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Sample records for aging united states

  1. Rural Ageing in the United States: Trends and Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasgow, Nina; Brown, David L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines rural population ageing in the United States with a particular focus on the contrasting contexts in which older rural residents live. We compare the characteristics of the older population by rural versus urban residence, and explore challenges and opportunities associated with the ageing of rural baby boomers. The United…

  2. Demographic and Socioeconomic Aspects of Aging in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Jacob S.; Davidson, Maria

    1984-01-01

    This report (a substantial revision of a report issued in May, 1976 and reprinted in January, 1978) brings together and analyzes data on selected topics related to the demographic and socioeconomic aspects of aging, and the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the older population in the United States. The data come from the 1980…

  3. Aging and the market in the United States.

    PubMed

    Frank, E

    2001-01-01

    Current Social Security reform proposals in the United States presume that, as long as the cash income of future retirees is secure, private businesses will take care of producing just the goods and services an aging population requires. However, the performance of private nursing homes, assisted-living complexes, pharmaceuticals, health, insurance, and transportation services for the elderly raises serious questions about the ability of markets to cater to the needs of a vulnerable population. Industries that specialize in goods and services for the old face repeated accusations of fraud, overcharging, poor service, and deceptive practices. The article reports on research on the performance of a number of industries that serve the aged. A careful look at these markets should caution us against relying too heavily on private markets to serve an aging population. The surplus funds flowing into Social Security might be better employed financing the kinds of public services for the elderly that private markets have so far failed to deliver. PMID:11271640

  4. Caring for Aging Chinese: Lessons Learned From the United States

    PubMed Central

    WAN, HONGWEI; YU, FANG; KOLANOWSKI, ANN

    2009-01-01

    After two birth peaks and the “one child per family” policy, China is facing unprecedented challenges with regard to its aging population. This article analyzes the problems associated with three traditional ways of caring for older Chinese, the current health care system, and social supports available to older Chinese. The “4-2-1” family structure and the “empty nest” undermine family support, the prevalence of chronic illnesses and lack of money reduce older adults’selfcare abilities, and insufficient care facilities threaten social support. Lessons learned from the United States show that community-based nursing models, nursing curriculum reforms with a gerontology focus, and reformed health care systems are pivotal for addressing China’s crisis. PMID:18239066

  5. Greater Perceived Age Discrimination in England than the United States: Results from HRS and ELSA

    PubMed Central

    Zaninotto, Paola; Steptoe, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined cross-national differences in perceptions of age discrimination in England and the United States. Under the premise that the United States has had age discrimination legislation in place for considerably longer than England, we hypothesized that perceptions of age discrimination would be lower in the United States. Methods. We analyzed data from two nationally representative studies of aging, the U.S. Health and Retirement Study (n = 4,818) and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (n = 7,478). Respondents aged 52 years and older who attributed any experiences of discrimination to their age were treated as cases of perceived age discrimination. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios of experiencing perceived age discrimination in relation to selected sociodemographic factors. Results. Perceptions of age discrimination were significantly higher in England than the United States, with 34.8% of men and women in England reporting age discrimination compared with 29.1% in the United States. Associations between perceived age discrimination and older age and lower levels of household wealth were observed in both countries, but we found differences between England and the United States in the relationship between perceived age discrimination and education. Discussion. Our study revealed that levels of perceived age discrimination are lower in the United States than England and are less socially patterned. This suggests that differing social and political circumstances in the two countries may have an important role to play. PMID:26224759

  6. Framing the issue of ageing and health care spending in Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States.

    PubMed

    Gusmano, Michael K; Allin, Sara

    2014-07-01

    Political debates about the affordability of health care programmes in high-income countries often point to population ageing as a threat to sustainability. Debates in the United States, in particular, highlight concerns about intergenerational equity, whereby spending on older people is perceived as a threat to spending on the young. This paper compares how the problem of health spending is defined in Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States by presenting the results of a content analysis of print media during the period 2005-2010. We found that population ageing was cited as an important source of health care cost increases in all three countries but was cited less frequently in Canadian newspapers than in the UK or US papers. Direct claims about intergenerational equity are infrequent among the articles we coded, but newspaper articles in the United States were more likely than those in Canada and the United Kingdom to claim that of high health care spending on older people takes resources away from younger people. In Canada a much larger percentage of articles in our sample either claimed that high health care spending is crowding out other types of government expenditure. Finally, we found that almost no articles in the United States challenged the view that population ageing causes health care spending, whereas in both Canada and the United Kingdom a small, but steady stream of articles challenged the idea that population ageing is to blame for health care spending increases. PMID:24759155

  7. Color Vision Deficiencies in Youths 12-17 Years of Age United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaby, David; Roberts, Jean

    The prevalence of color vision deficiencies among youths 12 to 17 years of age in the United States was evaluated during a 1966-1970 survey of 6,768 youths selected as representative of noninstitutionalized adolescents with respect to age, sex, race, geographic region, income, population size of place of residence, and rate of population change in…

  8. Learning Projects of the Active Aging Eighty-Five and Over Population in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, Keith; Schaefer, Chris

    Despite the fact that people in the United States are living longer, research on the learning projects of the population of individuals 85 years old or older remains sparse and sporadic. The literature that does exist debunks a number of common myths about aging and learning by establishing the following: adults aged 65 and over are a highly…

  9. Cultural Perspectives on Aging and Well-Being: A Comparison of Japan and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karasawa, Mayumi; Curhan, Katherine B.; Markus, Hazel Rose; Kitayama, Shinobu S.; Love, Gayle Dienberg; Radler, Barry T.; Ryff, Carol D.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated age differences in multiple aspects of psychological well-being among midlife and older adults in Japan (N = 482) and the United States (N = 3,032) to test the hypothesis that older Japanese adults would rate aspects of their well-being (personal growth, purpose in life, positive relations with others) more highly that…

  10. A snapshot of the age distribution of psychological well-being in the United States.

    PubMed

    Stone, Arthur A; Schwartz, Joseph E; Broderick, Joan E; Deaton, Angus

    2010-06-01

    Psychological well-being (WB) includes a person's overall appraisal of his or her life (Global WB) and affective state (Hedonic WB), and it is considered a key aspect of the health of individuals and groups. Several cross-sectional studies have documented a relation between Global WB and age. Little is known, however, about the age distribution of Hedonic WB. It may yield a different view of aging because it is less influenced by the cognitive reconstruction inherent in Global WB measures and because it includes both positive and negative components of WB. In this study we report on both Global and Hedonic WB assessed in a 2008 telephone survey of 340,847 people in the United States. Consistent with prior studies, Global WB and positive Hedonic WB generally had U-shaped age profiles showing increased WB after the age of 50 years. However, negative Hedonic WB variables showed distinctly different and stronger patterns: Stress and Anger steeply declined from the early 20s, Worry was elevated through middle age and then declined, and Sadness was essentially flat. Unlike a prior study, men and women had very similar age profiles of WB. Several measures that could plausibly covary with the age-WB association (e.g., having children at home) did not alter the age-WB patterns. Global and Hedonic WB measures appear to index different aspects of WB over the lifespan, and the postmidlife increase in WB, especially in Hedonic WB, deserves continued exploration. PMID:20479218

  11. Old-Age Disability and Wealth among Return Mexican Migrants from the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Rebeca; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Cesar

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the old-age consequences of international migration with a focus on disability and wealth from the perspective of the origin country. Methods Analysis sample includes persons aged 60+ from the Mexican Health and Aging Study, a national survey of older-adults in Mexico in 2001. Univariate methods are used to present a comparative profile of return migrants. Multivariate models are estimated for physical disability and wealth. Results Gender differences are profound. Return migrant women are more likely to be disabled while men are wealthier than comparable older adults in Mexico. Discussion Compared to current older adults, younger cohorts of Mexico-U.S. migrants increasingly include women, and more migrants seem likely to remain in the United States rather than return, thus more research will be needed on the old-age conditions of migrants in both countries. PMID:20876848

  12. Adult age differences in personality traits in the United States and the People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; McCrae, R R; Costa, P T

    1998-11-01

    Life experiences for corresponding age cohorts in the United States (US) and the People's Republic of China (PRC) have been dramatically different. If cohort effects account for cross-sectional age differences in mean levels of personality traits, different patterns of age differences should be seen in samples from the US and the PRC. The present study examined scores on scales from the California Psychological Inventory (CPI; Gough, 1987) in US (N = 348, age = 19-92 years) and PRC (N = 2,093, age = 18-67 years) samples. Very similar patterns of age correlations were seen. To compare results to other cross-cultural studies, CPI scales were interpreted in terms of the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality; an FFM Age-Relatedness Index based on American data accurately predicted CPI age correlations not only in the US but also in the PRC sample. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that there are universal intrinsic maturational changes in personality. PMID:9826970

  13. National and state vaccination coverage among adolescents aged 13-17 years--United States, 2012.

    PubMed

    2013-08-30

    At ages 11 through 12 years, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that preteens receive 1 dose of tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, 1 dose of meningococcal conjugate (MenACWY) vaccine, and 3 doses of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. ACIP recommends administration of all age-appropriate vaccines during a single visit. ACIP also recommends that pre-teens and older adolescents receive an annual influenza vaccine as well as any overdue vaccines (e.g., varicella). To monitor vaccination coverage among persons aged 13-17 years, CDC analyzed data from the National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen). This report highlights findings of that analysis. From 2011 to 2012, coverage increased for ≥1 Tdap vaccine dose (from 78.2% to 84.6%), ≥1 MenACWY vaccine dose (from 70.5% to 74.0%) and, among males, ≥1 HPV vaccine dose (from 8.3% to 20.8%). Among females, vaccination coverage estimates for each HPV vaccine series dose were similar in 2012 compared with 2011. Coverage varied substantially among states. Regarding Healthy People 2020 targets for adolescents, 36 states achieved targets for Tdap, 12 for MenACWY, and nine for varicella vaccine coverage. Large and increasing coverage differences between Tdap and other vaccines recommended for adolescents indicate that substantial missed opportunities remain for vaccinating teens, especially against HPV infection. Health-care providers should administer recommended HPV and meningococcal vaccinations to boys and girls during the same visits when Tdap vaccine is given. In addition, whether for health problems or well-checks, providers, parents, and adolescents should use every health-care visit as an opportunity to review adolescents' immunization histories and ensure that every adolescent is fully vaccinated. PMID:23985496

  14. Trimodal age-specific incidence patterns for Burkitt lymphoma in the United States, 1973-2005.

    PubMed

    Mbulaiteye, Sam M; Anderson, William F; Bhatia, Kishor; Rosenberg, Philip S; Linet, Martha S; Devesa, Susan S

    2010-04-01

    Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a unique B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma with 3 established clinical-epidemiological variants: endemic, sporadic and AIDS-related BL. BL variants show characteristic dysregulation of MYC gene, but the causes of MYC dysregulation or BL arising at different ages are poorly understood. Therefore, we examined population-based BL incidence patterns in the United States to determine age-related risk. BL case and population data were obtained from the NCI's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Databases (1973-2005). Standard cross-sectional age-standardized and age-specific incidence rates were stratified by sex and race and supplemented with age-period-cohort models. We analyzed 3,058 BL cases diagnosed during 1,160,300,297 person-years of observation. Age-standardized incidence rates rose 6.8% per year (95% CI 4.5-9.1) for males and 7.1% (95% CI 3.2-11.1) for females during the study period. The rate among males was 3.2 times that among females, and among Whites 1.3 times that among Blacks. Male-to-female incidence rate ratios did not differ by race, but were 4.2 for pediatric (0-19 years), 4.1 for adult (20-59 years) and 2.0 for geriatric (> or = 60 years) BL. Cross-sectional age-specific rates showed 2 separate peaks among males and females, near ages 10 and 75 years, and a 3rd peak near age 40 years among males. The tri/bimodal incidence pattern was present in sensitivity analyses excluding registries with many HIV/AIDS cases and in period-specific, cohort-specific analyses. To our knowledge, tri/bimodal incidence patterns have not previously been reported for BL. Trimodal/bimodal BL suggests heterogeneity in etiology or biology of BL diagnosed at different ages in males and females. PMID:19810101

  15. Cultural perspectives on aging and well-being: a comparison of Japan and the United States.

    PubMed

    Karasawa, Mayumi; Curhan, Katherine B; Markus, Hazel Rose; Kitayama, Shinobu S; Love, Gayle Dienberg; Radler, Barry T; Ryff, Carol D

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated age differences in multiple aspects of psychological well-being among midlife and older adults in Japan (N = 482) and the United States (N = 3,032) to test the hypothesis that older Japanese adults would rate aspects of their well-being (personal growth, purpose in life, positive relations with others) more highly that older U.S. adults. Partial support was found: older adults in Japan showed higher scores on personal growth compared to midlife adults, whereas the opposite age pattern was found in the United States. However, purpose in life showed lower scores for older adults in both cultural contexts. Interpersonal well-being, as hypothesized, was rated significantly higher, relative to the overall well-being, among Japanese compared to U.S. respondents, but only among younger adults. Women in both cultures showed higher interpersonal well-being, but also greater negative affect compared with men. Suggestions for future inquiries to advance understanding of aging and well-being in distinct cultural contexts are detailed. PMID:21922800

  16. Falls Among Persons Aged ≥65 Years With and Without Severe Vision Impairment - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Crews, John E; Chou, Chiu-Fung; Stevens, Judy A; Saaddine, Jinan B

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, an estimated 2.8 million persons aged ≥65 years in the United States reported severe vision impairment* defined as being blind or having severe difficulty seeing, even with eyeglasses. Good vision is important for maintaining balance as well as for identifying low-contrast hazards, estimating distances, and discerning spatial relationships. Conversely, having poor vision increases the risk for falls (1,2). Falls among older adults are common and can cause serious injuries, disabilities, and premature death (1,3). To date, no state-level investigations have examined the annual prevalence of falls among persons with and without severe vision impairment. CDC analyzed data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to estimate the state-specific annual prevalence of falls among persons aged ≥65 years with and without self-reported severe vision impairment. Overall, 46.7% of persons with, and 27.7% of older adults without, self-reported severe vision impairment reported having fallen during the previous year. The state-specific annual prevalence of falls among persons aged ≥65 years with severe vision impairment ranged from 30.8% (Hawaii) to 59.1% (California). In contrast, the prevalence of falls among persons aged ≥65 years without severe vision impairment ranged from 20.4% (Hawaii) to 32.4% (Alaska). Developing fall-prevention interventions intended for persons with severe vision impairment will help states manage the impact of vision impairment and falls on health care resources, and can inform state-specific fall prevention initiatives. PMID:27148832

  17. Age, growth and natural mortality of coney (Cephalopholis fulva) from the southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Jennifer C.; Carr, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Coney (Cephalopholis fulva) sampled from recreational and commercial vessels along the southeastern coast of the United States in 1998–2013 (n = 353) were aged by counting opaque bands on sectioned sagittal otoliths. Analysis of otolith edge type (opaque or translucent) revealed that annuli formed in January–June with a peak in April. Coney were aged up to 19 years, and the largest fish measured 430 mm in total length (TL). The weight-length relationship was ln(W) = 3.03 × ln(TL) − 18.05 (n = 487; coefficient of determination [r2] = 0.91), where W = whole weight in kilograms and and TL = total length in millimeters. Mean observed sizes at ages 1, 3, 5, 10, and 19 years were 225, 273, 307, 338, and 400 mm TL, respectively. The von Bertalanffy growth equation for coney was Lt = 377 (1 − e(−0.20(t+3.53))). Natural mortality (M) estimated by Hewitt and Hoenig’s longevity-based method which integrates all ages was 0.22. Age-specific M values, estimated with the method of Charnov and others, were 0.40, 0.30, 0.26, 0.22, and 0.20 for ages 1, 3, 5, 10, and 19, respectively. PMID:25802801

  18. Age, growth and natural mortality of coney (Cephalopholis fulva) from the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Burton, Michael L; Potts, Jennifer C; Carr, Daniel R

    2015-01-01

    Coney (Cephalopholis fulva) sampled from recreational and commercial vessels along the southeastern coast of the United States in 1998-2013 (n = 353) were aged by counting opaque bands on sectioned sagittal otoliths. Analysis of otolith edge type (opaque or translucent) revealed that annuli formed in January-June with a peak in April. Coney were aged up to 19 years, and the largest fish measured 430 mm in total length (TL). The weight-length relationship was ln(W) = 3.03 × ln(TL) - 18.05 (n = 487; coefficient of determination [r (2)] = 0.91), where W = whole weight in kilograms and and TL = total length in millimeters. Mean observed sizes at ages 1, 3, 5, 10, and 19 years were 225, 273, 307, 338, and 400 mm TL, respectively. The von Bertalanffy growth equation for coney was Lt = 377 (1 - e ((-0.20(t+3.53)))). Natural mortality (M) estimated by Hewitt and Hoenig's longevity-based method which integrates all ages was 0.22. Age-specific M values, estimated with the method of Charnov and others, were 0.40, 0.30, 0.26, 0.22, and 0.20 for ages 1, 3, 5, 10, and 19, respectively. PMID:25802801

  19. Homicide rates among persons aged 10-24 years - United States, 1981-2010.

    PubMed

    2013-07-12

    Homicide disproportionately affects persons aged 10-24 years in the United States and consistently ranks in the top three leading causes of death in this age group, resulting in approximately 4,800 deaths and an estimated $9 billion in lost productivity and medical costs in 2010. To investigate trends in homicide among persons aged 10-24 years for the period 1981-2010, CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System data on deaths caused by homicide of persons in this age group and examined trends by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and mechanism of injury. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that homicide rates varied substantially during the study period, with a sharp rise from 1985 to 1993 followed by a decline that has slowed since 1999. During the period 2000-2010, rates declined for all groups, although the decline was significantly slower for males compared with females and for blacks compared with Hispanics and persons of other racial/ethnic groups. By mechanism of injury, the decline for firearm homicides from 2000 to 2010 was significantly slower than for nonfirearm homicides. The homicide rate among persons aged 10-24 years in 2010 was 7.5 per 100,000, the lowest in the 30-year study period. Primary prevention strategies remain critical, particularly among groups at increased risk for homicide. PMID:23842443

  20. Healthy aging and preclinical dementia: the United States-Israel Longitudinal Database project.

    PubMed

    Khachaturian, Ara S; Chapman, Joab; Farrer, Lindsay; Friedland, Robert P; Ebstein, Richard; Grossman, Iris; Hendler, Talma; Hermann, Bruce; Inzelberg, Rivka; Johnson, Sterling; Khachaturian, Zaven S; Lichter-Shapira, Irit; Makeeva, Oksana; Mayrl, Robin; Mizrahi, Eli; Roses, Allen D; Sager, Mark; Fraifeld, Shifra

    2010-11-01

    This article proposes the establishment of a United States-Israel Longitudinal Database for Healthy Aging and Preclinical Dementia as a prototype model for the eventual creation of an international database. It is envisioned that such a comprehensive international database, as a shared research resource, will provide the foundation for a systems approach to solve the dual public health problems of: (1) Early detection of individuals at an elevated risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, and (2) Developing interventions to delay onset of, or prevent, chronic brain disorders later in life. PMID:21044777

  1. Lessons from history: Surviving old age during The Great Depression in the United States.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Sarah H; Dunkle, Ruth E

    2013-12-01

    This paper focuses on 30 couples who received a pension and other services from two private trusts in Detroit, Michigan beginning in 1929 or 1930. Results of the qualitative analysis of case files, which contain notes recorded chronologically for 17 of the couples and then surviving spouses, provide a portrait of older couples' lives prior to a partner's death, circumstances surrounding the death, and changes in the social support systems of widows and widowers until their deaths. Close examination of the experiences of these couples is a reminder of how old age and widowhood were experienced prior to the enactment of public pensions and health insurance in the United States. PMID:24300066

  2. Sexual and reproductive health of persons aged 10-24 years - United States, 2002-2007.

    PubMed

    Gavin, Lorrie; MacKay, Andrea P; Brown, Kathryn; Harrier, Sara; Ventura, Stephanie J; Kann, Laura; Rangel, Maria; Berman, Stuart; Dittus, Patricia; Liddon, Nicole; Markowitz, Lauri; Sternberg, Maya; Weinstock, Hillard; David-Ferdon, Corinne; Ryan, George

    2009-07-17

    This report presents data for 2002-2007 concerning the sexual and reproductive health of persons aged 10-24 years in the United States. Data were compiled from the National Vital Statistics System and multiple surveys and surveillance systems that monitor sexual and reproductive health outcomes into a single reference report that makes this information more easily accessible to policy makers, researchers, and program providers who are working to improve the reproductive health of young persons in the United States. The report addresses three primary topics: 1) current levels of risk behavior and health outcomes; 2) disparities by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and geographic residence; and 3) trends over time. The data presented in this report indicate that many young persons in the United States engage in sexual risk behavior and experience negative reproductive health outcomes. In 2004, approximately 745,000 pregnancies occurred among U.S. females aged <20 years. In 2006, approximately 22,000 adolescents and young adults aged 10-24 years in 33 states were living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), and approximately 1 million adolescents and young adults aged 10-24 years were reported to have chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis. One-quarter of females aged 15-19 years and 45% of those aged 20-24 years had evidence of infection with human papillomavirus during 2003-2004, and approximately 105,000 females aged 10--24 years visited a hospital emergency department (ED) for a nonfatal sexual assault injury during 2004-2006. Although risks tend to increase with age, persons in the youngest age group (youths aged 10--14 years) also are affected. For example, among persons aged 10-14 years, 16,000 females became pregnant in 2004, nearly 18,000 males and females were reported to have sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in 2006, and 27,500 females visited a hospital ED because of a nonfatal sexual assault injury during 2004

  3. Minimum Ages of Legal Access for Tobacco in the United States From 1863 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Apollonio, Dorie E; Glantz, Stanton A

    2016-07-01

    In the United States, state laws establish a minimum age of legal access (MLA) for most tobacco products at 18 years. We reviewed the history of these laws with internal tobacco industry documents and newspaper archives from 1860 to 2014. The laws appeared in the 1880s; by 1920, half of states had set MLAs of at least 21 years. After 1920, tobacco industry lobbying eroded them to between 16 and 18 years. By the 1980s, the tobacco industry viewed restoration of higher MLAs as a critical business threat. The industry's political advocacy reflects its assessment that recruiting youth smokers is critical to its survival. The increasing evidence on tobacco addiction suggests that restoring MLAs to 21 years would reduce smoking initiation and prevalence, particularly among those younger than 18 years. PMID:27196658

  4. Minimum Ages of Legal Access for Tobacco in the United States From 1863 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Apollonio, Dorie E.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, state laws establish a minimum age of legal access (MLA) for most tobacco products at 18 years. We reviewed the history of these laws with internal tobacco industry documents and newspaper archives from 1860 to 2014. The laws appeared in the 1880s; by 1920, half of states had set MLAs of at least 21 years. After 1920, tobacco industry lobbying eroded them to between 16 and 18 years. By the 1980s, the tobacco industry viewed restoration of higher MLAs as a critical business threat. The industry’s political advocacy reflects its assessment that recruiting youth smokers is critical to its survival. The increasing evidence on tobacco addiction suggests that restoring MLAs to 21 years would reduce smoking initiation and prevalence, particularly among those younger than 18 years. PMID:27196658

  5. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccination among women of childbearing age-United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Alissa C; Lu, Peng-Jun; Williams, Walter W; Ding, Helen; Meyer, Sarah A

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of pertussis in the United States has increased since the 1990s. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of pregnant women provides passive protection to infants. Tdap vaccination is currently recommended for pregnant women during each pregnancy, but coverage among pregnant women and women of childbearing age has been suboptimal. Data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to determine national and state-specific Tdap vaccination coverage among women of childbearing age by self-reported pregnancy status at the time of the survey. Although this study could not assess coverage of Tdap vaccination received during pregnancy because questions on whether Tdap vaccination was received during pregnancy were not asked in BRFSS and NHIS, demographic and access-to-care factors associated with Tdap vaccination coverage in this population were assessed. Tdap vaccination coverage among all women 18-44 years old was 38.4% based on the BRFSS and 23.3% based on the NHIS. Overall, coverage did not differ by pregnancy status at the time of the survey. Coverage among all women 18-44 years old varied widely by state. Age, race and ethnicity, education, number of children in the household, and access-to-care characteristics were independently associated with Tdap vaccination in both surveys. We identified associations of demographic and access-to-care characteristics with Tdap vaccination that can guide strategies to improve vaccination rates in women during pregnancy. PMID:27372388

  6. Age at natural menopause in Spain and the United States: results from the DAMES project.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Robert F; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf

    2005-01-01

    Our research was undertaken to determine the median age of natural menopause and correlates of the timing of menopause in Spain and the United States (U.S.). A population-based sample of 300 women from Madrid, Spain and a random sample of 293 women from Fallon Community Health plan (FCHP), a health maintenance organization (HMO) in central Massachusetts, were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Logit analysis and logistic regression were used to estimate the median age at menopause and identify factors associated with it. The median age of natural menopause in Spain is estimated at 51.7 years, and in the U.S., it is 52.6 years. In Spain, women with any children (OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.25, 1.36) and a lower body mass index (BMI) (OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.27, 0.78) had later ages at menopause while current smokers (OR = 5.51, 95% CI: 1.82, 16.7) had earlier ages of menopause in a multivariate model. A multiplicative interaction between smoking status and parity was identified, and an interaction term included in the multivariate model (OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.35, 0.94). In the U.S., household income, marital status, and education level were statistically associated with age at natural menopause in bivariate models. These factors were no longer statistically significant after adjustments in a multivariate model. Oral contraceptive use, cycle length, and cycle regularity were not statistically associated with the age of menopause in either country. The ages of natural menopause in Spain and the U.S. are comparable to other industrialized nations. The factors associated with the timing of natural menopause, in particular smoking and BMI, are consistent with those identified in previous studies. PMID:15849704

  7. Social Service and Aging Policies: Taiwan, Hong Kong, and the United States. Proceedings (Taipei, Taiwan, May 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Harold L., Ed.

    This document contains presentations on the state of social services and care for the aging in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and the United States given at the 1986 International Conference on Social Service and Aging Policies. Included are a conference statement by T. H. Li, remarks by Shui-teh Hsu, the major of Taipei, and these presentations: (1) "The…

  8. Age, growth, and natural mortality of yellowfin grouper (Mycteroperca venenosa) from the southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Jennifer C.; Carr, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Ages of yellowfin grouper (n = 306) from the southeastern United States coast from 1979–2014 were determined using sectioned sagittal otoliths. Opaque zones were annular, forming January–June (peaking in February–March). Yellowfin grouper ranged in age from 3 to 31 years; the largest fish measured 1,000 mm fork length (FL). Body size relationships for yellowfin grouper were: W = 1.22 × 10−5 FL3.03 (n = 229, r2 = 0.92); TL = 1.06 FL − 14.53 (n = 60, r2 = 0.99); and FL = 0.93 TL + 18.63 (n = 60, r2 = 0.99), where W = whole weight in grams, FL in mm, and TL = total length in mm. The von Bertalanffy growth equation was: Lt = 958 (1 − e−0.11(t+2.94)) (n = 306). The point estimate of natural mortality for yellowfin grouper was M = 0.14, while age-specific estimates of M ranged from 1.59 to 0.17 for ages 1–31. PMID:26244111

  9. The health of male veterans and nonveterans aged 25-64: United States, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Kramarow, Ellen A; Pastor, Patricia N

    2012-08-01

    The well-being of military personnel and their families is a topic of growing concern in public health. The effects of military service on physical and psychological health, especially after extended overseas deployments, are complex. There may also be long-term consequences of military service for the health and health care utilization of veterans as they age (1). Today, over 12 million men aged 25-64 in the United States are veterans, representing 15% of the total U.S. male population at those ages (2). More attention is now being paid to gathering accurate data to help veterans readjust to civilian life (3). Many studies of veterans only use information from military or veteran databases, which limits the ability to make comparisons with the overall population. This report uses data from the 2007-2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to describe the health status of community-dwelling male veterans aged 25-64. It directly compares the health status of veterans with nonveterans on a variety of measures. PMID:23101789

  10. Alcohol consumption by aging adults in the United States: health benefits and detriments.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Maria Pontes; Weems, M K Suzy

    2008-10-01

    The most rapidly growing segment of the US population is that of older adults (> or =65 years). Trends of aging adults (those aged > or =50 years) show that fewer women than men consume alcohol, women consume less alcohol than men, and total alcohol intake decreases after retirement. A U- or J-shaped relationship between alcohol intake and mortality exists among middle-aged (age 45 to 65 years) and older adults. Thus, alcohol can be considered either a tonic or a toxin in dose-dependent fashion. Active areas of research regarding the possible benefits of moderate alcohol consumption among aging individuals include oxidative stress, dementia, psychosocial functioning, dietary contributions, and disease prevention. Yet, due to the rising absolute number of older adults, there may be a silent epidemic of alcohol abuse in this group. Dietary effects of moderate and excessive alcohol consumption are reviewed along with mechanisms by which alcohol or phytochemicals modify physiology, mortality, and disease burden. Alcohol pharmacokinetics is considered alongside age-related sensitivities to alcohol, drug interactions, and disease-related physiological changes. International guidelines for alcohol consumption are reviewed and reveal that many nations lack guidelines specific to older adults. A review of national guidelines for alcohol consumption specific to older adults (eg, those offered by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse) suggests that they may be too restrictive, given the current literature. There is need for greater quantification and qualification of per capita consumption, consumption patterns (quantity, frequency, and stratified combinations), and types of alcohol consumed by older adults in the United States. PMID:18926132

  11. Pedestrian and Pedalcyclist Injury Costs in the United States by Age and Injury Severity

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Ted R.; Zaloshnja, Eduard; Lawrence, Bruce A.; Crandall, Jeff; Ivarsson, Johan; Finkelstein, A. Eric

    2004-01-01

    This paper estimates the incidence, unit costs, and annual costs of pedestrian and pedalcycle crash injuries in the United States. It includes medical care costs, household and wage work losses, and the value of pain, suffering, and lost quality of life. The estimates are broken down by body region and severity. They rely heavily on data from the health care system. Costs of pedestrian and pedalcycle injuries in 2000 will total $40 billion over the lifetimes of the injured. Most pedalcyclist injury costs and half of pedestrian injury costs do not involve motor vehicles. Youth ages 5–14 face greater annual risks when walking or driving their own pedaled vehicles than when being driven. Children under age 5 experience higher costs than their elders when injured as pedestrians. Our results suggest European and Japanese component tests used to design pedestrian injury countermeasures for motor vehicles are too narrow. Separate lower limb testing is needed for younger children. Testing for torso/vertebral column injury of adults also seems desirable. PMID:15319130

  12. Nonfatal bathroom injuries among persons aged ≥15 years--United States, 2008.

    PubMed

    2011-06-10

    In 2008, approximately 21.8 million persons aged ≥15 years sustained nonfatal, unintentional injuries, resulting in approximately $67.3 billion in lifetime medical costs. Information about where injuries occur is limited, but bathrooms commonly are believed to be a particularly hazardous location. To investigate this assumption, CDC analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of emergency departments (EDs) to describe the incidence and circumstances of nonfatal injuries in bathrooms (in any setting) among persons aged ≥15 years in the United States. This report describes the results of that investigation, which found that, based on 3,339 cases documented in the 2008 National Electronic Surveillance System All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP) database, an estimated 234,094 nonfatal bathroom injuries were treated in U.S. EDs. Injury rates increased with age, and most injuries (81.1%) were caused by falls. All persons, but especially older adults, should be aware of bathroom activities that are associated with a high risk for injury and of environmental modifications that might reduce that risk. PMID:21659980

  13. United States.

    PubMed

    Birmingham, Karen

    2008-10-01

    The 'Green House' effect; the rise of community care; and suicide awareness Baltimore: When he took a parttime job in a nursing home, Harvard-trained physician Bill Thomas realised that the biggest problems residents faced were not their illnesses but 'loneliness, helplessness and boredom'. He went on to found the Eden Alternative, 'a movement to de-institutionalise nursing homes', and has since revolutionised older people's residential care around Baltimore, replacing nursing homes with clusters of small homes, each for up to ten residents. Called 'Green Houses', Dr Thomas now has a $10 million (£5.6 million) grant to replace more than 100 nursing homes in all 50 US states with these small dwellings. Last month he began teaching an experimental class at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County's Erickson School on Aging, Management and Policy: 'Aging 100: You Say You Want a Revolution'. Classes will be broadcast on YouTube. PMID:27316081

  14. National, Regional, State, and Selected Local Area Vaccination Coverage Among Adolescents Aged 13-17 Years - United States, 2015.

    PubMed

    Reagan-Steiner, Sarah; Yankey, David; Jeyarajah, Jenny; Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Curtis, C Robinette; MacNeil, Jessica; Markowitz, Lauri E; Singleton, James A

    2016-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that adolescents aged 11-12 years routinely receive vaccines to prevent diseases, including human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers, pertussis, and meningococcal disease (1). To assess vaccination coverage among adolescents in the United States, CDC analyzed data collected regarding 21,875 adolescents through the 2015 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen).* During 2014-2015, coverage among adolescents aged 13-17 years increased for each HPV vaccine dose among males, including ≥1 HPV vaccine dose (from 41.7% to 49.8%), and increased modestly for ≥1 HPV vaccine dose among females (from 60.0% to 62.8%) and ≥1 quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY) dose (from 79.3% to 81.3%). Coverage with ≥1 HPV vaccine dose was higher among adolescents living in households below the poverty level, compared with adolescents in households at or above the poverty level.(†) HPV vaccination coverage (≥1, ≥2, or ≥3 doses) increased in 28 states/local areas among males and in seven states among females. Despite limited progress, HPV vaccination coverage remained lower than MenACWY and tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) coverage, indicating continued missed opportunities for HPV-associated cancer prevention. PMID:27561081

  15. Determinants of Anemia among School-Aged Children in Mexico, the United States and Colombia.

    PubMed

    Syed, Sana; Addo, O Yaw; De la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa; Ashour, Fayrouz A Sakr; Ziegler, Thomas R; Suchdev, Parminder S

    2016-01-01

    Anemia affects approximately 25% of school-aged children (SAC-aged 5.00-14.99 years) globally. We determined in three countries the prevalence and determinants of anemia in SAC. Data on sociodemographics, inflammation and nutrition status were obtained from the 2006 Mexican National Nutrition Survey, the 2003-6 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, and the 2010 Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición Situación Colombia. In the US, vitamin A and iron deficiency (ID) were available only for girls aged 12.00-14.99 years to which our analysis was limited. Associations were evaluated by country using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for confounders and complex survey design. The prevalence of anemia and ID were: Mexico 12% (ID 18%), n = 3660; US 4% (ID 10%), n = 733; and Colombia 4% (ID 9%), n = 8573. The percentage of anemia associated with ID was 22.4% in Mexico, 38.9% in the US and 16.7% in Colombia. In Mexico, anemia was associated with ID (adjusted OR: 1.5, p = 0.02) and overweight (aOR 0.4, p = 0.007). In the US, anemia was associated with black race/ethnicity (aOR: 14.1, p < 0.0001) and ID (aOR: 8.0, p < 0.0001). In Colombia, anemia was associated with black race/ethnicity (aOR: 1.6, p = 0.005), lowest socio-economic status quintile (aOR: 1.8, p = 0.0005), ID (aOR: 2.7, p < 0.0001), and being stunted (aOR: 1.6, p = 0.02). While anemia was uniformly associated with iron deficiency in Mexico, Columbia, and the United States, other measured factors showed inconsistent associations with anemia. Additional data on anemia determinants in SAC are needed to guide interventions. PMID:27347992

  16. Circumstances and Contributing Causes of Fall Deaths among Persons Aged 65 and Older: United States, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Judy A.; Rudd, Rose A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine whether the increasing fall death rate among people aged 65 and older is due in part to temporal changes in recording the underlying cause of death. DESIGN Analyses of multiple cause of death data using the online Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-ranging ON-line Data for Epidemiologic Research system, which uses the National Center for Health Statistics’ Multiple Cause of Death data set. SETTING United States, 1999 to 2010. PARTICIPANTS People aged 65 and older with a fall listed on their death record as the underlying or a contributing cause of death. MEASUREMENTS Circumstances and contributing causes off all deaths—records listing International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, codes W00 to W19 as the underlying cause of death—and underlying causes for records with falls as a contributing cause were examined. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to assess trends in the proportion of fall and fall-associated deaths to total deaths for 1999 to 2010. RESULTS In 2010, there were 21,649 fall deaths and 5,402 fall-associated deaths among people aged 65 and older; 48.7% of fall deaths involved a head injury. Approximately half the fall death records included diseases of the circulatory system as contributing causes. From 1999 to 2010, there was a trend toward more-specific reporting of falls circumstances, although total deaths remained unchanged. The proportion of fall deaths to total deaths increased 114.3%, and that of fall-associated deaths to total deaths increased 43.1%. CONCLUSION The reasons behind the increasing older adult fall death rate deserve further investigation. Possible contributing factors include changing trends in underlying chronic diseases and better reporting of falls as the underlying cause of death. PMID:24617970

  17. Determinants of Anemia among School-Aged Children in Mexico, the United States and Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Sana; Addo, O. Yaw; De la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa; Ashour, Fayrouz A. Sakr; Ziegler, Thomas R.; Suchdev, Parminder S.

    2016-01-01

    Anemia affects approximately 25% of school-aged children (SAC—aged 5.00–14.99 years) globally. We determined in three countries the prevalence and determinants of anemia in SAC. Data on sociodemographics, inflammation and nutrition status were obtained from the 2006 Mexican National Nutrition Survey, the 2003-6 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, and the 2010 Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición Situación Colombia. In the US, vitamin A and iron deficiency (ID) were available only for girls aged 12.00–14.99 years to which our analysis was limited. Associations were evaluated by country using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for confounders and complex survey design. The prevalence of anemia and ID were: Mexico 12% (ID 18%), n = 3660; US 4% (ID 10%), n = 733; and Colombia 4% (ID 9%), n = 8573. The percentage of anemia associated with ID was 22.4% in Mexico, 38.9% in the US and 16.7% in Colombia. In Mexico, anemia was associated with ID (adjusted OR: 1.5, p = 0.02) and overweight (aOR 0.4, p = 0.007). In the US, anemia was associated with black race/ethnicity (aOR: 14.1, p < 0.0001) and ID (aOR: 8.0, p < 0.0001). In Colombia, anemia was associated with black race/ethnicity (aOR: 1.6, p = 0.005), lowest socio-economic status quintile (aOR: 1.8, p = 0.0005), ID (aOR: 2.7, p < 0.0001), and being stunted (aOR: 1.6, p = 0.02). While anemia was uniformly associated with iron deficiency in Mexico, Columbia, and the United States, other measured factors showed inconsistent associations with anemia. Additional data on anemia determinants in SAC are needed to guide interventions. PMID:27347992

  18. Alcohol use and binge drinking among women of childbearing age - United States, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cheryl H; Denny, Clark H; Cheal, Nancy E; Sniezek, Joseph E; Kanny, Dafna

    2015-09-25

    Excessive alcohol use is risk factor for a wide range of health and social problems including liver cirrhosis, certain cancers, depression, motor vehicle crashes, and violence. Alcohol use during pregnancy can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) and other adverse birth outcomes . Community studies estimate that as many as 2% to 5% of first grade students in the United States might have an FASD, which include physical, behavioral, or learning impairments. In 2005, the Surgeon General reissued an advisory urging women who are or might be pregnant to abstain from alcohol consumption to eliminate the risk for FASDs or other negative birth outcomes. To estimate current prevalences of any alcohol use and binge drinking (consuming four or more drinks on an occasion) among pregnant and nonpregnant women aged 18-44 years in the United States, CDC analyzed 2011-2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data. Among pregnant women, the prevalences of any alcohol use and binge drinking in the past 30 days were 10.2% and 3.1%, respectively. Among nonpregnant women, the prevalences of any alcohol use and binge drinking in the past 30 days were 53.6% and 18.2%, respectively. Among binge drinkers, pregnant women reported a significantly higher frequency of binge drinking than nonpregnant women (4.6 and 3.1 episodes, respectively); the largest amount consumed during binge drinking was also higher among pregnant women than nonpregnant women (7.5 versus 6.0 drinks), although this difference was not statistically significant. Implementation of evidence-based clinical and community-level strategies would be expected to reduce binge drinking among pregnant women and women of childbearing age, and any alcohol consumption among women who are or might be pregnant. Healthcare professionals can support these efforts by implementing alcohol screening and brief interventions in their primary care practices, and informing women that there is no known safe level of

  19. Age, Period, and Cohort Effects in Psychological Distress in the United States and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Nicholson, Ryan; Kinley, Jolene; Raposo, Sarah; Stein, Murray B.; Goldner, Elliot M.; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-01-01

    Although treatment utilization for depression and anxiety symptoms has increased substantially in the United States and elsewhere, it remains unclear whether the underlying population distribution of psychological distress is changing over time. We estimated age, period, and cohort effects using data from 2 countries over more than 20 years, including National Health Interview Surveys from 1997 to 2010 (n = 447,058) and Canadian Community Health Surveys from 2000 to 2007 (n = 125,306). Psychological distress was measured with the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. By period, both countries showed the highest levels of psychological distress in 2001 and the lowest levels in 2007. By age, psychological distress was highest in adolescence and during the late 40s and early 50s. By cohort, Canadian Community Health Survey results indicated a decreasing cohort effect among those born in 1922–1925 through 1935–1939 (β = −0.36, 95% confidence interval: −0.45, −0.27) and then a continuously increasing cohort effect during the remainder of the 20th century through 1989–1992 (β = 0.49, 95% confidence interval: 0.38, 0.61). The National Health Interview Survey data captured earlier-born cohorts and indicated an increased cohort effect for the earliest born (for 1912–1914, β = 0.44, 95% confidence interval: 0.26, 0.61). In sum, individuals in the oldest and more recently born birth cohorts have higher mean psychological distress symptoms compared with those born in midcentury, underscoring the importance of a broad, population-level lens for conceptualizing mental health. PMID:24692432

  20. Use of vitamins containing folic acid among women of childbearing age--United States, 2004.

    PubMed

    2004-09-17

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are serious birth defects of the spine (spina bifida) and brain (anencephaly), affecting approximately 3,000 pregnancies each year in the United States. Periconceptional consumption of the B vitamin folic acid reduces the occurrence of NTDs by 50%-70%. To prevent these defects, the U.S. Public Health Service (1992) and Institute of Medicine (1998) issued separate recommendations that all women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 micro g of folic acid daily, and the Food and Drug Administration mandated fortification of cereal grain products with folic acid to increase women's daily intake. Fortification of the U.S. food supply with folic acid has resulted in a 26% reduction in NTDs. However, even with fortification, not all women receive adequate levels of folic acid from their diets. Therefore, increasing the use of vitamins containing folic acid remains an important component of NTD prevention. To monitor the use of vitamins containing folic acid among women of childbearing age, the Gallup Organization has conducted a series of surveys for the March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation since 1995. This report presents results from the 2004 survey, which indicated that although no substantial increase in the proportion of women who use vitamins containing folic acid daily occurred during 1995-2003, a substantial increase was observed in 2004, with 40% of women aged 18-45 years reporting daily consumption of a vitamin containing folic acid. This report also presents information about women's dieting behaviors. Regardless of dieting status, public health programs should stress the importance of women in their childbearing years consuming 400 micro g of folic acid daily through supplements, fortified foods, and a diet containing folate-rich foods. PMID:15371968

  1. Revised age of the Rockland tephra, northern California: Implications for climate and stratigraphic reconstructions in the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanphere, M.A.; Champion, D.E.; Clynne, M.A.; Muffler, L.J.P.

    1999-01-01

    The Rockland tephra is an important stratigraphic marker for climate and stratigraphic reconstructions over a broad area of the western United States. New 40Ar/39Ar ages are as much as 200 k.y. older than previous cogenetic zircon fission-track ages, which range from 400 to 560 ka. Incremental-heating 40Ar/39Ar analyses on two splits of plagioclase from a proximal ash flow of the Rockland tephra in the Lassen Peak area, California, yield an average age-spectrum-plateau age of 614 ?? 8 ka and an isochron age of 611 ?? 11 ka. Our new age for the Rockland tephra is compatible with an 40Ar/39Ar analysis of plagioclase from the basaltic andesite of Hootman Ranch that directly overlies the Rockland tephra. A plateau age of 565 ?? 29 ka, an isochron age of 572 ?? 39 ka, and transitional directions of remanent magnetization suggest an age for the basaltic andesite of Hootman Ranch as ca. 570 ka. Correlation of the Rockland tephra with its suspected distal ash in sedimentary sections at widely scattered localities has made the ash an extremely valuable stratigraphic tool. Our new age for the Rockland tephra requires significant revision of many recent climate-based analyses in the western United States. In particular, the best ages for the Rockland tephra (614 ka) and the Lava Creek B ash (660 ka) and their association with oxygen isotopic stages 16 and 15 will allow enhanced understanding of mid-Pleistocene pluvial and interpluvial events in the western United States.

  2. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and obesity in adolescents aged 12 to 19 years: Comparison between the United States and Korea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), its risk factors, and obesity in adolescents in the United States (US) and Korea. Data were obtained from the 2003-2004 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), and 2005 Korea NHANES for adolescents aged 12-19 yr i...

  3. Experiences of aging among immigrants from India to the United States: social work practice in a global context.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Gauri; Shibusawa, Tazuko

    2009-07-01

    The aging of immigrants is a critical component in the health dynamics of the nation's aging population. To date, few studies have addressed within-group diversity and linked contemporary contexts of global connectedness with the aging experiences of older immigrants. This study aims to conceptually understand the diversity in aging dynamics within a specific immigrant group: Indian immigrants in New York City. The impact of globalization and transnational connection on aging experiences on 2 within groups-Indians who came to the United States at age of 65 or older (LLIs) and those who came at an early age (ELIs) are analyzed. Implications for social work practice, research and policy are discussed. PMID:19585322

  4. Emotional Expression and Control in School-Age Children in India and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Stephanie L.; Raval, Vaishali V.; Salvina, Jennifer; Raval, Pratiksha H.; Panchal, Ila N.

    2012-01-01

    The present study compared 6- to 9-year-old children's reports of their decisions to express anger, sadness, and physical pain; methods of controlling and communicating felt emotion; and reasons for doing so in response to hypothetical situations across three groups: old-city India (n = 60), suburban India (n = 60), and suburban United States (n =…

  5. Age Demographics, Hiring Trends, and Graduation Rates in Plant Pathology in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the status of plant pathology departments and age demographics of the profession. Seven of eight large departments have lost from 17 to 40% of their faculty positions since 1987, and several smaller graduate programs in plant pathology (e.g., in several northeastern states) have all but...

  6. Going Home: Aged Return Migration in the United States 1965-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longino, Charles F., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Explored issues concerning aged return migration, including the common features of states that strongly attract their migration-prone native sons and daughters and what might account for the differences in demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of return and non-return migrants. (Author)

  7. Going Home: Aged Return Migration in the United States 1965-70.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longino, Charles F., Jr.

    A study was conducted to examine two related questions concerning aged return migration: first, which features are common to states that are able to attract a high proportion of their migration-prone native sons and daughters; and second, what might account for the differences, if any, in the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of return…

  8. Leading Causes of Death in Females United States

    MedlinePlus

    ... by Age Group- United States, 2013 Asian or Pacific Islander Females by Age Group- United States, 2013 ... by Age Group- United States, 2011 Asian or Pacific Islander Females by Age Group- United States, 2011 ...

  9. Association between Maternal Age and Birth Defects of Unknown Etiology - United States, 1997–2007

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Simerpal K.; Broussard, Cheryl; Devine, Owen; Green, Ridgely Fisk; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Birth defects affect 3% of babies born, and are one of the leading causes of infant mortality. Both younger and older maternal age may pose increased risks for certain birth defects. This study assessed the relationship between maternal age at the estimated delivery date and the risk for birth defects. METHODS Data were obtained from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a population-based case-control study including mothers across 10 states. Maternal age was stratified into six categories: <20, 20 to 24, 25 to 29, 30 to 34, 35 to 39, and ≥40 years, and also analyzed as a continuous variable. Logistic regression models adjusted for maternal race/ethnicity, education, body mass index (BMI), folic acid use, smoking, gravidity, and parental age difference were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS For maternal age <20 years, associations with total anomalous pulmonary venous return (aOR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.3–4.0), amniotic band sequence (aOR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.5–3.8), and gastroschisis (aOR, 6.1; 95% CI, 4.8–8.0) were observed. For the ≥40 year age group, associations with several cardiac defects, esophageal atresia (aOR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.7–4.9), hypospadias (aOR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4–3.0), and craniosynostosis (aOR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1–2.4) were observed. Results using maternal age as a continuous variable were consistent with those that used categorized maternal age. CONCLUSION Elucidating risk factors specific to women at either extreme of maternal age may offer prevention opportunities. All women should be made aware of prevention opportunities, such as folic acid supplementation, to reduce the occurrence of birth defects. PMID:22821755

  10. Successful aging in the United States and China: a theoretical basis to guide nursing research, practice, and policy.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hong; Ling, Jiying; McCarthy, Valerie Lander

    2015-03-01

    Successful aging is gaining increasing attention given the growth in the older adult population. Criteria and definitions within multiple disciplines vary greatly in Western literature, with no consensus on its meaning. Sociocultural, economic, and political differences between the Western view of successful aging and its view in China add to the confusion. Similarities and differences in the meaning of successful aging in the United States and China are examined, and potential for a common definition useful to nursing in both countries is explored. Using concept analysis, shared criteria for successful aging were the following: decreased incidence of disease and disability, life satisfaction, meaning and purpose in life, and ability to cope effectively to achieve goals based on personal values and priorities. A comprehensive, multidimensional definition of successful aging for nursing and a midrange nursing theory of successful aging were identified that may be useful to guide nursing research, practice, and policy. PMID:24841471

  11. Denial of Abortion Because of Provider Gestational Age Limits in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Weitz, Tracy A.; Jones, Rachel K.; Barar, Rana E.; Foster, Diana Greene

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the factors influencing delay in seeking abortion and the outcomes for women denied abortion care because of gestational age limits at abortion facilities. Methods. We compared women who presented for abortion care who were under the facilities’ gestational age limits and received an abortion (n = 452) with those who were just over the gestational age limits and were denied an abortion (n = 231) at 30 US facilities. We described reasons for delay in seeking services. We examined the determinants of obtaining an abortion elsewhere after being denied one because of facility gestational age limits. We then estimated the national incidence of being denied an abortion because of facility gestational age limits. Results. Adolescents and women who did not recognize their pregnancies early were most likely to delay seeking care. The most common reason for delay was having to raise money for travel and procedure costs. We estimated that each year more than 4000 US women are denied an abortion because of facility gestational limits and must carry unwanted pregnancies to term. Conclusions. Many state laws restrict abortions based on gestational age, and new laws are lowering limits further. The incidence of being denied abortion will likely increase, disproportionately affecting young and poor women. PMID:23948000

  12. Non-refractory Submicron Aerosol Aging Processes in the Rural Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakurt Cevik, B.; Leong, Y. J.; Hernandez, C.; Griffin, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) took place over a six-week period and included ground and elevated measurements that aimed to improve the understanding of biosphere-atmosphere interactions and their impacts on air quality and climate. As part of SOAS, an Aerodyne High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed at the rural ground site in Centreville, AL, from 1 June to 15 July 2013. The HR-ToF-AMS provided quantitative measurement of non-refractory submicron aerosol composition and size distribution with high temporal resolution. Time series of mass concentrations of organic material, sulfate, ammonium, and nitrate (in order of average relative importance) and the changes in the concentrations of each component with respect to a photochemical airmass age metric (based on oxidation of nitrogen oxides) are reported. The relative importance of secondary ammonium and sulfate increases with values of the airmass age metric. While the contributions of organic and nitrate aerosol to total particle concentration decrease with increasing airmass age, organic aerosol concentration normalized by carbon monoxide (CO) constantly increases with age. However, the nitrate concentration normalized by CO appears relatively independent of the age metric. For a better understanding of organic aerosol processing, atomic ratio (oxygen/carbon and hydrogen/carbon) and carbon oxidation state (OSc) analyses of bulk organic aerosol are investigated.

  13. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Recommended Immunization Schedule for Adults Aged 19 Years or Older--United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    Kim, David K; Bridges, Carolyn B; Harriman, Kathleen H

    2016-01-01

    In October 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)* approved the Recommended Immunization Schedule for Adults Aged 19 Years or Older, United States, 2016. This schedule provides a summary of ACIP recommendations for the use of vaccines routinely recommended for adults aged 19 years or older in two figures, footnotes for each vaccine, and a table that describes primary contraindications and precautions for commonly used vaccines for adults. Although the figures in the adult immunization schedule illustrate recommended vaccinations that begin at age 19 years, the footnotes contain information on vaccines that are recommended for adults that may begin at age younger than age 19 years. The footnotes also contain vaccine dosing, intervals between doses, and other important information and should be read with the figures. PMID:26845417

  14. Extramedical Use of Prescription Pain Relievers by Youth Aged 12 to 21 Years in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Elizabeth A.; Troost, Jonathan P.; Anthony, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify when youth are most likely to start using prescription pain relievers to get high or for other unapproved indications outside the boundaries of what a prescribing physician might intend (ie, extramedical use). Design Cross-sectional surveys of adolescent cohorts, 2004 to 2008. Setting The United States. Participants Large nationally representative samples of youth in the United States who had been assessed for the 2004 through 2008 National Surveyon Drug Use and Health, yielding data from 138 729 participants aged 12 to 21 years. Main Outcome Measures Estimated age-specific risk of starting extramedical use of prescription pain relievers, year by year, and confirmation of age at peak risk by tracing the experience of individual cohorts during this period. Results The estimated peak risk of starting extramedical use of prescription pain relievers occurs in midadolescence, well before the college years. The age at peak risk is 16 years, when an estimated 2% to 3% become newly incident users. Smaller risk estimates are observed at age 12 to 14 years and at age 19 to 21 years. Conclusions For initiatives to prevent youth from using prescription pain relievers to get high or for other un-approved indications, a focus on the last year of high school and the post–secondary school years may be too little too late. Practice-based approaches are needed in addition to public health interventions based on effective alcohol and tobacco prevention programs during the earlier adolescent years. PMID:22566515

  15. National, State, and Selected Local Area Vaccination Coverage Among Children Aged 19-35 Months - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Hill, Holly A; Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Yankey, David; Singleton, James A; Kolasa, Maureen

    2015-08-28

    The reduction in morbidity and mortality associated with vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States has been described as one of the 10 greatest public health achievements of the first decade of the 21st century. A recent analysis concluded that routine childhood vaccination will prevent 322 million cases of disease and about 732,000 early deaths among children born during 1994-2013, for a net societal cost savings of $1.38 trillion. The National Immunization Survey (NIS) has monitored vaccination coverage among U.S. children aged 19-35 months since 1994. This report presents national, regional, state, and selected local area vaccination coverage estimates for children born from January 2011 through May 2013, based on data from the 2014 NIS. For most vaccinations, there was no significant change in coverage between 2013 and 2014. The exception was hepatitis A vaccine (HepA), for which increases were observed in coverage with both ≥1 and ≥2 doses. As in previous years, <1% of children received no vaccinations. National coverage estimates indicate that the Healthy People 2020 target* of 90% was met for ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine (93.3%), ≥1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) (91.5%), ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) (91.6%), and ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine (91.0%). Coverage was below target for ≥4 doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP), the full series of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, hepatitis B (HepB) birth dose,† ≥4 doses pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), ≥2 doses of HepA, the full series of rotavirus vaccine, and the combined vaccine series.§ Examination of coverage by child's race/ethnicity revealed lower estimated coverage among non-Hispanic black children compared with non-Hispanic white children for several vaccinations, including DTaP, the full series of Hib, PCV, rotavirus vaccine, and the combined series. Children from households classified as below the

  16. Age at Immigration and Kidney Function among Self-Identified Healthy Africans in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mana; Mwendwa, Denée T; Sims, Regina; Ricks, Madia; Sumner, Anne E

    2016-02-01

    Kidney disease disparately affects those of African descent. Age trends have generally been established for kidney function in the overall US population, but the contribution of age at the time of immigration for African immigrants is unknown. To examine the independent and joint effects of age and age at the time of immigration, and kidney function. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated for 93 African immigrants (60 % male; mean age = 33.5). Hierarchical regression and post hoc analyses revealed a significant age × age at the time of immigration interaction after accounting for traditional risk factors among those who immigrated at age ≤21. Younger age at the time of immigration to the US may exacerbate an inverse relationship between age and kidney function in a self-identified healthy African immigrant sample. Investigation of biopsychosocial factors associated with kidney health among African immigrants is warranted. PMID:25420783

  17. A comparison of recharge rates in aquifers of the United States based on groundwater-age data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, P. B.; Plummer, L. N.; Böhlke, J. K.; Shapiro, S. D.; Hinkle, S. R.

    2011-06-01

    An overview is presented of existing groundwater-age data and their implications for assessing rates and timescales of recharge in selected unconfined aquifer systems of the United States. Apparent age distributions in aquifers determined from chlorofluorocarbon, sulfur hexafluoride, tritium/helium-3, and radiocarbon measurements from 565 wells in 45 networks were used to calculate groundwater recharge rates. Timescales of recharge were defined by 1,873 distributed tritium measurements and 102 radiocarbon measurements from 27 well networks. Recharge rates ranged from < 10 to 1,200 mm/yr in selected aquifers on the basis of measured vertical age distributions and assuming exponential age gradients. On a regional basis, recharge rates based on tracers of young groundwater exhibited a significant inverse correlation with mean annual air temperature and a significant positive correlation with mean annual precipitation. Comparison of recharge derived from groundwater ages with recharge derived from stream base-flow evaluation showed similar overall patterns but substantial local differences. Results from this compilation demonstrate that age-based recharge estimates can provide useful insights into spatial and temporal variability in recharge at a national scale and factors controlling that variability. Local age-based recharge estimates provide empirical data and process information that are needed for testing and improving more spatially complete model-based methods.

  18. A comparison of recharge rates in aquifers of the United States based on groundwater-age data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, P.B.; Plummer, L.N.; Böhlke, J.K.; Shapiro, S.D.; Hinkle, S.R.

    2011-01-01

    An overview is presented of existing groundwater-age data and their implications for assessing rates and timescales of recharge in selected unconfined aquifer systems of the United States. Apparent age distributions in aquifers determined from chlorofluorocarbon, sulfur hexafluoride, tritium/helium-3, and radiocarbon measurements from 565 wells in 45 networks were used to calculate groundwater recharge rates. Timescales of recharge were defined by 1,873 distributed tritium measurements and 102 radiocarbon measurements from 27 well networks. Recharge rates ranged from < 10 to 1,200 mm/yr in selected aquifers on the basis of measured vertical age distributions and assuming exponential age gradients. On a regional basis, recharge rates based on tracers of young groundwater exhibited a significant inverse correlation with mean annual air temperature and a significant positive correlation with mean annual precipitation. Comparison of recharge derived from groundwater ages with recharge derived from stream base-flow evaluation showed similar overall patterns but substantial local differences. Results from this compilation demonstrate that age-based recharge estimates can provide useful insights into spatial and temporal variability in recharge at a national scale and factors controlling that variability. Local age-based recharge estimates provide empirical data and process information that are needed for testing and improving more spatially complete model-based methods.

  19. National, regional, state, and selected local area vaccination coverage among adolescents aged 13-17 years--United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Yankey, David; Jeyarajah, Jenny; Singleton, James A; Curtis, Robinette C; MacNeil, Jessica; Hariri, Susan

    2014-07-25

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that adolescents routinely receive 1 dose of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, 2 doses of meningococcal conjugate (MenACWY) vaccine, and 3 doses of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine.* ACIP also recommends administration of "catch-up"† vaccinations, such as measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), hepatitis B, and varicella, and, for all persons aged ≥6 months, an annual influenza vaccination. ACIP recommends administration of all age-appropriate vaccines during a single visit. To assess vaccination coverage among adolescents aged 13-17 years, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen).§ This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which show that from 2012 to 2013, coverage increased for each of the vaccines routinely recommended for adolescents: from 84.6% to 86.0% for ≥1 Tdap dose; from 74.0% to 77.8% for ≥1 MenACWY dose; from 53.8% to 57.3% for ≥1 HPV dose among females, and from 20.8% to 34.6% for ≥1 HPV dose among males. Coverage varied by state and local jurisdictions and by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) region. Healthy People 2020 vaccination targets for adolescents aged 13-15 years were reached in 42 states for ≥1 Tdap dose, 18 for ≥1 MenACWY dose, and 11 for ≥2 varicella doses. No state met the target for ≥3 HPV doses.¶ Use of patient reminder and recall systems, immunization information systems, coverage assessment and feedback to clinicians, clinician reminders, standing orders, and other interventions can help make use of every health care visit to ensure that adolescents are fully protected from vaccine-preventable infections and cancers (5), especially when such interventions are coupled with clinicians' vaccination recommendations. PMID:25055186

  20. Relationships of Disability with Age Among Adults Aged 50 to 85: Evidence from the United States, England and Continental Europe

    PubMed Central

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Reinhardt, Jan D.; Siegrist, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To extend existing research on the US health disadvantage relative to Europe by studying the relationships of disability with age from midlife to old age in the US and four European regions (England/Northern and Western Europe/Southern Europe/Eastern Europe) including their wealth-related differences, using a flexible statistical approach to model the age-functions. Methods We used data from three studies on aging, with nationally representative samples of adults aged 50 to 85 from 15 countries (N = 48225): the US-American Health and Retirement Study (HRS), the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) and the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Outcomes were mobility limitations and limitations in instrumental activities of daily living. We applied fractional polynomials of age to determine best fitting functional forms for age on disability in each region, while controlling for socio-demographic characteristics and important risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, obesity, smoking, physical inactivity). Results Findings showed high levels of disability in the US with small age-related changes between 50 and 85. Levels of disability were generally lower in Eastern Europe, followed by England and Southern Europe and lowest in Northern and Western Europe. In these latter countries age-related increases of disability, though, were steeper than in the US, especially in Eastern and Southern Europe. For all countries and at all ages, disability levels were higher among adults with low wealth compared to those with high wealth, with largest wealth-related differences among those in early old age in the USA. Conclusions This paper illustrates considerable variations of disability and its relationship with age. It supports the hypothesis that less developed social policies and more pronounced socioeconomic inequalities are related to higher levels of disability and an earlier onset of disability. PMID:23977172

  1. Emergency Department Visits by Persons Aged 65 and Over: United States, 2009-2010

    MedlinePlus

    ... made by persons aged 65 and over, and did the visit rate increase with age? In 2009– ... adults were made by nursing home residents, and did this percentage vary by age? In 2009–2010, ...

  2. State and Regional Prevalence of Diagnosed Multiple Chronic Conditions Among Adults Aged ≥18 Years - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Ward, Brian W; Black, Lindsey I

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence and care management of multiple (two or more) chronic conditions (MCC) are important public health concerns (1). Approximately 25% of U.S. adults have diagnoses of MCC (2). Care management of MCC presents a challenge to both patients and providers because of the substantial costs associated with treating more than one condition and the traditional care strategies that focus on single conditions as opposed to enhanced care coordination (3,4). Maintaining surveillance, targeting service delivery, and projecting resources are all important to meet this challenge, and these actions can be informed by identifying state and other regional variations in MCC prevalence (5,6). Data from the 2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to estimate prevalence of MCC (defined as two or more of 10 diagnosed chronic conditions) for each U.S. state and region by age and sex. Significant state and regional variation in MCC prevalence was found, with state-level estimates ranging from 19.0% in Colorado to 38.2% in Kentucky. MCC prevalence also varied by region, ranging from 21.4% in the Pacific region to 34.5% in the East South Central region. The prevalence of MCC was higher among women than among men within certain U.S. regions, and was higher in older persons in all regions. Such findings further the research and surveillance objectives stated in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) publication, Multiple Chronic Conditions: A Strategic Framework (1). Furthermore, geographic disparities in MCC prevalence can inform state-level surveillance programs and groups targeting service delivery or allocating resources for MCC prevention activities. PMID:27467707

  3. Voices of Transformational Learning: Life Experiences of Women Aged Eighty and above in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Lorri A.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative research study examined the lived experiences and stories of dynamic women over 80 years of age. Their contribution to transformational and lifelong learning may offer a blueprint for baby boomers to age successfully. The exploration disclosed common patterns of the individual lives. The interviews revealed that the women were…

  4. Health-Risk Behaviors among Persons Aged 12-21 Years: United States, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Disease Control (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    Noting that health-risk behaviors among youth may result in immediate health problems or extend into adulthood and increase risk for chronic diseases, this report examines the prevalence of health-risk behaviors among a nationally representative sample of persons aged 12 to 21 years and presents age group comparisons of the most important…

  5. Attitudes toward Aging: A Comparative Analysis of Young Adults from the United States and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConatha, Jasmin Tahmaseb; Schnell, Frauke; Volkwein, Karin; Riley, Lori; Leach, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Social and cultural attitudes toward aging provide a framework for assessing one's own aging experiences as well as one's attitudes toward older men and women. Ageism, or prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory practices toward older adults (Butler, 1980), has been found to be widespread around the world. This study focuses on a comparative…

  6. Attitudes Towards Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing for Aneuploidy Among United States Adults of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Sayres, Lauren C.; Goodspeed, Taylor A.; Cho, Mildred K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s) To determine how adults in the United States (US) view non-invasive prenatal testing using cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA testing) in order to help estimate uptake. Study Design A national sample of 1,861 US-based adults was surveyed using a validated online survey instrument. The survey was administered by a commercial survey research company. Respondents were randomized to receive a survey about prenatal testing for trisomy 13 and 18 or trisomy 21. Participants were asked to select among testing modalities, including cffDNA testing, and rank the features of testing that they considered most important to decision making. Results There was substantive interest in the use of cffDNA testing rather than traditional screening mechanisms with a minority of respondents reporting that they would support the use of both methods in combination. The lower rates of false negative and false positive test results and the ability to use the test earlier in the pregnancy were the most highly rated benefits of cffDNA testing. Participants expressed strong support for diagnostic confirmation via invasive testing after a positive result from either screening or cffDNA testing. However, almost one-third of participants reported that they would not endorse the use of either invasive or non-invasive prenatal testing. Conclusion(s) There appears to be support for uptake of non-invasive prenatal tests. Clinical guidelines should therefor go forward in providing guidance on how to integrate non-invasive methods into current standard of care. However, our findings indicate that even when accuracy, which is rated by patients as the most important aspect of prenatal testing, is significantly improved over existing screening methods and testing is offered non-invasively, the number of individuals who reported that they would decline any testing remained the same. Attention should therefor be directed at ensuring that the right of informed refusal of prenatal testing is not impacted

  7. Tectonic significance of precambrian apatite fission-track ages from the midcontinent United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, K.D.; Naeser, C.W.; Babel, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Apparent apatite fission-track ages from drill core penetrating basement on the flank of the Transcontinental Arch in northwestern Iowa range from 934 ?? 86 to 641 ?? 90 Ma. These ages, the oldest reported in North America, record at least two thermal events. The 934 Ma age, which is synchronous with KAr ages in the Grenville Province and many KAr whole-rock and RbSr isochron ages from the Lake Superior region, may document basement cooling caused by regional uplift and erosion of the crust. The remaining fission-track ages are products of a more recent thermal event, relative to the age of the samples, which raised temperatures into the zone of partial annealing. Heating may have occurred between the Middle Ordovician and Middle Cretaceous by burial of the basement with additional sediment. It is estimated that burial raised temperatures in the part of the basement sampled by the core to between 50 and 75??C. These temperature estimates imply paleogeothermal gradients of about 20??C/km, approximately two and one-half times present-day values, and burial of the basement by an additional 2-3 km of sediment. ?? 1986.

  8. Housing Mobility and Downsizing at Older Ages in Britain and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Banks, James; Blundell, Richard; Oldfield, Zoë; Smith, James P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines geographic mobility and housing downsizing at older ages in Britain and America. Americans downsize housing much more than the British largely because Americans are much more mobile. The principal reasons for greater mobility among older Americans are two fold: (1) greater spatial distribution of geographic distribution of amenities (such as warm weather) and housing costs and (2) greater institutional rigidities in subsidized British rental housing providing stronger incentives for British renters not to move. This relatively flat British housing consumption with age may have significant implications for the form and amount of consumption smoothing at older ages. PMID:23888295

  9. The Status of the Black Elderly in the United States. A Report by the National Caucus and Center on Black Aged, Inc., for the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

    This report on the status of the black elderly in the United States is based on six issue forums that the National Caucus and Center on Black Aged, Inc., conducted throughout the United States in 1986; and on three House Select Committee on Aging hearings on this subject. Statistics pertaining to the following issues affecting older blacks are…

  10. Dietary Sources of Sodium in China, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, Women and Men Aged 40 to 59 Years: The INTERMAP Study

    PubMed Central

    ANDERSON, CHERYL A. M.; APPEL, LAWRENCE J.; OKUDA, NAGAKO; BROWN, IAN J.; CHAN, QUEENIE; ZHAO, LIANCHENG; UESHIMA, HIROTSUGU; KESTELOOT, HUGO; MIURA, KATSUYUKI; CURB, J. DAVID; YOSHITA, KATSUSHI; ELLIOTT, PAUL; YAMAMOTO, MONICA E.; STAMLER, JEREMIAH

    2014-01-01

    Public health campaigns in several countries encourage population-wide reduced sodium (salt) intake, but excessive intake remains a major problem. Excessive sodium intake is independently related to adverse blood pressure and is a key factor in the epidemic of prehypertension/ hypertension. Identification of food sources of sodium in modern diets is critical to effective reduction of sodium intake worldwide. We used data from the INTERMAP Study to define major food sources of sodium in diverse East Asian and Western population samples. INTERMAP is an international, cross-sectional, epidemiologic study of 4, 680 individuals ages 40 to 59 years from Japan (four samples), People’s Republic of China (three rural samples), the United Kingdom (two samples), and the United States (eight samples); four in-depth, multipass 24-hour dietary recalls/person were used to identify foods accounting for most dietary sodium intake. In the People’s Republic of China sample, most (76%) dietary sodium was from salt added in home cooking, about 50% less in southern than northern samples. In Japan, most (63%) dietary sodium came from soy sauce (20%), commercially processed fish/seafood (15%), salted soups (15%), and preserved vegetables (13%). Processed foods, including breads/cereals/grains, contributed heavily to sodium intake in the United Kingdom (95%) and the United States (for methodological reasons, underestimated at 71%). To prevent and control prehypertension/hypertension and improve health, efforts to remove excess sodium from diets in rural China should focus on reducing salt in home cooking. To avoid excess sodium intake in Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, salt must be reduced in commercially processed foods. PMID:20430135

  11. Spatially explicit modeling of 1992-2100 land cover and forest stand age for the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohl, Terry L.; Sayler, Kristi L.; Bouchard, Michelle; Reker, Ryan R.; Friesz, Aaron M.; Bennett, Stacie L.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Sleeter, Rachel R.; Wilson, Tamara; Knuppe, Michelle; Van Hofwegen, Travis

    2014-01-01

    Information on future land-use and land-cover (LULC) change is needed to analyze the impact of LULC change on ecological processes. The U.S. Geological Survey has produced spatially explicit, thematically detailed LULC projections for the conterminous United States. Four qualitative and quantitative scenarios of LULC change were developed, with characteristics consistent with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on 5 Emission Scenarios (SRES). The four quantified scenarios (A1B, A2, B1, and B2) served as input to the Forecasting Scenarios of Land-use Change (FORE-SCE) model. Four spatially explicit datasets consistent with scenario storylines were produced for the conterminous United States, with annual LULC maps from 1992 through 2100. The future projections are characterized by a loss of natural land covers in most scenarios, with corresponding expansion of 10 anthropogenic land uses. Along with the loss of natural land covers, remaining natural land covers experience increased fragmentation under most scenarios, with only the B2 scenario remaining relatively stable in both proportion of remaining natural land covers and basic fragmentation measures. Forest stand age was also modeled. By 2100, scenarios and ecoregions with heavy forest cutting have relatively lower mean stand ages compared to those with less 15 forest cutting. Stand ages differ substantially between unprotected and protected forest lands, as well as between different forest classes. The modeled data were compared to the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) and other data sources to assess model characteristics. The consistent, spatially explicit, and thematically detailed LULC projections and the associated forest stand age data layers have been used to analyze LULC impacts on carbon and greenhouse gas fluxes, 20 biodiversity, climate and weather variability, hydrologic change, and other ecological processes.

  12. Spatially explicit modeling of 1992-2100 land cover and forest stand age for the conterminous United States.

    PubMed

    Sohl, Terry L; Sayler, Kristi L; Bouchard, Michelle A; Reker, Ryan R; Friesz, Aaron M; Bennett, Stacie L; Sleeter, Benjamin M; Sleeter, Rachel R; Wilson, Tamara; Soulard, Chris; Knuppe, Michelle; Van Hofwegen, Travis

    2014-07-01

    Information on future land-use and land-cover (LULC) change is needed to analyze the impact of LULC change on ecological processes. The U.S. Geological Survey has produced spatially explicit, thematically detailed LULC projections for the conterminous United States. Four qualitative and quantitative scenarios of LULC change were developed, with characteristics consistent with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). The four quantified scenarios (A1B, A2, B1, and B2) served as input to the forecasting scenarios of land-use change (FORE-SCE) model. Four spatially explicit data sets consistent with scenario storylines were produced for the conterminous United States, with annual LULC maps from 1992 through 2100. The future projections are characterized by a loss of natural land covers in most scenarios, with corresponding expansion of anthropogenic land uses. Along with the loss of natural land covers, remaining natural land covers experience increased fragmentation under most scenarios, with only the B2 scenario remaining relatively stable in both the proportion of remaining natural land covers and basic fragmentation measures. Forest stand age was also modeled. By 2100, scenarios and ecoregions with heavy forest cutting had relatively lower mean stand ages compared to those with less forest cutting. Stand ages differed substantially between unprotected and protected forest lands, as well as between different forest classes. The modeled data were compared to the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) and other data sources to assess model characteristics. The consistent, spatially explicit, and thematically detailed LULC projections and the associated forest stand-age data layers have been used to analyze LULC impacts on carbon and greenhouse gas fluxes, biodiversity, climate and weather variability, hydrologic change, and other ecological processes. PMID:25154094

  13. Changes in Cesarean Delivery Rates by Gestational Age: United States, 1996-2011

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cesarean delivery rates at 38 weeks declined for all maternal age groups, but increased at 39 weeks. ... Cesarean delivery rates at 38 weeks declined for all racial and ethnic groups, but rose at 39 ...

  14. Trends in calving ages and calving intervals for dairy cattle breeds in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hare, E; Norman, H D; Wright, J R

    2006-01-01

    Trends since 1980 for calving age and calving interval, 2 factors that influence herd life, were examined by parity for 5 breeds of US dairy cattle. Calving data were from cows with records that passed edits for USDA genetic evaluations and were in herds that remained on Dairy Herd Improvement test. First-calf heifers calved at progressively younger ages over time, but the age decline was less for later parities because of longer calving intervals. Breed differences for calving age were evident for all parities; current mean age at first calving ranged from 24 mo for Jerseys to 28 mo for Ayrshires. Mean calving age across all parities declined over time for all breeds, primarily because of increased turnover rate, and ranged from 48 mo for Holsteins to 54 mo for Ayrshires. Across parity, annual increase in calving interval was reasonably consistent (0.90 to 1.07 d/yr) for all breeds except Jersey (0.49 d/yr). Within parity, regressions of calving interval on year were generally similar to overall breed trend. Breed means for first calving interval across time ranged from 390 d for Jerseys to 407 d for Brown Swiss. PMID:16357301

  15. Highway crash costs in the United States by driver age, blood alcohol level, victim age, and restraint use.

    PubMed

    Miller, T R; Lestina, D C; Spicer, R S

    1998-03-01

    This paper estimates 1993 U.S. highway crash incidence and costs by driver age, alcohol use, victim age, occupant status, and restraint use. Notable findings are: (1) crash costs of novice drivers are high enough to yield preliminary benefit-cost ratios around 4-8 for a provisional licensing system that restricts driving after midnight and 11 for zero alcohol tolerance for young drivers with violators receiving a 6-month suspension; (2) the costs to people other than the intoxicated driver per mile driven at BACs of 0.08-0.099% exceed the value of driver mobility; (3) the safety costs of drunk driving appear to exceed $5.80 per mile, compared with $2.50 per mile driven at BACs of 0.08-0.099%, and $0.11 per mile driven sober; (4) highway crashes cause an estimated 3.2% of U.S. medical spending, including more than 14% of medical spending for ages 15-24; (5) ignoring crash-involved occupants whose restraint use is unknown, the 13% of occupants who police reported were traveling unrestrained accounted for an estimated 42% of the crash costs; and (6) if these unrestrained occupants buckled up, the medical costs of crashes would decline by an estimated 18% (almost $4 billion annually) and the comprehensive costs by 24%. PMID:9450118

  16. Intergenerational Communication Satisfaction and Age Boundaries in Bulgaria and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, Christopher; Stoitsova, Tolya; Choi, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines Bulgarian and American young adults’ perceptions of prior experiences of intergenerational communication. Irrespective of culture, as age of target increased from young adult to middle-aged and elderly adult, so did attributions of benevolence, norms of politeness and deference, and communicative respect and avoidance; conversely, attributions of personal vitality and communication satisfaction decreased linearly. However, American youth reported more of a tendency to avoid, but expressed more respect when communicating with, older adults than their Bulgarian counterparts. In both settings, young adults’ avoidant communication with older people negatively, and the norm of politeness positively, predicted intergenerational communication satisfaction. In Bulgaria only, age stereotypes also predicted communication satisfaction whereas only in the USA was communicative respect a predictor. PMID:20393794

  17. Hodgkin's disease incidence in the United States by age, sex, geographic region and rye histologic subtype

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, S.L.

    1984-11-01

    Hodgkin's disease (HD) incidence in whites is described by age, sex, Rye histologic subtype and time period for ten US locations, using recently available data with Rye histologic diagnoses for most cases. Some distinctive features of incidence in young persons - stable childhood rates, and high and increasing rates in young adults, particularly women - resulted from the elevated rates of the Nodular Sclerosis (NS) subtype. NS was the only histologic form with a rising incidence. Unexpectedly, among middle-aged and older persons rates of all subtypes declined during the 1970s. HD incidence varied little across study regions and became more geographically homogeneous with time, notably among women. HD rates were positively correlated with regional socio-economic levels. In areas with the highest young adult incidence, higher risk also affected a broader age range, including older children. Rates for young adults were positively associated with community socioeconomic status but did not covary with older adult rates. Rates for the NS and Lymphocyte Predominance subtypes were inversely correlated across areas. NS incidence increased with community economic levels. These features suggest the incidence of HD in a well-developed country is not static but evolves, characterized by higher rates of NS in an increasingly broad age range of young, particularly female, adults, rising with small increments in socioeconomic status, and occurring over the relatively short study interval. 27 figures, 50 tables.

  18. Age at First Calving in Holstein Cattle in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heifer rearing costs account for 15 to 20% of the total expense of milk production, and the decline in fertility of U.S. Holsteins is well documented. Earlier age at first calving (AFC) may improve profitability and fertility. Records for 400,000 U.S Holstein cows born on or after January 1, 1997 we...

  19. Mother's Age at Arrival in the United States and Early Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Jennifer E.; Bates, Littisha; Yabiku, Scott T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the cognitive development of young children from diverse backgrounds with a particular focus on ethnic and nativity differences in home environments. Hypotheses are developed addressing the extent to which home environment and parenting practices mediate the relationship between mother's age at arrival and cognitive…

  20. Mortality From Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Reproductive-Aged Women: United States, 1999–2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. I estimated the sexually transmitted disease–related mortality among US reproductive-aged women from 1999 to 2010. Methods. I estimated mortality from National Center for Health Statistics’ Multiple Cause of Death data. I defined reproductive age as 15 to 44 years. For diseases partially caused by sexual transmission, I estimated the proportion attributable to sexual transmission from the literature. To calculate mortality rates, I estimated number of deaths from each disease and Census Bureau population for reproductive-aged women for 1999 to 2010. Results. From 1999 to 2010, the cumulative sexually transmitted disease–related mortality rate decreased by 49%, from 5.3 to 2.7 deaths per 100 000. The primary contributors were HIV and human papilloma virus infections. Mortality from sexually transmitted HIV infection decreased by 62%, from 3.4 to 1.3 deaths per 100 000. Mortality from human papilloma virus–associated gynecologic cancers decreased by 19%, from 1.6 deaths per 100 000 in 1999 to 1.3 deaths per 100 000 in 2010. Conclusions. Screening and treatment for sexually transmitted diseases may reduce mortality. Research is needed to determine whether sexually transmitted disease–related morbidity among reproductive-aged women has decreased over the past decade. PMID:24922169

  1. Injuries from batteries among children aged <13 years--United States, 1995-2010.

    PubMed

    2012-08-31

    Injuries to children caused by batteries have been documented in the medical literature and by poison control centers for decades. Of particular concern is the ingestion of button batteries, especially those ≥20 mm in diameter (coin size), which can lodge in the esophagus, leading to serious complications or death. To estimate the number of nonfatal battery injuries among children aged <13 years, U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) staff analyzed 1997-2010 data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). To identify fatal battery exposures, other CPSC databases covering 1995-2010 were examined, including the 1) Injury and Potential Injury Incident File; 2) Death Certificate Database (DTHS); and 3) In-Depth Investigation File (INDP). From 1997 to 2010, an estimated 40,400 children aged <13 years were treated in hospital emergency departments (EDs) for battery-related injuries, including confirmed or possible battery ingestions. Nearly three quarters of the injuries involved children aged ≤4 years; 10% required hospitalization. Battery type was reported for 69% of cases, and of those, button batteries were implicated in 58%. Fourteen fatal injuries were identified in children ranging in age from 7 months to 3 years during 1995-2010. Battery type was reported in 12 of these cases; all involved button batteries. CPSC is urging the electronics industry and battery manufacturers to develop warnings and industry standards to prevent serious injuries and deaths from button batteries. Additionally, public health and health-care providers can encourage parents to keep button batteries and products containing accessible button batteries (e.g., remote controls) away from young children. PMID:22932299

  2. Color vision deficiencies in youths 12-17 years of age, United States.

    PubMed

    Slaby, D; Roberts, J

    1974-01-01

    Presented in this report are data on the prevalence of color vision deficiencies in American youths 12-17 years of age as estimated from the Health Examination Survey of 1966-70. The data are stratified by age, sex, race, geographic region, size of place of residence, and annual family income. Comparisons are also made with the findings from the 1963-65 Health Examination Survey among children 6-11 years of age. Color vision deficiency, commonly called color blindness, manifests itself in everyday life in the confusion of, or blindness to, one or more primary colors, and its origins may be congenital or acquired. Congenital defects occur in two chief forms, total and partial. The former is very rare and is generally associated with nystagmus and a central scotoma. All colors appear as grays of differing brightness. The partial form is the most common type of color vision defect and is primarily an inherited condition transmitted through the mother, who is usually unaffected. It is probably due to the absence of one of the photopigments normally found in the foveal cones. In most cases reds and greens are confused. Acquired defects of color vision may often develop in, the course of ocular, mainly retinal, disease. Red-green defects are frequently characteristic of lesions of the optic nerve and optic pathways, while blue-yellow defects are more likely to result from lesions of the outer layers of the retina. PMID:25208588

  3. Hospitalization for total hip replacement among inpatients aged 45 and over: United States, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Wolford, Monica L; Palso, Kathleen; Bercovitz, Anita

    2015-02-01

     Total hip replacement, in which both the head of the femur and its socket are replaced, is done to restore movement to hips damaged by osteoarthritis, late-stage degenerative bone and cartilage disease, or other injuries and disease (1). The number of total hip replacements is expected to increase over the next few decades (2). National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) data show trends and estimates of the number and rate of total hip replacements and average length of stay among inpatients aged 45 and over. PMID:25714040

  4. Cytomegalovirus IgM Seroprevalence among Women of Reproductive Age in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chengbin; Dollard, Sheila C.; Amin, Minal M.; Bialek, Stephanie R.

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgM indicates recent active CMV infection. CMV IgM seroprevalence is a useful marker for prevalence of transmission. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III 1988–1994, we present estimates of CMV IgM prevalence by race/ethnicity, provide a comparison of IgM seroprevalence among all women and among CMV IgG positive women, and explore factors possibly associated with IgM seroprevalence, including socioeconomic status and exposure to young children. There was no difference in IgM seroprevalence by race/ethnicity among all women (3.1%, 2.2%, and 1.6% for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black and Mexican American, respectively; P = 0.11). CMV IgM seroprevalence decreased significantly with increasing age in non-Hispanic black women (P<0.001 for trend) and marginally among Mexican American women (P = 0.07), while no apparent trend with age was seen in non-Hispanic white women (P = 0.99). Among 4001 IgG+ women, 118 were IgM+, resulting in 4.9% IgM seroprevalence. In IgG+ women, IgM seroprevalence varied significantly by age (5.3%, 7.3%, and 3.7% for women of 12–19, 20–29, and 30–49 years; P = 0.04) and race/ethnicity (6.1%, 2.7%, and 2.0% for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American; P<0.001). The factors reported associated with IgG seroprevalence were not associated with IgM seroprevalence. The patterns of CMV IgM seroprevalence by age, race/ethnicity, and IgG serostatus may help understanding the epidemiology of congenital CMV infection as a consequence of vertical transmission and are useful for identifying target populations for intervention to reduce CMV transmission. PMID:26990759

  5. Factors associated with tympanostomy tube insertion among preschool-aged children in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, M D; Overpeck, M D; Hoffman, H J; Casselbrant, M L

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Recurrent and persistent otitis media is often treated by tympanostomy tube insertion to ventilate the middle ear and restore hearing. This study examined the factors that predict which children are most likely to receive tympanostomy tubes through 3 years of age. METHODS: Multiple logistic regression was conducted on data from a nationally representative sample of children (N = 8285). RESULTS: By 3 years of age, 6.8% of US children had tubes inserted. Logistic regression indicated that after control for number of ear infections, children without any gaps in health insurance, who attended a day-care center, who were White, whose birth-weight was less than 1500 g, and who lived in the Midwest or South were significantly more likely to have tympanostomy tubes. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that differences exist as to who receives tubes. Of particular concern are differences by race/ethnicity and continuity of health insurance coverage. With expansions in health care coverage to larger proportions of uninsured children, it will be important to monitor these programs to ensure that all children who may need tympanostomy tubes have access to them. PMID:10667186

  6. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN LONGITUDINAL STUDIES OF AGING IN THE UNITED STATES*

    PubMed Central

    WEIR, DAVID

    2015-01-01

    We review recent developments in longitudinal studies of aging, focusing on the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Both studies are part of a trend toward biosocial surveys in which biological measurement is joined with traditional survey techniques, and a related trend toward greater harmonization across studies. Both studies have collected DNA samples and are working toward genotyping that would allow broadly based association studies. Increased attention to psychological measurement of personality and of cognitive ability using adaptive testing structures has also been shared across the studies. The HRS has expanded its economic measurement to longitudinal studies of consumption and to broader-based measurement of pension and Social Security wealth. It has added biomarkers of cardiovascular risk. The WLS has developed an integrated approach to the study of death and bereavement and an innovative use of high school yearbook photographs to capture information about health in early life of its participants. PMID:21302430

  7. Characteristics of Physician Office Visits for Obesity by Adults Aged 20 and Over: United States, 2012.

    PubMed

    Talwalkar, Anjali; McCarty, Frances

    2016-03-01

    In 2011–2014, current asthma prevalence was higher among adults with obesity compared with adults in lower weight categories. This pattern was consistent across most demographic subgroups, except among men, for whom no statistically significant difference in current asthma prevalence by weight status was observed. Other epidemiologic studies of asthma prevalence have shown conflicting results about whether obesity is a risk factor for asthma among males. By race and Hispanic origin, current asthma prevalence was highest among adults with obesity for all groups. Patterns differed slightly among groups. For non-Hispanic black and Hispanic adults, prevalence for those with obesity was higher than for those in the normal weight and overweight categories. For non-Hispanic white adults, there was no signficant difference in asthma prevalence between the obese and overweight categories. For all age groups, current asthma prevalence was highest among adults with obesity, and there was no significant difference in asthma prevalence between those in the normal weight and overweight categories. There was an increasing trend in asthma prevalence as weight increased that was observed most clearly in the 60 and over age group. From 2001 to 2014, there was an increasing trend in current asthma prevalence among adults overall and among overweight adults. However, no significant trend was observed among adults in other weight categories. Findings from an American Thoracic Society workshop on obesity and asthma concluded that obesity is a major risk factor for asthma, and that obesity-related asthma is likely different from other types of asthma (e.g., allergic, occupational, exercise-induced, nocturnal, aspirin-sensitive, and severe asthma). PMID:27018815

  8. Age, sex, and racial differences in harsh physical punishment: results from a nationally representative United States sample.

    PubMed

    Taillieu, Tamara L; Afifi, Tracie O; Mota, Natalie; Keyes, Katherine M; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine age, sex, and racial differences in the prevalence of harsh physical punishment in childhood in a nationally representative sample of the United States. Data were from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) collected in 2004 and 2005 (n=34,653). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine age, sex, and racial differences in the prevalence of harsh physical punishment. Results suggest that the prevalence of harsh physical punishment has been decreasing among more recently born age groups; however, there appear to be sex and racial differences in this trend over time. The magnitude of the decrease appears to be stronger for males than for females. By race, the decrease in harsh physical punishment over time is only apparent among Whites; Black participants demonstrate little change over time, and harsh physical punishment seems to be increasing over time among Hispanics. Prevention and intervention efforts that educate about the links of physical punishment to negative outcomes and alternative non-physical discipline strategies may be particularly useful in reducing the prevalence of harsh physical punishment over time. PMID:25466426

  9. Age, sex, and racial differences in harsh physical punishment: Results from a nationally representative United States sample

    PubMed Central

    Taillieu, Tamara L.; Afifi, Tracie O.; Mota, Natalie; Keyes, Katherine M.; Sareen, Jitender

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine age, sex, and racial differences in the prevalence of harsh physical punishment in childhood in a nationally representative sample of the United States. Data were from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) collected in 2004 and 2005 (n = 34,653). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine age, sex, and racial differences in the prevalence of harsh physical punishment. Results suggest that the prevalence of harsh physical punishment has been decreasing among more recently born age groups; however, there appear to be sex and racial differences in this trend over time. The magnitude of the decrease appears to be stronger for males than for females. By race, the decrease in harsh physical punishment over time is only apparent among Whites; Black participants demonstrate little change over time, and harsh physical punishment seems to be increasing over time among Hispanics. Prevention and intervention efforts that educate about the links of physical punishment to negative outcomes and alternative non-physical discipline strategies may be particularly useful in reducing the prevalence of harsh physical punishment over time. PMID:25466426

  10. Death anxiety in a national sample of United States funeral directors and its relationship with death exposure, age, and sex.

    PubMed

    Harrawood, Laura K; White, Lyle J; Benshoff, John J

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the level of death anxiety among a national sample of United States funeral directors with varying levels of death exposure, age, and sex. Utilizing the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale (MFODS), the results showed a significant, but weak negative relationship between levels of death anxiety and the participants' reported number of funerals attended per year. The correlation between death anxiety scores and the number of reported embalming cases performed yearly was, however, not significant. We found a significant negative correlation between death anxiety and age in both men and women funeral directors. The difference in the death anxiety scores between men (n=166) and women (n=38) funeral directors was not significant. There was a significant negative correlation with age in both men and women in several fears of death including fear of the dying process, fear for significant others, and fear of premature death. The significant negative correlations were stronger for women than men across all three subscales. Results, direction for further research, and implications of the findings for mental health workers are discussed. PMID:19227002

  11. Antidepressant Prescription Claims Among Reproductive-Aged Women With Private Employer-Sponsored Insurance - United States 2008-2013.

    PubMed

    Dawson, April L; Ailes, Elizabeth C; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Simeone, Regina M; Lind, Jennifer N; Farr, Sherry L; Broussard, Cheryl S; Reefhuis, Jennita; Carrino, Gerrard; Biermann, Janis; Honein, Margaret A

    2016-01-01

    Antidepressant medication use during pregnancy has been increasing in the United States (1). Many women require antidepressants on an ongoing basis, and a clear consensus on the safest medication options for both the mother and her fetus does not exist (2). Given that half of all U.S. pregnancies are unplanned (3), antidepressant use will occur during the first weeks of pregnancy, a critical period for fetal development. To understand trends among women of reproductive age, CDC used Truven Health's MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters data* to estimate the number of antidepressant prescriptions filled by women aged 15-44 years with private employer-sponsored insurance. During 2008-2013, an average of 15.4% of women aged 15-44 years filled at least one prescription for an antidepressant in a single year. The most frequently filled antidepressants included sertraline, bupropion, and citalopram. Prescribing of antidepressants is common, and research on antidepressant safety during pregnancy needs to be accelerated to provide evidence-based information to health care providers and women about the potential risks for antidepressant exposure before and during pregnancy and between pregnancies. PMID:26821271

  12. The Relationship of Age to Personal Network Size, Relational Multiplexity, and Proximity to Alters in the Western United States

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Emily J.; Marcum, Christopher S.; Boessen, Adam; Almquist, Zack W.; Hipp, John R.; Nagle, Nicholas N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study examines the association of age and other sociodemographic variables with properties of personal networks; using samples of individuals residing in the rural western United States and the City of Los Angeles, we evaluate the degree to which these associations vary with geographical context. For both samples, we test the hypothesis that age is negatively associated with network size (i.e., degree) and positively associated with network multiplexity (the extent of overlap) on 6 different relations: core discussion members, social activity participants, emergency contacts, neighborhood safety contacts, job informants, and kin. We also examine the relationship between age and spatial proximity to alters. Method. Our data consist of a large-scale, spatially stratified egocentric network survey containing information about respondents and those to whom they are tied. We use Poisson regression to test our hypothesis regarding degree while adjusting for covariates, including education, gender, race, and self-reported sense of neighborhood belonging. We use multiple linear regression to test our hypotheses on multiplexity and distance to alters. Results. For both rural and urban populations, we find a nonmonotone association between age and numbers of core discussants and emergency contacts, with rural populations also showing nonmonotone associations for social activity partners and kin. These nonmonotone relationships show a peak in expected degree at midlife, followed by an eventual decline. We find a decline in degree among the elderly for all relations in both populations. Age is positively associated with distance to nonhousehold alters for the rural population, although residential tenure is associated with shorter ego-alter distances in both rural and urban settings. Additionally, age is negatively associated with network multiplexity for both populations. Discussion. Although personal network size ultimately declines with age, we find that

  13. Serum Retinol Concentrations, Race, and Socioeconomic Status in of Women of Childbearing Age in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Corrine; Lyden, Elizabeth; Abresch, Chad; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitamin A is an essential nutrient during pregnancy and throughout the lifecycle due to its role in the development of critical organ systems. Because maternal tissue is progressively depleted of vitamin A to supply fetal demands, women who become pregnant while possessing marginal vitamin A reserves are at increased risk of vitamin A inadequacy as pregnancy progresses. Few studies have assessed the relationship between socioeconomic factors and retinol status in women of childbearing age. Methods: We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to assess the relationship between serum retinol concentrations and socioeconomic factors in women of childbearing age. Women 14–45 years of age (n = 3170) from NHANES cycles 2003–2004 and 2005–2006 were included. Serum retinol concentrations were divided into categories according to World Health Organization criteria. All statistical procedures accounted for the weighted data and complex design of the NHANES sample. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The poverty score and race were significantly associated with vitamin A status after adjustment for confounders. Odds of retinol concentrations of <1.05 µmol/L were 1.85 times higher for those of lower socioeconomic status when compared to those of higher status (95% CI: 1.12–3.03, p = 0.02), and 3.1 times higher for non-Hispanic blacks when compared to non-Hispanic whites (95% CI: 1.50–6.41, p = 0.002). Dietary intakes of retinol activity equivalents were significantly lower in groups with higher poverty scores (p = 0.004). Conclusion There appear to be disparities in serum vitamin A levels in women of childbearing age related to income and race in the United States. PMID:27548213

  14. Maternity Care Practices and Breastfeeding Among Adolescent Mothers Aged 12-19 Years--United States, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Olaiya, Oluwatosin; Dee, Deborah L; Sharma, Andrea J; Smith, Ruben A

    2016-01-22

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that infants be breastfed exclusively for the first 6 months of life, and that mothers continue breastfeeding for at least 1 year. However, in 2011, only 19.3% of mothers aged ≤20 years in the United States exclusively breastfed their infants at 3 months, compared with 36.4% of women aged 20-29 years and 45.0% of women aged ≥30 years. Hospitals play an essential role in providing care that helps mothers establish and continue breastfeeding. The U.S. Surgeon General and numerous health professional organizations recommend providing care aligned with the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI), including adherence to the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding (Ten Steps), as well as not providing gift packs containing infant formula. Implementing BFHI-aligned maternity care improves duration of any and exclusive breastfeeding among mothers; however, studies have not examined associations between BFHI-aligned maternity care and breastfeeding outcomes solely among adolescent mothers (for this report, adolescents refers to persons aged 12-19 years). Therefore, CDC analyzed 2009-2011 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) data and determined that among adolescent mothers who initiated breastfeeding, self-reported prevalence of experiencing any of the nine selected BFHI-aligned maternity care practices included in the PRAMS survey ranged from 29.2% to 95.4%. Among the five practices identified to be significantly associated with breastfeeding outcomes in this study, the more practices a mother experienced, the more likely she was to be breastfeeding (any amount or exclusively) at 4 weeks and 8 weeks postpartum. Given the substantial health advantages conferred to mothers and children through breastfeeding, and the particular vulnerability of adolescent mothers to lower breastfeeding rates, it is important for hospitals to provide evidence-based maternity practices related to breastfeeding as part of their

  15. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Levels among U.S. Youth Aged 12-15 Years: United States, 1999-2004 and 2012

    MedlinePlus

    ... the National Technical Information Service NCHS Cardiorespiratory Fitness Levels Among U.S. Youth Aged 12–15 Years: United ... of girls aged 12–15 years had adequate levels of cardiorespiratory fitness. Overall, 42.2% of youth ...

  16. Racial Discrimination and Psychological Distress: The Impact of Ethnic Identity and Age among Immigrant and United States-Born Asian Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Tiffany; Gee, Gilbert C.; Takeuchi, David T.

    2008-01-01

    The association between racial and ethnic discrimination and psychological distress was examined among 2,047 Asians (18 to 75 years of age) in the National Latino and Asian American Study, the first-ever nationally representative study of mental health among Asians living in the United States. Stratifying the sample by age in years (i.e., 18 to…

  17. Temporal Trends in Age at HIV Diagnosis in Cohorts in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.

    PubMed

    Crabtree-Ramírez, Brenda; Vega, Yanink Neried Caro; Shepherd, Bryan E; Turner, Megan; Carriquiry, Gabriela; Fink, Valeria; Luz, Paula M; Cortes, Claudia P; Rouzier, Vanessa; Padgett, Denis; Jayathilake, Karu; McGowan, Catherine C; Person, Anna K

    2015-09-01

    In the United States (USA), the age of those newly diagnosed with HIV is changing, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM). A retrospective analysis included HIV-infected adults from seven sites in the Caribbean, Central and South America network (CCASAnet) and the Vanderbilt Comprehensive Care Clinic (VCCC-Nashville, Tennessee, USA). We estimated the proportion of patients <25 years at HIV diagnosis by calendar year among the general population and MSM. 19,466 (CCASAnet) and 3,746 (VCCC) patients were included. The proportion <25 years at diagnosis in VCCC increased over time for both the general population and MSM (p < 0.001). Only in the Chilean site for the general population and the Brazilian site for MSM were similar trends seen. Subjects <25 years of age at diagnosis were less likely to be immunocompromised at enrollment at both the VCCC and CCASAnet. Recent trends in the USA of greater numbers of newly diagnosed young patients were not consistently observed in Latin America and the Caribbean. Prevention efforts tailored to young adults should be increased. PMID:25613592

  18. Evaluation of recharge in selected aquifer systems of the United States using tracers of groundwater age (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, P. B.; Plummer, L. N.; Bohlke, J. K.; Shapiro, S. D.; Hinkle, S. R.

    2009-12-01

    Well constrained water budgets are needed to assess groundwater availability and manage aquifers sustainably throughout the world. Recharge is perhaps the most difficult water-budget component to quantify because of its spatial and temporal variability and because it is difficult to measure directly. Understanding of recharge could be improved through an analysis of groundwater age data because groundwater age distributions integrate recharge processes at relatively large spatial and temporal scales and can be direct measures of recharge. In this presentation, we synthesize existing datasets of groundwater age into a consistent analysis of the timescales and rates of recharge at a national scale. Timescales of recharge, as defined by 2,746 distributed tritium measurements and 224 radiocarbon measurements from 18 flow path studies, varied widely across the United States and were dependent on factors such as aquifer confinement, climate, geologic features like karst conduits and fractures, and changes in sea level. On average, 78 % of sampled flow path lengths in confined aquifers contained pre-Holocene recharge compared to 23 % in unconfined aquifers. Age distributions in aquifers determined from 650 sulfur hexafluoride, chlorofluorocarbon, and tritium/helium-3 measurements from 25 flow path studies and 27 water-table well networks were used to calculate recharge rates for young (0-50 year) groundwater. Recharge rates of young groundwater ranged from 34 to 1,200 mm/year and were dependent on factors such as climate, geology, land use, and topography. Recharge was inversely related to air temperature for a group of 10 flow path studies receiving similar precipitation from South Carolina to Massachusetts, presumably because of the diminishing effects of evapotranspiration on recharge with decreasing temperature. Recharge was directly related to precipitation for a group of 13 flow path studies having similar air temperatures from Massachusetts to Oregon. Regional

  19. Prevalence of coronary heart disease or stroke among workers aged <55 years--United States, 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Luckhaupt, Sara E; Calvert, Geoffrey M

    2014-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease accounts for one in three deaths in the United States each year, and coronary heart disease and stroke account for most of those deaths. To try to prevent 1 million heart attacks and strokes by 2017, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services launched the Million Hearts initiative, promoting proven and effective interventions in communities and clinical settings. In workplace settings, cardiovascular disease can be addressed through a Total Worker Health program, which integrates occupational safety and health protection with health promotion. To identify workers likely to benefit from such a program, CDC analyzed data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for the period 2008-2012 to estimate the prevalence of a history of coronary heart disease or stroke (CHD/stroke) among adults aged <55 years by selected characteristics, employment status, occupation category, and industry of employment. The results of that analysis showed that 1.9% of employed adults aged <55 years reported a history of CHD/stroke, compared with 2.5% of unemployed adults looking for work, and 6.3% of adults not in the labor force (e.g., unemployed adults who stopped looking for work, homemakers, students, retired persons, and disabled persons). Workers employed in service and blue collar occupations were more likely than those in white collar occupations to report a history of CHD/stroke. Two industry groups also had significantly higher adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) for CHD/stroke: Administrative and Support and Waste Management and Remediation Services* and Accommodation and Food Service.† Workers in these occupation and industry groups might especially benefit from a Total Worker Health approach to reducing the risk for CHD/stroke. PMID:25078653

  20. Proxy records of Late Holocene climate events in the eastern United States: Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willard, D. A.; Cronin, T. M.; Hayo, K. M.

    2006-12-01

    We are conducting a multiproxy, regional reconstruction of climate variability during the last two millennia including the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) and Little Ice Age (LIA) in eastern North America. Pollen, benthic foraminifers, ostracodes, and other proxies were analyzed from high-resolution sampling of continuous sedimentary records from lakes, wetlands, and estuaries in Florida, North Carolina, Chesapeake Bay, and Lake Champlain. These records document multi-decadal changes in vegetation, temperature, precipitation, and estuarine salinity across a latitudinal transect. During both the MWP and LIA, decreased precipitation altered plant community composition and distribution in the southeastern United States, and the LIA triggered threshold changes in vegetation that persisted until anthropogenic land-cover change overwhelmed the climate signature. In the mid-Atlantic region, progressively cooler and wetter late Holocene springs culminated in a cool, wet LIA; this trend correlates with observed oceanic changes. Trend analysis of the data suggest that inter-regional correlation of multi-decadal and centennial-scale Holocene climate events will be forthcoming.

  1. Silicosis-related years of potential life lost before age 65 years--United States, 1968-2005.

    PubMed

    2008-07-18

    Occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica occurs in construction, mining, manufacturing, and other industries and can result in silicosis and other lung diseases. Classic (chronic) silicosis results from exposure to relatively low concentrations of respirable crystalline silica for >/=years. Exposure to higher concentrations of silica for 5-10 years can cause accelerated silicosis, and symptoms of acute silicosis can sometimes develop within weeks of initial exposure to extreme concentrations of silica. Deaths in young adults from acute or accelerated silicosis generally reflect more recent and intense exposures. Silicosis is incurable, but preventable through effective control and elimination of exposure to respirable crystalline silica. To characterize recent trends in premature mortality attributed to silicosis in the United States, CDC analyzed annual mortality data from 1968-2005, the most recent years for which complete data were available. Years of potential life lost before age 65 years (YPLL) and mean YPLL were calculated using standard methodology. During 1968-2005, total annual YPLL attributed to silicosis (17,130) declined 90.2%, from 1,441 (mean per decedent: 7.7 YPLL) to 141 (mean per decedent: 11.8), with an annual average of 8.6 YPLL per decedent for the period. However, the proportion of YPLL attributable to young silicosis decedents increased; an estimated 3,600-7,300 new silicosis cases occur annually. Hazard surveillance, workplace-specific interventions, and further silicosis prevention and elimination efforts, especially among young adults, are needed. PMID:18636065

  2. Changing practice and policy to move to scale: a framework for age-friendly communities across the United States.

    PubMed

    Ball, M Scott; Lawler, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    A new body of work has emerged under the category of creating age-friendly communities. This article briefly reviews the current state of the work and discusses a potential framework for moving to scale. Based on an understanding that the majority of the local challenges to aging in community stem from state and national policies and practices, the article calls for a measure of "creative destruction" in local efforts. That is, dysfunctional state and national systems should be boldly marked for demolition. Local age-friendly community work must be conceived of and positioned to engage larger policy issues, identify problems, and be part of a process of reinventing larger federal, state, and local policies and practices. PMID:24266621

  3. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory...

  4. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory...

  5. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory...

  6. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory...

  7. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust...

  8. Proceedings of the 2000 Sino-United States Symposium and Workshop on Library and Information Science Education in the Digital Age (Wuhan, China, November 5-10, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perushek, D. E., Ed.

    The first International Symposium on Library and Information Science Education in the Digital Age, held in November 2000 at Wuhan University (Wuhan, China), drew more than 90 library and information science professionals from China, Macao, and the United States. Participants gathered to discuss a question of common concern: How are our respective…

  9. Demographic Aspects of Aging and the Older Population in the United States. Current Population Reports, Special Studies, Series P-23, No. 59.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Jacob S.; And Others

    This report presents a statistical portrait of the demographic aspects of aging and the older population in the Unites States. Most of the estimates are based on data from decennial censuses, the program of nonsurvey population estimates and projections carried out by the U.S. Bureau of the Census, the Current Population Survey, and other census…

  10. United States Life Tables, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Robert N.

    1999-01-01

    The life tables in this report are current life tables for the United States based on age-specific death rates in 1997. Beginning with the 1997 tables, U.S. life tables have been constructed with a new methodology that is similar to that used in the decennial life tables. Life expectancy and other tables are shown for the first time for ages 85 to…

  11. Three Decades of Nonmarital First Births among Fathers Aged 15-44 in the United States. NCHS Data Brief. Number 204

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Gladys M.

    2015-01-01

    Nonmarital childbearing in the United States increased from the 1940s to the 1990s, peaked in 2007-2008, and declined in 2013 (1-3). In 2013, the nonmarital birth rate was 44.8 births per 1,000 unmarried women aged 15-44. Using data from the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), this study examines nonmarital first births reported by fathers…

  12. Landforms of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hack, John T.

    1969-01-01

    The United States contains a great variety of landforms which offer dramatic contrasts to a crosscountry traveler. Mountains and desert areas, tropical jungles and areas of permanently frozen subsoil, deep canyons and broad plains are examples of the Nation's varied surface. The present-day landforms the features that make up the face of the earth are products of the slow, sculpturing actions of streams and geologic processes that have been at work throughout the ages since the earth's beginning.

  13. Landforms of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hack, John T.

    1988-01-01

    The United States contains a great variety of landforms which offer dramatic contrasts to a cross-country traveler. Mountains and desert areas, tropical jungles and areas of permanently frozen subsoil, and deep canyons and broad plains are examples of the Nation's varied surface. The presentday landforms the features that make up the face of the Earth are products of the slow sculpturing actions of streams and geologic processes that have been at work throughout the ages since the Earth's beginning.

  14. Increased Age and Race-Specific Incidence of Cervical Cancer After Correction for Hysterectomy Prevalence in the United States From 2000 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Rositch, Anne F.; Nowak, Rebecca G.; Gravitt, Patti E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Invasive cervical cancer is thought to decline in women over 65 years old, the age at which cessation of routine cervical cancer screening is recommended. However, national cervical cancer incidence rates do not account for the high prevalence of hysterectomy in the United States. METHODS Using estimates of hysterectomy prevalence from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), hysterectomy-corrected age-standardized and age-specific incidence rates of cervical cancer were calculated from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 registry in the United States from 2000 to 2009. Trends in corrected cervical cancer incidence across age were analyzed using Joinpoint regression. RESULTS Unlike the relative decline in uncorrected rates, corrected rates continue to increase after age 35–39 (APCCORRECTED = 10.43) but at a slower rate than in 20–34 years (APCCORRECTED = 161.29). The highest corrected incidence was among 65- to 69-year-old women, with a rate of 27.4 cases per 100,000 women as opposed to the highest uncorrected rate of 15.6 cases per 100,000 aged 40 to 44 years. Correction for hysterectomy had the largest impact on older, black women given their high prevalence of hysterectomy. CONCLUSIONS Correction for hysterectomy resulted in higher age-specific cervical cancer incidence rates, a shift in the peak incidence to older women, and an increase in the disparity in cervical cancer incidence between black and white women. Given the high and nondeclining rate of cervical cancer in women over the age of 60 to 65 years, when women are eligible to exit screening, risk and screening guidelines for cervical cancer in older women may need to be reconsidered. PMID:24821088

  15. United States crustal thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allenby, R. J.; Schnetzler, C. C.

    1983-01-01

    The thickness of the crust, the thickness of the basal (intermediate or lower) crustal layer, and the average velocity at the top of the mantle have been mapped using all available deep-penetrating seismic-refraction profiles in the conterminous United States and surrounding border areas. These profiles are indexed to their literature data sources. The more significant long wavelength anomalies on the three maps are briefly discussed and analyzed. An attempt to use Bouguer gravity to validate mantle structure was inconclusive.

  16. AIDS-related Burkitt lymphoma in the United States: what do age and CD4 lymphocyte patterns tell us about etiology and/or biology?

    PubMed Central

    Simard, Edgar P.; Anderson, William F.; Engels, Eric A.; Bhatia, Kishor; Devesa, Susan S.; Mbulaiteye, Sam M.

    2010-01-01

    Trimodal or bimodal age-specific incidence rates for Burkitt lymphoma (BL) were observed in the United States general population, but the role of immunosuppression could not be excluded. Incidence rates, rate ratios, and 95% confidence intervals for BL and other non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), by age and CD4 lymphocyte count categories, were estimated using Poisson regression models using data from the United States HIV/AIDS Cancer Match study (1980-2005). BL incidence was 22 cases per 100 000 person-years and 586 for non-BL NHL. Adjusted BL incidence rate ratio among males was 1.6× that among females and among non-Hispanic blacks, 0.4× that among non-Hispanic whites, but unrelated to HIV-transmission category. Non-BL NHL incidence increased from childhood to adulthood; in contrast, 2 age-specific incidence peaks during the pediatric and adult/geriatric years were observed for BL. Non-BL NHL incidence rose steadily with decreasing CD4 lymphocyte counts; in contrast, BL incidence was lowest among people with ≤ 50 CD4 lymphocytes/μL versus those with ≥ 250 CD4 lymphocytes/μL (incidence rate ratio 0.3 [95% confidence interval = 0.2-0.6]). The bimodal peaks for BL, in contrast to non-BL NHL, suggest effects of noncumulative risk factors at different ages. Underascertainment or biological reasons may account for BL deficit at low CD4 lymphocyte counts. PMID:20813897

  17. Impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination of infants on pneumonia and influenza hospitalization and mortality in all age groups in the United States.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Lone; Taylor, Robert J; Young-Xu, Yinong; Haber, Michael; May, Larissa; Klugman, Keith P

    2011-01-01

    A seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) introduced in the United States in 2000 has been shown to reduce invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in both vaccinated children and adults through induction of herd immunity. We assessed the impact of infant immunization on pneumococcal pneumonia hospitalizations and mortality in all age groups using Health Care Utilization Project State Inpatient Databases (SID) for 1996 to 2006 from 10 states; SID contain 100% samples of ICD9-coded hospitalization data for the selected states. Compared to a 1996-1997 through 1998-1999 baseline, by the 2005-2006 season, both IPD and pneumococcal pneumonia hospitalizations and deaths had decreased substantially in all age groups, including a 47% (95% confidence interval [CI], 38 to 54%) reduction in nonbacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (ICD9 code 481 with no codes indicating IPD) in infants <2 years old and a 54% reduction (CI, 53 to 56%) in adults ≥65 years of age. A model developed to calculate the total burden of pneumococcal pneumonia prevented by infant PCV7 vaccination in the United States from 2000 to 2006 estimated a reduction of 788,838 (CI, 695,406 to 875,476) hospitalizations for pneumococcal pneumonia. Ninety percent of the reduction in model-attributed pneumococcal pneumonia hospitalizations occurred through herd immunity among adults 18 years old and older; similar proportions were found in pneumococcal disease mortality prevented by the vaccine. In the first seasons after PCV introduction, when there were substantial state differences in coverage among <5-year-olds, states with greater coverage had significantly fewer influenza-associated pneumonia hospitalizations among children, suggesting that PCV7 use also reduces influenza-attributable pneumonia hospitalizations. PMID:21264063

  18. Difference in adult food group intake by sex and age groups comparing Brazil and United States nationwide surveys

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background International comparisons of dietary intake are an important source of information to better understand food habits and their relationship to nutrition related diseases. The objective of this study is to compare food intake of Brazilian adults with American adults identifying possible dietary factors associated with the increase in obesity in Brazil. Methods This research used cross-national analyses between the United States and Brazil, including 5,420 adults in the 2007–2008 What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and 26,390 adults in the 2008–2009 Brazilian Household Budget Survey, Individual Food Intake. Dietary data were collected through 24 h recalls in the U.S. and through food records in Brazil. Foods and beverages were combined into 25 food categories. Food intake means and percentage of energy contribution by food categories to the population’s total energy intake were compared between the countries. Results Higher frequencies of intake were reported in the United States compared to Brazil for the majority of food categories except for meat, rice and rice dishes; beans and legumes; spreads; and coffee and tea. In either country, young adults (20-39 yrs) had greater reports of meat, poultry and fish mixed dishes; pizza and pasta; and soft drinks compared to older adults (60 + yrs). Meat, poultry and fish mixed dishes (13%), breads (11%), sweets and confections (8%), pizza and pasta (7%), and dairy products (6%) were the top five food category sources of energy intake among American adults. The top five food categories in Brazil were rice and rice dishes (13%), meat (11%), beans and legumes (10%), breads (10%), and coffee and tea (6%). Thus, traditional plant-based foods such as rice and beans were important contributors in the Brazilian diet. Conclusion Although young adults had higher reports of high-calorie and nutrient-poor foods than older adults in both countries, Brazilian young adults did not

  19. Cognitive and physical health of the older populations of England, the United States, and Ireland: international comparability of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing.

    PubMed

    Savva, George M; Maty, Siobhan C; Setti, Annalisa; Feeney, Joanne

    2013-05-01

    This article discusses the contribution that international comparisons of the health and well-being of older people make. The comparability of the "HRS family" of studies that have been modeled on the U.S. Health and Retirement Study (HRS) is discussed. The Irish Longitudinal Study of Ageing (TILDA) is introduced, and the comparability of TILDA data with respect to the HRS family and other studies is described, along with what TILDA will add to international aging research. Data from the 2010 waves of TILDA, HRS and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing are used to compare the physical and cognitive health of older Irish adults with that of the U.S. and English populations. The study shows that the physical and cognitive health of older people in Ireland is closer to that of their English counterparts than of those in the United States and that similar health inequalities exist in all three countries. PMID:23662721

  20. Does our legal minimum drinking age modulate risk of first heavy drinking episode soon after drinking onset? Epidemiological evidence for the United States, 2006–2014

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hui G.

    2016-01-01

    Background. State-level ‘age 21’ drinking laws conform generally with the United States National Minimum Drinking Age Act of 1984 (US), and are thought to protect young people from adverse drinking experiences such as heavy episodic drinking (HED, sometimes called ‘binge drinking’). We shed light on this hypothesis while estimating the age-specific risk of transitioning from 1st full drink to 1st HED among 12-to-23-year-old newly incident drinkers, with challenge to a “gender gap” hypothesis and male excess described in HED prevalence reports. Methods. The study population consisted of non-institutionalized civilians in the United States, with nine independently drawn nationally representative samples of more than 40,000 12-to-23-year-olds (2006–2014). Standardized audio computer-assisted self-interviews identified 43,000 newly incident drinkers (all with 1st HED evaluated within 12 months of drinking onset). Estimated age-specific HED risk soon after first full drink is evaluated for males and females. Results. Among 12-to-23-year-old newly incident drinkers, an estimated 20–30% of females and 35–45% of males experienced their 1st HED within 12 months after drinking onset. Before mid-adolescence, there is no male excess in such HED risk. Those who postponed drinking to age 21 are not spared (27% for ‘postponer’ females; 95% CI [24–30]; 42% for ‘postponer’ males; 95% CI [38–45]). An estimated 10–18% females and 10–28% males experienced their 1st HED in the same month of their 1st drink; peak HED risk estimates are 18% for ‘postponer’ females (95% CI [15–21]) and 28% for ‘postponer’ males (95% CI [24–31]). Conclusions. In the US, one in three young new drinkers transition into HED within 12 months after first drink. Those who postpone the 1st full drink until age 21 are not protected. Furthermore, ‘postponers’ have substantial risk for very rapid transition to HED. A male excess in this transition to HED is not

  1. Association Between Ambient Levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Small for Gestational Age Hispanic Infants Born Along the United States-Mexico Border.

    PubMed

    Maypole-Keenan, Coty M; Symanski, Elaine; Stock, Thomas H; Waller, D Kim

    2016-02-01

    Few studies have examined associations between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and birth outcomes, and no studies have been conducted in El Paso County Texas, along the United States-Mexico border. Infants born from 2005-2007 to Hispanic mothers with a birth weight less than the 10th percentile for gestational age and sex were classified as small for gestational age (SGA). PAH exposures were estimated for the entire period of gestation and for each trimester of pregnancy using ambient air monitoring data from 2004-2007. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios for the association between PAH levels and SGA infants. There was marked seasonal variation in the carcinogenic PAHs. Established risk factors for SGA were observed to be associated with SGA births in this population. No associations were detected between PAH levels and SGA births. These findings provide no evidence of an association between PAHs and SGA infants. PMID:24585213

  2. Willingness to Disclose Sexually Transmitted Infection Status to Sex Partners Among College-Aged Men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Elizabeth J; McGregor, Kyle A; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Hardy Hansen, Cathlene; Ott, Mary A

    2016-03-01

    Disclosure of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to sexual partners is critical to the prevention, treatment, and control of STIs. We examine personal intra and interpersonal influences on willingness to disclose STI status among college-aged men. Participants (n = 1064) were aged 17 to 24 years and recruited from a variety of university and community venues. Using independent-samples t test, Pearson χ test, and binary logistic regression, we examined the relationship between willingness to disclose an STI and intrapersonal and interpersonal factors, including age, masculinity values, interpersonal violence, partner cell phone monitoring, alcohol and/or drug use, condom use, number and characteristics of sex partners, and previous STI. Results reveal that among college-aged men, type of sex partner and masculinity values are significant variables in predicting whether or not an individual is willing to disclose. These data can inform STI control programs to more effectively address the complex issues associated with STI disclosure to sex partners. PMID:26859810

  3. Impact of Age and Sex on Outcomes and Hospital Cost of Acute Asthma in the United States, 2011-2012

    PubMed Central

    Teague, W. Gerald; Koroukian, Siran M.; Schlitz, Nicholas K.; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Busse, William B.; Calhoun, William J.; Castro, Mario; Comhair, Suzy A.; Fitzpatrick, Anne M.; Israel, Elliot; Wenzel, Sally E.; Holguin, Fernando; Gaston, Benjamin M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Worldwide, asthma is a leading cause of morbidity, mortality and economic burden, with significant gender and racial disparities. However, little attention has been given to the independent role of age on lifetime asthma severity and hospitalization. We aimed to assess the effect of age, gender, race and ethnicity on indicators of asthma severity including asthma related hospitalization, mortality, hospital cost, and the rate of respiratory failure. Methods We analyzed the 2011 and 2012 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project- National Inpatient Sample (NIS). We validated and extended those results using the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP; 2002–2011) database. Severe asthma was prospectively defined using the stringent American Thoracic Society (ATS) definition. Results Hospitalization for asthma was reported in 372,685 encounters in 2012 and 368,528 in 2011. The yearly aggregate cost exceeded $2 billion. There were distinct bimodal distributions for hospitalization age, with an initial peak at 5 years and a second at 50 years. Likewise, this bimodal age distribution of patients with severe asthma was identified using SARP. Males comprised the majority of individuals in the first peak, but women in the second. Aggregate hospital cost mirrored the bimodal peak distribution. The probability of respiratory failure increased with age until the age of 60, after which it continued to increase in men, but not in women. Conclusions Severe asthma is primarily a disease of young boys and middle age women. Greater understanding of the biology of lung aging and influence of sex hormones will allow us to plan for targeted interventions during these times in order to reduce the personal and societal burdens of asthma. PMID:27294365

  4. Cost-Effectiveness of HPV Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening in Women over Age 30 in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jane J.; Ortendahl, Jesse; Goldie, Sue J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Women over the age of 30 are the main beneficiaries of improved cervical cancer screening with human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing. The role of vaccination against HPV types 16 and 18, recommended routinely in pre-adolescent girls, is unclear in this age group. Objective To assess the health and economic outcomes of HPV vaccination in older women participating in the U.S. screening program. Design Cost-effectiveness analysis with an empirically-calibrated model. Data Sources Published literature. Target Population U.S. women, ages 35–45. Time Horizon Lifetime. Perspective Societal. Interventions HPV vaccination added to screening strategies that differ by test (cytology, HPV DNA testing), frequency, and start age, versus screening alone. Outcome Measures Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (2006 U.S. dollars per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained). Results of Base-Case Analysis In the context of annual or biennial screening, HPV vaccination of women ages 35–45 ranged from $116,950 to $272,350 per QALY using cytology with HPV DNA testing for triage of equivocal results, and from $193,690 to $381,590 per QALY using combination cytology and HPV DNA testing, depending on age and screening frequency. Results of Sensitivity Analysis Probabilistic sensitivity analysis revealed that the probability of HPV vaccination being cost-effective for women ages 35–45 was 0% when screening occurred annually or biennially, and <5% when screening occurred triennially, at thresholds considered good value for money. Limitations Uncertainty in the natural history of disease and vaccine efficacy in older women. Conclusions Given currently available information, the effectiveness of HPV vaccination of screened women over age 30 appears, on average, to be small. Compared with current screening that uses sensitive HPV DNA testing, HPV vaccination in this older population is associated with cost-effectiveness ratios that are less attractive than well

  5. Age patterns of racial/ethnic/nativity differences in disability and physical functioning in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Melvin, Jennifer; Hummer, Robert; Elo, Irma; Mehta, Neil

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Rapid population aging and increasing racial/ethnic and immigrant/native diversity make a broad documentation of U.S. health patterns during both mid- and late life particularly important. OBJECTIVE We aim to better understand age- and gender-specific racial/ethnic and nativity differences in physical functioning and disability among adults aged 50 and above. METHODS We aggregate 14 years of data from the National Health Interview Survey and calculate age- and gender-specific proportions of physical functioning and two types of disability for each population subgroup. RESULTS Middle-aged foreign-born individuals in nearly every subgroup exhibit lower proportions of functional limitations and disability than U.S.-born whites. This pattern of immigrant advantage is generally reversed in later life. Moreover, most U.S.-born minority groups have significantly higher levels of functional limitations and disability than U.S.-born whites in both mid- and late life. CONCLUSIONS Higher levels of functional limitations and disability among U.S.-born minority groups and immigrant populations in older adulthood pose serious challenges for health providers and policymakers in a rapidly diversifying and aging population. PMID:26893587

  6. Aging Field Collected Aedes aegypti to Determine Their Capacity for Dengue Transmission in the Southwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Joy, Teresa K.; Jeffrey Gutierrez, Eileen H.; Ernst, Kacey; Walker, Kathleen R.; Carriere, Yves; Torabi, Mohammad; Riehle, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue virus, is well established throughout urban areas of the Southwestern US, including Tucson, AZ. Local transmission of the dengue virus, however, has not been reported in this area. Although many factors influence the distribution of the dengue virus, we hypothesize that one contributing factor is that the lifespan of female Ae. aegypti mosquitoes in the Southwestern US is too short for the virus to complete development and be transmitted to a new host. To test this we utilized two age grading techniques. First, we determined parity by analyzing ovarian tracheation and found that only 40% of Ae. aegypti females collected in Tucson, AZ were parous. The second technique determined transcript levels of an age-associated gene, Sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein 1 (SCP-1). SCP-1 expression decreased in a predictable manner as the age of mosquitoes increased regardless of rearing conditions and reproductive status. We developed statistical models based on parity and SCP-1 expression to determine the age of individual, field collected mosquitoes within three age brackets: nonvectors (0–5 days post-emergence), unlikely vectors (6–14 days post-emergence), and potential vectors (15+ days post-emergence). The statistical models allowed us to accurately group individual wild mosquitoes into the three age brackets with high confidence. SCP-1 expression levels of individual, field collected mosquitoes were analyzed in conjunction with parity status. Based on SCP-1 transcript levels and parity data, 9% of collected mosquitoes survived more than 15 days post emergence. PMID:23077536

  7. Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol, Marijuana, and Alcohol and Marijuana Combined Among Persons Aged 16-25 Years - United States, 2002-2014.

    PubMed

    Azofeifa, Alejandro; Mattson, Margaret E; Lyerla, Rob

    2015-12-11

    Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of death among youths and young adults aged 16-25 years in the United States (1). The prevalence of drinking and driving among high school students aged 16-19 years has declined by 54%, from 22.3% in 1991 to 10.3% in 2011 (2). However, the prevalence of weekend nighttime driving under the influence of marijuana (based on biochemical assays) among drivers aged ≥16 years has increased by 48%, from 8.6% in 2007 to 12.6% in 2013-2014 (3). Use of marijuana alone and in combination with alcohol has been shown to impair driving abilities (4-9). This report provides the most recent self-reported national estimates of driving under the influence of alcohol, marijuana, and alcohol and marijuana combined among persons aged 16-25 years, using data from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) from 2002-2014. Prevalence data on driving under the influence of both substances were examined for two age groups (16-20 years and 21-25 years) and by sex and race/ethnicity. During 2002-2014, the prevalence of driving under the influence of alcohol alone significantly declined by 59% among persons aged 16-20 years (from 16.2% in 2002 to 6.6% in 2014; p<0.001) and 38% among persons 21-25 years (from 29.1% in 2002 to 18.1% in 2014; p<0.001). In addition, the prevalence of driving under the influence of alcohol and marijuana combined significantly declined by 39%, from 2.3% in 2002 to 1.4% in 2014 (p<0.001) among persons aged 16-20 years and from 3.1% in 2002 to 1.9% in 2014 (p<0.001) among persons aged 21-25 years. The prevalence of driving under the influence of marijuana alone declined 18%, from 3.8% in 2002 to 3.1% in 2014 (p = 0.05) only among persons aged 16-20 years. Effective public safety interventions,* such as minimum legal drinking age laws, prohibition of driving with any alcohol level >0 for persons aged <21 years, targeted mass media campaigns

  8. A Golden Age of Security and Education? Adult Education for Civil Defence in the United States 1950-1970

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, John

    2015-01-01

    A number of authors consider that the early period of US security and education (1950-1970) was in some way a "golden age" where there was a prevailing societal orientation towards civil defence. This is supported, to some extent, through "Duck and Cover" type activities in schools and in community preparedness efforts. This…

  9. Bilingual Lexical Skills of School-Age Children with Chinese and Korean Heritage Languages in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jia, Gisela; Chen, Jennifer; Kim, HyeYoung; Chan, Phoenix-Shan; Jeung, Changmo

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the bilingual lexical skills of 175 US school-age children (5 to 18 years old) with Cantonese, Mandarin, or Korean as their heritage language (HL), and English as their dominant language. Primary study goals were to identify potential patterns of development in bilingual lexical skills over the elementary to…

  10. Internet Use by Transition-Aged Youths with Visual Impairments in the United States: Assessing the Impact of Postsecondary Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Stacy M.; Wolffe, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Youths and adults without disabilities have been increasing the regularity of their online connectivity at a rapid pace, as previous research has indicated. The study presented here examined the degree to which transition-aged youths with visual impairments have used the Internet and what outcomes they have achieved following their…

  11. Secular Trends of Breast Cancer in China, South Korea, Japan and the United States: Application of the Age-Period-Cohort Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenkun; Bao, Junzhe; Yu, Chuanhua; Wang, Jinyao; Li, Chunhui

    2015-01-01

    To describe the temporal trends of breast cancer mortality in East Asia and to better understand the causes of these trends, we analyzed the independent effects of chronological age, time period and birth cohort on breast cancer mortality trends using age-period-cohort (APC) analysis. We chose three main countries in East Asia, namely China, South Korea, and Japan, which have reported death status to the WHO Mortality Database, and used the United States as a comparison population. Our study shows that in general, breast cancer mortality rates in females increased in all three East Asian countries throughout the study period. By APC analysis, we confirmed that there is, in fact, a difference in age-specific mortality rate patterns between the Eastern and the Western countries, which is presumably caused by the two-disease model. While the cause of the decrease from approximately the 1950s generation is still in question, we believe that increasing general awareness and improvements in the health-care system have made a significant contribution to it. Although the age and cohort effects are relatively strong, the period effect may be a more critical factor in the mortality trend, mainly reflecting the increase in exposures to carcinogens and behavioral risk factors. PMID:26690183

  12. Hospital costs associated with atrial fibrillation for ischemic stroke patients aged 18-64 years in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guijing; Joo, Heesoo; Tong, Xin; George, Mary G.

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Hospital costs associated with atrial fibrillation (AFib) among stroke patients have not been well-studied, especially among people younger than 65 years. We estimated the AFib-associated hospital costs in U.S. patients aged 18-64 years. Methods We identified hospital admissions with a primary diagnosis of ischemic stroke from the 2010-2012 MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters inpatient datasets, excluding those with capitated health insurance plans, aged <18 or >64, missing geographic region, hospital costs below the 1st or above 99th percentile, and having carotid intervention (N=40,082). We searched the data for AFib and analyzed the costs for non-repeat and repeat stroke admissions separately. We estimated the AFib-associated costs using multivariate regression models controlling for age, sex, geographic region, and Charlson comorbidity index. Results Of the 33,500 non-repeat stroke admissions, 2,407 (7.2%) had AFib. Admissions with AFib cost $4,991 more than those without AFib ($23,770 vs. $18,779). For the 6,582 repeat stroke admissions, 397 (6.0%) had AFib. The costs were $3,260 more for those with AFib than those without ($24,119 vs. $20,929). After controlling for potential confounders, AFib-associated costs for non-repeat stroke admissions were $4,905, representing 20.6% of the total costs for the admissions. Both the hospital costs and the AFib-associated costs were associated with age, but not sex. AFib-associated costs for repeat stroke admissions were not significantly higher than for non-AFib patients, except for those aged 55-64 ($3,537). Conclusions AFib increased the hospital cost of ischemic stroke substantially. Further investigation on AFib-associated costs for repeat stroke admissions is needed. PMID:25851767

  13. Cancelled Careers; The Impact of Reduction-in-Force Policies on Middle-Aged Federal Employees. A Report to the Special Committee on Aging, United States Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidbreder, Elizabeth M.

    A study, requested by Senate Special Committee on Aging, to investigate reports that middle-aged Federal employees were currently being forced out of Government and to determine the need for immediate reassessment of personnel policies, particularly early retirement policies, is presented. Availability of statistical data on retirements and…

  14. United States West Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On Thursday (Feb. 14, 2002), the cloud cover that often overshadows the western United States this time of year broke to provide those at the Olympic Games with a beautiful day. The nearly cloud-free day was captured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASAs Terra spacecraft. A thick layer of snow blankets northernmost Nevada, northern Utah, most of Idaho and western Wyoming. The snow surrounds and highlights Utahs Great Salt Lake. Just south of the lake, clouds can be seen hovering over southern Utah. (In general, clouds appear streaky and uneven on a satellite image, and snow cover appears solid with definable borders.) North of the Great Salt Lake, one can clearly discern the light gray Northern Rocky Mountains cutting through Idaho and up into Canada. Moving southwest, the spine-like Sierra Nevada mountains separate the greenery of Southern California from the brown deserts of Arizona and Nevada. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  15. Nd isotopes and the origin of Grenville-age rocks in Texas: Implications for Proterozoic evolution of the United States mid-continent region

    SciTech Connect

    Patchett, P.J.; Ruiz, J. )

    1989-11-01

    Nd isotopic data were obtained for Precambrian Grenville-belt rocks in Texas. The samples represent most components of the crust of the Llano, Van Horn, and Franklin Mountains exposed terranes. Almost all Precambrian igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks from the three regions document addition to North America of mantle-derived crustal materials in the 1.6-1.0 Ga interval. The exception is a quartzite from the westernmost (Franklin Mountains) exposure, which was derived from {approximately}1.8 Ga crust of the southwestern United States. The initial {epsilon}{sub Nd} values of all rocks except the quartzite lie in the +1 to +6 range for igneous/metamorphic ages of 1.37 to 1.06 Ga. These results can be interpreted in two ways: (1) as documenting 0-20% additions of older crustal material to mantle-derived products 1.4-1.0 Ga ago; or (2) as documenting derivation of the Grenville exposures by recycling of older crustal protoliths separated from the mantle 1.6-1.3 Ga ago. The Nd data in isolation do not resolve these two interpretations. The model mantle separation ages (T{sub DM}) of the rocks are very similar to published values of granulites in Mexico and Virginia: all these regions of the United States and Mexico show a strong peak of T{sub DM} around 1.4 Ga ago. If the ages represent older crustal protoliths, then they would have formed coevally with the 1.5-1.3 Ga Granite-Rhyolite Terranes of the continental interior USA. This would imply that the Granite-Rhyolite Terranes were formed during orogenic/accretionary processes in the adjoining Grenville Belt, and are not anorogenic in association, as conventionally assumed.

  16. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Recommended Immunization Schedules for Persons Aged 0 Through 18 Years - United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Candice L

    2016-01-01

    Each year, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)* reviews the recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0 through 18 years to ensure that the schedules reflect current recommendations for Food and Drug Administration-licensed vaccines. In October 2015, ACIP approved the recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0 through 18 years for 2016; the 2016 schedules include several changes from the 2015 immunization schedules. For 2016, the figures, footnotes, and tables will be published on the CDC immunization schedule website (http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/index.html). This provides readers electronic access to the most current version of the schedules and footnotes on the CDC website. Health care providers are advised to use figures, tables, and the combined footnotes together. Printable versions of the 2016 immunization schedules for persons aged 0 through 18 years in several formats (e.g., portrait, landscape, and pocket-sized versions) and ordering instructions for laminated versions and "parent-friendly" schedules are available at the immunization schedule website. PMID:26845283

  17. State-specific prevalence of current cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adults aged ≥18 years - United States, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kimberly; Marshall, LaTisha; Hu, Sean; Neff, Linda

    2015-05-22

    Cigarette smoking and the use of smokeless tobacco both cause substantial morbidity and premature mortality. The concurrent use of these products might increase dependence and the risk for tobacco-related disease and death. State-specific estimates of prevalence and relative percent change in current cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and concurrent cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among U.S. adults during 2011-2013, developed using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), indicate statistically significant (p<0.05) changes for all three behaviors. From 2011 to 2013, there was a statistically significant decline in current cigarette smoking prevalence overall and in 26 states. During the same period, use of smokeless tobacco significantly increased in four states: Louisiana, Montana, South Carolina, and West Virginia; significant declines were observed in two states: Ohio and Tennessee. In addition, the use of smokeless tobacco among cigarette smokers (concurrent use) significantly increased in five states (Delaware, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, and West Virginia). Although annual decreases in overall cigarette smoking among adults in the United States have occurred in recent years, there is much variability in prevalence of cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco, and concurrent use across states. In 2013, the prevalence ranged from 10.3% (Utah) to 27.3% (West Virginia) for cigarette smoking; 1.5% (District of Columbia and Massachusetts) to 9.4% (West Virginia) for smokeless tobacco; and 3.1% (Vermont) to 13.5% (Idaho) for concurrent use. These findings highlight the importance of sustained comprehensive state tobacco-control programs funded at CDC-recommended levels, which can accelerate progress toward reducing tobacco-related disease and deaths by promoting evidence-based population-level interventions. These interventions include increasing the price of tobacco products, implementing comprehensive smoke-free laws

  18. Reduced Disparities in Birth Rates Among Teens Aged 15-19 Years - United States, 2006-2007 and 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Romero, Lisa; Pazol, Karen; Warner, Lee; Cox, Shanna; Kroelinger, Charlan; Besera, Ghenet; Brittain, Anna; Fuller, Taleria R; Koumans, Emilia; Barfield, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    Teen childbearing can have negative health, economic, and social consequences for mothers and their children (1) and costs the United States approximately $9.4 billion annually (2). During 1991-2014, the birth rate among teens aged 15-19 years in the United States declined 61%, from 61.8 to 24.2 births per 1,000, the lowest rate ever recorded (3). Nonetheless, in 2014, the teen birth rate remained approximately twice as high for Hispanic and non-Hispanic black (black) teens compared with non-Hispanic white (white) teens (3), and geographic and socioeconomic disparities remain (3,4), irrespective of race/ethnicity. Social determinants associated with teen childbearing (e.g., low parental educational attainment and limited opportunities for education and employment) are more common in communities with higher proportions of racial and ethnic minorities (4), contributing to the challenge of further reducing disparities in teen births. To examine trends in births for teens aged 15-19 years by race/ethnicity and geography, CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) data at the national (2006-2014), state (2006-2007 and 2013-2014), and county (2013-2014) levels. To describe socioeconomic indicators previously associated with teen births, CDC analyzed data from the American Community Survey (ACS) (2010-2014). Nationally, from 2006 to 2014, the teen birth rate declined 41% overall with the largest decline occurring among Hispanics (51%), followed by blacks (44%), and whites (35%). The birth rate ratio for Hispanic teens and black teens compared with white teens declined from 2.9 to 2.2 and from 2.3 to 2.0, respectively. From 2006-2007 to 2013-2014, significant declines in teen birth rates and birth rate ratios were noted nationally and in many states. At the county level, teen birth rates for 2013-2014 ranged from 3.1 to 119.0 per 1,000 females aged 15-19 years; ACS data indicated unemployment was higher, and education attainment and family income were lower in

  19. U/Pb zircon and baddeleyite ages for the Palisades and Gettysburg sills of the northeastern United States: Implications for the age of the Triassic/Jurassic boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunning, G. R.; Hodych, J. P.

    1990-08-01

    Zircons extracted from the Palisades and Gettysburg sills and baddeleyite from the Palisades sill yield consistent U-Pb ages of 201 ±1 Ma. These sills are likely related to the lowermost basalt flows of the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic Newark Supergroup rift basins of the eastern margin of North America (because of the geochemical similarity of their high-Ti quartz tholeiites and because drilling suggests that the Palisades sill directly fed some of the lowermost flows). Because the lowermost flows of the Newark Supergroup are paleonto-logically assigned to the lowermost Hettangian, the 201 ±1 Ma age of the sills should be slightly younger than the age of the Triassic/Jurassic boundary. Our data support the age of 204 ±4 Ma assigned the Triassic/Jurassic boundary and suggest that recent K-Ar dating for the Hettangian flows of the Newark Supergroup, which yielded an average age of 190 ±3 Ma, is about 5% low.

  20. U/Pb zircon and baddeleyite ages for the Palisades and Gettysburg sills of the northeastern United States: Implications for the age of the Triassic/Jurassic boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Dunning, G.R.; Hodych, J.P. )

    1990-08-01

    Zircons extracted from the Palisades and Gettysburg sills and baddeleyite from the Palisades sill yield consistent U-Pb ages of 201 {plus minus} 1 Ma. These sills are likely related to the lowermost basalt flows of the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic Newark Supergroup rift basins of the eastern margin of North America (because of the geochemical similarity of their high-Ti quartz tholeiites and because drilling suggests that the Palisades sill directly fed some of the lowermost flows). Because the lowermost flows of the Newark Supergroup are paleontologically assigned to the lowermost Hettangian, the 201 {plus minus} 1 Ma age of the sills should be slightly younger than the age of the Triassic/Jurassic boundary. Our data support the age of 204 {plus minus} 4 Ma assigned the Triassic/Jurassic boundary and suggest that recent K-Ar dating for the Hettangian flows of the Newark Supergroup, which yielded an average age of 190 {plus minus} 3 Ma, is about 5% low.

  1. Cross-cultural comparison of successful aging definitions between Chinese and Hmong elders in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Annie L.; Seal, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to elicit the definitions of successful aging according to Chinese and Hmong elders living in Milwaukee, WI. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 44 elders (Hmong n=21 and Chinese n=23). Findings show some similarities in the Chinese and Hmong elders’ definitions though specific cultural differences exist. Chinese elders emphasized physical health and mobility, mental health, positive attitudes, shedding responsibilities, positive family relationships, financial stability, social engagement, religious faith, and accomplishments and volunteer work. Hmong elders emphasized physical health and mobility, mental health, harmonious relationships, positive family relationships, tangible family support, financial stability, social engagement, and religious faith. Cross-cultural comparisons of the findings highlight the cultural heterogeneity between these two subgroups. Implications for practice are discussed. PMID:24710950

  2. Cross-cultural comparison of successful aging definitions between Chinese and Hmong elders in the United States.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Annie L; Seal, David W

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to elicit the definitions of successful aging according to Chinese and Hmong elders living in Milwaukee, WI. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 44 elders (Hmong n = 21 and Chinese n = 23). Findings show some similarities in the Chinese and Hmong elders' definitions though specific cultural differences exist. Chinese elders emphasized physical health and mobility, mental health, positive attitudes, shedding responsibilities, positive family relationships, financial stability, social engagement, religious faith, and accomplishments and volunteer work. Hmong elders emphasized physical health and mobility, mental health, harmonious relationships, positive family relationships, tangible family support, financial stability, social engagement, and religious faith. Cross-cultural comparisons of the findings highlight the cultural heterogeneity between these two subgroups. Implications for practice are discussed. PMID:24710950

  3. Sex, age, and progression of drug use in adolescents admitted for substance use disorder treatment in the northeastern United States: Comparison with a national survey

    PubMed Central

    Bracken, Bethany K.; Rodolico, John; Hill, Kevin P.

    2013-01-01

    Background National adolescent drug use surveys are distributed in United States schools. Survey results determine trends in drug use and inform research and prevention efforts, however, students who have dropped out of school or were truant the day of the survey are excluded. Examining drug trends in a high-risk population (adolescents admitted for drug treatment) may better characterize drug users and their use patterns. Methods The current study examined questionnaires completed by 939 adolescents admitted for substance abuse treatment between 1995 and 2010. Results Age of first use (ranging from 13.2 years for alcohol to 15.1 years for cocaine) was significantly younger for cigarettes, alcohol, and cannabis than for “harder” drugs like cocaine and heroin, and adolescents increased their use of almost every substance (except inhalants) with increasing age. This was not true of national data. Additionally, in the national data, less than 1.5% of participants reported using any of the harder drugs more than 5 times, but in the McLean data, even for harder drugs, >10% of adolescents used >50 times. Discussion In the high-risk sample examined here, progression to harder drugs is accelerated and increases with age regardless of sex. These data underscore the importance of prevention and immediate treatment when adolescent substance use is identified. PMID:23844957

  4. Trends in the age adjusted mortality from acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction in the United States (1988-2004) based on race, gender, infarct location and comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Movahed, Mohammed-Reza; John, Jooby; Hashemzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Jamal, M Mazen; Hashemzadeh, Mehrtash

    2009-10-15

    Treatment of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has dramatically changed over the past 2 decades. The goal of this study was to determine trends in the mortality of patients with acute STEMIs in the United States over a 16-year period (1988 to 2004) on the basis of gender, race, infarct location, and co-morbidities. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was used to analyze the age-adjusted mortality rates for STEMI from 1988 to 2004 for inpatients age >40. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes consistent with acute STEMI were used. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database contained a total of 1,316,216 patients who had diagnoses of acute STEMIs from 1988 to 2004. The mean age of these patients was 66.92 +/- 12.82 years. A total of 163,915 hospital deaths occurred during the study period. From 1988, the age-adjusted mortality rate decreased gradually for all acute STEMIs for the entire study period (in 1988, 406.86 per 100,000, 95% confidence interval 110.25 to 703.49; in 2004, 286.02 per 100,000, 95% confidence interval 45.21 to 526.84). Furthermore, unadjusted mortality decreased from 15% in 1988 to 10% in 2004 (p <0.01). This decrease was similar between the genders, among most ethnicities, and in patients with diabetes and those with congestive heart failure. However, women and African Americans had higher rates of acute STEMI-related mortality compared to men and Caucasians over the years studied. In conclusion, age-adjusted mortality from acute STEMIs has significantly decreased over the past 16 years, with persistent higher mortality rates in women and African Americans the study period. PMID:19801019

  5. Developments in Aging: 1986--Volume 2--Appendixes. A Report of the Special Committee on Aging. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Special Committee on Aging.

    This document is the second volume of a two-volume Senate report describing actions taken during 1986 by the Congress, the administration, and the Senate Special Committee on Aging which are significant to older Americans. While volume 1 summarizes and analyzes federal policies and programs that are of continuing importance for older persons and…

  6. Urinary cadmium levels and tobacco smoke exposure in women age 20-69 years in the United States.

    PubMed

    McElroy, J A; Shafer, M M; Trentham-Dietz, A; Hampton, J M; Newcomb, P A

    2007-10-01

    Cadmium is a toxic, bioaccumulated heavy metal with a half-life of one to four decades in humans (CDC, 2005). Primary exposure sources include food and tobacco smoke. In our population-based study, a risk-factor interview was conducted as part of a breast cancer study for 251 randomly selected women living in Wisconsin (USA), aged 20-69 yr, and spot-urine specimens were also obtained. Urine collection kits were carefully designed to minimize trace element contamination during specimen collection and handling in each participant's home. Urine cadmium concentrations were quantified using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and creatinine levels and specific gravity were also determined. Statistically significant increasing creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium mean levels relative to smoking status (never, former, and current respectively) were observed. A difference in mean cadmium levels for nonsmokers who reported environmental tobacco smoke exposure during childhood or the recent past (approximately 2 yr prior to the interview) for exposure at home, at work, or in social settings compared to those who reported no exposure was not found. PMID:17885936

  7. A dynamic transmission model with age-dependent infectiousness and reactivation for cytomegalovirus in the United States: Potential impact of vaccination strategies on congenital infection.

    PubMed

    Hogea, Cosmina; Dieussaert, Ilse; Van Effelterre, Thierry; Guignard, Adrienne; Mols, Johann

    2015-01-01

    We present an age-structured dynamic transmission model for cytomegalovirus (CMV) in the United States, based on natural history and available data, primarily aiming to combine the available qualitative and quantitative knowledge toward more complex modeling frameworks to better reflect the underlying biology and epidemiology of the CMV infection. The model structure explicitly accounts for primary infections, reactivations and re-infections. Duration of infectiousness and likelihood of reactivation were both assumed to be age-dependent, and natural reduction in the re-infection risk following primary infection was included. We used an empirical social contact matrix (POLYMOD-based) as support for CMV transmission between different age groups. The baseline model reproduced well the age-stratified seroprevalence data (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III) used for calibration. The model was further used to explore the potential impact of hypothetical vaccination on reducing congenital CMV infection under various vaccine profiles and vaccination scenarios. Our preliminary model-based simulations suggested that while infant vaccination may represent an attractive way to reduce congenital CMV infection over time, adolescent female vaccination with an adequate routine booster platform may, under certain conditions, provide an alternative. However, for such tools to be considered toward actual decision-making, enhanced validations based on additional studies and data would be further necessary. The modeling framework presented in this paper was designed to be sufficiently general and flexible, such that it can allow for further adaptations to reflect new knowledge or data that may become available in the future. PMID:25984886

  8. A dynamic transmission model with age-dependent infectiousness and reactivation for cytomegalovirus in the United States: Potential impact of vaccination strategies on congenital infection

    PubMed Central

    Hogea, Cosmina; Dieussaert, Ilse; Van Effelterre, Thierry; Guignard, Adrienne; Mols, Johann

    2015-01-01

    We present an age-structured dynamic transmission model for cytomegalovirus (CMV) in the United States, based on natural history and available data, primarily aiming to combine the available qualitative and quantitative knowledge toward more complex modeling frameworks to better reflect the underlying biology and epidemiology of the CMV infection. The model structure explicitly accounts for primary infections, reactivations and re-infections. Duration of infectiousness and likelihood of reactivation were both assumed to be age-dependent, and natural reduction in the re-infection risk following primary infection was included. We used an empirical social contact matrix (POLYMOD-based) as support for CMV transmission between different age groups. The baseline model reproduced well the age-stratified seroprevalence data (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III) used for calibration. The model was further used to explore the potential impact of hypothetical vaccination on reducing congenital CMV infection under various vaccine profiles and vaccination scenarios. Our preliminary model-based simulations suggested that while infant vaccination may represent an attractive way to reduce congenital CMV infection over time, adolescent female vaccination with an adequate routine booster platform may, under certain conditions, provide an alternative. However, for such tools to be considered toward actual decision-making, enhanced validations based on additional studies and data would be further necessary. The modeling framework presented in this paper was designed to be sufficiently general and flexible, such that it can allow for further adaptations to reflect new knowledge or data that may become available in the future. PMID:25984886

  9. PRECISION IN ESTIMATES OF DISABILITY PREVALENCE FOR THE POPULATION AGED 65 AND OVER IN THE UNITED STATES BY RACE AND ETHNICITY

    PubMed Central

    SIORDIA, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Populations are aging worldwide. In the United States (US), the older adult (aged ≥65) population will increase rapidly in the decades to come. Identifying public health needs in older adults requires that sample-derived estimates of disability prevalence be produced using transparent methodologies. Objectives Produce estimates of disabilities for the US older adult population by race and ethnicity and present measures on the ‘level of precision’ in the estimates. Design Cross-sectional study used American Community Survey (ACS) Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) 3-year file collected during 2009-2011 survey period. Setting Community dwelling population aged ≥65 in US. Participants The 1,494,893 actual survey participants (unweighted count) are said to represent 40,496,512 individuals after population weights are applied (weighted count). From the weighted counts, the average age is 75, about 56% are females, and most (80%) are Non-Latino-Whites (NLW). Results Qualitative comparisons provide some evidence that except for hearing, disability prevalence is highest in Non-Latino-Blacks along the following disability items: independent living (25%); ambulatory (34%); self-care (15%); cognitive (11%); and vision (11%). Person inflation ratios, width of 95% confidence interval, and rates of allocations are smaller in NLWs than all the other race-ethnic groups—suggesting disability estimates for NLWs merit the highest level of confidence. Conclusions Improving measures of health in the older adult population requires that efforts continue to highlight how estimates of disability prevalence have the potential to vary in precision and as a function of various known and unknown factors. PMID:26258112

  10. 7 CFR 1160.104 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States. 1160.104 Section 1160.104 Agriculture... Definitions § 1160.104 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous states in the continental United States and the District of Columbia, except that United States means the 50 states of the United...

  11. Landforms of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in landforms of the United States with a nontechnical introduction to the subject. Separate sections examine deposital versus erosional landforms in the central stable region of the United States, the Appalachian Highlands, the Ozark Region,…

  12. Climates of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, John L.

    This document is designed to provide basic information about the climates of the United States and the causes of these climates. Events of interest in the climatological history of the United States are described and illustrated by many maps, charts and diagrams. The booklet has three major parts. Part I discusses climate and climate control in…

  13. UNITED STATES RENAL DATA SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Renal Data System (USRDS) is a national data system that collects, analyzes, and distributes information about end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the United States. The USRDS is funded directly by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseas...

  14. 77 FR 27481 - United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division United States v. Exelon Corporation, et al.; Public Comment and Response on Proposed Final Judgment Pursuant to the Antitrust Procedures and Penalties Act, 15 U.S.C. 16(b)-(h), the United States hereby publishes below the...

  15. Breast Cancer by Age at Diagnosis in the Gharbiah, Egypt, Population-Based Registry Compared to the United States Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, 2004–2008

    PubMed Central

    Schlichting, Jennifer A.; Soliman, Amr S.; Schairer, Catherine; Harford, Joe B.; Hablas, Ahmed; Ramadan, Mohamed; Seifeldin, Ibrahim; Merajver, Sofia D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Although breast cancers (BCs) in young women often display more aggressive features, younger women are generally not screened for early detection. It is important to understand the characteristics of young onset breast cancer to increase awareness in this population. This analysis includes all ages, with emphasis placed on younger onset BC in Egypt as compared to the United States. Methods. BC cases in the Gharbiah cancer registry (GCR), Egypt, were compared to those in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. This analysis included 3,819 cases from the GCR and 273,019 from SEER diagnosed 2004–2008. Results. GCR cases were diagnosed at later stages, with <5% diagnosed at Stage I and 12% diagnosed at Stage IV. 48% of all SEER cases were diagnosed at Stage I, dropping to 30% among those ≤40. Significant differences in age, tumor grade, hormone receptor status, histology, and stage exist between GCR and SEER BCs. After adjustment, GCR cases were nearly 45 times more likely to be diagnosed at stage III and 16 times more likely to be diagnosed at stage IV than SEER cases. Conclusions. Future research should examine ways to increase literacy about early detection and prompt therapy in young cases. PMID:26495294

  16. Use of Complementary Health Approaches Among Children Aged 4–17 Years in the United States: National Health Interview Survey, 2007–2012

    PubMed Central

    Black, Lindsey I.; Clarke, Tainya C.; Barnes, Patricia M.; Stussman, Barbara J.; Nahin, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This report presents national estimates of the use of complementary health approaches among children aged 4–17 years in the United States. Selected modalities are compared for 2007 and 2012 to examine changes over time. Methods Data from the 2007 and 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were analyzed for this report. The combined sample included 17,321 interviews with knowledgeable adults about children aged 4–17 years. Point estimates and estimates of their variances were calculated using SUDAAN software to account for the complex sampling design of NHIS. Differences between percentages were evaluated using two-sided significance tests at the 0.05 level. Results The use of complementary health approaches among children did not change significantly since 2007 (from 12.0% in 2007 to 11.6% in 2012). However, one approach, the use of traditional healers, showed a statistically significant decrease in use, from 1.1% in 2007 to 0.1% in 2012. No other significant decreases were identified. An increase in the use of yoga was observed during this period (from 2.3% in 2007 to 3.1% in 2012). Nonvitamin, nonmineral dietary supplements; chiropractic or osteopathic manipulation; and yoga, tai chi, or qi gong were the most commonly used complementary health approaches in both 2007 and 2012. Also consistent between 2007 and 2012 was that complementary health approaches were most frequently used for back or neck pain, head or chest cold, anxiety or stress, and other musculoskeletal conditions. PMID:25671583

  17. Intergenerational Educational Partnerships: A Lifetime of Talent To Share. Hearing Before the Special Committee on Aging. United States Senate, One Hundred First Congress, First Session (Boca Raton, FL).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Special Committee on Aging.

    A senate hearing on the role of older volunteers in the schools was held at the Spanish River High School in Boca Raton, Florida. At the time of the hearing, Florida was the only state in the United States with a school volunteer program supported by legislation, appropriation, and a state program coordinating office. Students, volunteer program…

  18. Nutrient intakes of middle-aged men and women in China, Japan, United Kingdom, and United States in the late 1990s: the INTERMAP study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, B F; Stamler, J; Dennis, B; Moag-Stahlberg, A; Okuda, N; Robertson, C; Zhao, L; Chan, Q; Elliott, P

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare nutrient intakes among Chinese, Japanese, UK, and US INTERMAP samples, and assess possible relationships of dietary patterns to differential patterns of cardiovascular diseases between East Asian and Western countries. Based on a common Protocol and Manuals of Operations, high-quality dietary data were collected by four standardized 24-h dietary recalls and two 24-h urine collections from 17 population samples in China (three samples), Japan (four samples), UK (two samples), and USA (eight samples). There were about 260 men and women aged 40-59 years per sample--total N=4680. Quality of dietary interview and data entry were monitored and enhanced by extensive systematic ongoing quality control procedures at local, country, and international level. Four databases on nutrient composition of foods from the four countries were updated and enhanced (76 nutrients for all four countries) by the Nutrition Coordinating Center, University of Minnesota, in cooperation with Country Nutritionists. The mean body mass index was much higher for Western than East Asian samples. Macronutrient intakes differed markedly across these samples, with Western diet higher in total fat, saturated and trans fatty acids, and Keys dietary lipid score, lower in total carbohydrate and starch, higher in sugars. Based on extensive published data, it is a reasonable inference that this pattern relates to higher average levels of serum total cholesterol and higher mortality from coronary heart disease in Western than East Asian populations. The rural Chinese diet was lower in protein, especially animal protein, in calcium, phosphorus, selenium, and vitamin A. Dietary sodium was higher, potassium lower, hence Na/K ratio was higher in the Asian diet, especially for Chinese samples. This pattern is known to relate to risks of adverse blood pressure level and stroke. At the end of the 20th century, East Asian and Western diets remain significantly different in

  19. Incidence of Norovirus and Other Viral Pathogens That Cause Acute Gastroenteritis (AGE) among Kaiser Permanente Member Populations in the United States, 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Grytdal, Scott P.; Biggs, Christianne; Cameron, Miriam; Schmidt, Mark; Parashar, Umesh D.; Hall, Aron J.

    2016-01-01

    1,000 person-years). Outpatient incidence rates of rotavirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus were 2.0, 1.6, 0.6 per 1,000 person-years, respectively; community incidence rates for these viruses were 23.4, 22.5, and 8.5 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. This study provides the first age-group specific laboratory-based community and outpatient incidence rates for norovirus AGE in the U.S. Norovirus was the most frequently detected viral enteropathogen across the age spectrum with the highest rates of norovirus disease observed among young children and, to a lesser extent, the elderly. These data provide a better understanding of the norovirus disease burden in the United States, including variations within different age groups, which can help inform the development, targeting, and future impacts of interventions, including vaccines. PMID:27115485

  20. Prevalence and Impact of Pain among Older Adults in the United States: Findings from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kushang V.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Dansie, Elizabeth J.; Turk, Dennis C.

    2013-01-01

    The study sought to determine the prevalence and impact of pain in a nationally representative sample of older adults in the United States (US). Data from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study were analyzed. In-person interviews were conducted in 7,601 adults ages ≥65 years. The response rate was 71.0% and all analyses were weighted to account for the sampling design. The overall prevalence of bothersome pain in the last month was 52.9%, afflicting 18.7 million older adults in the US. Pain did not vary across age groups (P=0.21) and this pattern remained unchanged when accounting for cognitive performance, dementia, proxy-responses, and residential care living status. Pain prevalence was higher in women and in older adults with obesity, musculoskeletal conditions, and depressive symptoms (P<0.001). The majority (74.9%) of older adults with pain endorsed multiple sites of pain. Several measures of physical capacity, including grip strength and lower extremity physical performance, were associated with pain and multisite pain. For example, self-reported inability to walk 3 blocks was 72% higher in participants with than without pain [adjusted Prevalence Ratio=1.72 (95% Confidence Interval: 1.56–1.90)]. Participants with 1, 2, 3, and >4 sites of pain had gait speeds that were 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.08 meters per second slower, respectively, than older adults without pain, adjusting for disease burden and other confounders (P<0.001). In summary, bothersome pain in the last month was reported by half of the older adult population of the US in 2011 and was strongly associated with decreased physical function. PMID:24287107

  1. Perceived risk of regular cannabis use in the United States from 2002 to 2012: differences by sex, age, and race/ethnicity*

    PubMed Central

    Mauro, Pia M.; Martins, Silvia S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cannabis is one of the most widely used psychoactive substances in the United States (U.S.). Perceived risk of use is associated with substance use; the recent debate surrounding medicalization and legalization of cannabis in the U.S. has the potential to impact perceived risk of use. Recent estimates are needed to assess temporal changes in, and identify correlates of, perceived risk of cannabis use. Methods Utilizing data from the 2002–2012 survey years of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, chi-squared statistics and logistic regression were used to describe temporal changes in perceived risk of regular cannabis use (i.e., once or twice a week), to explore correlates of perceived risk, and to report frequency of cannabis use. Results Between 2002–2012, perceived great risk of regular cannabis use varied significantly overall (p<0.001). The prevalence of past year non-daily (p<0.001) and daily use varied significantly during this time (p<0.001). Controlling for survey year and other confounders, characteristics associated with increased odds of perceived great risk of regular cannabis use included: female sex; Non-White race/ethnicity; age 50+; and family income of $20,000–49,999. Characteristics associated with decreased odds of perceived great risk included: ages 12–17 and 18–25; high school education or greater; total family income of $75,000+; past year non-daily and daily cannabis use; and survey years 2008–2012. Conclusions Findings characterize trends of perceived risk of regular cannabis use, and past year non-daily and daily cannabis use. Longitudinal studies of the influence of legal status of cannabis at the state-level are needed. PMID:25735467

  2. United States earthquakes, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Stover, C.W.

    1988-01-01

    The report contains information for eartthquakes in the 50 states and Puerto Rico and the area near their shorelines. The data consist of earthquake locations (date, time, geographic coordinates, depth, and magnitudes), intensities, macroseismic information, and isoseismal and seismicity maps. Also, included are sections detailing the activity of seismic networks operated by universities and other government agencies and a list of results form strong-motion seismograph records.

  3. United States laws under review.

    PubMed

    Leahey, M

    2007-01-01

    As well as reauthorisation of the Medical Device User Fee and Modernization Act, others isues are under consideration by the United States Congress. These include the introduction of incentives for the development of medical devices for paediatric care. PMID:17585722

  4. Increasing Area Deprivation and Socioeconomic Inequalities in Heart Disease, Stroke, and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Among Working Age Populations, United States, 1969-2011

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gopal K.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Azuine, Romuladus E.; Williams, Shanita D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We examined the extent to which area- and individual-level socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular-disease (CVD), heart disease, and stroke mortality among United States men and women aged 25-64 years changed between 1969 and 2011. Methods: National vital statistics data and the National Longitudinal Mortality Study were used to estimate area- and individual-level socioeconomic gradients in mortality over time. Rate ratios and log-linear and Cox regression were used to model mortality trends and differentials. Results: Area socioeconomic gradients in mortality from CVD, heart disease, and stroke increased substantially during the study period. Compared to those in the most affluent group, individuals in the most deprived area group had, respectively 35%, 29%, and 73% higher CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality in 1969, but 120-121% higher mortality in 2007-2011. Gradients were steeper for women than for men. Education, income, and occupation were inversely associated with CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality, with individual-level socioeconomic gradients being steeper during 1990-2002 than in 1979-1989. Individuals with low education and incomes had 2.7 to 3.7 times higher CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality risks than their counterparts with high education and income levels. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Although mortality declined for all US groups during 1969-2011, socioeconomic disparities in mortality from CVD, heart disease and stroke remained marked and increased over time because of faster declines in mortality among higher socioeconomic groups. Widening disparities in mortality may reflect increasing temporal areal inequalities in living conditions, behavioral risk factors such as smoking, obesity and physical inactivity, and access to and use of health services. With social inequalities and prevalence of smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity on the rise, most segments of the working-age population in low

  5. Health Care Use and HIV Testing of Males Aged 15-39 Years in Physicians' Offices - United States, 2009-2012.

    PubMed

    Ham, D Cal; Huang, Ya-Lin; Gvetadze, Roman; Peters, Philip J; Hoover, Karen W

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, 81% of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection diagnoses in the United States were in males, with the highest number of cases among those aged 20-29 years. Racial and ethnic minorities continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV; there are 13 new diagnoses each year per 100,000 white males, 94 per 100,000 black males, and 42 per 100,000 Hispanic males (1). Despite the recommendation by CDC for HIV testing of adults and adolescents (2), in 2014, only 36% of U.S. males aged ≥18 years reported ever having an HIV test (3), and in 2012, an estimated 15% of males living with HIV had undiagnosed HIV infection (4). To identify opportunities for HIV diagnosis in young males, CDC analyzed data from the 2009-2012 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) and U.S. Census data to estimate rates of health care use at U.S. physicians' offices and HIV testing at these encounters. During 2009-2012, white males visited physicians' offices more often (average annual rate of 1.6 visits per person) than black males (0.9 visits per person) and Hispanic males (0.8 visits per person). Overall, an HIV test was performed at 1.0% of visits made by young males to physicians' offices, with higher testing rates among black males (2.7%) and Hispanic males (1.4%), compared with white males (0.7%). Although higher proportions of black and Hispanic males received HIV testing at health care visits compared with white males, this benefit is likely attenuated by a lower rate of health care visits. Interventions to routinize HIV testing at U.S physicians' offices could be implemented to improve HIV testing coverage. PMID:27337096

  6. Color Vision Deficiencies in Children. United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    Presented are prevalence data on color vision deficiencies (color blindness) in noninstitutionalized children, aged 6-11, in the United States, as estimated from the Health Examination Survey findings on a representative sample of over 7,400 children. Described are the two color vision tests used in the survey, the Ishihara Test for Color…

  7. Eye Examination Findings Among Children. United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Services and Mental Health Administration (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    Reported were extensive statistical data on the prevalence of abnormal eye conditions found on examination, heterophoria test results, and history of eye problems as well as extent of interrelationship of the eye examination and vision test findings among children aged 6 to 11 years in the United States, based on findings from the Health…

  8. Early Marriage in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uecker, Jeremy E.; Stokes, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    Despite drastic changes in the American family, a significant minority of Americans marry early. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 14,165), this study evaluates the prevalence and antecedents of early marriage in the United States. The results indicate 25% of women and 16% of men marry before age 23, and…

  9. Prevention and control of rabies in an age of global travel: a review of travel- and trade-associated rabies events--United States, 1986-2012.

    PubMed

    Lankau, E W; Cohen, N J; Jentes, E S; Adams, L E; Bell, T R; Blanton, J D; Buttke, D; Galland, G G; Maxted, A M; Tack, D M; Waterman, S H; Rupprecht, C E; Marano, N

    2014-08-01

    Rabies prevention and control efforts have been successful in reducing or eliminating virus circulation regionally through vaccination of specific reservoir populations. A notable example of this success is the elimination of canine rabies virus variant from the United States and many other countries. However, increased international travel and trade can pose risks for rapid, long-distance movements of ill or infected persons or animals. Such travel and trade can result in human exposures to rabies virus during travel or transit and could contribute to the re-introduction of canine rabies variant or transmission of other viral variants among animal host populations. We present a review of travel- and trade-associated rabies events that highlight international public health obligations and collaborative opportunities for rabies prevention and control in an age of global travel. Rabies is a fatal disease that warrants proactive coordination among international public health and travel industry partners (such as travel agents, tour companies and airlines) to protect human lives and to prevent the movement of viral variants among host populations. PMID:23870674

  10. 31 CFR 800.225 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 800.225 Section 800... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.225 United States. The term United States or U.S. means the United States of America, the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any...

  11. 75 FR 81651 - United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... States v. Adobe Systems, Inc., No. 1:10- cv-01629, 75 FR 60820, 60828-30 (D.D.C. filed Sept. 24, 2010... firm's employees. United States v. Adobe Systems, Inc., No. 1:10-cv-01629, Complaint, 75 FR 60822 (D.D.C. filed Sept. 24, 2010); Competitive Impact ] Statement, 75 FR 60823 (D.D.C. filed Sept. 24,...

  12. The State of Recorded Sound Preservation in the United States: A National Legacy at Risk in the Digital Age. CLIR Publication No. 148

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamberger, Rob; Brylawski, Sam

    2010-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive, national-level study of the state of sound recording preservation ever conducted in the U.S. The authors have produced a study outlining the web of interlocking issues that now threaten the long-term survival of the sound recording history. This study tells everyone that major areas of America's recorded sound…

  13. 7 CFR 60.127 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false United States. 60.127 Section 60.127 Agriculture... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.127 United States. United States means the... the United States, and the waters of the United States as defined in § 60.132....

  14. 75 FR 5373 - United States Mint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... United States Mint ACTION: Notification of Pricing for 2010 United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Proof Set. \\TM\\ SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the 2010 United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Proof Set. The 2010 United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Proof Set, featuring $1...

  15. The Association of Arsenic With Redox Conditions, Depth, and Ground-Water Age in the Glacial Aquifer System of the Northern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    More than 800 wells in the glacial aquifer system of the Northern United States were sampled for arsenic as part of U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) studies during 1991-2003. Elevated arsenic concentrations (greater than or equal to 10 micrograms per liter) were detected in 9 percent of samples. Elevated arsenic concentrations were associated with strongly reducing conditions. Of the samples classified as iron reducing or sulfate reducing, arsenic concentrations were elevated in 19 percent. Of the methanogenic samples, arsenic concentrations were elevated in 45 percent. In contrast, concentrations of arsenic were elevated in only 1 percent of oxic samples. Arsenic concentrations were also related to ground-water age. Elevated arsenic concentrations were detected in 34 percent of old waters (recharged before 1953) as compared to 4 percent of young waters (recharged since 1953). For samples classified as both old and methanogenic, elevated arsenic concentrations were detected in 62 percent of samples, as compared to 1 percent for samples classified as young and oxic. Arsenic concentrations were also correlated with well depth and concentrations of several chemical constituents, including (1) constituents linked to redox processes and (2) anions or oxyanions that sorb to iron oxides. Observations from the glacial aquifer system are consistent with the idea that the predominant source of arsenic is iron oxides and the predominant mechanism for releasing arsenic to the ground water is reductive desorption or reductive dissolution. Arsenic is also released from iron oxides under oxic conditions, but on a more limited basis and at lower concentrations. Logistic regression was used to investigate the relative significance of redox, ground-water age, depth, and other water-quality constituents as indicators of elevated arsenic concentrations in the glacial aquifer system. The single variable that explained the greatest amount of variation in

  16. Oversight of the Domestic Volunteer Service Act, 1981. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Aging, Family and Human Services of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session (April 9, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This is a report of a hearing on April 9, 1981, before the Subcommittee on Aging, Family, and Human Services of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate, on examination of the Domestic Volunteer Services Act. The focus is reauthorization of this act that provides the statutory base for ACTION and its domestic volunteer…

  17. Voluntarism in America: Promoting Individual and Corporate Responsibility. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Aging, Family and Human Services of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session (April 22, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This is a report of a hearing held in Washington, D.C., on April 22, 1982, before the Subcommittee on Aging, Family, and Human Services of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate. The purpose of the hearing was to examine the untapped human potentials for volunteerism in America by promoting individual and corporate…

  18. Work after 65: Options for the 80's. Hearing before the Special Committee on Aging, United States Senate, Ninety-Sixth Congress, Second Session. Part 2--Washington, D.C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Special Committee on Aging.

    Flexible retirement policies have worked very well for four major United States corporations, accordinq to testimony of their executives during the second part of a U.S. Senate hearing on work after age 65, conducted in Washington, D.C., in May, 1980. Executives of Xerox, Polaroid, Bankers Life and Casualty, and Atlantic Richfield told the special…

  19. Update: Influenza Activity - United States.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sophie; Blanton, Lenee; Kniss, Krista; Mustaquim, Desiree; Steffens, Craig; Reed, Carrie; Bramley, Anna; Flannery, Brendan; Fry, Alicia M; Grohskopf, Lisa A; Bresee, Joseph; Wallis, Teresa; Garten, Rebecca; Xu, Xiyan; Elal, Anwar Isa Abd; Gubareva, Larisa; Barnes, John; Wentworth, David E; Burns, Erin; Katz, Jacqueline; Jernigan, Daniel; Brammer, Lynnette

    2015-12-11

    CDC collects, compiles, and analyzes data on influenza activity year-round in the United States. The influenza season generally begins in the fall and continues through the winter and spring months; however, the timing and severity of circulating influenza viruses can vary by geographic location and season. Influenza activity in the United States remained low through October and November in 2015. Influenza A viruses have been most frequently identified, with influenza A (H3) viruses predominating. This report summarizes U.S. influenza activity for the period October 4-November 28, 2015. PMID:26656182

  20. Neighborhood deprivation and small-for-gestaional-age term births among non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residential context has received increased attention as a possible contributing factor to race/ethnic and socio-economic disparities in birth outcomes in the United States. Utilising vital statistics birth record data, this study examined the association between neighbourhood dep...

  1. Saving Our Seniors: Preventing Elder Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation. Hearing before the Special Committee on Aging, United States Senate, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Special Committee on Aging.

    In this report of a congressional hearing, testimony includes statements and prepared statements of these four senators: John Breaux, Larry Craig, Debbie Stabenow, and Herbert Kohl. Panel I is presented by the Acting Assistant Attorney General, United States (U.S.) Department of Justice. Panel II consists of individuals representing the National…

  2. 77 FR 48542 - United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... complaint'' to inquire into other matters that the United States did not pursue. Microsoft, 56 F.3d at 1459... the allegations in the complaint; none of the factors involve comparisons to other matters); Microsoft... likewise beyond Tunney Act review. As a general matter, the Tunney Act does not provide an opportunity...

  3. 76 FR 23839 - United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... Federal Register on December 28, 2010, see United States, et al. v. Lucasfilm Ltd., 75 FR 81651; and...) (``Collaboration Guidelines''). See also Major League Baseball v. Salvino, 542 F.3d 290, 339 (2d Cir. 2008... Baseball teams created a formal joint venture to exclusively license, and share profits for,...

  4. The Changing United States Diet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Louise; Friend, Berta

    1978-01-01

    The nature of the United States diet has changed markedly in this century. We are using more meat, poultry, fish, and dairy products; sugars and other sweeteners; fats and oils; and processed fruits and vegetables. We are using fewer grain products, potatoes, fresh fruits and vegetables, and eggs. (BB)

  5. 78 FR 58559 - United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... the proposed Final Judgment and CIS in the Federal Register on May 22, 2013, see 78 FR 30399-30660... the sale of beer in the United States and specifically in 26 local markets in violation of Section 7... venture established by Modelo and Constellation to import, market, and sell certain Modelo beers into...

  6. Mental Health, United States, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This document presents timely statistical information on the nation's organized mental health service delivery system. Included are: (1) "Chronic Mental Disorder in the United States" (Howard H. Goldman and Ronald W. Manderscheid); (2) "Specialty Mental Health System Characteristics" (Michael J. Witkin, Joanne E. Atay, Adele S. Fell, and Ronald W.…

  7. 7 CFR 1150.106 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false United States. 1150.106 Section 1150.106 Agriculture... Order Definitions § 1150.106 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States in the continental United States....

  8. 31 CFR 592.311 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 592.311 Section 592... § 592.311 United States. The term United States, when used in the geographic sense, means the several States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States....

  9. 75 FR 62858 - United States, et al.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... Antitrust Division United States, et al. v. American Express Company, et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and... been filed with the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York in United States..., 2010, the United States and seven States filed a Complaint alleging that certain rules, policies,...

  10. 7 CFR 1205.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1205.313 Section 1205.313 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.313 United States. United States means the 50 States of the United States of America....

  11. 7 CFR 1205.23 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1205.23 Section 1205.23 Agriculture... Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.23 United States. The term United States means the 50 states of the United States of America. Procedures...

  12. 7 CFR 1250.308 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1250.308 Section 1250.308 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.308 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States of the United States of America and the District of Columbia....

  13. 7 CFR 1150.106 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States. 1150.106 Section 1150.106 Agriculture... Order Definitions § 1150.106 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States in the continental United States....

  14. United States National seismograph network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masse, R.P.; Filson, J.R.; Murphy, A.

    1989-01-01

    The USGS National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) has planned and is developing a broadband digital seismograph network for the United States. The network will consist of approximately 150 seismograph stations distributed across the contiguous 48 states and across Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Data transmission will be via two-way satellite telemetry from the network sites to a central recording facility at the NEIC in Golden, Colorado. The design goal for the network is the on-scale recording by at least five well-distributed stations of any seismic event of magnitude 2.5 or greater in all areas of the United States except possibly part of Alaska. All event data from the network will be distributed to the scientific community on compact disc with read-only memory (CD-ROM). ?? 1989.

  15. Violence in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Sumner, Steven A.; Mercy, James A.; Dahlberg, Linda L.; Hillis, Susan D.; Klevens, Joanne; Houry, Debra

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Interpersonal violence, which includes child abuse and neglect, youth violence, intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and elder abuse, affects millions of US residents each year. However, surveillance systems, programs, and policies to address violence often lack broad, cross-sector collaboration, and there is limited awareness of effective strategies to prevent violence. OBJECTIVES To describe the burden of interpersonal violence in the United States, explore challenges to violence prevention efforts and to identify prevention opportunities. DATA SOURCES We reviewed data from health and law enforcement surveillance systems including the National Vital Statistics System, the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Uniform Crime Reports, the US Justice Department’s National Crime Victimization Survey, the National Survey of Children’s Exposure to Violence, the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, and the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System—All Injury Program. RESULTS Homicide rates have decreased from a peak of 10.7 per 100 000 persons in 1980 to 5.1 per 100 000 in 2013. Aggravated assault rates have decreased from a peak of 442 per 100 000 in 1992 to 242 per 100 000 in 2012. Nevertheless, annually, there are more than 16 000 homicides and 1.6 million nonfatal assault injuries requiring treatment in emergency departments. More than 12 million adults experience intimate partner violence annually and more than 10 million children younger than 18 years experience some form of maltreatment from a caregiver, ranging from neglect to sexual abuse, but only a small percentage of these violent incidents are reported to law enforcement, health care clinicians, or child protective agencies. Moreover, exposure to violence increases vulnerability to a broad range of mental and physical health problems over the life course; for example

  16. Graduated Driver Licensing Night Driving Restrictions and Drivers Aged 16 or 17 Years Involved in Fatal Night Crashes - United States, 2009-2014.

    PubMed

    Shults, Ruth A; Williams, Allan F

    2016-01-01

    Fatal crash risk is higher at night for all drivers, but especially for young, inexperienced drivers (1). To help address the increased crash risk for beginner teen drivers, 49 states and the District of Columbia include a night driving restriction (NDR) in their Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) system. NDRs have been shown to reduce crashes among newly licensed teens, with higher reductions associated with NDRs starting at 10:00 p.m. or earlier (2-3). However, in 23 states and the District of Columbia, NDRs begin at 12:00 a.m. or later, times when most teen drivers subject to GDL are not driving. CDC analyzed 2009-2014 national and state-level data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) to determine the proportion of drivers aged 16 or 17 years involved in fatal crashes who crashed at night (9:00 p.m.-5:59 a.m.) and the proportion of these drivers who crashed before 12:00 a.m. Nationwide, among 6,104 drivers aged 16 or 17 years involved in fatal crashes during 2009-2014, 1,865 (31%) were involved in night crashes. Among drivers involved in night crashes, 1,054 (57%) crashed before 12:00 a.m. State-level analyses revealed an approximately twofold variation among states in both the proportions of drivers aged 16 or 17 years involved in fatal crashes that occurred at night and the proportions of night fatal crash involvements that occurred before 12:00 a.m. Because nearly all of the night driving trips taken by drivers aged 16 or 17 years end before 12:00 a.m., NDRs beginning at 12:00 a.m. or later provide minimal protection. States could consider updating their NDR coverage to include earlier nighttime hours. This descriptive report summarizes the characteristics of NDRs, estimates the extent to which drivers aged 16 or 17 years drive at night, and describes their involvement in fatal nighttime crashes during 2009-2014. The effects of NDRs on crashes were not evaluated because of the small state-level sample sizes during the 6-year study period. PMID

  17. 31 CFR 597.318 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 597.318 Section 597.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 597.318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories,...

  18. 31 CFR 560.307 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 560.307 Section 560.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, including its territories and possessions....

  19. 31 CFR 541.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 541.310 Section 541.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  20. 31 CFR 540.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 540.313 Section 540.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.313 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  1. 31 CFR 598.317 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 598.317 Section 598.317 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 598.317 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  2. 31 CFR 547.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 547.310 Section 547.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 547.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  3. 31 CFR 546.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 546.310 Section 546.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  4. 31 CFR 551.309 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 551.309 Section 551.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  5. 31 CFR 539.312 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 539.312 Section 539.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 539.312 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  6. 31 CFR 570.311 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 570.311 Section 570.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  7. 31 CFR 549.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 549.310 Section 549.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  8. 31 CFR 538.314 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 538.314 Section 538.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  9. 31 CFR 542.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 542.310 Section 542.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  10. 31 CFR 588.309 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 588.309 Section 588.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... § 588.309 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  11. 31 CFR 544.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 544.310 Section 544.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.310 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  12. 7 CFR 63.13 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false United States. 63.13 Section 63.13 Agriculture... IMPROVEMENT CENTER General Provisions Definitions § 63.13 United States. United States means collectively the... possessions of the United States. Board of Directors...

  13. 31 CFR 548.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 548.310 Section 548.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  14. 31 CFR 596.312 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 596.312 Section 596.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 596.312 United States. The term United States means the United States, including its...

  15. 31 CFR 543.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 543.310 Section 543.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  16. 31 CFR 595.314 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 595.314 Section 595.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  17. 31 CFR 537.318 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 537.318 Section 537.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and...

  18. 31 CFR 594.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 594.313 Section 594.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... § 594.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  19. 31 CFR 543.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 543.310 Section 543.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 543.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  20. 31 CFR 538.314 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 538.314 Section 538.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 538.314 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  1. 31 CFR 585.316 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 585.316 Section 585.316 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 585.316 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  2. 31 CFR 587.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 587.310 Section 587...) MILOSEVIC SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 587.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and all areas under the jurisdiction or...

  3. 31 CFR 546.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 546.310 Section 546.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  4. 31 CFR 594.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 594.313 Section 594.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 594.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  5. 31 CFR 537.318 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 537.318 Section 537.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  6. 31 CFR 547.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 547.310 Section 547.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 547.310 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  7. 31 CFR 544.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 544.310 Section 544.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.310 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  8. 31 CFR 586.318 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 586.318 Section 586...) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and all areas under the jurisdiction or...

  9. 31 CFR 598.317 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 598.317 Section 598.317 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 598.317 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  10. 31 CFR 540.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 540.313 Section 540.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.313 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  11. 31 CFR 542.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 542.310 Section 542.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  12. 31 CFR 548.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 548.310 Section 548.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  13. 31 CFR 575.319 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 575.319 Section 575.319 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....319 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  14. 31 CFR 593.311 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 593.311 Section 593.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.311 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  15. 31 CFR 551.309 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 551.309 Section 551.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....309 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  16. 31 CFR 588.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 588.310 Section 588.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 588.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  17. 75 FR 25925 - United States Mint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... United States Mint ACTION: Notification of Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee May 25, 2010 Public Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to United States Code, Title 31, section 5135(b)(8)(C), the United States Mint...: May 25, 2010. Time: 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. Location: 8th Floor Board Room, United States Mint, 801...

  18. 31 CFR 539.312 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 539.312 Section 539.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 539.312 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  19. 31 CFR 560.307 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 560.307 Section 560.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 560.307 United States. The term United States means the United States, including its territories...

  20. 31 CFR 541.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 541.310 Section 541.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 541.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  1. 31 CFR 545.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 545.313 Section 545.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 545.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  2. 31 CFR 595.314 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 595.314 Section 595.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 595.314 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  3. 7 CFR 65.255 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 65.255 Section 65.255 Agriculture..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.255 United States. United States means the 50... United States....

  4. 31 CFR 596.312 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 596.312 Section 596.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 596.312 United States. The term United States means the United States, including...

  5. 31 CFR 597.318 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 597.318 Section 597.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 597.318 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  6. Sterilization in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bartz, Deborah; Greenberg, James A

    2008-01-01

    Unintended pregnancies are expensive for patients and for society in terms of medical costs, the cost of caring for more children, and the cost to personal and professional goals. Sterilization is the most common contraceptive method utilized by couples in the United States. Given technological advances over the past few decades, male and female surgical sterilization has become a safe, convenient, easy, and highly effective birth control method for the long term. This article reviews current male and female sterilization options. PMID:18701927

  7. United States National Seismographic Network

    SciTech Connect

    Buland, R.

    1993-09-01

    The concept of a United States National Seismograph Network (USNSN) dates back nearly 30 years. The idea was revived several times over the decades. but never funded. For, example, a national network was proposed and discussed at great length in the so called Bolt Report (U. S. Earthquake Observatories: Recommendations for a New National Network, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1980, 122 pp). From the beginning, a national network was viewed as augmenting and complementing the relatively dense, predominantly short-period vertical coverage of selected areas provided by the Regional Seismograph Networks (RSN`s) with a sparse, well-distributed network of three-component, observatory quality, permanent stations. The opportunity finally to begin developing a national network arose in 1986 with discussions between the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Under the agreement signed in 1987, the NRC has provided $5 M in new funding for capital equipment (over the period 1987-1992) and the USGS has provided personnel and facilities to develop. deploy, and operate the network. Because the NRC funding was earmarked for the eastern United States, new USNSN station deployments are mostly east of 105{degree}W longitude while the network in the western United States is mostly made up of cooperating stations (stations meeting USNSN design goals, but deployed and operated by other institutions which provide a logical extension to the USNSN).

  8. Drought in Southwestern United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The southwestern United States pined for water in late March and early April 2007. This image is based on data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite from March 22 through April 6, 2007, and it shows the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, or NDVI, for the period. In this NDVI color scale, green indicates areas of healthier-than-usual vegetation, and only small patches of green appear in this image, near the California-Nevada border and in Utah. Larger areas of below-normal vegetation are more common, especially throughout California. Pale yellow indicates areas with generally average vegetation. Gray areas appear where no data were available, likely due to persistent clouds or snow cover. According to the April 10, 2007, update from the U.S. Drought Monitor, most of the southwestern United Sates, including Utah, Nevada, California, and Arizona, experienced moderate to extreme drought. The hardest hit areas were southeastern California and southwestern Arizona. Writing for the Drought Monitor, David Miskus of the Joint Agricultural Weather Facility reported that March 2007 had been unusually dry for the southwestern United States. While California's and Utah's reservoir storage was only slightly below normal, reservoir storage was well below normal for New Mexico and Arizona. In early April, an international research team published an online paper in Science noting that droughts could become more common for the southwestern United States and northern Mexico, as these areas were already showing signs of drying. Relying on the same computer models used in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report released in early 2007, the researchers who published in Science concluded that global warming could make droughts more common, not just in the American Southwest, but also in semiarid regions of southern Europe, Mediterranean northern Africa, and the Middle East.

  9. Increased Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Detection in Women of Childbearing Age and Potential Risk for Vertical Transmission - United States and Kentucky, 2011-2014.

    PubMed

    Koneru, Alaya; Nelson, Noele; Hariri, Susan; Canary, Lauren; Sanders, Kathy J; Maxwell, Justine F; Huang, Xiaohua; Leake, John A D; Ward, John W; Vellozzi, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality (1). Transmission of HCV is primarily via parenteral blood exposure, and HCV can be transmitted vertically from mother to child. Vertical transmission occurs in 5.8% (95% confidence interval = 4.2%-7.8%) of infants born to women who are infected only with HCV and in up to twice as many infants born to women who are also infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (2) or who have high HCV viral loads (3,4); there is currently no recommended intervention to prevent transmission of infection from mother to child (3). Increased reported incidence of HCV infection among persons aged ≤30 years (5,6) with similar increases among women and men in this age group (6), raises concern about increases in the number of pregnant women with HCV infection, and in the number of infants who could be exposed to HCV at birth. Data from one large commercial laboratory and birth certificate data were used to investigate trends in HCV detection among women of childbearing age,* HCV testing among children aged ≤2 years, and the proportions of infants born to HCV-infected women nationally and in Kentucky, the state with the highest incidence of acute HCV infection during 2011-2014 (6). During 2011-2014, commercial laboratory data indicated that national rates of HCV detection (antibody or RNA positivity(†)) among women of childbearing age increased 22%, and HCV testing (antibody or RNA) among children aged ≤2 years increased 14%; birth certificate data indicated that the proportion of infants born to HCV-infected mothers increased 68%, from 0.19% to 0.32%. During the same time in Kentucky, the HCV detection rate among women of childbearing age increased >200%, HCV testing among children aged ≤2 years increased 151%, and the proportion of infants born to HCV-infected women increased 124%, from 0.71% to 1.59%. Increases in the rate of HCV detection among women of childbearing age

  10. Uranium ore rolls in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harshman, E.N.

    1970-01-01

    About 40% of the uranium ore reserves in the United States, minable at $8 per pound of contained U3O8, are in roll-type deposits in the State of Wyoming. The host rocks are arkosic sandstones, deposited in intermontane basins under fluvial conditions, and derived from the granitic cores of mountain ranges that flank the basins. The host rocks are Eocene and possibly Paleocene in age and are, or were, overlain by a sequence of continental tuffaceous siltstones, sandstones and conglomerates 400 - 700 m thick.

  11. 22 CFR 120.13 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false United States. 120.13 Section 120.13 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.13 United States. United States, when used in the geographical sense, includes the several states,...

  12. 22 CFR 120.13 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false United States. 120.13 Section 120.13 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.13 United States. United States, when used in the geographical sense, includes the several states,...

  13. 22 CFR 120.13 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false United States. 120.13 Section 120.13 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.13 United States. United States, when used in the geographical sense, includes the several states,...

  14. 22 CFR 120.13 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false United States. 120.13 Section 120.13 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.13 United States. United States, when used in the geographical sense, includes the several states,...

  15. 22 CFR 120.13 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false United States. 120.13 Section 120.13 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.13 United States. United States, when used in the geographical sense, includes the several states,...

  16. Effects of United States Department of Agriculture carcass maturity on sensory attributes of steaks produced by cattle representing two dental age classes.

    PubMed

    Semler, M L; Woerner, D R; Belk, K E; Enns, K J; Tatum, J D

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the effects of USDA carcass maturity on sensory properties of LM steaks produced by cattle representing 2 dental age classes. Carcasses identified for use in the experiment were produced by steers and heifers classified as either <30 mo of age (MOA) or ≥30 MOA at the time of slaughter using dentition. Within each dental age class, carcasses were selected to represent 2 maturity groups and 3 marbling categories, resulting in 12 dental age × maturity × marbling subclasses, each consisting of 50 carcasses. Maturity groups consisted of carcasses classified by USDA graders as either A to A (A) overall maturity or B to D (B-D) overall maturity; marbling categories consisted of carcasses with instrument marbling scores of Slight to Slight (SL), Small to Small (SM), or Modest to Moderate (MT-MD). Carcasses were selected in pairs so that each carcass chosen to represent the B-D-maturity group was paired with an A-maturity carcass of the same sex and marbling score (±50 marbling units). Strip loin (LM) steaks were obtained from both sides of each carcass. After a 14-d aging period, 1 LM steak was measured for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and slice shear force (SSF), whereas the other LM steak was used for sensory analysis by a trained descriptive attribute panel. No differences ( > 0.05) in LM tenderness, juiciness, or flavor were detected between carcass maturity groups in either dental age class. Advanced dental age (≥30 MOA), however, was associated with more intense ( < 0.05) grassy and bloody/serumy flavors and decreased ( < 0.05) tenderness within the SL marbling group. Marbling score effectively stratified carcasses (MT-MD > SM > SL) according to differences ( < 0.0001) in LM tenderness, juiciness, beefy/brothy flavor, and buttery/beef fat flavor. In addition, increased marbling was associated with lesser ( < 0.01) intensities of bloody/serumy, livery/organy, and grassy flavors as well as smaller ( < 0.0001) values for WBSF and SSF

  17. 7 CFR 1215.20 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1215.20 United States. United States means all of the States. Popcorn Board...

  18. 7 CFR 1215.20 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1215.20 United States. United States means all of the States. Popcorn Board...

  19. 7 CFR 1215.20 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1215.20 United States. United States means all of the States. Popcorn Board...

  20. 7 CFR 1206.23 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1206.23 Section 1206.23 Agriculture... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.23 United States. United... Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States....

  1. The First United States Microgravity Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, C. Blake (Editor); Shea, Charlotte; Mcmahan, Tracy; Accardi, Denise; Mikatarian, Jeff

    1991-01-01

    The United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1) is one part of a science and technology program that will open NASA's next great era of discovery and establish the United States' leadership in space. A key component in the preparation for this new age of exploration, the USML-1 will fly in orbit for extended periods, providing greater opportunities for research in materials science, fluid dynamics, biotechnology, and combustion science. The major components of the USML-1 are the Crystal Growth Furnace, the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE) Apparatus, and the Drop Physics Module. Other components of USML-1 include Astroculture, Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus, Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project, Protein Crystal Growth, Space Acceleration Measurement System, Solid Surface Combustion Experiment, Zeolite Crystal Growth and Spacelab Glovebox provided by the European Space Agency.

  2. Valley-fill alluviation during the Little Ice Age (ca. A.D. 1400-1880), Paria River basin and southern Colorado Plateau, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hereford, R.

    2002-01-01

    Valley-fill alluvium deposited from ca. A.D. 1400 to 1880 is widespread in tributaries of the Paria River and is largely coincident with the Little Ice Age epoch of global climate variability. Previous work showed that alluvium of this age is a mappable stratigraphic unit in many of the larger alluvial valleys of the southern Colorado Plateau. The alluvium is bounded by two disconformities resulting from prehistoric and historic arroyo cutting at ca. A.D. 1200-1400 and 1860-1910, respectively. The fill forms a terrace in the axial valleys of major through-flowing streams. This terrace and underlying deposits are continuous and interfinger with sediment in numerous small tributary valleys that head at the base of hillslopes of sparsely vegetated, weakly consolidated bedrock, suggesting that eroded bedrock was an important source of alluvium along with in-channel and other sources. Paleoclimatic and high-resolution paleoflood studies indicate that valley-fill alluviation occured during a long-term decrease in the frequency of large, destructive floods. Aggradation of the valleys ended about A.D. 1880, if not two decades earlier, with the beginning of historic arroyo cutting. This shift from deposition to valley entrenchment near the close of the Little Ice Age generally coincided with the beginning of an episode of the largest floods in the preceding 400-500 yr, which was probably caused by an increased recurrence and intensity of flood-producing El Nin??o events beginning at ca. A.D. 1870.

  3. 7 CFR 1280.127 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false United States. 1280.127 Section 1280.127 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.127 United States. United States means collectively the 50 States and the District of Columbia....

  4. 7 CFR 1215.20 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false United States. 1215.20 Section 1215.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... United States. United States means all of the States. Popcorn Board...

  5. 7 CFR 1260.108 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false United States. 1260.108 Section 1260.108 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.108 United States. United States means the 50 States and...

  6. 7 CFR 1260.108 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1260.108 Section 1260.108 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.108 United States. United States means the 50 States and...

  7. 7 CFR 1221.32 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1221.32 Section 1221.32 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.32 United States. United States or U.S. means collectively the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth...

  8. 7 CFR 1215.20 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1215.20 Section 1215.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... United States. United States means all of the States. Popcorn Board...

  9. 7 CFR 1216.30 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1216.30 Section 1216.30 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.30 United States. United States means collectively the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto...

  10. Hospitalizations for Suicide-Related Drug Poisonings and Co-Occurring Alcohol Overdoses in Adolescents (Ages 12-17) and Young Adults (Ages 18-24) in the United States, 1999-2008: Results from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Aaron M.; MacInnes, Erin; Hingson, Ralph W.; Pan, I-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Drug poisoning is the leading method of suicide-related deaths among females and third among males in the United States. Alcohol can increase the severity of drug poisonings, yet the prevalence of alcohol overdoses in suicide-related drug poisonings (SRDP) remains unclear. Data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample was examined to determine rates…

  11. Public Provision for Epileptics in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Harry

    A sociological study, the text reports data concerning epilepsy and public provisions for the epileptic. The general state of persons with epilepsy is discussed in terms of definition, general conditions, etiology, recovery or improvement, numbers in the United States, trends in numbers, sex distribution, age distribution, age at onset, race and…

  12. Federation of State Medical Boards of the United States

    MedlinePlus

    ... Boards Representing the 70 medical boards of the United States and its territories. The Federation of State ... the 70 medical and osteopathic boards of the United States and its territories. Since its founding, the ...

  13. Do ages of authigenic K-feldspar date the formation of Mississippi valley-type Pb-Zn deposits, central and southeastern United States?: Pb isotopic evidence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aleinikoff, J.N.; Walter, M.; Kunk, M.J.; Hearn, P.P., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Pb concentrations and isotopic compositions have been determined for authigenic overgrowths and detrital cores of K-feldspar from Cambrian sedimentary rocks in Texas, Tennessee, and Pennsylvania (group 1) and southeastern Missouri (group 2). Overgrowths and cores were separated by abrasion and analyzed separately. The disparity in Pb isotopic ratios of group 1 overgrowths and Pb in nearby Mississippi Valley-type deposits implies that the regional authigenic K-feldspar event was not synchronous with ore deposition in the southeastern United States. In contrast, Pb isotopic ratios from group 2 authigenic K-feldspar are similar to ratios in ores of southeastern Missouri, suggesting a genetic relation in late Paleozoic time. -from Authors

  14. A USGS Zonal Table for the Upper Cretaceous Middle Cenomanian--Maastrichtian of the Western Interior of the United States Based on Ammonites, Inoceramids, and Radiometric Ages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cobban, William A.; Walaszczyk, Ireneusz; Obradovich, John D.; McKinney, Kevin C.

    2006-01-01

    From the Introduction: This provisional table is based mainly on the molluscan fossil record of the central and northern parts of the Western Interior of the United States. Some of the ammonite zones are known in Europe, such as Watinoceras devonense, Collignoniceras woollgari, Prionocyclus germari, Scaphites hippocrepis, Didymoceras stevensoni, and Didymoceras cheyennense, whereas more than one-half of the inoceramid zones are known also in Europe. A few of the ammonite zones are known from only a few localities, but the diagnostic species may occur in abundance. Among these are the zones of Acanthoceras granerosense, A. bellense, Dunveganoceras problematicum, Burroceras clydense, Watinoceras devonense, Collignoniceras praecox, and Scaphites mariasensis. All fossils listed in the table are in the national collection housed in Building 810 at the Federal Center, Denver, Colorado

  15. 7 CFR 1216.30 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.30 United States..., and the territories and possessions of the United States. National Peanut Board...

  16. 7 CFR 1216.30 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.30 United States..., and the territories and possessions of the United States. National Peanut Board...

  17. 7 CFR 1216.30 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.30 United States..., and the territories and possessions of the United States. National Peanut Board...

  18. 7 CFR 1216.30 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.30 United States..., and the territories and possessions of the United States. National Peanut Board...

  19. 7 CFR 1221.32 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.32 United States... Puerto Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States. Sorghum Promotion, Research,...

  20. 7 CFR 1221.32 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.32 United States... Puerto Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States. Sorghum Promotion, Research,...

  1. 7 CFR 1221.32 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.32 United States... Puerto Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States. Sorghum Promotion, Research,...

  2. 7 CFR 1221.32 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.32 United States... Puerto Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States. Sorghum Promotion, Research,...

  3. Kidney Disease Statistics for the United States

    MedlinePlus

    ... also order print versions from our online catalog. Kidney Disease Statistics for the United States Page Content On ... for Vascular Access Acknowledgments The Growing Burden of Kidney Disease Kidney disease statistics for the United States convey ...

  4. TB in Children in the United States

    MedlinePlus

    ... Statistics Related Links TB in Children in the United States TB disease in children under 15 years ... BCG vaccine is not generally used in the United States, because of the low risk of infection ...

  5. 'Heat Dome' Heats Up United States

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160028.html 'Heat Dome' Heats Up United States Much of the country to be under ... As a massive "heat dome" stretches across the United States this week, sending temperatures and humidity levels ...

  6. Nonfatal traumatic brain injuries related to sports and recreation activities among persons aged ≤19 years--United States, 2001-2009.

    PubMed

    2011-10-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) from participation in sports and recreation activities have received increased public awareness, with many states and the federal government considering or implementing laws directing the response to suspected brain injury. Whereas public health programs promote the many benefits of sports and recreation activities, those benefits are tempered by the risk for injury. During 2001--2005, an estimated 207,830 emergency department (ED) visits for concussions and other TBIs related to sports and recreation activities were reported annually, with 65% of TBIs occurring among children aged 5--18 years. Compared with adults, younger persons are at increased risk for TBIs with increased severity and prolonged recovery. To assess and characterize TBIs from sports and recreation activities among children and adolescents, CDC analyzed data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System--All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP) for the period 2001--2009. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that an estimated 173,285 persons aged ≤19 years were treated in EDs annually for nonfatal TBIs related to sports and recreation activities. From 2001 to 2009, the number of annual TBI-related ED visits increased significantly, from 153,375 to 248,418, with the highest rates among males aged 10--19 years. By increasing awareness of TBI risks from sports and recreation, employing proper technique and protective equipment, and quickly responding to injuries, the incidence, severity, and long-term negative health effects of TBIs among children and adolescents can be reduced. PMID:21976115

  7. 31 CFR 800.225 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... States of America, the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth... their examples, an entity organized under the laws of the United States of America, one of the States... Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...

  8. 31 CFR 800.225 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... States of America, the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth... their examples, an entity organized under the laws of the United States of America, one of the States... Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...

  9. 31 CFR 800.225 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... States of America, the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth... their examples, an entity organized under the laws of the United States of America, one of the States... Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...

  10. 31 CFR 800.225 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... States of America, the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth... their examples, an entity organized under the laws of the United States of America, one of the States... Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...

  11. 7 CFR 1210.315 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1210.315 Section 1210.315 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.315 United States. United States...

  12. Syphilis in the United States.

    PubMed

    Shockman, Solomon; Buescher, Lucinda S; Stone, Stephen P

    2014-01-01

    Syphilis gained notoriety in the 1500s, when it became widespread throughout Europe. While the origins of syphilis are not certain, recent data have shown that it may have originated in the Americas from a close relative that causes Yaws (Treponema pallidum pertenue).(1) For the past 500years, the disease has shown its various faces all over the world. The 19th century saw an entire medical subspecialty-syphilology (sometimes known as syphilography)-devoted to the study of the great disease, then known as "the great imitator." Syphilis has an entire textbook of presentations and can mimic many other infections and immune-mediated processes. At the beginning of the 20th century, the many faces of the disease led to Sir William Osler's well-known aphorism, "The physician who knows syphilis knows medicine."(2) When penicillin was discovered, and used to treat syphilis in 1943, some thought that syphilis would go by the wayside, but syphilis continued what it has been doing for so many years . . . inconspicuously infecting humans. The United States has seen the incidence of syphilis increase numerous times throughout the past 70years. Every decrease in the incidence of syphilis is followed shortly by an increase. A marked shift in the epidemiology occurred from 1990 to 2000. In the 1990s, syphilis primarily occurred in heterosexual minority groups. In the new millennium, a majority of cases of syphilis are now transmitted among men who have sex with men (MSM).(3) This contribution discusses the incidence of syphilis in the United States and the reasons these trends continue. PMID:24559556

  13. Chronic Disease Burden Among Bhutanese Refugee Women Aged 18-65 Years Resettled in Northeast Ohio, United States, 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Bhatta, Madhav P; Shakya, Sunita; Assad, Lori; Zullo, Melissa D

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this community-based study was to assess the prevalence of chronic diseases among 18-65 year old Bhutanese refugee women resettled in Northeast Ohio, United States (US). A Nepali-language questionnaire was administered in a face-to-face mode. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight, and hip and waist circumferences. The overall prevalence (95 % confidence interval) of self-reported hypertension, diabetes, asthma, heart disease, and cancer were 15.3 % (9.2-23.4), 6.4 % (2.3-10.9), 5.5 % (2.0-11.5), 2.7 % (0.6-7.8), and 1.8 % (0.2-6.4), respectively. Overweight/obesity was observed in 64.8 % of the women; 69.5 and 74.1 % had waist circumference >80 cm and waist-to-hip ratio ≥85, respectively. Length of time in the US was not associated with the prevalence of the chronic conditions. This study suggests chronic conditions may be significant health issues among US resettled Bhutanese refugees and a larger population-based study to confirm the findings is warranted. PMID:24849870

  14. Multidimensional religious involvement and tobacco smoking patterns over 9-10 years: A prospective study of middle-aged adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Zinzi D; Slopen, Natalie; Albert, Michelle; Williams, David R

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between multiple dimensions of religious involvement and transitions of tobacco smoking abstinence, persistence, cessation and relapse over 9-10 years of follow-up in a national sample of adults in the United States. Using data provided at baseline and follow-up, participants were categorized as non-smokers, persistent smokers, ex-smokers, and relapsed smokers. Religious involvement over the two time points were categorized into combinations of "high" and "low" involvement within the domains of (a) religious attendance, (b) religious importance, (c) spiritual importance, (d) religious/spiritual comfort seeking, and (e) religious/spiritual decision-making. High levels of religious involvement across five dimensions (religious attendance, religious importance, spiritual importance, religious/spiritual comfort-seeking, and religious/spiritual decision-making) were associated with lower odds of being a persistent smoker or ex-smoker. Religious involvement was not associated with smoking cessation among smokers at baseline. Interventions to increase smoking abstinence may be more effective if they draw on ties to religious and spiritual organizations and beliefs. Meanwhile, religious involvement is unlikely to affect smoking cessation effectiveness. PMID:26093070

  15. State of Aging and Health in America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button The State of Aging and Health in America (SAHA) Recommend on Facebook ... this data for action. Â The State of Aging and Health in America 2013 The 2013 report ...

  16. Increase in Pneumococcus Macrolide Resistance, United States

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, David J.

    2009-01-01

    During year 6 (2005–2006) of the Prospective Resistant Organism Tracking and Epidemiology for the Ketolide Telithromycin surveillance study, 6,747 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were collected at 119 centers. The susceptibility of these isolates to macrolides was compared with data from previous years. Macrolide resistance increased significantly in year 6 (35.3%) from the stable rate of ≈30% for the previous 3 years (p<0.0001). Macrolide resistance increased in all regions of the United States and for all patient age groups. Rates were highest in the south and for children 0–2 years of age. Lower-level efflux [mef(A)]–mediated macrolide resistance decreased in prevalence to ≈50%, and highly resistant [erm(B) + mef(A)] strains increased to 25%. Telithromycin and levofloxacin susceptibility rates were >99% and >98%, respectively, irrespective of genotype. Pneumococcal macrolide resistance in the United States showed its first significant increase since 2000. High-level macrolide resistance is also increasing. PMID:19751588

  17. Births in the United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Martin, Joyce A; Hamilton, Brady E; Osterman, Michelle J K

    2014-12-01

    Childbearing is on the decline in the United States overall and among women under age 30 and women in each of the largest race and Hispanic origin groups. Childbearing continues to rise among older women, however, with rates for women aged 35 and over at the highest levels seen in approximately 50 years. After more than a decade of steady rises, cesarean delivery rates are trending slightly downward; a recent report revealed larger declines for 2009-2013 among women at low risk for cesarean delivery than for all women with cesareans. Following several years of relative stability, twinning rates were up for 2013; a recent report based on 2012 data revealed that triplet and higher-order multiple births have been trending sharply downward. Declines in the incidence of preterm deliveries, especially in conjunction with reductions in low birthweight (albeit modest) and in perinatal mortality, suggest some recent progress in improving pregnancy outcome in the United States. The forthcoming report "Births: Final Data for 2013" will present more information on the topics addressed in this report and selected others. PMID:25483923

  18. 31 CFR 510.309 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States. 510.309 Section 510.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 510.309 United States. The term United...

  19. Reactions to Graphic Health Warnings in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nonnemaker, James M.; Choiniere, Conrad J.; Farrelly, Matthew C.; Kamyab, Kian; Davis, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    This study reports consumer reactions to the graphic health warnings selected by the Food and Drug Administration to be placed on cigarette packs in the United States. We recruited three sets of respondents for an experimental study from a national opt-in e-mail list sample: (i) current smokers aged 25 or older, (ii) young adult smokers aged 18-24…

  20. Temperament Styles of Children from Pakistan and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland, Thomas; Callueng, Carmelo; Rizwan, Muhammad; Aftab, Sobia

    2012-01-01

    Age, gender, and cross-national differences of children ages 9 through 16 in Pakistan (n = 463) and the United States (n = 500) are examined on four bipolar temperament styles: Extroversion-introversion, practical-imaginative, thinking-feeling, and organized-flexible. In general, Pakistani children prefer extroverted over introverted, practical…

  1. Recommended Immunization Schedules for Persons Aged 0 through 18 Years--United States, 2010. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report QuickGuide. Volume 58, Number 51 & 52

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) annually publishes an immunization schedule for persons aged 0 through 18 years that summarizes recommendations for currently licensed vaccines for children aged 18 years and younger and includes recommendations in effect as of December 15, 2009. The changes to the previous schedule are…

  2. United States Space Explorations 1958

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    United States Space Explorations 1958. The film describes preparation and launch of five satellites and two space probes during 1958. On January 31, a Jupiter vehicle launched Explorer I into space. Data from this satellite was used to identify the van Allen radiation belts. On March 17, a Vanguard I rocket launched an Earth satellite with solar batteries. Data from the mission was used to determine that the Earth is slightly pear-shaped. On March 26, Explorer III was launched to further study the van Allen belts, micrometeoroid impacts, and internal and external temperatures. Explorer IV, launched on July 26, was intended to study radiation and temperature data. A lunar probe, ABLE I, was intended to measure radiation, magnetic fields of Earth and the Moon, density of micrometeoric matter, and internal temperatures. A four-stage rocket was used in the launch. However, a turbo-pump failed and the liquid oxygen pump stopped, resulting in a failed mission. On October 10, Pioneer I was launched by an ABLE vehicle. First and second stage velocity was less than desired and the probe did not leave Earth orbit. Attempts to attain escape velocity were unsuccessful. On December, a Jupiter boost vehicle was used to launch Juno II, with Pioneer III as the payload. Escape velocity was reached and Pioneer III left Earth's atmosphere. Failed launches, such as those of Vanguard boost vehicles and several Explorer satellites, also added to scientific knowledge. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030963. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  3. Potato production in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potatoes have been a staple in the American diet for almost 250 years. The United States is the world's fifth biggest producer, behind China, India, the Russian Federation, and the Ukraine. Potatoes in the United States are grown in nearly every state. Idaho produces approximately 1/3 of all potatoe...

  4. 7 CFR 1210.315 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.315 United States. United States means each of the several States and the District of Columbia. National Watermelon Promotion Board...

  5. 7 CFR 1210.315 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.315 United States. United States means each of the several States and the District of Columbia. National Watermelon Promotion Board...

  6. 7 CFR 1210.315 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.315 United States. United States means each of the several States and the District of Columbia. National Watermelon Promotion Board...

  7. 7 CFR 1210.315 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.315 United States. United States means each of the several States and the District of Columbia. National Watermelon Promotion Board...

  8. 7 CFR 1220.615 - State and United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the District of Columbia... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  9. Family Caregiving and the Older American Act: Caring for the Caregiver. Hearing before the Special Committee on Aging. United States Senate, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Special Committee on Aging.

    This is the report of a congressional hearing on the new National Family Caregiver Support Program. First, it looks at this new program before it is fully implemented in the states and assesses how the states are setting up their programs. Second, it examines whether the States are receiving the clear and effective guidance they need from the…

  10. 7 CFR 1206.23 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.23 United States....

  11. 7 CFR 1206.23 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.23 United States....

  12. 7 CFR 1206.23 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.23 United States....

  13. 7 CFR 1206.23 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.23 United States....

  14. 7 CFR 1205.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... United States of America. ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION...

  15. 7 CFR 1205.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... United States of America. ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION...

  16. 7 CFR 1205.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... United States of America. ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION...

  17. 7 CFR 1205.313 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... United States of America. ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION...

  18. 7 CFR 1250.308 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... States of the United States of America and the District of Columbia. ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION...

  19. 7 CFR 1250.308 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... States of the United States of America and the District of Columbia. ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION...

  20. 7 CFR 1205.23 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the 50 states of the United States of America. Procedures ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND...

  1. 7 CFR 1250.308 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... States of the United States of America and the District of Columbia. ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION...

  2. 7 CFR 1205.23 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the 50 states of the United States of America. Procedures ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND...

  3. 7 CFR 1205.23 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the 50 states of the United States of America. Procedures ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND...

  4. 7 CFR 1250.308 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... States of the United States of America and the District of Columbia. ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION...

  5. 7 CFR 1205.23 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the 50 states of the United States of America. Procedures ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND...

  6. Muslim nursing homes in the United States: barriers and prospects.

    PubMed

    Alfarah, Ziad; Ramadan, Fadi H; Cury, Emily; Brandeis, Gary H

    2012-02-01

    Historically, many nursing homes in the United States have been established by religious groups. This was done to provide care for the elderly when care could not be furnished in other venues. Despite several attempts reported in the literature, there are currently no Muslim nursing homes in the United States. In the Arab and Muslim world, the acceptance and success of such an institution has been somewhat variable. As the Arab Muslim population in the United States ages and becomes more frail, the Muslim community will have to evaluate the need to establish nursing homes to provide care for elderly. PMID:21889415

  7. Death in the United States, 2011.

    PubMed

    Miniño, Arialdi M

    2013-03-01

    In 2011, the age-adjusted death rate for the United States was 740.6 per 100,000 population (1). This rate represents a 0.9% drop from the rate in 2010 (747.0), and is a record low. The highest mortality was observed for the non-Hispanic black population (903.9), followed by the non-Hispanic white population (753.9). Death rates for all race groups of the U.S. population generally have been decreasing since 1935 (2), and the rates for the Hispanic population have been declining since the late 1990s (3). Data for 2011 maintain that trend. The figures presented in this report are based on preliminary mortality data for 2011 and final data for 2000-2010. PMID:23742756

  8. Mortality in the United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Kochanek, Kenneth D; Murphy, Sherry L; Xu, Jiaquan; Arias, Elizabeth

    2014-12-01

    This report presents 2013 U.S. final mortality data on deaths and death rates by demographic and medical characteristics. These data provide information on mortality patterns among U.S. residents by such variables as sex, race and ethnicity, and cause of death. Information on mortality patterns is key to understanding changes in the health and well-being of the U.S. population (1). Life expectancy estimates, age-adjusted death rates by race and ethnicity and sex, 10 leading causes of death, and 10 leading causes of infant death were analyzed by comparing 2013 final data with 2012 final data. In 2013, a total of 2,596,993 resident deaths were registered in the United States. PMID:25549183

  9. Legal Ages for Purchase and Consumption of Alcohol and Heavy Drinking among College Students in Canada, Europe, and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Adrienne; Frye, Laurie; Bauerle, Jennifer; Turner, James C.

    2009-01-01

    Heavy drinking and associated negative consequences remain a serious problem among college students. In a secondary analysis of data from two published study, the authors examine the correlation between minimum legal age to purchase and/or consume alcohol and rates of heavy drinking among college students in 22 countries. The published studies use…

  10. Nonfatal and Fatal Self-Harm Injuries among Children Aged 10-14 Years--United States and Oregon, 2001-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vajani, Madhavi; Annest, Joseph L.; Crosby, Alex E.; Alexander, Janice D.; Millet, Lisa M.

    2007-01-01

    Fatal and nonfatal injuries due to suicidal behavior among younger adolescents are of growing concern for many communities. We examined the incidence and patterns of these injuries among persons aged 10-14 years using three databases, two national and a third from Oregon. Suffocation and firearm gunshot were the leading external causes of suicide;…

  11. Comparisons of Behavioral and Emotional Problems among Children of Jamaica and the United States: Teacher Reports for Ages 6-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Michael Canute; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Behavior problems reported by teachers for 359 Jamaican and 665 U.S. children ages 6 to 11 were compared. In conjunction with previous research, results suggest that Jamaican children find school exceptionally stressful, although overall findings demonstrate the considerable similarity of teacher-reported problems across cultures. (SLD)

  12. A Review of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection and HPV Vaccine-Related Attitudes and Sexual Behaviors among College-Aged Women in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratanasiripong, Nop T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV vaccine-related attitudes among college-aged women and the relationship between HPV vaccine uptake and subsequent sexual behaviors. Methods: PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Google Scholar searches were performed from 2006, the date after the first HPV vaccine became available, to…

  13. POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER (PBDE) LEVELS IN AN EXPANDED MARKET BASKET SURVEY OF UNITED STATES (U.S) FOOD AND ESTIMATED PBDE DIETARY INTAKE BY AGE AND SEX

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study enhances a previously reported U.S. market basket survey of food for polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) levels with a larger sample size of 62 individual analyses for 13 congeners. In addition, it estimates levels of PBDE intake from food by gender and age for the U....

  14. Measuring Academic Language Proficiency in School-Age English Language Proficiency Assessments under New College and Career Readiness Standards in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frantz, Roger S.; Bailey, Alison L.; Starr, Laura; Perea, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The current focus across the U.S. on student college and career readiness standards makes clear that both instruction and assessment of academic English will continue to be important for school-age English learner (EL) students. This article presents an overview and summary of key literature on academic language (usually academic English);…

  15. AIDS Education of School-Aged Youth. Hearing before the Committee on Governmental Affairs. United States Senate, One Hundred First Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs.

    The focus of this hearing was two Government Accounting Office (GAO) evaluative reports on the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) programs to educate school-aged youth about the dangers of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and ways to avoid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The GAO's first report is based on its national survey…

  16. Sexual Activity, Contraceptive Use, and Childbearing of Teenagers Aged 15-19 in the United States. NCHS Data Brief. Number 209

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Gladys M.; Abma, Joyce C.

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring sexual activity and contraceptive use among U.S. adolescents is important for understanding differences in their risk of pregnancy. In 2013, the U.S. birth rate for teenagers aged 15-19 dropped 57% from its peak in 1991, paralleling a decline in the teen "pregnancy" rate. But these rates are still higher than those in other…

  17. A comparison of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the United States (US) and Korea in young adults aged 20 to 39 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study estimated and compared the prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome and its individual components in young adults (ages 20-39 years) in the US and Korea using 2003-2004 US and 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. The mean body mass index and rate of metabolic abn...

  18. Specific Infant Feeding Practices Do Not Consistently Explain Variation in Anthropometry at Age 1 Year in Urban United States, Mexico, and China Cohorts12

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Jessica G.; Guerrero, M. Lourdes; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M.; Peng, Yong-mei; Herbers, Patricia M.; Yao, Wen; Ortega, Hilda; Davidson, Barbara S.; McMahon, Robert J.; Morrow, Ardythe L.

    2013-01-01

    Infant feeding practices generally influence infant growth, but it is unclear how introduction of specific foods affects growth across global populations. We studied 3 urban populations in the Global Exploration of Human Milk study to determine the association between infant feeding and anthropometry at 1 y of age. Three hundred sixty-five breastfeeding mother-infant pairs (120 US, 120 China, and 125 Mexico) were recruited soon after the infant’s birth. Enrollment required agreement to breastfeed ≥75% for at least 3 mo. Weekly, 24-h, food frequency data were conducted on infants for 1 y and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) duration and timing of specific complementary food introduction were calculated. Weight and length were measured at age 1 y and anthropometry Z-scores calculated using WHO standards. Cohorts in the 3 urban populations (Shanghai, China; Cincinnati, USA; and Mexico City, Mexico) differed by median EBF duration (5, 14, and 7 wk, respectively; P < 0.001), timing of introduction of meat/eggs/legumes (4.8, 9.3, and 7.0 mo, respectively; P < 0.0001), and other feeding practices. By age 1 y, infants in Shanghai were heavier and longer than Cincinnati and Mexico City infants (P < 0.001). Adjusting for nonfeeding covariates, the only feeding variable associated with anthropometry was EBF duration, which was modestly inversely associated with weight-for-age but not length-for-age or BMI Z-scores at 1 y. Although feeding variables differed by cohort, their impact on anthropometry differences was not consistent among cohorts. Overall, across these urban, international, breast-fed cohorts, differences in specific feeding practices did not explain the significant variation in anthropometry. PMID:23236024

  19. STATE SOIL GEOGRAPHIC (STATSGO) DATA BASE FOR THECOTERNIMOUS UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    USSOILS is an Arc 7.0 coverage containing hydrology-relevant information for 10,498 map units covering the entire conterminous United States. The coverage was compiled from individual State coverages contained in the October 1994 State Soil Geographic (STATSGO) Data Base produce...

  20. Wind Capacity Credit in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; Porter, K.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide an analysis and comparison of recent studies on the capacity credit of wind in the United States. We offer suggestions and recommendations for future studies, based on the recent work. We examine key wind capacity studies in the United States, emphasizing those done in the past three years.

  1. Medical Licensing Examinations in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melnick, Donald E.; Dillon, Gerard F.; Swanson, David B.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses examination requirements for medical licensure in the United States, focusing on the exam components related to assessment of hands-on clinical skills with patients and assessment of medical decision-making skills. Provides a brief history of medical licensing exams, describes the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE), and…

  2. 76 FR 18783 - United States et al.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... Antitrust Division United States et al. v. Dean Foods Company; Proposed Final Judgment, Stipulation and... of America, et al. v. Dean Foods Company, Civil Action No. 2:10-cv-00059 (JPS). On January 22, 2010, the United States and its co-plaintiffs filed a Complaint alleging that Dean Foods...

  3. Update: Fusarium Keratitis - United States, 2005 - 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report describes the results of a Fusarium keratitis outbreak investigation being conducted by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The epidemiological data indicate that the 2005-2006 outbreaks of corneal infections within the United States are linked to the use of on...

  4. 31 CFR 562.309 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States. 562.309 Section 562.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 562.309 United States. The...

  5. 31 CFR 562.309 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States. 562.309 Section 562.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 562.309 United States. The...

  6. Major land uses in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marschner, Francis J.; Anderson, James R.

    1967-01-01

    This is a polygon coverage of major land uses in the United States. The source of the coverage is the map of major land uses in the National Atlas, pages 158-159, which was adapted from U.S. Department of Agriculture, "Major Land Uses in the United States," by Francis J. Marschner, revised by James R. Anderson, 1967.

  7. Snapshot: Diabetes in the United States

    MedlinePlus

    A SNAPSHOT DIABETES IN THE UNITED STATES DIABETES 29.1 MILLION 29.1 million people have diabetes That's about 1 out of every 11 people 1 4 ... estimates of diabetes and its burden in the United States, 2014. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health ...

  8. 7 CFR 1280.127 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1280.127 Section 1280.127 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.127 United States....

  9. 75 FR 34156 - United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... Terrace, London, W2 6LG, United Kingdom, and Alcan Corporation, 8770 West Bryn Mawr Avenue, Chicago, IL...''), Rio Tinto plc (``Rio Tinto''), and Alcan Corporation to enjoin Amcor's proposed acquisition from Rio... sales totaled approximately $44 billion. Rio Tinto acquired Alcan Corporation in 2007. 6....

  10. The Contribution of Mammography Screening to Breast Cancer Incidence Trends in the United States: An Updated Age-period-cohort Model

    PubMed Central

    Gangnon, Ronald E.; Sprague, Brian L.; Stout, Natasha K.; Alagoz, Oguz; Weedon-Fekjær, Harald; Holford, Theodore R.; Trentham-Dietz, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Background The impact of screening mammography on breast cancer incidence is difficult to disentangle from cohort- and age-related effects on incidence. Methods We developed an age-period-cohort model of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive breast cancer incidence in U.S. females using cancer registry data. Five functions were included in the model to estimate stage-specific effects for age, premenopausal birth cohorts, postmenopausal birth cohorts, period (for all years of diagnosis), and a mammography period effect limited to women aged ≥40 years after 1982. Incidence with and without the mammography period effect was calculated. Results More recent birth cohorts have elevated underlying risk compared to earlier cohorts for both pre- and postmenopausal women. Comparing models with and without the mammography period effect showed that overall breast cancer incidence would have been 23.1% lower in the absence of mammography in 2010 (95% CI 18.8, 27.4), including 14.7% (9.5, 19.3) lower for invasive breast cancer and 54.5% (47.4, 59.6) lower for DCIS. Incidence of distant-staged breast cancer in 2010 would have been 29.0% (13.1, 48.1) greater in the absence of mammography screening. Conclusions Mammography contributes to markedly elevated rates of DCIS and early stage invasive cancers, but also contributes to substantial reductions in the incidence of metastatic breast cancer. Impact Mammography is an important tool for reducing the burden of breast cancer, but future work is needed to identify risk factors accounting for increasing underlying incidence and to distinguish between indolent and potentially lethal early stage breast cancers that are detected via mammography. PMID:25787716

  11. Age, period, and cohort effects in motor vehicle mortality in the United States, 1980–2010: the role of sex, alcohol involvement, and position in vehicle

    PubMed Central

    Macinko, James; Silver, Diana; Bae, Jin Yung

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although substantive declines in motor vehicle fatalities 1980–2010 have been observed, declines by position in the vehicle and alcohol involvement have not been well elucidated. Method Analyses of FARS data use the Intrinisic Estimator (IE) to produce estimates of all age, period, and cohort effects simultaneously by position in the car and by alcohol involvement. Results Declines in MVC deaths by position in the car vary for men and women by age and cohort over time. Cohorts born before 1970 had higher risks than those born later. Analyses using proxy indicators of alcohol involvement found highest risks for those aged 16–24. By period, these risks declined more rapidly than non- alcohol related traffic fatalities. Conclusion Changes in risk patterns are consistent with evidence regarding the contributions of new technologies and public policy efforts to reduce fatalities, but gains have not been shared evenly by sex or position in the car. Practical Application Greater attention is needed to reducing deaths among older drivers and pedestrians. Gender differences should be addressed in prevention efforts aimed at reducing MVCs due to alcohol involvement. PMID:25662882

  12. Latino College Completion: United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  13. Patterns of Bisphosphonates Utilization in Patients under Age 45 in a Large Cohort of Commercial Insurance Beneficiaries in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jing; Tong, Angela; Kim, Seoyoung C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The effectiveness and safety of bisphosphonates treatment used in the young population have not been well studied. Despite insufficient data on effectiveness and safety of bisphosphonates in young patients, bisphosphonates are still considered in younger patients at high risk for osteoporosis or fracture. The objectives of this study were to identify bisphosphonate initiators aged 10–45 years and describe their clinical characteristics and to assess time trends of bisphosphonate use over the past decade in a large U.S. population-based cohort. Methods Using the medical and pharmacy claims data from a U.S. commercial insurance (2003–2012), patients aged 10–45 years without malignancy who initiated an oral or intravenous bisphosphonate after at least 1 year of insurance enrollment were selected. Baseline demographics, comorbidities, medications and health care utilization were assessed in the year prior to initiating a bisphosphonate. The trend of bisphosphonate use over time was examined. Results There were 9,082 bisphosphonate initiators (0.02% of the same age group in the population). The mean age was 38.1 years and 79.6% female. Osteoporosis was the most common diagnosis (41.2%). At baseline, 10.8% had a diagnosis of fracture and 29.0% had a bone mineral density measured. Of those who used glucocorticoids (39%) at baseline, the mean 1-year cumulative prednisone-equivalent dose was 2,669 milligrams. The use of bisphosphonates in the young population significantly decreased over the past decade (p<0.001). Conclusions Among young patients aged 10–45, the use of bisphosphonates was uncommon and significantly decreased over the past decade in the U.S. While most patients initiating bisphosphonates had a diagnosis of osteoporosis and fracture in the preceding year, some had no recorded claims with a diagnosis of fracture, osteoporosis, or long-term glucocorticoids use at baseline. Future research is needed to examine the effectiveness and safety of

  14. 76 FR 38460 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office UNITED STATES SENTENCING COMMISSION Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts AGENCY: United States Sentencing Commission. ACTION... the Practitioners Advisory Group are expiring as of October 2011, the United States...

  15. 75 FR 54705 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office UNITED STATES SENTENCING COMMISSION Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts AGENCY: United States Sentencing Commission. ACTION... the Practitioners Advisory Group are expiring as of October 2010, the United States...

  16. 77 FR 31071 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office UNITED STATES SENTENCING COMMISSION Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts AGENCY: United States Sentencing Commission. ACTION.... ADDRESSES: Send applications to: United States Sentencing Commission, One Columbus Circle NE., Suite...

  17. 78 FR 36641 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office UNITED STATES SENTENCING COMMISSION Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts AGENCY: United States Sentencing Commission. ACTION... the Practitioners Advisory Group are expiring as of October 2013, the United States...

  18. 77 FR 31070 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office UNITED STATES SENTENCING COMMISSION Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts AGENCY: United States Sentencing Commission. ACTION... the Practitioners Advisory Group are expiring as of October 2012, the United States...

  19. Intranets and Extranets at State Libraries in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolt, Nancy M.

    This paper is an analysis of Intranets and Extranets at selected state libraries in the United States. The paper does not review World Wide Web sites designed for use by the general public; rather, it focuses on Web sites designed and delivered by the state library to a targeted audience, typically state government employees, state library…

  20. 7 CFR 1220.129 - State and United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.129 State and United...

  1. 7 CFR 1220.129 - State and United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.129 State and United...

  2. 7 CFR 1220.129 - State and United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.129 State and United...

  3. 7 CFR 1220.129 - State and United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.129 State and United...

  4. 7 CFR 1220.129 - State and United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.129 State and United...

  5. Normal weight obesity and mortality in United States subjects ≥60 years of age (from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey).

    PubMed

    Batsis, John A; Sahakyan, Karine R; Rodriguez-Escudero, Juan P; Bartels, Stephen J; Somers, Virend K; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2013-11-15

    Current body mass index (BMI) strata likely misrepresent the accuracy of true adiposity in older adults. Subjects with normal BMI with elevated body fat may metabolically have higher cardiovascular and overall mortality than previously suspected. We identified 4,489 subjects aged ≥60 years (BMI = 18.5 to 25 kg/m(2)) with anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance measurements from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys III (1988 to 1994) and mortality data linked to the National Death Index. Normal weight obesity (NWO) was classified in 2 ways: creation of tertiles with highest percentage of body fat and body fat percent cutoffs (men >25% and women >35%). We compared overall and cardiovascular mortality rates, models adjusted for age, gender, smoking, race, diabetes, and BMI. The final sample included 1,528 subjects, mean age was 70 years, median (interquartile range) follow-up was 12.9 years (range 7.5 to 15.3) with 902 deaths (46.5% cardiovascular). Prevalence of NWO was 27.9% and 21.4% in men and 20.4% and 31.3% in women using tertiles and cutoffs, respectively. Subjects with NWO had higher rates of abnormal cardiovascular risk factors. Lean mass decreased, whereas leptin increased with increasing tertile. There were no gender-specific differences in overall mortality. Short-term mortality (<140 person-months) was higher in women, whereas long-term mortality (>140 person-months) was higher in men. We highlight the importance of considering body fat in gender-specific risk stratification in older adults with normal weight. In conclusion, NWO in older adults is associated with cardiometabolic dysregulation and is a risk for cardiovascular mortality independent of BMI and central fat distribution. PMID:23993123

  6. Social Security: Implementation of New Mental Impairment Criteria for Disability Benefits. Briefing Report to the Chairman, Special Committee on Aging, United States Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    This document is a report on the implementation of changes to methods formerly used by the Social Security Administration (SSA) to evaluate claims relating to mental impairment for disability benefits. The introductory letter states several conclusions reached by the General Accounting Office's (GAO) review of the criteria used by the SSA to…

  7. Use of Inpatient Psychiatric Services by Children and Youth under Age 18, United States, 1980. Mental Health Statistical Note No. 175.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milazzo-Sayre, Laura J.; And Others

    The report examines data from three sample surveys of admissions during 1980 to the inpatient psychiatric services of state and mental hospitals and private psychiatric hospitals and the separate inpatient psychiatric services of non-federal general hospitals. Findings revealed that an estimated 81,532 persons under 18 years were admitted to…

  8. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Suicide Rates* for Females and Males, by Method(†) - National Vital Statistics System, United States, 2000 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    From 2000 to 2014, the age-adjusted suicide rate increased from 4.0 to 5.8 per 100,000 for females and from 17.7 to 20.7 for males. Suicide rates by specific method (firearm, poisoning, suffocation, or other methods) also increased, with the greatest increase seen for suicides by suffocation. During the 15-year period, the rate of suicide by suffocation more than doubled for females from 0.7 to 1.6 and increased from 3.4 to 5.6 for males. In 2014, among females, suicide by poisoning had the highest rate (1.9), and among males, suicide by firearm had the highest rate (11.4). PMID:27197046

  9. Age Effects and Temporal Trends in HPV-Related and HPV-Unrelated Oral Cancer in the United States: A Multistage Carcinogenesis Modeling Analysis.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Andrew F; Eisenberg, Marisa C; Meza, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Differences in prognosis in HPV-positive and HPV-negative oral (oropharyngeal and oral cavity) squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) and increasing incidence of HPV-related cancers have spurred interest in demographic and temporal trends in OSCC incidence. We leverage multistage clonal expansion (MSCE) models coupled with age-period-cohort (APC) epidemiological models to analyze OSCC data in the SEER cancer registry (1973-2012). MSCE models are based on the initiation-promotion-malignant conversion paradigm in carcinogenesis and allow for interpretation of trends in terms of biological mechanisms. APC models seek to differentiate between the temporal effects of age, period, and birth cohort on cancer risk. Previous studies have looked at the effect of period and cohort on tumor initiation, and we extend this to compare model fits of period and cohort effects on each of tumor initiation, promotion, and malignant conversion rates. HPV-related, HPV-unrelated except oral tongue, and HPV-unrelated oral tongue sites are best described by placing period and cohort effects on the initiation rate. HPV-related and non-oral-tongue HPV-unrelated cancers have similar promotion rates, suggesting similar tumorigenesis dynamics once initiated. Estimates of promotion rates at oral tongue sites are lower, corresponding to a longer sojourn time; this finding is consistent with the hypothesis of an etiology distinct from HPV or alcohol and tobacco use. Finally, for the three subsite groups, men have higher initiation rates than women of the same race, and black people have higher promotion than white people of the same sex. These differences explain part of the racial and sex differences in OSCC incidence. PMID:26963717

  10. Nonmedical Stimulant Use among Young Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and Mixed-Race Individuals Aged 12–34 years In the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Swartz, Marvin S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Blazer, Dan G.; Hoyle, Rick H.

    2014-01-01

    There are concerns over nonmedical use of prescription stimulants among youths, but little is known about the extent of use among young Asian-Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race individuals—the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population. We examined prevalences and correlates of nonmedical stimulant use (NMSU) and disorder (StiUD) for these underrecognized groups. Whites were included as a comparison. Data were from young individuals aged 12–34 years in the 2005–2012 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. We used logistic regression to estimate odds of past-year NMSU status. Significant yearly increases in lifetime NMSU prevalence were noted in Whites only. NHs/PIs (lifetime 7.33%, past-year 2.72%) and mixed-race individuals (10.20%, 2.82%) did not differ from Whites in NMSU prevalence (11.68%, 3.15%). Asian-Americans (lifetime 3.83%, past-year 0.90%) had lower prevalences than Whites. In each racial/ethnic group, “Methamphetamine/Desoxyn/Methedrine or Ritalin” was more commonly used than other stimulant groups; “got them from a friend/relative for free” and “bought them from a friends/relative” were among the most common sources. Females had greater odds than males of NMSU (among White, NH/PI, mixed-race individuals) and StiUD (among mixed-race individuals). Young adults (aged 18–25) had elevated odds of NMSU (White, NH/PI); adolescents had elevated odds of StiUD (White, mixed-race). Other substance use (especially marijuana, other prescription drugs) increased odds of NMSU and StiUD. NHs/PIs and mixed-race individuals were as likely as Whites to misuse stimulants. Research is needed to delineate health consequences of NMSU and inform prevention efforts for these understudied, rapidly-growing populations. PMID:25263275

  11. Sex and sexual orientation disparities in adverse childhood experiences and early age at sexual debut in the United States: results from a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Brown, Monique J; Masho, Saba W; Perera, Robert A; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A

    2015-08-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to early sexual debut, which has been found to be associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Sexual minorities and men tend to have earlier sexual debut compared to heterosexual populations and women, respectively. However, studies examining the association between ACEs and early sexual debut among men and sexual minorities are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the sex and sexual orientation disparities in the association between ACEs and age at sexual debut. Data were obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic and linear regression models were used to obtain crude and adjusted estimates and 95% confidence intervals adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, insurance and marital status for the association between ACEs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology) and early sexual debut. Analyses were stratified by sex and sexual orientation. Larger effect estimates depicting the association between ACEs and sexual debut were seen for women compared to men, and among sexual minorities, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW), compared to heterosexuals. Sexual health education programs with a focus on delaying sexual debut among children and adolescents should also consider addressing ACEs, such as neglect, physical, psychological and sexual abuse, witnessing parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology. Public health practitioners, researchers and sexual health education curriculum coordinators should consider these differences by sex and sexual orientation when designing these programs. PMID:25804435

  12. Sex and sexual orientation disparities in adverse childhood experiences and early age at sexual debut in the United States: Results from a nationally representative sample☆

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Monique J.; Masho, Saba W.; Perera, Robert A.; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to early sexual debut, which has been found to be associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Sexual minorities and men tend to have earlier sexual debut compared to heterosexual populations and women, respectively. However, studies examining the association between ACEs and early sexual debut among men and sexual minorities are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the sex and sexual orientation disparities in the association between ACEs and age at sexual debut. Data were obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic and linear regression model were used to obtain crude and adjusted estimates and 95% confidence intervals adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, insurance and marital status for the association between ACEs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology) and early sexual debut. Analyses were stratified by sex and sexual orientation. Larger effect estimates depicting the association between ACEs and sexual debut were seen for women compared to men, and among sexual minorities, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW), compared to heterosexuals. Sexual health education programs with a focus on delaying sexual debut among children and adolescents should also consider addressing ACEs, such as neglect, physical, psychological and sexual abuse, witnessing parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology. Public health practitioners, researchers and sexual health education curriculum coordinators should consider these differences by sex and sexual orientation when designing these programs. PMID:25804435

  13. The Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES) project--design, population and data harmonization of a large-scale, international study.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, Paolo; Bobak, Martin; Borsch-Supan, Axel; Brenner, Hermann; Eriksson, Sture; Grodstein, Fran; Jansen, Eugene; Jenab, Mazda; Juerges, Hendrik; Kampman, Ellen; Kee, Frank; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Park, Yikyung; Tjonneland, Anne; van Duijn, Cornelia; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wolk, Alicja; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Bamia, Christina; Trichopoulou, Antonia

    2014-12-01

    There is a public health demand to prevent health conditions which lead to increased morbidity and mortality among the rapidly-increasing elderly population. Data for the incidence of such conditions exist in cohort studies worldwide, which, however, differ in various aspects. The Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES) project aims at harmonizing data from existing major longitudinal studies for the elderly whilst focussing on cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, cancer, fractures and cognitive impairment in order to estimate their prevalence, incidence and cause-specific mortality, and identify lifestyle, socioeconomic, and genetic determinants and biomarkers for the incidence of and mortality from these conditions. A survey instrument assessing ageing-related conditions of the elderly will be also developed. Fourteen cohort studies participate in CHANCES with 683,228 elderly (and 150,210 deaths), from 23 European and three non-European countries. So far, 287 variables on health conditions and a variety of exposures, including biomarkers and genetic data have been harmonized. Different research hypotheses are investigated with meta-analyses. The results which will be produced can help international organizations, governments and policy-makers to better understand the broader implications and consequences of ageing and thus make informed decisions. PMID:25504016

  14. Cardiovascular Risk Factors of Adults Age 20–49 Years in the United States, 1971–2012: A Series of Cross-Sectional Studies

    PubMed Central

    Casagrande, Sarah S.; Menke, Andy; Cowie, Catherine C.

    2016-01-01

    Background The health of younger adults in the U.S. has important public health and economic-related implications. However, previous literature is insufficient to fully understand how the health of this group has changed over time. This study examined generational differences in cardiovascular risk factors of younger adults over the past 40 years. Methods Data were from 6 nationally representative cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1971–2012; N = 44,670). Participants were adults age 20–49 years who self-reported sociodemographic characteristics and health conditions, and had examination/laboratory measures for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, obesity, and chronic kidney disease. Prevalences of sociodemographic characteristics and health status were determined by study period. Logistic regression was used to determine the odds [odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval] of health conditions by study period: models adjusted only for age, sex, and race, and fully adjusted models additionally adjusted for socioeconomic characteristics, smoking, BMI, diabetes, and/or hypertension (depending on the outcome) were assessed. Results Participants in 2009–2012 were significantly more likely to be obese and have diabetes compared to those in 1971–1975 (OR = 4.98, 3.57–6.97; OR = 3.49, 1.59–7.65, respectively, fully adjusted). Participants in 2009–2012 vs. 1988–1994 were significantly more likely to have had hypertension but uncontrolled hypertension was significantly less likely (OR = 0.67, 0.52–0.86, fully adjusted). There was no difference over time for high cholesterol, but uncontrolled high cholesterol was significantly less likely in 2009–2012 vs. 1988–1994 (OR = 0.80, 0.68–0.94, fully adjusted). The use of hypertensive and cholesterol medications increased while chronic kidney and cardiovascular diseases were relatively stable. Conclusions Cardiovascular risk factors of younger U.S. adults have worsened over

  15. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Childhood Blood Lead Levels Among Children <72 Months of Age in the United States: a Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    White, Brandi M; Bonilha, Heather Shaw; Ellis, Charles

    2016-03-01

    Childhood lead poisoning is a serious public health problem with long-term adverse effects. Healthy People 2020's environmental health objective aims to reduce childhood blood lead levels; however, efforts may be hindered by potential racial/ethnic differences. Recent recommendations have lowered the blood lead reference level. This review examined racial/ethnic differences in blood lead levels among children under 6 years of age. We completed a search of PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases for published works from 2002 to 2012. We identified studies that reported blood lead levels and the race/ethnicity of at least two groups. Ten studies met inclusion criteria for the review. Blood lead levels were most frequently reported for black, white, and Hispanic children. Six studies examined levels between blacks, whites, and Hispanics and two between blacks and whites. Studies reporting mean lead levels among black, whites, and Hispanics found that blacks had the highest mean blood lead level. Additionally, studies reporting blood lead ranges found that black children were more likely to have elevated levels. Studies suggest that black children have higher blood lead levels compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Future studies are warranted to obtain ample sample sizes for several racial/ethnic groups to further examine differences in lead levels. PMID:26896114

  16. Update: Interim Guidance for Health Care Providers Caring for Women of Reproductive Age with Possible Zika Virus Exposure--United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Emily E; Polen, Kara N D; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Ellington, Sascha R; Oduyebo, Titilope; Cohn, Amanda; Oster, Alexandra M; Russell, Kate; Kawwass, Jennifer F; Karwowski, Mateusz P; Powers, Ann M; Bertolli, Jeanne; Brooks, John T; Kissin, Dmitry; Villanueva, Julie; Muñoz-Jordan, Jorge; Kuehnert, Matthew; Olson, Christine K; Honein, Margaret A; Rivera, Maria; Jamieson, Denise J; Rasmussen, Sonja A

    2016-01-01

    CDC has updated its interim guidance for U.S. health care providers caring for women of reproductive age with possible Zika virus exposure to include recommendations on counseling women and men with possible Zika virus exposure who are interested in conceiving. This guidance is based on limited available data on persistence of Zika virus RNA in blood and semen. Women who have Zika virus disease should wait at least 8 weeks after symptom onset to attempt conception, and men with Zika virus disease should wait at least 6 months after symptom onset to attempt conception. Women and men with possible exposure to Zika virus but without clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease should wait at least 8 weeks after exposure to attempt conception. Possible exposure to Zika virus is defined as travel to or residence in an area of active Zika virus transmission ( http://www.cdc.gov/zika/geo/active-countries.html), or sex (vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse, or fellatio) without a condom with a man who traveled to or resided in an area of active transmission. Women and men who reside in areas of active Zika virus transmission should talk with their health care provider about attempting conception. This guidance also provides updated recommendations on testing of pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure. These recommendations will be updated when additional data become available. PMID:27031943

  17. Age constraints on Jerritt Canyon and other Carlin-type gold deposits in the western United States-relationship to mid-Tertiary extension and magmatism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hofstra, A.H.; Snee, L.W.; Rye, R.O.; Folger, H.W.; Phinisey, J.D.; Loranger, R.J.; Dahl, A.R.; Naeser, C.W.; Stein, H.J.; Lewchuk, M.

    1999-01-01

    Carlin-type gold deposits are difficult to date and a wide range of ages has been reported for individual deposits. Therefore, several methods were employed to constrain the age of the gold deposits in the Jerritt Canyon district. Dated igneous rocks with well-documented crosscutting relationships to ore provided the most reliable constraints. K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dates on igneous rocks are as follows: andesite dikes 324 Ma, sericitic alteration in andesite dikes 118 Ma, basalt dikes 40.8 Ma, quartz monzonite dikes 39.2 Ma, and calc-alkaline ignimbrites 43.1 to 40.1 Ma. Of these, only the andesite and basalt dikes are clearly altered and mineralized. The gold deposits are, therefore, younger than the 40.8 Ma basalt dikes. The sericitic alteration in the andesite dikes is unrelated to the gold deposits. A number of dating techniques did not work. K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dates on mica from mineralized Ordovician to Devonian sedimentary rocks gave misleading results. The youngest date of 149 Ma from the smallest <0.1-??m-size fraction shows that the temperature (120??-260??C) and duration (?) of hydrothermal activity was insufficient to reset preexisting fine-grained micas in the host rocks. The temperature and duration was also insufficient to anneal fission tracks in zircon from Ordovician quartzites as they yield Middle Proterozoic dates in both mineralized and barren samples. Apatites were too small for fission track dating. Hydrothermal sulfides have pronounced crustal osmium isotope signatures (187Os/188Os(initial) = 0.9-3.6) but did not yield a meaningful isochron due to very low Re and Os concentrations and large analytical uncertainties. Paleomagnetic dating techniques failed because the hydrothermal fluids sulfidized nearly all of the iron in the host rocks leaving no remnant magnetism. When published isotopic dates from other Carlin-type deposits in Nevada and Utah are subject to the rigorous evaluation developed for the Jerritt Canyon study, most deposits can be

  18. Short communication: Analysis of genomic predictor population for Holstein dairy cattle in the United States--Effects of sex and age.

    PubMed

    Cooper, T A; Wiggans, G R; VanRaden, P M

    2015-04-01

    Increased computing time for the ever-growing predictor population and linkage decay between the ancestral population and current animals have become concerns for genomic evaluation systems. The effects on reliability of US genomic evaluations from including cows and bulls in the Holstein predictor population and also from excluding older bulls from the predictor population were examined. Holstein data collected for December 2013 US genomic evaluations were used in cutoff studies to determine reliability gains, regression coefficients, and bias for 5 yield, 3 fitness, 2 fertility, and 18 conformation traits. Three predictor populations were examined based on animal sex: 30,852 cows with traditional evaluations as of August 2012, 21,883 bulls with traditional evaluations as of August 2012, and a combined group of all bulls and cows. Three subsets of the bull predictor population were examined to determine effect of age: bulls born before 1996 excluded (25% of bulls excluded), bulls born before 2001 excluded (50%), and bulls born before 2005 excluded (75%). The validation set for all predictor populations was either bulls or cows first receiving a traditional evaluation between August 2012 and December 2013. Across all traits, the addition of cows to the bull predictor population increased reliability gains by 0.4 percentage points for validation bulls and 4.4 points for validation cows. Across all traits, excluding bulls born before 1996 from the bull-only predictor population decreased gains in genomic reliability by 1.8 percentage points. For 19 of 28 traits, excluding bulls born before 2005 from the predictor population resulted in lower bias in genomic evaluations of validation bulls. Although the contribution of cows and older bulls to improved accuracy of US genomic evaluations is small, a plateau of achievable gain has not yet been reached. PMID:25648811

  19. Influence of cigarette smoking on the overall perception of dental health among adults aged 20-79 years, United States, 1988-1994.

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Nathalie M.; Dye, Bruce A.; Hooper, Tomoko I.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Investigation into the relationship between lifestyle factors (particularly cigarette smoking) and perceived oral health has been limited. Data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II), 1988-1994, were used to explore this relationship in a large sample of U.S. adults. METHODS: This study used data on 13,357 dentate participants in NHANES III aged 20-79 years. In NHANES III, information on perceived dental health, sociodemographic attributes, smoking status, frequency of dental visits, dental insurance, and general health perception were collected during a home interview, and oral health status was assessed at a mobile examination center. RESULTS: Overall, 34.4% of individuals in the study sample reported having an unfavorable perception of their dental health by qualifying it as "fair" or "poor." Furthermore, 46.6% of smokers had an unfavorable dental health perception, compared to 28.3% of non-smokers. An interaction between smoking and race/ethnicity was found in logistic regression modeling. Stratified results show that cigarette smoking was not a significant predictor for an unfavorable dental health perception among individuals who self-identified as Mexican American, but smoking was a significant predictor for an unfavorable dental health perception among those who identified as non-Hispanic black or non-Hispanic white. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to describe the effects of smoking on dental health perception while controlling for examined oral health status. Because perceived dental health is a potential indicator for dental care utilization, a better knowledge of the factors that influence dental health perception is not only important for dental services planning, but also for understanding oral health-related quality of life issues. Additionally, given that smoking may negatively affect dental health perception, these findings have potential implications for smoking cessation activities conducted by

  20. Age Effects and Temporal Trends in HPV-Related and HPV-Unrelated Oral Cancer in the United States: A Multistage Carcinogenesis Modeling Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Andrew F.; Eisenberg, Marisa C.; Meza, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Differences in prognosis in HPV-positive and HPV-negative oral (oropharyngeal and oral cavity) squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) and increasing incidence of HPV-related cancers have spurred interest in demographic and temporal trends in OSCC incidence. We leverage multistage clonal expansion (MSCE) models coupled with age—period—cohort (APC) epidemiological models to analyze OSCC data in the SEER cancer registry (1973–2012). MSCE models are based on the initiation—promotion—malignant conversion paradigm in carcinogenesis and allow for interpretation of trends in terms of biological mechanisms. APC models seek to differentiate between the temporal effects of age, period, and birth cohort on cancer risk. Previous studies have looked at the effect of period and cohort on tumor initiation, and we extend this to compare model fits of period and cohort effects on each of tumor initiation, promotion, and malignant conversion rates. HPV-related, HPV-unrelated except oral tongue, and HPV-unrelated oral tongue sites are best described by placing period and cohort effects on the initiation rate. HPV-related and non-oral-tongue HPV-unrelated cancers have similar promotion rates, suggesting similar tumorigenesis dynamics once initiated. Estimates of promotion rates at oral tongue sites are lower, corresponding to a longer sojourn time; this finding is consistent with the hypothesis of an etiology distinct from HPV or alcohol and tobacco use. Finally, for the three subsite groups, men have higher initiation rates than women of the same race, and black people have higher promotion than white people of the same sex. These differences explain part of the racial and sex differences in OSCC incidence. PMID:26963717

  1. National Trends in Pulmonary Embolism Hospitalization Rates and Outcomes for Adults Aged ≥65 Years in the United States (1999 to 2010).

    PubMed

    Minges, Karl E; Bikdeli, Behnood; Wang, Yun; Kim, Nancy; Curtis, Jeptha P; Desai, Mayur M; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about national trends of pulmonary embolism (PE) hospitalizations and outcomes in older adults in the context of recent diagnostic and therapeutic advances. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of 100% Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries hospitalized from 1999 to 2010 with a principal discharge diagnosis code for PE. The adjusted PE hospitalization rate increased from 129/100,000 person-years in 1999 to 302/100,000 person-years in 2010, a relative increase of 134% (p <0.001). Black patients had the highest rate of increase (174 to 548/100,000 person-years) among all age, gender, and race categories. The mean (standard deviation) length of hospital stay decreased from 7.6 (5.7) days in 1999 to 5.8 (4.4) days in 2010, and the proportion of patients discharged to home decreased from 51.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 50.5 to 51.6) to 44.1% (95% CI 43.7 to 44.6), whereas more patients were discharged with home health care and to skilled nursing facilities. The in-hospital mortality rate decreased from 8.3% (95% CI 8.0 to 8.6) in 1999 to 4.4% (95% CI 4.2 to 4.5) in 2010, as did adjusted 30-day (from 12.3% [95% CI 11.9 to 12.6] to 9.1% [95% CI 8.5 to 9.7]) and 6-month mortality rates (from 23.0% [95% CI 22.5 to 23.4] to 19.6% [95% CI 18.8 to 20.5]). There were no significant racial differences in mortality rates by 2010. There was no change in the adjusted 30-day all-cause readmission rate from 1999 to 2010. In conclusion, PE hospitalization rates increased substantially from 1999 to 2010, with a higher rate for black patients. All mortality rates decreased but remained high. The increase in hospitalization rates and continued high mortality and readmission rates confirm the significant burden of PE for older adults. PMID:26409636

  2. Awareness of methylmercury in fish and fish consumption among pregnant and postpartum women and women of childbearing age in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lando, Amy M; Fein, Sara B; Choinière, Conrad J

    2012-07-01

    In 2004, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reissued joint advice recommending that pregnant women, nursing mothers, young children, and women who may become pregnant not consume fish high in mercury such as shark, swordfish, king mackerel, and tilefish, and not consume more than 12 ounces (340.2g) of other lower mercury fish per week. These groups were encouraged to eat up to 12 ounces (340.2g) of low mercury fish per week to get the health benefits of fish. Using a survey of 1286 pregnant women, 522 postpartum women, and a control group of 1349 non-pregnant/non-postpartum women of childbearing age, this study evaluated awareness of mercury as a problem in food and examined fish consumption levels across groups using regression analysis. We also compared awareness of mercury as a problem in food to awareness of Listeria, dioxins and PCBs. We found that the majority of all 3 groups of women were aware of mercury and that nearly all women in all 3 groups limited consumption consistent with the advice; they ate less than 340.2g (12 oz) of fish per week and no high mercury fish. Compared with the control group, pregnant and postpartum women were more likely to be aware of mercury as a problem in food, and pregnant women ate less total fish and were less likely to eat fish, to eat more than 340.2g (12 oz) of fish, and to eat high mercury fish. However, all groups ate much less than the recommended 340.2g (12 oz) of low mercury fish per week for optimum health benefits. Among women who ate fish, the median intake of total fish was 51.6 g/wk (1.8 oz/wk), 71.4 g/wk (2.5 oz/wk), and 85.3 g/wk (3.0 oz/wk) for the pregnant, postpartum, and control groups, respectively. Thus, it appears that the targeted groups of women were more aware of mercury and were eating fish within the FDA/EPA guidelines, but these women may be missing the health benefits to themselves and their children of eating a sufficient amount of fish. PMID

  3. Drought in Southeastern United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    May 2007 was a record-setting month in Georgia. Typically a dry month in this southern state, May 2007 was exceptionally so, with many locations setting record-low rainfall records and some receiving no rain at all, said state climatologist David Emory Stooksbury on GeorgiaDrought.org. The lack of rain slowed plant growth, as shown in this vegetation index image. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite collected the data used to make this image between May 9 and May 24, 2007. The image shows vegetation conditions compared to average conditions observed from 2000 through 2006. Areas in which plants are more sparse or are growing more slowly than average are brown, while better-than-average growth is green. Georgia and its neighbors (South Carolina, Alabama, and Florida) are all brown, an indication that the lack of rainfall is suppressing plant growth. The gray area in southern Georgia and northern Florida shows where MODIS could not collect valid vegetation measurements, either because of clouds or smoke. In this case, the area corresponds with land that burned during this period and was probably masked by smoke. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, Earth Observatory, using data provided by Inbal Reshef, Global Agricultural Monitoring Project.

  4. Day Pass through Western United States

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video over the Western United States was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 aboard the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was taken on Sept. 24, 2011, from 17:45:14 to 17:54:1...

  5. 7 CFR 1219.26 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.26 United... States of Micronesia. The Hass Avocado Board...

  6. 7 CFR 1219.26 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.26 United... States of Micronesia. The Hass Avocado Board...

  7. 7 CFR 1219.26 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.26 United... States of Micronesia. The Hass Avocado Board...

  8. 7 CFR 1219.26 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.26 United... States of Micronesia. The Hass Avocado Board...

  9. 7 CFR 1219.26 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.26 United... States of Micronesia. The Hass Avocado Board...

  10. Industrial motor repair in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Schueler, V.; Leistner, P.; Douglass, J.

    1994-09-01

    This report characterizes the motor repair industry in the United States; summarizes current motor repair and testing practice; and identifies barriers to energy motor repair practice and recommends strategies for overcoming those barriers.

  11. 7 CFR 1214.24 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1214.24... of Puerto Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States. Christmas Tree...

  12. 7 CFR 1214.24 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1214.24... of Puerto Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States. Christmas Tree...

  13. 7 CFR 1214.24 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1214.24... of Puerto Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States. Christmas Tree...

  14. Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States

    MedlinePlus

    ... United States. All rights reserved. The claims and opinions expressed in sponsor advertising found on this website ... the advertiser and not necessarily the views or opinions of MHAUS, its staff or its advertisers.

  15. Special Education Programs Within the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Morris Val, Ed.

    Twenty-two special education programs in the United States are described. Diagnostic centers and special schools discussed are the Institute for Childhood Aphasia, California programs for orthopedically handicapped children, the experimental education unit of the University of Washington Mental Retardation and Child Development Center, the Phoebe…

  16. Social Studies: United States. Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellogg, E. G.

    This teachers guide attempts to facilitate the study of the United States through a conceptual approach and multimedia instruction in a spiral curriculum. There are five units: 1) Natural Setting --location, climate, terrain, water, soil, and economic and esthetic value, and conservation; 2) Historial Development --North American Indian cultures,…

  17. Bibliographic Databases Outside of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinn, Thomas P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Eight articles describe the development, content, and structure of databases outside of the United States. Features discussed include library involvement, authority control, shared cataloging services, union catalogs, thesauri, abstracts, and distribution methods. Countries and areas represented are Latin America, Australia, the United Kingdom,…

  18. Current trends in suicidal behavior in the United States.

    PubMed

    Frederick, C J

    1978-04-01

    Suicidal behavior in the United States from 1900 to 1975 is reviewed. The data presented cover demographic variables such as: age, sex, color, and geographic area. While the overall suicide rate continues to increase, the most striking upturn can be seen in both sexes between the ages of 15 to 25 years. The need for a wide range of innovative approaches and increased research is manifest. PMID:677350

  19. The Relationship between Nutrition, Aging, and Health: A Personal and Social Challenge. Hearing before the Special Committee on Aging. United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session (Albuquerque, New Mexico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Special Committee on Aging.

    This document presents witness testimonies and prepared statements from a Senate hearing called to examine the relationship between nutrition, aging, and health. An opening statement by Senator Jeff Bingaman is included. Jeffrey Blumberg, the acting associate director of the Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, provides an…

  20. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Ross, James; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Shanklin, Shari; Lim, Connie; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Wechsler, Howell

    2006-01-01

    In the United States, 71% of all deaths among persons aged 10-24 years result from 4 causes: motor vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Results from the 2005 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) indicated that during the 30 days preceding the survey, many high school students engaged in behaviors that…

  1. 20 CFR 404.1093 - Possession of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Possession of the United States. 404.1093 Section 404.1093 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income...

  2. 20 CFR 416.215 - You leave the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false You leave the United States. 416.215 Section 416.215 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Eligibility Reasons Why You May Not Get Ssi Benefits for Which You Are...

  3. Toll of Tobacco in the United States of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... et al., “Estimates of Smoking-Attributable Deaths at Ages 15-54, Motherless or Fatherless Youths, and Resulting Social Security Costs in the United States in 1994,” Preventive Medicine 30(5):353-360, May 2000. Tobacco marketing. U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC). Cigarette Report for ...

  4. Periodontal Disease and Oral Hygiene Among Children. United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    Statistical data presented on periodontal disease and oral hygiene among noninstitutionalized children, aged 6-11, in the United States are based on a probability sample of approximately 7,400 children involved in a national health survey during 1963-65. The report contains estimates of the Periodontal Index (PI) and the Simplified Oral Hygiene…

  5. Hearing Sensitivity and Related Medical Findings Among Children - United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jean; Federico, John V.

    Based on findings from the Health Examination Survey of 1963-65, estimates were reported on the prevalence of abnormal conditions of the ear, nose, and throat and the relation of these various abnormalities to hearing sensitivity of noninstitutionalized children aged 6 to 11 years old in the United States. A total of 7,119 children participated in…

  6. Educational Attainment in the United States: March 1991 and 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kominski, Robert; Adams, Andrea

    1992-01-01

    This report contains data on the educational attainment of persons in the United States from the Current Population Surveys of the Census in March 1990 and 1991. Summary data on years of school completed by: (1) age; (2) sex; (3) race; (4) Hispanic origin; (5) marital status; (6) household relationship; (7) education of spouse; (8) labor force…

  7. Challenges Faced by Korean Transnational Students in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Adrian; Nam, Sang; Han, Shini

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to help parents, educators, and policymakers understand how to help transnational children adjust to their psychological challenges at school in the United States. A total of 109 Korean transnational adolescents aged 11 to 19 participated in this study. They had been staying in the country alone or with one of their…

  8. 31 CFR 596.313 - United States person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States person. 596.313 Section... General Definitions § 596.313 United States person. The term United States person means any United States... States, or any person in the United States....

  9. Estimated United States Transportation Energy Use 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-11-09

    A flow chart depicting energy flow in the transportation sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 31,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of energy were used throughout the United States in transportation activities. Vehicles used in these activities include automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, airplanes, rail, and ships. The transportation sector is powered primarily by petroleum-derived fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel). Biomass-derived fuels, electricity and natural gas-derived fuels are also used. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the transportation sector.

  10. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Females Aged 15-44 Years, by the Five Leading Causes of Death(†) - United States, 1999 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The age-adjusted death rate for females aged 15-44 years was 5% lower in 2014 (82.1 per 100,000 population) than in 1999 (86.5). Among the five leading causes of death, the age-adjusted rates of three were lower in 2014 than in 1999: cancer (from 19.6 to 15.3, a 22% decline), heart disease (8.9 to 8.2, an 8% decline), and homicide (4.2 to 2.8, a 33% decline). The age-adjusted death rates for two of the five causes were higher in 2014 than in 1999: unintentional injuries (from 17.0 to 20.1, an 18% increase) and suicide (4.8 to 6.5, a 35% increase). Unintentional injuries replaced cancer as the leading cause of death in this demographic group. PMID:27362608

  11. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Males Aged 15-44 Years, by the Five Leading Causes of Death(†) - United States, 1999 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The age-adjusted death rate for males aged 15-44 years was 10% lower in 2014 (156.6 per 100,000 population) than in 1999 (174.1). Among the five leading causes of death, the age-adjusted rates for three were lower in 2014 than in 1999: cancer (from 17.1 to 12.8; 25% decline), heart disease (20.1 to 17.0; 15% decline), and homicide (15.7 to 13.8; 12% decline). The age-adjusted death rates for two of the five causes were higher in 2014 than in 1999: suicide (20.1 to 22.5; 12% increase), and unintentional injuries (from 48.7 to 51.0; 5% increase). PMID:27513718

  12. Homicides - United States, 2007 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Logan, Joseph E; Hall, Jeffrey; McDaniel, Dawn; Stevens, Mark R

    2013-11-22

    According to 1981-2009 data, homicide accounts for 16,000-26,000 deaths annually in the United States and ranks within the top four leading causes of death among U.S. residents aged 1-40 years. Homicide can have profound long-term emotional consequences on families and friends of victims and on witnesses to the violence, as well as cause excessive economic costs to residents of affected communities. For years, homicide rates have been substantially higher among certain populations. Previous reports have found that homicides are higher among males, adolescents and young adults, and certain racial/ethnic groups, such as non-Hispanic blacks, non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs), and Hispanics. The 2011 CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report (CHDIR) described similar findings for the year 2007. For example, the 2011 report showed that the 2007 homicide rate was highest among non-Hispanic blacks (23.1 deaths per 100,000), followed by AI/ANs (7.8 deaths per 100,000), Hispanics (7.6 deaths per 100,000), non-Hispanic whites (2.7 deaths per 100,000), and Asian/Pacific Islanders (A/PIs) (2.4 deaths per 100,000). In addition, non-Hispanic black men aged 20-24 years were at greatest risk for homicide in 2007, with a rate that exceeded 100 deaths per 100,000 population. Other studies have reported that community factors such as poverty and economic inequality and individual factors such as unemployment and involvement in criminal activities can play a substantial role in these persistent disparities in homicide rates. Public health strategies are needed in communities at high risk for homicide to prevent violence and save lives. PMID:24264509

  13. GRADUATE EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BERELSON, BERNARD

    A BRIEF INTRODUCTORY HISTORY OF GRADUATE STUDY IS FOLLOWED BY AN ANALYSIS OF THE CURRENT STATE OF GRADUATE EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES. PURPOSES OF GRADUATE STUDY, INSTITUTIONS, STUDENTS, AND PROGRAMS ARE EXAMINED. ALSO CONSIDERED ARE TEACHER SUPPLY AND DEMAND, INSTITUTIONAL GROWTH AND DECENTRALIZATION, AND STUDENT'S PREPARATION AND BACKGROUND.…

  14. LANGUAGE CAMPS IN THE UNITED STATES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOUNIOL, EILEEN C.

    A SUMMARY IS GIVEN OF AN INFORMAL SURVEY MADE OF STATE FOREIGN LANGUAGE SUPERVISORS TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT AND NATURE OF LANGUAGE CAMPS IN THE UNITED STATES. DATA FROM QUESTIONNAIRES RETURNED BY THE SUPERVISORS REVEALED INFORMATION ABOUT THE NAMES AND LOCATIONS OF 12 SUMMER CAMPS, PERTINENT DETAILS OF EACH PROGRAM, SPONSORING INSTITUTIONS, DATES…

  15. Report to the Congress from The President of the United States. United States Aeronautics and Space Activities 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lyndon B.

    This report extensively reviews the progress of the United States in space during 1967, the tenth year of the space age. The first chapter of the report summarizes the 1967 space activities; and each of the remaining 13 chapters is devoted to reviewing the space-related activities of a particular federal agency (13 agencies included). Appendices…

  16. Tornado climatology of the contiguous United States

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Andrews, G.L.

    1986-05-01

    The characteristics of tornadoes that were reported in the contiguous United States for the period from January 1, 1954, through December 31, 1983, have been computed from data in the National Severe Storms Forecast Center tornado data base. The characteristics summarized in this report include frequency and locations of tornadoes, and their lengths, widths, and areas. Tornado strike and intensity probabilities have been estimated on a regional basis, and these estimates have been used to compute wind speeds with 10/sup -5/, 10/sup -6/, and 10/sup -7/ yr/sup -1/ probabilities of occurrence. The 10/sup -7/ yr/sup -1/ wind speeds range from below 200 mph in the western United States to about 330 mph in the vicinity of Kansas and Nebraska. The appendices contain extensive tabulations of tornado statistics. Variations of the characteristics within the contiguous United States are presented in the summaries. Separate tabulations are provided for the contiguous United States, for each state, for each 5/sup 0/ and 1/sup 0/ latitude and longitude box, and for the eastern and western United States.

  17. Food Chain Defense in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Leeanne

    Protecting the United States food and agricultural critical infrastructure and key resources is an important responsibility shared by Federal, State, local, tribal, and territorial governments and private industry partners. Interference with the food or agricultural infrastructure could have a devastating impact on the Nation's public health and economy. Adequate protection and resiliency of infrastructure in the Food and Agriculture Sector requires a number of integrated processes and procedures undertaken by all sector partners. A number of tools, guidance documents, educational materials, and regulations are available to aid in protecting the United States Food and Agriculture Sector.

  18. 7 CFR 1209.21 - State and United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order... the United States of America, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico....

  19. 7 CFR 1209.21 - State and United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order... the United States of America, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico....

  20. 7 CFR 1209.21 - State and United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order... the United States of America, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico....

  1. 7 CFR 1209.21 - State and United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order... the United States of America, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico....

  2. 7 CFR 1209.21 - State and United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order... the United States of America, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico....

  3. Update on indoor tanning legislation in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pan, Michael; Geller, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma has been increasing over the past several decades, with notable increases in the pediatric and adolescent population. Indoor tanning has been proven carcinogenic and is associated with an increased risk of melanoma, especially when used at a young age. The incidence and frequency of usage of indoor tanning in the United States is high, particularly among adolescents, with roughly 20% reporting using a tanning bed at least once. The Food and Drug Administration recently made changes to its regulation of indoor tanning devices, reclassifying them as class II devices necessitating stricter premarket review, and strengthened its warnings for these devices; however, federal regulation of indoor tanning is still limited and most regulation of indoor tanning in minors is done on a state-by-state basis. Three types of legislation exist: (1) absolute ban on minor use of indoor tanning devices, (2) age restriction of minor usage of indoor tanning devices other than age 18 years, and (3) requirement of parental consent. These regulations are inconsistent, and enforcement efforts are often limited. In this contribution, we provide an update on the prevalence of indoor tanning, the risks associated with indoor tanning, and the current federal and state legislation and enforcement efforts in the United States with regard to indoor tanning. Although efforts are being made to ban all use of indoor tanning devices by minors, there is still more work to be done before this becomes a reality in the United States. PMID:25889141

  4. 31 CFR 560.314 - United States person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States person. 560.314 Section... § 560.314 United States person. The term United States person means any United States citizen, permanent resident alien, entity organized under the laws of the United States (including foreign branches), or...

  5. 31 CFR 560.319 - United States depository institution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States depository institution... General Definitions § 560.319 United States depository institution. The term United States depository... within the United States, or any agency, office or branch located in the United States of a...

  6. 31 CFR 560.314 - United States person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States person. 560.314 Section... § 560.314 United States person. The term United States person means any United States citizen, permanent resident alien, entity organized under the laws of the United States (including foreign branches), or...

  7. 31 CFR 560.319 - United States depository institution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States depository institution... General Definitions § 560.319 United States depository institution. The term United States depository... within the United States, or any agency, office or branch located in the United States of a...

  8. 75 FR 13345 - Pricing for Certain United States Mint Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... United States Mint Pricing for Certain United States Mint Products AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of First... United States Mint Web site. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: B.B. Craig, Associate Director for...

  9. 5 CFR 8.2 - Appointment of United States citizens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appointment of United States citizens. 8... APPOINTMENTS TO OVERSEAS POSITIONS (RULE VIII) § 8.2 Appointment of United States citizens. United States... appointments for United States citizens recruited within the continental limits of the United States...

  10. Aging and the Work Force: Human Resource Strategies. An Information Paper Prepared for Use by the Special Committee on Aging. United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Special Committee on Aging.

    This information paper explores the need for age-neutral functional criteria in the human resources management system and the need for managers to review currently accepted employment policies. Population patterns, labor force profiles, and labor force projections are reviewed. The paper examines the effect of retirement policies and considers…

  11. Hydrologic Unit Map - 1974, state of Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1976-01-01

    This map and accompanying table show Hydrologic Units that are basically hydrographic in nature.  The Cataloging Units shown will supplant the Cataloging Units previously used by the U.S. Geological Survey in its Catalog of Informaiton on Water Data (1966-72).  The previous U.S. Geological Survey Catalog-Indexing System was by map number and letter, such as 49M.  The boundaries as shown have been adapted from "The Catalog of Information on Water Data" (1972), "Water Resources Regions and Subregions for the National Assessment of Water and Related Land Resources" by the U.S. Water Reseources Council (1970), "River Basins of the United States" by the U.S. Soil Conservation Service ((1963, 1970), "River Basin Maps Showing Hydrologic Stations" by the Inter-Agency Committee on Water Resources, Subcommittee on Hydrology (1961), and State planning maps.

  12. Natural aggregates of the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, William H.

    1988-01-01

    Crushed stone and sand and gravel are the two main sources of natural aggregates. These materials are commonly used construction materials and frequently can be interchanged with one another. They are widely used throughout the United States, with every State except two producing crushed stone. Together they amount to about half the mining volume in the United States. Approximately 96 percent of sand and gravel and 77 percent of the crushed stone produced in the United States are used in the construction industry. Natural aggregates are widely distributed throughout the United States in a variety of geologic environments. Sand and gravel deposits commonly are the results of the weathering of bedrock and subsequent transportation and deposition of the material by water or ice (glaciers). As such, they commonly occur as river or stream deposits or in glaciated areas as glaciofluvial and other deposits. Crushed stone aggregates are derived from a wide variety of parent bedrock materials. Limestone and other carbonates account for approximately three quarters of the rocks used for crushed stone, with granite and other igneous rocks making up the bulk of the remainder. Limestone deposits are widespread throughout the Central and Eastern United States and are scattered in the West. Granites are widely distributed in the Eastern and Western United States, with few exposures in the Midwest. Igneous rocks (excluding granites) are largely concentrated in the Western United States and in a few isolated localities in the East. Even though natural aggregates are widely distributed throughout the United States, they are not universally available for consumptive use. Some areas are devoid of sand and gravel, and potential sources of crushed stone may be covered with sufficient unconsolidated material to make surface mining impractical. In some areas many aggregates do not meet the physical property requirements for certain uses, or they may contain mineral constituents that react

  13. Understanding human trafficking in the United States.

    PubMed

    Logan, T K; Walker, Robert; Hunt, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    The topic of modern-day slavery or human trafficking has received increased media and national attention. However, to date there has been limited research on the nature and scope of human trafficking in the United States. This article describes and synthesizes nine reports that assess the U.S. service organizations' legal representative knowledge of, and experience with, human trafficking cases, as well as information from actual cases and media reports. This article has five main goals: (a) to define what human trafficking is, and is not; (b) to describe factors identified as contributing to vulnerability to being trafficked and keeping a person entrapped in the situation; (c) to examine how the crime of human trafficking differs from other kinds of crimes in the United States; (d) to explore how human trafficking victims are identified; and, (e) to provide recommendations to better address human trafficking in the United States. PMID:19056686

  14. [Organs shortage in the United States].

    PubMed

    Hattori, Masahiro; Iwaki, Yuichi

    2005-11-01

    Since the law pertaining to deceased transplantation was legalized in October 1997 in Japan, 140 cases of deceased transplants have been performed through March 2005. Patients on waiting lists, however, are increasing every year. Meanwhile patients traveling abroad in desperations to require donors also increase. In the United States, over 25,000 transplantations are performed annually. The number of patients on waiting list exceeded 86,000 in 2003. Organ shortages are a serious problem, even in the United States. Expanded criteria donor(ECD) and Model for endstage liver disease (MELD) scoring systems were implemented to improve some problems in kidney and liver allocation systems, respectively in 2002. Utilization of donated organs for non-citizens is limited in the United States. Japan must independently increase deceased donor transplantations. PMID:16277249

  15. Chronic Q Fever in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Karakousis, Petros C.; Trucksis, Michele; Dumler, J. Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Infections due to Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, are uncommon in the United States. Cases of chronic Q fever are extremely rare and most often manifest as culture-negative endocarditis in patients with underlying valvular heart disease. We describe a 31-year-old farmer from West Virginia with a history of congenital heart disease and recurrent fevers for 14 months who was diagnosed with Q fever endocarditis based on an extremely high antibody titer against Coxiella burnetii phase I antigen. Despite treatment with doxycycline, he continued to have markedly elevated Coxiella burnetii phase I antibody titers for 10 years after the initial diagnosis. To our knowledge, this case represents the longest follow-up period for a patient with chronic Q fever in the United States. We review all cases of chronic Q fever reported in the United States and discuss important issues pertaining to epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of this disease. PMID:16757641

  16. Earthquake history of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coffman, Jerry L., (Edited By); Von Hake, Carl A.; Stover, Carl W.

    1982-01-01

    This publication is a history of the prominent earthquakes in the United States from historical times through 1970. It supersedes all previous editions with the same or similar titles (see page ii) and, in addition to updating earthquake listings through 1970, contains several additions and corrections to previous issues. It also brings together under a common cover earthquake data previously listed in two separate reports: Earthquake History of the United States, Part I, Stronger Earthquakes of the United States (Exclusive of California and Western Nevada) and Earthquake History of the United States, Part II, Stronger Earthquakes of California and Western Nevada. Another addition to this publication is the inclusion of a section describing earthquakes in the Puerto Rico region. For the purpose of listing and describing earthquakes, the United States has been divided into nine regions: (1) Northeastern Region, which includes New England and New York activity and observations of the principal earthquakes of eastern Canada; (2) Eastern Region, including the central Appalachian seismic region activity and the area near Charleston, S.C.; (3) Central Region, which consists of the area between the region just described and the Rocky Mountains; (4) Western Mountain Region, which includes all remaining states except those on the Pacific coast; (5) Washington and Oregon; (6) Alaska; (7) Hawaii; (8) Puerto Rico; and (9) California and Western Nevada. This arrangement has been made chiefly with reference to the natural seismic divisions. It also is a convenient arrangement because there are only three states where there is an important division of earthquake activity: In Tennessee, there are quite distinct areas at opposite ends of the state that fall into different regions. Only central and eastern Nevada are included in the Western Mountain Region, as the activity of the western part is closely associated with that of California. Some earthquake activity has occurred in the

  17. 31 CFR 560.510 - Transactions related to the resolution of disputes between the United States or United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of disputes between the United States or United States nationals and the Government of Iran. 560.510... between the United States or United States nationals and the Government of Iran. (a) Except as otherwise... with awards, decisions or orders of the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal in The Hague,...

  18. 31 CFR 560.510 - Transactions related to the resolution of disputes between the United States or United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of disputes between the United States or United States nationals and the Government of Iran. 560.510... between the United States or United States nationals and the Government of Iran. (a) Except as otherwise... with awards, decisions or orders of the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal in The Hague,...

  19. 31 CFR 560.510 - Transactions related to the resolution of disputes between the United States or United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of disputes between the United States or United States nationals and the Government of Iran. 560.510... resolution of disputes between the United States or United States nationals and the Government of Iran. (a... transactions in connection with awards, decisions or orders of the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal in...

  20. 31 CFR 560.510 - Transactions related to the resolution of disputes between the United States or United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of disputes between the United States or United States nationals and the Government of Iran. 560.510... resolution of disputes between the United States or United States nationals and the Government of Iran. (a... transactions in connection with awards, decisions or orders of the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal in...

  1. 31 CFR 560.510 - Transactions related to the resolution of disputes between the United States or United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... resolution of disputes between the United States or United States nationals and the Government of Iran. 560... between the United States or United States nationals and the Government of Iran. (a) Except as otherwise... with awards, decisions or orders of the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal in The Hague,...

  2. Licensed pertussis vaccines in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Nicola P

    2014-01-01

    The United States switched from whole cell to acellular pertussis vaccines in the 1990s following global concerns with the safety of the whole cell vaccines. Despite high levels of acellular pertussis vaccine coverage, the United States and other countries are experiencing large pertussis outbreaks. The aim of this article is to describe the historical context which led to acellular pertussis vaccine development, focusing on vaccines currently licensed in the US, and to review evidence that waning protection following licensed acellular pertussis vaccines have been significant factors in the widespread reappearance of pertussis. PMID:25483496

  3. Acid rain reduced in eastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Bowersox, V.C.; Lynch, J.A.; Grimm, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    Sulfate and free hydrogen ion concentrations in precipitation decreased 10 to 25 percent over large areas of the eastern United States in 1995. The largest decreases in both ions occurred in and downwind of the Ohio River Valley, the same area where Phase I of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments set limitations, effective January 1, 1995, on sulfur dioxide emissions from affected coal-fired sources. Based on our analysis of precipitation chemistry and emissions data, we conclude that substantial declines in acid rain occurred in the eastern United States in 1995 because of large reductions in sulfur dioxide emissions in the same region.

  4. 2011 statistical abstract of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krisanda, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    The Statistical Abstract of the United States, published since 1878, is the authoritative and comprehensive summary of statistics on the social, political, and economic organization of the United States.


    Use the Abstract as a convenient volume for statistical reference, and as a guide to sources of more information both in print and on the Web.


    Sources of data include the Census Bureau, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bureau of Economic Analysis, and many other Federal agencies and private organizations.

  5. The United States regional mobile satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Roy E.; Cooperman, Richard S.

    Commercial interests within the United States and Canada are preparing to implement cooperative systems that will provide land and aeronautical mobile satellite services in those two countries and in Mexico. Wide bandwidth, linear satellites ('bent pipe transponders') in geostationary orbit will be built and operated by a consortium of companies in the United States. The consortium will act as a carrier's carrier, leasing bandwidth and power to resellers and private radio leasees who will tailor the ground systems and signal characteristics to the needs of end users. A variety of voice, data, and position fixing services will add new dimensions to mobile communications throughout North America.

  6. Wetland classification in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowardin, L.M.

    1978-01-01

    Wetland is part of a continuum of land types between deep water and dryland. Only one wetland classification was available for the United States prior to preparation of the new system described here, but numerous regional and special-purpose classifications are in use. The new classification is hierarchical, progressing from five systems (marine, estuarine, lacustrine, riverine, and palustrine) at the most general level to dominance types based on plant or animal communities at the most specific level . The system is currently in use for prototype maps of wetlands of the United States. It is hoped that it may be incorporated into a classification of all land.

  7. Disparities by race, age, and sex in the improvement of survival for major cancers: Results from the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program in United States, 1990 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Chenjie; Wen, Wanqing; Morgans, Alicia K.; Pao, William; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Zheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Substantial progress has been made in cancer diagnosis and treatment, resulting in a steady improvement in cancer survival. The degree of improvement by age, race and sex remains unclear. OBJECTIVE to quantify the degree of survival improvement over time by age, race and sex in the United States. DESIGN Longitudinal analyses of cancer follow-up data. SETTING Cancer diagnosis data for 1990–2009 and follow-up data to 2010 from nine population-based registries, part of the NCI Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. PARTICIPANTS Approximately 1.02 million patients from SEER registries diagnosed with cancer of the colon/rectum, breast, prostate, lung, liver, pancreas, or ovary from 1990–2009. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for cancer-specific death were estimated for patients diagnosed with any of these cancers during, 1995–1999, 2000–2004, and 2005–2009, compared diagnoses in 1990–1994. RESULTS Significant improvements in survival were found for cancers of the colon/rectum, breast, prostate, lung, and liver. Improvements were more pronounced for younger patients. For example, for patients aged 50–64 and diagnosed between 2005–2009, adjusted HRs (95%CI) were 0.57 (0.55–0.60), 0.48 (0.45–0.51), 0.61 (0.57–0.68), and 0.32 (0.30–0.36), for cancer of the colon/rectum, breast, liver and prostate, respectively, compared with the same age group of patients diagnosed during 1990–94. However, the corresponding HRs (95% CIs) for elderly patients (aged 75–85) were only 0.88 (0.84–0.82), 0.88 (0.84–0.92), 0.76 (0.69–0.84), and 0.65 (0.61–0.70), for the same four cancer sites, respectively. A similar, although weaker, age-related period effect was observed for lung and pancreatic cancers. The adjusted HRs (95%CIs) for lung cancer were 0.75 (95%CI, 0.73–0.77) and 0.84 (95%CI, 0.81–0.86), respectively, for patients aged 50 to 64 years and 75 to 85 years diagnosed

  8. Rabies: What If I Receive Treatment Outside the United States?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2008 Rabies in Domestic Animals, 1958-2008 Rabid Cats Reported in the United States, 2008 Rabid Dogs ... Reported in the United States during 2009 Rabid Cats Reported in the United States during 2009 Rabid ...

  9. 7 CFR 1220.615 - State and United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.615 Section 1220.615 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  10. 7 CFR 1220.615 - State and United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.615 Section 1220.615 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  11. 7 CFR 1220.615 - State and United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.615 Section 1220.615 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  12. 7 CFR 1220.615 - State and United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.615 Section 1220.615 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  13. Estimated Water Flows in 2005: United States

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C A; Belles, R D; Simon, A J

    2011-03-16

    Flow charts depicting water use in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of water use patterns. Approximately 410,500 million gallons per day of water are managed throughout the United States for use in farming, power production, residential, commercial, and industrial applications. Water is obtained from four major resource classes: fresh surface-water, saline (ocean) surface-water, fresh groundwater and saline (brackish) groundwater. Water that is not consumed or evaporated during its use is returned to surface bodies of water. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states in addition to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands) and one national water flow chart representing a comprehensive systems view of national water resources, use, and disposition.

  14. Alcoholic Beverage Preference and Dietary Habits in Elderly across Europe: Analyses within the Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES) Project

    PubMed Central

    Sluik, Diewertje; Jankovic, Nicole; O’Doherty, Mark G.; Geelen, Anouk; Schöttker, Ben; Rolandsson, Olov; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C.; Ferrieres, Jean; Bamia, Christina; Fransen, Heidi P.; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Eriksson, Sture; Martínez, Begoña; Huerta, José María; Kromhout, Daan; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; Franco, Oscar H.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Boffetta, Paolo; Kee, Frank; Feskens, Edith J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The differential associations of beer, wine, and spirit consumption on cardiovascular risk found in observational studies may be confounded by diet. We described and compared dietary intake and diet quality according to alcoholic beverage preference in European elderly. Methods From the Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES), seven European cohorts were included, i.e. four sub-cohorts from EPIC-Elderly, the SENECA Study, the Zutphen Elderly Study, and the Rotterdam Study. Harmonized data of 29,423 elderly participants from 14 European countries were analyzed. Baseline data on consumption of beer, wine, and spirits, and dietary intake were collected with questionnaires. Diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI). Intakes and scores across categories of alcoholic beverage preference (beer, wine, spirit, no preference, non-consumers) were adjusted for age, sex, socio-economic status, self-reported prevalent diseases, and lifestyle factors. Cohort-specific mean intakes and scores were calculated as well as weighted means combining all cohorts. Results In 5 of 7 cohorts, persons with a wine preference formed the largest group. After multivariate adjustment, persons with a wine preference tended to have a higher HDI score and intake of healthy foods in most cohorts, but differences were small. The weighted estimates of all cohorts combined revealed that non-consumers had the highest fruit and vegetable intake, followed by wine consumers. Non-consumers and persons with no specific preference had a higher HDI score, spirit consumers the lowest. However, overall diet quality as measured by HDI did not differ greatly across alcoholic beverage preference categories. Discussion This study using harmonized data from ~30,000 elderly from 14 European countries showed that, after multivariate adjustment, dietary habits and diet quality did not differ greatly according to alcoholic beverage

  15. 31 CFR 589.311 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States. 589.311 Section 589.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY UKRAINE RELATED SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  16. 31 CFR 539.312 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States. 539.312 Section 539.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION TRADE CONTROL REGULATIONS...

  17. 31 CFR 539.312 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States. 539.312 Section 539.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION TRADE CONTROL REGULATIONS...

  18. 31 CFR 544.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States. 544.310 Section 544.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION PROLIFERATORS...

  19. 31 CFR 539.312 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States. 539.312 Section 539.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION TRADE CONTROL REGULATIONS...

  20. 31 CFR 544.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States. 544.310 Section 544.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION PROLIFERATORS...

  1. 31 CFR 544.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States. 544.310 Section 544.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION PROLIFERATORS...

  2. Macrolide-Resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae, United States.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaotian; Lee, Stella; Selvarangan, Rangaraj; Qin, Xuan; Tang, Yi-Wei; Stiles, Jeffrey; Hong, Tao; Todd, Kathleen; Ratliff, Amy E; Crabb, Donna M; Xiao, Li; Atkinson, T Prescott; Waites, Ken B

    2015-08-01

    Macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MRMP) is highly prevalent in Asia and is now being reported from Europe. Few data on MRMP are available in the United States. Using genotypic and phenotypic methods, we detected high-level MRMP in 13.2% of 91 M. pneumoniae--positive specimens from 6 US locations. PMID:26196107

  3. 7 CFR 1150.106 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false United States. 1150.106 Section 1150.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and...

  4. 7 CFR 1150.106 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true United States. 1150.106 Section 1150.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and...

  5. 7 CFR 1150.106 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false United States. 1150.106 Section 1150.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and...

  6. 31 CFR 576.315 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 576.315 Section 576.315 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY SANCTIONS...

  7. 31 CFR 576.315 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States. 576.315 Section 576.315 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY SANCTIONS...

  8. 31 CFR 576.315 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States. 576.315 Section 576.315 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY SANCTIONS...

  9. 31 CFR 576.315 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States. 576.315 Section 576.315 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY SANCTIONS...

  10. Orienteering: Growth Patterns in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffery, Charles F.

    The history of orienteering in the United States includes both military and civilian interest, with the period of greatest growth between 1970 and 1980. To investigate growth patterns in orienteering, questionnaires were mailed to 42 civilian orienteering clubs and 286 universities supporting senior Reserve Office Training Corps (ROTC)…

  11. 31 CFR 558.310 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States. 558.310 Section 558.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOUTH SUDAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  12. Preparing Geography Teachers in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarz, Sarah Witham; Stoltman, Joseph P.; Lee, Jongwon

    2004-01-01

    Teacher preparation has been called the "bete noire" of geography education in the United States (Boehm et al., 1994). Despite progress in other areas of geography, teacher education remains a significant issue affecting the quality of geography instruction nationwide. It is a multifaceted, multidimensional problem tied inextricably to national…

  13. 2011 floods of the central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2013-01-01

    * Do floods contribute to the transport and fate of contaminants that affect human and ecosystem health? In an effort to help address these and other questions, USGS Professional Paper 1798 consists of independent but complementary chapters dealing with various scientific aspects of the 2011 floods in the Central United States.

  14. Managing nuclear weapons in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.

    1993-03-16

    This report discusses the management and security of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war United States. The definition of what constitutes security is clearly changing in the US. It is now a much more integrated view that includes defense and the economy. The author tries to bring some semblance of order to these themes in this brief adaptation of a presentation.

  15. Big Broadband Connectivity in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windhausen, John, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The economic and social future of the United States depends on answering the growing demand for very high-speed broadband connectivity, a capability termed "big broadband." Failure to take on the challenge could lead to a decline in global competitiveness and an inability to educate students. (Contains 20 notes.)

  16. Community Colleges in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, Richard, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue discusses the importance of the community college to higher education in the United States. Contained are six articles: (1) "America's Community Colleges: On the Ascent," by Arthur M. Cohen, which places the strengths and challenges of the American community college within a historical context; (2) "Lamps Beside the Golden Door," by…

  17. Cuban-Americans in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goonen, Norma, Comp.

    A statistical profile of Cuban Americans was provided by the 1980 Census and by a comprehensive telephone survey. Major findings include the following: (1) In most Cuban American households, Spanish is the language most spoken, but 85 percent of the Cuban American surveyed felt that residents of the United States should use English in their public…

  18. Educational Attainment in the United States: 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crissey, Sarah R.

    2009-01-01

    This report provides a portrait of educational attainment in the United States based on data collected in the 2007 American Community Survey (ACS) and data collected in 2008 and earlier in the Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to the Current Population Survey (CPS). Previous U.S. Census Bureau reports on this topic were based on…

  19. 31 CFR 510.309 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States. 510.309 Section 510.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  20. 31 CFR 510.309 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States. 510.309 Section 510.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  1. AIR QUALITY OVER THE EASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atmospheric concentrations of ozone and fine particulate matter continue to exceed their standards in many parts of the eastern United States. However, the peak concentration levels and number of ozone exceedances have decreased substantially in recent years due, in part, to the...

  2. Social Studies in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Victor A.

    1980-01-01

    Suggests that the nature of the social studies educational program in the United States can be viewed as the result of many influences, including the domination of history in the schools, the publishing industry, and the large number of national organizations which focus on specific subject matter areas. Various definitions of social studies are…

  3. 31 CFR 552.309 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States. 552.309 Section 552.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY YEMEN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  4. 31 CFR 552.309 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States. 552.309 Section 552.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY YEMEN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  5. 31 CFR 592.311 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States. 592.311 Section 592.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  6. 31 CFR 592.311 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States. 592.311 Section 592.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  7. 31 CFR 592.311 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States. 592.311 Section 592.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  8. 31 CFR 592.311 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States. 592.311 Section 592.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  9. Rural Education in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamblyn, Lewis R.

    Rural education is confronted with new problems, responsibilities, and opportunities to contribute to the solution of major issues facing the United States. It is generally agreed that about 10 million rural people are poor and that they constitute one-third of the nation's economically disadvantaged. The paramount cause of present urban problems…

  10. Bullying in Europe and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, John H.; Juul, Kristen

    1993-01-01

    Examines nature and scope of group violence among children in schools on both sides of Atlantic Ocean. Reviews studies of student attitudes about victimization and offers suggestions for prevention and treatment of bullying. Focus is on studies on bullying undertaken in Europe, mostly Scandinavia, and in United States (Author/NB)

  11. Bumble bees of the western United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bumble bees (genus Bombus) are critical pollinators of flowering plants. Thirty species of bumble bees are native to the western United States and this publication is a guide to the natural history and identification of these species. We present phenology graphs, host-plant associations, detailed ...

  12. 31 CFR 597.318 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States. 597.318 Section 597.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  13. 31 CFR 597.318 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false United States. 597.318 Section 597.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  14. 31 CFR 597.318 - United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false United States. 597.318 Section 597.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  15. AIDS among Children--United States, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of School Health, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Summarizes the epidemiology of AIDS in children in the United States reported cumulatively from 1982 through September 1996, presenting rates for 1995, and discussing HIV surveillance and reporting for children. The data show that the incidence of perinatally acquired AIDS has declined, a trend that probably reflects the effect of perinatal ZDV…

  16. Air quality management in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    William Chameides; Daniel Greenbaum; Raymond Wassel; K. John Holmes; Karl Gustavson; Amanda Staudt

    2005-07-01

    In 2004, the National Research Council released Air Quality Management in the United States, a report prepared in response to a congressional request for an independent evaluation of the overall effectiveness of the Clean Air Act. Based on that report, this article summarizes the committee's findings and recommendations. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Ethnic Newspapers in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Rosanne

    Defining ethnic newspapers as those published in a foreign language or in English that address themselves to a national group, this paper presents an overview of such papers currently published in the United States. The paper is organized into three sections. The first deals with the functions served by ethnic papers, including aiding in…

  18. Classical Linguistics in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poultney, James W.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the history of classical linguistic studies in the United States. Cites many of the important American classicists from the nineteenth century to the present. Also gives the history of some scholarly organizations, including the Linguistic Society of America and the American Philological Association. (LMO)

  19. The Hispanicization of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nostrand, Richard L.

    Two strikingly contrasting culture groups, Latin Americans and Anglo Americans, overlap in a Borderlands that straddles the international boundary between the United States and Mexico. This overlap began with the Aztec conquest by Cortes which triggered the intermixing and miscegenation between Spaniards and Indians that produced a mestizo people…

  20. Homeschooling in the United States: 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bielick, Stacey; Chandler, Kathryn; Broughman, Stephen P.

    The National Household Education Surveys Program (NHES), 1999, is a telephone survey data collection program conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). Based on NCES data, this report provides an estimate of the number of home-schooled students in the United States, characteristics of home-schooled children and their…