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Sample records for aging steps snas

  1. Timing of Complementary Food Introduction and Age at Diagnosis of Type 1 Diabetes: the SEARCH Nutrition Ancillary STUDY (SNAS)

    PubMed Central

    Crume, Tessa L.; Crandell, Jamie; Norris, Jill M.; Dabelea, Dana; Fangman, Mary T.; Pettitt, David J.; Dolan, Lawrence; Rodriguez, Beatriz L.; O'Connor, Rebecca; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    The association between timing of complementary food introduction and age at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes was investigated among 1077 children in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Age at diagnosis was 5-month earlier for children introduced to sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) in the first 12 months of life compared to those who were not (9.0 ± 0.2 vs. 9.5 ± 0.1; p=0.02), independent of HLA-risk status. Analyses stratified by HLA-risk status found that children with a high risk HLA genotype had an earlier age at diagnosis if they were introduced to fruit juice in the first year of life (mean age of diagnosis=9.3 ± 0.1, 9.1 ± 0.1 and 9.6 ± 0.2 for introduction at ≤ 6 months, between 7 and 11 months, and ≤12 months, respectively; p=0.04). Introduction of SSB in the first year of life may accelerate onset of type 1 diabetes independent of HLA-risk status. PMID:25117987

  2. Timing of complementary food introduction and age at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes: the SEARCH nutrition ancillary study (SNAS).

    PubMed

    Crume, T L; Crandell, J; Norris, J M; Dabelea, D; Fangman, M T; Pettitt, D J; Dolan, L; Rodriguez, B L; O'Connor, R; Mayer-Davis, E J

    2014-11-01

    The association between timing of complementary food introduction and age at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes was investigated among 1077 children in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Age at diagnosis was 5 months earlier for children introduced to sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) in the first 12 months of life compared with those who were not (9.0±0.2 vs 9.5±0.1; P=0.02) independent of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) risk status. Analyses stratified by HLA risk status found that children with a high-risk HLA genotype had an earlier age at diagnosis if they were introduced to fruit juice in the first year of life (mean age at diagnosis=9.3±0.1, 9.1±0.1 and 9.6±0.2 for introduction at ⩽6 months, between 7 and 11 months and ⩾12 months, respectively; P=0.04). Introduction of SSB in the first year of life may accelerate the onset of type 1 diabetes independent of HLA risk status. PMID:25117987

  3. 7 Steps to Aging Well

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section 7 Steps to Aging Well Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents ... Exercise: A Guide from the National Institute on Aging is a publication from NIA that has strength, ...

  4. 7 Steps to Aging Well

    MedlinePlus

    ... for 30 to 60 minutes at a time. Exercise: A Guide from the National Institute on Aging is a publication from NIA that has strength, balance, and stretching exercises you can do at home. 5. Stop Smoking ...

  5. Universal Design: A Step toward Successful Aging

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Kelly; Weir, Patricia L.; Azar, Dory; Azar, Nadia R.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of aging successfully has become increasingly important as demographics shift towards an aging population. Successful aging has been defined to include (1) a low probability of disease and disease-related disability; (2) a high level of physical and cognitive functioning; and (3) an active engagement in life. The built environment can create opportunities or constraints for seniors to participate in social and productive activities. Universally designed spaces are more easily accessed and used by a spectrum of people without specialized adaptations. Thus, a universally designed environment creates opportunities for older adults to participate in these activities without the stigmatization associated with adapted or accessible designs. Providing older adults with specific universal design options (e.g., lever handle faucets) has the potential to increase the ease of completing activities of daily living, which promotes a continual engagement in life. Literature regarding universal design is promising; however, its theory requires further attention from professionals designing the built environment, evidence of the significance of its application from academics, and the embracement of its core principles from society. Overall, universal design has the potential to provide a stepping stone toward successful aging. PMID:23431446

  6. Electronic structure of InTe, SnAs and PbSb: Valence-skip compound or not?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hase, Izumi; Yasutomi, Kouki; Yanagisawa, Takashi; Odagiri, Kousuke; Nishio, Taichiro

    2016-08-01

    InTe, SnAs and PbSb formally have unusual valence states, In2+, Sn3+ and Pb3+. All of them have B1 crystal structure at some pressure range. They are candidates of the valence-skip compound, which may have negative effective Coulomb interaction Ueff < 0. Negative-U Hubbard model is known to show charge-density wave or superconductivity in some parameter region. In fact, SnAs becomes superconducting at ambient pressure. InTe has a kind of charge-density wave at ambient pressure, and it becomes superconducting at high pressure. We investigated their electronic structures by ab-initio calculations, and calculated the number of s-electrons at the cation site. We found that InTe is favorable to emerge valence skip, while PbSb is not favorable for valence skip. SnAs is between these two. These findings well agree with the experimental results.

  7. Aging is associated with dimerization and inactivation of the brain-enriched tyrosine phosphatase STEP.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Sathyanarayanan; Deb, Ishani; Poddar, Ranjana; Paul, Surojit

    2016-05-01

    The STriatal-Enriched tyrosine Phosphatase (STEP) is involved in the etiology of several age-associated neurologic disorders linked to oxidative stress and is also known to play a role in neuroprotection by modulating glutamatergic transmission. However, the possible effect of aging on STEP level and activity in the brain is still unclear. In this study, using young (1 month), adult (4 months), and aged (18 months) rats, we show that aging is associated with increase in dimerization and loss of activity of STEP. Increased dimerization of STEP is primarily observed in the cortex and hippocampus and is associated with depletion of both reduced and total glutathione levels, suggesting an increase in oxidative stress. Consistent with this interpretation, studies in cell culture models of glutathione depletion and oxidative stress also demonstrate formation of dimers and higher order oligomers of STEP that involve intermolecular disulfide bond formation between multiple cysteine residues. Conversely, administration of N-acetyl cysteine, a major antioxidant that enhances glutathione biosynthesis, attenuates STEP dimerization both in the cortex and hippocampus. The findings indicate that loss of this intrinsic protective response pathway with age-dependent increase in oxidative stress may be a contributing factor for the susceptibility of the brain to age-associated neurologic disorders. PMID:27103516

  8. Age-related differences in the maintenance of frontal plane dynamic stability while stepping to targets

    PubMed Central

    Hurt, Christopher P.; Grabiner, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Older adults may be vulnerable to frontal plane dynamic instability, which is of clinical significance. The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the age-related differences in frontal plane dynamic stability by quantifying the margin of stability and hip abductor moment generation of subjects performing a single crossover step and sidestep to targets that created three different step widths during forward locomotion. Nineteen young adults (9 males, age: 22.9±3.1 years, height: 174.3±10.2 cm, mass: 71.7±13.0 kg) and 18 older adults (9 males, age: 72.8±5.2 years, height: 174.9±8.6 cm, mass: 78.0±16.3 kg) participated. For each walking trial, subjects performed a single laterally-directed step to a target on a force plate. Subjects were instructed to “perform the lateral step and keep walking forward”. The peak hip abductor moment of the stepping limb was 42% larger by older adults compared to younger adults (p<0.001). Older adults were also more stable than younger adults at all step targets (p<0.001). Older adults executed the lateral step with slower forward-directed and lateral-directed velocity despite similar step widths. Age-related differences in hip abduction moments may reflect greater muscular effort by older adults to reduce the likelihood of becoming unstable. The results of this investigation, in which subjects performed progressively larger lateral-directed steps, provide evidence that older adults may not be more laterally unstable than younger adults. However, age-related differences in this study could also reflect a compensatory strategy by older adults to ensure stability while performing this task. PMID:25627870

  9. New Wrinkle on Aging: Baby Steps to 2030. Aging Initiative Project 2030 Policy Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirtz, Ron

    This policy report is intended to be a vision, a design, for certain public systems that have significant involvement with an aging population. It focuses on the central question: What can be done to build community capacity for dealing with an aging society in Minnesota? The report focuses on these three topics: (1) life-cycle…

  10. Influence of age and of desmotropic drugs on the step phenomenon observed in rat skin.

    PubMed

    Vogel, H G; Hilgner, W

    1979-03-31

    Comprehensive analysis of the mechanical properties of rat skin revealed the "step phenomenon". This particular observation was made after constant strain rate (analysis of stress strain curves) as well as after constant load (creep experiments). Relative low extensions or low loads were necessary to provoke the steps. In most cases two, sometimes three steps were observed. The step phenomenon was found mainly in skin strips punched out perpendicularly to the body axis. Probably some bonds in the fibrous network are broken giving way to additional elongation whereafter stronger links take over the stress. Since earlier studies demonstrated a pronounced influence of age and of desmotropic drugs on mechanical properties at ultimate load, e.g., tensile strength, ultimate modulus of elasticity, and ultimate strain, also the step phenomenon was studied under these conditions. In stress-strain experiments most of the steps were found at the ages of 2 and 4 months. Total stress loss and total work loss due to the steps were the highest at the age of 4 months. If, however, these values were calculated as percentage of ultimate values, the highest figures were found in young animals. Elongation gain due to the steps also showed a maximum at time of maturation, e.g., 4 months. Similar findings were achieved in creep experiments at medium load (200 g). After treatment with prednisolone acetate more steps and after treatment with D-penicillamine fewer steps were observed. In stress-strain experiments total stress loss and total work loss due to steps were more than twice as high than controls after prednisolone treatment and only one half after D-penicillamine. If calculated as percentage of ultimate stress or percentage of work input, these changes disappeared because of similar changes at ultimate load. However, elongation gain due to steps, which was not significantly influenced by prednisolone acetate but significantly decreased by D-penicillamine, showed the same changes

  11. Age effects on the control of dynamic balance during step adjustments under temporal constraints.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Wataru; Fukaya, Takashi; Kobayashi, Satomi; Ohashi, Yukari

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the age effects on the control of dynamic balance during step adjustments under temporal constraints. Fifteen young adults and 14 older adults avoided a virtual white planar obstacle by lengthening or shortening their steps under free or constrained conditions. In the anterior-posterior direction, older adults demonstrated significantly decreased center of mass velocity at the swing foot contact under temporal constraints. Additionally, the distances between the 'extrapolated center of mass' position and base of support at the swing foot contact were greater in older adults than young adults. In the mediolateral direction, center of mass displacement was significantly increased in older adults compared with young adults. Consequently, older adults showed a significantly increased step width at the swing foot contact in the constraint condition. Overall, these data suggest that older adults demonstrate a conservative strategy to maintain anterior-posterior stability. By contrast, although older adults are able to modulate their step width to maintain mediolateral dynamic balance, age-related changes in mediolateral balance control under temporal constraints may increase the risk of falls in the lateral direction during obstacle negotiation. PMID:26852293

  12. The Effects of Age Composition of 12-Step Groups on Adolescent 12-Step Participation and Substance Use Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, John F.; Myers, Mark G.; Brown, Sandra A.; Myers, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Youth substance use disorder treatment programs frequently advocate integration into 12-Step fellowships to help prevent relapse. However, the effects of the predominantly adult composition of 12-step groups on adolescent involvement and substance use outcome remain unstudied. Greater knowledge could enhance the specificity of treatment…

  13. Step-wise kinetics of natural physical ageing in arsenic selenide glasses.

    PubMed

    Golovchak, R; Kozdras, A; Balitska, V; Shpotyuk, O

    2012-12-19

    The long-term kinetics of physical ageing at ambient temperature is studied in Se-rich As-Se glasses using the conventional differential scanning calorimetry technique. It is analysed through the changes in the structural relaxation parameters occurring during the glass-to-supercooled liquid transition in the heating mode. Along with the time dependences of the glass transition temperature (T(g)) and partial area (A) under the endothermic relaxation peak, the enthalpy losses (ΔH) and calculated fictive temperature (T(F)) are analysed as key parameters, characterizing the kinetics of physical ageing. The latter is shown to have step-wise character, revealing some kinds of subsequent plateaus and steep regions. A phenomenological description of physical ageing in the investigated glasses is proposed on the basis of an alignment-shrinkage mechanism and first-order kinetic equations. PMID:23174805

  14. Timing paradox of stepping and falls in ageing: not so quick and quick(er) on the trigger.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Mark W; Mille, Marie-Laure

    2016-08-15

    Physiological and degenerative changes affecting human standing balance are major contributors to falls with ageing. During imbalance, stepping is a powerful protective action for preserving balance that may be voluntarily initiated in recognition of a balance threat, or be induced by an externally imposed mechanical or sensory perturbation. Paradoxically, with ageing and falls, initiation slowing of voluntary stepping is observed together with perturbation-induced steps that are triggered as fast as or faster than for younger adults. While age-associated changes in sensorimotor conduction, central neuronal processing and cognitive functions are linked to delayed voluntary stepping, alterations in the coupling of posture and locomotion may also prolong step triggering. It is less clear, however, how these factors may explain the accelerated triggering of induced stepping. We present a conceptual model that addresses this issue. For voluntary stepping, a disruption in the normal coupling between posture and locomotion may underlie step-triggering delays through suppression of the locomotion network based on an estimation of the evolving mechanical state conditions for stability. During induced stepping, accelerated step initiation may represent an event-triggering process whereby stepping is released according to the occurrence of a perturbation rather than to the specific sensorimotor information reflecting the evolving instability. In this case, errors in the parametric control of induced stepping and its effectiveness in stabilizing balance would be likely to occur. We further suggest that there is a residual adaptive capacity with ageing that could be exploited to improve paradoxical triggering and other changes in protective stepping to impact fall risk. PMID:26915664

  15. One Small Step for a Man: Estimation of Gender, Age and Height from Recordings of One Step by a Single Inertial Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Riaz, Qaiser; Vögele, Anna; Krüger, Björn; Weber, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    A number of previous works have shown that information about a subject is encoded in sparse kinematic information, such as the one revealed by so-called point light walkers. With the work at hand, we extend these results to classifications of soft biometrics from inertial sensor recordings at a single body location from a single step. We recorded accelerations and angular velocities of 26 subjects using integrated measurement units (IMUs) attached at four locations (chest, lower back, right wrist and left ankle) when performing standardized gait tasks. The collected data were segmented into individual walking steps. We trained random forest classifiers in order to estimate soft biometrics (gender, age and height). We applied two different validation methods to the process, 10-fold cross-validation and subject-wise cross-validation. For all three classification tasks, we achieve high accuracy values for all four sensor locations. From these results, we can conclude that the data of a single walking step (6D: accelerations and angular velocities) allow for a robust estimation of the gender, height and age of a person. PMID:26703601

  16. The University of Arizona College of Medicine Optimal Aging Program: Stepping in the Shadows of Successful Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikora, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    The Optimal Aging Program (OAP) at the University of Arizona, College of Medicine is a longitudinal mentoring program that pairs students with older adults who are considered to be aging "successfully." This credit-bearing elective was initially established in 2001 through a grant from the John A. Hartford Foundation, and aims to expand the…

  17. The STEP model: Characterizing simultaneous time effects on practice for flight simulator performance among middle-aged and older pilots.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Quinn; Taylor, Joy; Noda, Art; Yesavage, Jerome; Lazzeroni, Laura C

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the possible effects of the number of practice sessions (practice) and time between practice sessions (interval) among middle-aged and older adults in real-world tasks has important implications for skill maintenance. Prior training and cognitive ability may impact practice and interval effects on real-world tasks. In this study, we took advantage of existing practice data from 5 simulated flights among 263 middle-aged and older pilots with varying levels of flight expertise (defined by U.S. Federal Aviation Administration proficiency ratings). We developed a new Simultaneous Time Effects on Practice (STEP) model: (a) to model the simultaneous effects of practice and interval on performance of the 5 flights, and (b) to examine the effects of selected covariates (i.e., age, flight expertise, and 3 composite measures of cognitive ability). The STEP model demonstrated consistent positive practice effects, negative interval effects, and predicted covariate effects. Age negatively moderated the beneficial effects of practice. Additionally, cognitive processing speed and intraindividual variability (IIV) in processing speed moderated the benefits of practice and/or the negative influence of interval for particular flight performance measures. Expertise did not interact with practice or interval. Results indicated that practice and interval effects occur in simulated flight tasks. However, processing speed and IIV may influence these effects, even among high-functioning adults. Results have implications for the design and assessment of training interventions targeted at middle-aged and older adults for complex real-world tasks. PMID:26280383

  18. Age-related challenges in reactive control of mediolateral stability during compensatory stepping: A focus on the dynamics of restabilisation.

    PubMed

    Singer, Jonathan C; Prentice, Stephen D; McIlroy, William E

    2016-03-21

    Age-related mediolateral instability during forward stepping reactions evoked by whole-body perturbation is believed to occur independent of the initial temporospatial parameters prior to step-contact. Recent research is beginning to explore the restabilisation phase, following step-contact, as the origin of such instability. This work sought to uncover potential mechanisms underlying age-related mediolateral instability during restabilisation by examining whole-body centre of mass (COM) kinematics and the orientation of the net ground reaction force relative to the COM. Healthy younger (n=20) and older adults (n=20) were anchored to a rigid frame, via adjustable cable. After establishing a standardised initial forward lean, cable release occurred with pseudorandom timing. Participants regained their balance using a single self-selected step. The potential for lateral instability was quantified by COM kinematics. The angle of divergence of the line of action of the net ground reaction force relative to the COM was quantified and examined at three discrete points during restabilisation, as indices of COM control. Age-related differences in magnitude and trial-to-trial variability were analysed. Older adults exhibited increased ML COM incongruity and trial-to-trial variability, which were reduced with trial repetition. Older adults required an increased time to reorient the net ground reaction force, which was correlated with the increased lateral COM displacement during restabilisation. The present results support the idea that age-related mediolateral instability occurs during restabilisation and may be linked to the reactive control of the orientation of the net ground reaction force with respect to the centre of mass. PMID:26920512

  19. Age differences in the required coefficient of friction during level walking do not exist when experimentally-controlling speed and step length

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Dennis E.; Franck, Christopher T.; Madigan, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of gait speed and step length on the required coefficient of friction (COF) confounds the investigation of age-related differences in required COF. The goals of this study were to investigate whether age differences in required COF during self-selected gait persist when experimentally-controlling speed and step length, and to determine the independent effects of speed and step length on required COF. Ten young and ten older healthy adults performed gait trials under five gait conditions: self-selected, slow and fast speeds without controlling step length, and slow and fast speeds while controlling step length. During self-selected gait, older adults walked with shorter step lengths and exhibited a lower required COF. Older adults also exhibited a lower required COF when walking at a controlled speed without controlling step length. When both age groups walked with the same speed and step length, no age difference in required COF was found. Thus, speed and step length can have a large influence on studies investigating age-related differences in required COF. It was also found that speed and step length have independent and opposite effects on required COF, with step length having a strong positive effect on required COF, and speed a weaker negative effect. PMID:24979811

  20. Age Effects in Second Language Learning: Stepping Stones toward Better Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeKeyser, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of age of acquisition on ultimate attainment in second language learning has been a controversial topic for years. After providing a very brief overview of the ideas that are at the core of the controversy, I discuss the two main reasons why these issues are so controversial: conceptual misunderstandings and methodological difficulties.…

  1. sup 40 Ar/ sup 39 Ar ages of six Apollo 15 impact melt rocks by laser step heating

    SciTech Connect

    Dalrymple, G.B. ); Ryder, G. )

    1991-06-01

    The authors have obtained 15 high resolution (21-51 step) {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar age spectra on six Apollo 15 impact melt rocks of different compositions using a continuous laser system on submilligram subsamples and on single crystal plagioclase clasts. Four of the six samples gave reproducible age spectra with well-defined intermediate temperature plateaus over 48% or more of the {sup 39}AR released; the plateaus are interpreted as crystallization ages. Samples 15304,7,69, 15294,6,21, and 15314,26,156 gave virtually identical plateau ages whose weighted mean is 3,870 {plus minus} 6 Ma. These three melt rocks differ in composition and likely formed in three separate impact events. Sample 15356,9 gave replicate plateau ages that average 3,836 {plus minus} 12 Ma and date a fourth and younger impact event. The age spectra for samples 15308,9 and 15414,3,36 increase with increasing increment temperature and may have been formed in or affected by impacts at about 2,700 Ma and 3,870 Ma, respectively. So far there continues to be no convincing evidence in the lunar record for impact melts older than about 3.9 Ga.

  2. Effects of a low-volume, vigorous intensity step exercise program on functional mobility in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Doheny, Emer P; McGrath, Denise; Ditroilo, Massimiliano; Mair, Jacqueline L; Greene, Barry R; Caulfield, Brian; De Vito, Giuseppe; Lowery, Madeleine M

    2013-08-01

    Aging-related decline in functional mobility is associated with loss of independence. This decline may be mitigated through programs of physical activity. Despite reports of aging-related mobility impairment in middle-aged adults, this age group has been largely overlooked in terms of exercise programs that target functional mobility and the preservation of independence in older age. A method to quantitatively assess changes in functional mobility could direct rehabilitation in a proactive rather than reactive manner. Thirty-three healthy but sedentary middle-aged adults participated in a four week low-volume, vigorous intensity stepping exercise program. Two baseline testing sessions and one post-training testing session were conducted. Functional mobility was assessed using the timed up and go (TUG) test, with its constituent sit-to-walk and walk-to-sit phases examined using a novel inertial sensor-based method. Additionally, semi-tandem balance and knee extensor muscle isometric torque were assessed. Trunk acceleration during walk-to-sit reduced significantly post-training, suggesting altered movement control due to the exercise program. No significant training-induced changes in sit-to-walk acceleration, TUG time, balance or torque were observed. The novel method of functional mobility assessment presented provides a reliable means to quantify subtle changes in mobility during postural transitions. Over time, this exercise program may improve functional mobility. PMID:23568151

  3. Periodontal Care as a Fundamental Step for an Active and Healthy Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Cafiero, Carlo; Matarasso, Marco; Marenzi, Gaetano; Iorio Siciliano, Vincenzo; Bellia, Loredana; Sammartino, Gilberto

    2013-01-01

    In the industrialized part of the world, an increasing number of people live the old age without too many restrictions due to illness or physiological impairment. This group is known as the young elderly. On the contrary, a consistent part of seniors develops a greater number of medical conditions and become more and more dependent, these are the old elderly. The first cause of tooth lost in industrialized word is periodontitis that generally strikes people older than 40 years and determines serious detriment of the stomatognatic organ. Smoking and stress are risk factors for periodontitis that are common and shared between young, adult, and older age. Diabetes mellitus, obesity, and osteoporosis are very frequent pathological situations in older age. They have been identified as cofactors in the progression of periodontitis. Many dental associations recognize the importance of continued research on oral fluids diagnostics and welcome the development of rapid point-of-care tests providing accurate measurements of clinically validated biomarkers. At present, well-studied molecules associated with host response factors and with derived tissue destruction mediators have been proposed as diagnostic biomarkers for periodontitis detected in the oral fluids. PMID:24453788

  4. Study of the SCC Behavior of 7075 Aluminum Alloy After One-Step Aging at 163 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, G.; Rivolta, B.; Gerosa, R.; Derudi, U.

    2013-01-01

    For the past many years, 7075 aluminum alloys have been widely used especially in those applications for which high mechanical performances are required. It is well known that the alloy in the T6 condition is characterized by the highest ultimate and yield strengths, but, at the same time, by poor stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance. For this reason, in the aeronautic applications, new heat treatments have been introduced to produce T7X conditions, which are characterized by lower mechanical strength, but very good SCC behavior, when compared with the T6 condition. The aim of this study is to study the tensile properties and the SCC behavior of 7075 thick plates when submitted to a single-step aging by varying the aging times. The tests were carried out according to the standards and the data obtained from the SCC tests were analyzed quantitatively using an image analysis software. The results show that, when compared with the T7X conditions, the single-step aging performed in the laboratory can produce acceptable tensile and SCC properties.

  5. Argon-40/Argon-39 Age Spectra of Apollo 17 Highlands Breccia Samples by Laser Step Heating and the Age of the Serenitatis Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalrymple, G. Brent; Ryder, Graham

    1996-01-01

    We have obtained high-resolution (21-63 steps) Ar-40/Ar-39 age spectra using a continuous laser system on 19 submilligram samples of melt rocks and clasts from Apollo 17 samples collected from the pre-Imbrian highlands in the easternmost part of the Serenitatis basin. The samples include poikilitic melt rocks inferred to have been formed in the Serenitatis basin-forming impact, aphanitic melt rock whose compositions vary and whose provenance is uncertain, and granulite, gabbro, and melt clasts. Three of the poikilitic melts have similar age spectrum plateau ages (72395,96, 3893 +/- 16 Ma (2sigma); 72535,7, 3887 +/- 16 Ma; 76315,150, 3900 +/- 16 Ma) with a weighted mean age of 3893 +/- 9 Ma, which we interpret as the best age for the Serenitatis basin- forming impact. Published Ar-40/Ar-39 age spectrum ages of Apollo 17 poikilitic melts are consistent with our new age but are much less precise. Two poikilitic melts did not give plateaus and the maxima in their age spectra indicate ages of greater than or equal to 3869 Ma (72558,7) and greater than or equal to 3743 Ma (77135,178). Plateau ages of two poikilitic melts and two gabbro clasts from 73155 range from 3854 +/- 16 Ma to 3937 +/- 16 Ma and have probably been affected by the ubiquitous (older?) clasts and by post- formation heating (impact) events. Plateau ages from two of the aphanitic melt 'blobs' and two granulites in sample 72255 fall in the narrow range of 3850 q 16 Ma to 3869 q 16 Ma with a weighted mean of 3862 +/- 8 Ma. Two of the aphanitic melt blobs from 72255 have ages of 3883 +/- 16 Ma and greater than or equal to 3894 Ma, whereas a poikilitic melt clast (of different composition from the 'Serenitatis' melts) has an age of 3835 +/- 16 Ma, which is the upper limit for the accretion of 72255. These data suggest that either the aphanitic melts vary in age, as is also suggested by their varying chemical compositions, or they formed in the 72255 accretionary event about 3.84-3.85 Ga and older relict

  6. Methylglyoxal-induced dicarbonyl stress in aging and disease: first steps towards glyoxalase 1-based treatments.

    PubMed

    Rabbani, Naila; Xue, Mingzhan; Thornalley, Paul J

    2016-10-01

    Dicarbonyl stress is the abnormal accumulation of dicarbonyl metabolites leading to increased protein and DNA modification contributing to cell and tissue dysfunction in aging and disease. It is produced by increased formation and/or decreased metabolism of dicarbonyl metabolites. MG (methylglyoxal) is a dicarbonyl metabolite of relatively high flux of formation and precursor of the most quantitatively and functionally important spontaneous modifications of protein and DNA clinically. Major MG-derived adducts are arginine-derived hydroimidazolones of protein and deoxyguanosine-derived imidazopurinones of DNA. These are formed non-oxidatively. The glyoxalase system provides an efficient and essential basal and stress-response-inducible enzymatic defence against dicarbonyl stress by the reduced glutathione-dependent metabolism of methylglyoxal by glyoxalase 1. The GLO1 gene encoding glyoxalase 1 has low prevalence duplication and high prevalence amplification in some tumours. Dicarbonyl stress contributes to aging, disease and activity of cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents. It is found at a low, moderate and severe level in obesity, diabetes and renal failure respectively, where it contributes to the development of metabolic and vascular complications. Increased glyoxalase 1 expression confers multidrug resistance to cancer chemotherapy and has relatively high prevalence in liver, lung and breast cancers. Studies of dicarbonyl stress are providing improved understanding of aging and disease and the basis for rational design of novel pharmaceuticals: glyoxalase 1 inducers for obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease and glyoxalase 1 inhibitors for multidrug-resistant tumours. The first clinical trial of a glyoxalase 1 inducer in overweight and obese subjects showed improved glycaemic control, insulin resistance and vascular function. PMID:27555612

  7. Developing a two-step heat treatment for inactivating desiccation-adapted Salmonella spp. in aged chicken litter.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhao; Wang, Hongye; Jiang, Xiuping

    2015-02-01

    The effectiveness of a two-step heat treatment for eliminating desiccation-adapted Salmonella spp. in aged chicken litter was evaluated. The aged chicken litter with 20, 30, 40, and 50% moisture contents was inoculated with a mixture of four Salmonella serotypes for a 24-h adaptation. Afterwards, the inoculated chicken litter was added into the chicken litter with the adjusted moisture content for a 1-h moist-heat treatment at 65 °C and 100% relative humidity inside a water bath, followed by a dry-heat treatment in a convection oven at 85 °C for 1 h to the desired moisture level (<10-12%). After moist-heat treatment, the populations of Salmonella in aged chicken litter at 20 and 30% moisture contents declined from ≈6.70 log colony-forming units (CFU)/g to 3.31 and 3.00 log CFU/g, respectively. After subsequent 1-h dry-heat treatment, the populations further decreased to 2.97 and 2.57 log CFU/g, respectively. Salmonella cells in chicken litter with 40% and 50% moisture contents were only detectable by enrichment after 40 and 20 min of moist-heat treatment, respectively. Moisture contents in all samples were reduced to <10% after a 1-h dry-heat process. Our results demonstrated that the two-step heat treatment was effective in reducing >5.5 logs of desiccation-adapted Salmonella in aged chicken litter with moisture content at or above 40%. Clearly, the findings from this study may provide the chicken litter processing industry with an effective heat treatment method for producing Salmonella-free chicken litter. PMID:25405539

  8. Comparison of iterated single-step and Bayesian regressions on genomic evaluations for age at 100 kg in swine.

    PubMed

    Freitas, M S; Freitas, L S; Weber, T; Yamaki, M; Cantão, M E; Peixoto, J O; Ledur, M C

    2015-10-01

    The effects of modified single-step genomic best linear unbiased prediction (ssGBLUP) iterations on GEBV and SNP were investigated using 85,388 age at 100 kg phenotypes from the BRF SA breeding program Landrace pure line animals, off-tested between 2002 and 2013. Pedigree data comprised animals born between 1999 and 2013. A total of 1,068 animals were assigned to the training population, in which all of them had genotypes, original and corrected age at 100 kg phenotypes, and weighted deregressed proof records. A total of 100 genotyped animals, with high accuracy age at 100 kg estimated breeding values, were assigned to the validation population. After applying the quality control workflow, a set of 41,042 SNP was used for the analysis. Standard and modified ssGBLUP, BayesCπ, and Bayesian Lasso were compared, and their predictive abilities were accessed by approximate true and GEBV correlations. Modified ssGBLUP iteration effects on SNP estimates and GEBV were relevant, in which assigned differential weights and shrinkage caused important losses on ssGBLUP predictive ability for age at 100 kg GEBV. Even though ssGBLUP accuracy can be equal or better than the compared Bayesian methods, additional gains can be obtained by correctly identifying the number of iterations required for best ssGBLUP performance. PMID:26523560

  9. Accelerated step-temperature aging of Al/x/Ga/1-x/As heterojunction laser diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kressel, H.; Ettenberg, M.; Ladany, I.

    1978-01-01

    Double-heterojunction A2(0.3)Ga(0.7)As/Al(0.08)Ga(0.92)As lasers (oxide-striped and Al2O3 facet coated) were subjected to step-temperature aging from 60 to 100 C. The change in threshold current and spontaneous output was monitored at 22 C. The average time required for a 20% pulsed threshold current increase ranges from about 500 h, when operating at 100 C, to about 5000 h at a 70 C ambience. At 22 C, the extrapolated time is about 1 million h. The time needed for a 50% spontaneous emission reduction is of the same order of magnitude. The resulting activation energies are approximately 0.95 eV for laser degradation and approximately 1.1 eV for the spontaneous output decrease

  10. TWO-STEP ACCELERATION MODEL OF COSMIC RAYS AT MIDDLE-AGED SUPERNOVA REMNANTS: UNIVERSALITY IN SECONDARY SHOCKS

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Yamazaki, Ryo; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2010-11-01

    Recent gamma-ray observations of middle-aged supernova remnants revealed a mysterious broken power-law spectrum. Using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we show that the interaction between a supernova blast wave and interstellar clouds formed by thermal instability generates multiple reflected shocks. The typical Mach numbers of the reflected shocks are shown to be M{approx_equal} 2 depending on the density contrast between the diffuse intercloud gas and clouds. These secondary shocks can further energize cosmic-ray particles originally accelerated at the blast-wave shock. This 'two-step' acceleration scenario reproduces the observed gamma-ray spectrum and predicts the high-energy spectral index ranging approximately from 3 to 4.

  11. Three-step aging to obtain high strength and corrosion resistance in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.H.

    1984-10-16

    A three-step thermal aging method for improving the strength and corrosion resistance of an article comprising a solution heat treated aluminum alloy containing zinc, magnesium, copper and at least one element selected from the group consisting of chromium, manganese and zirconium. The article is precipitation hardened at about 175/sup 0/ to 325/sup 0/ F., heat treated for from several minutes to a few hours at a temperature of about 360/sup 0/ to 390/sup 0/ F. and again precipitation hardened at about 175/sup 0/ to 325/sup 0/ F. In a preferred embodiment the article treated comprises aluminum alloy 7075 in the T6 condition. The method of the invention is easier to control and is suitable for treating articles of greater thickness than other comparable methods.

  12. Two-step Acceleration Model of Cosmic Rays at Middle-aged Supernova Remnants: Universality in Secondary Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Yamazaki, Ryo; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2010-11-01

    Recent gamma-ray observations of middle-aged supernova remnants revealed a mysterious broken power-law spectrum. Using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we show that the interaction between a supernova blast wave and interstellar clouds formed by thermal instability generates multiple reflected shocks. The typical Mach numbers of the reflected shocks are shown to be Msime 2 depending on the density contrast between the diffuse intercloud gas and clouds. These secondary shocks can further energize cosmic-ray particles originally accelerated at the blast-wave shock. This "two-step" acceleration scenario reproduces the observed gamma-ray spectrum and predicts the high-energy spectral index ranging approximately from 3 to 4.

  13. Use of step scan FT-IR and multivariate curve resolution to understand aging of propellant binder as a function of depth into the polymer material.

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, Dion Arledge; Alam, Mary Kathleen

    2003-01-01

    A sample of polymeric propellant binder was aged from 0 to 60 days at 95 C and analyzed using FT-IR step scan photoacoustic spectroscopy. This technique has the ability of to obtain spectra of the polymer as a function of depth into the polymer material. Multivariate curve resolution was applied to the spectra data obtained to extract the contributions of the aged and un-aged spectral components from the spectra. It was found that multivariate curve resolution could efficiently separate highly overlapped spectra and yielded insights into the aging process.

  14. Ar-40/Ar-39 age spectra of Apollo 15 impact melt rocks by laser step-heating and their bearing on the history of lunar basin formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalrymple, G. B.; Ryder, G.

    1993-07-01

    Results are reported on 26 high-resolution (16-51 steps) Ar-40/Ar-39 age spectra obtained on 12 Apollo-15 melt rocks of different composition using a continuous laser system on submg fragments of recrystallized melt and single-crystal plagioclase clasts from impact melt rocks collected at the Apennine Front where the Imbrium and Serenitatis basins intersect. A table is presented with the summary of the Ar-40/Ar-39 spectrum data, which represent 891 individual temperature step analyses. Also presented are 20 of the 26 age spectra along with their respective K/Ca plots. Melt rock fragments and plagioclase clasts from seven of the 12 samples analyzed yielded reproducible, intermediate-T Ar-40/Ar-39 age spectrum plateaus, which were interpreted as crystallization ages that represent the times of impact of bolides onto the lunar surface.

  15. Technical note: The two step procedure (TSP) for the determination of age at death of adult human remains in forensic cases.

    PubMed

    Baccino, Eric; Sinfield, Laura; Colomb, Sophie; Baum, Thierry Pascal; Martrille, Laurent

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the principles and results of TSP (the two step procedure), a comprehensive (combined) method of age estimation in mature human skeletal remains. The first step consists of the examination of the pubic symphysis using the Suchey-Brooks system for a "pre-choice". Then for SBS phases I, II, III, (young adults up to about 40) the age estimate is given using the chronological interval corresponding to each phase. For SBS phase is IV, V or VI (mature adults, about 40 to 60), then (second step) the dental method of Lamendin (using single rooted tooth) will be applied alone. Both methods are fast, easy to learn and to use (requiring no preparation except cleaning soft tissues from the pubic bone) and are not expensive, making TSP usable by all pathologists or anthropologists in any Forensic unit. It is also of great practical use in mass disaster and mass grave situation. After 15 years of use, a literature review and four evaluation studies we confirm that TSP is more accurate than any single method for aging adults and at least as good as more complicated combined methods. Despite its advantages TSP is, like all other aging methods, not efficient in adults over 65 years of age. PMID:25282468

  16. Influence of multi-step heat treatments in creep age forming of 7075 aluminum alloy: Optimization for springback, strength and exfoliation corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Arabi Jeshvaghani, R.; Zohdi, H.; Shahverdi, H.R.; Bozorg, M.; Hadavi, S.M.M.

    2012-11-15

    Multi-step heat treatments comprise of high temperature forming (150 Degree-Sign C/24 h plus 190 Degree-Sign C for several minutes) and subsequent low temperature forming (120 Degree-Sign C for 24 h) is developed in creep age forming of 7075 aluminum alloy to decrease springback and exfoliation corrosion susceptibility without reduction in tensile properties. The results show that the multi-step heat treatment gives the low springback and the best combination of exfoliation corrosion resistance and tensile strength. The lower springback is attributed to the dislocation recovery and more stress relaxation at higher temperature. Transmission electron microscopy observations show that corrosion resistance is improved due to the enlargement in the size and the inter-particle distance of the grain boundaries precipitates. Furthermore, the achievement of the high strength is related to the uniform distribution of ultrafine {eta} Prime precipitates within grains. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Creep age forming developed for manufacturing of aircraft wing panels by aluminum alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A good combination of properties with minimal springback is required in this component. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This requirement can be improved through the appropriate heat treatments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multi-step cycles developed in creep age forming of AA7075 for improving of springback and properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results indicate simultaneous enhancing the properties and shape accuracy (lower springback).

  17. "But a Step from College to the Judicial Bench": College and Curriculum in New England's "Age of Improvement"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nivison, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    In 1827, two years after its incorporation as a college and six years removed from its founding as a "collegiate institution," Amherst College revamped its curriculum into what it called a "parallel course of study." In this new scheme, students were allowed to follow one of two tracks during their college years. Amherst's response to the Age of…

  18. Influence of delay step conditions between quenching and aging on the precipitation mechanisms in the alloy AlZnMg AA7028 aging process

    SciTech Connect

    Calatayud, A.; Ferrer, C.; Amigo, V.; Salvador, M.D.

    1997-03-15

    Among precipitation-hardened alloys, the Al-Zn-Mg system includes the aluminium alloys with higher-strength. The relatively high solubility of Zn and Mg in aluminium makes it possible to produce a high density of precipitates, which results in a higher strength increase. AlZnMg low copper or copper free alloys have the advantage of being easily weldable and, moreover, they harden significantly at room temperature with respect to other weldable aluminium alloys. Due to the remarkable degree of natural aging achieved by AA7000 alloys, the time interval at room temperature between quenching and the beginning of the artificial aging treatment is a variable that must be taken into account. This work was undertaken to evaluate the influence of cooling kinetics at quenching on alloy mechanical characteristics in artificial aging at several temperatures T{sub 2}. The effect of variables that define delays after quenching, basically time t{sub 1} and temperature T{sub 1} was also analyzed. Likewise, this work studies microstructural evolution of material exposed to aging treatments, resulting from the combination of the above mentioned variables.

  19. Improved Stress Corrosion Cracking Resistance and Strength of a Two-Step Aged Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy Using Taguchi Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lianghua; Liu, Zhiyi; Ying, Puyou; Liu, Meng

    2015-12-01

    Multi-step heat treatment effectively enhances the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance but usually degrades the mechanical properties of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys. With the aim to enhance SCC resistance as well as strength of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys, we have optimized the process parameters during two-step aging of Al-6.1Zn-2.8Mg-1.9Cu alloy by Taguchi's L9 orthogonal array. In this work, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to find out the significant heat treatment parameters. The slow strain rate testing combined with scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope was employed to study the SCC behaviors of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy. Results showed that the contour map produced by ANOVA offered a reliable reference for selection of optimum heat treatment parameters. By using this method, a desired combination of mechanical performances and SCC resistance was obtained.

  20. Security: Step by Step

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svetcov, Eric

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a list of the essential steps to keeping a school's or district's network safe and sound. It describes how to establish a security architecture and approach that will continually evolve as the threat environment changes over time. The article discusses the methodology for implementing this approach and then discusses the…

  1. Next Step for STEP

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Claire; Bremner, Brenda

    2013-08-09

    The Siletz Tribal Energy Program (STEP), housed in the Tribe’s Planning Department, will hire a data entry coordinator to collect, enter, analyze and store all the current and future energy efficiency and renewable energy data pertaining to administrative structures the tribe owns and operates and for homes in which tribal members live. The proposed data entry coordinator will conduct an energy options analysis in collaboration with the rest of the Siletz Tribal Energy Program and Planning Department staff. An energy options analysis will result in a thorough understanding of tribal energy resources and consumption, if energy efficiency and conservation measures being implemented are having the desired effect, analysis of tribal energy loads (current and future energy consumption), and evaluation of local and commercial energy supply options. A literature search will also be conducted. In order to educate additional tribal members about renewable energy, we will send four tribal members to be trained to install and maintain solar panels, solar hot water heaters, wind turbines and/or micro-hydro.

  2. Aging.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-09-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  3. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  4. PHOEBE - step by step manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zasche, P.

    2016-03-01

    An easy step-by-step manual of PHOEBE is presented. It should serve as a starting point for the first time users of PHOEBE analyzing the eclipsing binary light curve. It is demonstrated on one particular detached system also with the downloadable data and the whole procedure is described easily till the final trustworthy fit is being reached.

  5. Step Pultrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langella, A.; Carbone, R.; Durante, M.

    2012-12-01

    The pultrusion process is an efficient technology for the production of composite material profiles. Thanks to this positive feature, several studies have been carried out, either to expand the range of products made using the pultrusion technology, or improve its already high production rate. This study presents a process derived from the traditional pultrusion technology named "Step Pultrusion Process Technology" (SPPT). Using the step pultrusion process, the final section of the composite profiles is obtainable by means of a progressive cross section increasing through several resin cure stations. This progressive increasing of the composite cross section means that a higher degree of cure level can be attained at the die exit point of the last die. Mechanical test results of the manufactured pultruded samples have been used to compare both the traditional and the step pultrusion processes. Finally, there is a discussion on ways to improve the new step pultrusion process even further.

  6. Stepped nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Sutton, G.P.

    1998-07-14

    An insert is described which allows a supersonic nozzle of a rocket propulsion system to operate at two or more different nozzle area ratios. This provides an improved vehicle flight performance or increased payload. The insert has significant advantages over existing devices for increasing nozzle area ratios. The insert is temporarily fastened by a simple retaining mechanism to the aft end of the diverging segment of the nozzle and provides for a multi-step variation of nozzle area ratio. When mounted in place, the insert provides the nozzle with a low nozzle area ratio. During flight, the retaining mechanism is released and the insert ejected thereby providing a high nozzle area ratio in the diverging nozzle segment. 5 figs.

  7. Stepped nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Sutton, George P.

    1998-01-01

    An insert which allows a supersonic nozzle of a rocket propulsion system to operate at two or more different nozzle area ratios. This provides an improved vehicle flight performance or increased payload. The insert has significant advantages over existing devices for increasing nozzle area ratios. The insert is temporarily fastened by a simple retaining mechanism to the aft end of the diverging segment of the nozzle and provides for a multi-step variation of nozzle area ratio. When mounted in place, the insert provides the nozzle with a low nozzle area ratio. During flight, the retaining mechanism is released and the insert ejected thereby providing a high nozzle area ratio in the diverging nozzle segment.

  8. Tick-borne infections--a growing public health treat to school-age children. Prevention steps that school personnel can take.

    PubMed

    Hamlen, Ronald

    2012-03-01

    School nurses are experts in school health services and frequently front-line providers of care for school-age children presenting with symptoms of physical illness or behavioral, cognitive, learning, and/or psychological problems possibly due to tick-borne infections. School nurses need to know how to protect children on school property and during school sponsored outdoor activities from being bitten by ticks that can transmit diseases. Since infection prevention is a primary objective in health care, this article will empower school nurses with key information about how to accomplish this goal. PMID:22567784

  9. Physical modeling of stepped spillways

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stepped spillways applied to embankment dams are becoming popular for addressing the rehabilitation of aging watershed dams, especially those situated in the urban landscape. Stepped spillways are typically placed over the existing embankment, which provides for minimal disturbance to the original ...

  10. LASER step-heating 40Ar /39Ar age spectra from early Archean (~3.5 Ga) Barberton greenstone belt sediments: A technique for detecting cryptic tectono-thermal events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Ronde, C. E. J.; Hall, C. M.; York, D.; Spooner, E. T. C.

    1991-07-01

    Samples from sediments of the Fig Tree Group located in the central part of the circa 3.2 to 3.5 Ga Barberton greenstone belt (BGB) have been analyzed by the 40Ar /39Ar laser step-heating technique. This technique has enabled previously cryptic thermal overprints to be detected in various sedimentary units which include: reworked chemical sediments (barite), clastic sediments (sandstone/shale), and one stromatolite. In most cases the apparent age plateaux can be identified by corresponding Ca/K and Cl/K ratio plots as belonging to separate mineral phases. Most of the samples exhibit simple Ar diffusion loss during the low temperature part of the experiments while occasionally showing excess Ar, or possible 39Ar recoil, effects. The various sediments analyzed show evidence for distinct overprinting between 2025 and 2090 Ma. One barite sample gave T0 (original blocking age) = 2673 ± 3 Ma (1σ) which is close to a calculated model Ar diffusion-loss age for the same sample of 2688 ± 3 Ma (1σ). This age is interpreted as representing final granitoid activity adjacent to the BGB, and/or craton-scale tectonism associated with the Limpopo Orogeny. Two samples gave T0 ages of ˜2350-2400 Ma which may reflect increased thermal gradients associated with the formation of the thick Transvaal sedimentary basin that may once have covered the BGB. The dominant apparent age plateaux together with modelled diffusive Ar loss ages of 2025-2090 Ma, are thought to represent regional thermal anomalies related to large-scale tectono-thermal activity in the Kaapvaal craton, of which the Bushveld Complex (which covers a surface area of ~ 60,000 km 2) and formation of the Vredefort Structure are obvious manifestations. The strong thermal overprinting recorded by the sediments has effectively removed any ancient atmosphere (i.e., 40Ar /36Ar ratios < 295.5) signatures.

  11. Lessons learned in stepped chute research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early research on stepped chutes focused on steep gravity style stepped chutes. Today, the research trend has shifted to stepped chutes applied to more moderate slopes like those for aging embankment dams. Research contributions have been made on hydraulic properties of stepped chutes including ai...

  12. Sticky steps inhibit step motions near equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akutsu, Noriko

    2012-12-01

    Using a Monte Carlo method on a lattice model of a vicinal surface with a point-contact-type step-step attraction, we show that, at low temperature and near equilibrium, there is an inhibition of the motion of macrosteps. This inhibition leads to a pinning of steps without defects, adsorbates, or impurities (self-pinning of steps). We show that this inhibition of the macrostep motion is caused by faceted steps, which are macrosteps that have a smooth side surface. The faceted steps result from discontinuities in the anisotropic surface tension (the surface free energy per area). The discontinuities are brought into the surface tension by the point-contact-type step-step attraction. The point-contact-type step-step attraction also originates “step droplets,” which are locally merged steps, at higher temperatures. We derive an analytic equation of the surface stiffness tensor for the vicinal surface around the (001) surface. Using the surface stiffness tensor, we show that step droplets roughen the vicinal surface. Contrary to what we expected, the step droplets slow down the step velocity due to the diminishment of kinks in the merged steps (smoothing of the merged steps).

  13. Laser step-heating sup 40 Ar/ sup 39 Ar age spectra from early Archean (@3. 5 Ga) Barberton greenstone belt sediments: A technique for detecting cryptic tectono-thermal events

    SciTech Connect

    De Ronde, C.E.J.; Hall, C.M.; York, D.; Spooner, E.T.C. )

    1991-07-01

    Samples from sediments of the Fig Tree Group located in the central part of the circa 3.2 to 3.5 Ga Barberton greenstone belt (BGB) have been analyzed by the {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar laser step-heating technique. This technique has enabled previously cryptic thermal overprints to be detected in various sedimentary units which include: reworked chemical sediments (barite), clastic sediments (sandstone/shale), and one stromatolite. In most cases the apparent age plateau can be identified by corresponding Ca/K and Cl/K ratio plots as belonging to separate mineral phases. Most of the samples exhibit simple Ar diffusion loss during the low temperature part of the experiments while occasionally showing excess Ar, or possible {sup 39}Ar recoil, effects. The various sediments analyzed show evidence for distinct overprinting between 2,025 and 2,090 Ma. One barite sample gave T{sub 0} = 2,673 {plus minus} 3 Ma (1{sigma}) which is close to a calculated model Ar diffusion-loss age for the same sample of 2,688 {plus minus} 3 Ma (1{sigma}). This age is interpreted as representing final granitoid activity adjacent to the BGB, and/or craton-scale tectonism associated with the Limpopo Orogeny. Two samples gave T{sub 0} ages of {approximately}2,350-2,400 Ma which may reflect increased thermal gradients associated with the formation of the thick Transvaal sedimentary basin that may once have covered the BGB. The dominant apparent age plateau together with modeled diffusive Ar loss ages of 2,025-2,090 Ma, are thought to represent regional thermal anomalies related to large-scale tectono-thermal activity in the Kaapvaal craton, of which the Bushveld Complex (which covers a surface area of {approximately}60,000 km{sup 2}) and formation of the Vredefort Structure are obvious manifestations. The strong thermal overprinting recorded by the sediments has effectively removed any ancient atmosphere signatures.

  14. Design of converging stepped spillways

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Roller compacted concrete (RCC) stepped spillways are growing in popularity for providing overtopping protection for aging watershed dams with inadequate auxiliary spillway capacity and for the construction of new dams. Unobtainable land rights, topographic features, and land use changes caused by ...

  15. Evaluation of Florida's STEP Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Tallahassee.

    Project STEP (Short Term Elective Program) is an outdoor-educational program that, through teaching wilderness survival skills and affording a necessity for their use, provides juvenile delinquents with a feeling of self-reliance and self-worth. The program is designed for committed youths, primarily males, at least 13 to 14 years of age, but…

  16. Stepping motor controller

    DOEpatents

    Bourret, S.C.; Swansen, J.E.

    1982-07-02

    A stepping motor is microprocessor controlled by digital circuitry which monitors the output of a shaft encoder adjustably secured to the stepping motor and generates a subsequent stepping pulse only after the preceding step has occurred and a fixed delay has expired. The fixed delay is variable on a real-time basis to provide for smooth and controlled deceleration.

  17. Stepping motor controller

    DOEpatents

    Bourret, Steven C.; Swansen, James E.

    1984-01-01

    A stepping motor is microprocessingly controlled by digital circuitry which monitors the output of a shaft encoder adjustably secured to the stepping motor and generates a subsequent stepping pulse only after the preceding step has occurred and a fixed delay has expired. The fixed delay is variable on a real-time basis to provide for smooth and controlled deceleration.

  18. Aging and Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Eyes Heath and Aging Aging and Your Eyes Steps to Protect Your Eyesight Common Eye Problems ... weight can also help protect your vision. Common Eye Problems The following common eye problems can be ...

  19. Inception point for embankment dam stepped spillways

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stepped spillways applied to embankment dams have become a common design practice with the rehabilitation of aging watershed dams, especially those experiencing a hazard classification change from low to high hazard. Previous research on stepped spillways focused on gravity dams where aerated flow ...

  20. Steps in Behavior Modividation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straughan, James H.; And Others

    James H. Straughan lists five steps for modifying target behavior and four steps for working with teachers using behavior modification. Grant Martin and Harold Kunzelmann then outline an instructional program for pinpointing and recording classroom behaviors. (JD)

  1. Stepped Hydraulic Geometry in Stepped Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comiti, F.; Cadol, D. D.; Wohl, E.

    2007-12-01

    Steep mountain streams typically present a stepped longitudinal profile. Such stepped channels feature tumbling flow, where hydraulic jumps represent an important source of channel roughness (spill resistance). However, the extent to which spill resistance persists up to high flows has not been ascertained yet, such that a faster, skimming flow has been envisaged to begin at those conditions. In order to analyze the relationship between flow resistance and bed morphology, a mobile bed physical model was developed at Colorado State University (Fort Collins, USA). An 8 m-long, 0.6 m-wide flume tilted at a constant 14% slope was used, testing 2 grain-size mixtures differing only for the largest fraction. Experiments were conducted under clear water conditions. Reach-averaged flow velocity was measured using salt tracers, bed morphology and flow depth by a point gage, and surface grain size using commercial image-analysis software. Starting from an initial plane bed, progressively higher flow rates were used to create different bed structures. After each bed morphology was stable with its forming discharge, lower-than-forming flows were run to build a hydraulic geometry curve. Results show that even though equilibrium slopes ranged from 8.5% to 14%, the reach-averaged flow was always sub-critical. Steps formed through a variety of mechanisms, with immobile clasts playing a dominant role by causing local scouring and/or trapping moving smaller particles. Overall, step height, step pool steepness, relative pool area and volume increased with discharge up to the threshold when the bed approached fully- mobilized conditions. For bed morphologies surpassing a minimum profile roughness, a stepped velocity- discharge relationship is evident, with sharp rises in velocity correlated with the disappearance of rollers in pools at flows approaching the formative discharge for each morphology. Flow resistance exhibits an opposite pattern, with drops in resistance being a function

  2. One Step to Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Carol A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Described are activities and games incorporating a technique of "one step" which is used with children with learning difficulties. The purpose of "one step" is twofold, to minimize difficulties with typical trouble spots and to keep the step size of the instruction small. (Author/TG)

  3. A Step Circuit Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Susan

    1995-01-01

    Aerobics instructors can use step aerobics to motivate students. One creative method is to add the step to the circuit workout. By incorporating the step, aerobic instructors can accommodate various fitness levels. The article explains necessary equipment and procedures, describing sample stations for cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength,…

  4. STEP: A Futurevision, Today

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STEP (STandard for the Exchange of Product Model Data) is an innovative software tool that allows the exchange of data between different programming systems to occur and helps speed up the designing in various process industries. This exchange occurs easily between those companies that have STEP, and many industries and government agencies are requiring that their vendors utilize STEP in their computer aided design projects, such as in the areas of mechanical, aeronautical, and electrical engineering. STEP allows the process of concurrent engineering to occur and increases the quality of the design product. One example of the STEP program is the Boeing 777, the first paperless airplane.

  5. Cyclic steps on ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokokawa, M.; Izumi, N.; Naito, K.; Parker, G.; Yamada, T.; Greve, R.

    2016-05-01

    Boundary waves often form at the interface between ice and fluid flowing adjacent to it, such as ripples under river ice covers, and steps on the bed of supraglacial meltwater channels. They may also be formed by wind, such as the megadunes on the Antarctic ice sheet. Spiral troughs on the polar ice caps of Mars have been interpreted to be cyclic steps formed by katabatic wind blowing over ice. Cyclic steps are relatives of upstream-migrating antidunes. Cyclic step formation on ice is not only a mechanical but also a thermodynamic process. There have been very few studies on the formation of either cyclic steps or upstream-migrating antidunes on ice. In this study, we performed flume experiments to reproduce cyclic steps on ice by flowing water, and found that trains of steps form when the Froude number is larger than unity. The features of those steps allow them to be identified as ice-bed analogs of cyclic steps in alluvial and bedrock rivers. We performed a linear stability analysis and obtained a physical explanation of the formation of upstream-migrating antidunes, i.e., precursors of cyclic steps. We compared the results of experiments with the predictions of the analysis and found the observed steps fall in the range where the analysis predicts interfacial instability. We also found that short antidune-like undulations formed as a precursor to the appearance of well-defined steps. This fact suggests that such antidune-like undulations correspond to the instability predicted by the analysis and are precursors of cyclic steps.

  6. Golgi-Cox Staining Step by Step

    PubMed Central

    Zaqout, Sami; Kaindl, Angela M.

    2016-01-01

    Golgi staining remains a key method to study neuronal morphology in vivo. Since most protocols delineating modifications of the original staining method lack details on critical steps, establishing this method in a laboratory can be time-consuming and frustrating. Here, we describe the Golgi-Cox staining in such detail that should turn the staining into an easily feasible method for all scientists working in the neuroscience field. PMID:27065817

  7. The Twelve Steps Experientially.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Lianne

    Experiential activities provide each participant with the ability to see, feel, and experience whatever therapeutic issue the facilitator is addressing, and usually much more. This paper presents experiential activities to address the 12 steps of recovery adopted from Alcoholics Anonymous. These 12 steps are used worldwide for many other recovery…

  8. STEP Experiment Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brumfield, M. L. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    A plan to develop a space technology experiments platform (STEP) was examined. NASA Langley Research Center held a STEP Experiment Requirements Workshop on June 29 and 30 and July 1, 1983, at which experiment proposers were invited to present more detailed information on their experiment concept and requirements. A feasibility and preliminary definition study was conducted and the preliminary definition of STEP capabilities and experiment concepts and expected requirements for support services are presented. The preliminary definition of STEP capabilities based on detailed review of potential experiment requirements is investigated. Topics discussed include: Shuttle on-orbit dynamics; effects of the space environment on damping materials; erectable beam experiment; technology for development of very large solar array deployers; thermal energy management process experiment; photovoltaic concentrater pointing dynamics and plasma interactions; vibration isolation technology; flight tests of a synthetic aperture radar antenna with use of STEP.

  9. Teaching BASIC. A Step by Step Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, M. F.

    This three-chapter guide provides simple explanations about BASIC programming for a teacher to use in a classroom situation, and suggests procedures for a "hands-on" course. Numerous examples are presented of the questions, problems, and level of understanding to expect from first-time, adult users (ages 13 and up). The course materials are…

  10. The Next Giant Step

    NASA Video Gallery

    Artist Robert McCall painted "The Next Giant Step" in 1979 to commemorate the heroism and courage of spaceflight pioneers. Located in the lobby of Johnson's building 2, the mural depicts America's ...

  11. Steps in the Right Direction, against the Odds, an Evaluation of a Community-Based Programme Aiming to Reduce Inactivity and Improve Health and Morale in Overweight and Obese School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Claire; Lewis, Kiara; Manby, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The study describes an evaluation of a 48-week physical activity and nutritional education programme for overweight/obese school-age children using quantitative and qualitative methods. The majority of participants were obese or severely obese when enrolled, and while some improvements in body mass index, self-esteem and engagement in a range of…

  12. Stepped inlet optical panel

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2001-01-01

    An optical panel includes stacked optical waveguides having stepped inlet facets collectively defining an inlet face for receiving image light, and having beveled outlet faces collectively defining a display screen for displaying the image light channeled through the waveguides by internal reflection.

  13. Steps Toward Effective Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Carolyn O.

    1996-01-01

    Describes and defines the steps involved in measurement and evaluation: (1) determining an outcome; (2)defining scoring criteria; (3)establishing appropriate assessment tasks; and (4)creating opportunities for learning. Includes a flow chart for a design-down curriculum and an example of a vocal performance rating scale assessment. (MJP)

  14. Converging stepped spillways: Simplified momentum analysis approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Roller compacted concrete (RCC) stepped spillways are growing in popularity for providing overtopping protection for aging watershed dams with inadequate auxiliary spillway capacity and for the construction of new dams. Site conditions, such as limited right-of-way, topography, and geological forma...

  15. Aging & Health.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    By 2050 an estimated 83.7 million Americans will be ages sixty-five and older, up from 40.3 million in 2010. The shock wave of aging Americans will have profound implications for older people, their families, health care providers, and the economy. Researchers, policy makers, health care leaders, and others are designing responses to the challenges these actuarial shifts will create. For example, delivering health care at home could help keep more older Americans out of costly emergency departments and nursing homes. But such steps require more health care providers, a broader distribution of providers than currently exists, and better use of the resources we have. PMID:27605632

  16. Micromachine Wedge Stepping Motor

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.J.; Schriner, H.K.

    1998-11-04

    A wedge stepping motor, which will index a mechanism, has been designed and fabricated in the surface rnicromachine SUMMiT process. This device has demonstrated the ability to index one gear tooth at a time with speeds up to 205 teeth/see. The wedge stepper motor has the following features, whi:h will be useful in a number of applications. o The ability to precisely position mechanical components. . Simple pulse signals can be used for operation. o Only 2 drive signals are requixed for operation. o Torque and precision capabilities increase with device size . The device to be indexed is restrained at all times by the wedge shaped tooth that is used for actuation. This paper will discuss the theory of operation and desi=m of the wedge stepping motor. The fabrication and testing of I he device will also be presented.

  17. Comparison of the Effects of Three Stepping Cadences on the Criterion-Related Validity of a Step Test in Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hui, Stanley Sai-chuen; Cheung, Peggy Pui-yee

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the criterion-related validity of a 3-min step test using 3 stepping cadences. Chinese children (N = 50; age = 8.92 plus or minus 1.64 years) performed three 3-min bouts of a bench stepping exercise on a 12-in.-high (30.5 cm) bench. Stepping cadences for the 3 step tests were 22, 26, and 30 steps per…

  18. New photolithography stepping machine

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, L.; Klingmann, J.; Markle, D.

    1995-03-08

    A joint development project to design a new photolithography steeping machine capable of 150 nanometer overlay accuracy was completed by Ultratech Stepper and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The principal result of the project is a next-generation product that will strengthen the US position in step-and-repeat photolithography. The significant challenges addressed and solved in the project are the subject of this report. Design methods and new devices that have broader application to precision machine design are presented in greater detail while project specific information serves primarily as background and motivation.

  19. Stepped sinewave inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appelbaum, J.; Gabbay, D.

    1984-11-01

    A stepped sinewave dc/ac inverter was analyzed for an inductive load with respect to load current and voltage, harmonics, power factor, and efficiency. This special inverter of high efficiency and low harmonic content is constructed by synthesizing the sinusoidal output by discrete voltage sources, such as storage batteries, solar cell, etc., with electronic switching of the sources at specific time intervals. The switching times are determined for the condition of minimum distortion of the synthesized wave. A 50 W inverter was built and tested to demonstrate this approach.

  20. SPAR-H Step-by-Step Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    W. J. Galyean; A. M. Whaley; D. L. Kelly; R. L. Boring

    2011-05-01

    This guide provides step-by-step guidance on the use of the SPAR-H method for quantifying Human Failure Events (HFEs). This guide is intended to be used with the worksheets provided in: 'The SPAR-H Human Reliability Analysis Method,' NUREG/CR-6883, dated August 2005. Each step in the process of producing a Human Error Probability (HEP) is discussed. These steps are: Step-1, Categorizing the HFE as Diagnosis and/or Action; Step-2, Rate the Performance Shaping Factors; Step-3, Calculate PSF-Modified HEP; Step-4, Accounting for Dependence, and; Step-5, Minimum Value Cutoff. The discussions on dependence are extensive and include an appendix that describes insights obtained from the psychology literature.

  1. Stair-stepped Mound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-429, 22 July 2003

    This April 2003 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a stair-stepped mound of sedimentary rock (right of center) on the floor of a large impact crater in western Arabia Terra near 11.0oN, 4.4oW. Sedimentary rock outcrops are common in the craters of this region. The repeated thickness and uniformity of the layers that make up this mound suggest that their depositional environment was one in which cyclic or episodic events occurred over some period of time. The sediments might have been deposited in a lake, or they may have settled directly out of the atmosphere. Most of the layered material was later eroded away, leaving this circular mound and the other nearby mesas and knobs. The image is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  2. Green Schools Energy Project: A Step-by-Step Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Gwen

    This publication contains a step-by-step guide for implementing an energy-saving project in local school districts: the installation of newer, more energy-efficient "T-8" fluorescent tube lights in place of "T-12" lights. Eleven steps are explained in detail: (1) find out what kind of lights the school district currently uses; (2) form a group to…

  3. Moderators and mediators of pedometer use and step count increase in the "10,000 Steps Ghent" intervention

    PubMed Central

    De Cocker, Katrien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brown, Wendy; Cardon, Greet

    2009-01-01

    Background The European pedometer-based "10,000 Steps Ghent" whole community intervention for 228,000 residents was found to be effective in increasing step counts by an average of 896 steps/day in a sub-sample of adults. The present study aimed to examine the characteristics of intervention participants (n = 438) who (1) used a pedometer and (2) increased their step counts. Additionally, the third aim was to examine the mediational effect of pedometer use on step count change. Methods The study sample consisted of 438 adults (207 male, mean age 49.8 (13.1) years). Binary logistic regressions were used to examine whether individual characteristics (gender, age, educational level, employment status, self-reported health condition, baseline step counts, baseline sitting time, baseline transport-related PA) and intervention exposure variables (having heard/seen a PA promotion message, being aware of the PA guidelines, and knowing about "10,000 Steps Ghent") were associated with (1) pedometer use and (2) a step count increase of 896 steps/day or more. Using pooled data (n = 864) from the intervention and comparison participants, a mediation analysis was conducted to see if the change in step counts was mediated by pedometer use. Results Age (49 years or more: OR = 3.19, p < 0.005), awareness of a PA promotion message (OR = 2.62, p < 0.01) and awareness of "10,000 Steps Ghent" (OR = 2.11, p < 0.05) were significantly associated with pedometer use. Participants with a college or university degree (OR = 1.55, p < 0.05) and those who used a pedometer (OR = 2.06, p < 0.05) were more likely to increase their steps by 896 steps/day or more. This increase was less likely among those with baseline step counts above 10,000 steps/day (OR = 0.38, p < 0.001). The mediation analysis revealed that pedometer use partly mediated step count change. Conclusion Pedometer use was more likely in older participants and in those who were aware of the "10,000 Steps" campaign. Increasing step

  4. Aging blepharoplasty.

    PubMed

    Cho, Inchang

    2013-09-01

    In performing upper blepharoplasty in the elderly, looking younger and keeping the eyelids harmonious with the rest of the face have to be achieved at the same time. The most important goal in upper blepharoplasty for aging is correcting the drooping upper eyelid skin, and in this process, the surgeon may or may not create a double eyelid fold. The pros and cons have to be fully discussed with the patient, but the author personally prefers creating a double fold unless the patient refuses, because it is efficient in correcting and preventing further drooping of the skin. In most patients, the brow is elevated to compensate for the drooping eyelid, and when the drooping is corrected, brow ptosis may ensue. The surgeon has to prepare for these consequences before performing the procedure, and estimate the exact amount of skin to be excised. In the elderly, the skin and the orbicularis oculi muscle is thin, with a decreased amount of subcutaneous fat and retro-orbicularis oculi fat, and in most cases, excision of the skin alone is enough to correct the deformity. Removing large portions of soft tissue may also prolong the recovery period. Unlike younger patients, the lower skin flap should not be stretched too much in the elderly, as it may create an aggressive looking appearance. A few wrinkles in the lower flap should remain untouched to create a natural look. In this article, the author's own methods of performing an aging blepharoplasty are described specifically, with a step-by-step guide and surgical tips. PMID:24086798

  5. Simplistic design methods for moderate-sloped stepped chutes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous contributions have been made on the hydraulic properties of the air entrainment inception point and aerated flow region especially for steep, stepped chutes. Stepped chutes applied to aging embankment dams to address inadequate spillway capacity and to provide overtopping protection is a g...

  6. Enhanced thermal- and photo-stability of acid yellow 17 by incorporation into layered double hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Qian; Feng Yongjun; Feng Junting; Li Dianqing

    2011-06-15

    2,5-dichloro-4-(5-hydroxy-3-methyl-4-(sulphophenylazo) pyrazol-1-yl) benzenesulphonate (DHSB) anions, namely acid yellow 17 anions, have been successfully intercalated into Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDH) to produce a novel organic-inorganic pigment by a simple method involving separate nucleation and aging steps (SNAS), and the dye-intercalated LDH was analyzed by various techniques, e.g., XRD, SEM, FT-IR, TG-DTA and ICP. The d-spacing of the prepared LDH is 2.09 nm. Furthermore, the incorporation of the DHSB aims to enhance the thermal- and photo-stability of the guest dye molecule, for example, the less color change after accelerated thermal- and photo-aging test. - Graphical abstract: Acid yellow anions were successfully assembled into ZnAl layered double hydroxides (LDH) to produce a novel organic-inorganic composite pigment by a simple method involving separate nucleation and aging steps (SNAS). Highlights: > Acid yellow 17 was directly intercalated into ZnAl-LDH to form a novel pigment. > The pigment was prepared by a method involving separate nucleation and aging steps. > The intercalation of dye anions enhances its thermal- and photo-stability.

  7. Analysis Of Stepped Labyrinth Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharrer, Joseph K.

    1990-01-01

    Report presents analysis of compressible flow in stepped labyrinth gas seal in turbomachine. Part of continuing effort to understand and suppress self-excited vibrations caused by stepped labyrinth seals. Rotordynamic coefficients derived for compressible flow.

  8. The Stepping Stone Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumfitt, A.

    Education is a profession in its own right. It has its own parameters, passions and language. Having the responsibility both of educare and educere, education has a focus of delivering specific factual knowledge whilst drawing out the creative mind. Space Science is a special vehicle having the properties of both educare and educere. It has a magic and wonder that touches the very essence of an individual and his place in time and space; it offers the "wow" factor that all teachers strive for. Space Science is the wrapping paper for other elements in the curriculum, e.g. cross-curricula and skill-based activities, such as language development, creativity, etc. as well as the pure sciences which comprise of engineering, physics and other natural sciences from astronomy to chemistry to biology. Each of these spheres of influence are relevant from kindergarten to undergraduate studies and complement, and in addition support informal education in museums, science centers and the world of e-learning. ESA Science Education has devised the "Stepping Stone Approach" to maximize the greatest outreach to all education stakeholders in Europe. In this paper we illustrate how to best reach these target groups with very specific activities to trigger and sustain enthusiasm whilst supporting the pedagogical, subject content and skill-based needs of a prescribed curriculum.

  9. SPAR-H Step-by-Step Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    April M. Whaley; Dana L. Kelly; Ronald L. Boring; William J. Galyean

    2012-06-01

    Step-by-step guidance was developed recently at Idaho National Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the use of the Standardized Plant Analysis Risk-Human Reliability Analysis (SPAR-H) method for quantifying Human Failure Events (HFEs). This work was done to address SPAR-H user needs, specifically requests for additional guidance on the proper application of various aspects of the methodology. This paper overviews the steps of the SPAR-H analysis process and highlights some of the most important insights gained during the development of the step-by-step directions. This supplemental guidance for analysts is applicable when plant-specific information is available, and goes beyond the general guidance provided in existing SPAR-H documentation. The steps highlighted in this paper are: Step-1, Categorizing the HFE as Diagnosis and/or Action; Step-2, Rate the Performance Shaping Factors; Step-3, Calculate PSF-Modified HEP; Step-4, Accounting for Dependence, and; Step-5, Minimum Value Cutoff.

  10. Multiple stage miniature stepping motor

    DOEpatents

    Niven, William A.; Shikany, S. David; Shira, Michael L.

    1981-01-01

    A stepping motor comprising a plurality of stages which may be selectively activated to effect stepping movement of the motor, and which are mounted along a common rotor shaft to achieve considerable reduction in motor size and minimum diameter, whereby sequential activation of the stages results in successive rotor steps with direction being determined by the particular activating sequence followed.

  11. Powerlessness Reinterpreted: Reframing Step One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Susan L.

    The 12 steps of the well-known mutual help group, Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), begin with Step One, admitting powerlessness. Although Step One has helped many problem drinkers and other addicts, its spiritual concepts have been criticized. The possibility of reconceptualizing powerlessness as empowering, not only within AA and its offshoot programs,…

  12. Estimating V0[subscript 2]max Using a Personalized Step Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Carrie; Vehrs, Pat R.; George, James D.; Hager, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a step test with a personalized step rate and step height to predict cardiorespiratory fitness in 80 college-aged males and females using the self-reported perceived functional ability scale and data collected during the step test. Multiple linear regression analysis yielded a model (R = 0.90, SEE = 3.43…

  13. Step-step interactions on GaAs (110) nanopatterns

    SciTech Connect

    Galiana, B.; Benedicto, M.; Tejedor, P.

    2013-01-14

    The step-step interactions on vicinal GaAs (110) surface patterns have been extracted from the quantitative analysis of the terrace width distribution (TWD). We have specifically studied the interactions in near-equilibrium faceting and kinetics-driven step bunching and meandering formed by spontaneous self-organization or through the modification of GaAs growth kinetics by atomic hydrogen. We show that the experimental TWDs determined from atomic force microscopy measurements can be accurately described by a weighed sum of a generalized Wigner distribution and several Gaussians. The results of our calculations indicate that straight facets are formed during high temperature homoepitaxy due to attractive interactions between [110] steps. At low temperatures, steady state attractive interactions in [110] step bunches are preceded by a transition regime dominated by entropic and energetic repulsions between meandering [11n]-type steps (n {>=} 2), whose population density exceeds that of the [110] bunched steps. In addition, it has been found that atomic H reduces the attractive interactions between [110] bunched steps and enhances entropic and dipole-induced energetic repulsions between H-terminated [11n] steps through the inhibition of As-As bond formation at step edges. Our analysis has evidenced a correlation between the value of the adjustable parameter that accounts in our model for the specific weight of the secondary peaks in the TWD ({beta}) and the extent of transverse meandering on the vicinal surface.

  14. Faceting diagram for sticky steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akutsu, Noriko

    2016-03-01

    Faceting diagrams for the step-faceting zone, the step droplet zone, and the Gruber-Mullins-Pokrovsky-Talapov (GMPT) zone for a crystal surface are obtained by using the density matrix renormalization group method to calculate the surface tension. The model based on these calculations is the restricted solid-on-solid (RSOS) model with a point-contact-type step-step attraction (p-RSOS model) on a square lattice. The point-contact-type step-step attraction represents the energy gain obtained by forming a bonding state with orbital overlap at the meeting point of the neighboring steps. In the step-faceting zone, disconnectedness in the surface tension leads to the formation of a faceted macrostep on a vicinal surface at equilibrium. The disconnectedness in the surface tension also causes the first-order shape transition for the equilibrium shape of a crystal droplet. The lower zone boundary line (ZBL), which separates the step-faceting zone and the step droplet zone, is obtained by the condition γ 1 = lim n → ∞ γ n / n , where γn is the step tension of the n-th merged step. The upper ZBL, which separates the GMPT zone and the step droplet zone, is obtained by the condition Aq,eff = 0 and Bq,eff = 0, where Aq,eff and Bq,eff represent the coefficients for the | q → | 2 term and the | q → | 3 term, respectively, in the | q → | -expanded form of the surface free energy f eff ( q → ) . Here, q → is the surface gradient relative to the (111) surface. The reason why the vicinal surface inclined in the <101> direction does not exhibit step-faceting is explained in terms of the one-dimensional spinless quasi-impenetrable attractive bosons at absolute zero.

  15. Step by Step to Smoke-Free Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanSciver, James H.; Roberts, H. Earl

    1989-01-01

    This ERIC digest discusses ways of effectively banning smoking in schools so that controversies do not continue after implementation of the policy. By advocating a process approach, the document cites steps taken by the Lake Forest School Board to prohibit smoking in and around school grounds. Step one involved committee planning involving…

  16. Step-By-Step Professional Development in Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzer, Sarah T.

    2012-01-01

    Don't train your teachers in instructional technology without reading this resource-packed book from Sarah T. Meltzer. Meltzer presents easy-to-follow guidelines for bringing about effective professional development in technology from start to finish. She takes you step-by-step through the process of planning, implementing, and managing…

  17. Step-by-Step Visual Manuals: Design and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urata, Toshiyuki

    2004-01-01

    The types of handouts and manuals that are used in technology training vary. Some describe procedures in a narrative way without graphics; some employ step-by-step instructions with screen captures. According to Thirlway (1994), a training manual should be like a tutor that permits a student to learn at his own pace and gives him confidence for…

  18. Preface, Soil Science: A step-by-step analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book provides step-by-step procedures for soil professionals, without a lot of background theory. Chapters are targeted toward agricultural and environmental consultants, producers, students, teachers, government, and industry. Applied soil scientists gave input through a survey, which guided t...

  19. Leading Change Step-by-Step: Tactics, Tools, and Tales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiro, Jody

    2010-01-01

    "Leading Change Step-by-Step" offers a comprehensive and tactical guide for change leaders. Spiro's approach has been field-tested for more than a decade and proven effective in a wide variety of public sector organizations including K-12 schools, universities, international agencies and non-profits. The book is filled with proven tactics for…

  20. Aging Brain, Aging Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selkoe, Dennis J.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the aging process related to physical changes of the human neural structure involved in learning, memory, and reasoning. Presents evidence that indicates such alterations do not necessarily signal the decline in cognitive function. Vignettes provide images of brain structures involved in learning, memory, and reasoning; hippocampal…

  1. Grief: Difficult Times, Simple Steps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waszak, Emily Lane

    This guide presents techniques to assist others in coping with the loss of a loved one. Using the language of 9 layperson, the book contains more than 100 tips for caregivers or loved ones. A simple step is presented on each page, followed by reasons and instructions for each step. Chapters include: "What to Say"; "Helpful Things to Do"; "Dealing…

  2. Materials Data on SnAs (SG:225) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  3. Materials Data on K5SnAs3 (SG:14) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-04

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  4. Counterion Distribution Around Protein-SNAs probed by Small-angle X-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamoorthy, Kurinji; Bedzyk, Michael; Kewalramani, Sumit; Moreau, Liane; Mirkin, Chad

    Protein-DNA conjugates couple the advanced cell transfection capabilities of spherical DNA architecture and the biocompatible enzymatic activity of a protein core to potentially create therapeutic agents with dual functionality. An understanding of their stabilizing ionic environment is crucial to better understand and predict their properties. Here, we use Small-angle X-ray scattering techniques to decipher the structure of the counterion cloud surrounding these DNA coated nanoparticles. Through the use of anomalous scattering techniques we have mapped the local concentrations of Rb+ ions in the region around the Protein-DNA constructs. These results are further corroborated with simulations using a geometric model for the excess charge density as function of radial distance from the protein core. Further, we investigate the influence of solution ionic strength on the structure of the DNA corona and demonstrate a reduction in the extension of the DNA corona with increasing concentration of NaCl in solution for the case of both single and double stranded DNA shells. Our work reveals the distribution of counterions in the vicinity of Protein-DNA conjugates and decouples the effect of solution ionic strength on the thickness of the DNA layer.

  5. Leidenfrost Drop on a Step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagubeau, Guillaume; Le Merrer, Marie; Clanet, Christophe; Quere, David

    2008-11-01

    When deposited on a hot plate, a water droplet evaporates quickly. However, a vapor film appears under the drop above a critical temperature, called Leidenfrost temperature, which insulates the drop from its substrate. Linke & al (2006) reported a spontaneous movement of such a drop, when deposited on a ratchet. We study here the case of a flat substrate decorated with a single micrometric step. The drop is deposited on the lower part of the plate and pushed towards the step at small constant velocity. If the kinetic energy of the drop is sufficient, it can climb up the step. In that case, depending on the substrate temperature, the drop can either be decelerated or accelerated by the step. We try to understand the dynamics of these drops, especially the regime where they accelerate. Taking advantage of this phenomenon, we could then build a multiple-step setup, making it possible for a Leidenfrost drop to climb stairs.

  6. Healthy Family 2009: Assuring Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Assuring Healthy Aging Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... please turn Javascript on. 7 Smart Steps to Aging Well 1. Control Blood Pressure You can have ...

  7. Step-by-step growth of complex oxide microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Datskos, Panos G.; Cullen, David A.; Sharma, Jaswinder K.

    2015-06-10

    The synthesis of complex and hybrid oxide microstructures is of fundamental interest and practical applications. However, the design and synthesis of such structures is a challenging task. We developed a solution phase process to synthesize complex silica and silica titania hybrid microstructures by exploiting the emulsion droplet based shape control and step by step growth. The strategy is robust and can be extended to make complex hybrid structures made of two or more materials while each having its own shape.

  8. Two-step electroweak baryogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Satoru; Ovanesyan, Grigory; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze electroweak baryogenesis during a two-step electroweak symmetry-breaking transition, wherein the baryon asymmetry is generated during the first step and preserved during the second. Focusing on the dynamics of C P violation required for asymmetry generation, we discuss general considerations for successful two-step baryogenesis. Using a concrete model realization, we illustrate in detail the viability of this scenario and the implications for present and future electric dipole moment (EDM) searches. We find that C P violation associated with a partially excluded sector may yield the observed baryon asymmetry while evading present and future EDM constraints.

  9. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  10. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Change Contrast print sign up Share Healthy Aging This category offers tips on how to stay ... with Smell Problems with Taste Skin Care and Aging Sleep and Aging Taking Medicines Talking with Your ...

  11. ESTIMATION OF AGE TRANSITION PROBABILITIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ZINTER, JUDITH R.

    THIS NOTE DESCRIBES THE PROCEDURES USED IN DETERMINING DYNAMOD II AGE TRANSITION MATRICES. A SEPARATE MATRIX FOR EACH SEX-RACE GROUP IS DEVELOPED. THESE MATRICES WILL BE USED AS AN AID IN ESTIMATING THE TRANSITION PROBABILITIES IN THE LARGER DYNAMOD II MATRIX RELATING AGE TO OCCUPATIONAL CATEGORIES. THREE STEPS WERE USED IN THE PROCEDURE--(1)…

  12. Highly Hybridizable Spherical Nucleic Acids by Tandem Glutathione Treatment and Polythymine Spacing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Curry, Dennis; Yuan, Qipeng; Zhang, Xu; Liang, Hao

    2016-05-18

    Gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-templated spherical nucleic acids (SNAs) have been demonstrated as an important functional material in bionanotechnology. Fabrication of SNAs having high hybridization capacity to their complementary sequences is critical to ensure their applicability in areas such as antisense gene therapy and cellular sensing. The traditional salt-aging procedure is effective but tedious, requiring 1-3 days to complete. The rapid low-pH assisted protocol is efficient, but causes concerns related to nonspecific DNA adsorption to the AuNP core. To address these issues, we systematically compared the SNAs prepared by these two methods (salt-aging method and low-pH protocol). In terms of the number of complementary DNA that each SNA can bind and the average binding affinity of each thiolated DNA probe to its complementary strand, both methods yielded comparable hybridizability, although higher loading capacity was witnessed with SNAs made using the low-pH method. Additionally, it was found that nonspecific DNA binding could be eliminated almost completely by a simple glutathione (GSH) treatment of SNAs. Compared to conventional methods using toxic mercapto-hexanol or alkanethiols to remove nonspecific DNA adsorption, GSH is mild, cost-effective, and technically easy to use. In addition, GSH-passivated SNAs minimize the toxicity concerns related to AuNP-induced GSH depletion and therefore offer a more biocompatible alternative to previously reported SNAs. Moreover, rational design of probe sequences through inclusion of a polythymine spacer into the DNA sequences resulted in enhanced DNA loading capacity and stability against salt-induced aggregation. This work provides not only efficient and simple technical solutions to the issue of nonspecific DNA adsorption, but also new insights into the hybridizability of SNAs. PMID:27128167

  13. Step-by-Step Growth of Complex Oxide Microstructures.

    PubMed

    Datskos, Panos; Cullen, David A; Sharma, Jaswinder

    2015-07-27

    The synthesis of complex and hybrid oxide microstructures is of fundamental interest and practical applications. However, the design and synthesis of such structures is a challenging task. A solution-phase process to synthesize complex silica and silica-titania hybrid microstructures was developed by exploiting the emulsion-droplet-based step-by-step growth featuring shape control. The strategy is robust and can be extended to the preparation of complex hybrid structures consisting of two or more materials, with each having its own shape. PMID:26095228

  14. A step-by-step methodology for enterprise interoperability projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalmeta, Ricardo; Pazos, Verónica

    2015-05-01

    Enterprise interoperability is one of the key factors for enhancing enterprise competitiveness. Achieving enterprise interoperability is an extremely complex process which involves different technological, human and organisational elements. In this paper we present a framework to help enterprise interoperability. The framework has been developed taking into account the three domains of interoperability: Enterprise Modelling, Architecture and Platform and Ontologies. The main novelty of the framework in comparison to existing ones is that it includes a step-by-step methodology that explains how to carry out an enterprise interoperability project taking into account different interoperability views, like business, process, human resources, technology, knowledge and semantics.

  15. Writing a Simulation Scenario: A Step-By-Step Guide.

    PubMed

    Bambini, Deborah

    2016-02-01

    Simulation is becoming a widely used method of helping nurses learn and maintain competency in the clinical area for both staff educators in clinical settings and nursing faculty in academic settings. Designing an effective simulation experience requires thoughtful planning, knowledge of educational principles, and knowledge of best practices in both simulation and clinical practice. An evidence-based strategy for writing a simulation scenario for nurses and other health care providers in any setting is described. A step-by-step process is outlined that incorporates best practices. Examples and suggestions are provided to help readers create quality simulation experiences. PMID:26909455

  16. Partial Return Yoke for MICE Step IV and Final Step

    SciTech Connect

    Witte, Holger; Plate, Stephen; Berg, J.Scott; Tarrant, Jason; Bross, Alan

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports on the progress of the design and construction of a retro-fitted return yoke for the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). MICE is a proof-of-principle experiment aiming to demonstrate ionization cooling experimentally. In earlier studies we outlined how a partial return yoke can be used to mitigate stray magnetic field in the experimental hall; we report on the progress of the construction of the partial return yoke for MICE Step IV. We also discuss an extension of the Partial Return Yoke for the final step of MICE; we show simulation results of the expected performance.

  17. Partial return yoke for MICE step IV and final step

    SciTech Connect

    Witte, H.; Plate, S.; Berg, J. S.; Tarrant, J.; Bross, A.

    2015-05-03

    This paper reports on the progress of the design and construction of a retro-fitted return yoke for the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). MICE is a proof-of-principle experiment aiming to demonstrate ionization cooling experimentally. In earlier studies we outlined how a partial return yoke can be used to mitigate stray magnetic field in the experimental hall; we report on the progress of the construction of the partial return yoke for MICE Step IV. We also discuss an extension of the Partial Return Yoke for the final step of MICE; we show simulation results of the expected performance.

  18. One step beyond: Different step-to-step transitions exist during continuous contact brachiation in siamangs

    PubMed Central

    Michilsens, Fana; D'Août, Kristiaan; Vereecke, Evie E.; Aerts, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Summary In brachiation, two main gaits are distinguished, ricochetal brachiation and continuous contact brachiation. During ricochetal brachiation, a flight phase exists and the body centre of mass (bCOM) describes a parabolic trajectory. For continuous contact brachiation, where at least one hand is always in contact with the substrate, we showed in an earlier paper that four step-to-step transition types occur. We referred to these as a ‘point’, a ‘loop’, a ‘backward pendulum’ and a ‘parabolic’ transition. Only the first two transition types have previously been mentioned in the existing literature on gibbon brachiation. In the current study, we used three-dimensional video and force analysis to describe and characterize these four step-to-step transition types. Results show that, although individual preference occurs, the brachiation strides characterized by each transition type are mainly associated with speed. Yet, these four transitions seem to form a continuum rather than four distinct types. Energy recovery and collision fraction are used as estimators of mechanical efficiency of brachiation and, remarkably, these parameters do not differ between strides with different transition types. All strides show high energy recoveries (mean  = 70±11.4%) and low collision fractions (mean  = 0.2±0.13), regardless of the step-to-step transition type used. We conclude that siamangs have efficient means of modifying locomotor speed during continuous contact brachiation by choosing particular step-to-step transition types, which all minimize collision fraction and enhance energy recovery. PMID:23213432

  19. A Step-by-Step Guide to Personalize Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Barbara; McClaskey, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    It is known that every learner is unique and that one-size-fits-all instruction does not work for most. How can a classroom environment be created that gives each learner voice and choice? The co-founders of Personalize Learning, LLC, offer a detailed six-step approach. This article provides the background on what is and what is not Personalized…

  20. Step fluctuations and step interactions on Mo(0 1 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondrejcek, M.; Swiech, W.; Durfee, C. S.; Flynn, C. P.

    2003-09-01

    Step fluctuations have been studied on Mo(0 1 1) thin single crystal films with various orientations of miscut, in order to determine the step stiffnesses. Effects of unseen defect structures were clearly visible in some data. Measurements of fluctuation amplitudes and relaxation times were made in the temperature range 1100-1680 K. The results show an anisotropic stiffness of about 0.36 eV/nm along [0 1¯ 1] and about 0.15 eV/nm along [1 0 0]. No temperature dependence of the stiffness was detected. The step free energies derived from the stiffnesses average about 0.27 eV/nm and are less anisotropic by about a factor 3. From the temperature dependence of the relaxation rates, an activation energy of 0.8 ± 0.2 eV was determined for the mass diffusion of the mobile defects responsible for the fluctuations. An appendix details an investigation of correlations induced in the motions of neighboring steps by diffusion and by energetic interactions.

  1. Step by Step to Your New Camp Brochure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Bill

    1993-01-01

    Describes steps in developing camp brochures: examining brochures of competing camps; deciding on a message; hiring professional designers and photographers; writing the copy; determining marketing strategies and quantity of brochures needed; reviewing final photo choices; evaluating the brochure; and planning for brochure mailings. (LP)

  2. Writing the Winning Dissertation: A Step-By-Step Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glatthorn, Allan A.

    This book is a practical guide to researching and writing the doctoral dissertation or master's thesis. Part 1 offers seven chapters on preparatory steps: laying the groundwork for the thesis and dissertation; finding a research problem; conducting a focused review of the literature; making a preliminary choice of methodology; organizing and…

  3. Publishing Ethical Research: A Step-by-Step Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wester, Kelly L.

    2011-01-01

    To publish ethical research, one must conduct research responsibly, making ethical choices from the inception of the research idea and throughout the research process. Conducting and publishing ethical research is important because of the impact the results will have on the counseling profession. Steps to consider are discussed.

  4. Cataloging Books Step by Step. CSLA Guide No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ruth S.

    Designed as a beginning, how-to guide, this handbook lists 20 short steps to cataloging library materials for a church or synagogue library. The guide opens with a history and a brief explanation of the Dewey Decimal System, with special attention given to the divisions and subdivisions that fall under the category "Religion." Several references…

  5. From raw material to dish: pasta quality step by step.

    PubMed

    Sicignano, Angelo; Di Monaco, Rossella; Masi, Paolo; Cavella, Silvana

    2015-10-01

    Pasta is a traditional Italian cereal-based food that is popular worldwide because of its convenience, versatility, sensory and nutritional value. The aim of this review is to present a step-by-step guide to facilitate the understanding of the most important events that can affect pasta characteristics, directing the reader to the appropriate production steps. Owing to its unique flavor, color, composition and rheological properties, durum wheat semolina is the best raw material for pasta production. Although pasta is traditionally made from only two ingredients, sensory quality and chemical/physical characteristics of the final product may vary greatly. Starting from the same ingredients, there are a lot of different events in each step of pasta production that can result in the development of varieties of pasta with different characteristics. In particular, numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of temperature and humidity conditions of the pasta drying operation as well as the significance of the choice of raw material and operating conditions on pasta quality. PMID:25783568

  6. Radiocarbon dating of organic- and carbonate-carbon in Genyornis and Dromaius eggshell using stepped combustion and stepped acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, M. I.; Turney, C. S. M.; Fifield, L. K.; Smith, M. A.; Miller, G. H.; Roberts, R. G.; Magee, J. W.

    2003-07-01

    A technique for determining the radiocarbon age of both organic-carbon and carbonate-carbon in the eggshell of the large flightless birds Genyornis newtoni (now extinct) and Dromaius novaehollandiae (extant emu) is presented here. Stepped combustion (for organic-carbon) and stepped acidification (for carbonate-carbon) were used to obtain multiple age determinations for each sample, from which an assessment of the reliability of the ages is possible. Analysis of a Genyornis newtoni eggshell fragment known to have an age considerably beyond the limit of radiocarbon dating has indicated that the backgrounds obtainable using this approach are 0.122±0.033 pMC for the organic-carbon fraction and 0.070±0.025 pMC for the carbonate-carbon fraction. These backgrounds suggest that finite ages up to 50,000-55,000 BP are readily achievable on eggshell using stepped combustion/acidification. Analysis of a single fragment of Genyornis eggshell from Williams Point, central South Australia, suggests that significant contamination of the organic-carbon fraction of the eggshell is possible, while ages for the carbonate fraction appear more reliable and indicate that the eggshell has an age of at least 49,000±2000 BP. A total of six analyses of single Genyornis newtoni and Dromaius novaehollandiae eggshell fragments from the Wood Point deposit in southern South Australia suggest ages for the samples of 41,000±800 and 37,900±700 BP, respectively, while an optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) sample from a location very close to the Genyornis sample has an age of 55±5 ka (1 σ). The OSL and calibrated radiocarbon ages for the Genyornis sample and the sand matrix overlap at two standard deviations, suggesting the most likely age for the eggshell and the sand matrix is ˜45 cal ka BP or earlier.

  7. Piezoelectric step-motion actuator

    DOEpatents

    Mentesana; Charles P.

    2006-10-10

    A step-motion actuator using piezoelectric material to launch a flight mass which, in turn, actuates a drive pawl to progressively engage and drive a toothed wheel or rod to accomplish stepped motion. Thus, the piezoelectric material converts electrical energy into kinetic energy of the mass, and the drive pawl and toothed wheel or rod convert the kinetic energy of the mass into the desired rotary or linear stepped motion. A compression frame may be secured about the piezoelectric element and adapted to pre-compress the piezoelectric material so as to reduce tensile loads thereon. A return spring may be used to return the mass to its resting position against the compression frame or piezoelectric material following launch. Alternative embodiment are possible, including an alternative first embodiment wherein two masses are launched in substantially different directions, and an alternative second embodiment wherein the mass is eliminated in favor of the piezoelectric material launching itself.

  8. Steps of Reprocessing and Equipments

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong Kook

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing interest in endoscopy and the rising number of endoscopic examinations in hospitals, the importance of endoscopic reprocessing is also increasing. Cure facilities that are understaffed and ill-equipped are trying to cope with the problems of insufficient cleaning and high infection risks. To prevent endoscopy-associated infection, the endoscope cleaning, and disinfection guidelines prepared by the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy must be followed. In this review, the steps of endoscopic reprocessing and the equipments required in each step are discussed. PMID:23767039

  9. Illinois, An Educational Step Backward.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Scott

    Conclusions reached by the Illinois State Board of Education Study, released in May 1985, that small schools are inferior and inefficient, that Illinois has too many schools, and that over half its schools should be closed seem to be an educational step backward. Without linking the two concepts, the study implies that school consolidation will…

  10. 10 Steps for Implementing Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsee, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    Offers steps for adapting the change process to institutional culture: align leadership style with organizational culture, don't overuse change missionaries, protect change agents, define the problem, maintain focus when the project drifts, identify and remove barriers before implementing action plans, assign responsibilities to individuals,…

  11. One-Step Coal Liquefaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qader, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    Steam injection improves yield and quality of product. Single step process for liquefying coal increases liquid yield and reduces hydrogen consumption. Principal difference between this and earlier processes includes injection of steam into reactor. Steam lowers viscosity of liquid product, so further upgrading unnecessary.

  12. Seven Steps to Successful Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitworth, Jerry

    This report highlights the experiences of the Lighthouse Project, which successfully included students with disabilities in elementary, middle, and high school general education classes in a school district in southwest Tennessee. Drawing on findings from the Lighthouse Project, the report describes the following seven steps that must be present…

  13. Initial steps of aerosol growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulmala, M.; Laakso, L.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Riipinen, I.; Dal Maso, M.; Anttila, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Hõrrak, U.; Vana, M.; Tammet, H.

    2004-12-01

    The formation and growth of atmospheric aerosols depend on several steps, namely nucleation, initial steps of growth and subsequent - mainly condensational - growth. This work focuses on the initial steps of growth, meaning the growth right after nucleation, where the interplay of curvature effects and thermodynamics has a significant role on the growth kinetics. More specifically, we investigate how ion clusters and aerosol particles grow from 1.5 nm to 20 nm (diameter) in atmospheric conditions using experimental data obtained by air ion and aerosol spectrometers. The measurements have been performed at a boreal forest site in Finland. The observed trend that the growth rate seems to increase as a function of size can be used to investigate possible growth mechanisms. Such a growth rate is consistent with a recently suggested nano-Köhler mechanism, in which growth is activated at a certain size with respect to condensation of organic vapors. The results also imply that charge-enhanced growth associated with ion-mediated nucleation plays only a minor role in the initial steps of growth, since it would imply a clear decrease of the growth rate with size. Finally, further evidence was obtained on the earlier suggestion that atmospheric nucleation and the subsequent growth of fresh nuclei are likely to be uncoupled phenomena via different participating vapors.

  14. Initial steps of aerosol growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulmala, O.; Laakso, L.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Riipinen, I.; Dal Maso, M.; Anttila, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Hõrrak, U.; Vana, M.; Tammet, H.

    2004-09-01

    The formation and growth of atmospheric aerosols depend on several steps, namely nucleation, initial steps of growth and subsequent - mainly condensational - growth. This work focuses on the initial steps of growth, meaning the growth right after nucleation, where the interplay of curvature effects and thermodynamics has a significant role on the growth kinetics. More specifically, we investigate how ion clusters and aerosol particles grow from 1.5 nm to 20 nm in atmospheric conditions using experimental data obtained by air ion and aerosol spectrometers. The measurements have been performed at a boreal forest site in Finland. The observed trend that the growth rate seems to increase as a function of size can be used to investigate possible growth mechanisms. Such a growth rate is consistent with a recently suggested nano-Köhler mechanism, in which growth is activated at a certain size with respect to condensation of organic vapors. The results also imply that charge-enhance growth associated with ion-mediated nucleation plays only a minor role in the initial steps of growth, since it would imply a clear decrease of the growth rate with size. Finally, further evidence was obtained on the earlier suggestion that atmospheric nucleation and the subsequent growth of fresh nuclei are likely to be uncoupled phenomena via different participating vapors.

  15. Harmonic Ratios: A quantification of step to step symmetry

    PubMed Central

    Roche, J.L; Lowry, K.A; Vanswearingen, J.M; Brach, J.S; Redfern, M.S

    2013-01-01

    The harmonic ratio (HR), derived from Fourier analysis of trunk accelerations, has been described in various ways as a measure of walking smoothness, walking rhythmicity, or dynamic stability. There is increasing interest in applying the HR technique to investigate the impact of various pathologies on locomotion; however, explanation of the method has been limited. The aim hereis to present a clear description of the mathematical basis of HRs and an understanding of their interpretation. We present harmonic theory, the interpretation of the HR using sinusoidal signals, and an exampleusing actual trunk accelerations and harmonic analyses during limb-loading conditions. We suggest that the HR method may be better defined, not as a measure of rhythmicity or stability, but as a measure of step-to-step symmetry within a stride. PMID:23317758

  16. 2-Step IMAT and 2-Step IMRT in three dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Bratengeier, Klaus

    2005-12-15

    In two dimensions, 2-Step Intensity Modulated Arc Therapy (2-Step IMAT) and 2-Step Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) were shown to be powerful methods for the optimization of plans with organs at risk (OAR) (partially) surrounded by a target volume (PTV). In three dimensions, some additional boundary conditions have to be considered to establish 2-Step IMAT as an optimization method. A further aim was to create rules for ad hoc adaptations of an IMRT plan to a daily changing PTV-OAR constellation. As a test model, a cylindrically symmetric PTV-OAR combination was used. The centrally placed OAR can adapt arbitrary diameters with different gap widths toward the PTV. Along the rotation axis the OAR diameter can vary, the OAR can even vanish at some axis positions, leaving a circular PTV. The width and weight of the second segment were the free parameters to optimize. The objective function f to minimize was the root of the integral of the squared difference of the dose in the target volume and a reference dose. For the problem, two local minima exist. Therefore, as a secondary criteria, the magnitude of hot and cold spots were taken into account. As a result, the solution with a larger segment width was recommended. From plane to plane for varying radii of PTV and OAR and for different gaps between them, different sets of weights and widths were optimal. Because only one weight for one segment shall be used for all planes (respectively leaf pairs), a strategy for complex three-dimensional (3-D) cases was established to choose a global weight. In a second step, a suitable segment width was chosen, minimizing f for this global weight. The concept was demonstrated in a planning study for a cylindrically symmetric example with a large range of different radii of an OAR along the patient axis. The method is discussed for some classes of tumor/organ at risk combinations. Noncylindrically symmetric cases were treated exemplarily. The product of width and weight of

  17. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  18. Communication & Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, William E.

    This extensive bibliography contains more than 1,800 entries about communication and aging. The citations include journal articles, unpublished papers, speeches, dissertations, research studies, and books that relate aging and the aged to a variety of topics, including the following: physiological deterioration, socialization, political…

  19. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  20. Creative Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, Charlene Lee; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Explores some divergent attitudes toward aging, negative as well as positive. Presents a neurophysiological framework to support the belief that aging is an active and creative process. Explores physical, psychological, and sociological aspects, and identifies three factors in the creative aging process. (Author/JAC)

  1. Stepping Out: An Overview of the STEP Curriculum. Secondary Transition and Employment Project: STEP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgart, Diane; Anderson, Jane

    The guide, developed by the Secondary Transition and Employment Project (STEP) in Idaho, provides an overview of its sequential vocational curriculum intended to help students with mild, moderate, and severe handicaps to: (1) identify their vocational preferences and aptitudes; (2) use community resources to find out about jobs; (3) observe and…

  2. Segmented Coil Fails In Steps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stedman, Ronald S.

    1990-01-01

    Electromagnetic coil degrades in steps when faults occur, continues to operate at reduced level instead of failing catastrophically. Made in segments connected in series and separated by electrically insulating barriers. Fault does not damage adjacent components or create hazard. Used to control valves in such critical applications as cooling systems of power generators and chemical process equipment, where flammable liquids or gases handled. Also adapts to electrical control of motors.

  3. Meissner-Effect Stepping Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed stepping motor derives torque from diamagnetic repulsion produced by Meissner effect - exclusion of magnetic field from interior of superconductor. Design of motor takes advantage of silver-doped YB2Cu3O and other compounds superconductive at temperatures as high as that of liquid nitrogen. Skin of rotor cooled below its superconducting-transition temperature by liquid nitrogen. O-rings prevent leaks of liquid nitrogen from rotor. Weight, cost, and maintenance reduced.

  4. Mosaic aging

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Lary C.; Herndon, James G.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Although all multicellular organisms undergo structural and functional deterioration with age, senescence is not a uniform process. Rather, each organism experiences a constellation of changes that reflect the heterogeneous effects of age on molecules, cells, organs and systems, an idiosyncratic pattern that we refer to as mosaic aging. Varying genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors (local and extrinsic) contribute to the aging phenotype in a given individual, and these agents influence the type and rate of functional decline, as well as the likelihood of developing age-associated afflictions such as cardiovascular disease, arthritis, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. Identifying key factors that drive aging, clarifying their activities in different systems, and in particular understanding how they interact will enhance our comprehension of the aging process, and could yield insights into the permissive role that senescence plays in the emergence of acute and chronic diseases of the elderly. PMID:20110150

  5. Stepped frequency ground penetrating radar

    DOEpatents

    Vadnais, Kenneth G.; Bashforth, Michael B.; Lewallen, Tricia S.; Nammath, Sharyn R.

    1994-01-01

    A stepped frequency ground penetrating radar system is described comprising an RF signal generating section capable of producing stepped frequency signals in spaced and equal increments of time and frequency over a preselected bandwidth which serves as a common RF signal source for both a transmit portion and a receive portion of the system. In the transmit portion of the system the signal is processed into in-phase and quadrature signals which are then amplified and then transmitted toward a target. The reflected signals from the target are then received by a receive antenna and mixed with a reference signal from the common RF signal source in a mixer whose output is then fed through a low pass filter. The DC output, after amplification and demodulation, is digitized and converted into a frequency domain signal by a Fast Fourier Transform. A plot of the frequency domain signals from all of the stepped frequencies broadcast toward and received from the target yields information concerning the range (distance) and cross section (size) of the target.

  6. Evaluation of one-step luminescent cyanoacrylate fuming.

    PubMed

    Khuu, Alicia; Chadwick, Scott; Spindler, Xanthe; Lam, Rolanda; Moret, Sébastien; Roux, Claude

    2016-06-01

    One-step luminescent cyanoacrylates have recently been introduced as an alternative to the conventional cyanoacrylate fuming methods. These new techniques do not require the application of a luminescent post-treatment in order to enhance cyanoacrylate-developed fingermarks. In this study, three one-step polymer cyanoacrylates: CN Yellow Crystals (Aneval Inc.), PolyCyano UV (Foster+Freeman Ltd.) and PECA Multiband (BVDA), and one monomer cyanoacrylate: Lumikit™ (Crime Scene Technology), were evaluated against a conventional two-step cyanoacrylate fuming method (Cyanobloom (Foster+Freeman Ltd.) with rhodamine 6G stain). The manufacturers' recommended conditions or conditions compatible with the MVC™ 1000/D (Foster+Freeman Ltd.) were assessed with fingermarks aged for up to 8 weeks on non-porous and semi-porous substrates. Under white light, Cyanobloom generally gave better development than the one-step treatments across the substrates. Similarly when viewed under the respective luminescent conditions, Cyanobloom with rhodamine 6G stain resulted in improved contrast against the one-step treatments except on polystyrene, where PolyCyano UV and PECA Multiband gave better visualisation. Rhodamine 6G post-treatment of one-step samples did not significantly enhance the contrast of any of the one-step treatments against Cyanobloom/rhodamine 6G-treated samples. PMID:27105155

  7. DNA INTERSTRAND CROSSLINK REPAIR IN MAMMALIAN CELLS: STEP BY STEP

    PubMed Central

    Muniandy, Parameswary; Liu, Jia; Majumdar, Alokes; Liu, Su-ting; Seidman, Michael M.

    2009-01-01

    Interstrand DNA crosslinks (ICLs) are formed by natural products of metabolism and by chemotherapeutic reagents. Work in E. coli identified a two cycle repair scheme involving incisions on one strand on either side of the ICL (unhooking) producing a gapped intermediate with the incised oligonucleotide attached to the intact strand. The gap is filled by recombinational repair or lesion bypass synthesis. The remaining monoadduct is then removed by Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER). Despite considerable effort, our understanding of each step in mammalian cells is still quite limited. In part this reflects the variety of crosslinking compounds, each with distinct structural features, used by different investigators. Also, multiple repair pathways are involved, variably operative during the cell cycle. G1 phase repair requires functions from NER, although the mechanism of recognition has not been determined. Repair can be initiated by encounters with the transcriptional apparatus, or a replication fork. In the case of the latter, the reconstruction of a replication fork, stalled or broken by collision with an ICL, adds to the complexity of the repair process. The enzymology of unhooking, the identity of the lesion bypass polymerases required to fill the first repair gap, and the functions involved in the second repair cycle are all subjects of active inquiry. Here we will review current understanding of each step in ICL repair in mammalian cells. PMID:20039786

  8. Aging gauge

    DOEpatents

    Betts, Robert E.; Crawford, John F.

    1989-04-04

    An aging gauge comprising a container having a fixed or a variable sized t opening with a cap which can be opened to control the sublimation rate of a thermally sublimational material contained within the container. In use, the aging gauge is stored with an item to determine total heat the item is subjected to and also the maximum temperature to which the item has been exposed. The aging gauge container contains a thermally sublimational material such as naphthalene or similar material which has a low sublimation rate over the temperature range from about 70.degree. F. to about 160.degree. F. The aging products determined by analyses of a like item aged along with the aging gauge for which the sublimation amount is determined is employed to establish a calibration curve for future aging evaluation. The aging gauge is provided with a means for determining the maximum temperature exposure (i.e., a thermally indicating material which gives an irreversible color change, Thermocolor pigment). Because of the relationship of doubling reaction rates for increases of 10.degree. C., equivalency of item used in accelerated aging evaluation can be obtained by referring to a calibration curve depicting storage temperature on the abscissa scale and multiplier on the ordinate scale.

  9. Aging gauge

    DOEpatents

    Betts, Robert E.; Crawford, John F.

    1989-01-01

    An aging gauge comprising a container having a fixed or a variable sized t opening with a cap which can be opened to control the sublimation rate of a thermally sublimational material contained within the container. In use, the aging gauge is stored with an item to determine total heat the item is subjected to and also the maximum temperature to which the item has been exposed. The aging gauge container contains a thermally sublimational material such as naphthalene or similar material which has a low sublimation rate over the temperature range from about 70.degree. F. to about 160.degree. F. The aging products determined by analyses of a like item aged along with the aging gauge for which the sublimation amount is determined is employed to establish a calibration curve for future aging evaluation. The aging gauge is provided with a means for determining the maximum temperature exposure (i.e., a thermally indicating material which gives an irreversible color change, Thermocolor pigment). Because of the relationship of doubling reaction rates for increases of 10.degree. C., equivalency of item used in accelerated aging evaluation can be obtained by referring to a calibration curve depicting storage temperature on the abscissa scale and multiplier on the ordinate scale.

  10. 48 CFR 52.214-25 - Step Two of Two-Step Sealed Bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Step Two of Two-Step... Clauses 52.214-25 Step Two of Two-Step Sealed Bidding. As prescribed in 14.201-6(t), insert the following provision: Step Two of Two-Step Sealed Bidding (APR 1985) (a) This invitation for bids is issued to...

  11. Adsorption on a stepped substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merikoski, J.; Timonen, J.; Kaski, K.

    1994-09-01

    The effect of substrate steps on the adsorption of particles is considered. The problem is formulated as a lattice-gas model with nearest neighbor interactions and it is studied by a numerical transfer-matrix method. In particular, the influence of the substrate-induced row potential on adsorbed monolayers is discussed. It is found that strong row-transition-like features appear in the presence of a row potential and it is suggested that these may be seen in adsorption on vicinal faces.

  12. Hydraulic Design of Stepped Spillways Workshop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stepped chutes and spillways are commonly used for routing discharges during flood events. In addition, stepped chutes are used for overtopping protection of earthen embankments. Stepped spillways provide significant energy dissipation due to its stepped feature; as a result, the stilling basin as...

  13. Stepped conical zone plate antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiltse, James C.

    2001-07-01

    The Fresnel zone plate lens was invented and developed for optical frequencies. However, fabrication difficulties at the short optical wavelengths have prevented obtain good efficiencies. At longer microwave or millimeter-wavelengths fabrication is easier and phase correcting zone plate antennas have been used to obtain good efficiencies. This paper describes a new type of phase correcting zone plate having even better efficiency, namely a diffraction efficiency of 99 percent compared to a true lens, and an overall efficiency much better than a true lens. For the usual zone plate antenna employed at microwave or millimeter wavelengths, path length adjustment is accomplished by cutting different depths in a dielectric plate or by using two or more dielectrics having different dielectric constants. The new design uses a tilted cut in a dielectric plate, which more accurately matches the shape of a true lens and produces much lower phase error. The construction is still near and can be made for example, by a milling machine with a tilted bit. For a circular zone plate, the lens is a stepped conical or tapered shape. Because the phase steps are small, the far-field antenna pattern is excellent and sidelobe-levels are very low. Analysis of typical configurations will be given, showing that phase errors are small, lower than those for an eighth-wave corrected phase zone plate.

  14. Healthy aging for older women.

    PubMed

    Young, Heather M; Cochrane, Barbara B

    2004-03-01

    Healthy aging is a multifaceted phenomenon, incorporating biological and psychosocial developmental factors. The population of older women is diverse in health, function, social context, and age. Health promotion strategies, therefore, should be customized accordingly to optimize the health of the varied subgroups of older women, according to their health trajectory and personal preferences. Research and evaluation of approaches to promote health among these subgroups is an important next step in understanding and influencing the health of older women. PMID:15062732

  15. Step-stress analysis for predicting dental ceramic reliability

    PubMed Central

    Borba, Márcia; Cesar, Paulo F.; Griggs, Jason A.; Bona, Álvaro Della

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that step-stress analysis is effective to predict the reliability of an alumina-based dental ceramic (VITA In-Ceram AL blocks) subjected to a mechanical aging test. Methods Bar-shaped ceramic specimens were fabricated, polished to 1µm finish and divided into 3 groups (n=10): (1) step-stress accelerating test; (2) flexural strength- control; (3) flexural strength- mechanical aging. Specimens from group 1 were tested in an electromagnetic actuator (MTS Evolution) using a three-point flexure fixture (frequency: 2Hz; R=0.1) in 37°C water bath. Each specimen was subjected to an individual stress profile, and the number of cycles to failure was recorded. A cumulative damage model with an inverse power law lifetime-stress relation and Weibull lifetime distribution were used to fit the fatigue data. The data were used to predict the stress level and number of cycles for mechanical aging (group 3). Groups 2 and 3 were tested for three-point flexural strength (σ) in a universal testing machine with 1.0 s in 37°C water. Data were statistically analyzed using Mann-Whitney Rank Sum test. Results Step-stress data analysis showed that the profile most likely to weaken the specimens without causing fracture during aging (95% CI: 0–14% failures) was: 80 MPa stress amplitude and 105 cycles. The median σ values (MPa) for groups 2 (493±54) and 3 (423±103) were statistically different (p=0.009). Significance The aging profile determined by step-stress analysis was effective to reduce alumina ceramic strength as predicted by the reliability estimate, confirming the study hypothesis. PMID:23827018

  16. Moral transhumanism: the next step.

    PubMed

    Tennison, Michael N

    2012-08-01

    Although transhumanism offers hope for the transcendence of human biological limitations, it generates many intrinsic and consequential ethical concerns. The latter include issues such as the exacerbation of social inequalities and the exponentially increasing technological capacity to cause harm. To mitigate these risks, many thinkers have initiated investigations into the possibility of moral enhancement that could limit the power disparities facilitated by biotechnological enhancement. The arguments often focus on whether moral enhancement is morally permissible, or even obligatory, and remain largely in the realm of the hypothetical. This paper proposes that psilocybin may represent a viable, practical option for moral enhancement and that its further research in the context of moral psychology could comprise the next step in the development of moral transhumanism. PMID:22855738

  17. Embodied cognition of aging

    PubMed Central

    Vallet, Guillaume T.

    2015-01-01

    Embodiment is revolutionizing the way we consider cognition by incorporating the influence of our body and of the current context within cognitive processing. A growing number of studies which support this view of cognition in young adults stands in stark contrast with the lack of evidence in favor of this view in the field of normal aging and neurocognitive disorders. Nonetheless, the validation of embodiment assumptions on the whole spectrum of cognition is a mandatory step in order for embodied cognition theories to become theories of human cognition. More pragmatically, aging populations represent a perfect target to test embodied cognition theories due to concomitant changes in sensory, motor and cognitive functioning that occur in aging, since these theories predict direct interactions between them. Finally, the new perspectives on cognition provided by these theories might also open new research avenues and new clinical applications in the field of aging. The present article aims at showing the value and interest to explore embodiment in normal and abnormal aging as well as introducing some potential theoretical and clinical applications. PMID:25932019

  18. Exergaming in Older Adults: Movement Characteristics While Playing Stepping Games.

    PubMed

    Skjæret-Maroni, Nina; Vonstad, Elise K; Ihlen, Espen A F; Tan, Xiang-Chun; Helbostad, Jorunn L; Vereijken, Beatrix

    2016-01-01

    Despite frequent use of exergames in intervention studies to improve physical function in older adults, we lack knowledge about the movements performed during exergaming. This causes difficulties for interpreting results of intervention studies and drawing conclusions about the efficacy of exergames to exercise specific functions important for the elderly population. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether game and game level affect older adults' stepping and upper body movements while playing stepping exergames. A 3D-motion capture experiment was performed with 20 elderly (12 women and 8 men; age range 65-90 years), playing two exergames, The Mole from SilverFit and LightRace in YourShape: Fitness Evolved, on two difficulty levels, with five 1-min trials for each game and level. Reflective markers were placed on bases of first toe, heels, and lower back. Movement characteristics were analyzed with a linear mixed model. Results indicated that both game and game level affected movement characteristics. Participants took shorter steps and had lower step velocity when playing The Mole compared to LightRace, while The Mole prompted more variation in step length and step velocity. Compared to LightRace, The Mole elicited larger upper body movements in both ML- and AP-directions and participants' feet and upper body covered a larger area. Increasing difficulty level from Easy to Medium resulted in overall decrease of movement, except for number of steps and step speed when playing LightRace. Even with only two games, two levels, and five trials at each, this study indicates that the choice of exergame is not indifferent when aiming to exercise specific functions in older adults and that exergames need to be chosen and designed carefully based on the goals of the intervention. PMID:27445926

  19. Exergaming in Older Adults: Movement Characteristics While Playing Stepping Games

    PubMed Central

    Skjæret-Maroni, Nina; Vonstad, Elise K.; Ihlen, Espen A. F.; Tan, Xiang-Chun; Helbostad, Jorunn L.; Vereijken, Beatrix

    2016-01-01

    Despite frequent use of exergames in intervention studies to improve physical function in older adults, we lack knowledge about the movements performed during exergaming. This causes difficulties for interpreting results of intervention studies and drawing conclusions about the efficacy of exergames to exercise specific functions important for the elderly population. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether game and game level affect older adults’ stepping and upper body movements while playing stepping exergames. A 3D-motion capture experiment was performed with 20 elderly (12 women and 8 men; age range 65–90 years), playing two exergames, The Mole from SilverFit and LightRace in YourShape: Fitness Evolved, on two difficulty levels, with five 1-min trials for each game and level. Reflective markers were placed on bases of first toe, heels, and lower back. Movement characteristics were analyzed with a linear mixed model. Results indicated that both game and game level affected movement characteristics. Participants took shorter steps and had lower step velocity when playing The Mole compared to LightRace, while The Mole prompted more variation in step length and step velocity. Compared to LightRace, The Mole elicited larger upper body movements in both ML- and AP-directions and participants’ feet and upper body covered a larger area. Increasing difficulty level from Easy to Medium resulted in overall decrease of movement, except for number of steps and step speed when playing LightRace. Even with only two games, two levels, and five trials at each, this study indicates that the choice of exergame is not indifferent when aiming to exercise specific functions in older adults and that exergames need to be chosen and designed carefully based on the goals of the intervention. PMID:27445926

  20. Peyton’s four-step approach: differential effects of single instructional steps on procedural and memory performance – a clarification study

    PubMed Central

    Krautter, Markus; Dittrich, Ronja; Safi, Annette; Krautter, Justine; Maatouk, Imad; Moeltner, Andreas; Herzog, Wolfgang; Nikendei, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Background Although Peyton’s four-step approach is a widely used method for skills-lab training in undergraduate medical education and has been shown to be more effective than standard instruction, it is unclear whether its superiority can be attributed to a specific single step. Purpose We conducted a randomized controlled trial to investigate the differential learning outcomes of the separate steps of Peyton’s four-step approach. Methods Volunteer medical students were randomly assigned to four different groups. Step-1 group received Peyton’s Step 1, Step-2 group received Peyton’s Steps 1 and 2, Step-3 group received Peyton’s Steps 1, 2, and 3, and Step-3mod group received Peyton’s Steps 1 and 2, followed by a repetition of Step 2. Following the training, the first independent performance of a central venous catheter (CVC) insertion using a manikin was video-recorded and scored by independent video assessors using binary checklists. The day after the training, memory performance during delayed recall was assessed with an incidental free recall test. Results A total of 97 participants agreed to participate in the trial. There were no statistically significant group differences with regard to age, sex, completed education in a medical profession, completed medical clerkships, preliminary memory tests, or self-efficacy ratings. Regarding checklist ratings, Step-2 group showed a superior first independent performance of CVC placement compared to Step-1 group (P<0.001), and Step-3 group showed a superior performance to Step-2 group (P<0.009), while Step-2 group and Step-3mod group did not differ (P=0.055). The findings were similar in the incidental free recall test. Conclusion Our study identified Peyton’s Step 3 as being the most crucial part within Peyton’s four-step approach, contributing significantly more to learning success than the previous steps and reaching beyond the benefit of a mere repetition of skills demonstration. PMID:26060417

  1. Take Steps to Keep Your Sight | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Vision Take Steps to Keep Your Sight Past Issues / ... protecting your eyes at all ages. 20/20 vision does not necessarily mean perfect vision. Overall visual ...

  2. Immunological Aging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunosenescence is associated with an increased incidence and severity of infections with common pathogens, neoplastic disease and autoimmunity. In general, aging is associated with a decline in function at the cellular level, rather than cell loss, although thymic atrophy and ...

  3. Prediction Equations of Energy Expenditure in Chinese Youth Based on Step Frequency during Walking and Running

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Bo; Liu, Yu; Li, Jing Xian; Li, Haipeng; Chen, Peijie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study set out to examine the relationship between step frequency and velocity to develop a step frequency-based equation to predict Chinese youth's energy expenditure (EE) during walking and running. Method: A total of 173 boys and girls aged 11 to 18 years old participated in this study. The participants walked and ran on a…

  4. Second Step: A Violence-Prevention Curriculum. Grades 4-5, Second Edition. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Committee for Children, Seattle, WA.

    "Second Step" is a curriculum designed to reduce impulsive and aggressive behavior in children aged 9 through 12 years, increasing their levels of social competence by teaching skills in empathy, impulse control, and anger management. This guide is part of the "Second Step" series, which includes curricula for preschool/kindergarten and grades 1-3…

  5. Comparison of Yamax pedometer and GT3X accelerometer steps in a free-living sample

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to compare steps detected by the Yamax pedometer (PEDO) versus the GT3X accelerometer (ACCEL) in free-living adults. Daily PEDO and ACCEL steps were collected from a sample of 23 overweight and obese participants (18 females; mean +/- sd: age = 52.6 +/- 8.4 yr.; body mass index = 3...

  6. Second Step: A Violence-Prevention Curriculum. Grades 1-3, Second Edition. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Committee for Children, Seattle, WA.

    "Second Step," grades 1-3 is a curriculum designed to reduce impulsive and aggressive behavior in children aged 6 through 9 years, and increase their levels of social competence by teaching skills in empathy, impulse control, and anger management. This curriculum is part of the "Second Step" series which includes curricula for…

  7. Entropic Step Doubling on W(430).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Edward H.; Dey, Srijata; West, James; Kiriukhin, Sergei

    1996-03-01

    We present high resolution low energy electron diffraction (LEED) results for the W(430) surface. Unlike every other system studied to date, single atomic height steps on this surface become energetically unfavorable at elevated temperatures. Above 940 K, a two phase mixture of single and double height steps forms. The transition to double height steps is predicted on the basis of a simple model provided that unconventional defect energetics are invoked. Specifically, double height steps cost more than twice as much energy as single height steps, while kinks on the double height steps cost less energy than kinks on single height steps. Recent theoretical calculations independently confirm this energetics hierarchy. (W. Xu, J.B. Adams and T.L. Einstein (to be published).) The existence of the doubling transition sheds new light on previous self diffusion coefficient measurements for other stepped tungsten surfaces. (Y.M. Gong and R. Gomer, J. Chem. Phys. 88), 1359 (1988); 88, 1370 (1988).

  8. Science teacher enhancement project (STEP)

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, P.P.; Bowman, A.W.

    1994-12-31

    STEP, a National Science Foundation-funded initiative, forms an alliance between the three private Virginia Historically Black Colleges (Hampton University, Virginia Union University, and Saint Paul`s College) and nine school divisions, to increase the capabilities of middle school science teachers. Clearly articulated roles of each partner, and the inclusion of all partners in program planning has been invaluable. A unique feature of this project is the careful tailoring of the program to meet the needs of each school division, effected by ongoing communication between all of the partners. The program effected by ongoing communication between all of the partners. The program includes a Lead Teacher and Teacher Trainee component, and emphasizes science content, using a hands-on approach. In addition to science content, the Lead Teachers receive training in leadership, proposal writing, and pedagogical enrichment responsive to the curriculum change directions in science education, especially as it relates to minority and at-risk students. The enrichment is provided by university scientists and educators, through summer institutes and academic year workshops. Results include: use of new technologies in the classroom, cross-grade communication, use of university scientists as presenters for family science programs, and improved knowledge.

  9. Age Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2015-10-01

    The ages of rocks from the lunar highlands vary widely, even for a single rock sample. This makes it difficult to quantitatively test ideas for early lunar differentiation and formation of the crust. Lars Borg and Amy Gaffney (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory), and Charles Shearer (University of New Mexico) have devised a set of guidelines to apply to geochronological data that leads to a relative ranking of the reliability of the age determined for a sample. Applying their guidelines to existing data for lunar highland rocks shows an upper limit on rock ages between 4340 and 4370 million years. This is essentially the same as the so-called model ages of the formation of KREEP (a chemical component enriched in potassium, rare earth elements, and phosphorous) and of the formation of the deep source regions that melted to produce mare basalts. The numerous ages close to 4370 million years suggests a complicated and protracted cooling of the primordial lunar magma ocean or a widespread vigorous period of magmatic activity in the Moon.

  10. Ten Steps to Making Evaluation Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sridharan, Sanjeev; Nakaima, April

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes ten steps to make evaluations matter. The ten steps are a combination of the usual recommended practice such as developing program theory and implementing rigorous evaluation designs with a stronger focus on more unconventional steps including developing learning frameworks, exploring pathways of evaluation influence, and…

  11. Ten steps to successful software process improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandt, R. K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper identifies ten steps for managing change that address organizational and cultural issues. Four of these steps are critical, that if not done, will almost guarantee failure. This ten-step program emphasizes the alignment of business goals, change process goals, and the work performed by the employees of an organization.

  12. 7 CFR 60.122 - Production step.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production step. 60.122 Section 60.122 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.122 Production step. Production step...

  13. 7 CFR 65.230 - Production step.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production step. 65.230 Section 65.230 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.230 Production step. Production step means,...

  14. Stepping Up to Science and Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldston, Dee

    2004-01-01

    "Stepping Up to Science and Math" invites teachers to step back and rethink the way they teach both of these essential subjects. Then it illustrates how teachers can step up the pace with Standards-based activities that make learning more effective and efficient. (New lessons featuring gummy worms, school buses, or the planet Mars help teachers…

  15. STEPS: Moving from Welfare to Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Ann; Cummings, Merrilyn; Kratzer, Connie; Galindo, Vickie

    Cooperative extension service faculty at New Mexico State University started the Steps to Employment and Personal Success (STEPS) program to help Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) clients qualify for and maintain full-time employment and strengthen their families for long-term success. Clients are referred to STEPS by New Mexico…

  16. CAD for 4-step braided fabric composites

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, R.; Hahn, H.T.

    1994-12-31

    A general framework is provided to predict thermoelastic properties of three dimensional 4-step braided fabric composites. Three key steps involved are (1) the development of a CAD model for yarn architecture, (2) the extraction of a unit cell (3) the prediction of the thermoelastic properties based on micromechanics. Main features of each step are summarized and experimental correlations are provided in the paper.

  17. 7 CFR 65.230 - Production step.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production step. 65.230 Section 65.230 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.230 Production step. Production step means,...

  18. Plutonium aging

    SciTech Connect

    Olivas, J.D.

    1999-03-01

    The author describes the plutonium aging program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The aging of plutonium components in the US nuclear weapons stockpile has become a concern due to several events: the end of the cold war, the cessation of full scale underground nuclear testing as a result of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and the closure of the Rocky Flats Plant--the site where the plutonium components were manufactured. As a result, service lifetimes for nuclear weapons have been lengthened. Dr. Olivas will present a brief primer on the metallurgy of plutonium, and will then describe the technical approach to ascertaining the long-term changes that may be attributable to self-radiation damage. Facilities and experimental techniques which are in use to study aging will be described. Some preliminary results will also be presented.

  19. STEP Tether Dynamics Preliminary Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaese, John R.

    2000-01-01

    The General Tethered Object Simulation System (GTOSS) has been successfully converted to the PC environment. GTOSS has been run under Microsoft Windows 95, 98 and NT4.0 with no problems noted. Adaptation to the PC environment and definition of the 3 three body configuration required resizing some of the GTOSS internal data arrays. To allow studies of the tether dynamics accompanying electrodynamic thrust, a tether current flow model has also been developed for GTOSS. This model includes effects due to the earth's magnetic field and ionosphere, tether conductivity, temperature, motion, shape and available power. Sample cases have been defined for a proposed STEP-AIRSEDS (Space Transfer using Electrodynamic Propulsion-The Michigan Technic Corporation proposed tether missions for commercial applications) three body configuration. This required definition of a 6th power scenario for GTOSS. This power scenario allows a user to specify whether orbit raising or orbit lowering is to be performed by selecting the number of the tether. Orbit raising and orbit lowering sample cases have been run successfully. Results from these runs have been included in this report. Results have only been generated so far for a three body configuration. Only point end masses have been represented. No attitude dynamics have been included. Initial results suggest that tether current can have significant and detrimental effects on tether dynamics and provisions will have to be made for control of it. This control will have to be considered in connection with desired target orbits for electrodynamic thrusting, as well as end body attitude control, momentum management of proposed control moment gyros, solar array pointing. All of these items will interact and thus, any system simulation will have to have each of these effects modeled in sufficient detail to display these interactions.

  20. Understanding aging.

    PubMed

    Strehler, B L

    2000-01-01

    Enormous advances in our understanding of human aging have occurred during the last 50 yr. From the late 19th to the mid-20th centuries only four comprehensive and important sources of information were available: 1. August Weismann's book entitled Essays on Heredity and Kindred Biological Problems (the first of these essays dealt with The Duration of Life; 1). Weissmann states (p. 10) "In the first place in regulating the length of life, the advantage to the species, and not to the individual, is alone of any importance. This must be obvious to any one who has once thoroughly thought out the process of natural selection_". 2. A highly systematized second early source of information on aging was the collection of essays edited by Cowdry and published in 1938. This 900+ page volume contains 34 chapters and was appropriately called Problems of Aging. 3. At about the same time Raymond Pearl published his book on aging (2). Pearl believed that aging was the indirect result of cell specialization and that only the germ line was resistant to aging. Unfortunately Pearl died in the late 1930s and is largely remembered now for having been the founding editor of Quarterly Review of Biology while he was at the Johns Hopkins University, this author's alma mater. 4. Alexis Carrel wrote a monumental scientific and philosophical book, Man, the Unknown (3). Carrel believed that he had demonstrated that vertebrate cells could be kept in culture and live indefinitely, a conclusion challenged by others (more on this later). PMID:22351262

  1. Anomalous Growth of Aging Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebenkov, Denis S.

    2016-04-01

    We consider a discrete-time population dynamics with age-dependent structure. At every time step, one of the alive individuals from the population is chosen randomly and removed with probability q_k depending on its age, whereas a new individual of age 1 is born with probability r. The model can also describe a single queue in which the service order is random while the service efficiency depends on a customer's "age" in the queue. We propose a mean field approximation to investigate the long-time asymptotic behavior of the mean population size. The age dependence is shown to lead to anomalous power-law growth of the population at the critical regime. The scaling exponent is determined by the asymptotic behavior of the probabilities q_k at large k. The mean field approximation is validated by Monte Carlo simulations.

  2. Solar array stepping to minimize array excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Mahabaleshwar K. P. (Inventor); Liu, Tung Y. (Inventor); Plescia, Carl T. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Mechanical oscillations of a mechanism containing a stepper motor, such as a solar-array powered spacecraft, are reduced and minimized by the execution of step movements in pairs of steps, the period between steps being equal to one-half of the period of torsional oscillation of the mechanism. Each pair of steps is repeated at needed intervals to maintain desired continuous movement of the portion of elements to be moved, such as the solar array of a spacecraft. In order to account for uncertainty as well as slow change in the period of torsional oscillation, a command unit may be provided for varying the interval between steps in a pair.

  3. Interaction between step-up versus step-down lighting from four to sixteen weeks on growth and development in turkey hens from two commercial strains.

    PubMed

    Lilburn, M S; Renner, P A; Anthony, N B

    1992-03-01

    British United Turkeys (BUT) and Nicholas (NIC) hens were exposed to a step-up (10 to 16 h/day) or a step-down (16 to 10 h/day) light program from 4 to 16 wk of age. Lights were increased or decreased by .5h/wk. From 1 to 20 wk, weekly BW data were used to calculate growth curve parameters according to the Gompertz equation. Compared with BUT hens, the slope of the growth curve was greater, but the BW and age at the point of inflection (POI) was decreased in NIC hens. The step-down light program significantly increased the slope of the growth curve, but decreased the BW and age at POI compared with the step-up program. A sample of hens from each strain and program was processed at 16 wk. The relative weight of the Pectoralis minor (P. minor) was increased in BUT hens compared with NIC hens. The absolute and relative weights of the Pectoralis major and the absolute weight of the P. minor were increased in hens from the step-down program compared with the step-up program. The step-up program significantly increased the relative weight of the abdominal fat pad compared with the step-down program, and NIC hens had more abdominal fat than BUT hens. Total carcass lipid was significantly increased by the step-up program, compared with the step-down program, and NIC hens had significantly more carcass lipid than BUT hens. PMID:1561207

  4. Aging Secret

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The canny world of advertising has caught on to the free radical theory of aging, marketing a whole array of antioxidants for preventing anything from wrinkles to dry hair to reducing the risk of heart disease--promising to help slow the hands of time. Working with genetically engineered mice--to produce a natural antioxidant enzyme called…

  5. Gay Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, David

    2009-01-01

    The oldest of the baby boomers (boomers) were age 63 in 2009 and on the verge of retirement. This cohort has had a history of making societal changes throughout its life cycle, and it is unlikely that retirement, as we know it, will remain unscathed. This article highlights two events--the Stonewall Inn riots and two prominent professional…

  6. Gay aging.

    PubMed

    Haber, David

    2009-01-01

    The oldest of the baby boomers (boomers) were age 63 in 2009 and on the verge of retirement. This cohort has had a history of making societal changes throughout its life cycle, and it is unlikely that retirement, as we know it, will remain unscathed. This article highlights two events-the Stonewall Inn riots and two prominent professional associations removing homosexuality from their list of personality disorders-and how they occurred early enough in the gay boomers life cycle to change their attitudes, behaviors, and lifestyles. This article introduces the reader to a broad array of facts, research findings, and issues that inform the topic of gay aging. A summary of the discrimination and legal concerns affecting the gay community are also highlighted. Two influential community programs are identified: Services and Advocacy for Gay Elders (SAGE) and the American Society on Aging's LGBT Aging Issues Network (LAIN). Gerontological educators need to be sensitive to the needs, desires, and resources of the coming cohort of gay boomers, who are more likely to advocate for responsive services, organizations, and policies than the current cohort of gay older adults. PMID:19697188

  7. Using pedometers for measuring and increasing physical activity in children and adolescents: The next step

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The science and practice of step counting in children (typically aged 6-11 years) and adolescents (typically aged 12-19 years) has evolved rapidly over a relatively brief period with the commercial availability of research-grade pedometers and accelerometers. Recent reviews have summarized considera...

  8. Time scaling relations for step bunches from models with step-step attractions (B1-type models)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasteva, A.; Popova, H.; Akutsu, N.; Tonchev, V.

    2016-03-01

    The step bunching instability is studied in three models of step motion defined in terms of ordinary differential equations (ODE). The source of instability in these models is step-step attraction, it is opposed by step-step repulsion and the developing surface patterns reflect the balance between the two. The first model, TE2, is a generalization of the seminal model of Tersoff et al. (1995). The second one, LW2, is obtained from the model of Liu and Weeks (1998) using the repulsions term to construct the attractions one with retained possibility to change the parameters in the two independently. The third model, MM2, is a minimal one constructed ad hoc and in this article it plays a central role. New scheme for scaling the ODE in vicinal studies is applied towards deciphering the pre-factors in the time-scaling relations. In all these models the patterned surface is self-similar - only one length scale is necessary to describe its evolution (hence B1-type). The bunches form finite angles with the terraces. Integrating numerically the equations for step motion and changing systematically the parameters we obtain the overall dependence of time-scaling exponent β on the power of step-step attractions p as β = 1/(3+p) for MM2 and hypothesize based on restricted set of data that it is β = 1/(5+p) for LW2 and TE2.

  9. Daily Steps in Midlife and Older Adults: Relationship with Demographic, Self-Rated Health, and Self-Reported Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payn, Tamara; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Hutto, Brent; Vena, John E.; LaMonte, Michael J.; Blair, Steven N.; Hooker, Steven P.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between average daily step counts and age, body mass index (BMI), self-reported physical activity (PA) level, and perceived health was determined in 85 middle-aged and older adults who wore a pedometer for 7 consecutive days. Average daily steps were significantly (p less than 0.05) correlated with BMI (r = -0.26), age (r = -0.44)…

  10. Elastic cost of silicon step rebonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, F.; Garreau, Y.; Cheynis, F.; Croset, B.; Coati, A.; Müller, P.; Prévot, G.

    2016-01-01

    We study by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction the strain field induced by periodic double steps on a Si(1 1 15) surface that is a vicinal of a Si(001) surface misoriented by 5 .4∘ towards the <110 > direction. The best fit of the experimental structure factors is reached on the basis of the rebonded DB step edge model and the displacement field is well characterized assuming that steps are described by parallel rows of extended buried elastic dipoles. The dipole characteristics are the dipole position with respect to the step edge, the dipole amplitude (2.0 ±0.5 nN), and the lever arm Ω =5 .3∘ and force Φ =3 .7∘ orientations. We show that the dipole is dominated by a large stretch component localized between the lower and the upper corners of the step, which we assign to the presence of the rebonded atom at the step.

  11. Control Circuit For Two Stepping Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratliff, Roger; Rehmann, Kenneth; Backus, Charles

    1990-01-01

    Control circuit operates two independent stepping motors, one at a time. Provides following operating features: After selected motor stepped to chosen position, power turned off to reduce dissipation; Includes two up/down counters that remember at which one of eight steps each motor set. For selected motor, step indicated by illumination of one of eight light-emitting diodes (LED's) in ring; Selected motor advanced one step at time or repeatedly at rate controlled; Motor current - 30 mA at 90 degree positions, 60 mA at 45 degree positions - indicated by high or low intensity of LED that serves as motor-current monitor; Power-on reset feature provides trouble-free starts; To maintain synchronism between control circuit and motors, stepping of counters inhibited when motor power turned off.

  12. Random walk with an exponentially varying step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Torre, A. C.; Maltz, A.; Mártin, H. O.; Catuogno, P.; García-Mata, I.

    2000-12-01

    A random walk with exponentially varying step, modeling damped or amplified diffusion, is studied. Each step is equal to the previous one multiplied by a step factor s (01/s relating different processes. For s<1/2 and s>2, the process is retrodictive (i.e., every final position can be reached by a unique path) and the set of all possible final points after infinite steps is fractal. For step factors in the interval [1/2,2], some cases result in smooth density distributions, other cases present overlapping self-similarity and there are values of the step factor for which the distribution is singular without a density function.

  13. Sage Simulation Model for Technology Demonstration Convertor by a Step-by-Step Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demko, Rikako; Penswick, L. Barry

    2006-01-01

    The development of a Stirling model using the 1-D Saga design code was completed using a step-by-step approach. This is a method of gradually increasing the complexity of the Saga model while observing the energy balance and energy losses at each step of the development. This step-by-step model development and energy-flow analysis can clarify where the losses occur, their impact, and suggest possible opportunities for design improvement.

  14. Metformin as a Tool to Target Aging.

    PubMed

    Barzilai, Nir; Crandall, Jill P; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Espeland, Mark A

    2016-06-14

    Aging has been targeted by genetic and dietary manipulation and by drugs in order to increase lifespan and health span in numerous models. Metformin, which has demonstrated protective effects against several age-related diseases in humans, will be tested in the TAME (Targeting Aging with Metformin) trial, as the initial step in the development of increasingly effective next-generation drugs. PMID:27304507

  15. Surface-Step-Induced Oscillatory Oxide Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liang; Luo, Langli; Ciston, Jim; Saidi, Wissam A.; Stach, Eric A.; Yang, Judith C.; Zhou, Guangwen

    2014-09-01

    We report in situ atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy observations of the oxidation of stepped Cu surfaces. We find that the presence of surface steps both inhibits oxide film growth and leads to the oxide decomposition, thereby resulting in oscillatory oxide film growth. Using atomistic simulations, we show that the oscillatory oxide film growth is induced by oxygen adsorption on the lower terrace along the step edge, which destabilizes the oxide film formed on the upper terrace.

  16. Multi-step contrast sensitivity gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Quintana, Enrico C; Thompson, Kyle R; Moore, David G; Heister, Jack D; Poland, Richard W; Ellegood, John P; Hodges, George K; Prindville, James E

    2014-10-14

    An X-ray contrast sensitivity gauge is described herein. The contrast sensitivity gauge comprises a plurality of steps of varying thicknesses. Each step in the gauge includes a plurality of recesses of differing depths, wherein the depths are a function of the thickness of their respective step. An X-ray image of the gauge is analyzed to determine a contrast-to-noise ratio of a detector employed to generate the image.

  17. Revisiting "how many steps are enough?".

    PubMed

    Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Hatano, Yoshiro; Pangrazi, Robert P; Kang, Minsoo

    2008-07-01

    With continued widespread acceptance of pedometers by both researchers and practitioners, evidence-based steps/day indices are needed to facilitate measurement and motivation applications of physical activity (PA) in public health. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to reprise, update, and extend the current understanding of dose-response relationships in terms of pedometer-determined PA. Any pedometer-based PA guideline presumes an accurate and standardized measure of steps; at this time, industry standards establishing quality control of instrumentation is limited to Japan where public health pedometer applications and the 10,000 steps.d slogan are traceable to the 1960s. Adult public health guidelines promote > or =30 min of at least moderate-intensity daily PA, and this translates to 3000-4000 steps if they are: 1) at least moderate intensity (i.e., > or =100 steps.min); 2) accumulated in at least 10-min bouts; and 3) taken over and above some minimal level of PA (i.e., number of daily steps) below which individuals might be classified as sedentary. A zone-based hierarchy is useful for both measurement and motivation purposes in adults: 1) <5000 steps.d (sedentary); 2) 5000-7499 steps.d (low active); 3) 7500-9999 steps.d (somewhat active); 4) > or =10,000-12,499 steps.d (active); and 5) > or =12,500 steps.d (highly active). Evidence to support youth-specific cutoff points is emerging. Criterion-referenced approaches based on selected health outcomes present the potential for advancing evidence-based steps/day standards in both adults and children from a measurement perspective. A tradeoff that needs to be acknowledged and considered is the impact on motivation when evidence-based cutoff points are interpreted by individuals as unattainable goals. PMID:18562971

  18. Effect of leg length on bench stepping efficiency in children.

    PubMed

    Cicutti, N; Jetté, M; Sidney, K

    1991-03-01

    The effect of leg length on relative oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), and minute ventilation (VE) during stepping was examined in 30 boys ages 8-12 years. Stepping height was varied to correspond to 30, 40, and 50% of the individual's leg length while maintaining a constant exercise load. There were no significant differences in VO2, HR, and VE among the three stepping conditions. The effects of knee joint angle, leg length, and the ratio of leg length to body weight were further assessed by comparing the top third and bottom third of the sample when classified on these anthropometric measurements. No significant differences were found between the high and low groups when classified according to knee joint angle; however, ventilation was higher for the longer legged subjects and for subjects having a low leg length to body weight index. It was concluded that leg length does not influence the physiologic responses of young boys to moderate stepping exercise. PMID:1645218

  19. Percutaneous Cystgastrostomy as a Single-Step Procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Curry, L. Sookur, P.; Low, D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Fotheringham, T.

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the success of percutaneous transgastric cystgastrostomy as a single-step procedure. We performed a retrospective analysis of single-step percutaneous transgastric cystgastrostomy carried out in 12 patients (8 male, 4 female; mean age 44 years; range 21-70 years), between 2002 and 2007, with large symptomatic pancreatic pseudocysts for whom up to 1-year follow-up data (mean 10 months) were available. All pseudocysts were drained by single-step percutaneous cystgastrostomy with the placement of either one or two stents. The procedure was completed successfully in all 12 patients. The pseudocysts showed complete resolution on further imaging in 7 of 12 patients with either enteric passage of the stent or stent removal by endoscopy. In 2 of 12 patients, the pseudocysts showed complete resolution on imaging, with the stents still noted in situ. In 2 of 12 patients, the pseudocysts became infected after 1 month and required surgical intervention. In 1 of 12 patients, the pseudocyst showed partial resolution on imaging, but subsequently reaccumulated and later required external drainage. In our experience, percutaneous cystgastrostomy as a single-step procedure has a high success rate and good short-term outcomes over 1-year follow-up and should be considered in the treatment of large symptomatic cysts.

  20. Neighbourhood walkability, daily steps and utilitarian walking in Canadian adults

    PubMed Central

    Hajna, Samantha; Ross, Nancy A; Joseph, Lawrence; Harper, Sam; Dasgupta, Kaberi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the associations of neighbourhood walkability (based on Geographic Information System (GIS)-derived measures of street connectivity, land use mix, and population density and the Walk Score) with self-reported utilitarian walking and accelerometer-assessed daily steps in Canadian adults. Design A cross-sectional analysis of data collected as part of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007–2009). Setting Home neighbourhoods (500 m polygonal street network buffers around the centroid of the participant's postal code) located in Atlantic Canada, Québec, Ontario, the Prairies and British Columbia. Participants 5605 individuals participated in the survey. 3727 adults (≥18 years) completed a computer-assisted interview and attended a mobile clinic assessment. Analyses were based on those who had complete exposure, outcome and covariate data (n=2949). Main exposure measures GIS-derived walkability (based on land use mix, street connectivity and population density); Walk Score. Main outcome measures Self-reported utilitarian walking; accelerometer-assessed daily steps. Results No important relationship was observed between neighbourhood walkability and daily steps. Participants who reported more utilitarian walking, however, accumulated more steps (<1 h/week: 6613 steps/day, 95% CI 6251 to 6975; 1 to 5 h/week: 6768 steps/day, 95% CI 6420 to 7117; ≥6 h/week: 7391 steps/day, 95% CI 6972 to 7811). There was a positive graded association between walkability and odds of walking ≥1 h/week for utilitarian purposes (eg, Q4 vs Q1 of GIS-derived walkability: OR=1.66, 95% CI 1.31 to 2.11; Q3 vs Q1: OR=1.41, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.76; Q2 vs Q1: OR=1.13, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.39) independent of age, sex, body mass index, married/common law status, annual household income, having children in the household, immigrant status, mood disorder, perceived health, ever smoker and season. Conclusions Contrary to expectations, living in more walkable Canadian

  1. Smoothing out step changes of LMP

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Fangxing

    2008-08-15

    The locational marginal pricing methodology may lead to a step change when system load grows, creating higher financial risk, especially for small and medium-sized market participants. A proposed continuous LMP method is a straightforward solution to eliminate these step changes when load grows. (author)

  2. Teachers: Recognize Important Steps to Reduce Cheating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supon, Viola

    2008-01-01

    Teachers must walk the steps and live the steps if reducing cheating is going to occur. Teachers begin this process by being cognizant and vigilant relative to administering means of measurement and assigning written work. This process includes skill acquisition in regards to: (1) acknowledging cheating, (2) purposeful planning, (3) electronic…

  3. 15 CFR 732.1 - Steps overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS STEPS FOR USING THE EAR § 732.1 Steps overview. (a)(1) Introduction. In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15 CFR chapter VII, subchapter C. This part is intended to help you determine your obligations under...

  4. 15 CFR 732.1 - Steps overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS STEPS FOR USING THE EAR § 732.1 Steps overview. (a)(1) Introduction. In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15 CFR chapter VII, subchapter C. This part is intended to help you determine your obligations under...

  5. 15 CFR 732.1 - Steps overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS STEPS FOR USING THE EAR § 732.1 Steps overview. (a)(1) Introduction. In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15 CFR chapter VII, subchapter C. This part is intended to help you determine your obligations under...

  6. 7 CFR 60.122 - Production step.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.122 Production step. Production step means in the case of: (a) (b) Farm-raised Fish and Shellfish: Hatched, raised, harvested, and processed. (c) Wild Fish and Shellfish: Harvested and processed....

  7. 7 CFR 60.122 - Production step.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.122 Production step. Production step means in the case of: (a) (b) Farm-raised Fish and Shellfish: Hatched, raised, harvested, and processed. (c) Wild Fish and Shellfish: Harvested and processed....

  8. 7 CFR 60.122 - Production step.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.122 Production step. Production step means in the case of: (a) (b) Farm-raised Fish and Shellfish: Hatched, raised, harvested, and processed. (c) Wild Fish and Shellfish: Harvested and processed....

  9. Twelve Steps to a Winning First Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Karen

    2009-01-01

    This article offers 12 steps to jumpstart a new school librarian's career. Being the information specialist will be both challenging and rewarding as one undertakes a myriad of activities. These 12 steps will help a new school librarian's first year successful.

  10. 15 CFR 732.1 - Steps overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CFR chapter VII, subchapter C. This part is intended to help you determine your obligations under the..., Iran, and North Korea. For these countries, you may skip Steps 7 through 11 and go directly to Step 12..., Iran, and North Korea), prohibited activities of U.S. persons in support of proliferation of weapons...

  11. 15 CFR 732.1 - Steps overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR chapter VII, subchapter C. This part is intended to help you determine your obligations under the..., Iran, and North Korea. For these countries, you may skip Steps 7 through 11 and go directly to Step 12..., Iran, and North Korea), prohibited activities of U.S. persons in support of proliferation of weapons...

  12. The Process of Transformation: Steps toward Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarule, Jill Mattuck

    1980-01-01

    A study of adult learners reveals four steps of transformative change in adult life: diffusion, dissonance, differentiation, and coherence. The educational implications of these steps are explored through case studies, and it is argued that these transformative changes affect not only the individual and the nature of adult education, but the…

  13. STEP-AIRSEDS System Engineering Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowell, Tom; Taliaferro, Lanny

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes and highlights the activities in support of the Space Transportation using Electrodynamic Propulsion Atmospheric Ionospheric Research Small Expendable Deployer Satellite (STEP-AIRSEDS) Project for the period of May 16, 2000 through September 28, 2001. The Alpha Technology, Inc. was tasked to provide support to the MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) in requirements development and in verification activities. Specifically, the Alpha Technology, Inc. task was to: (1) develop and maintain the STEP-AIRSEDS Project System Requirements Database; (2) develop and maintain the STEP-AIRSEDS requirements verification definition and planning support database; (3) perform requirements flow down analysis of STEP-AIRSEDS Project System Requirements to TMTC (The Michigan Technic Corporation) Level IV Requirements; (4) provide system engineering guidance to the Project as needed; (5) provide guidance to TMTC in preparation of Level IV Requirements; and (6) provide support to STEP-AIRSEDS meetings, reviews, and telecons as needed.

  14. Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worden, Paul

    1994-01-01

    This grant provided support for the STEP (Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle) program between October 1991 and September 1993. STEP, previously supported by NASA under Grant NAG8-837 'A Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle,' was selected by the European Space Agency for a Phase A study as a candidate for ESA's next medium size mission (M2). STEP was conceived as a joint NASA/ESA mission with equal participation by both agencies. ESA's contribution to the program would be the spacecraft; NASA would provide the launcher and half of the instrument, while the other half of the instrument would be provided by various European agencies. STEP was in competition with three other programs, INTEGRAL, PRISMA, and MARSNET. The final selection of a single mission for M2 took place in April 1993. STEP was not selected for M2 but made a very close second. The program is continuing in modified form.

  15. Age Relationship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    12 June 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a group of impact craters in Aonia Planum, Mars. Remarkably, two of the craters are approximately equal in size, however, they clearly differ in age. The left (west) crater has a well-defined rim and its ejecta blanket overlies part of the less pronounced crater to its immediate east. The one with the ejecta blanket is younger. Other circular depressions in this bouldery scene are also old, eroded impact craters.

    Location near: 59.5oS, 78.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Autumn

  16. Effects of Age on Maximal Work Capacity in Women Aged 18-48 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, G. Harley; And Others

    Fifty-six healthy nontrained women aged 18 to 48 were tested for maximal work capacity on a bicycle ergometer. The women were divided into three age groups. A continuous step-increment bicycle ergometer work test was administered with the workload starting at 150 kpm (kilometers per minute) and 50 pedal rpm (revolutions per minute). The workload…

  17. Diffusion of tungsten on stepped tungsten surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, D. S.; Kim, S. K.; Gomer, R.

    1990-08-01

    Self-diffusion of thermally generated tungsten atoms near (123) and (257), on the zone (011)-(112) and on (023), on the zone (011)-(001) of a tungsten field emitter has been investigated by the field-emission fluctuation method, using a rectangular probe in order to investigate diffusion anisotropy. In agreement with earlier findings of Gong and Gomer [J. Chem. Phys. 88 (1988) 1359, 1370] diffusion of single W atoms along and across (011) terraces separated by (011) steps, i.e. step edges running along [111] is essentially isotropic with Ed = 16 kcal, D0 ≈ 10 -4 cm 2 s -1, while atoms can cross (001) oriented steps only with much activation energy: Ed ≈ 35 kcal, D0 = 10 -2 cm -2 s -1. Slow diffusion parallel to steps attributed previously by Gong Chem. Phys. 88 (1988) 1359, 1370] to kink motion was also seen along the zone (011)-(112) but seems more complicated than previously assumed, with several regimes, which may correspond to motions of different kink configurations. Distinct dips in the slow regime diffusion coefficients occurred at 910 K, somewhat higher than the previously seen onset of dips, 875 K, and may indicate roughening, as previously hypothesized. Slow diffusion perpendicular to steps was also seen in this zone and is not fully understood. It may arise from some step components always perpendicular to the short slit dimensions, or may correspond to more complicated surface configurations than the step and terrace pattern on an ideal emitter surface.

  18. Analogue step-by-step DC component eliminator for 24-hour PPG signal monitoring.

    PubMed

    Pilt, Kristjan; Meigas, Kalju; Lass, Jaanus; Rosmann, Mart; Kaik, Jüri

    2007-01-01

    For applications where PPG signal AC component needs to be measured without disturbances in its shape and recorded digitally with high digitalization accuracy, the step-by-step DC component eliminator is developed. This paper describes step-by-step DC component eliminator, which is utilized with analogue comparator and operational amplifier. It allows to record PPG signal without disturbances in its shape in 24-hours PPG signal monitoring system. The experiments with PPG signal have been carried out. PMID:18002130

  19. Phonon scattering in graphene over substrate steps

    SciTech Connect

    Sevinçli, H.; Brandbyge, M.

    2014-10-13

    We calculate the effect on phonon transport of substrate-induced bends in graphene. We consider bending induced by an abrupt kink in the substrate, and provide results for different step-heights and substrate interaction strengths. We find that individual substrate steps reduce thermal conductance in the range between 5% and 47%. We also consider the transmission across linear kinks formed by adsorption of atomic hydrogen at the bends and find that individual kinks suppress thermal conduction substantially, especially at high temperatures. Our analysis show that substrate irregularities can be detrimental for thermal conduction even for small step heights.

  20. Step-by-Step Solution Possibilities in Different Computer Algebra Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonisson, Eno

    This paper compares a number of different Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) in their solution of one-step and multi-step problems. The CAS programs considered include DERIVE, Maple, Mathematica, and MuPAD while the problems are taken from the final examinations of grades 9 and 12 in Estonian schools. The different outputs to one-step problems with…

  1. Macintosh Step by Step: Footsteps To Follow for Learning To Use the Macintosh Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazza, David J.

    This step by step introductory guide, which is divided into a series of 58 topics that should be familiar to any user of the Macintosh, is intended to aid new users in learning the topics that they will need to know to be successful with the Macintosh. Each topic includes the following: (1) a numbered set of sequential steps to be followed,…

  2. First Steps PLUS: Yakima First Steps Mobilization Project for Pregnant Substance Abusers. An Interim Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordlund, Daniel J.; And Others

    The Yakima First Steps Mobilization Project for Pregnant Substance Abusers, known as First Steps PLUS, is a demonstration project. The project seeks to improve the health outcomes of pregnant substance abusing women and their infants by enhancing existing perinatal services provided through Washington's First Steps Maternity Care Program and by…

  3. Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... I at Risk? 4 of 9 sections Take Action! Take Action: Talk to Your Doctor Take these steps to ... Previous section Signs 5 of 9 sections Take Action: Cost and Insurance What about cost? Thanks to ...

  4. "GIANT" Steps to Create Online Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    Online orientation is provided due to the flexibility of online learning. The online orientation consists of the GIANT steps which stands for Get support, Identify your curriculum, Assemble your program, Navigate students through the pilot project and Test students.

  5. Reducing Stepping-Motor Power Consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, C. J.

    1985-01-01

    Direct-current stepping motors used in computer peripherals, process control, and precision remote-positioning equipment constantly dissipate power and create heat even when not moving. Circuit design energizes stepper motor only when pulses are present on control input.

  6. Five Steps to Safer Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Safer Health Care Five Steps to Safer Health Care: Patient Fact Sheet This information is for reference ... safety is one of the Nation's most pressing health care challenges. A 1999 report by the Institute of ...

  7. Seven Steps to Sustainable Change at WPI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogan, William R.; Vaz, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Describes the seven steps over a course of several years, which enabled Worcester Polytechnic Institute to implement and sustain a reconstruction of undergraduate education to involve no set curriculum, but rather three qualifying projects. (EV)

  8. Quit Smoking: 5 Steps to START

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smoking" Articles You Can Quit Smoking: Here's How / 5 Steps to START / Keep Trying! / Secondhand Smoke/"Light" Tobacco/Smokeless Tobacco / 3 Tools to Help You Quit / Latest NIH Research Winter ...

  9. Next Steps for Credit Availability Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Velazquez, Nydia M. [D-NY-12

    2012-06-08

    07/11/2012 Referred to the Subcommittee on Capital Markets and Government Sponsored Enterprises. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Next Steps for Credit Availability Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Velazquez, Nydia M. [D-NY-12

    2013-01-03

    10/23/2013 Hearings Held by the Subcommittee on Capital Markets and Government Sponsored Enterprises Prior to Referral. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Four Practical Steps to Buying Copiers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Presents practical steps for avoiding overbuying when selecting copiers for university administration. Evaluating copying needs, eliminating excessive features, examining the dealer's capabilities, and being patient for the right price are discussed. (GR)

  12. Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... En español Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Browse Sections The Basics Overview Types of Diabetes ... 1 of 9 sections The Basics: Types of Diabetes What is diabetes? Diabetes is a disease. People ...

  13. Social embodiment in directional stepping behavior.

    PubMed

    Stins, John F; Lobel, Adam; Roelofs, Karin; Beek, Peter J

    2014-08-01

    Embodiment theories emphasize the role played by sensory and motor processes in psychological states, such as social information processing. Motivated by this idea, we examined how whole-body postural behaviors couple to social affective cues, viz., pictures of smiling and angry faces. We adopted a Simon-like paradigm, whereby healthy female volunteers were asked to select and initiate a forward or backward step on a force plate in response to the gender of the poser (male/female), regardless of emotion. Detailed analysis of the spatiotemporal unfolding of the body center of pressure during the steps revealed that task-irrelevant emotion had no effect on the initiation times of the steps, i.e., there was no evidence of an affective Simon effect. An unexpected finding was that steps were initiated relatively slow in response to female angry faces. This Stroop-like effect suggests that postural behavior is influenced by whether certain stimulus features match or mismatch. PMID:24362584

  14. Compulsory Attendance Policies: About Age or Intervention? SREB Focus Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, SREB state policy-makers have focused on actions to reduce dropout rates and increase high school graduation rates. Some policy-makers have suggested that raising their state's compulsory attendance age (often called the dropout age) to require students to stay in school until age 17 or 18 is an important step. However,…

  15. Projected-Fringe, Phase-Stepping Profilometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn; Beheim, Glenn

    1992-01-01

    Projected-fringe, phase-stepping profilometer is system of optical, electronic, optoelectronic, and electro-optical equipment measuring surface profiles of objects. Projects optical interference pattern onto object and steps phase of pattern to extract phases of interfering beams where they intersect object. Data obtained within seconds. Noncontact, full-field surface profilometer has applications, including inspection of machined and ceramic parts, printed circuit boards, and optical components. Rugged and compact, measures surfaces with variety of sizes and finishes.

  16. Free energy of steps using atomistic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, Rodrigo; Frolov, Timofey; Asta, Mark

    The properties of solid-liquid interfaces are known to play critical roles in solidification processes. Particularly special importance is given to thermodynamic quantities that describe the equilibrium state of these surfaces. For example, on the solid-liquid-vapor heteroepitaxial growth of semiconductor nanowires the crystal nucleation process on the faceted solid-liquid interface is influenced by the solid-liquid and vapor-solid interfacial free energies, and also by the free energies of associated steps at these faceted interfaces. Crystal-growth theories and mesoscale simulation methods depend on quantitative information about these properties, which are often poorly characterized from experimental measurements. In this work we propose an extension of the capillary fluctuation method for calculation of the free energy of steps on faceted crystal surfaces. From equilibrium atomistic simulations of steps on (111) surfaces of Copper we computed accurately the step free energy for different step orientations. We show that the step free energy remains finite at all temperature up to the melting point and that the results obtained agree with the more well established method of thermodynamic integration if finite size effects are taken into account. The research of RF and MA at UC Berkeley were supported by the US National Science Foundation (Grant No. DMR-1105409). TF acknowledges support through a postdoctoral fellowship from the Miller Institute for Basic Research in Science.

  17. Model of step propagation and step bunching at the sidewalls of nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filimonov, Sergey N.; Hervieu, Yuri Yu.

    2015-10-01

    Radial growth of vertically aligned nanowires involves formation and propagation of monoatomic steps at atomically smooth nanowire sidewalls. Here we study the step dynamics with a step flow model taking into account the presence of a strong sink for adatoms at top of the nanowire and adatom exchange between the nanowire sidewall and surrounding substrate surface. Analytical expressions for velocities of steps propagating from the nanowire base to the nanowire top are obtained. It is shown that the step approaching the nanowire top will slow down if the top nanowire facet is a stronger sink for adatoms than the sidewall step. This might trigger bunching of the steps at the sidewall resulting in development of the pencil-like shape of nanowires such as observed in, e.g., the Au-assisted MBE growth of InAs.

  18. Postural adjustment errors during lateral step initiation in older and younger adults

    PubMed Central

    Sparto, Patrick J.; Fuhrman, Susan I.; Redfern, Mark S.; Perera, Subashan; Jennings, J. Richard; Furman, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to examine age differences and varying levels of step response inhibition on the performance of a voluntary lateral step initiation task. Seventy older adults (70 – 94 y) and twenty younger adults (21 – 58 y) performed visually-cued step initiation conditions based on direction and spatial location of arrows, ranging from a simple choice reaction time task to a perceptual inhibition task that included incongruous cues about which direction to step (e.g. a left pointing arrow appearing on the right side of a monitor). Evidence of postural adjustment errors and step latencies were recorded from vertical ground reaction forces exerted by the stepping leg. Compared with younger adults, older adults demonstrated greater variability in step behavior, generated more postural adjustment errors during conditions requiring inhibition, and had greater step initiation latencies that increased more than younger adults as the inhibition requirements of the condition became greater. Step task performance was related to clinical balance test performance more than executive function task performance. PMID:25595953

  19. Obesity and Related Factors in Iran: The STEPS Survey, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshi, Enayatollah; Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Seifi, Behjat; Rafei, Ali; Biglarian, Akbar; Asgari, Fereshteh; Etemad, Koorosh; Bidhendi Yarandi, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: To date, no study has addressed the association between race/ethnicity and obesity considering other sociodemographic and lifestyle factors in Iran. Objectives: The current study aimed to study lifestyle and the environmental factors affecting obesity in the Iranian subjects of the STEPS Survey, 2011. Patients and Methods: The study was conducted on 8639 subjects (aged ≥ 20 years) in the STEPS Survey 2011 in Iran under supervision of the World Health Organization (WHO). Height and body weight were measured following the standardized procedures. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) method was used to examine factors associated with obesity. The examined variables were age, gender, race/ethnicity, place of residence, employment status, physical activity, smoking status, and educational level. Results: Overall, 22.3% of the subjects were obese. In a GEE model, a healthy weight status among adults was associated with being younger, male, in a rural residence, employees, spending more time engaged in physical activity, being a smoker and having a moderate or high level of education. These associations were statistically significant after adjusting for other variables. Conclusions: The study results suggest a need for targeted interventions and continued surveillance for the Iranian adults. PMID:26328062

  20. Discussion of "Aeration, flow instabilities, and residual energy on pooled stepped spillways of embankment dams" by Stephen Felder and Hubert Chanson

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stepped spillways applied to embankment dams provide overtopping protection and address a common deficiency in aging dams by providing increased spillway capacity. Pooled-stepped spillways offer a design alternative to the traditional flat-stepped spillways. Researchers from the University of Quee...

  1. 20 CFR 404.231 - Steps in computing your primary insurance amount under the guaranteed alternative-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Steps in computing your primary insurance... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary... Steps in computing your primary insurance amount under the guaranteed alternative—general. If you...

  2. Simulating system dynamics with arbitrary time step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantorovich, L.

    2007-02-01

    We suggest a dynamic simulation method that allows efficient and realistic modeling of kinetic processes, such as atomic diffusion, in which time has its actual meaning. Our method is similar in spirit to widely used kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) techniques; however, in our approach, the time step can be chosen arbitrarily. This has an advantage in some cases, e.g., when the transition rates change with time sufficiently fast over the period of the KMC time step (e.g., due to time dependence of some external factors influencing kinetics such as moving scanning probe microscopy tip or external time-dependent field) or when the clock time is set by some external conditions, and it is convenient to use equal time steps instead of the random choice of the KMC algorithm in order to build up probability distribution functions. We show that an arbitrary choice of the time step can be afforded by building up the complete list of events including the “residence site” and multihop transitions. The idea of the method is illustrated in a simple “toy” model of a finite one-dimensional lattice of potential wells with unequal jump rates to either side, which can be studied analytically. We show that for any choice of the time step, our general kinetics method reproduces exactly the solution of the corresponding master equations for any choice of the time steps. The final kinetics also matches the standard KMC, and this allows better understanding of this algorithm, in which the time step is chosen in a certain way and the system always advances by a single hop.

  3. Contribution of lower limb eccentric work and different step responses to balance recovery among older adults.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Hanatsu; Levinger, Pazit; Downie, Calum; Hayes, Alan; Begg, Rezaul

    2015-09-01

    Falls during walking reflect susceptibility to balance loss and the individual's capacity to recover stability. Balance can be recovered using either one step or multiple steps but both responses are impaired with ageing. To investigate older adults' (n=15, 72.5±4.8 yrs) recovery step control a tether-release procedure was devised to induce unanticipated forward balance loss. Three-dimensional position-time data combined with foot-ground reaction forces were used to measure balance recovery. Dependent variables were; margin of stability (MoS) and available response time (ART) for spatial and temporal balance measures in the transverse and sagittal planes; lower limb joint angles and joint negative/positive work; and spatio-temporal gait parameters. Relative to multi-step responses, single-step recovery was more effective in maintaining balance, indicated by greater MoS and longer ART. MoS in the sagittal plane measure and ART in the transverse plane distinguished single step responses from multiple steps. When MoS and ART were negative (<0), balance was not secured and additional steps would be required to establish the new base of support for balance recovery. Single-step responses demonstrated greater step length and velocity and when the recovery foot landed, greater centre of mass downward velocity. Single-step strategies also showed greater ankle dorsiflexion, increased knee maximum flexion and more negative work at the ankle and knee. Collectively these findings suggest that single-step responses are more effective in forward balance recovery by directing falling momentum downward to be absorbed as lower limb eccentric work. PMID:26077787

  4. Incompressible flow in stepped labyrinth seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, G. L.; Chi, D.

    1985-01-01

    A steped labyrinth seal was experimentally investigated to determine the effects of pressure ratio, shaft speed, number of teeth, and tooth/step location upon the leakage through the seal for incompressible flow. The dependence of the flow coefficient upon the number of throttles and pressure ratio are similar to those for straight-through labyrinth seals. It can be noted that the axial location of the throttle with respect to the step had a special effect upon the flow coefficient. That is, the dependency of the flow coefficient upon rotation rate and the number of throttles changes with axial location. It was found that the minimum flow coefficient was obtained when the seal teeth were centered on the step surface. Axial pressure distribution measurements show that when the teeth are centered on the step, the pressure drop from cavity to cavity is almost uniform. It is speculated that the obtaining of this uniform pressure gradient is the cause for the enhanced performance of the stepped labyrinth seal when operated in that configuration.

  5. Effect of a Stepped-Care Intervention Approach on Weight Loss in Adults: The Step-Up Study Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jakicic, John M.; Tate, Deborah F.; Lang, Wei; Davis, Kelli K.; Polzien, Kristen; Rickman, Amy D.; Erickson, Karen; Neiberg, Rebecca H.; Finkelstein, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Context Given the obesity epidemic, effective but resource efficient weight loss treatments are needed. Stepped treatment approaches customize interventions based on milestone completion and can be more effective while costing less to administer than conventional treatment paradigms. Objective We hypothesized that compared to a standard behavioral weight loss intervention (SBWI), a stepped-care weight loss intervention (STEP) would result in greater weight loss. Design Randomized trial with participants enrolled between May 2008 and February 2010. Data collection was completed by September 2011. Setting 2 universities affiliated with academic medical centers. Participants Participants were 363 overweight and obese adults (BMI: 25 to <40 kg/m2; age: 18–55 years; 33% non-white, 83% female) who were randomized to SBWI or STEP interventions. Interventions All participants were placed on a low calorie diet, prescribed increases in physical activity and had group counseling sessions ranging from weekly to monthly during an 18-month time period. SBWI participants were assigned to a fixed program. Among STEP participants, counseling frequency, type, and weight loss strategies could be modified every 3 months in response to observed weight loss as it related to weight loss goals. Main Outcome Measure Mean change in weight over 18 months. Additional outcomes include resting heart rate and blood pressure, waist girth, body composition, fitness, physical activity, dietary intake, and costs. Results Of the 363 participants randomized, 260 participants (71.6%) provided a measure of mean change in weight over 18 months. The 18 month intervention resulted in weight decreasing from 93.1 kg (95% CI: 91.0, 95.2) to 85.6 kg (95% CI: 83.4, 88.0) (p<0.01) in SBWI and from 92.7 kg (95% CI: 90.8, 94.6) to 86.4 kg (95% CI: 84.5, 88.4) in STEP (p<0.01). Percent weight change from baseline to 18 months was −8.1% (95% CI: −9.4, −6.9) in SBWI (p<0.01) and −6.9% (95% CI: −8.0, −5

  6. Aging and Aged in Organized Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Menachem

    1989-01-01

    Examines problems of the aged in organized crime, basing discussion on organized crime bosses over age 60 operating in Italy, the United States, and Israel. Looks at problems stemming from normative system in organized crime, role of the aged, intergenerational problems, fears of the aged, excuses and justifications, standards of life, and…

  7. Step-Edge Directed Metal Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qing; Saidi, Wissam A; Yang, Judith C

    2016-07-01

    Metal surface oxidation is governed by surface mass transport processes. Realistic surfaces have many defects such as step edges, which often dictate the oxide growth dynamics and result in novel oxide nanostructures. Here we present a comprehensive and systematic study of the oxidation of stepped (100), (110) and (111) Cu surfaces using a multiscale approach employing density functional theory (DFT) and reactive force field molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We show that the early stages of oxidation of these stepped surfaces can be qualitatively understood from the potential energy surface of single oxygen adatoms, namely, adsorption energies and Ehrlich-Schwöbel barriers. These DFT predictions are then validated using classical MD simulations with a newly optimized ReaxFF force field. In turn, we show that the DFT results can be explained using a simple bond-counting argument that makes our results general and transferable to other metal surfaces. PMID:27299380

  8. Screw-retained crown restorations of single implants: A step-by-step clinical guide

    PubMed Central

    Assaf, Mohammad; Gharbyeh, Alaa’ Z. Abu

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the clinical steps for preparing a screw-retained crown for the restoration of a single implant. Impression-taking using open-tray technique and delivery of the crown is presented in a step-by-step manner elucidated by detailed photographs. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of screw-retained crowns are discussed in comparison with the cemented restorations. PMID:25512742

  9. Comparative analysis of direct and "step-by-step" Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silenko, A. Ya.

    2013-08-01

    Relativistic methods for the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation of the "step-by-step" type already at the first step give an expression for the Hamilton operator not coinciding with the exact result determined by the Eriksen method. The methods agree for the zeroth and first orders in the Planck constant terms but do not agree for the second and higher-order terms. We analyze the benefits and drawbacks of various methods and establish their applicability boundaries.

  10. Control Software for Piezo Stepping Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, Joel F.

    2013-01-01

    A control system has been developed for the Space Interferometer Mission (SIM) piezo stepping actuator. Piezo stepping actuators are novel because they offer extreme dynamic range (centimeter stroke with nanometer resolution) with power, thermal, mass, and volume advantages over existing motorized actuation technology. These advantages come with the added benefit of greatly reduced complexity in the support electronics. The piezo stepping actuator consists of three fully redundant sets of piezoelectric transducers (PZTs), two sets of brake PZTs, and one set of extension PZTs. These PZTs are used to grasp and move a runner attached to the optic to be moved. By proper cycling of the two brake and extension PZTs, both forward and backward moves of the runner can be achieved. Each brake can be configured for either a power-on or power-off state. For SIM, the brakes and gate of the mechanism are configured in such a manner that, at the end of the step, the actuator is in a parked or power-off state. The control software uses asynchronous sampling of an optical encoder to monitor the position of the runner. These samples are timed to coincide with the end of the previous move, which may consist of a variable number of steps. This sampling technique linearizes the device by avoiding input saturation of the actuator and makes latencies of the plant vanish. The software also estimates, in real time, the scale factor of the device and a disturbance caused by cycling of the brakes. These estimates are used to actively cancel the brake disturbance. The control system also includes feedback and feedforward elements that regulate the position of the runner to a given reference position. Convergence time for smalland medium-sized reference positions (less than 200 microns) to within 10 nanometers can be achieved in under 10 seconds. Convergence times for large moves (greater than 1 millimeter) are limited by the step rate.

  11. Step Counts and Body Mass Index Among 9-14 Years Old Greek Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Michalopoulou, Maria; Gourgoulis, Vassilios; Kourtessis, Thomas; Kambas, Antonios; Dimitrou, Martina; Gretziou, Helen

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was the identification of the current pedometer determined physical activity levels of a large sample of 9 -14 years old Greek schoolchildren and the determination of the association between daily step counts and body mass index through the comparison of step counts among overweight, obese and normal-weight children. A total of 532 children (263 boys and 269 girls) were measured for height and weight. Their activity levels were analyzed using pedometers to measure mean steps for 7 consecutive days. Overweight and obese status was determined using the international reference standard (Cole et al., 2000). According to data analysis mean step counts ranged from 15371 to10539 for boys and from 11536 to 7893 for girls. Steps per day were significantly more for boys compared to girls. Children with normal weight performed significantly more steps per day compared to their overweight and obese classmates. Daily step counts reported in this study for 9 -14 year old schoolchildren were relatively low when compared to step counts from other European countries. Only 33.9% of the participants satisfied the body mass index referenced standards for recommended steps per day. Finally, the results of this study provide baseline information on youth pedometer determined physical activity and on youth body mass index levels. High prevalence of low daily step counts and BMI determined obesity was revealed prompting for further exploration of the relationship between objectively measured physical activity and adiposity in particular for children and adolescents that experience both health risk factors. Key points The mean steps/day taken by both boys and girls in Greece 9-14 years old were 13.446 and 10.656 respectively. Daily step counts tended to be leveled for ages 9-12 years and a significant drop in steps/day was apparent for children aged 13 -14 years. According to the IOTF criteria, 23% of the boys that participated in this study were overweight

  12. Oral Health and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Summer 2016 Table of Contents Jerrold H. Epstein, ... they may need. Read More "Oral Health and Aging" Articles Oral Health and Aging / 4 Myths About ...

  13. What's Your Aging IQ?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » What's Your Aging IQ? Heath and Aging What's Your Aging IQ? About this booklet We all know someone " ... at the dry cleaners. But what is normal aging? In this booklet there are several very short ...

  14. The Biology of Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprott, Richard L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Thirteen articles in this special issue discuss aging theories, biomarkers of aging, aging research, disease, cancer biology, Alzheimer's disease, stress, oxidation of proteins, gene therapy, service delivery, biogerontology, and ethics and aging research. (SK)

  15. Magnetostrictive Roller-Drive Stepping Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed motor based on magnetostrictive effect provides stepped angular motion with angular increments of order of 100 microradians. Driven to repeat stepping cycle rapidly enough to achieve maximum speed of about 20 rpm, provides torque an order of magnitude greater than electric motors, and brakes itself when power turned off. Magnetostrictive rods in electromagnet coils push against drive plate, causing it to rotate slightly. This slight rotation jams conical rollers between cam surfaces on outer drive ring and split drum, so rollers transmit rotation to drum. Suitable for precise, high-torque, fail-safe-braking, direct drive of robot joint, without bulk and weight of additional brake mechanism and gear train.

  16. 2D stepping drive for hyperspectral systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endrödy, Csaba; Mehner, Hannes; Grewe, Adrian; Sinzinger, Stefan; Hoffmann, Martin

    2015-07-01

    We present the design, fabrication and characterization of a compact 2D stepping microdrive for pinhole array positioning. The miniaturized solution enables a highly integrated compact hyperspectral imaging system. Based on the geometry of the pinhole array, an inch-worm drive with electrostatic actuators was designed resulting in a compact (1 cm2) positioning system featuring a step size of about 15 µm in a 170 µm displacement range. The high payload (20 mg) as required for the pinhole array and the compact system design exceed the known electrostatic inch-worm-based microdrives.

  17. Stance time and step width variability have unique contributing impairments in older persons.

    PubMed

    Brach, Jennifer S; Studenski, Stephanie; Perera, Subashan; VanSwearingen, Jessie M; Newman, Anne B

    2008-04-01

    Gait variability may have multiple causes. We hypothesized that central nervous system (CNS) impairments would affect motor control and be manifested as increased stance time and step length variability, while sensory impairments would affect balance and be manifested as increased step width variability. Older adults (mean+/-standard deviation (S.D.) age=79.4+/-4.1, n=558) from the Pittsburgh site of the Cardiovascular Health Study participated. The S.D. across steps was the indicator of gait variability, determined for three gait measures, step length, stance time and step width, using a computerized walkway. Impairment measures included CNS function (modified mini-mental state examination, Trails A and B, Digit Symbol Substitution, finger tapping), sensory function (lower extremity (LE) vibration, vision), strength (grip strength, repeated chair stands), mood, and LE pain. Linear regression models were fit for the three gait variability characteristics using impairment measures as independent variables, adjusted for age, race, gender, and height. Analyses were repeated stratified by gait speed. All measures of CNS impairment were directly related to stance time variability (p<0.01), with increased CNS impairment associated with increased stance time variability. CNS impairments were not related to step length or width variability. Both sensory impairments were inversely related to step width (p<0.01) but not step length or stance time variability. CNS impairments affected stance time variability especially in slow walkers while sensory impairments affected step width variability in fast walkers. Specific patterns of gait variability may imply different underlying causes. Types of gait variability should be specified. Interventions may be targeted at specific types of gait variability. PMID:17632004

  18. Webinar: Stepped chute design for embankment dams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changing demographics in the vicinity of dams have led to hazard creep in a number of dams worldwide. Many of these dams now have insufficient spillway capacity as a result of these changes in hazard classification from low to significant or high hazard. Stepped chutes applied to the embankment da...

  19. Three Steps to Competency Based Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkett, B. Verner, Jr.; Newton, Alfred F.

    1982-01-01

    The authors offer a plan for a competency-based education program. Teachers need to follow three steps: (1) identify competencies needed by graduates, (2) plan and provide learning activities to develop the competencies identified, and (3) verify acquisition of competencies. (Office of Vocational Education, State Dept. of Education, P.O. Box 1131,…

  20. Stepping Out: Collaborative Research across Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groen, Janet; Hyland-Russell, Tara

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers the experiences and insights of two faculty members, located in two separate disciplines, as they engaged in collaborative research. While knowledge created by stepping out and reaching across disciplines reflects the reality of an increasingly complex world, their experiences highlight both the benefits of a supportive…

  1. Seven Steps to Flipped Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Professional development generally follows a pattern of presentation and review, but flipping the sessions has garnered a positive response from staff members and prompted greater collaboration and engagement. In this article the author describes the seven following steps to follow in order to prepare for a successful staff development meeting:…

  2. Bottleneck Concepts in Psychology: Exploratory First Steps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurung, Regan A. R.; Landrum, R. Eric

    2013-01-01

    The authors take an initial step in identifying potential bottleneck concepts in psychology, that is, concepts that are deceptively difficult, perhaps due to student overconfidence. In order to first identify bottleneck concepts, faculty (n = 65) rated the difficulty of 91 psychological concepts from across the discipline. Students (n = 35) rated…

  3. STEPS: An EPSS Tool for Instructional Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northrup, Pamela Taylor; Pilcher, Janet K.

    Support for Teachers Enhancing Performance in Schools (STEPS) is a World Wide Web and CD-ROM electronic performance support system (EPSS) designed for preK-12 and preservice educators to assist in designing and developing lessons, units, or curricula; this tool was developed around school reform and accountability initiatives in Florida. To…

  4. Nine Steps to a Successful Summer School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberry, Nancy Ann

    1990-01-01

    The College Station (Texas) Independent School District spent several months improving its summer school programs, but the results have been well worth the effort. The district's first step was to create the new position of "summer school principal" at the elementary, junior high, and senior high levels. This action relieved school-year principals…

  5. 10 Steps to District Performance Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Lydia Abell

    In the 1995-96 school year, the Memphis (Tennessee) City Schools released standards for student performance in seven content areas and began laying the foundation for a standards-based curriculum and assessment system. The steps taken to develop and implement this project are outlined as follows: (1) defining the objectives and the project scope;…

  6. Simple Steps Can Keep Lawn Mowing Safe

    MedlinePlus

    ... FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Latest Health News → Article URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158341.html Simple Steps Can Keep Lawn Mowing Safe Before cutting the grass, review these safety tips To use ...

  7. Regulative Loops, Step Loops and Task Loops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanLehn, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    This commentary suggests a generalization of the conception of the behavior of tutoring systems, which the target article characterized as having an outer loop that was executed once per task and an inner loop that was executed once per step of the task. A more general conception sees these two loops as instances of regulative loops, which…

  8. Steps for Launching a Capital Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safranek, Thomas W.; Usyk, Patricia A.

    The capital campaign in the Catholic elementary and secondary school must be viewed as an essential component in the total development program. This document addresses many of the specifics regarding the proper positioning steps and procedures for a capital campaign. The introductory chapter provides a historical overview of the capital campaign.…

  9. Two-step single-ionization mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Boeyen, R. W. van; Doering, J. P.; Watanabe, N.; Cooper, J. W.; Coplan, M. A.; Moore, J. H.

    2006-03-15

    In a recent publication [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 233202 (2004)] two different electron impact double ionization (e,3e) mechanisms were identified and the way in which two-electron momentum distributions for atoms and molecules could be obtained by triple coincidence (e,3e) measurements was discussed. The apparatus used detected the two ejected electrons both in and out of the scattering plane at an angle of 45 deg. to the momentum transfer direction in triple coincidence with the scattered electron. Ejected electrons detected out of the scattering plane were shown to be a result of two-step double ionization processes. With the same apparatus we have made double coincidence (e,2e) measurements of electron impact single ionization cross sections for ionization of magnesium 3s (valence) and 2p and 2s (inner) shell electrons at incident energies from 400 to 3000 eV in order to obtain more information about two-step ionization. The experimental results were compared with distorted-wave and plane-wave Born approximations carried out to second order. For the experimental conditions, two-step ionization processes involving one ionizing collision and a second elastic collision with the atomic core are the dominant contribution to the measured cross sections. Calculations are in moderate agreement with the data. The angular distributions of the ionized electrons in these two-step ionizations reflect the initial momentum distributions of the target electrons, a result that is analogous with the earlier (e,3e) measurements.

  10. Ten Steps to a Learning Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Peter; Saunders, Bernard

    This guide provides a 10-step process for building a learning organization. It shows any organization how to develop and sustain an environment favorable to learning at every level, to reawaken and stimulate the power of learning in all members of the organization, and to harness the new learning that was generated to produce the maximum benefit…

  11. 5 Steps to a Greener School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Sometimes all it takes is a little fate to accomplish something great, or in this case, something green. The Broward County Public School (BCPS) District shows how a natural disaster (Hurricane Wilma) inspired a green revolution. This article presents the five steps that the Broward County School District followed in implementing an Environmental…

  12. Specificity of a Maximal Step Exercise Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darby, Lynn A.; Marsh, Jennifer L.; Shewokis, Patricia A.; Pohlman, Roberta L.

    2007-01-01

    To adhere to the principle of "exercise specificity" exercise testing should be completed using the same physical activity that is performed during exercise training. The present study was designed to assess whether aerobic step exercisers have a greater maximal oxygen consumption (max VO sub 2) when tested using an activity specific, maximal step…

  13. HIV Testing on Campus: The Next Step.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Joanna

    1994-01-01

    Sees first phase in human immunodeficiency virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) prevention on many campuses to be focused on education. Calls second phase HIV testing for early diagnosis. Explains steps taken to implement HIV testing program on suburban campus and discusses student program evaluation. (Author/NB)

  14. Tandem mirror next step conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Doggett, J.N.; Damm, C.C.; Bulmer, R.H.

    1980-10-14

    A study was made to define the features of the experimental mirror fusion device - The Tandem Mirror Next Step, or TMNS - that will bridge the gap between present mirror confinement experiments and a power-producing reactor. We outline the project goals, describe some initial device parameters, and relate the technological requirements to ongoing development programs.

  15. Seven Steps to On-Time Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konchar, Mark; Sanvido, Victor

    1999-01-01

    Describes seven steps to consider when making project-delivery decisions that include defining the school district's goals and profile, selecting the project-delivery system and procurement method, selecting the project team and contract type, and developing and confirming the facility program. Concluding comments address the district review of…

  16. Four-step reaction for polytriazine elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosser, R. W.; Korus, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    Four step imidoylamidine reaction sequence is used to make crosslinked polyperfluoralkyltriazines with superior elastomeric properties, greater molecular weight, and crosslinking control. Polymers can find useful application in fuel tank sealants, o-ring, wire enamels, pneumatic ducts, and many other applications.

  17. Six Easy Steps to Online Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Against his better instincts, the author, an educator at West Texas A&M University, shares his school's recipe for developing a successful online learning program. He discusses six easy steps to online success. These include: (1) clean up one's act; (2) answers in 24 hours; (3) plenty of structure; (4) format phone conferences at midterm; (5) do…

  18. Supplemental Training and Employment Programs (STEP) Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The handbook provides a thorough description of the philosophy and operating instructions of the Supplemental Training and Employment Program (STEP). It includes the background; purpose and description; sponsorship; project development, review, approval and funding; project duration; eligibility requirements; length of enrollment; participant…

  19. 7 CFR 65.230 - Production step.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production step. 65.230 Section 65.230 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND...

  20. 7 CFR 65.230 - Production step.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production step. 65.230 Section 65.230 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND...

  1. 7 CFR 65.230 - Production step.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production step. 65.230 Section 65.230 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND...

  2. Steps to Success for Academic Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zukowski/Faust, Jean

    2002-01-01

    This article provides eight steps to academic reading success for English language learners, including the following: 1) set a purpose; 2) determine the scope of the reading; 3) fill in the holes; 4) recognize what you know and don't know; 5) integrate your ideas with the reading; 6) determine the author's perspective; 7) think critically; 8)…

  3. Aging, Terminal Decline, and Terminal Drop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmore, Erdman; Cleveland, William

    1976-01-01

    Data from a 20-year longitudinal study of persons over 60 were analyzed by step-wise multiple regression to test for declines in function with age, for terminal decline (linear relationship to time before death), and for terminal drop (curvilinear relationship to time before death). There were no substantial terminal drop effects. (Author)

  4. Cyclic steps incised on experimental bedrock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokokawa, M.; Kyogoku, A.; Kotera, A.; Izumi, N.

    2013-12-01

    In rivers flowing in mountain areas, a series of steps are often observed on bedrock. They are thought to be cyclic steps formed due to erosion of bedrock, which should be driven by abrasion due to bedload sediment transport. We demonstrated a series of flume experiments of the formation of cyclic steps on bedrock by abrasion due to bedload transportation using weak mortar as the model bedrock. We also compared the shapes of the steps reproduced in the experiments with those obtained in the analysis. The experiments were conducted using a 1.5 m long, 2 cm wide, and 20 cm deep flume made of glass in Osaka Institute of Technology. The flume has 10-cm-high weirs at both ends, so that there is a 10-cm-deep reservoir. We put mortar into the reservoir and hardened it. In order to make a highly erodible mortar, we casted the mortar with extremely low amount of cement. The ratio of cement, sand (0.2 mm in diameter), and water is x:150:50 (x ranges 1-3). The flume is tilted by 10 degrees. The water and colored sand is supplied from a head tank to the upstream end of the flume, flows on 'model bedrock' in the flume, and was dropped from the downstream end. We observed morphological changes of the surface of the bedrock by photos. We also used a laser displacement sensor to measure the surface topography of the 'model bedrock' before and after each run. The configuration of steps largely depends on the hardness of model bedrocks. In the case of the softest model bedrock (cement-sand-water ratio is 1:150:50) with small amount of sand, long-drawn potholes tend to be formed. Clear cyclic steps are formed on harder model bedrocks with large cement-sand-water ratios such as 2:150:50 and 3:150:50. When a series of steps are formed on the bed, typical wavelength and wave height are approximately 20 cm, and 2 - 3 cm, respectively. The general shape of a step is characterized by a relatively long downward-inclined slope just upstream of a short upward-inclined slope. The feature of

  5. Listen to Me Listen to You: A Step-By-Step Guide to Communication Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotzman, Mandy; Kotzman, Anne

    2008-01-01

    This step-by-step guide is a companion to the popular "Listen to Me, Listen to You: A Practical Guide to Self-Awareness, Communication Skills and Conflict Management" (New Expanded Edition, Penguin Books, 2007). It is designed for use by anyone working in communication skills and personal development training. Resource material is grouped under…

  6. A step in the right direction: new flow depth relationships for stepped spillway design

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A common deficiency for embankment dams changing from a low hazard to a high hazard dam is inadequate spillway capacity. Roller compacted concrete (RCC) stepped spillways are a popular method to address this issue. Stepped spillway research has gained momentum in recent years due to the need for d...

  7. Integrated Marketing for Colleges, Universities, and Schools: A Step-by-Step Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevier, Robert A.

    This book offers a step-by-step approach to marketing for educational institutions, especially colleges and universities. The book is organized into three broad sections. Section 1 makes the case for marketing in six chapters which address: (1) challenges which are or will affect colleges and universities; (2) the role of institutional mission,…

  8. Impact of Preadmission Variables on USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleshinski, James; Khuder, Sadik A.; Shapiro, Joseph I.; Gold, Jeffrey P.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the predictive ability of preadmission variables on United States Medical Licensing Examinations (USMLE) step 1 and step 2 performance, incorporating the use of a neural network model. Method: Preadmission data were collected on matriculants from 1998 to 2004. Linear regression analysis was first used to identify predictors of…

  9. The effect of step height on energy dissipation in stepped spillways

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two-dimensional, physical model was constructed to evaluate the energy dissipation on a 4(H):1(V) slope spillway chute. Step heights of 38 mm (1.5 inches), 76 mm (3.0 inches), and 152 mm (6 inches) were evaluated, and energy losses created by these steps were compared. Model unit discharges rang...

  10. Choosing a College: The Student's Step-by-Step Decision-Making Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Gordon Porter

    This workbook aims to help students make the right choice when selecting a college, by applying a straightforward step-by-step decision-making process. The book uses a variety of questions, self-study inventories, and exercises to assist in: (1) choosing those colleges to which the student will send applications, and (2) deciding where to enroll.…

  11. Strategies for Successful Library Research: A Step-by-Step Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesley, Threasa L.; Werrell, Emily

    Developed by the Instructional Services Department of Northern Kentucky University's W. Frank Steely Library, this self-paced workbook is designed for students who are undertaking library research projects. Based on a five-step search strategy and designed to provide individualized guidance through the fundamental steps in the library research…

  12. An Analysis of Step-In/Step-Out Students at Valencia Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Lula M.

    In order to determine the characteristics, educational motivations, and opinions of "step-in/step-out" students at Valencia Community College (VCC), the author sent questionnaires to 200 persons selected at random from those who had enrolled for less than 12 hours credit between September 1975 and January 1977 and who were eligible to return but…

  13. A Step by Step Guide for Planning a Japanese Cultural Festival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Carole

    Teachers at all academic levels can adapt the design and content of the sixth grade Japanese cultural festival detailed in this learning packet. Material is divided into 2 sections. Section 1 provides a step-by-step guide to planning and conducting the festival. These instructions, based on 5 years of experience, include a detailed planning…

  14. Two Steps Forward, One Step Backward: Must This Be the Future of Diversity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Johnnella E.

    2013-01-01

    Johnnella Butler writes here that the title of this article "Two Steps Forward, One Step Backward," expresses the "wicked problem" of diversity as a concrete goal in higher education. The concept of the "wicked problem," is a term coined in the late 1960s by social planners. Consulting Wikipedia, as so many of our…

  15. ACSM Fitness Book: A Proven Step-By-Step Program from the Experts. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Coll. of Sports Medicine, Indianapolis, IN.

    This offers advice on the health benefits of regular physical activity. It includes a scientifically proven fitness test to determine one's starting point and monitor ongoing progress, offering step-by-step instructions, sample programs, and insights on nutrition, weight control, motivation, and overcoming setbacks. Seven chapters examine: (1) "An…

  16. Steps Toward Effective Production of Speech (STEPS): No. 7--How to Take Care of Glasses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheeley, Eugene C.; McQuiddy, Doris

    This guide, one of a series of booklets developed by Project STEPS (Steps Toward Effective Production of Speech), presents guidelines for parents of deaf-blind children regarding the care of eyeglasses. Basic concerns with glasses and contact lenses are noted and parents are advised to perform the following daily tasks: checking the frames,…

  17. Steps Toward Effective Production of Speech (STEPS): No. 6--Rewards and How to Use Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheeley, Eugene C.; McQuiddy, Doris

    This guide, part of a series of booklets for parents of deaf-blind children developed by Project STEP (Steps Toward Effective Production of Speech), considers the use of rewards in shaping or changing the behavior of deaf-blind children. The types of rewards (e.g., food, drink, touch, action, something to listen to or look at) and selection of…

  18. On the Road towards Child-Centered Education: Step by Step in Moldova

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cincilei, Cornelia

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the outcome of the implementation of the Step by Step child-centered education model in Moldova. The implementation began with 12 classrooms of four-to five-year-old children in five kindergartens. The positive response from parents and teachers received at the end of the first year exceeded all expectations. As a result, 60…

  19. SPSS for Windows Step by Step: A Simple Guide and Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Darren; Mallery, Paul

    This book is designed to give step-by-step instructions necessary to do most major types of data analysis using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). SPSS is a powerful tool that is capable of conducting nearly any type of data analysis used in the social sciences. This book should enable the reader to do 95% of what the program…

  20. Step Frequency and Step Length of 200-m Sprint in Able-bodied and Amputee Sprinters.

    PubMed

    Hobara, H; Sano, Y; Kobayashi, Y; Heldoorn, T A; Mochimaru, M

    2016-02-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the hypothesis that the difference in the 200-m sprint performance of amputee and able-bodied sprinters is due to a shorter step length rather than a lower step frequency. Men's elite-level 200-m races with a total of 16 able-bodied, 13 unilateral transtibial, 5 bilateral transtibial, and 16 unilateral transfemoral amputee sprinters were analyzed from publicly available internet broadcasts. For each run, the average forward velocity, step frequency, and step length over the entire 200-m distance were analyzed for each sprinter. The average forward velocity of able-bodied sprinters was faster than that of the other 3 groups, but there was no significant difference in average step frequency between able-bodied and transtibial amputee sprinters. However, the average step length of able-bodied sprinters was significantly longer than that of the transtibial amputee sprinters. In contrast, the step frequency and step length of transfemoral amputees were significantly lower and shorter than those of the other 3 groups. These results suggest that the differences in 200-m sprint performance between able-bodied and amputee sprinters are dependent on amputation level. PMID:26509370

  1. How to Conduct Surveys: A Step-by-Step Guide. Sixth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Arlene

    2016-01-01

    Packed with new topics that reflect today's challenges, the Sixth Edition of the bestselling "How to Conduct Surveys" guides readers through the process of developing their own rigorous surveys and evaluating the credibility and transparency of surveys created by others. Offering practical, step-by-step advice and written in the same…

  2. Suggested Steps for Planning and Building a New School Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    A listing and short descriptions of eleven steps that should be observed in the planning and building of a new school plant. This step-by-step approach was prepared with the inexperienced school board member in mind, and attempts to offer suggestions and advice for each step in the planning, bonding, and building stages. Steps covered are--(1)…

  3. Five Steps for Developing Effective Transition Plans for High School Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szidon, Katherine; Ruppar, Andrea; Smith, Leann

    2015-01-01

    The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA; 2006) requires schools to develop transition plans for students with disabilities, beginning at age 16, if not before. For students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the transition planning process includes unique considerations. This article describes five steps for developing effective…

  4. Next Steps: Life after Special Education. Diplomas Count, 2015. Education Week. Volume 34, Number 33

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Virginia B., Ed.

    2015-01-01

    After spending years in a special education system that carefully spells out their rights and the services they should receive, students with disabilities often find it daunting to contemplate their next steps after high school. Should they apply to college, look for a job, or stay in the special education system until they "age out" at…

  5. Next Steps for "Big Data" in Education: Utilizing Data-Intensive Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dede, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Data-informed instructional methods offer tremendous promise for increasing the effectiveness of teaching, learning, and schooling. Yet-to-be-developed data science approaches have the potential to dramatically advance instruction for every student and to enhance learning for people of all ages. Next steps that emerged from a recent National…

  6. Project STEPS: Instructional Strategies Manual for the Helpful Entry Level Skills Checklist. Revised Edition. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Rita; Rous, Beth

    This manual, part of Project STEPS (Sequenced Transition to Education in the Public Schools) is intended to provide teachers, particularly those at the preschool level, with ideas for increasing independence in young children as they make the transition from preschool to school-age programs. Section 1 is an overview of instructional issues which…

  7. Students' Game Performance Improvements during a Hybrid Sport Education-Step-Game-Approach Volleyball Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araújo, Rui; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter; Pereira, Cristiana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a hybrid combination of sport education and the step-game-approach (SGA) on students' gameplay performance in volleyball, taking into account their sex and skill-level. Seventeen seventh-grade students (seven girls, 10 boys, average age 11.8) participated in a 25-lesson volleyball season, in which the…

  8. Introduction: Childhood implications of parental aging.

    PubMed

    Cedars, Marcelle I

    2015-06-01

    Men and women are increasingly delaying childbearing to the late 30s, the 40s and beyond. The implications of this societal change on childhood health and well-being have only recently been a focus of research. There are known increased perinatal risks associated with increasing maternal age, while paternal age seems to have a potentially greater negative impact on childhood health. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the aging of sperm and eggs, and how these changes impact offspring, is a critical next step as we work to help patients build healthy families. PMID:25936233

  9. [Active aging from the perspective of aged individuals who are functionally independent].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Olivia Galvão Lucena; Maciel, Silvana Carneiro; Silva, Antonia Oliveira; dos Santos, Walberto Silva; Moreira, Maria Adelaide Silva P

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the social representations of the elderly regarding active aging. Semi-structured interviews were performed with 100 functionally independent aged individuals from João Pessoa, Paraiba, Brazil. The data was organized and analyzed using Alceste software. Results showed that the aged individuals' statements about active aging are permeated with positive contents. However, when aging is not associated with the word active, it is still represented as losses and disabilities. Despite the existence of losses during the process, active aging should be encouraged among the elderly, as it means living a quality, plentiful life. Maintaining the elderly functionally independent is the first step to achieving active aging and thus improving their quality of life. PMID:21337791

  10. Protection of the space environment: the first small steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Mark

    2004-01-01

    The development of the space environment - for industry, commerce and tourism - is a natural extension of our current business and domestic agenda. Unfortunately, this brings with it the ability to pollute, degrade and even destroy aspects of the space environment. This paper briefly reviews the evidence of mankind's pollution of the space environment in the first 45 years of the Space Age, and extrapolates the potential for further degradation into its second half-century. It also makes recommendations concerning the first steps towards a solution to the problem, including the formation of an international consultative body and consideration of a `set of guidelines' or `code of practice' as a precursor to more formal policies or legislation.

  11. Serious Games for Health: Features, Challenges, Next Steps.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Moderators Fran C; Burke, Lauren C; Hodent, Participants Celia; Evans, Michael A; Lane, H Chad; Schell, Jesse

    2014-10-01

    As articles in this journal have demonstrated over the past 3 years, serious game development continues to flourish as a vehicle for formal and informal health education. How best to characterize a "serious" game remains somewhat elusive in the literature. Many researchers and practitioners view serious games as capitalizing on computer technology and state-of-the-art video graphics as an enjoyable means by which to provide and promote instruction and training, or to facilitate attitude change among its players. We invited four distinguished researchers and practitioners to further discuss with us how they view the characteristics of serious games for health, how those characteristics differ from those for academic purposes, the challenges posed for serious game development among players of different ages, and next steps for the development and empirical examination of the effectiveness of serious games for players' psychological and physical well-being. PMID:26192481

  12. Avoiding Aging? Social Psychology's Treatment of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Anne E.; Redmond, Rebecca; von Rohr, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Population aging, in conjunction with social and cultural transformations of the life course, has profound implications for social systems--from large-scale structures to micro-level processes. However, much of sociology remains fairly quiet on issues of age and aging, including the subfield of social psychology that could illuminate the impact of…

  13. Four Steps to Manage Your Diabetes for Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... Language URL Español 4 Steps to Manage Your Diabetes for Life Page Content Contents Step 1: Learn ... diabetes care each day. Step 1: Learn about diabetes. What is diabetes? There are three main types ...

  14. 36 CFR 1192.25 - Doors, steps and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Contrast. All step edges, thresholds, and the boarding edge of ramps or lift platforms shall have a band of color(s) running the full width of the step or edge which contrasts from the step tread and riser,...

  15. Increasing Steps/Day Predicts Improvement in Physical Function and Pain Interference in Adults with Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Kaleth, Anthony S.; Slaven, James E.; Ang, Dennis C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the concurrent and predictive associations between the number of steps taken per day (steps/day) and clinical outcomes in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). Methods 199 adults with FM [mean age = 46.1 yr; 95% females] enrolled in a randomized clinical trial wore a hip-mounted accelerometer for 1 week and completed self-report measures of physical function [Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire-Physical Impairment (FIQ-PI), SF-36 physical component score (SF-36 PCS)], pain intensity and interference (Brief Pain Inventory; BPI), and depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-8; PHQ-8) as part of their baseline and follow-up assessments. Associations of steps/day with self-report clinical measures were evaluated from baseline to week 12 using multivariate regression models adjusted for demographic and baseline covariates. Results Study participants were primarily sedentary, averaging 4,019 ± 1,530 steps/day. Our findings demonstrate a linear relationship between the change in steps/day and improvement in health outcomes for FM. Incremental increases on the order of 1,000 steps/day were significantly associated with (and predictive of) improvements in FIQ-PI, SF-36 PCS, BPI pain interference, and PHQ-8 (all p<0.05). Although higher step counts were associated with lower FIQ and BPI pain intensity scores, these were not statistically significant. Conclusion Step counts is an easily obtained and understood objective measure of daily physical activity. An exercise prescription that includes recommendations to gradually accumulate at least 5,000 additional steps/day may result in clinically significant improvements in outcomes relevant to patients with FM. Future studies are needed to elucidate the dose-response relationship between steps/day and patient outcomes in FM. PMID:25049001

  16. Independent Influence of Gait Speed and Step Length on Stability and Fall Risk

    PubMed Central

    Espy, D. D.; Yang, F.; Bhatt, T.; Pai, Y.-C.

    2010-01-01

    With aging, individuals' gaits become slower and their steps shorter; both are thought to improve stability against balance threats. Recent studies have shown that shorter step lengths, which bring the center of mass (COM) closer to the leading foot, improve stability against slip-related falls. However, a slower gait, hence lower COM velocity, does the opposite. Due to the inherent coupling of step length and speed in spontaneous gait, the extent to which the benefit of shorter steps can offset the slower speed is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate, through decoupling, the independent effects of gait speed and step length on gait stability and the likelihood of slip-induced falls. Fifty-seven young adults walked at one of three target gait patterns, two of equal speed and two of equal step length; at a later trial, they encountered an unannounced slip. The results supported our hypotheses that faster gait as well as shorter steps each ameliorates fall risk when a slip is encountered. This appeared to be attributable to the maintenance of stability from slip initiation to liftoff of the recovery foot during the slip. Successful decoupling of gait speed from step length reveals for the first time that, although slow gait in itself leads to instability and falls (a one-standard-deviation decrease in gait speed increases the odds of fall by 4 fold), this effect is offset by the related decrease in step length (the same one-standard-deviation decrease in step length lowers fall risk by 6 times). PMID:20655750

  17. A 15-step synthesis of (+)-ryanodol.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Kangway V; Xu, Chen; Reisman, Sarah E

    2016-08-26

    (+)-Ryanodine and (+)-ryanodol are complex diterpenoids that modulate intracellular calcium-ion release at ryanodine receptors, ion channels critical for skeletal and cardiac muscle excitation-contraction coupling and synaptic transmission. Chemical derivatization of these diterpenoids has demonstrated that certain peripheral structural modifications can alter binding affinity and selectivity among ryanodine receptor isoforms. Here, we report a short chemical synthesis of (+)-ryanodol that proceeds in only 15 steps from the commercially available terpene (S)-pulegone. The efficiency of the synthesis derives from the use of a Pauson-Khand reaction to rapidly build the carbon framework and a SeO2-mediated oxidation to install three oxygen atoms in a single step. This work highlights how strategic C-O bond constructions can streamline the synthesis of polyhydroxylated terpenes by minimizing protecting group and redox adjustments. PMID:27563092

  18. OPTIMUM PLASMA STATES FOR NEXT STEP TOKAMAKS

    SciTech Connect

    LIN-LIU,YR; STAMBAUGH,RD

    2002-11-01

    OAK A271 OPTIMUM PLASMA STATES FOR NEXT STEP TOKAMAKS. The dependence of the ideal ballooning {beta} limit on aspect ratio, A, and elongation {kappa} is systematically explored for nearly 100% bootstrap current driven tokamak equilibria in a wide range of the shape parameters (A = 1.2-7.0, {kappa} = 1.5-6.0 with triangularity {delta} = 0.5). The critical {beta}{sub N} is shown to be optimal at {kappa} = 3.0-4.0 for all A studied and increases as A decreases with a dependence close to A{sup -0.5}. The results obtained can be used as a theoretical basis for the choice of optimum aspect ratio and elongation of next step burning plasma tokamaks or tokamak reactors.

  19. The 7-Steps of the Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terada, Y.; Bamba, A.; Hiraga, J. S.; Isobe, N.; Kubota, A.; Ota, N.; Ranalli, P.; Senda, A.; Suzuki, M.; Tamagawa, T.; Ozaki, M.; Ebisawa, K.; Ishisaki, Y.; Matsumoto, H.; Yamagishi, I.; Tamura, T.; Mukai, K.; Angelini, L.; Hamaguchi, K.; Suzaku Processing Members

    It may seem to be difficult to analyze the Suzaku data, but the datastructure and the tools are rather simple. We have constructed the way to process Suzaku FITS data and ftools for over ten years. We have prepared three kinds of manuals to analyze the data; Seven step manual of the XIS and the HXD for beginners, first step manual to walk through the analyses, and the ABC guide as a full manual. In the actual analyses, we have to be careful about events in operation and the limitations in the calibration of instruments. In this paper, the data structure, tools, and manuals with activities of help desks, current status of processing are summarized.

  20. Extrapolated implicit-explicit time stepping.

    SciTech Connect

    Constantinescu, E. M.; Sandu, A.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ.

    2010-01-01

    This paper constructs extrapolated implicit-explicit time stepping methods that allow one to efficiently solve problems with both stiff and nonstiff components. The proposed methods are based on Euler steps and can provide very high order discretizations of ODEs, index-1 DAEs, and PDEs in the method-of-lines framework. Implicit-explicit schemes based on extrapolation are simple to construct, easy to implement, and straightforward to parallelize. This work establishes the existence of perturbed asymptotic expansions of global errors, explains the convergence orders of these methods, and studies their linear stability properties. Numerical results with stiff ODE, DAE, and PDE test problems confirm the theoretical findings and illustrate the potential of these methods to solve multiphysics multiscale problems.

  1. Slip-trace-induced vicinal step destabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coupeau, C.; Camara, O.; Drouet, M.; Durinck, J.; Bonneville, J.; Colin, J.; Grilhé, J.

    2016-01-01

    Gold single crystals were deformed by uniaxial compression tests with the help of an experimental apparatus that allows one to characterize in situ, by UHV scanning tunneling microscopy, the evolution of surface structures under stress. It is demonstrated that the slip traces resulting from the emergence of moving dislocations at the free surface highly modify the organization of the vicinal steps. A model based on energetic considerations is proposed and discussed to explain the observed phenomenon.

  2. A stochastic model for kinesin bidirectional stepping

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Xiaojun; Zheng, Yujun

    2014-02-28

    In this paper, a hand-over-hand stochastic model for the dynamics of the conventional kinesin is constructed. In the model, both forward and backward motions are taken into consideration. First passage time distributions, average velocities, dwell times, and forward/backward step ratios are investigated based on the model. A good agreement between the results of the model and experimental data is achieved under a variety of external loads.

  3. Three step double layers in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Andrew, III; Hershkowitz, Noah

    1988-01-01

    A new class of stationary double layer structure, with three or more distinct steps, is demonstrated in the laboratory. A large monotonic potential increase results from a series of smaller double layers. In many respects, these double layer structures resemble those inferred from satellite measurements of auroral double layers. This new class of double layer appears to depend on turbulence for its existence and to be a hybrid structure, intermediate between anomalous resistivity and BGK double layers.

  4. Criticality Calculations for Step-2 GPHS Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinski, Ronald J.; Hensen, Danielle L.

    2008-01-21

    The Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) will use an improved version of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) module as its source of thermal power. This new version, referred to as the Step-2 GPHS Module, has additional and thicker layers of carbon fiber material (Fine Weaved Pierced Fabric) for increased strength over the original GPHS module. The GPHS uses alpha decay of {sup 238}Pu in the oxide form as the primary source of heat, and small amounts of other actinides are also present in the oxide fuel. Criticality calculations have been performed by previous researchers on the original version of the GPHS module (Step 0). This paper presents criticality calculations for the present Step-2 version. The Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended code (MCNPX) was used for these calculations. Numerous configurations of GPHS module arrays surrounded by wet sand and other materials (to reflect the neutrons back into the stack with minimal absorption) were modeled. For geometries with eight GPHS modules (from a single MMRTG) surrounded by wet sand, the configuration is extremely sub-critical; k{sub eff} is about 0.3. It requires about 1000 GPHS modules (from 125 MMRTGs) in a close-spaced stack to approach criticality (k{sub eff} = 1.0) when surrounded by wet sand. The effect of beryllium in the MMRTG was found to be relatively small.

  5. Rotordynamic coefficients for stepped labyrinth gas seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharrer, Joseph K.

    1989-01-01

    The basic equations are derived for compressible flow in a stepped labyrinth gas seal. The flow is assumed to be completely turbulent in the circumferential direction where the friction factor is determined by the Blasius relation. Linearized zeroth and first-order perturbation equations are developed for small motion about a centered position by an expansion in the eccentricity ratio. The zeroth-order pressure distribution is found by satisfying the leakage equation while the circumferential velocity distribution is determined by satisfying the momentum equations. The first order equations are solved by a separation of variables solution. Integration of the resultant pressure distribution along and around the seal defines the reaction force developed by the seal and the corresponding dynamic coefficients. The results of this analysis are presented in the form of a parametric study, since there are no known experimental data for the rotordynamic coefficients of stepped labyrinth gas seals. The parametric study investigates the relative rotordynamic stability of convergent, straight and divergent stepped labyrinth gas seals. The results show that, generally, the divergent seal is more stable, rotordynamically, than the straight or convergent seals. The results also show that the teeth-on-stator seals are not always more stable, rotordynamically, then the teeth-on-rotor seals as was shown by experiment by Childs and Scharrer (1986b) for a 15 tooth seal.

  6. MIKES’ primary phase stepping gauge block interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byman, V.; Lassila, A.

    2015-08-01

    MIKES’ modernized phase stepping interferometer for gauge block calibration (PSIGB) will be described. The instrument is based on the well-regarded NPL-TESA gauge block interferometer from 1994. The decision to upgrade the instrument resulted from several components, such as the PC and charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, having reached the end of their lifetime. In this paper modernized components, measurement method and analysis will be explained. The lasers are coupled to the instrument using single mode fiber. The instrument uses phase stepping generated by an added optical window on a controllable rotatory table in the reference arm with a recently developed nine-position phase stepping algorithm. Unwrapping is done with a robust path following algorithm. Procedures for adjusting the interferometer are explained. Determination and elimination of wavefront error, coherent noise and analysis of their influence on the results is described. Flatness and variation in length are also important parameters of gauge blocks to be characterized, and the corresponding analysis method is clarified. Uncertainty analysis for the central length, flatness and variation in length is also described. The results are compared against those of the old hardware and software. The standard uncertainty for central length measurement is u = [(9.5 nm)2 + (121 × 10-9 L)2]½, where L is measured length.

  7. Tangible Steps Toward Tomorrow: New Designs for Early Education, Ages 0-8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    W. K. Kellogg Foundation, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication, developed by W.K. Kellogg Foundation in collaboration with IDEO, details a human-centered approach to evolving the system of early education for the needs and possibilities of the 21st century. It provides a set of ideas or "thought-starters" on transforming early education to ensure school readiness and success for the next…

  8. Step-down approach to behavioural weight loss treatment: a pilot of a randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Carels, Robert A.; Hoffmann, Debra A.; Hinman, Nova; Burmeister, Jacob M.; Koball, Afton; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Oehlhof, Marissa W.; Bannon, Erin; LeRoy, Michelle; Darby, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Background In a stepped-down approach, patients begin with a more intensive treatment and are stepped down to a less intensive treatment based on achieving treatment goals. This study compared a standard behavioural weight loss programme (BWLP) to a stepped-down approach to treatment. Methods Fifty-two overweight/obese adults (Age: M = 47 years, SD = 13.5; female = 67%) participated in an 18-week BWLP. Half of them were randomly assigned to be stepped down from weekly group meetings based on completion of weight loss goals (3%) every 6 weeks, while the other half remained in their groups regardless of weight loss. Results There was a significant difference favouring the BWLP in the proportion of participants who met or exceeded their 3% weight loss goal during the first six weeks. While not statistically significant by the end of treatment, the BWLP participants lost nearly 3% more body weight than stepped-down participants (SC = 4.9% vs. BWLP = 7.8%; p = .10). Greater self-monitoring was associated with increased likelihood of stepped-care eligibility and higher percent weight loss at the end of treatment (p < .01). Conclusion There was little evidence to support the efficacy of the stepped-down approach for behavioural weight loss treatment employed in this investigation. PMID:23607537

  9. Seasonal variation in the distribution of daily stepping in 11-13 year old school children

    PubMed Central

    McCrorie, P.R.W.; Duncan, E.; Granat, M.H.; Stansfield, B.W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Seasonality studies in adolescent’s physical activity (PA) tend to report total PA (e.g. steps/day) rather than more specific detail such as steps/hour. This study compared the detailed changes in PA between seasons. Methods Thirty three adolescents (baseline age 12.2 ± 0.3y) wore the activPAL activity monitor for 8 days on two occasions. Results Steps/day were higher in summer (Mdn = 12,879) than winter (Mdn = 10,512), p<.001. Steps/hour were significantly higher in summer compared to winter between 17:00 and 21:00 (p<. 044). No steps/day differences were found between boys and girls at either time point (p>.05), however, boys had significantly higher step counts in summer between ’13:00-14:00’ (p=.023), ’19:00-20:00’ (p=.032) and ‘20:00-21:00’ (p=.023). Conclusion Total steps/day masked sex differences within specific hours of the day, particularly evening times. Detailed daily patterns of PA are required to fully understand differences between sexes and across seasons. PMID:26550098

  10. Lamin A, farnesylation and aging.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Sita; Comai, Lucio

    2012-01-01

    Lamin A is a component of the nuclear envelope that is synthesized as a precursor prelamin A molecule and then processed into mature lamin A through sequential steps of posttranslational modifications and proteolytic cleavages. Remarkably, over 400 distinct point mutations have been so far identified throughout the LMNA gene, which result in the development of at least ten distinct human disorders, collectively known as laminopathies, among which is the premature aging disease Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS). The majority of HGPS cases are associated with a single point mutation in the LMNA gene that causes the production of a permanently farnesylated mutant lamin A protein termed progerin. The mechanism by which progerin leads to premature aging and the classical HGPS disease phenotype as well as the relationship between this disorder and the onset of analogous symptoms during the lifespan of a normal individual are not well understood. Yet, recent studies have provided critical insights on the cellular processes that are affected by accumulation of progerin and have suggested that cellular alterations in the lamin A processing pathway leading to the accumulation of farnesylated prelamin A intermediates may play a role in the aging process in the general population. In this review we provide a short background on lamin A and its maturation pathway and discuss the current knowledge of how progerin or alterations in the prelamin A processing pathway are thought to influence cell function and contribute to human aging. PMID:21871450

  11. Lamin A, farnesylation and aging

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, Sita; Comai, Lucio

    2012-01-01

    Lamin A is a component of the nuclear envelope that is synthesized as a precursor prelamin A molecule and then processed into mature lamin A through sequential steps of posttranslational modifications and proteolytic cleavages. Remarkably, over 400 distinct point mutations have been so far identified throughout the LMNA gene, which result in the development of at least ten distinct human disorders, collectively known as laminopathies, among which is the premature aging disease Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS). The majority of HGPS cases are associated with a single point mutation in the LMNA gene that causes the production of a permanently farnesylated mutant lamin A protein termed progerin. The mechanism by which progerin leads to premature aging and the classical HGPS disease phenotype as well as the relationship between this disorder and the onset of analogous symptoms during the lifespan of a normal individual are not well understood. Yet, recent studies have provided critical insights on the cellular processes that are affected by accumulation of progerin and have suggested that cellular alterations in the lamin A processing pathway leading to the accumulation of farnesylated prelamin A intermediates may play a role in the aging process in the general population. In this review we provide a short background on lamin A and its maturation pathway and discuss the current knowledge of how progerin or alterations in the prelamin A processing pathway are thought to influence cell function and contribute to human aging.

  12. An accelerated step test to assess dancer pre-season aerobic fitness.

    PubMed

    Bronner, Shaw; Rakov, Sara

    2014-03-01

    As the technical performance demands of dance increase, professional companies and pre-professional schools are implementing pre-season screenings that require an efficient, cost effective way to measure dancer aerobic fitness. The aim of this study was to assess an accelerated 3-minute step test (112 beats·min(-1)) by comparing it to the well-studied YMCA step test (96 beats·min(-1)) and a benchmark standard, an incremental treadmill test, using heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO2) as variables. Twenty-six professional and pre- professional dancers (age 20 ± 2.02 years) were fitted with a telemetric gas analysis system and HR monitor. They were tested in the following order: 96 step, 112 step, and treadmill test, with rest to return to baseline heart rate between each test. The step and treadmill tests were compared using Intra-class Correlation Coefficients [ICC (3, k)] calculated with analysis of variance (p < 0.05). To determine whether there was a relationship between peak and recovery HR (HRpeak, HRrecov) and VO2(VO2peak, VO2recov) variables, Pearson product moment correlations were used. Differences due to gender or group (pre- professionals versus professionals) were explored with MANOVAs for HRpeak, VO2peak, HRrecov, VO2recov, and fitness category. The 112 step test produced higher HRpeak and VO2peak values than the 96 step test, reflecting a greater workload (p < 0.001). For HRpeak, there were high correlations (r = 0.71) and for HRrecov, moderate correlations (r = 0.60) between the 112 step test and treadmill test. For VO2peak and VO2recov, there were moderate correlations between the 112 step test and treadmill test (r = 0.65 and 0.73). No differences between genders for VO2peak values were found for either step test, but males displayed lower HRpeak values for both step tests and higher VO2peak values during the treadmill test (p < 0.001). Recovery HR was lower in males for the 96 and 112 step tests (p < 0.05). This was reflected in higher

  13. Exercise and age

    MedlinePlus

    Age and exercise ... It is never too late to start exercising. Exercise has benefits at any age. Don't worry ... as you age. The right kind of regular exercise can also reduce your risk of heart disease, ...

  14. Administration on Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Back to top Older Americans Act and Aging Network To meet the diverse needs of the growing ... the OAA, and a link to National Aging Network information (State Units on Aging and Area Agencies ...

  15. Skin Care and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Age Spots and Skin Tags Click for more information Age spots, once called "liver spots," are flat, brown ... surface. They are a common occurrence as people age, especially for women. They are ... options, specific conditions, and related issues. ...

  16. Atomic diffusion on vicinal surfaces: step roughening impact on step permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranguelov, B.; Michailov, M.

    2014-12-01

    The problem of mass transport in material science for systems with reduced dimensionality holds special academic and technological attention since the fine diffusion control of adatoms could initiate exotic nanoscale patterning at epitaxial interfaces. The present study brings out important details of the atomic diffusion mechanisms on vicinal surfaces, accounting for the subtle competition between an external field imposed on the migrating adatoms and the roughening of the steps bordering the atomic terraces. The computational model reveals a temperature gap for breakdown of step permeability in the vicinity of the step roughening transition and sheds light on recently observed experimental results for atomic step dynamics on Si surfaces. The present study also demonstrates the extended capability of atomistic models in computer simulations to unravel simultaneous effects, to distinguish between them, and finally to assess their specific contribution to experimentally observed complex physical phenomena.

  17. Mechanics and energetics of step-to-step transitions isolated from human walking.

    PubMed

    Soo, Caroline H; Donelan, J Maxwell

    2010-12-15

    We isolated step-to-step transitions from other contributors to walking mechanics using a cyclical rocking task and then examined the contribution of individual joints to the total work required to redirect the velocity of the center of mass (COM). Nine participants were instructed to rock backward and forward in the sagittal plane, eliminating the need to swing the legs and progress forward. To systematically increase the required work, we increased step length from 60 to 100% of leg length, keeping rocking frequency constant. The individual limbs method quantified the COM work and the joint power method apportioned the COM work among its various sources. As predicted by a physics-based model, we found that work in rocking was performed mainly during the step-to-step transitions and increased strongly with step length. We also found that increases in the average COM work rate exacted a proportional metabolic cost. The similar patterns of COM work and COM work rate during rocking and walking support the use of rocking to isolate the mechanics of step-to-step transitions. We found that the ankle was the main joint contributing to the positive work required to redirect the COM velocity during forward rocking. At the longest length, it accounted for 88% of the work performed by the trailing leg joints. Interestingly, the summed contribution of ankle, knee and hip joint work accounted for only 39% of the front leg negative COM work during the forward transition, suggesting that most of the collision work is performed by passive tissue. PMID:21113008

  18. Development and Validation of an Automated Step Ergometer

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Maria do Socorro C.; Aniceto, Rodrigo R.; Neto, Gabriel R.; de Araújo, Ravi C. T.; de Sousa, Juliana B. C.; Costa, José A. D.; Pellegrinotti, Idico L.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory ergometers have high costs, becoming inaccessible for most of the population, hence, it is imperative to develop affordable devices making evaluations like cardiorespiratory fitness feasible and easier. The objective of this study was to develop and validate an Automated Step Ergometer (ASE), adjusted according to the height of the subject, for predicting VO2max through a progressive test. The development process was comprised by three steps, the theoretical part, the prototype assembly and further validation. The ASE consists in an elevating platform that makes the step at a higher or lower level as required for testing. The ASE validation was obtained by comparing the values of predicted VO2max (equation) and direct gas analysis on the prototype and on a, treadmill. For the validation process 167 subjects with average age of 31.24 ± 14.38 years, of both genders and different degrees of cardiorespiratory fitness, were randomized and divided by gender and training condition, into untrained (n=106), active (n=24) and trained (n=37) subjects. Each participant performed a progressive test on which the ASE started at the same height (20 cm) for all. Then, according to the subject’s height, it varied to a maximum of 45 cm. Time in each stage and rhythm was chosen in accordance with training condition from lowest to highest (60–180 s; 116–160 bpm, respectively). Data was compared with the student’s t test and ANOVA; correlations were tested with Pearson’s r. The value of α was set at 0.05. No differences were found between the predicted VO2max and the direct gas analysis VO2max, nor between the ASE and treadmill VO2max (p= 0.365) with high correlation between ergometers (r= 0.974). The values for repeatability, reproducibility, and reliability of male and female groups measures were, respectively, 4.08 and 5.02; 0.50 and 1.11; 4.11 and 5.15. The values of internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) among measures were all >0.90. It was verified that

  19. Nutrients, Microglia Aging, and Brain Aging

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhou; Yu, Janchun; Zhu, Aiqin; Nakanishi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    As the life expectancy continues to increase, the cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) becomes a big major issue in the world. After cellular activation upon systemic inflammation, microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, start to release proinflammatory mediators to trigger neuroinflammation. We have found that chronic systemic inflammatory challenges induce differential age-dependent microglial responses, which are in line with the impairment of learning and memory, even in middle-aged animals. We thus raise the concept of “microglia aging.” This concept is based on the fact that microglia are the key contributor to the acceleration of cognitive decline, which is the major sign of brain aging. On the other hand, inflammation induces oxidative stress and DNA damage, which leads to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species by the numerous types of cells, including macrophages and microglia. Oxidative stress-damaged cells successively produce larger amounts of inflammatory mediators to promote microglia aging. Nutrients are necessary for maintaining general health, including the health of brain. The intake of antioxidant nutrients reduces both systemic inflammation and neuroinflammation and thus reduces cognitive decline during aging. We herein review our microglia aging concept and discuss systemic inflammation and microglia aging. We propose that a nutritional approach to controlling microglia aging will open a new window for healthy brain aging. PMID:26941889

  20. Minding Your Metabolism: Can You Avoid Middle-Age Spread?

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Your Plate? Smart Food Choices for Healthy Aging . Exercise and moving are also important. “It doesn’t ... problems that can come with it. NIH’s Go4Life exercise and physical activity campaign is designed especially for ... Steps to Healthy Aging Commit to a healthy diet. Limit snacking. Drink ...

  1. Stepping stones toward global space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansdell, M.; Ehrenfreund, P.; McKay, C.

    2011-06-01

    Several nations are currently engaging in or planning for robotic and human space exploration programs that target the Moon, Mars and near-Earth asteroids. These ambitious plans to build new space infrastructures, transport systems and space probes will require international cooperation if they are to be sustainable and affordable. Partnerships must involve not only established space powers, but also emerging space nations and developing countries; the participation of these new space actors will provide a bottom-up support structure that will aid program continuity, generate more active members in the space community, and increase public awareness of space activities in both developed and developing countries. The integration of many stakeholders into a global space exploration program represents a crucial element securing political and programmatic stability. How can the evolving space community learn to cooperate on a truly international level while engaging emerging space nations and developing countries in a meaningful way? We propose a stepping stone approach toward a global space exploration program, featuring three major elements: (1) an international Earth-based field research program preparing for planetary exploration, (2) enhanced exploitation of the International Space Station (ISS) enabling exploration and (3) a worldwide CubeSat program supporting exploration. An international Earth-based field research program can serve as a truly global exploration testbed that allows both established and new space actors to gain valuable experience by working together to prepare for future planetary exploration missions. Securing greater exploitation of the ISS is a logical step during its prolonged lifetime; ISS experiments, partnerships and legal frameworks are valuable foundations for exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Cooperation involving small, low-cost missions could be a major stride toward exciting and meaningful participation from emerging space nations

  2. Vibration Analysis of Stepped Thickness Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, S. J.; Keane, A. J.; Moshrefi-Torbati, M.

    1997-07-01

    Investigation has been made into various approaches for analyzing the vibration of plates with stepped thicknesses. First, attention has been paid to updating a classical approach for the analysis of such problems, correcting the boundary conditions cited in an earlier paper and dealing with the difficulties that can arise when calculating high order modes. Secondly, contribution has been made to improving the classical finite strip method (FSM) by replacing the "static" shape function of the strip element by a "dynamic" function. This leads to the development of a dynamic finite strip method which improves solution accuracy without compromising model size and which therefore is more efficient than the classical FSM. When compared with the finite element method (FEM), which is also considered here, the advantages of smaller model size and higher accuracy of the dynamic FSM are significant. In order to demonstrate the application of the above approaches, the modes of simply supported plates with uniform and stepped thicknesses have been analyzed. From this numerical study, it is noted that the updated classical approach can be used to obtain a solution for any order mode to any specified accuracy and is the most efficient approach considered in the present study. It is also noted that, compared with the FEM of similar solution accuracy, the dynamic finite strip method normally produces a much smaller model size, so that such calculations are significantly more efficient than for the FEM. The aim of this work is to establish methods for the analysis of stepped plates that might be used in optimization studies where speed of formulation and solution are at a premium. There are, of course, a number of other methods that could be used to tackle such problems, but they lie outside the scope of this work; see for example the papers of Liew and co-authors [1, 2].

  3. MARK-AGE biomarkers of ageing.

    PubMed

    Bürkle, Alexander; Moreno-Villanueva, María; Bernhard, Jürgen; Blasco, María; Zondag, Gerben; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Toussaint, Olivier; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix; Mocchegiani, Eugenio; Collino, Sebastiano; Gonos, Efstathios S; Sikora, Ewa; Gradinaru, Daniela; Dollé, Martijn; Salmon, Michel; Kristensen, Peter; Griffiths, Helen R; Libert, Claude; Grune, Tilman; Breusing, Nicolle; Simm, Andreas; Franceschi, Claudio; Capri, Miriam; Talbot, Duncan; Caiafa, Paola; Friguet, Bertrand; Slagboom, P Eline; Hervonen, Antti; Hurme, Mikko; Aspinall, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Many candidate biomarkers of human ageing have been proposed in the scientific literature but in all cases their variability in cross-sectional studies is considerable, and therefore no single measurement has proven to serve a useful marker to determine, on its own, biological age. A plausible reason for this is the intrinsic multi-causal and multi-system nature of the ageing process. The recently completed MARK-AGE study was a large-scale integrated project supported by the European Commission. The major aim of this project was to conduct a population study comprising about 3200 subjects in order to identify a set of biomarkers of ageing which, as a combination of parameters with appropriate weighting, would measure biological age better than any marker in isolation. PMID:25818235

  4. Rotary stepping device with memory metal actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamieson, Robert S. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A rotary stepping device includes a rotatable shaft which is driven by means of a coiled spring clutch which is alternately tightened to grip and rotate the shaft and released to return it to a resting position. An actuator formed of a memory metal is used to pull the spring clutch to tighten it and rotate the shaft. The actuator is activated by heating it above its critical temperature and is returned to an elongated configuration by means of the force of the spring cloth.

  5. Lanczos steps to improve variational wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becca, Federico; Hu, Wen-Jun; Iqbal, Yasir; Parola, Alberto; Poilblanc, Didier; Sorella, Sandro

    2015-09-01

    Gutzwiller-projected fermionic states can be efficiently implemented within quantum Monte Carlo calculations to define extremely accurate variational wave functions for Heisenberg models on frustrated two-dimensional lattices, not only for the ground state but also for low-energy excitations. The application of few Lanczos steps on top of these states further improves their accuracy, allowing calculations on large clusters. In addition, by computing both the energy and its variance, it is possible to obtain reliable estimations of exact results. Here, we report the cases of the frustrated Heisenberg models on square and Kagome lattices.

  6. The Multipole Structure of Earth's STEP Signal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordtvedt, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    If there is an interaction in physical law which differentially accelerates the test bodies in a STEP satellite, then the di.erent elements that compose the Earth will most likely have source strengths for this interaction which are not proportional to their mass densities. The rotational flattening of Earth and geographical irregularities of our planet's crust then produces a multipole structure for the Equivalence Principle violating force field which differs from the multipole structure of Earth's ordinary gravity field. Measuring these differences yields key information about the new interaction in physical law which is not attainable by solely measuring differences of test body accelerations.

  7. Self-Advancing Step-Tap Drills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Donald R.; Camarda, Charles J.; Penner, Ronald K.; Franklin, Larry D.

    2007-01-01

    Self-advancing tool bits that are hybrids of drills and stepped taps make it possible to form threaded holes wider than about 1/2 in. (about 13 mm) without applying any more axial force than is necessary for forming narrower pilot holes. These self-advancing stepped-tap drills were invented for use by space-suited astronauts performing repairs on reinforced carbon/carbon space-shuttle leading edges during space walks, in which the ability to apply axial drilling forces is severely limited. Self-advancing stepped-tap drills could also be used on Earth for making wide holes without applying large axial forces. A self-advancing stepped-tap drill (see figure) includes several sections having progressively larger diameters, typically in increments between 0.030 and 0.060 in. (between about 0.8 and about 1.5 mm). The tip section, which is the narrowest, is a pilot drill bit that typically has a diameter between 1/8 and 3/16 in. (between about 3.2 and about 4.8 mm). The length of the pilot-drill section is chosen, according to the thickness of the object to be drilled and tapped, so that the pilot hole is completed before engagement of the first tap section. Provided that the cutting-edge geometry of the drill bit is optimized for the material to be drilled, only a relatively small axial force [typically of the order of a few pounds (of the order of 10 newtons)] must be applied during drilling of the pilot hole. Once the first tap section engages the pilot hole, it is no longer necessary for the drill operator to apply axial force: the thread engagement between the tap and the workpiece provides the axial force to advance the tool bit. Like the pilot-drill section, each tap section must be long enough to complete its hole before engagement of the next, slightly wider tap section. The precise values of the increments in diameter, the thread pitch, the rake angle of the tap cutting edge, and other geometric parameters of the tap sections must be chosen, in consideration of

  8. In vitro and in vivo single myosin step-sizes in striated muscle.

    PubMed

    Burghardt, Thomas P; Sun, Xiaojing; Wang, Yihua; Ajtai, Katalin

    2015-12-01

    Myosin in muscle transduces ATP free energy into the mechanical work of moving actin. It has a motor domain transducer containing ATP and actin binding sites, and, mechanical elements coupling motor impulse to the myosin filament backbone providing transduction/mechanical-coupling. The mechanical coupler is a lever-arm stabilized by bound essential and regulatory light chains. The lever-arm rotates cyclically to impel bound filamentous actin. Linear actin displacement due to lever-arm rotation is the myosin step-size. A high-throughput quantum dot labeled actin in vitro motility assay (Qdot assay) measures motor step-size in the context of an ensemble of actomyosin interactions. The ensemble context imposes a constant velocity constraint for myosins interacting with one actin filament. In a cardiac myosin producing multiple step-sizes, a "second characterization" is step-frequency that adjusts longer step-size to lower frequency maintaining a linear actin velocity identical to that from a shorter step-size and higher frequency actomyosin cycle. The step-frequency characteristic involves and integrates myosin enzyme kinetics, mechanical strain, and other ensemble affected characteristics. The high-throughput Qdot assay suits a new paradigm calling for wide surveillance of the vast number of disease or aging relevant myosin isoforms that contrasts with the alternative model calling for exhaustive research on a tiny subset myosin forms. The zebrafish embryo assay (Z assay) performs single myosin step-size and step-frequency assaying in vivo combining single myosin mechanical and whole muscle physiological characterizations in one model organism. The Qdot and Z assays cover "bottom-up" and "top-down" assaying of myosin characteristics. PMID:26728749

  9. A Step or Two Back in Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Peggy

    1979-01-01

    Describes the National Park Service's Environmental Living Program for elementary school children in the San Francisco Bay Area, where teachers, parents, and children stay overnight in a historic fort and schooner, experience living in a past age, use candles and oil stoves, and engage in mock military and shipboard activities. (MF)

  10. Aging Periodontium, Aging Patient: Current Concepts.

    PubMed

    Ryder, Mark

    2015-08-01

    A functioning natural dentition is essential to maintaining overall health in the elderly patient. While age-related alterations in periodontal tissues and the immune system may make an elderly patient more susceptible to periodontal breakdown, age itself is not a major risk factor for periodontal diseases. Rather, individual age-associated factors such as systemic diseases, medications and changes in behavior, motor function and cognitive function should be considered for each elderly patient when making treatment decisions. PMID:26357815

  11. Illusory brightness step in the Chevreul illusion.

    PubMed

    Morrone, M C; Burr, D C; Ross, J

    1994-06-01

    It is well known that a staircase luminance profile is not seen veridically, but appears as the scallopy-like Chevreul illusion. We have shown that adding thin lines (either light or dark) to the centre of each step creates an illusory brightness change at the point of the line. The regions between the added lines and the edges seem to be uniform, with a clear change in brightness at the point where the line was added. The conditions under which the illusion occurred were measured systematically, both by contrast matching and by annulment. One model that can readily account for the illusion is the local-energy model of feature detection (Morrone & Burr, 1988 Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 235, 221-245). Adding the bar to the step creates a peak in local energy at all scales. At the higher scales, the phase of the energy is near zero, the signal for a line; but at the lower scales the phase is near pi/2, the signal for an edge. We propose that the edge signal of the lower scales causes the brightness illusion and that this brightness difference is structured by the feature defined sharply by the higher scales (even though that feature is not an edge). As well as predicting the existence of the illusion, simulations with the energy model predicted quantitatively the apparent contrast of the illusion as a function of stimulus contrast, bar-position and high-pass filter frequency. PMID:7941364

  12. Next Step Spherical Torus Design Studies

    SciTech Connect

    C. Neumeyer; P. Heitzenroeder; C. Kessel; M. Ono; M. Peng; J. Schmidt; R. Woolley; I. Zatz

    2002-11-08

    Studies are underway to identify and characterize a design point for a Next Step Spherical Torus (NSST) experiment. This would be a ''Proof of Performance'' device which would follow and build upon the successes of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) a ''Proof of Principle'' device which has operated at PPPL since 1999. With the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) nearly completed, the TFTR test cell and facility will soon be available for a device such as NSST. By utilizing the TFTR test cell, NSST can be constructed for a relatively low cost on a short time scale. In addition, while furthering spherical torus (ST) research, this device could achieve modest fusion power gain for short-pulse lengths, a significant step toward future large burning plasma devices now under discussion in the fusion community. The selected design point is Q=2 at HH=1.4, P subscript ''fusion''=60 MW, 5 second pulse, with R subscript ''0''=1.5 m, A=1.6, I subscript ''p''=10vMA, B subscript ''t''=2.6 T, CS flux=16 weber. Most of the research would be conducted in D-D, with a limited D-T campaign during the last years of the program.

  13. Aging and Cerebral Palsy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Networker, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This special edition of "The Networker" contains several articles focusing on aging and cerebral palsy (CP). "Aging and Cerebral Palsy: Pathways to Successful Aging" (Jenny C. Overeynder) reports on the National Invitational Colloquium on Aging and Cerebral Palsy held in April 1993. "Observations from an Observer" (Kathleen K. Barrett) describes…

  14. Passive walker that can walk down steps: simulations and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ning; Li, Junfeng; Wang, Tianshu

    2008-10-01

    A planar passive walking model with straight legs and round feet was discussed. This model can walk down steps, both on stairs with even steps and with random steps. Simulations showed that models with small moments of inertia can navigate large height steps. Period-doubling has been observed when the space between steps grows. This period-doubling has been validated by experiments, and the results of experiments were coincident with the simulation.

  15. Experiments on the formation carbonate "cyclic steps" as a model of travertine step-pool morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shitanishi, Tatsuya; Yokokawa, Miwa; Kim, Wonsuck; Izumi, Norihiro; Parker, Gary

    2014-05-01

    A train of steps similar to those observed on the river bed and the ocean floor are sometimes observed on the limestone surface as well. Those cyclic steps are not formed by the interaction between sediment and flow, but formed by boundary instability between flowing water and a limestone substrate associated with precipitation and solution of limestone due to chemical and biological processes. It is suggested that they correspond to "cyclic steps" or "step-pool" morphology observed at the interface between fluid flow and the transportational and/or erosional substrates, such as sand and gravels and/or bedrock repectively, formed by deposition and erosion at the upper-flow regime in the Froude sense. Although field observations of the limestone step configuration are widely known, there have been very few theoretical and experimental study for the formative condition and mechanism of these carbonate steps with flowing fluid. Here we operated flume experiments on the formation of carbonate steps by the precipitation from the flowing fluid. We used a 1.8 m long, 5 cm deep and 2 cm wide flume made of acrylic boards at Osaka Institute of Technology. To give some roughness at the bottom of the flume we pasted the mixture of the acrylic adhesive and sand, 0.2 mm in diameter. To make the "source water" of the experiments, we immerse limestone pebbles into the distilled water, and add the Carbon dioxide by letting dry ice (frozen carbon dioxide) melt in it aiming to dissolve the limestone. In addition, we add the powder of Calcium hydroxide to the source water. The source water was input from the upstream end of the flume and recircurated into the tank of the source water. The values of pH and electric conductivity and the temperature of the source water were monitored, and dry ice, the powder of the calcium hydroxide and the distilled water were added arbitrary to keep the quality of the source water constant. The running time for each day was about 6-7 hours. From about

  16. A step-by-step guide to systematically identify all relevant animal studies

    PubMed Central

    Leenaars, Marlies; Hooijmans, Carlijn R; van Veggel, Nieky; ter Riet, Gerben; Leeflang, Mariska; Hooft, Lotty; van der Wilt, Gert Jan; Tillema, Alice; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

    2012-01-01

    Before starting a new animal experiment, thorough analysis of previously performed experiments is essential from a scientific as well as from an ethical point of view. The method that is most suitable to carry out such a thorough analysis of the literature is a systematic review (SR). An essential first step in an SR is to search and find all potentially relevant studies. It is important to include all available evidence in an SR to minimize bias and reduce hampered interpretation of experimental outcomes. Despite the recent development of search filters to find animal studies in PubMed and EMBASE, searching for all available animal studies remains a challenge. Available guidelines from the clinical field cannot be copied directly to the situation within animal research, and although there are plenty of books and courses on searching the literature, there is no compact guide available to search and find relevant animal studies. Therefore, in order to facilitate a structured, thorough and transparent search for animal studies (in both preclinical and fundamental science), an easy-to-use, step-by-step guide was prepared and optimized using feedback from scientists in the field of animal experimentation. The step-by-step guide will assist scientists in performing a comprehensive literature search and, consequently, improve the scientific quality of the resulting review and prevent unnecessary animal use in the future. PMID:22037056

  17. Contribution of Step Length to Increase Walking and Turning Speed as a Marker of Parkinson’s Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Amar S.; Crisan, Diana; Guo, Lanjun J.

    2016-01-01

    When increasing ambulation speed in Parkinson’s disease, step cadence increases more than stride length, indicating movement scaling difficulties that affect step generation in particular. We investigated whether step length variation when increasing ambulation speed was related to disease progression. Patients with Parkinson’s disease (N = 39) and controls (N = 152) performed two timed ambulation tasks: at a 'free' (self-selected) pace and then at 'maximal' speed. The total number of steps (including during turns) and time to complete the task were clinically measured. The relative contribution of step length and cadence to increased ambulation speed was determined using two methods: the ratios of change in step length or in cadence to the change in ambulation speed, and the step length index. While the relative contribution of step length and cadence to increased ambulation speed was independent of age in both control and patient groups, in Parkinson’s disease there was a negative correlation between time from diagnosis and the ratio of change in step length to change in ambulation speed (R = 0.54; p = 0.0004) and the step length index (R = 0.56, p = 0.0002). In parallel, there was a positive correlation between time since diagnosis and the ratio of change in cadence to change in ambulation speed (R = 0.57; p = 0.0002). The relative contribution of step length and cadence to increased ambulation speed is age invariant but a marker of Parkinson's disease advancement, and can be easily determined in the clinical setting. PMID:27111531

  18. Molecular step(s) of force generation: temperature-perturbation experiments on muscle fibres.

    PubMed

    Ranatunga, K W; Coupland, M E

    2003-01-01

    The steady active muscle force is reduced, but the force generation induced by a standard temperature jump becomes 2-3 fold faster with increased inorganic phosphate level, [Pi]. The increase in the rate of force generation also exhibits saturation at higher [Pi] levels and the relation is hyperbolic. These observations are consistent with a kinetic scheme where rapid Pi release by actomyosin crossbridges in muscle is preceded by the force generation step. Such a scheme accounts for the sigmoidal temperature dependence of steady active force and its sensitivity to [Pi]. The [Pi] dependence of force recovery after stretch (positive strain) is also hyperbolic, suggesting that the "pre Pi-release force generation step" is strain-sensitive--as expected. However, length-release (negative strain) force transients are not [Pi] sensitive indicating an asymmetry, but its significance and also the kinetic step underlying force recovery from negative strain remain unclear. PMID:15098690

  19. Utilizing Teach-Back to Reinforce Patient Education: A Step-by-Step Approach.

    PubMed

    Caplin, Marcy; Saunders, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Teach-back is a health literacy tool that can be used by orthopaedic nurses to assess their patients' understanding of what has been taught and immediately clarify and review concepts that were misunderstood. Research supports the use of teach-back to engage patients in the learning process, thereby reducing hospital readmissions, and improving self-management, safety, patient satisfaction, and patient outcomes. Nursing journals, however, lack articles that take nurses through the steps of implementing teach-back in their practice. This article describes the four stages of teach-back and takes you step by step through the process of integrating this health literacy tool in your patient education practices. PMID:26575509

  20. "STEPS" Avionics for Exploration Systems the Achieved Results and the Next "STEPS-2"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martelli, Andrea; Perino, Maria Antonietta; Gaia, Enrico; Paccagnini, Carlo

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents the STEPS project reached results in the avionics domains like: vision-based GNC for Mars Descent & Landing, Hazard avoidance and complete spacecraft autonomy; Autonomous Rover Navigation, based on perception, 3D map reconstruction and path planning; Mobility & Mechanisms providing an Integrated Ground Mobility System, Rendezvous & Docking equipment, and protection from Environment effects; Human-machine interface features of a predictive Command and Control System;; novel Design & Development Tools, such as a Rover S/W simulator and prototypes of the DEM viewer and of a S/W Rock Creator/visualizator. This paper presents also the STEPS 2 project that started January 2013 and is aimed at improving the development of the most promising technologies, selected from the results of the first STEP phase, and addressing the needs of the exploration missions as defined in the 2012 ministerial conference, with the ultimate goal of an in-flight validation within next five years.

  1. Report of 111 Consecutive Patients Enrolled in the International Serial Transverse Enteroplasty (STEP) Data Registry: A Retrospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Brian A; Hull, Melissa A; Potanos, Kristina M; Zurakowski, David; Fitzgibbons, Shimae C; Ching, Y Avery; Duggan, Christopher; Jaksic, Tom; Kim, Heung Bae

    2016-01-01

    Background The International Serial Transverse Enteroplasty (STEP) Data Registry is a voluntary online database created in 2004 to collect information on patients undergoing the STEP procedure. The aim of this study was to identify preoperative factors significantly associated with 1) transplantation or death, or 2) attainment of enteral autonomy following STEP. Study Design Data were collected from September 2004 to January 2010. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to determine predictors of transplantation/death or enteral autonomy post-STEP. Time to reach full enteral nutrition was estimated using a Kaplan-Meier curve. Results Fourteen of the 111 patients in the Registry were excluded due to inadequate follow-up. Of the remaining 97 patients, 11 patients died, and 5 progressed to intestinal transplantation. On multivariate analysis, higher direct bilirubin and shorter pre-STEP bowel length were independently predictive of progression to transplantation or death (p = .05 and p < .001, respectively). Of the 78 patients who were ≥7 days of age and required parenteral nutrition (PN) at the time of STEP, 37 (47%) achieved enteral autonomy after the first STEP. Longer pre-STEP bowel length was also independently associated with enteral autonomy (p = .002). The median time to reach enteral autonomy based on Kaplan-Meier analysis was 21 months (95% CI: 12-30). Conclusions Overall mortality post-STEP was 11%. Pre-STEP risk factors for progressing to transplantation or death were higher direct bilirubin and shorter bowel length. Among patients who underwent STEP for short bowel syndrome, 47% attained full enteral nutrition post-STEP. Patients with longer pre-STEP bowel length were significantly more likely to achieve enteral autonomy. PMID:23357726

  2. On the Existence of Step-To-Step Breakpoint Transitions in Accelerated Sprinting

    PubMed Central

    McGhie, David; Danielsen, Jørgen; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Haugen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Accelerated running is characterised by a continuous change of kinematics from one step to the next. It has been argued that breakpoints in the step-to-step transitions may occur, and that these breakpoints are an essential characteristic of dynamics during accelerated running. We examined this notion by comparing a continuous exponential curve fit (indicating continuity, i.e., smooth transitions) with linear piecewise fitting (indicating breakpoint). We recorded the kinematics of 24 well trained sprinters during a 25 m sprint run with start from competition starting blocks. Kinematic data were collected for 24 anatomical landmarks in 3D, and the location of centre of mass (CoM) was calculated from this data set. The step-to-step development of seven variables (four related to CoM position, and ground contact time, aerial time and step length) were analysed by curve fitting. In most individual sprints (in total, 41 sprints were successfully recorded) no breakpoints were identified for the variables investigated. However, for the mean results (i.e., the mean curve for all athletes) breakpoints were identified for the development of vertical CoM position, angle of acceleration and distance between support surface and CoM. It must be noted that for these variables the exponential fit showed high correlations (r2>0.99). No relationship was found between the occurrences of breakpoints for different variables as investigated using odds ratios (Mantel-Haenszel Chi-square statistic). It is concluded that although breakpoints regularly appear during accelerated running, these are not the rule and thereby unlikely a fundamental characteristic, but more likely an expression of imperfection of performance. PMID:27467387

  3. On the Existence of Step-To-Step Breakpoint Transitions in Accelerated Sprinting.

    PubMed

    Ettema, Gertjan; McGhie, David; Danielsen, Jørgen; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Haugen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Accelerated running is characterised by a continuous change of kinematics from one step to the next. It has been argued that breakpoints in the step-to-step transitions may occur, and that these breakpoints are an essential characteristic of dynamics during accelerated running. We examined this notion by comparing a continuous exponential curve fit (indicating continuity, i.e., smooth transitions) with linear piecewise fitting (indicating breakpoint). We recorded the kinematics of 24 well trained sprinters during a 25 m sprint run with start from competition starting blocks. Kinematic data were collected for 24 anatomical landmarks in 3D, and the location of centre of mass (CoM) was calculated from this data set. The step-to-step development of seven variables (four related to CoM position, and ground contact time, aerial time and step length) were analysed by curve fitting. In most individual sprints (in total, 41 sprints were successfully recorded) no breakpoints were identified for the variables investigated. However, for the mean results (i.e., the mean curve for all athletes) breakpoints were identified for the development of vertical CoM position, angle of acceleration and distance between support surface and CoM. It must be noted that for these variables the exponential fit showed high correlations (r2>0.99). No relationship was found between the occurrences of breakpoints for different variables as investigated using odds ratios (Mantel-Haenszel Chi-square statistic). It is concluded that although breakpoints regularly appear during accelerated running, these are not the rule and thereby unlikely a fundamental characteristic, but more likely an expression of imperfection of performance. PMID:27467387

  4. Magnetic Gold Nanoshells: Step-wise Changing of Magnetism through Step-wise Biofunctionalization

    PubMed Central

    S.S.R.Kumar, Challa; Mohammad, Faruq

    2010-01-01

    We report step-wise changing of magnetic behavior of iron oxide core gold shell nanoparticles from super paramagnetic to permanent magnetism at room temperature, on step-wise bio-functionalization with leutenizing hormone and releasing hormone (LHRH) through cysteamine linker. The observed permanent magnetism at room temperature in LHRH-capped gold nanoshells provides opportunities to extend fundamental investigations of permanent magnetism to other novel nanostructures and biofunctionalized nano gold architectures, simultaneously opening the way to newer applications, especially to those in biomedicine. PMID:23646236

  5. Large Plunging Ranula Presenting as Isolated Neck Swelling: Steps in Diagnosis and Surgical Steps in Management

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Neelima A.; Patil, Pankaj; Chapi, Mouneshkumar Devendrappa

    2015-01-01

    Ranula is a salivary gland cyst which typically present as localized superficial swelling over the floor of mouth. Complex or plunging ranulas develop when the mucus extravasation extends through or around the mylohyoid muscle, deeper into the neck, and present with neck lump along with or without swelling over floor of mouth. We report a case of large plunging ranula presenting as an isolated large neck mass in a 38-year-old female patient. The steps in diagnosis and surgical steps in management of the pathology are systematically described. PMID:26266141

  6. Large Plunging Ranula Presenting as Isolated Neck Swelling: Steps in Diagnosis and Surgical Steps in Management.

    PubMed

    Nilesh, Kumar; Malik, Neelima A; Patil, Pankaj; Chapi, Mouneshkumar Devendrappa

    2015-06-01

    Ranula is a salivary gland cyst which typically present as localized superficial swelling over the floor of mouth. Complex or plunging ranulas develop when the mucus extravasation extends through or around the mylohyoid muscle, deeper into the neck, and present with neck lump along with or without swelling over floor of mouth. We report a case of large plunging ranula presenting as an isolated large neck mass in a 38-year-old female patient. The steps in diagnosis and surgical steps in management of the pathology are systematically described. PMID:26266141

  7. Improved step-by-step chromaticity compensation method for chromatic sextupole optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gang-Wen, Liu; Zheng-He, Bai; Qi-Ka, Jia; Wei-Min, Li; Lin, Wang

    2016-05-01

    The step-by-step chromaticity compensation method for chromatic sextupole optimization and dynamic aperture increase was proposed by E. Levichev and P. Piminov (E. Levichev and P. Piminov, 2006). Although this method can be used to enlarge the dynamic aperture of a storage ring, it has some drawbacks. In this paper, we combined this method with evolutionary computation algorithms, and proposed an improved version of this method. In the improved method, the drawbacks are avoided, and thus better optimization results can be obtained. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11175182, 11175180)

  8. Percutaneous biopsy in the abdomen and pelvis: a step-by-step approach.

    PubMed

    Carberry, George A; Lubner, Meghan G; Wells, Shane A; Hinshaw, J Louis

    2016-04-01

    Percutaneous abdominal biopsies provide referring physicians with valuable diagnostic and prognostic information that guides patient care. All biopsy procedures follow a similar process that begins with the preprocedure evaluation of the patient and ends with the postprocedure management of the patient. In this review, a step-by-step approach to both routine and challenging abdominal biopsies is covered with an emphasis on the differences in biopsy devices and imaging guidance modalities. Adjunctive techniques that may facilitate accessing a lesion in a difficult location or reduce procedure risk are described. An understanding of these concepts will help maintain the favorable safety profile and high diagnostic yield associated with percutaneous biopsies. PMID:26883783

  9. The Steps to Health Randomized Trial for Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Sara; McClenaghan, Bruce; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Baruth, Meghan; Hootman, Jennifer M.; Leith, Katherine; Dowda, Marsha

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the established benefits of exercise for adults with arthritis, participation is low. Safe, evidence-based, self-directed programs, which have the potential for high reach at a low cost, are needed. Purpose To test a 12-week, self-directed, multicomponent exercise program for adults with arthritis. Design Randomized controlled trial. Data were collected from 2010 to 2012. Data were analyzed in 2013 and 2014. Setting/participants Adults with arthritis (N=401, aged 56.3 [10.7] years, 85.8% women, 63.8% white, 35.2% African American, BMI of 33.0 [8.2]) completed measures at a university research center and participated in a self-directed exercise intervention (First Step to Active Health®) or nutrition control program (Steps to Healthy Eating). Intervention Intervention participants received a self-directed multicomponent exercise program and returned self-monitoring logs for 12 weeks. Main outcome measures Self-reported physical activity, functional performance measures, and disease-specific outcomes (arthritis symptoms and self-efficacy) assessed at baseline, 12 weeks, and 9 months. Results Participants in the exercise condition showed greater increases in physical activity than those in the nutrition control group (p=0.01). Significant improvements, irrespective of condition, were seen in lower body strength, functional exercise capacity, lower body flexibility, pain, fatigue, stiffness, and arthritis management self-efficacy (p values <0.0001). More adverse events occurred in the exercise than nutrition control condition, but only one was severe and most were expected with increased physical activity. Conclusions The exercise program improves physical activity, and both programs improve functional and psychosocial outcomes. Potential reasons for improvements in the nutrition control condition are discussed. These interventions have the potential for large-scale dissemination. This study is registered at Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01172327. PMID

  10. Bullying: a stepping stone to dating aggression?

    PubMed

    Josephson, Wendy L; Pepler, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Bullying is the use of power and aggression to control and distress another. In this paper, we review research to explore whether the lessons learned in bullying provide a stepping stone to aggressive behavior in dating relationships. We start by considering definitions and a relationship framework with which to understand both bullying and dating aggression. We consider bullying from a developmental-contextual perspective and consider risk factors associated with the typical developmental patterns for bullying and dating aggression, including developmental and sociodemographic, individual attributes, and family, peer group, community, and societal relationship contexts that might lead some children and youths to follow developmental pathways that lead to bullying and dating aggression. We conclude by discussing implications for intervention with a review of evidence-based interventions. PMID:22909910

  11. A Step Towards CO2-Neutral Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brankovic, Andreja; Ryder, Robert C.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Huber, Marcia L.

    2008-01-01

    An approximation method for evaluation of the caloric equations used in combustion chemistry simulations is described. The method is applied to generate the equations of specific heat, static enthalpy, and Gibb's free energy for fuel mixtures of interest to gas turbine engine manufacturers. Liquid-phase fuel properties are also derived. The fuels investigated include JP-8, synthetic fuel, and two blends of JP-8 and synthetic fuel. The complete set of fuel property equations for both phases are implemented into a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) flow solver database, and multiphase, reacting flow simulations of a well-tested liquid-fueled combustor are performed. The simulations are a first step in understanding combustion system performance and operational issues when using alternate fuels, at practical engine operating conditions.

  12. Step-oriented pipeline data processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castleman, Kenneth R. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Architecture for step-oriented pipeline data processing is disclosed utilizing a plurality of cascaded modules, each module including a programmable general purpose processor and a read/write random access memory. The memory of each module, shared with the next module in cascade serves as an output memory for the processor and the input memory for the next processor. An additional memory is provided to serve as the input memory of the first module, and each module is provided with a memory, which may be a read-out memory, to store a program for the processor. Each module is further provided with a logic network for resolving a potential memory sharing conflict by awarding priority to the processor of the module.

  13. Nutrition recommendations and science: next parallel steps.

    PubMed

    Fogelholm, Mikael

    2016-03-15

    This article examines nutrition recommendations in relation to developments in nutrition science. Combining data on the genome, metabolome and microbiota is likely to open possibilities for personalized nutrition planning, but we are still far from practical applications. However, even these new steps are unlikely to challenge the role and importance of population-based nutrition recommendations as a tool to promote dietary patterns, policies and public health. Developments in science could help in deriving more benefits from nutrition recommendations. For instance, improved accuracy of dietary intake assessment is needed both for surveillance and for understanding the quantitative interplay between diet and health. Applying metabolomics together with food diaries or questionnaires, and also modern technologies such as digital photography, are potentially interesting methods in this respect. Research on consumer behaviour, attitudes and policy interventions, such as taxation of unhealthy foods and nutrition labelling, are needed to gain more insight into how to change eating behaviour for better health at the population level. PMID:26531226

  14. Hamiltonian deformations of Gabor frames: First steps

    PubMed Central

    de Gosson, Maurice A.

    2015-01-01

    Gabor frames can advantageously be redefined using the Heisenberg–Weyl operators familiar from harmonic analysis and quantum mechanics. Not only does this redefinition allow us to recover in a very simple way known results of symplectic covariance, but it immediately leads to the consideration of a general deformation scheme by Hamiltonian isotopies (i.e. arbitrary paths of non-linear symplectic mappings passing through the identity). We will study in some detail an associated weak notion of Hamiltonian deformation of Gabor frames, using ideas from semiclassical physics involving coherent states and Gaussian approximations. We will thereafter discuss possible applications and extensions of our method, which can be viewed – as the title suggests – as the very first steps towards a general deformation theory for Gabor frames. PMID:25892903

  15. The next step for physician executives?

    PubMed

    Kirschman, D

    1998-01-01

    The next step for career growth for many physician executives will be the top leadership role in a health care organization. The availability of such positions for physicians has been limited in the past but could very well open in the future. As physicians, administrators, and boards begin to trust each other more and form meaningful partnerships, the potential for physician CEOs increases. In 1997, the Physician Executive Management Center conducted surveys of physicians serving in CEO roles in hospitals and group practices throughout the country. We compared the results with earlier surveys we had conducted since 1986. This article reports the significant findings of these surveys on areas such as employment contracts, job duties, skills and talents, and remuneration. PMID:10185641

  16. A Protocol for Aging Anurans Using Skeletochronology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCreary, Brome; Pearl, Christopher A.; Adams, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Age distribution information can be an important part of understanding the biology of any population. Age estimates collected from the annual growth rings found in tooth and bone cross sections, often referred to as Lines of Arrested Growth (LAGs), have been used in the study of various animals. In this manual, we describe in detail all necessary steps required to obtain estimates of age from anuran bone cross sections via skeletochronological assessment. We include comprehensive descriptions of how to fix and decalcify toe specimens (phalanges), process a phalange prior to embedding, embed the phalange in paraffin, section the phalange using a microtome, stain and mount the cross sections of the phalange and read the LAGs to obtain age estimates.

  17. Change of wandering pattern with anisotropy in step kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Masahide; Uwaha, Makio

    1999-03-01

    We study the effect of anisotropy in step kinetics on the wandering instability of an isolated step. With the asymmetry of the step kinetics, a straight step becomes unstable for long wavelength fluctuations and wanders when the step velocity exceeds a critical value. Near the threshold of the instability, an isotropic step obeys the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation, HT=- HXX- HXXXX+( H2X/2), and shows a chaotic pattern. A step with anisotropic kinetics obeys the Benney equation, HT=- HXX- δHXXX- HXXXX+( H2X/2), and the wandering pattern changes: when the anisotropy is strong, δ≫1, the step shows a regular pattern. Near the threshold of the instability, the anisotropy effect becomes strong while that of the step stiffness becomes weak.

  18. The Aging Epigenome.

    PubMed

    Booth, Lauren N; Brunet, Anne

    2016-06-01

    During aging, the mechanisms that normally maintain health and stress resistance strikingly decline, resulting in decrepitude, frailty, and ultimately death. Exactly when and how this decline occurs is unknown. Changes in transcriptional networks and chromatin state lie at the heart of age-dependent decline. These epigenomic changes are not only observed during aging but also profoundly affect cellular function and stress resistance, thereby contributing to the progression of aging. We propose that the dysregulation of transcriptional and chromatin networks is a crucial component of aging. Understanding age-dependent epigenomic changes will yield key insights into how aging begins and progresses and should lead to the development of new therapeutics that delay or even reverse aging and age-related diseases. PMID:27259204

  19. Choice stepping reaction time test using exergame technology for fall risk assessment in older people.

    PubMed

    Ejupi, Andreas; Brodie, Matthew; Gschwind, Yves J; Schoene, Daniel; Lord, Stephen; Delbaere, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Accidental falls remain an important problem in older people. Stepping is a common task to avoid a fall and requires good interplay between sensory functions, central processing and motor execution. Increased choice stepping reaction time has been associated with recurrent falls in older people. The aim of this study was to examine if a sensor-based Exergame Choice Stepping Reaction Time test can successfully discriminate older fallers from non-fallers. The stepping test was conducted in a cohort of 104 community-dwelling older people (mean age: 80.7 ± 7.0 years). Participants were asked to step laterally as quickly as possible after a light stimulus appeared on a TV screen. Spatial and temporal measurements of the lower and upper body were derived from a low-cost and portable 3D-depth sensor (i.e. Microsoft Kinect) and 3D-accelerometer. Fallers had a slower stepping reaction time (970 ± 228 ms vs. 858 ± 123 ms, P = 0.001) and a slower reaction of their upper body (719 ± 289 ms vs. 631 ± 166 ms, P = 0.052) compared to non-fallers. It took fallers significantly longer than non-fallers to recover their balance after initiating the step (2147 ± 800 ms vs. 1841 ± 591 ms, P = 0.029). This study demonstrated that a sensor-based, low-cost and easy to administer stepping test, with the potential to be used in clinical practice or regular unsupervised home assessments, was able to identify significant differences between performances by fallers and non-fallers. PMID:25571596

  20. Responder Status Criterion for Stepped Care Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Salloum, Alison; Scheeringa, Michael S.; Cohen, Judith A.; Storch, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Background In order to develop Stepped Care Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT), a definition of early response/non-response is needed to guide decisions about the need for subsequent treatment. Objective The purpose of this article is to (1) establish criterion for defining an early indicator of response/nonresponse to the first step within Stepped Care TF-CBT, and (2) to explore the preliminary clinical utility of the early response/non-response criterion. Method Data from two studies were used: (1) treatment outcome data from a clinical trial in which 17 young children (ages 3 to 6 years) received therapist-directed CBT for children with PTSS were examined to empirically establish the number of posttraumatic stress symptoms to define early treatment response/non-response; and (2) three case examples with young children in Stepped Care TF-CBT were used to explore the utility of the treatment response criterion. Results For defining the responder status criterion, an algorithm of either 3 or fewer PTSS on a clinician-rated measure or being below the clinical cutoff score on a parent-rated measure of childhood PTSS, and being rated as improved, much improved or free of symptoms functioned well for determining whether or not to step up to more intensive treatment. Case examples demonstrated how the criterion were used to guide subsequent treatment, and that responder status criterion after Step One may or may not be aligned with parent preference. Conclusion Although further investigation is needed, the responder status criterion for young children used after Step One of Stepped Care TF-CBT appears promising. PMID:25663796

  1. Age determination of raccoons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grau, G.A.; Sanderson, G.C.; Rogers, J.P.

    1970-01-01

    Age criteria, based on 61 skulls and eye lenses from 103 known-age captives, are described for separating raccoons (Procyon lotor) into eight age-classes as follows: young-of-the-year, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-7, > 7 years. Criteria studied were eye lens nitrogen, cranial suture closure, tooth wear and incisor cementum layers. Lens nitrogen increased rapidly up to 12 months of age, but at much reduced rate thereafter. Total lens nitrogen was useful only in separating young-of-the-year from adults. The closure sequence for five cranial sutures accurately divided the total known-age sample of males into seven groups, and the adults into five groups. The tooth wear criteria divided the known-age sample into five relative age groups, but aging of individuals by this method was inaccurate. Histological sectioning of known-age teeth was the best method of observing layering in the cementum tissue. The technique of basing estimation of age on cementum ring counts, although subjective, was accurate for aging individuals through their fourth year but tended to underestimate the age of animals over 4 years old. However, suture closure or tooth wear can be used to identify males over 4 years old. In field studies, technical difficulties limit the utility of age estimation by cementum layers. Maximum root thickness of the lower canine was accurate in determining the sex of individuals from 5 months to ,at least 48 months of age.

  2. Trends in Neurocognitive Aging

    PubMed Central

    Grady, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Preface The availability of neuroimaging technology has spurred a marked increase in the human cognitive neuroscience literature, including the study of cognitive aging. Although there is a growing consensus that the aging brain retains considerable plasticity of function, currently measured primarily by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging, it is less clear how age differences in brain activity relate to cognitive performance. The field also is hampered by the complexity of the aging process itself and the large number of factors that are influenced by age. In this review, current trends and unresolved issues in the cognitive neuroscience of aging are discussed. PMID:22714020

  3. Coexistence of meandering and bunching of steps on vicinal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yan-Mei; Liu, Bang-Gui

    2006-01-01

    We simulate morphology and its evolution of vicinal surfaces in epitaxy by using the phase-field model. For usual parameters of Cu vicinal surfaces, a pure in-phase meandering pattern consistent to the experimental images is obtained. Nevertheless, vicinal surfaces grow into more complex hierarchy for a small kink energy. In addition to step meandering, step bunching happens due to competition of local step fluctuation and interlayer Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier in the presence of the step meandering. This implies that step meandering and step bunching can coexist in some growing epitaxial vicinal surfaces.

  4. Creating History Documentaries: A Step-by-Step Guide to Video Projects in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobar, Deborah

    This guide offers an easy introduction to social studies teachers wanting to challenge their students with creative media by bringing the past to life. The 14-step guide shows teachers and students the techniques needed for researching, scripting, and editing a historical documentary. Using a video camera and computer software, students can…

  5. Parents Who Care: A Step-by-Step Guide for Families with Teens. [Video Included].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, J. David; Catalano, Richard F.

    The world can be a risky place for teenagers in the 1990s. This guide and videotape provide skills for parents who want to help teens move successfully through the steps from childhood to adulthood. Based on extensive research, each of the seven units in the guide includes advice, strategies, and activities for both parents and teens to improve…

  6. Planning Community-Wide Study Circle Programs. A Step-by-Step Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Martha; And Others

    This guide contains ideas and documents from study circle programs throughout the United States. The guide is organized in five parts that cover the following topics: (1) introduction--what are study circles, how do they function?; (2) basic steps in creating a community-wide program; (3) sample documents including program description, community…

  7. Statistics Translated: A Step-by-Step Guide to Analyzing and Interpreting Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Written in a humorous and encouraging style, this text shows how the most common statistical tools can be used to answer interesting real-world questions, presented as mysteries to be solved. Engaging research examples lead the reader through a series of six steps, from identifying a researchable problem to stating a hypothesis, identifying…

  8. Implementing Service Learning into a Graduate Social Work Course: A Step-by-Step Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Evelyn Marie

    2012-01-01

    Service learning is a powerful pedagogical tool linking community service to academic learning. Several steps are necessary to implement service learning effectively into the curriculum. This study uses a case example as an exploratory study to pilot-test data on how service learning impacts student outcomes. The paper will (1) provide an overview…

  9. A Step Forward or a Step Back? State Accountability in the Waiver Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Daria

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, No Child Left Behind ushered in sweeping changes in school accountability. Diverging from the federal government's long history of leaving this matter largely to the states, a Congress broadly dissatisfied with the slow pace of educational improvement stepped in with a new framework designed to set schools on a path to getting all…

  10. Step-by-step magic state encoding for efficient fault-tolerant quantum computation

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Hayato

    2014-01-01

    Quantum error correction allows one to make quantum computers fault-tolerant against unavoidable errors due to decoherence and imperfect physical gate operations. However, the fault-tolerant quantum computation requires impractically large computational resources for useful applications. This is a current major obstacle to the realization of a quantum computer. In particular, magic state distillation, which is a standard approach to universality, consumes the most resources in fault-tolerant quantum computation. For the resource problem, here we propose step-by-step magic state encoding for concatenated quantum codes, where magic states are encoded step by step from the physical level to the logical one. To manage errors during the encoding, we carefully use error detection. Since the sizes of intermediate codes are small, it is expected that the resource overheads will become lower than previous approaches based on the distillation at the logical level. Our simulation results suggest that the resource requirements for a logical magic state will become comparable to those for a single logical controlled-NOT gate. Thus, the present method opens a new possibility for efficient fault-tolerant quantum computation. PMID:25511387

  11. Step-by-step magic state encoding for efficient fault-tolerant quantum computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Hayato

    2014-12-01

    Quantum error correction allows one to make quantum computers fault-tolerant against unavoidable errors due to decoherence and imperfect physical gate operations. However, the fault-tolerant quantum computation requires impractically large computational resources for useful applications. This is a current major obstacle to the realization of a quantum computer. In particular, magic state distillation, which is a standard approach to universality, consumes the most resources in fault-tolerant quantum computation. For the resource problem, here we propose step-by-step magic state encoding for concatenated quantum codes, where magic states are encoded step by step from the physical level to the logical one. To manage errors during the encoding, we carefully use error detection. Since the sizes of intermediate codes are small, it is expected that the resource overheads will become lower than previous approaches based on the distillation at the logical level. Our simulation results suggest that the resource requirements for a logical magic state will become comparable to those for a single logical controlled-NOT gate. Thus, the present method opens a new possibility for efficient fault-tolerant quantum computation.

  12. Correlative light and electron microscopy analysis of the centrosome: A step-by-step protocol.

    PubMed

    Kong, Dong; Loncarek, Jadranka

    2015-01-01

    Correlative light and electron microscopy harnesses the best from each of the two modalities of microscopy it utilizes; while light microscopy provides information about the dynamic properties of the cellular structure or fluorescently labeled protein, electron microscopy provides ultrastructural information in an unsurpassed resolution. However, tracing a particular cell and its rare and small structures such as centrosomes throughout numerous steps of the experiment is not a trivial task. In this chapter, we present the experimental workflow for combining live-cell fluorescence microscopy analysis with classical transmission electron microscopy, adapted for the studies of the centrosomes and basal bodies. We describe, in a step-by-step manner, an approach that can be affordably and successfully employed in any typical cell biology laboratory. The article details all key phases of the analysis starting from cell culture, live-cell microscopy, and sample fixation, through the steps of sample preparation for electron microscopy, to the identification of the target cell on the electron microscope. PMID:26175430

  13. Several steps/day indicators predict changes in anthropometric outcomes: HUB city steps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Walking for exercise remains the most frequently reported leisure-time activity, likely because it is simple, inexpensive, and easily incorporated into most people’s lifestyle. Pedometers are simple, convenient, and economical tools that can be used to quantify step-determined physical activity. F...

  14. Aging Optimization of Aluminum-Lithium Alloy L277 for Application to Cryotank Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sova, B. J.; Sankaran, K. K.; Babel, H.; Farahmand, B.; Cho, A.

    2003-01-01

    Compared with aluminum alloys such as 2219, which is widely used in space vehicle for cryogenic tanks and unpressurized structures, aluminum-lithium alloys possess attractive combinations of lower density and higher modulus along with comparable mechanical properties and improved damage tolerance. These characteristics have resulted in the successful use of the aluminum-lithium alloy 2195 for the Space Shuttle External Tank, and the consideration of newer U.S. aluminum-lithium alloys such as L277 and C458 for future space vehicles. A design of experiments aging study was conducted for plate and a limited study on extrusions. To achieve the T8 temper, Alloy L277 is typically aged at 290 F for 40 hours. In the study for plate, a two-step aging treatment was developed through a design of experiments study and the one step aging used as a control. Based on the earlier NASA studies on 2195, the first step aging temperature was varied between 220 F and 260 F. The second step aging temperatures was varied between 290 F and 310 F, which is in the range of the single-step aging temperature. For extrusions, two, single-step, and one two-step aging condition were evaluated. The results of the design of experiments used for the T8 temper as well as a smaller set of experiments for the T6 temper for plate and the results for extrusions will be presented.

  15. Heterogeneity in Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Lowsky, David J.; Olshansky, S. Jay; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2014-01-01

    For a surprisingly large segment of the older population, chronological age is not a relevant marker for understanding, measuring, or experiencing healthy aging. Using the 2003 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and the 2004 Health and Retirement Study to examine the proportion of Americans exhibiting five markers of health and the variation in health-related quality of life across each of eight age groups, we find that a significant proportion of older Americans is healthy within every age group beginning at age 51, including among those aged 85+. For example, 48% of those aged 51–54 and 28% of those aged 85+ have excellent or very good self-reported health status; similarly, 89% of those aged 51–54 and 56% of those aged 85+ report no health-based limitations in work or housework. Also, health-related quality of life ranges widely within every age group, yet there is only a comparatively small variation in median quality of life across age groups, suggesting that older Americans today may be experiencing substantially different age-health trajectories than their predecessors. Patterns are similar for medical expenditures. Several policy implications are explored. PMID:24249734

  16. Age to survive: DNA damage and aging.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Björn; Garinis, George A; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J

    2008-02-01

    Aging represents the progressive functional decline and increased mortality risk common to nearly all metazoans. Recent findings experimentally link DNA damage and organismal aging: longevity-regulating genetic pathways respond to the accumulation of DNA damage and other stress conditions and conversely influence the rate of damage accumulation and its impact for cancer and aging. This novel insight has emerged from studies on human progeroid diseases and mouse models that have deficient DNA repair pathways. Here we discuss a unified concept of an evolutionarily conserved 'survival' response that shifts the organism's resources from growth to maintenance as an adaptation to stresses, such as starvation and DNA damage. This shift protects the organism from cancer and promotes healthy aging. PMID:18192065

  17. Electric field derivative waveforms from dart-stepped-leader steps in triggered lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamerota, W. R.; Uman, M. A.; Hill, J. D.; Ngin, T.; Pilkey, J.; Jordan, D. M.

    2014-09-01

    Electric field derivative (dE/dt) pulse waveforms from dart-stepped-leaders in rocket-and-wire triggered lightning, recorded a distance of 226 m from the channel base, are characterized. A single dE/dt pulse associated with a leader step consists of a fast initial rise of the same polarity as the following return stroke followed by an opposite polarity overshoot of smaller amplitude and subsequent decay to background level, without superimposed secondary pulses. A "slow front" often precedes the fast initial rise. For 47 single dE/dt leader pulses occurring during the final 15 µs of 24 dart-stepped-leaders, the pulse mean half-peak width was 76 ns, mean 10-to-90% risetime 73 ns, and mean range-normalized peak amplitude 2.5 V/m/µs. For integrated dE/dt, the mean half-peak width was 214 ns and the mean range-normalized peak amplitude 0.21 V/m. Most dart-stepped-leader dE/dt pulses are more complex than a single pulse. Interpulse interval and average peak amplitude range normalized to 100 km were measured for both single and complex dE/dt pulses during the final 15 µs of 10 dart-stepped-leaders preceding triggered return strokes with peak currents ranging from 8.1 to 31.4 kA. The average range-normalized dE/dt and numerically integrated dE/dt (electric field) peak amplitude increased from 0.9 to 4.9 V/m/µs and 0.13 to 0.47 V/m, respectively, with increasing return stroke peak current while the interpulse interval remained relatively constant at about 2 µs. Strong positive linear correlations were found between both average range-normalized peak pulse amplitude and interstroke interval versus the following return stroke peak current.

  18. Lipid and lipoprotein changes in premenstrual women following step aerobic dance training.

    PubMed

    Mosher, P E; Ferguson, M A; Arnold, R O

    2005-10-01

    Exercise training can improve lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and reduce the risk of heart disease. Little information is available concerning aerobic dance training and lipoprotein concentration changes in women. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two different methods of step bench training on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, and lipoprotein concentrations in college-aged females. Subjects were assigned to one of three groups: a traditional continuous step (CS), an interval step group (IS), or a non-exercise control group (C). The CS and the IS groups participated in three 50-minute sessions for 12 weeks. The CS session included a warm-up, 30-35 min of continuous bench stepping, 10-15 min of calisthenic exercises, and a 5-min cool-down. The IS sessions included a 5-7-min warm-up, 35-40 min of alternating intervals of bench stepping and non-step aerobic dance, and a 5-7-min cool-down. Target heart rates were maintained within 70 to 85% of maximal heart rate. Results showed increases in HDL-C concentrations in the IS group (p<0.05). Decreases in percent body fat were evident in both dance groups (p<0.05) and cardiovascular fitness increased in both groups (p<0.01). No changes were evident in the control group. In college-aged women, 12 weeks of IS or CS training improved cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition. In addition, IS training appears to have a greater effect on HDL-C concentrations than CS training. PMID:16158373

  19. Tritium Issues in Next Step Devices

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner; G. Federici

    2001-09-05

    Tritium issues will play a central role in the performance and operation of next-step deuterium-tritium (DT) burning plasma tokamaks and the safety aspects associated with tritium will attract intense public scrutiny. The orders-of-magnitude increase in duty cycle and stored energy will be a much larger change than the increase in plasma performance necessary to achieve high fusion gain and ignition. Erosion of plasma-facing components will scale up with the pulse length from being barely measurable on existing machines to centimeter scale. Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) devices with carbon plasma-facing components will accumulate tritium by co-deposition with the eroded carbon and this will strongly constrain plasma operations. We report on a novel laser-based method to remove co-deposited tritium from carbon plasma-facing components in tokamaks. A major fraction of the tritium trapped in a co-deposited layer during the deuterium-tritium (DT) campaign on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was released by heating with a scanning laser beam. This technique offers the potential for tritium removal in a next-step DT device without the use of oxidation and the associated deconditioning of the plasma-facing surfaces and expense of processing large quantities of tritium oxide. The operational lifetime of alternative materials such as tungsten has significant uncertainties due to melt layer loss during disruptions. Production of dust and flakes will need careful monitoring and minimization, and control and accountancy of the tritium inventory will be critical issues. Many of the tritium issues in Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) are similar to MFE, but some, for example those associated with the target factory, are unique to IFE. The plasma-edge region in a tokamak has greater complexity than the core due to lack of poloidal symmetry and nonlinear feedback between the plasma and wall. Sparse diagnostic coverage and low dedicated experimental run time has hampered the

  20. Comparison of GT3X accelerometer and Yamax pedometer steps/day in a free-living sample of overweight and obese adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to compare steps/day detected by the YAMAX SW-200 pedometer versus the Actigraph GT3X accelerometer in free-living adults. Daily YAMAX and GT3X steps were collected from a sample of 23 overweight and obese participants (78% female; age = 52.6 +/- 8.4 yr.; BMI = 31.0 +/-...

  1. Aging According to Biography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiland, Steven

    1989-01-01

    Uses Erik Erikson's work to discuss how biographies treat aging. Explores how developmental theorists observe biographical representations of the life cycle and its applicability to aging. (Author/BHK)

  2. The aging inmate.

    PubMed

    LaMere, S; Smyer, T; Gragert, M

    1996-04-01

    Aging inmates form a distinct cultural subgroup. The antecedents for their unique patterns and needs come from the life cycle of aging within the confines of a total institution. The inmate who ages in place will lack the common social markers experienced by his age cohorts in the outside world. The aging inmate faces challenges to his self-concept related to loss of family, employment, and sexual identity. His sense of autonomy is threatened by loss of self-selective behaviors, personal possessions, and privacy. Needs of the aging prison population will challenge traditional prison resources, including correctional nursing staff and mental health and counseling services. Substantive assistance for the inmate who has aged in prison must be accompanied by an awareness of the cumulative effects of living and aging within the unique sociocultural environment of the total institution. PMID:8778405

  3. Aging and Intergenerational Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Gary R.

    1987-01-01

    Considers the rapid aging of the American population and the changing age structure of society. Discusses the needs of older adults, the role of the family in providing support to older members, and issues of intergenerational relations. (NB)

  4. Corrected Age for Preemies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Preemie > Corrected Age ...

  5. Sleep and Aging: Insomnia

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Sleep and Aging Insomnia Insomnia is the most common sleep complaint ... us | contact us | site map National Institute on Aging | U.S. National Library of Medicine | National Institutes of ...

  6. Aging changes in immunity

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004008.htm Aging changes in immunity To use the sharing features ... cells and antibodies that destroy these harmful substances. Aging Changes and Their Effects on the Immune System ...

  7. Reverse age discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labini, Francesco Sylos; Zapperi, Stefano

    2007-09-01

    Brilliant scientists of all ages should be able to thrive at universities. Mandatory retirement is, therefore, a form of age discrimination, but its removal or postponement can come at a cost to younger faculty members, as observed in Italy.

  8. National Institute on Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Join Our Mailing List Email The Leader in Aging Research NIA, one of the 27 Institutes and ... broad scientific effort to understand the nature of aging and to extend the healthy, active years of ...

  9. K/T age for the popigai impact event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deino, A. L.; Garvin, J. B.; Montanari, S.

    1991-01-01

    The multi-ringed POPIGAI structure, with an outer ring diameter of over 100 km, is the largest impact feature currently recognized on Earth with an Phanerozoic age. The target rocks in this relatively unglaciated region consist of upper Proterozoic through Mesozoic platform sediments and igneous rocks overlying Precambrian crystalline basement. The reported absolute age of the Popigai impact event ranges from 30.5 to 39 Ma. With the intent of refining this age estimate, a melt-breccia (suevite) sample from the inner regions of the Popigai structure was prepared for total fusion and step-wise heating Ar-40/Ar-39 analysis. Although the total fusion and step-heating experiments suggest some degree of age heterogeneity, the recurring theme is an age of around 64 to 66 Ma.

  10. Fermentation guide for potatoes. A step-by-step procedure for small-scale ethanol fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    This guide describes the steps involved in the successful batch starch conversion and fermentation of potatoes for the production of fuel grade ethanol. The first part of this manual provides an overview of ethanol production from feedstock to fermentation. The second part of the manual is a recipe section that gives step-by-step procedures necessary for successful fermentation. Chapter titles are: major steps in ethanol production; equipment and chemicals; water testing and treatment; feedstock cleaning and crushing; precooking; hydration and dextrinization; cooking; choosing the best enzymes; fermentation; core and cleaning, step-by-step procedure; refinements; and supplies. (DMC)

  11. Effects of Aging Treatments on the Mechanical Behavior of Ti-15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Y.-K.; Tsay, L. W.; Chen, C.

    2015-09-01

    The effect of aging treatments on the mechanical properties and microstructures of Ti-15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al (Ti-15-3) alloy was evaluated using tensile, notched tensile, and J-integral tests. The properties for the one-step aged specimens (371 to 648 °C for 8 h) were compared with those for the two-step aged specimens (one-step aged + 426 °C/24 h). An increase in aging temperature of one-step aging resulted in increased notched tensile strength and fracture toughness of the Ti-15-3 alloy. The second-step aging at 426 °C for 24 h caused various degrees of hardening in the group of double aged specimens. Comparing to the one-step aged specimens, increased notch brittleness and decreased fracture toughness were observed in the two-step aged specimens. For the specimens subjected to aging at 648 °C, the formation of thick α layer at β grain boundaries resulted in lower tensile properties and fracture toughness. The fracture modes of the notch-brittle specimens were strongly affected by the distribution, size, and morphology of the α precipitates.

  12. Personalised Prescription of Scalable High Intensity Interval Training to Inactive Female Adults of Different Ages

    PubMed Central

    Mair, Jacqueline L.

    2016-01-01

    Stepping is a convenient form of scalable high-intensity interval training (HIIT) that may lead to health benefits. However, the accurate personalised prescription of stepping is hampered by a lack of evidence on optimal stepping cadences and step heights for various populations. This study examined the acute physiological responses to stepping exercise at various heights and cadences in young (n = 14) and middle-aged (n = 14) females in order to develop an equation that facilitates prescription of stepping at targeted intensities. Participants completed a step test protocol consisting of randomised three-minute bouts at different step cadences (80, 90, 100, 110 steps·min-1) and step heights (17, 25, 30, 34 cm). Aerobic demand and heart rate values were measured throughout. Resting metabolic rate was measured in order to develop female specific metabolic equivalents (METs) for stepping. Results revealed significant differences between age groups for METs and heart rate reserve, and within-group differences for METs, heart rate, and metabolic cost, at different step heights and cadences. At a given step height and cadence, middle-aged females were required to work at an intensity on average 1.9 ± 0.26 METs greater than the younger females. A prescriptive equation was developed to assess energy cost in METs using multilevel regression analysis with factors of step height, step cadence and age. Considering recent evidence supporting accumulated bouts of HIIT exercise for health benefits, this equation, which allows HIIT to be personally prescribed to inactive and sedentary women, has potential impact as a public health exercise prescription tool. PMID:26848956

  13. Personalised Prescription of Scalable High Intensity Interval Training to Inactive Female Adults of Different Ages.

    PubMed

    Mair, Jacqueline L; Nevill, Alan M; De Vito, Giuseppe; Boreham, Colin A

    2016-01-01

    Stepping is a convenient form of scalable high-intensity interval training (HIIT) that may lead to health benefits. However, the accurate personalised prescription of stepping is hampered by a lack of evidence on optimal stepping cadences and step heights for various populations. This study examined the acute physiological responses to stepping exercise at various heights and cadences in young (n = 14) and middle-aged (n = 14) females in order to develop an equation that facilitates prescription of stepping at targeted intensities. Participants completed a step test protocol consisting of randomised three-minute bouts at different step cadences (80, 90, 100, 110 steps·min-1) and step heights (17, 25, 30, 34 cm). Aerobic demand and heart rate values were measured throughout. Resting metabolic rate was measured in order to develop female specific metabolic equivalents (METs) for stepping. Results revealed significant differences between age groups for METs and heart rate reserve, and within-group differences for METs, heart rate, and metabolic cost, at different step heights and cadences. At a given step height and cadence, middle-aged females were required to work at an intensity on average 1.9 ± 0.26 METs greater than the younger females. A prescriptive equation was developed to assess energy cost in METs using multilevel regression analysis with factors of step height, step cadence and age. Considering recent evidence supporting accumulated bouts of HIIT exercise for health benefits, this equation, which allows HIIT to be personally prescribed to inactive and sedentary women, has potential impact as a public health exercise prescription tool. PMID:26848956

  14. Step and Kink Dynamics in Inorganic and Protein Crystallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernov, A. A.; Rashkovich, L. N.; Vekilov, P. G.; DeYoreo, J. J.

    2004-01-01

    Behavior of low-kink-density steps in solution growth and consequences for general understanding of spiral crystal growth processes will be overviewed. Also, influence of turbulence on step bunching and possibility to diminish this bunching will be presented.

  15. "Small Steps, Big Rewards": Preventing Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes "Small Steps, Big Rewards": Preventing Type 2 Diabetes Past Issues / Fall ... These are the plain facts in "Small Steps. Big Rewards: Prevent Type 2 Diabetes," an education campaign ...

  16. 5 Steps to START | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Quit Smoking 5 Steps to START Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table ... Contents The National Cancer Institute recommends that these five steps be a part of every successful plan ...

  17. 3 Steps to Building a Personal Medical Record

    MedlinePlus

    ... Building a Personal Medical Record Print to PDF 3 Steps to Building a Personal Medical Record August ... forms or make phone calls for you. Step 3. Organizing and storing your personal medical record There ...

  18. Take 3 Steps Toward Preventing Infections During Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Risk Patient Caregiver Healthcare Provider Discover the 3 Steps Prepare, Prevent, & Protect Fact Sheet & Cut-Out ... Your Risk Patient Caregiver Healthcare Provider Discover the 3 Steps Prepare, Prevent, & Protect Fact Sheet & Cut-Out ...

  19. Two-Step Ebola Vaccine Strategy Works in Early Trial

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158384.html Two-Step Ebola Vaccine Strategy Works in Early Trial But one expert ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A new two-step Ebola vaccine strategy has shown some promise in early clinical ...

  20. Two-step Mechanochemical Synthesis of Porphyrins

    PubMed Central

    Shy, Hannah; Mackin, Paula; Orvieto, Andrea S.; Gharbharan, Deepa; Peterson, Geneva R.; Bampos, Nick; Hamilton, Tamara D.

    2014-01-01

    Porphyrin synthesis under solvent-free conditions represents the “greening” of a traditional synthesis that normally requires large amounts of organic solvent, and has hindered industrial-scale synthesis of this useful class of molecules. We have found that the four-fold acid-catalysed condensation of aldehyde and pyrrole to yield a tetra-substituted porphyrin is possible through mechanochemical techniques, without a solvent present. This represents one of the still-rare examples of carbon-carbon bond formation by mechanochemistry. Specifically, upon grinding equimolar amounts of pyrrole and benzaldehyde in presence of an acid catalyst, cyclization takes place to give reduced porphyrin precursors (reversible), which upon oxidation form tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP). The approach has been found suitable for synthesis of a variety of meso-tetrasubstituted porphyrins. Oxidation can occur either by using an oxidizing agent in solution, to give yields comparable to those published for traditional methods of porphyrin synthesis, or through mechanochemical means resulting in a two-step mechanochemical synthesis to give slightly lower yields that are still being optimized. We are also working on “green” methods of porphyrin isolation, including entrainment sublimation, which would hopefully further reduce the need for large amounts of organic solvent. These results hold promise for the development of mechanochemical synthetic protocols for porphyrins and related classes of compounds. PMID:25406483

  1. Lunar base - A stepping stone to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, M. B.; Mendell, W. W.; Roberts, B. B.

    1985-01-01

    Basic elements of technology and programmatic development are identified that appear relevant to the Case for Mars, starting from a base on the moon. The moon is a logical stepping stone toward human exploration of Mars because a lunar base can provide the first test of human ability to use the resources of another planetary body to provide basic materials for life support. A lunar base can provide the first long-term test of human capability to work and live in a reduced (but not zero) gravity field. A lunar base requires creation of the elements of a space transportation system that will be necessary to deliver large payloads to Mars and the space operations capability and experience necessary to carry out a Mars habitation program efficiently and with high reliability. A lunar base is feasible for the first decade of the 21st Century. Scenarios have been studied that provide advanced capability by 2015 within budget levels that are less than historical U.S. space expenditures (Apollo). Early return on the investment in terms of knowledge, practical experience and lunar products are important in gaining momentum for an expanded human exploration of the solar system and the eventual colonization of Mars.

  2. Neuregulin: First Steps Towards a Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferree, D. S.; Malone, C. C.; Karr, L. J.

    2003-01-01

    Neuregulins are growth factor domain proteins with diverse bioactivities, such as cell proliferation, receptor binding, and differentiation. Neureguh- 1 binds to two members of the ErbB class I tyrosine kinase receptors, ErbB3 and ErbB4. A number of human cancers overexpress the ErbB receptors, and neuregulin can modulate the growth of certain cancer types. Neuregulin-1 has been shown to promote the migration of invasive gliomas of the central nervous system. Neuregulin has also been implicated in schizophrenia, multiple sclerosis and abortive cardiac abnormalities. The full function of neuregulin-1 is not known. In this study we are inserting a cDNA clone obtained from American Type Culture Collection into E.coli expression vectors to express neuregulin- 1 protein. Metal chelate affinity chromatography is used for recombinant protein purification. Crystallization screening will proceed for X-ray diffraction studies following expression, optimization, and protein purification. In spite of medical and scholarly interest in the neuregulins, there are currently no high-resolution structures available for these proteins. Here we present the first steps toward attaining a high-resolution structure of neuregulin- 1, which will help enable us to better understand its function

  3. Time to pause before the next step

    SciTech Connect

    Siemon, R.E.

    1998-12-31

    Many scientists, who have staunchly supported ITER for years, are coming to realize it is time to further rethink fusion energy`s development strategy. Specifically, as was suggested by Grant Logan and Dale Meade, and in keeping with the restructuring of 1996, a theme of better, cheaper, faster fusion would serve the program more effectively than ``demonstrating controlled ignition...and integrated testing of the high-heat-flux and nuclear components required to utilize fusion energy...`` which are the important ingredients of ITER`s objectives. The author has personally shifted his view for a mixture of technical and political reasons. On the technical side, he senses that through advanced tokamak research, spherical tokamak research, and advanced stellarator work, scientists are coming to a new understanding that might make a burning-plasma device significantly smaller and less expensive. Thus waiting for a few years, even ten years, seems prudent. Scientifically, there is fascinating physics to be learned through studies of burning plasma on a tokamak. And clearly if one wishes to study burning plasma physics in a sustained plasma, there is no other configuration with an adequate database on which to proceed. But what is the urgency of moving towards an ITER-like step focused on burning plasma? Some of the arguments put forward and the counter arguments are discussed here.

  4. Stepped-frequency radar signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyfried, Daniel; Schoebel, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    Stepped-frequency radar is a prominent example of the class of continuous-wave radar systems. Since raw data are recorded in frequency-domain direct investigations referring to the frequency content can be done on the raw data. However, a transformation of these data is required in order to obtain a time-domain representation of the targets illuminated by the radar. In this paper we present different ways of arranging the raw data which then are processed by means of the inverse fast Fourier transform. On the basis of the time-domain result we discuss strengths and weaknesses of each of these data structures. Furthermore, we investigate the influence of phase noise on the time-domain signal by means of an appropriate model implemented in our simulation tool. We also demonstrate the effects of commonly known techniques of digital signal processing, such as windowing and zero-padding of frequency-domain data. Finally we present less commonly known methods, such as the processing gain of the (inverse) fast Fourier transform by means of which the signal to noise ratio of the time-domain signal can be increased.

  5. Space Drive Physics: Introduction and Next Steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millis, M. G.

    Research toward the visionary goal of propellantless ``space drives'' is introduced, covering key physics issues and a listing of roughly 2-dozen approaches. The targeted advantage of a space drive is to circumvent the propellant constraints of rockets and the maneuvering limits of light sails by using the interactions between the spacecraft and its surrounding space for propulsion. At present, the scientific foundations from which to engineer a space drive have not been discovered and, objectively, might be impossible. Although no propulsion breakthroughs appear imminent, the subject has matured to where the relevant questions have been broached and are beginning to be answered. The critical make-break issues include; conservation of momentum, uncertain sources of reaction mass, and the net-external thrusting requirement. Note: space drives are not necessarily faster- than-light devices. Speed limits are a separate, unanswered issue. Relevant unsolved physics includes; the sources and mechanisms of inertial frames, coupling of gravitation and electromagnetism, and the nature of the quantum vacuum. The propulsion approaches span mostly stages 1 through 3 of the scientific method (defining the problem, collecting data, and articulating hypotheses), while some have matured to stage 4 (testing hypotheses). Nonviable approaches include `stiction drives,' `gyroscopic antigravity,' and `lifters.' No attempt is made to gauge the prospects of the remaining approaches. Instead, a list of next-step research questions is derived from the examination of these goals, unknowns, and concepts.

  6. Twenty steps to survive managed care.

    PubMed

    Goldener, J

    1999-01-01

    The health care industry is in the midst of discounted, price-driven, managed care. Many older physicians, not wanting to practice in this environment, are opting for early retirement. Others sell their clinical practices to management companies or hospitals to avoid the economic reality of day-to-day financial management. Most of these private practices are losing money every year. However, there still are a large number of physicians who have not sold their practice. As capitation continues to grow, these physicians will experience severe cash flow problems unless their financial plight is addressed rapidly. If it is not, the resultant cash flow problems will cause accounts payable to grow. Twenty steps are outlined that a physician or group should take right away to maintain a healthy cash flow. These include: Instituting a nurse triage system, setting up an after-hours clinic, getting the co-pay at the time of service, implementing a patient satisfaction questionnaire, monitoring the capitation reports, and checking capitation lists. PMID:10387271

  7. Mutual reciprocal inspections: Issues regarding next steps

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, K.C.

    1996-02-27

    Pressures are mounting for a regime to verify the dismantlement of US and Russian warheads, as well as a system of international control over the weapons` fissile materials to assure irreversibility. There are at least four motivating factors for these measures: (1) as the United States and Russia lower their numbers of nuclear weapons, each side seeks assurance that the warheads are actually being dismantled; (2) by accounting for the fissile materials and placing them under effective controls, the potential for smuggling and theft is reduced; (3) a fissile materials cutoff is being discussed at the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva; verification of a US-Russian cutoff, as well as substantial reductions in fissile materials stockpiles, are seen as integral to the cutoff; (4) calls for total nuclear disarmament have greatly increased; dismantlement verification and international control of fissile materials are widely viewed as requisite steps toward this goal. There are many questions to be answered before the United States can agree to a warhead verification regime and international control over excess fissile materials, let alone total nuclear disarmament. Two of the most important are: What are the prospects for effective verification? and How much fissile material can be declared as excess, and possibly be given over to international control? These topics--compliance weaknesses and excess materials--are the focus of this paper.

  8. Deposition Diagnostics for Next-step Devices

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner; A.L. Roquemore; the NSTX team; A. Bader; W.R. Wampler

    2004-06-15

    The scale-up of deposition in next-step devices such as ITER will pose new diagnostic challenges. Codeposition of hydrogen with carbon needs to be characterized and understood in the initial hydrogen phase in order to mitigate tritium retention and qualify carbon plasma facing components for DT operations. Plasma facing diagnostic mirrors will experience deposition that is expected to rapidly degrade their reflectivity, posing a new challenge to diagnostic design. Some eroded particles will collect as dust on interior surfaces and the quantity of dust will be strictly regulated for safety reasons - however diagnostics of in-vessel dust are lacking. We report results from two diagnostics that relate to these issues. Measurements of deposition on NSTX with 4 Hz time resolution have been made using a quartz microbalance in a configuration that mimics that of a typical diagnostic mirror. Often deposition was observed immediately following the discharge suggesting that diagnostic shutters should be closed as soon as possible after the time period of interest. Material loss was observed following a few discharges. A novel diagnostic to detect surface particles on remote surfaces was commissioned on NSTX.

  9. Nineteen-step total synthesis of (+)-phorbol.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Shuhei; Chu, Hang; Felding, Jakob; Baran, Phil S

    2016-04-01

    Phorbol, the flagship member of the tigliane diterpene family, has been known for over 80 years and has attracted attention from many chemists and biologists owing to its intriguing chemical structure and the medicinal potential of phorbol esters. Access to useful quantities of phorbol and related analogues has relied on isolation from natural sources and semisynthesis. Despite efforts spanning 40 years, chemical synthesis has been unable to compete with these strategies, owing to its complexity and unusual placement of oxygen atoms. Purely synthetic enantiopure phorbol has remained elusive, and biological synthesis has not led to even the simplest members of this terpene family. Recently, the chemical syntheses of eudesmanes, germacrenes, taxanes and ingenanes have all benefited from a strategy inspired by the logic of two-phase terpene biosynthesis in which powerful C-C bond constructions and C-H bond oxidations go hand in hand. Here we implement a two-phase terpene synthesis strategy to achieve enantiospecific total synthesis of (+)-phorbol in only 19 steps from the abundant monoterpene (+)-3-carene. The purpose of this synthesis route is not to displace isolation or semisynthesis as a means of generating the natural product per se, but rather to enable access to analogues containing unique placements of oxygen atoms that are otherwise inaccessible. PMID:27007853

  10. The Complex-Step-Finite-Difference method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, Rafael; Stich, Daniel; Morales, Jose

    2015-07-01

    We introduce the Complex-Step-Finite-Difference method (CSFDM) as a generalization of the well-known Finite-Difference method (FDM) for solving the acoustic and elastic wave equations. We have found a direct relationship between modelling the second-order wave equation by the FDM and the first-order wave equation by the CSFDM in 1-D, 2-D and 3-D acoustic media. We present the numerical methodology in order to apply the introduced CSFDM and show an example for wave propagation in simple homogeneous and heterogeneous models. The CSFDM may be implemented as an extension into pre-existing numerical techniques in order to obtain fourth- or sixth-order accurate results with compact three time-level stencils. We compare advantages of imposing various types of initial motion conditions of the CSFDM and demonstrate its higher-order accuracy under the same computational cost and dispersion-dissipation properties. The introduced method can be naturally extended to solve different partial differential equations arising in other fields of science and engineering.

  11. Simulating stochastic dynamics using large time steps.

    PubMed

    Corradini, O; Faccioli, P; Orland, H

    2009-12-01

    We present an approach to investigate the long-time stochastic dynamics of multidimensional classical systems, in contact with a heat bath. When the potential energy landscape is rugged, the kinetics displays a decoupling of short- and long-time scales and both molecular dynamics or Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are generally inefficient. Using a field theoretic approach, we perform analytically the average over the short-time stochastic fluctuations. This way, we obtain an effective theory, which generates the same long-time dynamics of the original theory, but has a lower time-resolution power. Such an approach is used to develop an improved version of the MC algorithm, which is particularly suitable to investigate the dynamics of rare conformational transitions. In the specific case of molecular systems at room temperature, we show that elementary integration time steps used to simulate the effective theory can be chosen a factor approximately 100 larger than those used in the original theory. Our results are illustrated and tested on a simple system, characterized by a rugged energy landscape. PMID:20365123

  12. Collocation and Galerkin Time-Stepping Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, H. T.

    2011-01-01

    We study the numerical solutions of ordinary differential equations by one-step methods where the solution at tn is known and that at t(sub n+1) is to be calculated. The approaches employed are collocation, continuous Galerkin (CG) and discontinuous Galerkin (DG). Relations among these three approaches are established. A quadrature formula using s evaluation points is employed for the Galerkin formulations. We show that with such a quadrature, the CG method is identical to the collocation method using quadrature points as collocation points. Furthermore, if the quadrature formula is the right Radau one (including t(sub n+1)), then the DG and CG methods also become identical, and they reduce to the Radau IIA collocation method. In addition, we present a generalization of DG that yields a method identical to CG and collocation with arbitrary collocation points. Thus, the collocation, CG, and generalized DG methods are equivalent, and the latter two methods can be formulated using the differential instead of integral equation. Finally, all schemes discussed can be cast as s-stage implicit Runge-Kutta methods.

  13. Space Transportation Engine Program (STEP), phase B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Space Transportation Engine Program (STEP) Phase 2 effort includes preliminary design and activities plan preparation that will allow smooth and time transition into a Prototype Phase and then into Phases 3, 4, and 5. A Concurrent Engineering approach using Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques, is being applied to define an oxygen-hydrogen engine. The baseline from Phase 1/1' studies was used as a point of departure for trade studies and analyses. Existing STME system models are being enhanced as more detailed module/component characteristics are determined. Preliminary designs for the open expander, closed expander, and gas generator cycles were prepared, and recommendations for cycle selection made at the Design Concept Review (DCR). As a result of July '90 DCR, and information subsequently supplied to the Technical Review Team, a gas generator cycle was selected. Results of the various Advanced Development Programs (ADP's) for the Advanced Launch Systems (ALS) were contributive to this effort. An active vehicle integration effort is supplying the NASA, Air Force, and vehicle contractors with engine parameters and data, and flowing down appropriate vehicle requirements. Engine design and analysis trade studies are being documented in a data base that was developed and is being used to organize information. To date, seventy four trade studies were input to the data base.

  14. Keeping Track Every Step of the Way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge Sharing Systems, Inc., a producer of intellectual assets management software systems for the federal government, universities, non-profit laboratories, and private companies, constructed and presently manages the NASA Technology Tracking System, also known as TechTracS. Under contract to Langley Research Center, TechTracS identifies and captures all NASA technologies, manages the patent prosecution process, and then tracks their progress en route to commercialization. The system supports all steps involved in various technology transfer activities, and is considered the premier intellectual asset management system used in the federal government today. NASA TechTracS consists of multiple relational databases and web servers, located at each of the 10 field centers, as well as NASA Headquarters. The system is capable of supporting the following functions: planning commercial technologies; commercialization activities; reporting new technologies and inventions; and processing and tracking intellectual property rights, licensing, partnerships, awards, and success stories. NASA TechTracS is critical to the Agency's ongoing mission to commercialize its revolutionary technologies in a variety of sectors within private industry, both aerospace and non- aerospace.

  15. Aging: Health Education's Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Bill C.

    The elderly have recently become a target of national concern. There are currently more than 22 million people 65 years of age or older in the United States, and this number is continually increasing. Health education must respond to the need for better understanding of the aging process and the aged by including information and materials designed…

  16. Aging and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayor's Office for Senior Citizens, Chicago, IL.

    The process of learning with respect to age is discussed. Learning may be defined as the acquisition of information or skills. Three non-cognitive factors varying with age are loss of speed, health, and motivation. Studies on learning in relation to age have not controlled for non-learning factors. Perceptual and psychomotor studies are not…

  17. [Aging and free radicals].

    PubMed

    Manso, C

    1992-02-01

    Several theories on aging are presented. All of them give important contributions but none explains all the aspects of the problem. Oxygen radicals produced during cellular combustion contribute to aging through multiple cumulative microlesions throughout life. The importance of glucose is emphasized; it forms early and late Maillard compounds. Other causes of aging are discussed. PMID:1595373

  18. English Education and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Candida

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that English teachers are in an excellent position to help students learn about the aged and aging because they know literature that treats the joys and pains of later life and they understand how language shapes and reflects cultural attitudes. Proposes objectives and presents samples of activities to be used in an aging unit. (MM)

  19. Focus on Aging.

    PubMed

    2016-06-14

    As a preview of the upcoming Cell Symposium on Aging and Metabolism in Sitges, Spain, July 10-12 (http://www.cell-symposia-aging-metabolism.com), several of our speakers and other leaders in the field share their stimulating viewpoints and theories on the complex topic of aging. PMID:27304491

  20. Resources for Aging Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaliere, Lorraine A.

    Following a short paper on the rationale for aging education at all levels, several resource lists cite curriculum materials and general references on aging. Aging education is defined to encompass educational programs at all levels aimed at helping students learn more about the nature and problems of growing old. Focus is on the elementary and…

  1. Physiological Aging and Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osness, Wayne

    This paper explores the nature of the aging process by providing an overview of the available evidence relating to the body systems that are most critical to biological function. Each system is treated separately to more clearly describe various aspects of the aging process and then integrated in a discussion of the theories of biological aging.…

  2. Exercise and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    In this presentation on exercise and aging, the following explanations are made: the nature of physical fitness, physical fitness values, the importance of recognizing individual differences, physiological changes occurring with age through the adult years, physical fitness studies pertaining to middle-aged persons, the trainability of older…

  3. The School Age Criminal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgenstern, Robert

    School age crime has increased a great deal in recent decades and a review of types of school age criminals may help school officials develop policies and programs to handle the problem. Both increased crime and improved news coverage have made the general public more concerned about school crime and school age criminals. A comparison of crime…

  4. Maturation of the Escherichia coli divisome occurs in two steps.

    PubMed

    Aarsman, Mirjam E G; Piette, André; Fraipont, Claudine; Vinkenvleugel, Thessa M F; Nguyen-Distèche, Martine; den Blaauwen, Tanneke

    2005-03-01

    Cell division proteins FtsZ (FtsA, ZipA, ZapA), FtsE/X, FtsK, FtsQ, FtsL/B, FtsW, PBP3, FtsN and AmiC localize at mid cell in Escherichia coli in an interdependent order as listed. To investigate whether this reflects a time dependent maturation of the divisome, the average cell age at which FtsZ, FtsQ, FtsW, PBP3 and FtsN arrive at their destination was determined by immuno- and GFP-fluorescence microscopy of steady state grown cells at a variety of growth rates. Consistently, a time delay of 14-21 min, depending on the growth rate, between Z-ring formation and the mid cell recruitment of proteins down stream of FtsK was found. We suggest a two-step model for bacterial division in which the Z-ring is involved in the switch from cylindrical to polar peptidoglycan synthesis, whereas the much later localizing cell division proteins are responsible for the modification of the envelope shape into that of two new poles. PMID:15752189

  5. Interstitial pericytes decrease in aged mouse kidneys.

    PubMed

    Stefanska, Ania; Eng, Diana; Kaverina, Natalya; Duffield, Jeremy S; Pippin, Jeffrey W; Rabinovitch, Peter; Shankland, Stuart J

    2015-06-01

    With increasing age, the kidney undergoes characteristic changes in the glomerular and tubulo-interstitial compartments, which are ultimately accompanied by reduced kidney function. Studies have shown age-related loss of peritubular vessels. Normal peritubular vessel tone, function and survival depend on neighboring pericytes. Pericyte detachment leads to vascular damage, which can be accompanied by their differentiation to fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, a state that favors matrix production. To better understand the fate of pericytes in the aged kidney, 27 month-old mice were studied. Compared to 3 month-old young adult mice, aged kidneys showed a substantial decrease in capillaries, identified by CD31 staining, in both cortex and medulla. This was accompanied by a marked decrease in surrounding NG2+ / PDGFRβ+ pericytes. This decrease was more pronounced in the medulla. Capillaries devoid of pericytes were typically dilated in aged mice. Aged kidneys were also characterized by interstitial fibrosis due to increased collagen-I and -III staining. This was accompanied by an increase in the number of pericytes that acquired a pro-fibrotic phenotype, identified by increased PDGFRβ+ / αSMA+ staining. These findings are consistent with the decline in kidney interstitial pericytes as a critical step in the development of changes to the peritubular vasculature with aging, and accompanying fibrosis. PMID:26081073

  6. Interstitial pericytes decrease in aged mouse kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Stefanska, Ania; Eng, Diana; Kaverina, Natalya; Duffield, Jeremy S.; Pippin, Jeffrey W.; Rabinovitch, Peter; Shankland, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    With increasing age, the kidney undergoes characteristic changes in the glomerular and tubulo-interstitial compartments, which are ultimately accompanied by reduced kidney function. Studies have shown age-related loss of peritubular vessels. Normal peritubular vessel tone, function and survival depend on neighboring pericytes. Pericyte detachment leads to vascular damage, which can be accompanied by their differentiation to fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, a state that favors matrix production. To better understand the fate of pericytes in the aged kidney, 27 month-old mice were studied. Compared to 3 month-old young adult mice, aged kidneys showed a substantial decrease in capillaries, identified by CD31 staining, in both cortex and medulla. This was accompanied by a marked decrease in surrounding NG2+/PDGFRß+ pericytes. This decrease was more pronounced in the medulla. Capillaries devoid of pericytes were typically dilated in aged mice. Aged kidneys were also characterized by interstitial fibrosis due to increased collagen-I and -III staining. This was accompanied by an increase in the number of pericytes that acquired a pro-fibrotic phenotype, identified by increased PDGFRß+/αSMA+ staining. These findings are consistent with the decline in kidney interstitial pericytes as a critical step in the development of changes to the peritubular vasculature with aging, and accompanying fibrosis. PMID:26081073

  7. Flow and forced-convection heat transfer over forward-facing double steps (effects of step ratio)

    SciTech Connect

    Shakouchi, Toshihiko; Kajino, Itsuki

    1994-07-01

    The flow and heat transfer over a step (a forward- or backward-facing step) result in complicated flow conditions, such as a shear flow field, flow separation, and generation of vortices, and provide some interesting information that improves understanding of the heat transfer on the surface. This is a very frequent flow, and basic to various kinds of chemical equipment, fluid machinery, combustion furnaces, and IC-packages. Recently, there have been many studies on this flow situation by numerical analysis, measurement of mean and fluctuating velocities within the separation bubble using laser Doppler anemometer, and heat transfer analysis. A flow passage having two steps in tiers (forward- or backward-facing double steps) is also frequent, and it is very important to clarify the effects of each step on the flow and the heat-transfer characteristics. This however, has not yet been investigated. This study presents the results of an experimental investigation on the flow and forced convective heat transfer over forward-facing single and double steps. Measurements of velocity and turbulence intensity, flow visualization, pressure distribution, and heat transfer over forward-facing double steps were carried out for various step ratios, L/a (L: step length, a: step height). From these results, the effects of the step ratio on the flow and heat-transfer characteristics were clarified and the following results were confirmed. Heat-transfer enhancement of a double step is considerable compared with that of a single step or a flat plate.

  8. Children's Difficulties with Two-Step Word Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quintero, Ana Helvia

    This study focused on analyzing children's difficulties with two-step mathematical word problems. Seventy-one fifth-grade children in Puerto Rico were individually observed solving five problems. Two of these were two-step problems; the remaining three were one-step problems with the same mathematical structures as the components of the two-step…

  9. 5 CFR 531.503 - Purpose of quality step increases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose of quality step increases. 531.503 Section 531.503 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Quality Step Increases § 531.503 Purpose of quality step increases....

  10. Steps toward Gaining Knowledge of World Music Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Katie

    2013-01-01

    This article presents steps toward gaining knowledge of world music pedagogy for K-12 general music educators. The majority of the article details steps that invite engagement within everyday contexts with accessible resources within local and online communities. The steps demonstrate ways general music teachers can diversify and self-direct their…

  11. A Four-Step Model for Teaching Selection Interviewing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleiman, Lawrence S.; Benek-Rivera, Joan

    2010-01-01

    The topic of selection interviewing lends itself well to experience-based teaching methods. Instructors often teach this topic by using a two-step process. The first step consists of lecturing students on the basic principles of effective interviewing. During the second step, students apply these principles by role-playing mock interviews with…

  12. 48 CFR 14.503-2 - Step two.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Step two. 14.503-2 Section 14.503-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Two-Step Sealed Bidding 14.503-2 Step two. (a) Sealed...

  13. 48 CFR 14.503-1 - Step one.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Step one. 14.503-1 Section... AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Two-Step Sealed Bidding 14.503-1 Step one. (a) Requests for... unacceptability. (10) A statement either that only one technical proposal may be submitted by each offeror or...

  14. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... Water and Waste Management finds to have unusually high costs of construction, the...

  15. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... Water and Waste Management finds to have unusually high costs of construction, the...

  16. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... Water and Waste Management finds to have unusually high costs of construction, the...

  17. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... Water and Waste Management finds to have unusually high costs of construction, the...

  18. Accuracy of Step Recording in Free-Living Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Timothy K.; Dinger, Mary K.; Vesely, Sara K.; Fields, David A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how accurately free-living adults record their pedometer steps on step logs. Researchers used three different methods to examine the accuracy of participant-recorded steps: tests of equivalence, correlation coefficients, and Bland-Altman plots. Findings indicate that participant-recorded steps…

  19. 49 CFR 38.79 - Floors, steps and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.79 Floors, steps and thresholds... have a band of color(s) running the full width of the step or threshold which contrasts from the step tread and riser or adjacent floor, either light-on-dark or dark-on-light....

  20. 49 CFR 38.79 - Floors, steps and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.79 Floors, steps and thresholds... have a band of color(s) running the full width of the step or threshold which contrasts from the step tread and riser or adjacent floor, either light-on-dark or dark-on-light....

  1. 49 CFR 38.79 - Floors, steps and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.79 Floors, steps and thresholds... have a band of color(s) running the full width of the step or threshold which contrasts from the step tread and riser or adjacent floor, either light-on-dark or dark-on-light....

  2. 49 CFR 38.79 - Floors, steps and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.79 Floors, steps and thresholds... have a band of color(s) running the full width of the step or threshold which contrasts from the step tread and riser or adjacent floor, either light-on-dark or dark-on-light....

  3. 49 CFR 38.79 - Floors, steps and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.79 Floors, steps and thresholds... have a band of color(s) running the full width of the step or threshold which contrasts from the step tread and riser or adjacent floor, either light-on-dark or dark-on-light....

  4. Detail, steps and walls, east corner, Burton Park Amphitheater, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, steps and walls, east corner, Burton Park Amphitheater, view to west (90mm lens). Open doorway to left of steps leads to stage wing area; steps lead to Club House grade level. - Burton Park, Club House & Amphitheater, Adjacent ot south end of Chestnut Avenue, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  5. Seven Steps for Preparing a Social Studies Fair Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCue, Lydia L.

    This student booklet outlines seven steps to aid elementary and secondary school students in participating in a social studies county fair. The first step is an understanding of the fair rules. Second, the student decides whether to work in a group or alone, after reading advantages and disadvantages of both approaches. Step three, choosing a…

  6. 36 CFR 1192.153 - Doors, steps and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Doors, steps and thresholds... Over-the-Road Buses and Systems § 1192.153 Doors, steps and thresholds. (a) Floor surfaces on aisles... contrasts from the step tread and riser, either dark-on-light or light-on-dark. (c)(1) Doors shall have...

  7. 49 CFR 38.25 - Doors, steps and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Doors, steps and thresholds. 38.25 Section 38.25... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.25 Doors, steps and thresholds. (a) Slip... from the step tread and riser, or lift or ramp surface, either light-on-dark or dark-on-light. (c)...

  8. 36 CFR 1192.25 - Doors, steps and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Doors, steps and thresholds... Buses, Vans and Systems § 1192.25 Doors, steps and thresholds. (a) Slip resistance. All aisles, steps... lift or ramp surface, either light-on-dark or dark-on-light. (c) Door height. For vehicles in excess...

  9. 49 CFR 38.25 - Doors, steps and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Doors, steps and thresholds. 38.25 Section 38.25... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.25 Doors, steps and thresholds. (a) Slip... from the step tread and riser, or lift or ramp surface, either light-on-dark or dark-on-light. (c)...

  10. 36 CFR 1192.25 - Doors, steps and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Doors, steps and thresholds... Buses, Vans and Systems § 1192.25 Doors, steps and thresholds. (a) Slip resistance. All aisles, steps... lift or ramp surface, either light-on-dark or dark-on-light. (c) Door height. For vehicles in excess...

  11. 36 CFR 1192.153 - Doors, steps and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Doors, steps and thresholds... Over-the-Road Buses and Systems § 1192.153 Doors, steps and thresholds. (a) Floor surfaces on aisles... contrasts from the step tread and riser, either dark-on-light or light-on-dark. (c)(1) Doors shall have...

  12. 49 CFR 38.25 - Doors, steps and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Doors, steps and thresholds. 38.25 Section 38.25... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.25 Doors, steps and thresholds. (a) Slip... from the step tread and riser, or lift or ramp surface, either light-on-dark or dark-on-light. (c)...

  13. 36 CFR 1192.153 - Doors, steps and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Doors, steps and thresholds... Over-the-Road Buses and Systems § 1192.153 Doors, steps and thresholds. (a) Floor surfaces on aisles... contrasts from the step tread and riser, either dark-on-light or light-on-dark. (c)(1) Doors shall have...

  14. 36 CFR 1192.25 - Doors, steps and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Doors, steps and thresholds... Buses, Vans and Systems § 1192.25 Doors, steps and thresholds. (a) Slip resistance. All aisles, steps... lift or ramp surface, either light-on-dark or dark-on-light. (c) Door height. For vehicles in excess...

  15. 49 CFR 38.25 - Doors, steps and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Doors, steps and thresholds. 38.25 Section 38.25... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.25 Doors, steps and thresholds. (a) Slip... from the step tread and riser, or lift or ramp surface, either light-on-dark or dark-on-light. (c)...

  16. 36 CFR 1192.153 - Doors, steps and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Doors, steps and thresholds... Over-the-Road Buses and Systems § 1192.153 Doors, steps and thresholds. (a) Floor surfaces on aisles... contrasts from the step tread and riser, either dark-on-light or light-on-dark. (c)(1) Doors shall have...

  17. The next steps in cervical screening.

    PubMed

    Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Qiao, You-lin; Keita, Namory

    2015-03-01

    Cervical cancer is fourth most common cancer among women with four-fifths of the global burden in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Persistent infection with one of the high-risk types of human papillomaviruses (HPV), particularly HPV 16/18, is the central cause of cervical neoplasia. Progress in developing feasible, alternative screening methods in LMICs and HPV vaccines have further improved cervical cancer prevention prospects. While existing screening programs in high-income countries should be re-organized, in view of the downstream effects of national HPV vaccination programs, LMICs should introduce national programs to vaccinate single year cohorts of girls aged 9-13 years with two or three doses and screen 30-35-year-old women with HPV testing to pragmatically decrease their high disease burden. PMID:25776294

  18. UV, stress and aging.

    PubMed

    Debacq-Chainiaux, Florence; Leduc, Cedric; Verbeke, Alix; Toussaint, Olivier

    2012-07-01

    Skin is a model of choice in studies on aging. Indeed, skin aging can be modulated by internal and external factors, reflecting its complexity. Two types of skin aging have been identified: intrinsic, mainly genetically determined and extrinsic-also called "photo-aging"-resulting on the impact of environmental stress and more precisely of UV rays. Simplified in vitro models, based on cellular senescence, have been developed to study the relationship between UV and aging. These models vary on the cell type (fibroblasts or keratinocytes, normal or immortalized) and the type of UV used (UVA or UVB). PMID:23467762

  19. Carcinogenesis and aging

    SciTech Connect

    Anisimov, V.N.; Petrov, N.N.

    1987-01-01

    This 2-voluem set discusses the problem of inter-relation between carcinogenesis and aging, and the phenomenon of age-related increase in cancer incidence in animals and humans. Covered topics include current concepts in mechanisms of carcinogenesis and aging; data on chemical, radiation, ultraviolet-light, hormonal and viral carcinogenesis in aging; data on the role of age-related shifts in the activity of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes; binding of carcinogens with macromolecules; DNA repair; tissue proliferation; and immunity and homono-metabolic patterns in realization of initiation and promotion of carcinogenesis.

  20. Can aging be 'drugged'?

    PubMed

    Riera, Celine E; Dillin, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    The engines that drive the complex process of aging are being identified by model-organism research, thereby providing potential targets and rationale for drug studies. Several studies of small molecules have already been completed in animal models with the hope of finding an elixir for aging, with a few compounds showing early promise. What lessons can we learn from drugs currently being tested, and which pitfalls can we avoid in our search for a therapeutic for aging? Finally, we must also ask whether an elixir for aging would be applicable to everyone, or whether we age differently, thus potentially shortening lifespan in some individuals. PMID:26646496

  1. Social and Emotional Aging

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Susan; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    The past several decades have witnessed unidimensional decline models of aging give way to life-span developmental models that consider how specific processes and strategies facilitate adaptive aging. In part, this shift was provoked by the stark contrast between findings that clearly demonstrate decreased biological, physiological, and cognitive capacity with those suggesting that people are generally satisfied in old age and experience relatively high levels of emotional well-being. In recent years, this supposed “paradox” of aging has been reconciled through careful theoretical analysis and empirical investigation. Viewing aging as adaptation sheds light on resilience, wellbeing, and emotional distress across adulthood. PMID:19575618

  2. Aging and Vision.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Marcel V

    2016-01-01

    Aging involves defined genetic, biochemical and cellular pathways that regulate lifespan. These pathways are called longevity pathways and they have relevance for many age-related diseases. In the eye, longevity pathways are involved in the major blinding diseases, cataract, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy. Pharmaceutical targeting of longevity pathways can extend healthy lifespan in laboratory model systems. This offers the possibility of therapeutic interventions to also delay onset or slow the progression of age-related eye diseases. I suggest that retinal degeneration may be viewed as accelerated aging of photoreceptors and that interventions extending healthy lifespan may also slow the pace of photoreceptor loss. PMID:26427437

  3. The Effect of the Abdominal Drawing-in Manoeuvre during Forward Steps

    PubMed Central

    Madokoro, Sachiko; Miaki, Hiroichi; Yamazaki, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] A decrease in hip extension has been reported to be a factor in short step width and slow walking speed. Hip motion is related to pelvic and spinal motion, and transversus abdominis (TrA) activation is important for stabilising the pelvis and spine. The abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre (ADIM) can be performed to activate the TrA. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the ADIM on forward steps as a gait exercise. [Subjects] The subjects were 20 healthy men (mean age, 20.8 ± 2.4 years). [Methods] Thicknesses of the lateral abdominal muscles during forward step posture with and without ADIM were measured using ultrasound, and kinematics of the hip and pelvis were examined using a three-dimensional motion capture system. [Results] Thicknesses of the TrA and internal oblique increased during forward steps with ADIM. In addition, hip extension increased and pelvic rotation and oblique angles decreased during forward step with ADIM. [Conclusion] We believe that ADIM activates the so-called corset muscles, which consequently stabilise the pelvis and spine and increase hip extension. Our results suggest that an ADIM could increase hip extension during gait exercise. PMID:25013290

  4. Aging on a different scale – chronological versus pathology-related aging

    PubMed Central

    Melis, Joost P.M.; Jonker, Martijs J.; Vijg, Jan; Hoeijmakers, Jan H.J.; Breit, Timo M.; van Steeg, Harry

    2013-01-01

    In the next decades the elderly population will increase dramatically, demanding appropriate solutions in health care and aging research focusing on healthy aging to prevent high burdens and costs in health care. For this, research targeting tissue-specific and individual aging is paramount to make the necessary progression in aging research. In a recently published study we have attempted to make a step interpreting aging data on chronological as well as pathological scale. For this, we sampled five major tissues at regular time intervals during the entire C57BL/6J murine lifespan from a controlled in vivo aging study, measured the whole transcriptome and incorporated temporal as well as physical health aspects into the analyses. In total, we used 18 different age-related pathological parameters and transcriptomic profiles of liver, kidney, spleen, lung and brain and created a database that can now be used for a broad systems biology approach. In our study, we focused on the dynamics of biological processes during chronological aging and the comparison between chronological and pathology-related aging. PMID:24131799

  5. The Discrete Wavelet Transform with Lifting : A Step by Step Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Elofson, C

    2004-08-26

    There is a great deal of information pertaining to wavelets readily available from various sources; several of the more recent sources describe the lifting technique for constructing wavelets. The tutorial paper by Sweldens and Schr{umlt o}der [1] gives a thorough explanation of the lifting approach for Haar bases. While it provides an excellent introduction to the topic, it is not immediately obvious how this approach is extended to nonuniformly spaced data on finite intervals. The present paper provides intermediate steps that supplement the material in [1]. After working through the following discussion, the reader should have no problem deriving the relevant equations presented in Sweldens and Schr{umlt o}der's article. Because of the abundance of information on the Haar basis, this discussion will instead work through the steps using a linear basis set.

  6. On aging and aged care in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Sevo, G; Davidovic, M; Erceg, P; Despotovic, N; Milosevic, D P; Tasic, M

    2015-06-01

    Serbia is a demographically old nation, with 17.4 % of its residents being aged 65 years and older in 2011. The previous two decades of turbulent history have significantly affected the demographic picture of this country, and their ramifications remain visible in Serbia's economic, political, cultural, and health spheres. Major demographic forces behind population aging in Serbia can be attributed to lower fertility rates, migrations, and declining mortality (reflecting improvements in overall health leading to a longer life expectancy). In Serbia, low fertility and migrations appear to play major roles, although the relative contribution of recent migrations cannot be measured with accuracy. Patterns of demographic aging vary considerably across different geographic, socioeconomic, and cultural settings. The common denominator throughout present day Serbia is extensive political and economic transition. One would expect that, given sufficient time, this process will result in improved population health, and yet, at this stage outcomes of major health care reform in Serbia are somewhat perplexing. For the second consecutive year, Serbia's health care system has been ranked at the very bottom of the scale among 34 European countries. It is then no surprise that the elderly represent particularly vulnerable population segment. This paper discusses some of the issues relevant to these demographic patterns of aging and aged care in contemporary Serbia, focusing on the period after 2000. PMID:25943380

  7. Establishing school day pedometer step count cut-points using ROC curves in low-income children.

    PubMed

    Burns, Ryan D; Brusseau, Timothy A; Fu, You; Hannon, James C

    2016-05-01

    Previous research has not established pedometer step count cut-points that discriminate children that meet school day physical activity recommendations using a tri-axial ActiGraph accelerometer criterion. The purpose of this study was to determine step count cut-points that associate with 30min of school day moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in school-aged children. Participants included 1053 school-aged children (mean age=8.4±1.8years) recruited from three low-income schools from the state of Utah in the U.S. Physical activity was assessed using Yamax DigiWalker CW600 pedometers and ActiGraph wGT3X-BT triaxial accelerometers that were concurrently worn during school hours. Data were collected at each school during the 2014-2015 school year. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine pedometer step count cut-points that associated with at least 30min of MVPA during school hours. Cut-points were determined using the maximum Youden's J statistic (J max). For the total sample, the area-under-the-curve (AUC) was 0.77 (p<0.001) with a pedometer cut-point of 5505 steps (J max=0.46, Sensitivity=63%, Specificity=84%; Accuracy=76%). Step counts showed greater diagnostic ability in girls (AUC=0.81, p<0.001; Cut-point=5306 steps; Accuracy=78.8%) compared to boys (AUC=0.72, p<0.01; Cut-point=5786 steps; Accuracy=71.4%). Pedometer step counts showed good diagnostic ability in girls and fair diagnostic ability in boys for discriminating children that met at least 30min of MVPA during school hours. PMID:26876627

  8. Evaluation of a newly developed media-supported 4-step approach for basic life support training

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective The quality of external chest compressions (ECC) is of primary importance within basic life support (BLS). Recent guidelines delineate the so-called 4“-step approach” for teaching practical skills within resuscitation training guided by a certified instructor. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a “media-supported 4-step approach” for BLS training leads to equal practical performance compared to the standard 4-step approach. Materials and methods After baseline testing, 220 laypersons were either trained using the widely accepted method for resuscitation training (4-step approach) or using a newly created “media-supported 4-step approach”, both of equal duration. In this approach, steps 1 and 2 were ensured via a standardised self-produced podcast, which included all of the information regarding the BLS algorithm and resuscitation skills. Participants were tested on manikins in the same mock cardiac arrest single-rescuer scenario prior to intervention, after one week and after six months with respect to ECC-performance, and participants were surveyed about the approach. Results Participants (age 23 ± 11, 69% female) reached comparable practical ECC performances in both groups, with no statistical difference. Even after six months, there was no difference detected in the quality of the initial assessment algorithm or delay concerning initiation of CPR. Overall, at least 99% of the intervention group (n = 99; mean 1.5 ± 0.8; 6-point Likert scale: 1 = completely agree, 6 = completely disagree) agreed that the video provided an adequate introduction to BLS skills. Conclusions The “media-supported 4-step approach” leads to comparable practical ECC-performance compared to standard teaching, even with respect to retention of skills. Therefore, this approach could be useful in special educational settings where, for example, instructors’ resources are sparse or large-group sessions have to be prepared. PMID

  9. A renal registry for Africa: first steps

    PubMed Central

    Davids, M. Razeen; Eastwood, John B.; Selwood, Neville H.; Arogundade, Fatiu A.; Ashuntantang, Gloria; Benghanem Gharbi, Mohammed; Jarraya, Faiçal; MacPhee, Iain A.M.; McCulloch, Mignon; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Swanepoel, Charles R.; Adu, Dwomoa

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of data on end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in Africa. Several national renal registries have been established but have not been sustainable because of resource limitations. The African Association of Nephrology (AFRAN) and the African Paediatric Nephrology Association (AFPNA) recognize the importance of good registry data and plan to establish an African Renal Registry. This article reviews the elements needed for a successful renal registry and gives an overview of renal registries in developed and developing countries, with the emphasis on Africa. It then discusses the proposed African Renal Registry and the first steps towards its implementation. A registry requires a clear purpose, and agreement on inclusion and exclusion criteria, the dataset and the data dictionary. Ethical issues, data ownership and access, the dissemination of findings and funding must all be considered. Well-documented processes should guide data collection and ensure data quality. The ERA-EDTA Registry is the world's oldest renal registry. In Africa, registry data have been published mainly by North African countries, starting with Egypt and Tunisia in 1975. However, in recent years no African country has regularly reported national registry data. A shared renal registry would provide participating countries with a reliable technology platform and a common data dictionary to facilitate joint analyses and comparisons. In March 2015, AFRAN organized a registry workshop for African nephrologists and then took the decision to establish, for the first time, an African Renal Registry. In conclusion, African nephrologists have decided to establish a continental renal registry. This initiative could make a substantial impact on the practice of nephrology and the provision of services for adults and children with ESRD in many African countries. PMID:26798479

  10. The magnesium chelation step in chlorophyll biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, J.

    1990-11-01

    In photosynthetic organisms, the biogenesis of energy transducing membranes requires the coordinate synthesis of prosthetic groups, proteins, and various lipids. Two of the major prosthetic groups, chlorophyll and heme, share a common biosynthetic pathway that diverges at the point of metal insertion into protoporphyrin IX (Proto). Insertion of iron leads to the formation of hemes, while insertion of magnesium is the first step unique to chlorophyll formation. This project is directed toward identifying the enzyme(s) responsible for magnesium chelation and elucidating the mechanism which regulates the flux of precursors through the branch point enzymes in isolated chloroplasts. Using intact chloroplasts from greening cucumber cotyledons, we have confirmed the ATP requirement for Mg-Proto formation. Use of non-hydrolyzable ATP analogs, uncouplers and ionophores has led to the conclusions that ATP hydrolysis is necessary, but that this hydrolysis is not linked to the requirement for membrane intactness by transmembrane ion gradients or electrical potentials. The enzyme(s) are flexible with respect to the porphyrin substrate specificity, accepting porphyrins with -vinyl, -ethyl, or -H substituents at the 2 and 4 positions. The activity increases approximately four-fold during greening. Possible physiological feedback inhibitors such as heme, protochlorophyllide, and chlorophyllide had no specific effect on the activity. The activity has now been assayed in barely, corn and peas, with the system from peas almost ten-fold more active than the cucumber system. Work is continuing in pea chloroplasts with the development of a continuous assay and investigation of the feasibility of characterizing an active, organelle-free preparation. 6 figs.

  11. Aging and Cancer Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Gravekamp, Claudia; Chandra, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    Cancer vaccination is less effective at old than at young age, due to T cell unresponsiveness. This is caused by age-related changes of the immune system. Major immune defects at older age are lack of naïve T cells, impaired activation pathways of T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APC), and age-related changes in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Also innate immune responses are affected by aging, but this seems less abundant than adaptive immune responses. In this review we compared various cancer vaccine studies at young and old age, demonstrating the importance of both innate and adaptive immune responses for cancer immunotherapy. Moreover, we found suggestive evidence that innate immune responses could help improve adaptive immune responses through cancer vaccination in old age. PMID:24579737

  12. Aging and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sanai, Shaik Ahmed; Saini, Vasu; Benedict, Ralph Hb; Zivadinov, Robert; Teter, Barbara E; Ramanathan, Murali; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca

    2016-05-01

    The life expectancy and average age of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) have increased significantly during the last two decades. The introduction of disease-modifying therapies and a better delineation and understanding of the superimposed comorbidities often diagnosed in MS patients are probably the most important factors accountable for the increase in aging MS population worldwide. Healthcare teams must therefore address the problems arising due to advancing age superimposed on this chronic neurologic disease. In this review, we focus on the physiology of aging, its effects on MS disease course, and the pathological and immunological changes associated with aging and disease progression. Additionally, we discuss the common comorbidities that occur in aging persons with MS that may arise either as a result of the aging process or from relentless chronic MS disease progression as well as the challenges on differentiating the two processes for a more appropriate therapeutic approach. PMID:26895718

  13. A step-by-step procedure for pH model construction in aquatic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, A. F.; Meysman, F. J. R.; Soetaert, K.; Middelburg, J. J.

    2007-10-01

    We present, by means of a simple example, a comprehensive step-by-step procedure to consistently derive a pH model of aquatic systems. As pH modeling is inherently complex, we make every step of the model generation process explicit, thus ensuring conceptual, mathematical, and chemical correctness. Summed quantities, such as total inorganic carbon and total alkalinity, and the influences of modeled processes on them are consistently derived. The model is subsequently reformulated until numerically and computationally simple dynamical solutions, like a variation of the operator splitting approach (OSA) and the direct substitution approach (DSA), are obtained. As several solution methods are pointed out, connections between previous pH modelling approaches are established. The final reformulation of the system according to the DSA allows for quantification of the influences of kinetic processes on the rate of change of proton concentration in models containing multiple biogeochemical processes. These influences are calculated including the effect of re-equilibration of the system due to a set of acid-base reactions in local equilibrium. This possibility of quantifying influences of modeled processes on the pH makes the end-product of the described model generation procedure a powerful tool for understanding the internal pH dynamics of aquatic systems.

  14. Step-by-step mark-up of medical guideline documents.

    PubMed

    Svátek, Vojtech; Růzicka, Marek

    2003-07-01

    Approaches to formalization of medical guidelines can be divided into model-centric and document-centric. While model-centric approaches dominate in the development of clinical decision support applications, document-centric, mark-up-based formalization is suitable for application tasks requiring the 'literal' content of the document to be transferred into the formal model. Examples of such tasks are logical verification of the document or compliance analysis of health records. The quality and efficiency of document-centric formalization can be improved using a decomposition of the whole process into several explicit steps. We present a methodology and software tool supporting the step-by-step formalization process. The knowledge elements can be marked up in the source text, refined to a tree structure with increasing level of detail, rearranged into an XML knowledge base, and, finally, exported into the operational representation. User-definable transformation rules enable to automate a large part of the process. The approach is being tested in the domain of cardiology. For parts of the WHO/ISH Guidelines for Hypertension, the process has been carried out through all the stages, to the form of executable application, generated automatically from the XML knowledge base. PMID:12909185

  15. Building the first step: a review of low-intensity interventions for stepped care

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Within the last 30 years, a substantial number of interventions for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have received empirical support. Nevertheless, fewer than 25% of individuals with alcohol-related problems access these interventions. If several intensive psychosocial treatments are relatively effective, but most individuals in need do not access them, it seems logical to place a priority on developing more engaging interventions. Accordingly, after briefly describing findings about barriers to help-seeking, we focus on identifying an array of innovative and effective low-intensity intervention strategies, including telephone, computer-based, and Internet-based interventions, that surmount these barriers and are suitable for use within a stepped-care model. We conclude that these interventions attract individuals who would otherwise not seek help, that they can benefit individuals who misuse alcohol and those with more severe AUDs, and that they can facilitate subsequent help-seeking when needed. We note that these types of low-intensity interventions are flexible and can be tailored to address many of the perceived barriers that hinder individuals with alcohol misuse or AUDs from obtaining timely help. We also describe key areas of further research, such as identifying the mechanisms that underlie stepped-care interventions and finding out how to structure these interventions to best initiate a program of stepped care. PMID:23227807

  16. Step- vs. kink-formation energies on Pt(111)

    SciTech Connect

    FEIBELMAN,PETER J.

    2000-05-01

    Ab-initio kink-formation energies are about 0.25 and 0.18 eV on the (100)- and (111)-microfacet steps of Pt(111), while the sum of the step-formation energies is 0.75 eV/atom. These results imply a specific ratio of formation energies for the two step types, namely 1.14, in excellent agreement with experiment. If kink-formation costs the same energy on the two step types, an inference recently drawn from scanning probe observations of step wandering, this ratio ought to be 1.

  17. Dissipating Step Bunches during Crystallization under Transport Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Hong; Yau, S.-T.; Vekilov, Peter, G.

    2003-01-01

    In studies of crystal formation by the generation and spreading of layers, equidistant step trains are considered unstable---bunches and other spatiotemporal patterns of the growth steps are viewed as ubiquitous. We provide an example to the opposite. We monitor the spatiotemporal dynamics of steps and the resulting step patterns during crystallization of the proteins ferritin and apoferritin using the atomic force microscope. The variations in step velocity and density are not correlated, indicating the lack of a long-range attraction between the steps. We show that (i) because of its coupling to bulk transport, nucleation of new layers is chaotic and occurs at the facet edges, where the interfacial supersaturation is higher; (ii) step bunches self-organize via the competition for supply from the solution; and, (iii) bunches of weakly interacting steps decay as they move along the face. Tests by numerical modeling support the conclusions about the mechanisms underlying our observations. The results from these systems suggest that during crystallization controlled by transport, with weakly or noninteracting growth steps, the stable kinetic state of the surface is an equidistant step train, and step bunches only arise during nucleation of new layers. Since nucleation only occurs at a few sites on the surface, the surface morphology may be controllably patterned or smoothened by locally controlling nucleation.

  18. Planning Manual for School-Age Child Care in New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainhart, Dolly

    This manual was designed to assist concerned individuals and organizations within communities in New Mexico to develop and plan effective school-age child care programs. Emphasized are the first steps in initiating and implementing school-age child care in a community. Chapter I discusses the need for school-age child care programs and the…

  19. Volume Diffusion Growth Kinetics and Step Geometry in Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazuruk, Konstantin; Ramachandran, Narayanan

    1998-01-01

    The role of step geometry in two-dimensional stationary volume diff4sion process used in crystal growth kinetics models is investigated. Three different interface shapes: a) a planar interface, b) an equidistant hemispherical bumps train tAx interface, and c) a train of right angled steps, are used in this comparative study. The ratio of the super-saturation to the diffusive flux at the step position is used as a control parameter. The value of this parameter can vary as much as 50% for different geometries. An approximate analytical formula is derived for the right angled steps geometry. In addition to the kinetic models, this formula can be utilized in macrostep growth models. Finally, numerical modeling of the diffusive and convective transport for equidistant steps is conducted. In particular, the role of fluid flow resulting from the advancement of steps and its contribution to the transport of species to the steps is investigated.

  20. Menopause accelerates biological aging.

    PubMed

    Levine, Morgan E; Lu, Ake T; Chen, Brian H; Hernandez, Dena G; Singleton, Andrew B; Ferrucci, Luigi; Bandinelli, Stefania; Salfati, Elias; Manson, JoAnn E; Quach, Austin; Kusters, Cynthia D J; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Teschendorff, Andrew E; Widschwendter, Martin; Ritz, Beate R; Absher, Devin; Assimes, Themistocles L; Horvath, Steve

    2016-08-16

    Although epigenetic processes have been linked to aging and disease in other systems, it is not yet known whether they relate to reproductive aging. Recently, we developed a highly accurate epigenetic biomarker of age (known as the "epigenetic clock"), which is based on DNA methylation levels. Here we carry out an epigenetic clock analysis of blood, saliva, and buccal epithelium using data from four large studies: the Women's Health Initiative (n = 1,864); Invecchiare nel Chianti (n = 200); Parkinson's disease, Environment, and Genes (n = 256); and the United Kingdom Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (n = 790). We find that increased epigenetic age acceleration in blood is significantly associated with earlier menopause (P = 0.00091), bilateral oophorectomy (P = 0.0018), and a longer time since menopause (P = 0.017). Conversely, epigenetic age acceleration in buccal epithelium and saliva do not relate to age at menopause; however, a higher epigenetic age in saliva is exhibited in women who undergo bilateral oophorectomy (P = 0.0079), while a lower epigenetic age in buccal epithelium was found for women who underwent menopausal hormone therapy (P = 0.00078). Using genetic data, we find evidence of coheritability between age at menopause and epigenetic age acceleration in blood. Using Mendelian randomization analysis, we find that two SNPs that are highly associated with age at menopause exhibit a significant association with epigenetic age acceleration. Overall, our Mendelian randomization approach and other lines of evidence suggest that menopause accelerates epigenetic aging of blood, but mechanistic studies will be needed to dissect cause-and-effect relationships further. PMID:27457926