic and statistical properties interact

  19. Heat Stress and Hormetin-Induced Hormesis in Human Cells: Effects on Aging, Wound Healing, Angiogenesis, and Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Rattan, Suresh I. S.; Fernandes, Ricardo A.; Demirovic, Dino; Dymek, Barbara; Lima, Cristovao F.

    2009-01-01

    Accumulation of molecular damage and increased molecular heterogeneity are hallmarks of cellular aging. Mild stress-induced hormesis can be an effective way for reducing the accumulation of molecular damage, and thus slowing down aging from within. We have shown that repeated mild heat stress (RMHS) has anti-aging effects on growth and various other cellular and biochemical characteristics of normal human skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes undergoing aging in vitro. RMHS given to human cells increased the basal levels of various chaperones, reduced the accumulation of damaged proteins, stimulated proteasomal activities, increased the cellular resistance to other stresses, enhanced the levels of various antioxidant enzymes, enhanced the activity and amounts of sodium-potassium pump, and increased the phosphorylation-mediated activities of various stress kinases. We have now observed novel hormetic effects of mild heat stress on improving the wound healing capacity of skin fibroblasts and on enhancing the angiogenic ability of endothelial cells. We have also tested potential hormetins, such as curcumin and rosmarinic acid in bringing about their beneficial effects in human cells by inducing stress response pathways involving heat shock proteins and hemeoxygenase HO-1. These data further support the view that mild stress-induced hormesis can be applied for the modulation, intervention and prevention of aging and age-related impairments. PMID:19343114

  20. Differential predation by age and sex classes in blue wildebeest in Serengeti: study of a modern carnivore den in Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania).

    PubMed

    Arriaza, Mari Carmen; Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Martínez-Maza, Cayetana; Mabulla, Audax; Baquedano, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Age and sex selection of prey is an aspect of predator ecology which has been extensively studied in both temperate and African ecosystems. This dimension, along with fecundity, survival rates of prey and mortality factors other than predation are important in laying down the population dynamics of prey and have important implications in the management of species. A carnivore den located in the short-grassland ecological unit of the Serengeti was studied. Sex- and age- class (using five age categories) of the wildebeest remains recovered were analyzed through horn morphology, biometrics of the bones and tooth wear patterns. We compared our results with previous studies from lion and hyaena kills through multivariate analyses. Seasonality of the accumulation was analyzed through tooth histology. PCA and CVA results show that age class selection by predators depends on season, habitat-type, and growth rate of the wildebeest population. Female-biased predation was found to contradict classical hypotheses based on territorial male behaviour. The lion and spotted hyaena showed strong selection on age classes, contrary to previous studies. Migratory wildebeest sex ratio is regulated through differential predation by seasons and female deaths in the wet season are a trade-off for population stability. These data are crucial for an effective management of the species and the new method created may be useful for different carnivore species and their prey. PMID:26017363

  1. Differential Predation by Age and Sex Classes in Blue Wildebeest in Serengeti: Study of a Modern Carnivore Den in Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania)

    PubMed Central

    Arriaza, Mari Carmen; Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Martínez-Maza, Cayetana; Mabulla, Audax; Baquedano, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Age and sex selection of prey is an aspect of predator ecology which has been extensively studied in both temperate and African ecosystems. This dimension, along with fecundity, survival rates of prey and mortality factors other than predation are important in laying down the population dynamics of prey and have important implications in the management of species. A carnivore den located in the short-grassland ecological unit of the Serengeti was studied. Sex- and age- class (using five age categories) of the wildebeest remains recovered were analyzed through horn morphology, biometrics of the bones and tooth wear patterns. We compared our results with previous studies from lion and hyaena kills through multivariate analyses. Seasonality of the accumulation was analyzed through tooth histology. PCA and CVA results show that age class selection by predators depends on season, habitat-type, and growth rate of the wildebeest population. Female-biased predation was found to contradict classical hypotheses based on territorial male behaviour. The lion and spotted hyaena showed strong selection on age classes, contrary to previous studies. Migratory wildebeest sex ratio is regulated through differential predation by seasons and female deaths in the wet season are a trade-off for population stability. These data are crucial for an effective management of the species and the new method created may be useful for different carnivore species and their prey. PMID:26017363

  2. Corporate Semantic Web: Towards the Deployment of Semantic Technologies in Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paschke, Adrian; Coskun, Gökhan; Heese, Ralf; Luczak-Rösch, Markus; Oldakowski, Radoslaw; Schäfermeier, Ralph; Streibel, Olga

    The amount of information that companies have to produce, acquire, maintain, propagate, and use has increased dramatically over the last decades. Nowadays, companies seek more capable approaches for gaining, managing, and utilizing knowledge, and the Semantic Web offers promising solutions. While the global Semantic Web still remains an unfulfilled vision for the present, the Corporate Semantic Web idea aims at bringing semantic technologies to enterprises. The expected results are a competitive advantage for enterprises using semantic technologies and a boost for the evolution of the global Semantic Web.

  3. Differential regulation of apoptosis in slow and fast twitch muscles of aged female F344BN rats

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, Kevin M.; Manne, Nandini D. P. K.; Gadde, Murali K.; Paturi, Satyanarayana; Arvapalli, Ravikumar; Blough, Eric

    2015-03-28

    Age-related muscle atrophy is characterized by decreases in muscle mass and is thought be mediated, at least in part, by increases in myocyte apoptosis. Recent data has demonstrated that the degree of muscle loss with aging may differ between males and females while other work has suggested that apoptosis as indicated by DNA fragmentation may be regulated differently in fast- and slow-twitch muscles. Herein, we investigate how aging affects the regulation of muscle apoptosis in the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and slow-twitch soleus muscles of young (6-month), aged (26-month), and very aged (30-month) female Fischer 344/NNiaHSD × Brown Norway/BiNia (F344BN) rats. Tissue sections were stained with hydroethidium for ROS and protein extract was subjected to immunoblotting for assessing apoptotic markers. Our data suggest that decreases in muscle mass were associated with increased DNA fragmentation (TUNEL positive) and increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) as determined by hydroethidium staining in both the EDL and soleus. Similar to our previous work using aged male animals, we observed that the time course and magnitude of changes in Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, caspase-9, and cleavage of α-fodrin protein were regulated differently between muscles. As a result, These data suggest that aging in the female F344BN rat is associated with decreases in muscle mass, elevations in ROS level, increased muscle cell DNA fragmentation, and alterations in cell membrane integrity and that apoptotic mechanisms may differ between fiber types.

  4. Differential regulation of apoptosis in slow and fast twitch muscles of aged female F344BN rats

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rice, Kevin M.; Manne, Nandini D. P. K.; Gadde, Murali K.; Paturi, Satyanarayana; Arvapalli, Ravikumar; Blough, Eric

    2015-03-28

    Age-related muscle atrophy is characterized by decreases in muscle mass and is thought be mediated, at least in part, by increases in myocyte apoptosis. Recent data has demonstrated that the degree of muscle loss with aging may differ between males and females while other work has suggested that apoptosis as indicated by DNA fragmentation may be regulated differently in fast- and slow-twitch muscles. Herein, we investigate how aging affects the regulation of muscle apoptosis in the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and slow-twitch soleus muscles of young (6-month), aged (26-month), and very aged (30-month) female Fischer 344/NNiaHSD × Brown Norway/BiNiamore » (F344BN) rats. Tissue sections were stained with hydroethidium for ROS and protein extract was subjected to immunoblotting for assessing apoptotic markers. Our data suggest that decreases in muscle mass were associated with increased DNA fragmentation (TUNEL positive) and increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) as determined by hydroethidium staining in both the EDL and soleus. Similar to our previous work using aged male animals, we observed that the time course and magnitude of changes in Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, caspase-9, and cleavage of α-fodrin protein were regulated differently between muscles. As a result, These data suggest that aging in the female F344BN rat is associated with decreases in muscle mass, elevations in ROS level, increased muscle cell DNA fragmentation, and alterations in cell membrane integrity and that apoptotic mechanisms may differ between fiber types.« less

  5. Age-related differences in messenger ribonucleic acid expression of key proteins involved in adipose cell differentiation and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Imbeault, P; Vidal, H; Tremblay, A; Vega, N; Nadeau, A; Després, J P; Mauriège, P

    2001-02-01

    This study was performed to compare the expression of key proteins [lipoprotein lipase (LPL), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), complement 3 (C3), and peroxisome proliferator-stimulated receptor-gamma (PPAR gamma)] involved in sc abdominal adipose tissue (AT) metabolism of young (n = 13) vs. middle-aged (n = 16) men. The sc abdominal AT-LPL activity as well as fat cell lipolysis were also measured in both groups of men. Young and middle-aged men displayed similar body weight and sc abdominal fat accumulation, measured by computed tomography. However, middle-aged men were characterized by a higher percent body fat (28 +/- 5% vs. 22 +/- 7%; P < 0.05) than young subjects. No difference between groups was observed in sc abdominal adipose tissue LPL activity. On the other hand, maximal lipolytic responses of sc abdominal adipocytes to isoproterenol (beta-adrenergic agonist) or to postadrenoceptor agents such as dibutyryl cAMP, forskolin, and theophylline were lower in middle-aged than in young men (P < 0.05). AT-LPL messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels were similar regardless of the subject's age. However, HSL, C3, and PPAR gamma mRNA levels were higher in middle-aged than in young individuals (P < 0.01-0.05). After correction for percent body fat, only HSL and C3 mRNA levels remained significantly different between groups (P < 0.05). Taken together, these results suggest that aging has an effect on the up-regulation of HSL and C3 mRNA levels, whereas PPAR gamma expression seems to be related mainly to increased adiposity. PMID:11158053

  6. Exploiting semantic linkages among multiple sources for semantic information retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, JianQiang; Yang, Ji-Jiang; Liu, Chunchen; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Bo; Shi, Yuliang

    2014-07-01

    The vision of the Semantic Web is to build a global Web of machine-readable data to be consumed by intelligent applications. As the first step to make this vision come true, the initiative of linked open data has fostered many novel applications aimed at improving data accessibility in the public Web. Comparably, the enterprise environment is so different from the public Web that most potentially usable business information originates in an unstructured form (typically in free text), which poses a challenge for the adoption of semantic technologies in the enterprise environment. Considering that the business information in a company is highly specific and centred around a set of commonly used concepts, this paper describes a pilot study to migrate the concept of linked data into the development of a domain-specific application, i.e. the vehicle repair support system. The set of commonly used concepts, including the part name of a car and the phenomenon term on the car repairing, are employed to build the linkage between data and documents distributed among different sources, leading to the fusion of documents and data across source boundaries. Then, we describe the approaches of semantic information retrieval to consume these linkages for value creation for companies. The experiments on two real-world data sets show that the proposed approaches outperform the best baseline 6.3-10.8% and 6.4-11.1% in terms of top five and top 10 precisions, respectively. We believe that our pilot study can serve as an important reference for the development of similar semantic applications in an enterprise environment.

  7. Age, differential growth and mortality rates in unexploited populations of Florida gar, an apex predator in the Florida Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murie, D.J.; Parkyn, D.C.; Nico, L.G.; Herod, J.J.; Loftus, W.F.

    2009-01-01

    Florida gar, Lepisosteus platyrhincus DeKay, were sampled in two canal systems in south Florida during 2000-2001 to estimate age, growth and mortality as part of the Everglades ecosystem-restoration effort. Tamiami (C-4) and L-31W canal systems had direct connections to natural wetlands of the Everglades and harboured large Florida gar populations. Of 476 fish aged, maximum ages were 19 and 10years for females and males, respectively. Maximum sizes were also larger for females compared with males (817 vs 602 mm total length). Overall, female Florida gar from both Tamiami and L-31W were larger at age than males from L-31W that, in turn, were larger at any given age than males from Tamiami. Females also had lower rates of annual mortality (Z = 0.21) than males from L-31W (Z = 0.31) or males from Tamiami (Z = 0.54). As a large and long-lived apex predator in the Everglades, Florida gar may structure lower trophic levels. Regional- and sex-specific population parameters for Florida gar will contribute to the simulation models designed to evaluate Everglades restoration alternatives. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Lipid-laden cells differentially distributed in the aging brain are functionally active and correspond to distinct phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Shimabukuro, Marilia Kimie; Langhi, Larissa Gutman Paranhos; Cordeiro, Ingrid; Brito, José M; Batista, Claudia Maria de Castro; Mattson, Mark P; Mello Coelho, Valeria de

    2016-01-01

    We characterized cerebral Oil Red O-positive lipid-laden cells (LLC) of aging mice evaluating their distribution, morphology, density, functional activities and inflammatory phenotype. We identified LLC in meningeal, cortical and neurogenic brain regions. The density of cerebral LLC increased with age. LLC presenting small lipid droplets were visualized adjacent to blood vessels or deeper in the brain cortical and striatal parenchyma of aging mice. LLC with larger droplets were asymmetrically distributed in the cerebral ventricle walls, mainly located in the lateral wall. We also found that LLC in the subventricular region co-expressed beclin-1 or LC3, markers for autophagosome or autophagolysosome formation, and perilipin (PLIN), a lipid droplet-associated protein, suggesting lipophagic activity. Some cerebral LLC exhibited β galactosidase activity indicating a senescence phenotype. Moreover, we detected production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α in cortical PLIN(+) LLC. Some cortical NeuN(+) neurons, GFAP(+) glia limitans astrocytes, Iba-1(+) microglia and S100β(+) ependymal cells expressed PLIN in the aging brain. Our findings suggest that cerebral LLC exhibit distinct cellular phenotypes and may participate in the age-associated neuroinflammatory processes. PMID:27029648

  9. Lipid-laden cells differentially distributed in the aging brain are functionally active and correspond to distinct phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Shimabukuro, Marilia Kimie; Langhi, Larissa Gutman Paranhos; Cordeiro, Ingrid; Brito, José M.; Batista, Claudia Maria de Castro; Mattson, Mark P.; de Mello Coelho, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    We characterized cerebral Oil Red O-positive lipid-laden cells (LLC) of aging mice evaluating their distribution, morphology, density, functional activities and inflammatory phenotype. We identified LLC in meningeal, cortical and neurogenic brain regions. The density of cerebral LLC increased with age. LLC presenting small lipid droplets were visualized adjacent to blood vessels or deeper in the brain cortical and striatal parenchyma of aging mice. LLC with larger droplets were asymmetrically distributed in the cerebral ventricle walls, mainly located in the lateral wall. We also found that LLC in the subventricular region co-expressed beclin-1 or LC3, markers for autophagosome or autophagolysosome formation, and perilipin (PLIN), a lipid droplet-associated protein, suggesting lipophagic activity. Some cerebral LLC exhibited β galactosidase activity indicating a senescence phenotype. Moreover, we detected production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α in cortical PLIN+ LLC. Some cortical NeuN+ neurons, GFAP+ glia limitans astrocytes, Iba-1+ microglia and S100β+ ependymal cells expressed PLIN in the aging brain. Our findings suggest that cerebral LLC exhibit distinct cellular phenotypes and may participate in the age-associated neuroinflammatory processes. PMID:27029648

  10. An overview of semantic compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalz, Mark S.

    2010-08-01

    We live in such perceptually rich natural and manmade environments that detection and recognition of objects is mediated cerebrally by attentional filtering, in order to separate objects of interest from background clutter. In computer models of the human visual system, attentional filtering is often restricted to early processing, where areas of interest (AOIs) are delineated around anomalies of interest, then the pixels within each AOI's subtense are isolated for later processing. In contrast, the human visual system concurrently detects many targets at multiple levels (e.g., retinal center-surround filters, ganglion layer feature detectors, post-retinal spatial filtering, and cortical detection / filtering of features and objects, to name but a few processes). Intracranial attentional filtering appears to play multiple roles, including clutter filtration at all levels of processing - thus, we process individual retinal cell responses, early filtering response, and so forth, on up to the filtering of objects at high levels of semantic complexity. Computationally, image compression techniques have progressed from emphasizing pixels, to considering regions of pixels as foci of computational interest. In more recent research, object-based compression has been investigated with varying rate-distortion performance and computational efficiency. Codecs have been developed for a wide variety of applications, although the majority of compression and decompression transforms continue to concentrate on region- and pixel-based processing, in part because of computational convenience. It is interesting to note that a growing body of research has emphasized the detection and representation of small features in relationship to their surrounding environment, which has occasionally been called semantic compression. In this paper, we overview different types of semantic compression approaches, with particular interest in high-level compression algorithms. Various algorithms and

  11. Endoscopic image analysis in semantic space.

    PubMed

    Kwitt, R; Vasconcelos, N; Rasiwasia, N; Uhl, A; Davis, B; Häfner, M; Wrba, F

    2012-10-01

    A novel approach to the design of a semantic, low-dimensional, encoding for endoscopic imagery is proposed. This encoding is based on recent advances in scene recognition, where semantic modeling of image content has gained considerable attention over the last decade. While the semantics of scenes are mainly comprised of environmental concepts such as vegetation, mountains or sky, the semantics of endoscopic imagery are medically relevant visual elements, such as polyps, special surface patterns, or vascular structures. The proposed semantic encoding differs from the representations commonly used in endoscopic image analysis (for medical decision support) in that it establishes a semantic space, where each coordinate axis has a clear human interpretation. It is also shown to establish a connection to Riemannian geometry, which enables principled solutions to a number of problems that arise in both physician training and clinical practice. This connection is exploited by leveraging results from information geometry to solve problems such as (1) recognition of important semantic concepts, (2) semantically-focused image browsing, and (3) estimation of the average-case semantic encoding for a collection of images that share a medically relevant visual detail. The approach can provide physicians with an easily interpretable, semantic encoding of visual content, upon which further decisions, or operations, can be naturally carried out. This is contrary to the prevalent practice in endoscopic image analysis for medical decision support, where image content is primarily captured by discriminative, high-dimensional, appearance features, which possess discriminative power but lack human interpretability. PMID:22717411

  12. Endoscopic Image Analysis in Semantic Space

    PubMed Central

    Kwitt, R.; Vasconcelos, N.; Rasiwasia, N.; Uhl, A.; Davis, B.; Häfner, M.; Wrba, F.

    2013-01-01

    A novel approach to the design of a semantic, low-dimensional, encoding for endoscopic imagery is proposed. This encoding is based on recent advances in scene recognition, where semantic modeling of image content has gained considerable attention over the last decade. While the semantics of scenes are mainly comprised of environmental concepts such as vegetation, mountains or sky, the semantics of endoscopic imagery are medically relevant visual elements, such as polyps, special surface patterns, or vascular structures. The proposed semantic encoding differs from the representations commonly used in endoscopic image analysis (for medical decision support) in that it establishes a semantic space, where each coordinate axis has a clear human interpretation. It is also shown to establish a connection to Riemannian geometry, which enables principled solutions to a number of problems that arise in both physician training and clinical practice. This connection is exploited by leveraging results from information geometry to solve problems such as 1) recognition of important semantic concepts, 2) semantically-focused image browsing, and 3) estimation of the average-case semantic encoding for a collection of images that share a medically relevant visual detail. The approach can provide physicians with an easily interpretable, semantic encoding of visual content, upon which further decisions, or operations, can be naturally carried out. This is contrary to the prevalent practice in endoscopic image analysis for medical decision support, where image content is primarily captured by discriminative, high-dimensional, appearance features, which possess discriminative power but lack human interpretability. PMID:22717411

  13. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure differentially alters nucleus tractus solitarius neurons at two different ages in developing non-human primates

    SciTech Connect

    Sekizawa, Shin-ichi; Joad, Jesse P.; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Bonham, Ann C.

    2010-01-15

    Exposing children to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) is associated with increased risk for asthma, bronchiolitis and SIDS. The role for changes in the developing CNS contributing to these problems has not been fully explored. We used rhesus macaques to test the hypothesis that SHS exposure during development triggers neuroplastic changes in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), where lung sensory information related to changes in airway and lung function is first integrated. Pregnant monkeys were exposed to filtered air (FA) or SHS for 6 h/day, 5 days/week starting at 50-day gestational age. Mother/infant pairs continued the exposures postnatally to age 3 or 13 months, which may be equivalent to approximately 1 or 4 years of human age, respectively. Whole-cell recordings were made of second-order NTS neurons in transverse brainstem slices. To target the consequences of SHS exposure based on neuronal subgroups, we classified NTS neurons into two phenotypes, rapid-onset spiking (RS) and delayed-onset spiking (DS), and then evaluated intrinsic and synaptic excitabilities in FA-exposed animals. RS neurons showed greater cell excitability especially at age of 3 months while DS neurons received greater amplitudes of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). Developmental neuroplasticity such as increases in intrinsic and synaptic excitabilities were detected especially in DS neurons. In 3 month olds, SHS exposure effects were limited to excitatory changes in RS neurons, specifically increases in evoked EPSC amplitudes and increased spiking responses accompanied by shortened action potential width. By 13 months, the continued SHS exposure inhibited DS neuronal activity; decreases in evoked EPSC amplitudes and blunted spiking responses accompanied by prolonged action potential width. The influence of SHS exposure on age-related and phenotype specific changes may be associated with age-specific respiratory problems, for which SHS exposure can increase the risk, such as SIDS

  14. Nitric oxide availability is increased in contracting skeletal muscle from aged mice, but does not differentially decrease muscle superoxide

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, T.; McArdle, A.; Jackson, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species have been implicated in the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function that occurs during aging. Nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide are generated by skeletal muscle and where these are generated in proximity their chemical reaction to form peroxynitrite can compete with the superoxide dismutation to hydrogen peroxide. Changes in NO availability may therefore theoretically modify superoxide and peroxynitrite activities in tissues, but published data are contradictory regarding aging effects on muscle NO availability. We hypothesised that an age-related increase in NO generation might increase peroxynitrite generation in muscles from old mice, leading to an increased nitration of muscle proteins and decreased superoxide availability. This was examined using fluorescent probes and an isolated fiber preparation to examine NO content and superoxide in the cytosol and mitochondria of muscle fibers from adult and old mice both at rest and following contractile activity. We also examined the 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) and peroxiredoxin 5 (Prx5) content of muscles from mice as markers of peroxynitrite activity. Data indicate that a substantial age-related increase in NO levels occurred in muscle fibers during contractile activity and this was associated with an increase in muscle eNOS. Muscle proteins from old mice also showed an increased 3-NT content. Inhibition of NOS indicated that NO decreased superoxide bioavailability in muscle mitochondria, although this effect was not age related. Thus increased NO in muscles of old mice was associated with an increased 3-NT content that may potentially contribute to age-related degenerative changes in skeletal muscle. PMID:25462644

  15. A left cerebral hemisphere's superiority in processing spatial-categorical information in a non-verbal semantic format.

    PubMed

    Suegami, Takashi; Laeng, Bruno

    2013-03-01

    It has been shown that the left and right cerebral hemispheres (LH and RH) respectively process qualitative or "categorical" spatial relations and metric or "coordinate" spatial relations. However, categorical spatial information could be thought as divided into two types: semantically-coded and visuospatially-coded categorical information. We examined whether a LH's advantage in processing semantic-categorical information is observed in a non-verbal format, and also whether semantic- and visuospatial-categorical processing are differentially lateralized. We manipulated the colors and positions of the standard traffic light sign as semantic- and visuospatial-categorical information respectively, and tested performance with the divided visual field method. In the semantic-categorical matching task, in which the participants judged if the semantic-categorical information of a successive cue and target was the same, a right visual field advantage was observed, suggesting a LH's preference for processing semantic-categorical information in a non-verbal format. In the visuospatial-categorical matching task, in which the participants judged if the visuospatial-categorical information of a successive cue and target was identical, a left visual field advantage was obtained. These results suggest that the processing of semantic-categorical information is lateralized in LH, and we discuss the dissociation between the two types of categorical information. PMID:23290044

  16. Neuropsychological differentiation of adaptive creativity and schizotypal cognition

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Joscelyn E.; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    Both creativity and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders have been associated with activation of remote semantic concepts, but this activation results in innovative output in one case and communication disturbances in the other. The present study examined the relationship between monitoring semantic information (which relies on executive brain function), creativity, and characteristics of schizotypy in an undergraduate population. Results indicate that executive function differentiates the use of semantic information in creativity and schizotypy. Specification of the balance between executive monitoring and activation of semantic information is important for determining how communication disturbances manifest, and for the measurement of creativity and schizotypy in the general population. PMID:23109749

  17. The role of phonological activation in the visual semantic retrieval of Chinese characters.

    PubMed

    Guo, Taomei; Peng, Danling; Liu, Ying

    2005-12-01

    The Stroop paradigm was used to examine the role of phonological activation in semantic access and its development in reading Chinese characters. Subjects (age 7-23 years) of different reading ability were asked to name the display color of Chinese characters. The characters were displayed in four different colors: red, yellow, blue and green. There were five types of relationships between a character and its display color: semantically congruent, phonologically congruent, semantically incongruent, phonologically incongruent and neutral. In addition to the classical Stroop effects, interference and facilitation effects from the homophones of color characters were also observed. The younger children and those with lower reading ability exhibited stronger Stroop effects. These findings suggest that phonological codes are activated automatically in Chinese character recognition. Furthermore, there is more phonological activation in the semantic retrieval of children in lower grades and those with lower reading ability. PMID:15992794

  18. Semantic similarity of labels and inductive generalization: taking a second look.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Anna V; Matlen, Bryan J; Godwin, Karrie E

    2011-03-01

    Prior research suggests that preschoolers can generalize object properties based on category information conveyed by semantically-similar labels. However, previous research did not control for co-occurrence probability of labels in natural speech. The current studies re-assessed children's generalization with semantically-similar labels. Experiment 1 indicated that adults made category-based inferences regardless of co-occurrence probability; however, 4-year-olds generalized with semantically-similar labels that co-occurred in child-directed speech (e.g., bunny-rabbit) but not with non-co-occurring labels (e.g., crocodile-alligator). Experiment 2 indicated that generalization with semantically-similar labels increased gradually between 4- and 6-years of age. These results are discussed in relation to theories of early learning. PMID:21227407

  19. Semantic Deficits in Spanish-English Bilingual Children with Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Li; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Fiestas, Christine E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the nature and extent of semantic deficits in bilingual children with language impairment (LI). Method: Thirty-seven Spanish-English bilingual children with LI (ranging from age 7;0 [years;months] to 9;10) and 37 typically developing (TD) age-matched peers generated 3 associations to 12 pairs of translation equivalents in…

  20. The Differentiated Effectiveness of a Printed versus a Web-Based Tailored Physical Activity Intervention among Adults Aged over 50

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peels, D. A.; van Stralen, M. M.; Bolman, C.; Golsteijn, R. H. J.; de Vries, H.; Mudde, A. N.; Lechner, L.

    2014-01-01

    This study provides insight in the effectiveness of a print-delivered and a Web-based physical activity (PA) intervention (with or without additional environmental information on local PA possibilities) among people aged over 50. Intervention groups (print-delivered basic [PB; n = 439], print-delivered environmental [PE; n = 435], Web-based basic…

  1. Gender and age effects interact in preschoolers' help-seeking: evidence for differential responses to changes in task difficulty.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R Bruce; Cothran, Thomas; McCall, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    This study explored preschool age and gender differences in help-seeking within the theoretical framework of scaffolded problem-solving and self-regulation (Bruner, 1986; Rogoff, 1990; Vygotsky, 1978; 1986). Within-subject analyses tracked changes in help-seeking among 62 preschoolers (34 boys, 28 girls, mean age 4.22 years) solving a challenging puzzle with an adult. The goal was to document whether age and gender interact with fluctuating difficulty to affect children's spontaneous help-seeking. ANOVAs indicated that girls used more help-seeking during difficult segments of the task, despite performance equal to the boys. This pattern was strongest among older girls, who outperformed all other children and used the most help-seeking. Partial correlations, controlling for solving time, indicated that age predicted children's help-seeking during the most difficult segments of the task, but only among girls. Gender differences in social-linguistic maturation and cognitive development are discussed within the framework of Vygotskian theory and related educational practice. PMID:22217160

  2. The child's conception of food: differentiation of categories of rejected substances in the 16 months to 5 year age range.

    PubMed

    Rozin, P; Hammer, L; Oster, H; Horowitz, T; Marmora, V

    1986-06-01

    Children (N = 54) ranging in age from one year four months to five years were offered over 30 items to eat. The items included normal adult foods and exemplars of different adult rejection categories: disgust (e.g. grasshopper, hair), danger (liquid dish soap), inappropriate (e.g. paper, leaf) and unacceptable combinations (e.g. ketchup and cookie). We report a high to moderate level of acceptance (item put into mouth) of substances from all of these categories in the youngest children. Acceptance of disgusting and dangerous substances decreases with increasing age, while acceptance of inappropriate substances remains at moderate levels across the age range studied. Although the youngest children accepted more disgust items, the majority rejected most of the disgust choices. Almost all children at all ages tested accept combinations of foods which, although individually accepted by adults, are rejected in combination. No significant differences were observed between 'normal' children and those with a history of toxin ingestion, although there was a tendency of ingesters to accept more inedible items. In general, the results suggest that a major feature of the development of food selection is learning what not to eat. PMID:3740830

  3. Mental Health of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth and Young Adults: Differential Effects of Age, Gender, Religiosity, and Sexual Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shilo, Guy; Savaya, Riki

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on minority stress theory, this study examined the mental health effects of the added burden of disadvantaged social status in an Israeli sample of 461 self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths. Bisexuality was associated with lower levels of well-being, and, at a younger age, with higher levels of mental distress. In…

  4. Aging White Matter and Cognition: Differential Effects of Regional Variations in Diffusion Properties on Memory, Executive Functions, and Speed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Kristen M.; Raz, Naftali

    2009-01-01

    Disruption of cerebral white matter has been proposed as an explanation for age-related cognitive declines. However, the role of specific regions in specific cognitive declines remains unclear. We used diffusion tensor imaging to examine the associations between regional microstructural integrity of the white matter and performance on…

  5. Examining Dynamic Links between Perceived Control and Health: Longitudinal Evidence for Differential Effects in Midlife and Old Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Infurna, Frank J.; Gerstorf, Denis; Zarit, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    Perceived control and health are often closely linked in adulthood and old age. Little is known, however, about their time-ordered interplay at various phases of adult life. By applying dynamic models to four waves of data over 15.5 years from the Americans' Changing Lives Study, we examined time-ordered relations between perceived control and…

  6. Semantic remote patient monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Shojanoori, Reza; Juric, Radmila

    2013-02-01

    We propose an automated and personalized remote patient monitoring (RPM) system, which is applied to care homes and is dependent on the manipulation of semantics describing situations during patient monitoring in ontological models. Decision making in RPM is based on reasoning performed upon ontologies, which secures the delivery of appropriate e-health services in care homes. Our working experiment shows an example of preventive e-healthcare, but it can be extended to any situation that requires either urgent action from healthcare professionals or a simple recommendation during RPM. We use Semantic Web technology and OWL/SWRL-enabled ontologies to illustrate the proposal and feasibility of implementing this RPM system as a software solution in pervasive healthcare. It will be of interest to healthcare professionals, who can directly shape and populate the proposed ontological model, and software engineers, who would consider using OWL/SWRL when creating e-health services in general. PMID:23363406

  7. The Formal Semantics of PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan

    1999-01-01

    A specification language is a medium for expressing what is computed rather than how it is computed. Specification languages share some features with programming languages but are also different in several important ways. For our purpose, a specification language is a logic within which the behavior of computational systems can be formalized. Although a specification can be used to simulate the behavior of such systems, we mainly use specifications to state and prove system properties with mechanical assistance. We present the formal semantics of the specification language of SRI's Prototype Verification System (PVS). This specification language is based on the simply typed lambda calculus. The novelty in PVS is that it contains very expressive language features whose static analysis (e.g., typechecking) requires the assistance of a theorem prover. The formal semantics illuminates several of the design considerations underlying PVS, the interaction between theorem proving and typechecking.

  8. Differential effects of aging and exercise on intra-abdominal adipose arteriolar function and blood flow regulation

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Robert T.; Stabley, John N.; Dominguez, James M.; Ramsey, Michael W.; McCullough, Danielle J.; Lesniewski, Lisa A.; Delp, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT), which typically comprises an increased percentage of body mass with advancing age, receives a large proportion of resting cardiac output. During exercise, an old age-associated inability to increase vascular resistance within the intra-abdominal AT may compromise the ability of the cardiovascular system to redistribute blood flow to the active musculature, contributing to the decline in exercise capacity observed in this population. We tested the hypotheses that 1) there would be an elevated perfusion of AT during exercise with old age that was associated with diminished vasoconstrictor responses of adipose-resistance arteries, and 2) chronic exercise training would mitigate the age-associated alterations in AT blood flow and vascular function. Young (6 mo; n = 40) and old (24 mo; n = 28) male Fischer 344 rats were divided into young sedentary (YSed), old sedentary (OSed), young exercise trained (YET), or old exercise trained (OET) groups, where training consisted of 10-12 wk of treadmill exercise. In vivo blood flow at rest and during exercise and in vitro α-adrenergic and myogenic vasoconstrictor responses in resistance arteries from AT were measured in all groups. In response to exercise, there was a directionally opposite change in AT blood flow in the OSed group (∼150% increase) and YSed (∼55% decrease) vs. resting values. Both α-adrenergic and myogenic vasoconstriction were diminished in OSed vs. YSed AT-resistance arteries. Exercise training resulted in a similar AT hyperemic response between age groups during exercise (YET, 9.9 ± 0.5 ml·min−1·100−1 g; OET, 8.1 ± 0.9 ml·min−1·100−1 g) and was associated with enhanced myogenic and α-adrenergic vasoconstriction of AT-resistance arteries from the OET group relative to OSed. These results indicate that there is an inability to increase vascular resistance in AT during exercise with old age, due, in part, to a diminished vasoconstriction of AT arteries. Furthermore, the

  9. Differential regulation of the β-adrenoceptor density and cyclic AMP level with age and sex in turkey cardiac chambers.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Sandra; Böhme, Julia; Kube, Christian; Haufe, Jörg; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Abraham, Getu

    2016-04-15

    Decreased responses of the heart to β-adrenoceptor stimulation with aging have been shown to occur merely in selected heart chambers in relation to increased catecholamine levels. However, there are no systematic studies that investigate all cardiac chambers with regard to receptor density and cAMP (adenosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate) responses. We used meat-type turkey poults (British United Turkey (B.U.T.) Big 6) with increasing age because their heart seems to decrease in weight in relation to body weight and they are often used as an animal model for heart failure. The receptor density and distribution were quantified by radioligand binding analysis using (-)-[(125)I]-iodocyanopindolol and β-adrenoceptor subtype-specific antagonists (ICI 118.551 and CGP 20712 A) in membranes of four cardiac chambers (right and left atria and ventricles) of 6-week-, 12-week-, 16/21-week-, and 57-week-old B.U.T. BIG 6 turkeys. Receptor function was determined by measuring basal and stimulated cAMP production. In both sexes, the β-adrenoceptor density decreased significantly in all chambers with age without altered β-adrenoceptor subtype distribution. The receptor affinity (KD) to the radioligand was similar in hearts of all age groups. β-adrenoceptor-(isoproterenol and guanosine 5'-triphosphate), G-protein-(NaF) and catalytic unit of adenylate cyclase (forskolin, Mn(2+)) mediated cAMP responses were not chamber-dependent. Indeed, the cAMP level was significantly lower in 57-week-old hearts than in 6-week-, 12-week-, 16/21-week-old hearts. These data suggest that with increasing age and body weight, the β-adrenoceptor signal transduction pathway was highly blunted in all cardiac chambers, occurring by decreased receptor density and cAMP responses. PMID:26957056

  10. A Descriptive Study of the Semantic Connotations Toward the Institutional Governance System at Delaware County Community College of the Several Constituent Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyman, Bruce T.

    This study was conducted to determine whether the attitudes of the various constituent representatives (administration, faculty, students, and noncontract personnel) differed significantly toward the Institutional Governance system as operative at Delaware County Community College (Pennsylvania). Following Osgood's Semantic Differential technique…

  11. Head injury mortality in a geriatric population: differentiating an "edge" age group with better potential for benefit than older poor-prognosis patients.

    PubMed

    Bouras, Triantafyllos; Stranjalis, George; Korfias, Stefanos; Andrianakis, Ilias; Pitaridis, Marianos; Sakas, Damianos E

    2007-08-01

    A comparison of outcomes between different modes of head-injury treatment in the elderly has important bearing on questions of cost-effectiveness and medical ethics. Here, we have examined rates of mortality in elderly head-trauma victims to determine whether it is valid to differentiate an "edge" age group of younger elderly patients, 65-74 years of age, from older elderly patients, considering possible benefit from intensive treatment and surgical intervention. We collected data from 1926 cases of head trauma and separated them into three age groups: 14-64 years, 65-74 years, and 75 years or older. We then compared these groups with respect to cause of injury, severity of injury, and whether or not treatment included either admission to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) or surgical intervention. We found that road traffic accidents were the major cause of head injury in the younger age group, whereas in the elderly falls predominated. Mortality was higher in the elderly in all the head injury severity subgroups. Young subjects with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of less than or equal to 8 tended to benefit from ICU treatment whereas patients 75 and over did not, regardless of their severity of injury. For these patients who were in the 65-74 age group, the data suggested that some benefit was likely. Patients 75 and older were significantly less likely to survive surgical intervention than younger patients. We conclude that it is valid to treat patients in the age group 65-74 years as a separate group from those patients 75 and older. Patients in this younger subset of the elderly may benefit from ICU treatment or surgical intervention. However, the patients in our older subset of elderly patients clearly did not, and they had a significantly higher risk of surgical mortality. PMID:17711397

  12. Differential relationship of frontal pole and whole brain volumetric measures with age in neuroleptic-naïve schizophrenia and healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    John, John P; Burgess, Paul W; Yashavantha, B S; Shakeel, Mohammed K; Halahalli, Harsha N; Jain, Sanjeev

    2009-04-01

    Brodmann's area (BA) 10, which occupies the frontal pole (FP) of the human brain, has been proven to play a central role in the executive control of cognitive operations. Previous in vivo morphometric studies of the FP have been limited by the lack of an accepted boundary of its posterior limit. We studied the FP gray matter volume in 23 healthy subjects who were age-, sex-, and education-matched to 23 neuroleptic-naïve recent-onset schizophrenia subjects in the age span 20-40 years, using a cytoarchitectonically and functionally valid landmark-based definition of its posterior boundary that we proposed recently (John, J.P., Yashavantha, B.S., Gado, M., Veena, R., Jain, S., Ravishankar, S., Csernansky, J.G., 2007. A proposal for MRI-based parcellation of the frontal pole. Brain Struct. Funct. 212, 245-253. 2007). Additionally, we examined the relationship between FP volume and age in both healthy and schizophrenia subjects to examine evidence for a possible differential relationship between these variables across the samples. A major finding of the study was the absence of a group-level difference in frontal pole gray volumes between the healthy and schizophrenia participants. However, a more complex finding emerged in relation to age effects. The healthy participants showed an inverse relationship of FP gray volume with age, even after taking total brain volume differences into account. But this age effect was completely absent in the schizophrenia group. Moreover, all the volumetric measures in schizophrenia subjects showed substantially higher range, variance, skewness and kurtosis when compared to those of healthy subjects. These findings have implications in understanding the possible role of FP in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. PMID:19185466

  13. Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity Modulates Semantic Negative Priming from Single Prime Words

    PubMed Central

    Ortells, Juan J.; Noguera, Carmen; Álvarez, Dolores; Carmona, Encarna; Houghton, George

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated whether semantic negative priming from single prime words depends on the availability of cognitive control resources. Participants with high vs. low working memory capacity (as assessed by their performance in complex span and attentional control tasks) were instructed to either attend to or ignore a briefly presented single prime word that was followed by either a semantically related or unrelated target word on which participants made a lexical decision. Individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) mainly affected the processing of the ignored primes, but not the processing of the attended primes: While the latter produced reliable positive semantic priming for both high- and low-WMC participants, the former gave rise to reliable semantic negative priming only for high WMC participants, with low WMC participants showing the opposite positive priming effect. The present results extend previous findings in demonstrating that (a) single negative priming can reliably generalize to semantic associates of the prime words, and (b) a differential availability of cognitive control resources can reliably modulate the negative priming effect at a semantic level of representation. PMID:27621716

  14. Structural Correlates of Semantic and Phonemic Fluency Ability in First and Second Languages

    PubMed Central

    Grogan, Alice; Green, David W.; Ali, Nilufa; Crinion, Jenny T.

    2009-01-01

    Category and letter fluency tasks are commonly used clinically to investigate the semantic and phonological processes central to speech production, but the neural correlates of these processes are difficult to establish with functional neuroimaging because of the relatively unconstrained nature of the tasks. This study investigated whether differential performance on semantic (category) and phonemic (letter) fluency in neurologically normal participants was reflected in regional gray matter density. The participants were 59 highly proficient speakers of 2 languages. Our findings corroborate the importance of the left inferior temporal cortex in semantic relative to phonemic fluency and show this effect to be the same in a first language (L1) and second language (L2). Additionally, we show that the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and head of caudate bilaterally are associated with phonemic more than semantic fluency, and this effect is stronger for L2 than L1 in the caudate nuclei. To further validate these structural results, we reanalyzed previously reported functional data and found that pre-SMA and left caudate activation was higher for phonemic than semantic fluency. On the basis of our findings, we also predict that lesions to the pre-SMA and caudate nuclei may have a greater impact on phonemic than semantic fluency, particularly in L2 speakers. PMID:19293396

  15. Neural Dynamics Associated with Semantic and Episodic Memory for Faces: Evidence from Multiple Frequency Bands

    PubMed Central

    Zion-Golumbic, Elana; Kutas, Marta; Bentin, Shlomo

    2009-01-01

    Prior semantic knowledge facilitates episodic recognition memory for faces. To examine the neural manifestation of the interplay between semantic and episodic memory, we investigated neuroelectric dynamics during the creation (study) and the retrieval (test) of episodic memories for famous and nonfamous faces. Episodic memory effects were evident in several EEG frequency bands: theta (4–8 Hz), alpha (9–13 Hz), and gamma (40–100 Hz). Activity in these bands was differentially modulated by preexisting semantic knowledge and by episodic memory, implicating their different functional roles in memory. More specifically, theta activity and alpha suppression were larger for old compared to new faces at test regardless of fame, but were both larger for famous faces during study. This pattern of selective semantic effects suggests that the theta and alpha responses, which are primarily associated with episodic memory, reflect utilization of semantic information only when it is beneficial for task performance. In contrast, gamma activity decreased between the first (study) and second (test) presentation of a face, but overall was larger for famous than nonfamous faces. Hence, the gamma rhythm seems to be primarily related to activation of preexisting neural representations that may contribute to the formation of new episodic traces. Although the latter process is affected by the episodic status of a stimulus, gamma activity might not be a direct index of episodic memory. Taken together, these data provide new insights into the complex interaction between semantic and episodic memory for faces and the neural dynamics associated with mnemonic processes. PMID:19400676

  16. Semantic Knowledge Use in Discourse Produced by Individuals with Anomic Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Kintz, Stephen; Wright, Heather Harris; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos

    2015-01-01

    Background Researchers have demonstrated that people with aphasia (PWA) have preserved semantic knowledge (Dell et al., 1997; Jefferies & Lambon Ralph, 2006). However, Antonucci (2014) demonstrated that some PWA have impaired access to certain types of knowledge more than others. Yet, all these studies used single concepts. It has not been demonstrated whether PWA have difficulty accessing certain types of features within a discourse sample. Aims The main goals of this study were to determine if semantic knowledge and two category types were used differently within discourse produced by participants with anomic aphasia and healthy controls. Method & Procedures Participants with anomic aphasia (n=19) and healthy controls (n=19) told stories that were transcribed and coded for 10 types of semantic knowledge and two category types, living and nonliving things. Outcomes & Results A Poisson regression model was conducted. The results indicated a significant difference between the groups for the semantic knowledge types, sound and internal state, but no difference was found for category types. Yet the distribution of semantic knowledge and category types produced within the discourse samples were similar between the groups. Conclusion PWA might have differential access to certain types of semantic knowledge within discourse production, but it does not rise to the level of categorical deficits. These findings extend single-concept research into the realm of discourse.

  17. Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity Modulates Semantic Negative Priming from Single Prime Words.

    PubMed

    Ortells, Juan J; Noguera, Carmen; Álvarez, Dolores; Carmona, Encarna; Houghton, George

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated whether semantic negative priming from single prime words depends on the availability of cognitive control resources. Participants with high vs. low working memory capacity (as assessed by their performance in complex span and attentional control tasks) were instructed to either attend to or ignore a briefly presented single prime word that was followed by either a semantically related or unrelated target word on which participants made a lexical decision. Individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) mainly affected the processing of the ignored primes, but not the processing of the attended primes: While the latter produced reliable positive semantic priming for both high- and low-WMC participants, the former gave rise to reliable semantic negative priming only for high WMC participants, with low WMC participants showing the opposite positive priming effect. The present results extend previous findings in demonstrating that (a) single negative priming can reliably generalize to semantic associates of the prime words, and (b) a differential availability of cognitive control resources can reliably modulate the negative priming effect at a semantic level of representation. PMID:27621716

  18. Verbal Description of Concrete Objects: A Method for Assessing Semantic Circumlocution in Persons With Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    MacWilliam, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We investigated from a theoretically motivated perspective what information differentiated sufficient from insufficient descriptions of objects provided by persons with aphasia. Method Twenty-one adults with aphasia consequent to single left-hemisphere stroke verbally described 9 living and 9 nonliving objects. Responses were scored for accuracy (i.e., sufficiency) and tallied for type and quantity of semantic feature information provided. Main effects and interactions were identified using repeated measures analyses of variance, with significant findings followed up with planned comparisons. Results Differences between correct and incorrect descriptions were identified with respect to both feature type and feature distinctiveness for living and nonliving items, in particular highlighting the importance of distinctive features in descriptions of both domains. Conclusions These findings add to the relatively small body of literature investigating semantic feature processing in adults with aphasia. This is a critical gap to close when considered in light of the preponderance of semantically based treatments for word-retrieval impairment in stroke-aphasia. Our findings provide preliminary support for the notion that semantically guided treatments for word-retrieval impairment in stroke-aphasia may be geared toward increasing specificity of semantic circumlocution to increase semantic self-cueing and to improve communication of information to conversation partners. PMID:26381474

  19. “Pre-semantic” cognition revisited: Critical differences between semantic aphasia and semantic dementia

    PubMed Central

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T.; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal “pre-semantic” tasks: e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are atypical of the domain and “regularisation errors” (irregular/atypical items are produced as if they were domain-typical). The emergence of this pattern across diverse tasks in the same patients indicates that semantic memory plays a key role in all of these types of “pre-semantic” processing. However, this claim remains controversial because semantically-impaired patients sometimes fail to show an influence of regularity. This study demonstrates that (a) the location of brain damage and (b) the underlying nature of the semantic deficit affect the likelihood of observing the expected relationship between poor comprehension and regularity effects. We compared the effect of multimodal semantic impairment in the context of semantic dementia and stroke aphasia on the seven “pre-semantic” tasks listed above. In all of these tasks, the semantic aphasia patients were less sensitive to typicality than the semantic dementia patients, even though the two groups obtained comparable scores on semantic tests. The semantic aphasia group also made fewer regularisation errors and many more unrelated and perseverative responses. We propose that these group differences reflect the different locus for the semantic impairment in the two conditions: patients with semantic dementia have degraded semantic representations, whereas semantic aphasia patients show deregulated semantic cognition with concomitant executive deficits. These findings suggest a reinterpretation of single case studies of comprehension-impaired aphasic patients who fail to show the expected effect of regularity on “pre-semantic” tasks. Consequently, such

  20. [Reproducibility of the answers of various groups of cardiovascular patients in a standardized questionnaire, differentiated by age and gender].

    PubMed

    Adelt, R; Bohm, R; Heinemann, L; Günther, K H

    1978-10-15

    For the purpose of the valuation of a questionnaire developed by us for the anamnestic recognition of angiocardiopathies, which consists of 63 questions, a repeated interrogation was performed with 220 patients of different age and sex during 14 days. The average reproducibility of the yes/no-decisions was good and varied only slightly in the 8 groups of diseases (86.3--99.4%). The average degree of reproducibility referred to the sexes is nearly the same (94.7% and 95.5%, respectively). Referred to the age groups the highest reproducibility was established in the patients older than 60 years (95.7%) and the lowest in patients between 50 and 60 years (93.3%). PMID:735245

  1. Streamlining semantic interpretation for medical narratives.

    PubMed Central

    Romacker, M.; Schulz, S.; Hahn, U.

    1999-01-01

    We introduce two abstraction mechanisms by which the process of semantic interpretation of medical narratives can be simplified and further optimized. One relates to generalized triggering conditions, the other to inheritance-based specifications of semantic rules. The proposed methodology leads to a parsimonious inventory of abstract, simple and domain-independent semantic interpretation schemata whose effectiveness has been evaluated on a medical text corpus. PMID:10566496

  2. Bone marrow declines as a site of B-cell precursor differentiation with age: relationship to thymus involution.

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Yehuda, A; Szabo, P; Dyall, R; Weksler, M E

    1994-01-01

    The rearrangement of immunoglobulin genes in B-lymphocyte precursors requires the expression of the recombination activating genes (Rag), which leads to the generation of a highly diverse B-cell repertoire. We can use the level of Rag-1 mRNA in the bone marrow as an index of its capacity to support the maturation of B lymphocytes as all detectable bone marrow Rag-1 mRNA is expressed by B-cell precursors. In mouse bone marrow, Rag-1 mRNA increases during the first 2 months of life to reach its maximal level at 2 months of age. This level is maintained until 5 months of age and thereafter declines to a minimum level by 10 months of age. Thus, bone marrow Rag-1 mRNA is highest at the time when thymic function is maximal in euthymic mice. An association between thymic activity and bone marrow Rag-1 gene expression was supported by showing a low level of bone marrow Rag-1 mRNA in athymic nude mice at an age when this gene is maximally expressed in euthymic mice. Another characteristic of B cells in nude mice is their preferential rearrangement of diversity region (D)-proximal heavy-chain variable region (VH) genes. We demonstrated that injection of syngeneic splenic T cells into nude mice not only stimulates an increase in Rag-1 mRNA in their bone marrow B-cell precursors but also restores their random use of VH genes. Most interestingly, injection of supernatant medium from phytohemagglutinin-activated splenic T-cell cultures from young euthymic mice also induces both Rag-1 mRNA in bone marrow B-cell precursors and random use of VH genes. These findings suggest that thymic function can regulate both Rag-1 gene expression and VH gene use by bone marrow B-cell precursors. Images PMID:7991570

  3. Differential responses of Trans-Resveratrol on proliferation of neural progenitor cells and aged rat hippocampal neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vivek; Pandey, Ankita; Jahan, Sadaf; Shukla, Rajendra Kumar; Kumar, Dipak; Srivastava, Akriti; Singh, Shripriya; Rajpurohit, Chetan Singh; Yadav, Sanjay; Khanna, Vinay Kumar; Pant, Aditya Bhushan

    2016-01-01

    The plethora of literature has supported the potential benefits of Resveratrol (RV) as a life-extending as well as an anticancer compound. However, these two functional discrepancies resulted at different concentration ranges. Likewise, the role of Resveratrol on adult neurogenesis still remains controversial and less understood despite its well documented health benefits. To gather insight into the biological effects of RV on neurogenesis, we evaluated the possible effects of the compound on the proliferation and survival of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in culture, and in the hippocampus of aged rats. Resveratrol exerted biphasic effects on NPCs; low concentrations (10 μM) stimulated cell proliferation mediated by increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and p38 kinases, whereas high concentrations (>20 μM) exhibited inhibitory effects. Administration of Resveratrol (20 mg/kg body weight) to adult rats significantly increased the number of newly generated cells in the hippocampus, with upregulation of p-CREB and SIRT1 proteins implicated in neuronal survival and lifespan extension respectively. We have successfully demonstrated that Resveratrol exhibits dose dependent discrepancies and at a lower concentration can have a positive impact on the proliferation, survival of NPCs and aged rat hippocampal neurogenesis implicating its potential as a candidate for restorative therapies against age related disorders. PMID:27334554

  4. Differential responses of Trans-Resveratrol on proliferation of neural progenitor cells and aged rat hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vivek; Pandey, Ankita; Jahan, Sadaf; Shukla, Rajendra Kumar; Kumar, Dipak; Srivastava, Akriti; Singh, Shripriya; Rajpurohit, Chetan Singh; Yadav, Sanjay; Khanna, Vinay Kumar; Pant, Aditya Bhushan

    2016-01-01

    The plethora of literature has supported the potential benefits of Resveratrol (RV) as a life-extending as well as an anticancer compound. However, these two functional discrepancies resulted at different concentration ranges. Likewise, the role of Resveratrol on adult neurogenesis still remains controversial and less understood despite its well documented health benefits. To gather insight into the biological effects of RV on neurogenesis, we evaluated the possible effects of the compound on the proliferation and survival of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in culture, and in the hippocampus of aged rats. Resveratrol exerted biphasic effects on NPCs; low concentrations (10 μM) stimulated cell proliferation mediated by increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and p38 kinases, whereas high concentrations (>20 μM) exhibited inhibitory effects. Administration of Resveratrol (20 mg/kg body weight) to adult rats significantly increased the number of newly generated cells in the hippocampus, with upregulation of p-CREB and SIRT1 proteins implicated in neuronal survival and lifespan extension respectively. We have successfully demonstrated that Resveratrol exhibits dose dependent discrepancies and at a lower concentration can have a positive impact on the proliferation, survival of NPCs and aged rat hippocampal neurogenesis implicating its potential as a candidate for restorative therapies against age related disorders. PMID:27334554

  5. Semantic fluency and phonemic fluency: regression-based norms for the Portuguese population.

    PubMed

    Cavaco, Sara; Gonçalves, Alexandra; Pinto, Cláudia; Almeida, Eduarda; Gomes, Filomena; Moreira, Inês; Fernandes, Joana; Teixeira-Pinto, Armando

    2013-05-01

    The main goal of this study was to produce adjusted normative data for the Portuguese population on two verbal fluency measures: the semantic fluency test (animals category) and the phonemic fluency test (letters M, R, and P). The study included 950 community-dwelling individuals (624 women and 326 men) aged between 18 and 98 (mean = 57.8, SD = 19.0), who had educational backgrounds ranging from 0 to 20 years (mean = 8.8, SD = 5.2). The results showed that age and education were significantly associated with semantic fluency and phonemic fluency performance. These demographic characteristics accounted for 42% of the semantic fluency and between 23% and 31% of the phonemic fluency performance variance. No significant sex effects were found. The normative data are presented as regression-based algorithms to adjust test scores for age and education, with subsequent correspondence between adjusted scores and percentile distribution. PMID:23341434

  6. Explaining semantic short-term memory deficits: Evidence for the critical role of semantic control

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with apparently selective short-term memory (STM) deficits for semantic information have played an important role in developing multi-store theories of STM and challenge the idea that verbal STM is supported by maintaining activation in the language system. We propose that semantic STM deficits are not as selective as previously thought and can occur as a result of mild disruption to semantic control processes, i.e., mechanisms that bias semantic processing towards task-relevant aspects of knowledge and away from irrelevant information. We tested three semantic STM patients with tasks that tapped four aspects of semantic control: (i) resolving ambiguity between word meanings, (ii) sensitivity to cues, (iii) ignoring irrelevant information and (iv) detecting weak semantic associations. All were impaired in conditions requiring more semantic control, irrespective of the STM demands of the task, suggesting a mild, but task-general, deficit in regulating semantic knowledge. This mild deficit has a disproportionate effect on STM tasks because they have high intrinsic control demands: in STM tasks, control is required to keep information active when it is no longer available in the environment and to manage competition between items held in memory simultaneously. By re-interpreting the core deficit in semantic STM patients in this way, we are able to explain their apparently selective impairment without the need for a specialised STM store. Instead, we argue that semantic STM patients occupy the mildest end of spectrum of semantic control disorders. PMID:21195105

  7. SSWAP: A Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol for Semantic Web Services

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    SSWAP (Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol) is an architecture, protocol, and platform for using reasoning to semantically integrate heterogeneous disparate data and services on the web. SSWAP is the driving technology behind the Virtual Plant Information Network, an NSF-funded semantic w...

  8. Representations for Semantic Learning Webs: Semantic Web Technology in Learning Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dzbor, M.; Stutt, A.; Motta, E.; Collins, T.

    2007-01-01

    Recent work on applying semantic technologies to learning has concentrated on providing novel means of accessing and making use of learning objects. However, this is unnecessarily limiting: semantic technologies will make it possible to develop a range of educational Semantic Web services, such as interpretation, structure-visualization, support…

  9. Synonyms Provide Semantic Preview Benefit in English

    PubMed Central

    Schotter, Elizabeth R.

    2013-01-01

    While orthographic and phonological preview benefits in reading are uncontroversial (see Schotter, Angele, & Rayner, 2012 for a review), researchers have debated the existence of semantic preview benefit with positive evidence in Chinese and German, but no support in English. Two experiments, using the gazecontingent boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975), show that semantic preview benefit can be observed in English when the preview and target are synonyms (share the same or highly similar meaning, e.g., curlers-rollers). However, no semantic preview benefit was observed for semantic associates (e.g., curlers-styling). These different preview conditions represent different degrees to which the meaning of the sentence changes when the preview is replaced by the target. When this continuous variable (determined by a norming procedure) was used as the predictor in the analyses, there was a significant relationship between it and all reading time measures, suggesting that similarity in meaning between what is accessed parafoveally and what is processed foveally may be an important influence on the presence of semantic preview benefit. Why synonyms provide semantic preview benefit in reading English is discussed in relation to (1) previous failures to find semantic preview benefit in English and (2) the fact that semantic preview benefit is observed in other languages even for non-synonymous words. Semantic preview benefit is argued to depend on several factors—attentional resources, depth of orthography, and degree of similarity between preview and target. PMID:24347813

  10. Towards a Reactive Semantic Execution Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komazec, Srdjan; Facca, Federico Michele

    Managing complex and distributed software systems built on top of the service-oriented paradigm has never been more challenging. While Semantic Web Service technologies offer a promising set of languages and tools as a foundation to resolve the heterogeneity and scalability issues, they are still failing to provide an autonomic execution environment. In this paper we present an approach based on Semantic Web Services to enable the monitoring and self-management of a Semantic Execution Environment (SEE), a brokerage system for Semantic Web Services. Our approach is founded on the event-triggered reactivity paradigm in order to facilitate environment control, thus contributing to its autonomicity, robustness and flexibility.

  11. Semantic Clustering of Search Engine Results

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Sara Saad; El-Sayed, Maged F.; Hassan, Yasser F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for search engine results clustering that relies on the semantics of the retrieved documents rather than the terms in those documents. The proposed approach takes into consideration both lexical and semantics similarities among documents and applies activation spreading technique in order to generate semantically meaningful clusters. This approach allows documents that are semantically similar to be clustered together rather than clustering documents based on similar terms. A prototype is implemented and several experiments are conducted to test the prospered solution. The result of the experiment confirmed that the proposed solution achieves remarkable results in terms of precision. PMID:26933673

  12. An Attribute-Treatment Interaction Study: Lexical-Set versus Semantically-Unrelated Vocabulary Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashemi, Mohammad Reza; Gowdasiaei, Farah

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was (a) to assess the effectiveness of the lexical-set (LS) and the semantically-unrelated (SU) vocabulary instruction, separately and relative to each other, and (b) to assess the differential effects of the two methods for students of lower and upper English proficiency levels. Two intact EFL classes were…

  13. Premorbid expertise produces category-specific impairment in a domain-general semantic disorder

    PubMed Central

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T.; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    For decades, category-specific semantic impairment – i.e., better comprehension of items from one semantic category than another – has been the driving force behind many claims about the organisation of conceptual knowledge in the brain. Double dissociations between patients with category-specific disorders are widely interpreted as showing that different conceptual domains are necessarily supported by functionally independent systems. We show that, to the contrary, even strong or classical dissociations can also arise from individual differences in premorbid expertise. We examined two patients with global and progressive semantic degradation who, unusually, had known areas of premorbid expertise. Patient 1, a former automotive worker, showed selective preservation of car knowledge, whereas Patient 2, a former botanist, showed selective preservation of information about plants. In non-expert domains, these patients showed the typical pattern: i.e., an inability to differentiate between highly similar concepts (e.g., rose and daisy), but retention of broader distinctions (e.g., between rose and cat). Parallel distributed processing (PDP) models of semantic cognition show that expertise in a particular domain increases the differentiation of specific-level concepts, such that the semantic distance between these items resembles non-expert basic-level distinctions. We propose that these structural changes interact with global semantic degradation, particularly when expert knowledge is acquired early and when exposure to expert concepts continues during disease progression. Therefore, category-specific semantic impairment can arise from at least two distinct mechanisms: damage to representations that are critical for a particular category (e.g., knowledge of hand shape and action for the category ‘tools’) and differences in premorbid experience. PMID:21816166

  14. Using soil properties as a tool to differentiate landslide generations and constrain their ages - Rogowiec landslide, Sudetes (SW Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacprzak, Andrzej; Migoń, Piotr

    2013-04-01

    profiles in the landslide body do not show evidence of protracted soil evolution under contemporary climate and hence, are interpreted as having been formed during a fraction of the Holocene. This implies a Holocene age of the landslide. In addition, an older shallow translational landslide has been recognized on the valley side, with the toe buried by the main Rogowiec landslide. The depletion area was identified through the occurrence of thin, truncated soils (compared to the neighbouring slopes). This and the occurrence of weakly horizonated and poorly structural soils in the landslide body itself suggest that this valley-side landslide is of the Holocene age too. Thus, soils proved a powerful tool to establish the relative chronology of landslides and give strong evidence of their Holocene age. Soil research is recommended as a part of landslide hazard and risk assessment for landslides of unknown age.

  15. Behavior in the elevated plus maze is differentially affected by testing conditions in rats under and over three weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Albani, Sarah H; Andrawis, Marina M; Abella, Rio Jeane H; Fulghum, John T; Vafamand, Naghmeh; Dumas, Theodore C

    2015-01-01

    The late postnatal period in rats is marked by numerous changes in perceptual and cognitive abilities. As such, age-related variation in cognitive test performance might result in part from disparate sensitivities to environmental factors. To better understand how testing conditions might interact with age, we assessed anxiety behavior on an elevated plus maze (EPM) in juvenile rats around 3 weeks of age under diverse testing conditions. Plasma corticosterone and neuronal activation patterns in the forebrain were examined after maze exposure. We found that anxiety was differentially expressed during different stages of late postnatal development. Bright illumination and morning testing encouraged greatest open arm exploration on the EPM in younger animals, while older rats explored open areas more under dim illumination in the morning compared to bright illumination in the afternoon/evening. Older rats exhibited higher plasma corticosterone levels at baseline compared to younger rats; however, this trend was reversed for post-testing corticosterone. Additionally, post-testing corticosterone levels were inversely related to time of testing. Compared to testing in the morning, EPM exposure in the afternoon/evening elicited greater neuronal Arc expression in the amygdala. Arc expression in the amygdala after morning testing was greater at P22-24 than P17-19. In layer 2/3 of primary visual cortex, Arc expression was elevated in younger animals and age interacted with time of testing to produce opposing effects at P17-19 and P22-24. These data suggest that age-related differences in anxiety-associated behavior during the late postnatal period are due in part to changes in light sensitivity and emergence of a circadian cycle for corticosterone. The findings illustrate that late postnatal behavioral development in rodents is a complex orchestration of changes in neural systems involved in perception, cognition, affect and homeostatic regulation. PMID:25741257

  16. Behavior in the elevated plus maze is differentially affected by testing conditions in rats under and over three weeks of age

    PubMed Central

    Albani, Sarah H.; Andrawis, Marina M.; Abella, Rio Jeane H.; Fulghum, John T.; Vafamand, Naghmeh; Dumas, Theodore C.

    2015-01-01

    The late postnatal period in rats is marked by numerous changes in perceptual and cognitive abilities. As such, age-related variation in cognitive test performance might result in part from disparate sensitivities to environmental factors. To better understand how testing conditions might interact with age, we assessed anxiety behavior on an elevated plus maze (EPM) in juvenile rats around 3 weeks of age under diverse testing conditions. Plasma corticosterone and neuronal activation patterns in the forebrain were examined after maze exposure. We found that anxiety was differentially expressed during different stages of late postnatal development. Bright illumination and morning testing encouraged greatest open arm exploration on the EPM in younger animals, while older rats explored open areas more under dim illumination in the morning compared to bright illumination in the afternoon/evening. Older rats exhibited higher plasma corticosterone levels at baseline compared to younger rats; however, this trend was reversed for post-testing corticosterone. Additionally, post-testing corticosterone levels were inversely related to time of testing. Compared to testing in the morning, EPM exposure in the afternoon/evening elicited greater neuronal Arc expression in the amygdala. Arc expression in the amygdala after morning testing was greater at P22–24 than P17–19. In layer 2/3 of primary visual cortex, Arc expression was elevated in younger animals and age interacted with time of testing to produce opposing effects at P17–19 and P22–24. These data suggest that age-related differences in anxiety-associated behavior during the late postnatal period are due in part to changes in light sensitivity and emergence of a circadian cycle for corticosterone. The findings illustrate that late postnatal behavioral development in rodents is a complex orchestration of changes in neural systems involved in perception, cognition, affect and homeostatic regulation. PMID:25741257

  17. Microglial Kv1.3 Channels and P2Y12 Receptors Differentially Regulate Cytokine and Chemokine Release from Brain Slices of Young Adult and Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Eder, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Brain tissue damage following stroke or traumatic brain injury is accompanied by neuroinflammatory processes, while microglia play a central role in causing and regulating neuroinflammation via production of proinflammatory substances, including cytokines and chemokines. Here, we used brain slices, an established in situ brain injury model, from young adult and aged mice to investigate cytokine and chemokine production with particular focus on the role of microglia. Twenty four hours after slice preparation, higher concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines, i.e. TNF-α and IL-6, and chemokines, i.e. CCL2 and CXCL1, were released from brain slices of aged mice than from slices of young adult mice. However, maximal microglial stimulation with LPS for 24 h did not reveal age-dependent differences in the amounts of released cytokines and chemokines. Mechanisms underlying microglial cytokine and chemokine production appear to be similar in young adult and aged mice. Inhibition of microglial Kv1.3 channels with margatoxin reduced release of IL-6, but not release of CCL2 and CXCL1. In contrast, blockade of microglial P2Y12 receptors with PSB0739 inhibited release of CCL2 and CXCL1, whereas release of IL-6 remained unaffected. Cytokine and chemokine production was not reduced by inhibitors of Kir2.1 K+ channels or adenosine receptors. In summary, our data suggest that brain tissue damage-induced production of cytokines and chemokines is age-dependent, and differentially regulated by microglial Kv1.3 channels and P2Y12 receptors. PMID:26011191

  18. Does victim age differentiate between perpetrators of sexual child abuse? A study of mental health, psychosocial circumstances, and crimes.

    PubMed

    Carlstedt, Anita; Nilsson, Thomas; Hofvander, Björn; Brimse, Agneta; Innala, Sune; Anckarsäter, Henrik

    2009-12-01

    To test the theory that sexual offenders who abuse very young children (0-5 years) have more severe mental health and psychosocial problems than those who victimize older children, authors compared psychiatric diagnoses, social circumstances, and crime-related data in all sexual offenders against minors referred to forensic psychiatric investigation in Sweden during a 5-year period. Thirty-one men had committed index crimes involving victims between the ages of 0 and 5 years (Group 1), 90 had 6-to 11-year-old victims (Group 2), and 41 had 12- to 15-year-old victims (Group 3). All three offender groups were characterized by severe mental health problems, in many cases fulfilling American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) criteria for both Axis I and Axis II diagnoses, but these problems did not differ between groups. Neither did social situation or sexual orientation. Offenders with 0- to 5-year-old victims significantly more often abused both boys and girls. Frequencies of retrospectively diagnosed childhood-onset behavior disorders were high in all three offender groups. The authors' data did not support previous findings of increasingly severe mental health problems with decreasing victim age. PMID:19901238

  19. Combinational losses of synucleins reveal their differential requirements for compensating age-dependent alterations in motor behavior and dopamine metabolism.

    PubMed

    Connor-Robson, Natalie; Peters, Owen M; Millership, Steven; Ninkina, Natalia; Buchman, Vladimir L

    2016-10-01

    Synucleins are involved in multiple steps of the neurotransmitter turnover, but the largely normal synaptic function in young adult animals completely lacking synucleins suggests their roles are dispensable for execution of these processes. Instead, they may be utilized for boosting the efficiency of certain molecular mechanisms in presynaptic terminals, with a deficiency of synuclein proteins sensitizing to or exacerbating synaptic malfunction caused by accumulation of mild alterations, which are commonly associated with aging. Although functional redundancy within the family has been reported, it is unclear whether the remaining synucleins can fully compensate for the deficiency of a lost family member or whether some functions are specific for a particular member. We assessed several structural and functional characteristics of the nigrostriatal system of mice lacking members of the synuclein family in every possible combination and demonstrated that stabilization of the striatal dopamine level depends on the presence of α-synuclein and cannot be compensated by other family members, whereas β-synuclein is required for efficient maintenance of animal's balance and coordination in old age. PMID:27614017

  20. Contributions of Response Set and Semantic Relatedness to Cross-Modal Stroop-Like Picture--Word Interference in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanauer, John B.; Brooks, Patricia J.

    2005-01-01

    Resistance to interference from irrelevant auditory stimuli undergoes development throughout childhood. To test whether semantic processes account for age-related changes in a Stroop-like picture-word interference effect, children (3-to 12-year-olds) and adults named pictures while listening to words varying in terms of semantic relatedness to the…

  1. Reactive Oxygen Species Differentially Regulate Bone Turnover in an Age-Specific Manner in Catalase Transgenic Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Alund, Alexander W; Mercer, Kelly E; Suva, Larry J; Pulliam, Casey F; Chen, Jin-Ran; Badger, Thomas M; Van Remmen, Holly; Ronis, Martin J J

    2016-07-01

    Chronic ethyl alcohol (EtOH) consumption results in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in bone and osteopenia due to increased bone resorption and reduced bone formation. In this study, transgenic C57Bl/6J mice overexpressing human catalase (TgCAT) were used to test whether limiting excess hydrogen peroxide would protect against EtOH-mediated bone loss. Micro-computed tomography analysis of the skeletons of 6-week-old female chow-fed TgCAT mice revealed a high bone mass phenotype with increased cortical bone area and thickness as well as significantly increased trabecular bone volume (P < 0.05). Six-week-old wild-type (WT) and TgCAT female mice were chow fed or pair fed (PF) liquid diets with or without EtOH, approximately 30% of calories, for 8 weeks. Pair feeding of WT had no demonstrable effect on the skeleton; however, EtOH feeding of WT mice significantly reduced cortical and trabecular bone parameters along with bone strength compared with PF controls (P < 0.05). In contrast, EtOH feeding of TgCAT mice had no effect on trabecular bone compared with PF controls. At 14 weeks of age, there was significantly less trabecular bone and cortical cross-sectional area in TgCAT mice than WT mice (P < 0.05), suggesting impaired normal bone accrual with age. TgCAT mice expressed less collagen1α and higher sclerostin mRNA (P < 0.05), suggesting decreased bone formation in TgCAT mice. In conclusion, catalase overexpression resulted in greater bone mass than in WT mice at 6 weeks and lower bone mass at 14 weeks. EtOH feeding induced significant reductions in bone architecture and strength in WT mice, but TgCAT mice were partially protected. These data implicate ROS signaling in the regulation of bone turnover in an age-dependent manner, and indicate that excess hydrogen peroxide generation contributes to alcohol-induced osteopenia. PMID:27189961

  2. Semantic organization in children with cochlear implants: computational analysis of verbal fluency

    PubMed Central

    Kenett, Yoed N.; Wechsler-Kashi, Deena; Kenett, Dror Y.; Schwartz, Richard G.; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Faust, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Cochlear implants (CIs) enable children with severe and profound hearing impairments to perceive the sensation of sound sufficiently to permit oral language acquisition. So far, studies have focused mainly on technological improvements and general outcomes of implantation for speech perception and spoken language development. This study quantitatively explored the organization of the semantic networks of children with CIs in comparison to those of age-matched normal hearing (NH) peers. Method: Twenty seven children with CIs and twenty seven age- and IQ-matched NH children ages 7–10 were tested on a timed animal verbal fluency task (Name as many animals as you can). The responses were analyzed using correlation and network methodologies. The structure of the animal category semantic network for both groups were extracted and compared. Results: Children with CIs appeared to have a less-developed semantic network structure compared to age-matched NH peers. The average shortest path length (ASPL) and the network diameter measures were larger for the NH group compared to the CIs group. This difference was consistent for the analysis of networks derived from animal names generated by each group [sample-matched correlation networks (SMCN)] and for the networks derived from the common animal names generated by both groups [word-matched correlation networks (WMCN)]. Conclusions: The main difference between the semantic networks of children with CIs and NH lies in the network structure. The semantic network of children with CIs is under-developed compared to the semantic network of the age-matched NH children. We discuss the practical and clinical implications of our findings. PMID:24032018

  3. Semantic classification of business images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erol, Berna; Hull, Jonathan J.

    2006-01-01

    Digital cameras are becoming increasingly common for capturing information in business settings. In this paper, we describe a novel method for classifying images into the following semantic classes: document, whiteboard, business card, slide, and regular images. Our method is based on combining low-level image features, such as text color, layout, and handwriting features with high-level OCR output analysis. Several Support Vector Machine Classifiers are combined for multi-class classification of input images. The system yields 95% accuracy in classification.

  4. The Algebra of Lexical Semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornai, András

    The current generative theory of the lexicon relies primarily on tools from formal language theory and mathematical logic. Here we describe how a different formal apparatus, taken from algebra and automata theory, resolves many of the known problems with the generative lexicon. We develop a finite state theory of word meaning based on machines in the sense of Eilenberg [11], a formalism capable of describing discrepancies between syntactic type (lexical category) and semantic type (number of arguments). This mechanism is compared both to the standard linguistic approaches and to the formalisms developed in AI/KR.

  5. Gazetteer Brokering through Semantic Mediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobona, G.; Bermudez, L. E.; Brackin, R.

    2013-12-01

    A gazetteer is a geographical directory containing some information regarding places. It provides names, location and other attributes for places which may include points of interest (e.g. buildings, oilfields and boreholes), and other features. These features can be published via web services conforming to the Gazetteer Application Profile of the Web Feature Service (WFS) standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). Against the backdrop of advances in geophysical surveys, there has been a significant increase in the amount of data referenced to locations. Gazetteers services have played a significant role in facilitating access to such data, including through provision of specialized queries such as text, spatial and fuzzy search. Recent developments in the OGC have led to advances in gazetteers such as support for multilingualism, diacritics, and querying via advanced spatial constraints (e.g. search by radial search and nearest neighbor). A challenge remaining however, is that gazetteers produced by different organizations have typically been modeled differently. Inconsistencies from gazetteers produced by different organizations may include naming the same feature in a different way, naming the attributes differently, locating the feature in a different location, and providing fewer or more attributes than the other services. The Gazetteer application profile of the WFS is a starting point to address such inconsistencies by providing a standardized interface based on rules specified in ISO 19112, the international standard for spatial referencing by geographic identifiers. The profile, however, does not provide rules to deal with semantic inconsistencies. The USGS and NGA commissioned research into the potential for a Single Point of Entry Global Gazetteer (SPEGG). The research was conducted by the Cross Community Interoperability thread of the OGC testbed, referenced OWS-9. The testbed prototyped approaches for brokering gazetteers through use of semantic

  6. Analyticity and Features of Semantic Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Danny D.

    The findings reported in this paper are the result of an experiment to determine the empirical validity of such semantic concepts as analytic, synthetic, and contradictory. Twenty-eight university students were presented with 156 sentences to assign to one of four semantic categories: (1) synthetic ("The dog is a poodle"), (2) analytic ("The tulip…

  7. Priming Addition Facts with Semantic Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassok, Miriam; Pedigo, Samuel F.; Oskarsson, An T.

    2008-01-01

    Results from 2 relational-priming experiments suggest the existence of an automatic analogical coordination between semantic and arithmetic relations. Word pairs denoting object sets served as primes in a task that elicits "obligatory" activation of addition facts (5 + 3 activates 8; J. LeFevre, J. Bisanz, & L. Mrkonjic, 1988). Semantic relations…

  8. SemanticOrganizer Brings Teams Together

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laufenberg, Lawrence

    2003-01-01

    SemanticOrganizer enables researchers in different locations to share, search for, and integrate data. Its customizable semantic links offer fast access to interrelated information. This knowledge management and information integration tool also supports real-time instrument data collection and collaborative image annotation.

  9. Semantic and Phonemic Verbal Fluency in Blinds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nejati, Vahid; Asadi, Anoosh

    2010-01-01

    A person who has suffered the total loss of a sensory system has, indirectly, suffered a brain lesion. Semantic and phonologic verbal fluency are used for evaluation of executive function and language. The aim of this study is evaluation and comparison of phonemic and semantic verbal fluency in acquired blinds. We compare 137 blinds and 124…

  10. Phasic Affective Modulation of Semantic Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topolinski, Sascha; Deutsch, Roland

    2013-01-01

    The present research demonstrates that very brief variations in affect, being around 1 s in length and changing from trial to trial independently from semantic relatedness of primes and targets, modulate the amount of semantic priming. Implementing consonant and dissonant chords (Experiments 1 and 5), naturalistic sounds (Experiment 2), and visual…

  11. The Semantic Web in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerkawski, Betül Özkan

    2014-01-01

    The Semantic Web enables increased collaboration among computers and people by organizing unstructured data on the World Wide Web. Rather than a separate body, the Semantic Web is a functional extension of the current Web made possible by defining relationships among websites and other online content. When explicitly defined, these relationships…

  12. Neuronal Activation for Semantically Reversible Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Fiona M.; Thomas, Michael S. C.; Price, Cathy J.

    2010-01-01

    Semantically reversible sentences are prone to misinterpretation and take longer for typically developing children and adults to comprehend; they are also particularly problematic for those with language difficulties such as aphasia or Specific Language Impairment. In our study, we used fMRI to compare the processing of semantically reversible and…

  13. Implicit Learning of Semantic Preferences of Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paciorek, Albertyna; Williams, John N.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies of semantic implicit learning in language have only examined learning grammatical form-meaning connections in which learning could have been supported by prior linguistic knowledge. In this study we target the domain of verb meaning, specifically semantic preferences regarding novel verbs (e.g., the preference for a novel verb to…

  14. Orthographic and Semantic Processing in Young Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polse, Lara R.; Reilly, Judy S.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation examined orthographic and semantic processing during reading acquisition. Children in first to fourth grade were presented with a target word and two response alternatives, and were asked to identify the semantic match. Words were presented in four conditions: an exact match and unrelated foil (STONE-STONE-EARS), an exact match…

  15. Semantic search integration to climate data

    SciTech Connect

    Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Palanisamy, Giri; Pouchard, Line Catherine; Shrestha, Biva

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present how research projects at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are using Semantic Search capabilities to help scientists perform their research. We will discuss how the Mercury metadata search system, with the help of the semantic search capability, is being used to find, retrieve, and link climate change data. DOI: 10.1109/CTS.2014.6867639

  16. Learning the Semantics of Structured Data Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taheriyan, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Information sources such as relational databases, spreadsheets, XML, JSON, and Web APIs contain a tremendous amount of structured data, however, they rarely provide a semantic model to describe their contents. Semantic models of data sources capture the intended meaning of data sources by mapping them to the concepts and relationships defined by a…

  17. Semantique et psychologie (Semantics and Psychology)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Ny, Jean-Francois

    1975-01-01

    Semantic activities constitute a sub-class of psychological activities; from this point of departure the article discusses such topics as: idiosyncrasies, meaning and causality, internal determinants, neo-associationism, componential theories, noun- and verb-formation, sentences and propositions, semantics and cognition, mnemesic compontents, and…

  18. Social Networking on the Semantic Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finin, Tim; Ding, Li; Zhou, Lina; Joshi, Anupam

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Aims to investigate the way that the semantic web is being used to represent and process social network information. Design/methodology/approach: The Swoogle semantic web search engine was used to construct several large data sets of Resource Description Framework (RDF) documents with social network information that were encoded using the…

  19. Comparative Studies of Semantic Structure. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Michael L.

    The objective of this research was to successfully model several semantic domains in English and Spanish, in order to (a) test the reliability of judged-similarities tasks in cross-cultural situations and (b) obtain information about changes in semantic organization with bilingualism and education. To achieve these goals, data were collected in…

  20. Semantic Processing of Previews within Compound Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sarah J.; Bertram, Raymond; Hyona, Jukka

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that previews of words prior to fixation can be processed orthographically, but not semantically, during reading of sentences (K. Rayner, D. A. Balota, & A. Pollatsek, 1986). The present study tested whether semantic processing of previews can occur within words. The preview of the second constituent of…