Science.gov

Sample records for aging water infrastructure

  1. Aging Water Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is part of EPA’s larger effort called the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative. The SI initiative brings together drinking water and wastewater utility managers; trade associations; local watershed protection organ...

  2. USEPA ORD Aging Water Infrastructure Research Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes research that is being conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) Research Program, which will help U.S. water infrastructure to be more effectively and sustainably managed. The AWI research program see...

  3. AGING WATER INFRASTRUCTURE RESEARCH PROGRAM: ADDRESSING THE CHALLENGE THROUGH INNOVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A driving force behind the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative and the Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is the Clean Water and Drinking Water Infrastructure Gap Analysis. In this report, EPA estimated that if operation, maintenance, and capital inves...

  4. EPA Research Highlights: EPA Studies Aging Water Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nation's extensive water infrastructure has the capacity to treat, store, and transport trillions of gallons of water and wastewater per day through millions of miles of pipelines. However, some infrastructure components are more than 100 years old, and as the infrastructure ...

  5. Overview of U.S. EPA Aging Water Infrastructure Research Program - Interfacing with the Water Industry on Technology Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    This slide presentation summarizes key elements of the EPA Office of Research and Development’s (ORD) Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) Research program. An overview of the national problems posed by aging water infrastructure is followed by a brief description of EPA’s overall r...

  6. REHABILITATION OF AGING WATER INFRASTRUCTURE SYSTEMS: KEY CHALLENGES AND ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presented in this paper are the results of a state-of-the-practice survey on the rehabilitation of water distribution and wastewater collection systems. The survey identified several needs, including the need for rational and common design approaches for rehabilitation systems, ...

  7. Role of EPA in Asset Management Research – The Aging Water Infrastructure Research Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    This slide presentation provides an overview of the EPA Office of Research and Development’s Aging Water infrastructure Research Program (AWIRP). The research program origins, goals, products, and plans are described. The research program focuses on four areas: condition asses...

  8. Sustainable Water Infrastructure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resources for state and local environmental and public health officials, and water, infrastructure and utility professionals to learn about sustainable water infrastructure, sustainable water and energy practices, and their role.

  9. Aging Water Infrastructure Research Program Innovation & Research for the 21st Century

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. infrastructure is critical for providing essential services: protect public health and the environment and support and sustain our economy. Significant investment in water infrastructure: over 16,000 WWTPs serving 190 million people; about 54,000 community water syste...

  10. Water Supply Infrastructure System Surety

    SciTech Connect

    EKMAN,MARK E.; ISBELL,DARYL

    2000-01-06

    The executive branch of the United States government has acknowledged and identified threats to the water supply infrastructure of the United States. These threats include contamination of the water supply, aging infrastructure components, and malicious attack. Government recognition of the importance of providing safe, secure, and reliable water supplies has a historical precedence in the water works of the ancient Romans, who recognized the same basic threats to their water supply infrastructure the United States acknowledges today. System surety is the philosophy of ''designing for threats, planning for failure, and managing for success'' in system design and implementation. System surety is an alternative to traditional compliance-based approaches to safety, security, and reliability. Four types of surety are recognized: reactive surety; proactive surety, preventative surety; and fundamental, inherent surety. The five steps of the system surety approach can be used to establish the type of surety needed for the water infrastructure and the methods used to realize a sure water infrastructure. The benefit to the water industry of using the system surety approach to infrastructure design and assessment is a proactive approach to safety, security, and reliability for water transmission, treatment, distribution, and wastewater collection and treatment.

  11. Aging Water Infrastructure Program at U.S. EPA: Rehabilitation of Water Distribution and Wastewater Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several EPA projects are currently underway to encourage technology development and dissemination in key aspects of the condition assessment and rehabilitation of water and wastewater systems. The progress on one of these projects, "Rehabilitation of Water Distribution and Waste...

  12. Decontamination of Drinking Water Infrastructure ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical Brief This study examines the effectiveness of decontaminating corroded iron and cement-mortar coupons that have been contaminated with spores of Bacillus atrophaeus subsp. globigii (B. globigii), which is often used as a surrogate for pathogenic B. anthracis (anthrax) in disinfection studies. Bacillus spores are persistent on common drinking water material surfaces like corroded iron, requiring physical or chemical methods to decontaminate the infrastructure. In the United States, free chlorine and monochloramine are the primary chemical disinfectants used by the drinking water industry to inactivate microorganisms. Flushing is also a common, easily implemented practice in drinking water distribution systems, although large volumes of contaminated water needing treatment could be generated. Identifying readily available alternative disinfectant formulations for infrastructure decontamination could give water utilities options for responding to specific types of contamination events. In addition to presenting data on flushing alone, which demonstrated the persistence of spores on water infrastructure in the absence of high levels of disinfectants, data on acidified nitrite, chlorine dioxide, free chlorine, monochloramine, ozone, peracetic acid, and followed by flushing are provided.

  13. Development of a Water Infrastructure Knowledge Database

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a methodology for developing a national database, as applied to water infrastructure systems, which includes both drinking water and wastewater. The database is branded as "WATERiD" and can be accessed at www.waterid.org. Water infrastructure in the U.S. is ag...

  14. Water Infrastructure and Resiliency Finance Center

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Water Infrastructure and Resiliency Finance Center serves as a resource to communities to improve their wastewater, drinking water and stormwater systems, particularly through innovative financing and increased resiliency to climate change.

  15. Rehabilitation, Replacement and Redesign of the Nation's Water and Wastewater Infrastructure as a Valuable Adaptation Opportunity

    EPA Science Inventory

    In support of the Agency's Sustainable Water Infrastructure Initiative, EPA's Office of Research and Develpment initiated the Aging Water Infrastructure Research Program in 2007. The program, with its core focus on the support of strategic asset management, is designed to facili...

  16. Adapting Water Infrastructure to Non-stationary Climate Changes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water supply and sanitation are carried out by three major types of water infrastructure: drinking water treatment and distribution, wastewater collection and treatment, and storm water collection and management. Their sustainability is measured by resilience against and adapta...

  17. Water Infrastructure Asset Management Primer (WERF Report INFR9SG09b)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Water infrastructure systems are essential for sustaining societal quality of life. However, they face a variety of challenges and potential threats to sustained performance, including aging, deterioration, underfunding, disruptive events, and population growth, among ...

  18. Water and Carbon Footprints for Sustainability Analysis of Urban Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water and transportation infrastructures define spatial distribution of urban population and economic activities. In this context, energy and water consumed per capita are tangible measures of how efficient water and transportation systems are constructed and operated. At a hig...

  19. Water Infrastructure Adaptation in New Urban Design: Possibilities and Constraints

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural constraints, including climate change and dynamic socioeconomic development, can significantly impact the way we plan, design, and operate water infrastructure, thus its sustainability to deliver reliable quality water supplies and comply with environmental regulations. ...

  20. URBAN INFRASTRUCTURE RESEARCH PLAN WATER AND WASTEWATER ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    As we approach the twenty-first century, we should be considering where we are today and where the consequences of our actions will place us tomorrow. This is especially true in the management of our aging and growing infrastructure. Infrastructure facilitates movement of people ...

  1. Arid Green Infrastructure for Water Control and Conservation ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Green infrastructure is an approach to managing wet weather flows using systems and practices that mimic natural processes. It is designed to manage stormwater as close to its source as possible and protect the quality of receiving waters. Although most green infrastructure practices were first developed in temperate climates, green infrastructure also can be a cost-effective approach to stormwater management and water conservation in arid and semi-arid regions, such as those found in the western and southwestern United States. Green infrastructure practices can be applied at the site, neighborhood and watershed scales. In addition to water management and conservation, implementing green infrastructure confers many social and economic benefits and can address issues of environmental justice. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) commissioned a literature review to identify the state-of-the science practices dealing with water control and conservation in arid and semi-arid regions, with emphasis on these regions in the United States. The search focused on stormwater control measures or practices that slow, capture, treat, infiltrate and/or store runoff at its source (i.e., green infrastructure). The material in Chapters 1 through 3 provides background to EPA’s current activities related to the application of green infrastructure practices in arid and semi-arid regions. An introduction to the topic of green infrastructure in arid and semi-arid regions i

  2. Precipitation Nonstationarity Effects on Water Infrastructure and Risk Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    The non-stationary precipitation regime, as increasingly recognized, affects the engineering basis and service functions of drinking water, wastewater, and stormwater infrastructures in urban centers. Small, yet significant rates of temporal precipitation change and diverse spat...

  3. Terrorism and Security Issues Facing the Water Infrastructure Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-16

    delivery of vital human services in this country, threatening public health and the environment, or possibly causing loss of life. Interest in such... health and the environment, or possibly causing loss of life. Further, since most water infrastructure is government-owned, it may serve as a...the wheels of industry turning and in preserving the health and morale of the American populace.”1 Water infrastructure systems also are highly

  4. US EPA/ORD Condition Assessment Research for Drinking Water Conveyance Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes research on condition assessment for drinking water transmission and distribution systems that EPA is conducting under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) Research Program. This research program will help U.S. ...

  5. RISK ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM - INFRASTRUCTURE INITIATIVE FOR THE 21ST CENTURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current problem in the United States is that the water infrastructure is aging and spending has not been adequate to repair, replace, or rehabilitate drinking water distribution systems and wastewater collection systems. The American Society of Civil Engineers Report Card in...

  6. Advanced Decentralized Water/Energy Network Design for Sustainable Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to provide a water infrastructure that is more sustainable into and beyond the 21st century, drinking water distribution systems and wastewater collection systems must account for our diminishing water supply, increasing demands, climate change, energy cost and availabil...

  7. Terrorism and Security Issues Facing the Water Infrastructure Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-17

    disaster could disrupt the delivery of vital human services in this country, threatening public health and the environment, or possibly causing loss of life...terrorist attack could disrupt the delivery of vital human services in this country, threatening public health and the environment, or possibly causing...preserving the health and morale of the American populace.”1 Water infrastructure systems also are highly linked with other infrastructure systems, especially

  8. EPA Assisting Selma with Financial Planning for Water Infrastructure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (01/20/2016 - Atlanta ) - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announced today it is providing a total of $50,000 in financial and technical guidance to help Selma, AL invest in drinking water and wastewater infrastructure. EPA's new Water Commun

  9. Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project: water-resources activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, Stanley G.; Heiny, Janet S.

    1998-01-01

    Infrastructure, such as roads, buildings, airports, and dams, is built and maintained by use of large quantities of natural resources such as aggregate (sand and gravel), energy, and water. As urban area expand, local sources of these resource are becoming inaccessible (gravel cannot be mined from under a subdivision, for example), or the cost of recovery of the resource becomes prohibitive (oil and gas drilling in urban areas is costly), or the resources may become unfit for some use (pollution of ground water may preclude its use as a water supply). Governmental land-use decision and environmental mandates can further preclude development of natural resources. If infrastructure resources are to remain economically available. current resource information must be available for use in well-reasoned decisions bout future land use. Ground water is an infrastructure resource that is present in shallow aquifers and deeper bedrock aquifers that underlie much of the 2,450-square-mile demonstration area of the Colorado Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project. In 1996, mapping of the area's ground-water resources was undertaken as a U.S. Geological Survey project in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources, and the Colorado Water Conservation Board.

  10. Redefine Water Infrastructure Adaptation to a Nonstationary Climate (Editorial)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The statement “Climate Stationarity is Dead” by Milly et al. (2008) stresses the need to evaluate and when necessary, incorporate non-stationary hydroclimatic changes into water resources and infrastructure planning and engineering. Variations of this theme echo in several other ...

  11. Adapting Water Infrastructure to Non-stationary Climate ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Water supply and sanitation are carried out by three major types of water infrastructure: drinking water treatment and distribution, wastewater collection and treatment, and storm water collection and management. Their sustainability is measured by resilience against and adaptability to an evolving factor; here it refers to the change of climate and its hydrologic impacts. The term resilience is defined as the ability to repair and recover its physical state and service function under the impacts of external forces (Milman and Short, 2008; McDaniels et al., 2008). In this context, capacity reserve (CR) is one very important physical attribute of system’s resilience; further details will be described later in this section and in the subsequent Chapter 1.7. While service function of a water infrastructure varies geographically among municipalities, its general engineering and management follow a triple bottom line of objectives: system reliability, environmental sustainability, and engineering economics. Communicate to science community and practitioners on the climate change adaptation to increase water infrastructure resilience by adaptation design

  12. Caution Ahead: Overdue Investments for New York's Aging Infrastructure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Following the devastation of Superstorm Sandy in October 2012, New York City's essential infrastructure needs were made a top policy priority for the first time in decades. The scale and severity of the storm prompted numerous studies to assess the damage and led policymakers to take steps to shore up the city's coastal infrastructure weaknesses.…

  13. Drinking water infrastructure and environmental disparities: evidence and methodological considerations.

    PubMed

    VanDerslice, James

    2011-12-01

    Potable drinking water is essential to public health; however, few studies have investigated income or racial disparities in water infrastructure or drinking water quality. There were many case reports documenting a lack of piped water or serious water quality problems in low income and minority communities, including tribal lands, Alaskan Native villages, colonias along the United States-Mexico border, and small communities in agricultural areas. Only 3 studies compared the demographic characteristics of communities by the quality of their drinking water, and the results were mixed in these studies. Further assessments were hampered by difficulties linking specific water systems to the sociodemographic characteristics of communities, as well as little information about how well water systems operated and the effectiveness of governmental oversight.

  14. Drinking Water Infrastructure and Environmental Disparities: Evidence and Methodological Considerations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Potable drinking water is essential to public health; however, few studies have investigated income or racial disparities in water infrastructure or drinking water quality. There were many case reports documenting a lack of piped water or serious water quality problems in low income and minority communities, including tribal lands, Alaskan Native villages, colonias along the United States–Mexico border, and small communities in agricultural areas. Only 3 studies compared the demographic characteristics of communities by the quality of their drinking water, and the results were mixed in these studies. Further assessments were hampered by difficulties linking specific water systems to the sociodemographic characteristics of communities, as well as little information about how well water systems operated and the effectiveness of governmental oversight. PMID:21836110

  15. German Water Infrastructure in China: Colonial Qingdao 1898-1914.

    PubMed

    Kneitz, Agnes

    2016-12-01

    Within the colorful tapestry of colonial possessions the German empire acquired over the short period of its existence, Qingdao stands out because it fulfilled a different role from settlements in Africa-especially because of its exemplary planned water infrastructure: its technological model, the resulting (public) hygiene, and the adjunct brewery. The National Naval Office (Reichsmarineamt), which oversaw the administration of the future "harbour colony"-at first little more than a little fishing village-enjoyed a remarkable degree of freedom in implementing this project. The German government invested heavily in showing off its techno-cultural achievements to China and the world and thereby massively exploited the natural resources of the mountainous interior. This contribution focuses on Qingdao's water infrastructure and its role in public hygiene and further area development. This article will not only use new empirical evidence to demonstrate that the water infrastructure was an ambivalent "tool of empire". Relying on the concept of "urban metabolism," this paper primarily traces the ecological consequences, particularly the landscape transformation of the mountains surrounding the bay and the implications for the region's water resources. When evaluating colonial enterprises, changes in local ecology should play a significantly greater role.

  16. Terrorism and Security Issues Facing the Water Infrastructure Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-28

    human services in this country, threatening public health and the environment, or possibly causing loss of life. Interest in such problems has...human services in this country, threatening public health and the environment, or possibly causing loss of life. Further, since most water infrastructure...the strategic position they occupy in keeping the wheels of industry turning and in preserving the health and morale of the American populace.”1

  17. Urban water infrastructure optimization to reduce environmental impacts and costs.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Suh, Sangwon; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Park, Hung Suck

    2010-01-01

    Urban water planning and policy have been focusing on environmentally benign and economically viable water management. The objective of this study is to develop a mathematical model to integrate and optimize urban water infrastructures for supply-side planning and policy: freshwater resources and treated wastewater are allocated to various water demand categories in order to reduce contaminants in the influents supplied for drinking water, and to reduce consumption of the water resources imported from the regions beyond a city boundary. A case study is performed to validate the proposed model. An optimal urban water system of a metropolitan city is calculated on the basis of the model and compared to the existing water system. The integration and optimization decrease (i) average concentrations of the influents supplied for drinking water, which can improve human health and hygiene; (ii) total consumption of water resources, as well as electricity, reducing overall environmental impacts; (iii) life cycle cost; and (iv) water resource dependency on other regions, improving regional water security. This model contributes to sustainable urban water planning and policy.

  18. Cascade vulnerability for risk analysis of water infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Sitzenfrei, R; Mair, M; Möderl, M; Rauch, W

    2011-01-01

    One of the major tasks in urban water management is failure-free operation for at least most of the time. Accordingly, the reliability of the network systems in urban water management has a crucial role. The failure of a component in these systems impacts potable water distribution and urban drainage. Therefore, water distribution and urban drainage systems are categorized as critical infrastructure. Vulnerability is the degree to which a system is likely to experience harm induced by perturbation or stress. However, for risk assessment, we usually assume that events and failures are singular and independent, i.e. several simultaneous events and cascading events are unconsidered. Although failures can be causally linked, a simultaneous consideration in risk analysis is hardly considered. To close this gap, this work introduces the term cascade vulnerability for water infrastructure. Cascade vulnerability accounts for cascading and simultaneous events. Following this definition, cascade risk maps are a merger of hazard and cascade vulnerability maps. In this work cascade vulnerability maps for water distribution systems and urban drainage systems based on the 'Achilles-Approach' are introduced and discussed. It is shown, that neglecting cascading effects results in significant underestimation of risk scenarios.

  19. Water Conveyance Infrastructure Research Needs: An EPA/ORD Perspective

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a Powerpoint presentation that identifies pipe/pipeline related research needs that have been identified in several Agency Research programs including Safe & Sustainable Water Research, Aging Water Infrastucture Research, & Distribution Systems Research and Information Co...

  20. The National Biological Information Infrastructure: Coming of age

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cotter, G.; Frame, M.; Sepic, R.; Zolly, L.

    2000-01-01

    Coordinated by the US Geological Survey, the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) is a Web-based system that provides increased access to data and information on the nation's biological resources. The NBII can be viewed from a variety of perspectives. This article - an individual case study and not a broad survey with extensive references to the literature - addresses the structure of the NBII related to thematic sections, infrastructure sections and place-based sections, and other topics such as the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (one of our more innovative tools) and the development of our controlled vocabulary.

  1. Irrigation infrastructure and water appropriation rules for food security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohar, Abdelaziz A.; Amer, Saud A.; Ward, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    In the developing world's irrigated areas, water management and planning is often motivated by the need for lasting food security. Two important policy measures to address this need are improving the flexibility of water appropriation rules and developing irrigation storage infrastructure. Little research to date has investigated the performance of these two policy measures in a single analysis while maintaining a basin wide water balance. This paper examines impacts of storage capacity and water appropriation rules on total economic welfare in irrigated agriculture, while maintaining a water balance. The application is to a river basin in northern Afghanistan. A constrained optimization framework is developed to examine economic consequences on food security and farm income resulting from each policy measure. Results show that significant improvements in both policy aims can be achieved through expanding existing storage capacity to capture up to 150 percent of long-term average annual water supplies when added capacity is combined with either a proportional sharing of water shortages or unrestricted water trading. An important contribution of the paper is to show how the benefits of storage and a changed water appropriation system operate under a variable climate. Results show that the hardship of droughts can be substantially lessened, with the largest rewards taking place in the most difficult periods. Findings provide a comprehensive framework for addressing future water scarcity, rural livelihoods, and food security in the developing world's irrigated regions.

  2. On consumers' attitudes and willingness to pay for improved drinking water quality and infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanellari, Eftila; Bosch, Darrell; Boyle, Kevin; Mykerezi, Elton

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of consumers' willingness to pay for improvement programs for three drinking water issues: water quality, pinhole leaks in home plumbing infrastructure, and aging public infrastructure. The research is based on a mail survey of consumers in Northern Virginia and the Maryland suburbs of Washington, D. C. The analysis focuses on the relationship between information, risk perceptions, and willingness to pay. An alternative specific conditional logit model is used to model consumers' willingness to pay for improvements. Results indicate that the willingness to pay for any of the programs is negatively affected by the cost of the proposed improvement. Consumers' risk perceptions, the external information provided in the survey, and whether they read the annual report from their water utility affect consumers' willingness to pay for improvement programs.

  3. Water Intelligence and the Cyber-Infrastructure Revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    As an intrinsic factor in national security, the global economy, food and energy production, and human and ecological health, fresh water resources are increasingly being considered by an ever-widening array of stakeholders. The U.S. intelligence community has identified water as a key factor in the Nation's security risk profile. Water industries are growing rapidly, and seek to revolutionize the role of water in the global economy, making water an economic value rather than a limitation on operations. Recent increased focus on the complex interrelationships and interdependencies between water, food, and energy signal a renewed effort to move towards integrated water resource management. Throughout all of this, hydrologic extremes continue to wreak havoc on communities and regions around the world, in some cases threatening long-term economic stability. This increased attention on water coincides with the "second IT revolution" of cyber-infrastructure (CI). The CI concept is a convergence of technology, data, applications and human resources, all coalescing into a tightly integrated global grid of computing, information, networking and sensor resources, and ultimately serving as an engine of change for collaboration, education and scientific discovery and innovation. In the water arena, we have unprecedented opportunities to apply the CI concept to help address complex water challenges and shape the future world of water resources - on both science and socio-economic application fronts. Providing actionable local "water intelligence" nationally or globally is now becoming feasible through high-performance computing, data technologies, and advanced hydrologic modeling. Further development on all of these fronts appears likely and will help advance this much-needed capability. Lagging behind are water observation systems, especially in situ networks, which need significant innovation to keep pace with and help fuel rapid advancements in water intelligence.

  4. Basin Scale Water Infrastructure Investment Evaluation Considering Climate Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaheil, Y. H.; Lall, U.

    2009-12-01

    Water storage infrastructure has historically been a primary means of addressing vulnerability to climate risk. Rainfall, and streamflow fluctuate at many time scales, rendering supply unreliable unless a mechanism for surface or subsurface storage is provided. Irrigated agriculture typically provides dramatically higher yields relative to rain fed agriculture, by ensuring a regular, when needed water supply. Irrigation is also typically the dominant water user in most parts of the world. Addressing storage-irrigation infrastructure needs is thus a critical piece in developing a strategy for regional water and food security in the face of a changing climate. In the 20th century, large reservoir and canal system projects were funded and developed in many regions. It is argued that these played a significant role in facilitating the Green Revolution in India, Pakistan and elsewhere. However, this notion has been challenged, and many negative environmental and socio-economic impacts of such projects have been highlighted. Governance and maintenance of such hydraulic infrastructure has also been a challenge, and a paradigm of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and participatory processes has been argued for. In the last decade or so, considerable interest has been directed towards local or on-farm decentralized storage development, i.e., towards small scale reservoir and use systems where governance may be less of an issue. There has been government support of such activities in countries such as India, leading to a rapid proliferation of such systems in some areas. Questions about the effect of such development on the regional hydrologic balance and as to their resilience in a changing climate arise. Further, in the spirit of IWRM, one needs to consider the potential use of water as well as the development and management of supply. In the current context, a central question that can be posed is the identification of the best mix of centralized and

  5. Ageing and water homeostasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, David; Jordan, Jens; Jacob, Giris; Ketch, Terry; Shannon, John R.; Biaggioni, Italo

    2002-01-01

    This review outlines current knowledge concerning fluid intake and volume homeostasis in ageing. The physiology of vasopressin is summarized. Studies have been carried out to determine orthostatic changes in plasma volume and to assess the effect of water ingestion in normal subjects, elderly subjects, and patients with dysautonomias. About 14% of plasma volume shifts out of the vasculature within 30 minutes of upright posture. Oral ingestion of water raises blood pressure in individuals with impaired autonomic reflexes and is an important source of noise in blood pressure trials in the elderly. On the average, oral ingestion of 16 ounces (473ml) of water raises blood pressure 11 mmHg in elderly normal subjects. In patients with autonomic impairment, such as multiple system atrophy, strikingly exaggerated pressor effects of water have been seen with blood pressure elevations greater than 75 mmHg not at all uncommon. Ingestion of water is a major determinant of blood pressure in the elderly population. Volume homeostasis is importantly affected by posture and large changes in plasma volume may occur within 30 minutes when upright posture is assumed.

  6. Flexible Reconfiguration of Existing Urban Water Infrastructure Systems.

    PubMed

    Perelman, Lina Sela; Allen, Michael; Preis, Ami; Iqbal, Mudasser; Whittle, Andrew J

    2015-11-17

    This paper presents a practical methodology for the flexible reconfiguration of existing water distribution infrastructure, which is adaptive to the water utility constraints and facilitates in operational management for pressure and water loss control. The network topology is reconfigured into a star-like topology, where the center node is a connected subset of transmission mains, that provides connection to water sources, and the nodes are the subsystems that are connected to the sources through the center node. In the proposed approach, the system is first decomposed into the main and subsystems based on graph theory methods and then the network reconfiguration problem is approximated as a single-objective linear programming problem, which is efficiently solved using a standard solver. The performance and resiliency of the original and reconfigured systems are evaluated through direct and surrogate measures. The methodology is demonstrated using two large-scale water distribution systems, showing the flexibility of the proposed approach. The results highlight the benefits and disadvantages of network decentralization.

  7. U.S. EPA to Announce Millions to Improve Local Water Infrastructure, Water Quality Statewide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    LOS ANGELES - Tomorrow, U.S. EPA Regional Administrator Jared Blumenfeld will be joined by City of Carlsbad Mayor Matt Hall to announce millions of dollars in funding to the state that will improve local water infrastructure and control water pollution st

  8. Decontamination of chemical agents from drinking water infrastructure: a literature review and summary.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Jeff; Minamyer, Scott

    2014-11-01

    This report summarizes the current state of knowledge on the persistence of chemical contamination on drinking water infrastructure (such as pipes) along with information on decontamination should persistence occur. Decontamination options for drinking water infrastructure have been explored for some chemical contaminants, but important data gaps remain. In general, data on chemical persistence on drinking water infrastructure is available for inorganics such as arsenic and mercury, as well as select organics such as petroleum products, pesticides and rodenticides. Data specific to chemical warfare agents and pharmaceuticals was not found and data on toxins is scant. Future research suggestions focus on expanding the available chemical persistence data to other common drinking water infrastructure materials. Decontaminating agents that successfully removed persistent contamination from one infrastructure material should be used in further studies. Methods for sampling or extracting chemical agents from water infrastructure surfaces are needed.

  9. Water and Carbon Footprints for Sustainability Analysis of Urban Infrastructure - abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water and transportation infrastructures define spatial distribution of urban population and economic activities. In this context, energy and water consumed per capita are tangible measures of how efficient water and transportation systems are constructed and operated. At a hig...

  10. Modeled ground water age distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woolfenden, Linda R.; Ginn, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    The age of ground water in any given sample is a distributed quantity representing distributed provenance (in space and time) of the water. Conventional analysis of tracers such as unstable isotopes or anthropogenic chemical species gives discrete or binary measures of the presence of water of a given age. Modeled ground water age distributions provide a continuous measure of contributions from different recharge sources to aquifers. A numerical solution of the ground water age equation of Ginn (1999) was tested both on a hypothetical simplified one-dimensional flow system and under real world conditions. Results from these simulations yield the first continuous distributions of ground water age using this model. Complete age distributions as a function of one and two space dimensions were obtained from both numerical experiments. Simulations in the test problem produced mean ages that were consistent with the expected value at the end of the model domain for all dispersivity values tested, although the mean ages for the two highest dispersivity values deviated slightly from the expected value. Mean ages in the dispersionless case also were consistent with the expected mean ages throughout the physical model domain. Simulations under real world conditions for three dispersivity values resulted in decreasing mean age with increasing dispersivity. This likely is a consequence of an edge effect. However, simulations for all three dispersivity values tested were mass balanced and stable demonstrating that the solution of the ground water age equation can provide estimates of water mass density distributions over age under real world conditions.

  11. Modeled ground water age distributions.

    PubMed

    Woolfenden, Linda R; Ginn, Timothy R

    2009-01-01

    The age of ground water in any given sample is a distributed quantity representing distributed provenance (in space and time) of the water. Conventional analysis of tracers such as unstable isotopes or anthropogenic chemical species gives discrete or binary measures of the presence of water of a given age. Modeled ground water age distributions provide a continuous measure of contributions from different recharge sources to aquifers. A numerical solution of the ground water age equation of Ginn (1999) was tested both on a hypothetical simplified one-dimensional flow system and under real world conditions. Results from these simulations yield the first continuous distributions of ground water age using this model. Complete age distributions as a function of one and two space dimensions were obtained from both numerical experiments. Simulations in the test problem produced mean ages that were consistent with the expected value at the end of the model domain for all dispersivity values tested, although the mean ages for the two highest dispersivity values deviated slightly from the expected value. Mean ages in the dispersionless case also were consistent with the expected mean ages throughout the physical model domain. Simulations under real world conditions for three dispersivity values resulted in decreasing mean age with increasing dispersivity. This likely is a consequence of an edge effect. However, simulations for all three dispersivity values tested were mass balanced and stable demonstrating that the solution of the ground water age equation can provide estimates of water mass density distributions over age under real world conditions.

  12. National Water Infrastructure Adaptation Assessment, Part I: Climate Change Adaptation Readiness Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report “National Water Infrastructure Adaptation Assessment” is comprised of four parts (Part I to IV), each in an independent volume. The Part I report presented herein describes a preliminary regulatory and technical analysis of water infrastructure and regulations in the ...

  13. Optimization of urban water supply portfolios combining infrastructure capacity expansion and water use decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medellin-Azuara, J.; Fraga, C. C. S.; Marques, G.; Mendes, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    The expansion and operation of urban water supply systems under rapidly growing demands, hydrologic uncertainty, and scarce water supplies requires a strategic combination of various supply sources for added reliability, reduced costs and improved operational flexibility. The design and operation of such portfolio of water supply sources merits decisions of what and when to expand, and how much to use of each available sources accounting for interest rates, economies of scale and hydrologic variability. The present research provides a framework and an integrated methodology that optimizes the expansion of various water supply alternatives using dynamic programming and combining both short term and long term optimization of water use and simulation of water allocation. A case study in Bahia Do Rio Dos Sinos in Southern Brazil is presented. The framework couples an optimization model with quadratic programming model in GAMS with WEAP, a rain runoff simulation models that hosts the water supply infrastructure features and hydrologic conditions. Results allow (a) identification of trade offs between cost and reliability of different expansion paths and water use decisions and (b) evaluation of potential gains by reducing water system losses as a portfolio component. The latter is critical in several developing countries where water supply system losses are high and often neglected in favor of more system expansion. Results also highlight the potential of various water supply alternatives including, conservation, groundwater, and infrastructural enhancements over time. The framework proves its usefulness for planning its transferability to similarly urbanized systems.

  14. What Do Experienced Water Managers Think of Water Resources of Our Nation and Its Management Infrastructure?

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Faisal; Arnold, Jeffrey; Beighley, Ed; Brown, Casey; Burian, Steve; Chen, Ji; Mitra, Anindita; Niyogi, Dev; Pielke, Roger; Tidwell, Vincent; Wegner, Dave

    2015-01-01

    This article represents the second report by an ASCE Task Committee “Infrastructure Impacts of Landscape-driven Weather Change” under the ASCE Watershed Management Technical Committee and the ASCE Hydroclimate Technical Committee. Herein, the ‘infrastructure impacts” are referred to as infrastructure-sensitive changes in weather and climate patterns (extremes and non-extremes) that are modulated, among other factors, by changes in landscape, land use and land cover change. In this first report, the article argued for explicitly considering the well-established feedbacks triggered by infrastructure systems to the land-atmosphere system via landscape change. In this report by the ASCE Task Committee (TC), we present the results of this ASCE TC’s survey of a cross section of experienced water managers using a set of carefully crafted questions. These questions covered water resources management, infrastructure resiliency and recommendations for inclusion in education and curriculum. We describe here the specifics of the survey and the results obtained in the form of statistical averages on the ‘perception’ of these managers. Finally, we discuss what these ‘perception’ averages may indicate to the ASCE TC and community as a whole for stewardship of the civil engineering profession. The survey and the responses gathered are not exhaustive nor do they represent the ASCE-endorsed viewpoint. However, the survey provides a critical first step to developing the framework of a research and education plan for ASCE. Given the Water Resources Reform and Development Act passed in 2014, we must now take into account the perceived concerns of the water management community. PMID:26544045

  15. What Do Experienced Water Managers Think of Water Resources of Our Nation and Its Management Infrastructure?

    PubMed

    Hossain, Faisal; Arnold, Jeffrey; Beighley, Ed; Brown, Casey; Burian, Steve; Chen, Ji; Mitra, Anindita; Niyogi, Dev; Pielke, Roger; Tidwell, Vincent; Wegner, Dave

    2015-01-01

    This article represents the second report by an ASCE Task Committee "Infrastructure Impacts of Landscape-driven Weather Change" under the ASCE Watershed Management Technical Committee and the ASCE Hydroclimate Technical Committee. Herein, the 'infrastructure impacts" are referred to as infrastructure-sensitive changes in weather and climate patterns (extremes and non-extremes) that are modulated, among other factors, by changes in landscape, land use and land cover change. In this first report, the article argued for explicitly considering the well-established feedbacks triggered by infrastructure systems to the land-atmosphere system via landscape change. In this report by the ASCE Task Committee (TC), we present the results of this ASCE TC's survey of a cross section of experienced water managers using a set of carefully crafted questions. These questions covered water resources management, infrastructure resiliency and recommendations for inclusion in education and curriculum. We describe here the specifics of the survey and the results obtained in the form of statistical averages on the 'perception' of these managers. Finally, we discuss what these 'perception' averages may indicate to the ASCE TC and community as a whole for stewardship of the civil engineering profession. The survey and the responses gathered are not exhaustive nor do they represent the ASCE-endorsed viewpoint. However, the survey provides a critical first step to developing the framework of a research and education plan for ASCE. Given the Water Resources Reform and Development Act passed in 2014, we must now take into account the perceived concerns of the water management community.

  16. Cooperative Drought Adaptation: Integrating Infrastructure Development, Conservation, and Water Transfers into Adaptive Policy Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeff, H. B.; Characklis, G. W.; Reed, P. M.; Herman, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Water supply policies that integrate portfolios of short-term management decisions with long-term infrastructure development enable utilities to adapt to a range of future scenarios. An effective mix of short-term management actions can augment existing infrastructure, potentially forestalling new development. Likewise, coordinated expansion of infrastructure such as regional interconnections and shared treatment capacity can increase the effectiveness of some management actions like water transfers. Highly adaptable decision pathways that mix long-term infrastructure options and short-term management actions require decision triggers capable of incorporating the impact of these time-evolving decisions on growing water supply needs. Here, we adapt risk-based triggers to sequence a set of potential infrastructure options in combination with utility-specific conservation actions and inter-utility water transfers. Individual infrastructure pathways can be augmented with conservation or water transfers to reduce the cost of meeting utility objectives, but they can also include cooperatively developed, shared infrastructure that expands regional capacity to transfer water. This analysis explores the role of cooperation among four water utilities in the 'Research Triangle' region of North Carolina by formulating three distinct categories of adaptive policy pathways: independent action (utility-specific conservation and supply infrastructure only), weak cooperation (utility-specific conservation and infrastructure development with regional transfers), and strong cooperation (utility specific conservation and jointly developed of regional infrastructure that supports transfers). Results suggest that strong cooperation aids the utilities in meeting their individual objections at substantially lower costs and with fewer irreversible infrastructure options.

  17. Water Innovation and Technology

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Water technologies are a specific sector that EPA works to address through the water technology cluster, aging infrastructure research, green infrastructure, and major industry meetings such as WEFTEC.

  18. Report: Unliquidated Obligations Resulted in Missed Opportunities to Improve Drinking Water Infrastructure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #14-P-0318, July 16, 2014. States miss opportunities to improve the health of their communities’ drinking water infrastructure and the opportunity to infuse funds into the economy and create jobs.

  19. Multi-Scale Infrastructure Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) multi-scale infrastructure assessment project supports both water resource adaptation to climate change and the rehabilitation of the nation’s aging water infrastructure by providing tools, scientific data and information to progra...

  20. Water management with water conservation, infrastructure expansions, and source variability in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, David E.; Howitt, Richard E.; Lund, Jay R.

    2008-11-01

    A regional hydroeconomic model is developed to include demand shifts from nonprice water conservation programs as input parameters and decision variables. Stochastic nonlinear programming then jointly identifies the benefit-maximizing portfolio of conservation and leak reduction programs, infrastructure expansions, and operational allocations under variable water availability. We present a detailed application for 12 governorates in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. It considers targeted installations of water-efficient appliances, leak reduction in the distribution system, surface and groundwater development, seawater desalination, conveyance, and wastewater treatment projects. Results show that (1) water conservation by urban users generates substantial regional benefits and can delay infrastructure expansions; (2) some rationing and conjunctive use operations smooth operations during droughts; (3) a broad mix of source developments, conveyance expansions, and leak reduction programs can forestall the need for desalination; (4) the Disi carrier to Amman should include a large branch to Karak; and (5) increasing conveyance from Ma'an, Irbid, and Mafraq can avert impending crises in the neighboring districts of Tafelah, Ajloun, and Zarqa.

  1. Decontamination of radiological agents from drinking water infrastructure: a literature review and summary.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Jeff; Minamyer, Scott

    2014-11-01

    This report summarizes the current state of knowledge on the persistence of radiological agents on drinking water infrastructure (such as pipes) along with information on decontamination should persistence occur. Decontamination options for drinking water infrastructure have been explored for some important radiological agents (cesium, strontium and cobalt), but important data gaps remain. Although some targeted experiments have been published on cesium, strontium and cobalt persistence on drinking water infrastructure, most of the data comes from nuclear clean-up sites. Furthermore, the studies focused on drinking water systems use non-radioactive surrogates. Non-radioactive cobalt was shown to be persistent on iron due to oxidation with free chlorine in drinking water and precipitation on the iron surface. Decontamination with acidification was an effective removal method. Strontium persistence on iron was transient in tap water, but adherence to cement-mortar has been demonstrated and should be further explored. Cesium persistence on iron water infrastructure was observed when flow was stagnant, but not with water flow present. Future research suggestions focus on expanding the available cesium, strontium and cobalt persistence data to other common infrastructure materials, specifically cement-mortar. Further exploration chelating agents and low pH treatment is recommended for future decontamination studies.

  2. Infrastructure and resources for an aging population: embracing complexity in translational research.

    PubMed

    High, Kevin P

    2014-05-01

    The population of the United States and most industrialized nations is undergoing rapid expansion of persons aged 65 years and older. This group experiences more illness, disability, and dependency than young adults and consumes the majority of heath care resources. This demographic change presents a number of challenges to current research infrastructure aimed at translating discoveries to improved human health. Key issues include the need to expand the workforce trained in aging research, development of specific resources and harmonization of measures and outcomes, and a culture change within the scientific community. In particular, complexity must be represented within research design and embraced as an important aspect of review panel critiques.

  3. A Review of Quantitative Methods for Evaluating Impacts of Climate Change on Urban Water Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is widely accepted that global climate change will impact the regional and local climate and alter some aspects of the hydrologic cycle, which in turn can affect the performance of the urban water supply, wastewater and storm water infrastructur4e. How the urban water infrastr...

  4. A Systems Approach to Develop Sustainable Water Supply Infrastructure and Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a visit to Zhejiang University, China, Dr. Y. Jeffrey Yang will discuss in this presentation the system approach for urban water infrastructure sustainability. Through a system analysis, it becomes clear at an urban scale that the energy and water efficiencies of a water supp...

  5. Terrorism and Security Issues Facing the Water Infrastructure Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-26

    reservoirs, aqueducts , and pipes that contain and transport raw water; treatment facilities that remove contaminants from raw water; finished water...approximately 77,000 dams and reservoirs; thousands of miles of pipes, aqueducts , water distribution, and sewer lines; 168,000 public drinking water facilities...California, Arizona, and Nevada via Reclamation and non-Reclamation aqueducts . Reclamation’s inventory of assets includes 471 dams and dikes that create 348

  6. Urban water infrastructure asset management - a structured approach in four water utilities.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, M A; Silva, M Santos; Coelho, S T; Almeida, M C; Covas, D I C

    2012-01-01

    Water services are a strategic sector of large social and economic relevance. It is therefore essential that they are managed rationally and efficiently. Advanced water supply and wastewater infrastructure asset management (IAM) is key in achieving adequate levels of service in the future, particularly with regard to reliable and high quality drinking water supply, prevention of urban flooding, efficient use of natural resources and prevention of pollution. This paper presents a methodology for supporting the development of urban water IAM, developed during the AWARE-P project as well as an appraisal of its implementation in four water utilities. Both water supply and wastewater systems were considered. Due to the different contexts and features of the utilities, the main concerns vary from case to case; some problems essentially are related to performance, others to risk. Cost is a common deciding factor. The paper describes the procedure applied, focusing on the diversity of drivers, constraints, benefits and outcomes. It also points out the main challenges and the results obtained through the implementation of a structured procedure for supporting urban water IAM.

  7. System Dynamics Approach for Critical Infrastructure and Decision Support. A Model for a Potable Water System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqualini, D.; Witkowski, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Critical Infrastructure Protection / Decision Support System (CIP/DSS) project, supported by the Science and Technology Office, has been developing a risk-informed Decision Support System that provides insights for making critical infrastructure protection decisions. The system considers seventeen different Department of Homeland Security defined Critical Infrastructures (potable water system, telecommunications, public health, economics, etc.) and their primary interdependencies. These infrastructures have been modeling in one model called CIP/DSS Metropolitan Model. The modeling approach used is a system dynamics modeling approach. System dynamics modeling combines control theory and the nonlinear dynamics theory, which is defined by a set of coupled differential equations, which seeks to explain how the structure of a given system determines its behavior. In this poster we present a system dynamics model for one of the seventeen critical infrastructures, a generic metropolitan potable water system (MPWS). Three are the goals: 1) to gain a better understanding of the MPWS infrastructure; 2) to identify improvements that would help protect MPWS; and 3) to understand the consequences, interdependencies, and impacts, when perturbations occur to the system. The model represents raw water sources, the metropolitan water treatment process, storage of treated water, damage and repair to the MPWS, distribution of water, and end user demand, but does not explicitly represent the detailed network topology of an actual MPWS. The MPWS model is dependent upon inputs from the metropolitan population, energy, telecommunication, public health, and transportation models as well as the national water and transportation models. We present modeling results and sensitivity analysis indicating critical choke points, negative and positive feedback loops in the system. A general scenario is also analyzed where the potable water system responds to a generic disruption.

  8. Climate Change: Federal Efforts Under Way to Assess Water Infrastructure Vulnerabilities and Address Adaptation Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    navigation, flood and coastal storm damage reduction, hydropower , and water supply, among other things. Established in 1902, Reclamation constructed...Adaptation infrastructure, including reservoirs, hydropower facilities, commercial inland waterways, harbors, and levee systems. In June 2011, in response...following: navigation, flood and coastal storm damage reduction, environment, hydropower , regulatory, recreation, emergency management, and water

  9. First National Expert and Stakeholder Workshop on Water Infrastructure Sustainability and Adaptation to Climate Change

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD) and EPA Office of Water (OW) joinined efforts to assess and evaluate programmatic, research & development (R&D) needs for sustainable water infrastructure development and effective adaptation to climate changes. The purpose of this pr...

  10. Decontamination of biological agents from drinking water infrastructure: a literature review and summary.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Jeff; Minamyer, Scott

    2014-11-01

    This report summarizes the current state of knowledge on the persistence of biological agents on drinking water infrastructure (such as pipes) along with information on decontamination should persistence occur. Decontamination options for drinking water infrastructure have been explored for some biological agents, but data gaps remain. Data on bacterial spore persistence on common water infrastructure materials such as iron and cement-mortar lined iron show that spores can be persistent for weeks after contamination. Decontamination data show that common disinfectants such as free chlorine have limited effectiveness. Decontamination results with germinant and alternate disinfectants such as chlorine dioxide are more promising. Persistence and decontamination data were collected on vegetative bacteria, such as coliforms, Legionella and Salmonella. Vegetative bacteria are less persistent than spores and more susceptible to disinfection, but the surfaces and water quality conditions in many studies were only marginally related to drinking water systems. However, results of real-world case studies on accidental contamination of water systems with E. coli and Salmonella contamination show that flushing and chlorination can help return a water system to service. Some viral persistence data were found, but decontamination data were lacking. Future research suggestions focus on expanding the available biological persistence data to other common infrastructure materials. Further exploration of non-traditional drinking water disinfectants is recommended for future studies.

  11. Integrating Infrastructure and Institutions for Water Security in Large Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padowski, J.; Jawitz, J. W.; Carrera, L.

    2015-12-01

    Urban growth has forced cities to procure more freshwater to meet demands; however the relationship between urban water security, water availability and water management is not well understood. This work quantifies the urban water security of 108 large cities in the United States (n=50) and Africa (n=58) based on their hydrologic, hydraulic and institutional settings. Using publicly available data, urban water availability was estimated as the volume of water available from local water resources and those captured via hydraulic infrastructure (e.g. reservoirs, wellfields, aqueducts) while urban water institutions were assessed according to their ability to deliver, supply and regulate water resources to cities. When assessing availability, cities relying on local water resources comprised a minority (37%) of those assessed. The majority of cities (55%) instead rely on captured water to meet urban demands, with African cities reaching farther and accessing a greater number and variety of sources for water supply than US cities. Cities using captured water generally had poorer access to local water resources and maintained significantly more complex strategies for water delivery, supply and regulatory management. Eight cities, all African, are identified in this work as having water insecurity issues. These cities lack sufficient infrastructure and institutional complexity to capture and deliver adequate amounts of water for urban use. Together, these findings highlight the important interconnection between infrastructure investments and management techniques for urban areas with a limited or dwindling natural abundance of water. Addressing water security challenges in the future will require that more attention be placed not only on increasing water availability, but on developing the institutional support to manage captured water supplies.

  12. Terrorism and Security Issues Facing the Water Infrastructure Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-16

    design, deploy, and test biological or other contamination warning systems at drinking water systems (see discussion of the Water Sector Initiative ( WSI ...on page 7). The FY2011 budget states that five full-scale pilots have been established and that future funding for WSI will be used for evaluation

  13. Revisiting extreme storms of the past 100 years for future safety of large water management infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Hossain, Faisal

    2016-07-01

    Historical extreme storm events are widely used to make Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) estimates, which form the cornerstone of large water management infrastructure safety. Past studies suggest that extreme precipitation processes can be sensitive to land surface feedback and the planetary warming trend, which makes the future safety of large infrastructures questionable given the projected changes in land cover and temperature in the coming decades. In this study, a numerical modeling framework was employed to reconstruct 10 extreme storms over CONUS that occurred during the past 100 years, which are used by the engineering profession for PMP estimation for large infrastructures such as dams. Results show that the correlation in daily rainfall for such reconstruction can range between 0.4 and 0.7, while the correlation for maximum 3-day accumulation (a standard period used in infrastructure design) is always above 0.5 for post-1948 storms. This suggests that current numerical modeling and reanalysis data allow us to reconstruct big storms after 1948 with acceptable accuracy. For storms prior to 1948, however, reconstruction of storms shows inconsistency with observations. Our study indicates that numerical modeling and data may not have advanced to a sufficient level to understand how such old storms (pre-1948) may behave in future warming and land cover conditions. However, the infrastructure community can certainly rely on the use of model reconstructed extreme storms of the 1948-present period to reassess safety of our large water infrastructures under assumed changes in temperature and land cover.

  14. Analysing the relationship between urban livelihoods and water infrastructure in three settlements in Cusco, Peru.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Catherine; Bell, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the role played by water infrastructure in urban livelihoods. It is based on a study of three settlements in Cusco, Peru, and shows that different modes of organising infrastructure co-exist within the same city, despite national policy prescriptions for urban water provision. Further, unequal access of households to these services exists within the same settlements and amplifies household vulnerability which, in turn, feeds back to undermine local, autonomous governance of water. This paper draws on the work of van Vliet et al. and Marvin and Graham to develop a framework that considers infrastructure organisation alongside household livelihoods in order to analyse the features of governance and vulnerability that affect urban livelihoods by privileging some groups and bypassing others.

  15. Contested environmental policy infrastructure: Socio-political acceptance of renewable energy, water, and waste facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wolsink, Maarten

    2010-09-15

    The construction of new infrastructure is hotly contested. This paper presents a comparative study on three environmental policy domains in the Netherlands that all deal with legitimising building and locating infrastructure facilities. Such infrastructure is usually declared essential to environmental policy and claimed to serve sustainability goals. They are considered to serve (proclaimed) public interests, while the adverse impact or risk that mainly concerns environmental values as well is concentrated at a smaller scale, for example in local communities. The social acceptance of environmental policy infrastructure is institutionally determined. The institutional capacity for learning in infrastructure decision-making processes in the following three domains is compared: 1.The implementation of wind power as a renewable energy innovation; 2.The policy on space-water adaptation, with its claim to implement a new style of management replacing the current practice of focusing on control and 'hard' infrastructure; 3.Waste policy with a focus on sound waste management and disposal, claiming a preference for waste minimization (the 'waste management hierarchy'). All three cases show a large variety of social acceptance issues, where the appraisal of the impact of siting the facilities is confronted with the desirability of the policies. In dealing with environmental conflict, the environmental capacity of the Netherlands appears to be low. The policies are frequently hotly contested within the process of infrastructure decision-making. Decision-making on infrastructure is often framed as if consensus about the objectives of environmental policies exists. These claims are not justified, and therefore stimulating the emergence of environmental conflicts that discourage social acceptance of the policies. Authorities are frequently involved in planning infrastructure that conflicts with their officially proclaimed policy objectives. In these circumstances, they are

  16. Spatial Analysis of Water Infrastructure Development On Example of Eastern Europe Rural Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrucha-Urbanik, Katarzyna; Stecko, Justyna; Pękala, Agnieszka

    2016-10-01

    In the paper the assessment of water supply in rural areas in Poland was performed in aspect of future problems and the necessity of investments. The analysis proposed in this work is a helpful tool in making the ranking of the level of infrastructure development in different regions of the country. The assessment of the water supply network functioning is a very important issue that requires the use of operational experience with the practice of water supply. The analysis was based on data associated with the exploitation of water supply systems. Among others, to illustrate this diversity, the multidimensional comparative analysis was used. The developed analysis will enable decision support in the process of evaluating the economic efficiency of the operation of water supply infrastructure, through established indicators including the water network length development.

  17. 77 FR 60687 - Record of Decision for the U.S. Marine Corps Basewide Water Infrastructure Project at Marine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... construction, operation, and maintenance of a new Northern Advanced Water Treatment plant and associated... Department of the Navy Record of Decision for the U.S. Marine Corps Basewide Water Infrastructure Project at... decision to upgrade and improve the Basewide water infrastructure at Marine Corps Base Camp...

  18. Analysis of the U.S. Water Infrastructure from a Security Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-15

    Richard Meinhart, Ed.D Project Adviser This SRP is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the Master of Strategic Studies Degree. The...by water infrastructure experts, government reports and other studies indicate that despite efforts at all levels, these questions are not fully...Understanding the Threat to Water A study of history affirms that an attack on an enemy’s water supply is surely plausible. Rooted in ancient times, this form

  19. STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY MONITORING FOR IMPROVED DRINKING WATER INFRASTRUCTURE SUSTAINABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Structural integrity monitoring (SIM) is the systematic detection, location, and quantification of pipe wall damage or associated indicators. Each of the adverse situations below has the potential to be reduced by more effective and economical SIM of water mains:
    1) the dr...

  20. Optimal expansion of a drinking water infrastructure system with respect to carbon footprint, cost-effectiveness and water demand.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Qi, Cheng; Yang, Y Jeffrey

    2012-11-15

    Urban water infrastructure expansion requires careful long-term planning to reduce the risk from climate change during periods of both economic boom and recession. As part of the adaptation management strategies, capacity expansion in concert with other management alternatives responding to the population dynamics, ecological conservation, and water management policies should be systematically examined to balance the water supply and demand temporally and spatially with different scales. To mitigate the climate change impact, this practical implementation often requires a multiobjective decision analysis that introduces economic efficiencies and carbon-footprint matrices simultaneously. The optimal expansion strategies for a typical water infrastructure system in South Florida demonstrate the essence of the new philosophy. Within our case study, the multiobjective modeling framework uniquely features an integrated evaluation of transboundary surface and groundwater resources and quantitatively assesses the interdependencies among drinking water supply, wastewater reuse, and irrigation water permit transfer as the management options expand throughout varying dimensions. With the aid of a multistage planning methodology over the partitioned time horizon, such a systems analysis has resulted in a full-scale screening and sequencing of multiple competing objectives across a suite of management strategies. These strategies that prioritize 20 options provide a possible expansion schedule over the next 20 years that improve water infrastructure resilience and at low life-cycle costs. The proposed method is transformative to other applications of similar water infrastructure systems elsewhere in the world.

  1. Using VELMA to Quantify and Visualize the Effectiveness of Green Infrastructure Options for Protecting Water Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    This webinar describes the use of VELMA, a spatially-distributed ecohydrological model, to identify green infrastructure (GI) best management practices for protecting water quality in intensively managed watersheds. The seminar will include a brief description of VELMA and an ex...

  2. EPA-WERF Cooperative Agreement: Innovation and Research for Water Infrastructure for the 21st Century

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a brief slide presentation that will provide an overview of several projects that are being conducted in EPA-WERF Cooperative Agreement, Innovation and Research for Water Infrastructure for the 21st Century. The cooperative agreement objectives are to produce, evaluate, &...

  3. INNOVATION AND RESEARCH FOR WATER INFRASTRUCTURE FOR THE 21ST CENTURY RESEARCH PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This plan has been developed to provide the Office of Research and Development (ORD) with a guide for implementing a research program that addresses high priority needs of the Nation relating to its drinking water and wastewater infrastructure. By identifying these critical need...

  4. Protecting water and wastewater infrastructure from cyber attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panguluri, Srinivas; Phillips, William; Cusimano, John

    2011-12-01

    Multiple organizations over the years have collected and analyzed data on cyber attacks and they all agree on one conclusion: cyber attacks are real and can cause significant damages. This paper presents some recent statistics on cyber attacks and resulting damages. Water and wastewater utilities must adopt countermeasures to prevent or minimize the damage in case of such attacks. Many unique challenges are faced by the water and wastewater industry while selecting and implementing security countermeasures; the key challenges are: 1) the increasing interconnection of their business and control system networks, 2) large variation of proprietary industrial control equipment utilized, 3) multitude of cross-sector cyber-security standards, and 4) the differences in the equipment vendor's approaches to meet these security standards. The utilities can meet these challenges by voluntarily selecting and adopting security standards, conducting a gap analysis, performing vulnerability/risk analysis, and undertaking countermeasures that best meets their security and organizational requirements. Utilities should optimally utilize their limited resources to prepare and implement necessary programs that are designed to increase cyber-security over the years. Implementing cyber security does not necessarily have to be expensive, substantial improvements can be accomplished through policy, procedure, training and awareness. Utilities can also get creative and allocate more funding through annual budgets and reduce dependence upon capital improvement programs to achieve improvements in cyber-security.

  5. Cooperative drought adaptation: Integrating infrastructure development, conservation, and water transfers into adaptive policy pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeff, Harrison B.; Herman, Jonathan D.; Reed, Patrick M.; Characklis, Gregory W.

    2016-09-01

    A considerable fraction of urban water supply capacity serves primarily as a hedge against drought. Water utilities can reduce their dependence on firm capacity and forestall the development of new supplies using short-term drought management actions, such as conservation and transfers. Nevertheless, new supplies will often be needed, especially as demands rise due to population growth and economic development. Planning decisions regarding when and how to integrate new supply projects are fundamentally shaped by the way in which short-term adaptive drought management strategies are employed. To date, the challenges posed by long-term infrastructure sequencing and adaptive short-term drought management are treated independently, neglecting important feedbacks between planning and management actions. This work contributes a risk-based framework that uses continuously updating risk-of-failure (ROF) triggers to capture the feedbacks between short-term drought management actions (e.g., conservation and water transfers) and the selection and sequencing of a set of regional supply infrastructure options over the long term. Probabilistic regional water supply pathways are discovered for four water utilities in the "Research Triangle" region of North Carolina. Furthermore, this study distinguishes the status-quo planning path of independent action (encompassing utility-specific conservation and new supply infrastructure only) from two cooperative formulations: "weak" cooperation, which combines utility-specific conservation and infrastructure development with regional transfers, and "strong" cooperation, which also includes jointly developed regional infrastructure to support transfers. Results suggest that strong cooperation aids utilities in meeting their individual objectives at substantially lower costs and with less overall development. These benefits demonstrate how an adaptive, rule-based decision framework can coordinate integrated solutions that would not be

  6. Water Scarcity in the Northeast Corridor During the Nineteenth Century and its Correlation to Infrastructure Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz Hernandez, A.; Arrigo, J. S.; Adams, L. E.; Bain, D. J.; Bray, E. N.; Green, M. B.; Huang, M.; Wilson, J.; Wollheim, W. M.

    2009-12-01

    Water is an essential component in the successful development and economic growth within a region. Throughout recorded history, civilizations have been modifying and controlling local environments in the pursuit of maximizing water benefits. These efforts include the creation of large waterworks to reduce the uncertainties caused by adverse climatic circumstances such as droughts or floodings as well as supporting local economies. In this study, we contend that the development of water infrastructure in the Northeastern Corridor of the United States was a direct result of the degree of water scarcity within that particular region. In order to test this hypothesis, we have applied various water scarcity metrics to local historical data for cities including Boston, Philadelphia, and New York in order to characterize interactions between water scarcity and water infrastructure development. These metrics are based upon the ratio of consumer water demand to water supply. Our preliminary results show that a correlation does exist. Additionally, we explore how the water footprint of these cities evolved through time and how they impacted the demand for water. We expect that technological advancement allowed the ‘water footprint’ to expand into the Midwest U.S. and eventually the entire globe, allowing the Eastern Seaboard megalopolis to thrive. The history and development of water related infrastructure in this region could serve as an example allowing us to understand the relationship between humans and hydrologic systems. We contend that sustainability lessons from the past can be applied to developing countries or developing urban areas with the expectation of minimizing or avoiding the variety of mistakes that occurred in already developed regions, thus reducing the negative effects on populations and the environment.

  7. Combining Interactive Infrastructure Modeling and Evolutionary Algorithm Optimization for Sustainable Water Resources Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Zagona, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Population growth and climate change, combined with difficulties in building new infrastructure, motivate portfolio-based solutions to ensuring sufficient water supply. Powerful simulation models with graphical user interfaces (GUI) are often used to evaluate infrastructure portfolios; these GUI based models require manual modification of the system parameters, such as reservoir operation rules, water transfer schemes, or system capacities. Multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) based optimization can be employed to balance multiple objectives and automatically suggest designs for infrastructure systems, but MOEA based decision support typically uses a fixed problem formulation (i.e., a single set of objectives, decisions, and constraints). This presentation suggests a dynamic framework for linking GUI-based infrastructure models with MOEA search. The framework begins with an initial formulation which is solved using a MOEA. Then, stakeholders can interact with candidate solutions, viewing their properties in the GUI model. This is followed by changes in the formulation which represent users' evolving understanding of exigent system properties. Our case study is built using RiverWare, an object-oriented, data-centered model that facilitates the representation of a diverse array of water resources systems. Results suggest that assumptions within the initial MOEA search are violated after investigating tradeoffs and reveal how formulations should be modified to better capture stakeholders' preferences.

  8. WATER QUALITY AND THE REPLACEMENT AND REPAIR OF DRINKING WATER INFRASTRUCTURE: THE WASHINGTON, DC CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major challenge for society in the 21st century will be replacement, design and optimal management of urban infrastructure. It is estimated that the current world wide demand for infrastructure investment is approximately three trillion US dollars annually. Many developing coun...

  9. Research Challenges in Water Infrastructure Condition Assessment, Rehabilitation and System Optimization – The U.S. Perspective

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation first provides an overview of U.S.EPA research activities on water infrastructure condition assessment, system rehabilitation, and asset management. It then describes in detail specific activities in pipe leak detection, water conservation and the advanced wate...

  10. Optimal Expansion of a Drinking Water Infrastructure System with Respect to Carbon Footprint, Cost Effectiveness and Water Demand

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban water infrastructure requires careful long-term expansion planning to reduce the risk from climate change during both the periods of economic boom and recession. As part of the adaptation management strategies, capacity expansion in concert with other management alternativ...

  11. Determinants of household water conservation: The role of demographic, infrastructure, behavior, and psychosocial variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielding, Kelly S.; Russell, Sally; Spinks, Anneliese; Mankad, Aditi

    2012-10-01

    Securing water supplies in urban areas is a major challenge for policy makers, both now and into the future. This study aimed to identify the key determinants of household water use, with a view to identifying those factors that could be targeted in water demand management campaigns. Objective water use data and surveys were collected from 1008 households in four local government areas of southeast Queensland, Australia. Results showed that demographic, psychosocial, behavioral, and infrastructure variables all have a role to play in determining household water use. Consistent with past research, household occupancy was the most important predictor of water use. Households in regions recently exposed to drought conditions and higher-level restrictions also used less water than those who had less experience with drought. The effect of water efficient technology was mixed: some water efficient appliances were associated with less water use, while others were associated with more water use. Results also demonstrated the importance of considering water use as a collective behavior that is influenced by household dynamics. Households who reported a stronger culture of water conservation used less water. These findings, along with evidence that good water-saving habits are linked to water conservation, highlight the value of policies that support long-term cultural shifts in the way people think about and use water.

  12. Climate Change and Water Infrastructure in Central Asia: adaptation capacities and institutional challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullaev, Iskandar; Rakhmatullaev, Shavkat

    2014-05-01

    The paper discusses vulnerability areas of water sector in arid Central Asia due to climate change projections with particular focus on adaptation to sustainable operation of physical infrastructure capacities (from legal, institutional and technical aspects). Two types of technical installations are the main focus of this paper, i.e., electrical lift irrigation systems and water reservoirs. The first set of electrical lift infrastructure is strategic for delivering water to water users via pumps, diversion structures, vertical drainage facilities and groundwater boreholes; on the other hand, the primarily task of second set of structures is to accumulate the water resources for sectors of economy. In Central Asia, approximately, 20-50% of irrigation water is lifted, yet major of lift structures are in very poor technical conditions coupled with ever increasing of electricity tariffs. Furthermore, useful volumes capacities of water reservoirs are being severely diminished due to bio-physical geomorphologic processes, improper operational regimes and chronic financing for special in-house sedimentation surveys. Most importantly, the key argument is that irrigation sector should internalize its adaptation efforts, i.e., integrate renewable energy technologies, energy audit programs and lastly design comprehensive investment prioritization processes and programs. Otherwise, water sector will be at great risk for continued provision of fundamental services to the public, food security and industry

  13. Green Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large paved surfaces keep rain from infiltrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. Alternatively, Green infrastructure uses natural processes to reduce and treat stormwater in place by soaking up and storing water. These systems provide many environmental, social, an...

  14. The Water, Energy and Food Nexus: Finding the Balance in Infrastructure Investment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber-lee, A. T.; Wickel, B.; Kemp-Benedict, E.; Purkey, D. R.; Hoff, H.; Heaps, C.

    2013-12-01

    There is increasing evidence that single-sector infrastructure planning is leading to severely stressed human and ecological systems. There are a number of cross-sectoral impacts in these highly inter-linked systems. Examples include: - Promotion of biofuels that leads to conversion from food crops, reducing both food and water security. - Promotion of dams solely built for hydropower rather than multi-purpose uses, that deplete fisheries and affect saltwater intrusion dynamics in downstream deltas - Historical use of water for cooling thermal power plants, with increasing pressure from other water uses, as well as problems of increased water temperatures that affect the ability to cool plants efficiently. This list can easily be expanded, as these inter-linkages are increasing over time. As developing countries see a need to invest in new infrastructure to improve the livelihoods of the poor, developed countries face conditions of deteriorating infrastructure with an opportunity for new investment. It is crucial, especially in the face of uncertainty of climate change and socio-political realities, that infrastructure planning factors in the influence of multiple sectors and the potential impacts from the perspectives of different stakeholders. There is a need for stronger linkages between science and policy as well. The Stockholm Environment Institute is developing and implementing practical and innovative nexus planning approaches in Latin America, Africa and Asia that brings together stakeholders and ways of integrating uncertainty in a cross-sectoral quantitative framework using the tools WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning) and LEAP (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning). The steps used include: 1. Identify key actors and stakeholders via social network analysis 2. Work with these actors to scope out priority issues and decision criteria in both the short and long term 3. Develop quantitative models to clarify options and balances between the needs and

  15. Stimulated dual-band infrared computed tomography: A tool to inspect the aging infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Del Grande, N.K.; Durbin, P.F.

    1995-06-27

    The authors have developed stimulated dual-band infrared (IR) computed tomography as a tool to inspect the aging infrastructure. The system has the potential to locate and quantify structural damage within airframes and bridge decks. Typically, dual-band IR detection methods improve the signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of ten, compared to single-band IR detection methods. They conducted a demonstration at Boeing using a uniform pulsed-heat source to stimulate IR images of hidden defects in the 727 fuselage. The dual-band IR camera and image processing system produced temperature, thermal inertia, and cooling-rate maps. In combination, these maps characterized the defect site, size, depth, thickness and type. The authors quantified the percent metal loss from corrosion above a threshold of 5%, with overall uncertainties of 3%. Also, they conducted a feasibility study of dual-band IR thermal imaging for bridge deck inspections. They determined the sites and relative concrete displacement of 2-in. and 4-in. deep delaminations from thin styrofoam implants in asphalt-covered concrete slabs. They demonstrated the value of dual-band IR computed tomography to quantify structural damage within flash-heated airframes and naturally-heated bridge decks.

  16. Modeling the infrastructure dynamics of China -- Water, agriculture, energy, and greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, S.H.; Drennen, T.E.; Engi, D.; Harris, D.L.; Jeppesen, D.M.; Thomas, R.P.

    1998-08-01

    A comprehensive critical infrastructure analysis of the People`s Republic of China was performed to address questions about China`s ability to meet its long-term grain requirements and energy needs and to estimate greenhouse gas emissions in China likely to result from increased agricultural production and energy use. Four dynamic computer simulation models of China`s infrastructures--water, agriculture, energy and greenhouse gas--were developed to simulate, respectively, the hydrologic budgetary processes, grain production and consumption, energy demand, and greenhouse gas emissions in China through 2025. The four models were integrated into a state-of-the-art comprehensive critical infrastructure model for all of China. This integrated model simulates diverse flows of commodities, such as water and greenhouse gas, between the separate models to capture the overall dynamics of the integrated system. The model was used to generate projections of China`s available water resources and expected water use for 10 river drainage regions representing 100% of China`s mean annual runoff and comprising 37 major river basins. These projections were used to develop estimates of the water surpluses and/or deficits in the three end-use sectors--urban, industrial, and agricultural--through the year 2025. Projections of the all-China demand for the three major grains (corn, wheat, and rice), meat, and other (other grains and fruits and vegetables) were also generated. Each geographic region`s share of the all-China grain demand (allocated on the basis of each region`s share of historic grain production) was calculated in order to assess the land and water resources in each region required to meet that demand. Growth in energy use in six historically significant sectors and growth in greenhouse gas loading were projected for all of China.

  17. 43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... impoundments; (c) Water treatment facilities for potable water supplies, including desalination facilities; (d... facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? 404.9 Section 404.9 Public Lands... RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.9 What types of infrastructure and facilities may be...

  18. 43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... impoundments; (c) Water treatment facilities for potable water supplies, including desalination facilities; (d... facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? 404.9 Section 404.9 Public Lands... RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.9 What types of infrastructure and facilities may be...

  19. 43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... impoundments; (c) Water treatment facilities for potable water supplies, including desalination facilities; (d... facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? 404.9 Section 404.9 Public Lands... RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.9 What types of infrastructure and facilities may be...

  20. 43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... impoundments; (c) Water treatment facilities for potable water supplies, including desalination facilities; (d... facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? 404.9 Section 404.9 Public Lands... RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.9 What types of infrastructure and facilities may be...

  1. GIS-and Web-based Water Resource Geospatial Infrastructure for Oil Shale Development

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Wei; Minnick, Matthew; Geza, Mengistu; Murray, Kyle; Mattson, Earl

    2012-09-30

    The Colorado School of Mines (CSM) was awarded a grant by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a research project en- titled GIS- and Web-based Water Resource Geospatial Infrastructure for Oil Shale Development in October of 2008. The ultimate goal of this research project is to develop a water resource geo-spatial infrastructure that serves as “baseline data” for creating solutions on water resource management and for supporting decisions making on oil shale resource development. The project came to the end on September 30, 2012. This final project report will report the key findings from the project activity, major accomplishments, and expected impacts of the research. At meantime, the gamma version (also known as Version 4.0) of the geodatabase as well as other various deliverables stored on digital storage media will be send to the program manager at NETL, DOE via express mail. The key findings from the project activity include the quantitative spatial and temporal distribution of the water resource throughout the Piceance Basin, water consumption with respect to oil shale production, and data gaps identified. Major accomplishments of this project include the creation of a relational geodatabase, automated data processing scripts (Matlab) for database link with surface water and geological model, ArcGIS Model for hydrogeologic data processing for groundwater model input, a 3D geological model, surface water/groundwater models, energy resource development systems model, as well as a web-based geo-spatial infrastructure for data exploration, visualization and dissemination. This research will have broad impacts of the devel- opment of the oil shale resources in the US. The geodatabase provides a “baseline” data for fur- ther study of the oil shale development and identification of further data collection needs. The 3D geological model provides better understanding through data interpolation and

  2. Map of Water Infrastructure and Homes Without Access to Safe Drinking Water and Basic Sanitation on the Navajo Nation - October 2010

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document presents the results of completed work using existing geographic information system (GIS) data to map existing water and sewer infrastructure and homes without access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation on the Navajo Nation.

  3. Long-term Planning for Sustainable Water and Wastewater Infrastructure in Wellpinit, Washington, for the Spokane Tribe of Indians

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Spokane Tribe initiated a long-term planning process for a water and wastewater infrastructure system that can support the tribe’s goals to add compact, mixed-use development in the town of Wellpinit.

  4. Germinant-Enhanced Decontamination of Bacillus Spores Adhered to Iron and Cement-Mortar Drinking Water Infrastructures

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Nur; Heckman, Lee; Rice, Eugene W.; Hall, John

    2012-01-01

    Germination was evaluated as an enhancement to decontamination methods for removing Bacillus spores from drinking water infrastructure. Germinating spores before chlorinating cement mortar or flushing corroded iron was more effective than chlorinating or flushing alone. PMID:22267659

  5. Germinant-enhanced decontamination of Bacillus spores adhered to iron and cement-mortar drinking water infrastructures.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Jeffrey G; Muhammad, Nur; Heckman, Lee; Rice, Eugene W; Hall, John

    2012-04-01

    Germination was evaluated as an enhancement to decontamination methods for removing Bacillus spores from drinking water infrastructure. Germinating spores before chlorinating cement mortar or flushing corroded iron was more effective than chlorinating or flushing alone.

  6. Historical impact of water infrastructure on water levels of the Mekong River and the Tonle Sap system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochrane, T. A.; Arias, M. E.; Piman, T.

    2014-11-01

    The rapid rate of water infrastructure development in the Mekong Basin is a cause for concern due to its potential impact on fisheries and downstream natural ecosystems. In this paper, we analyze the historical water levels of the Mekong River and Tonle Sap system by comparing pre- and post-1991 daily observations from six stations along the Mekong mainstream from Chiang Saen (northern Thailand), to Stung Treng (Cambodia), and the Prek Kdam station on the Tonle Sap River. Observed alterations in water level patterns along the Mekong are linked to temporal and spatial trends in water infrastructure development from 1960 to 2010. We argue that variations in historical climatic factors are important, but they are not the main cause of observed changes in key hydrological indicators related to ecosystem productivity. Our analysis shows that the development of mainstream dams in the upper Mekong Basin in the post-1991 period may have resulted in a modest increase of 30-day minimum levels (+17%), but significant increases in fall rates (+42%) and the number of water level fluctuations (+75%) observed in Chiang Saen. This effect diminishes downstream until it becomes negligible at Mukdahan (northeast Thailand), which represents a drainage area of over 50% of the total Mekong Basin. Further downstream at Pakse (southern Laos), alterations to the number of fluctuations and rise rate became strongly significant after 1991. The observed alterations slowly decrease downstream, but modified rise rates, fall rates, and dry season water levels were still quantifiable and significant as far as Prek Kdam. This paper provides the first set of evidence of hydrological alterations in the Mekong beyond the Chinese dam cascade in the upper Mekong. Given the evident alterations at Pakse and downstream, post-1991 changes could also be directly attributed to water infrastructure development in the Chi and Mun basins of Thailand. A reduction of 23 and 11% in the water raising and falling

  7. Historical impact of water infrastructure on water levels of the Mekong River and the Tonle Sap System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochrane, T. A.; Arias, M. E.; Piman, T.

    2014-04-01

    The rapid rate of water infrastructure development in the Mekong basin is a cause for concern due to its potential impact on fisheries and downstream natural ecosystems. In this paper we analyse the historical water levels of the Mekong River and Tonle Sap system by comparing pre and post 1991 daily observations from six stations along the Mekong mainstream from Chiang Sean (northern Laos), to Stung Treng (Cambodia), and the Prek Kdam station on the Tonle Sap River. Observed alterations in water level patterns along the Mekong are linked to temporal and spatial trends in water infrastructure development from 1960 to 2010. We argue that variations in historical climatic factors are important, but they are not the main cause of observed changes in key hydrological indicators related to ecosystem productivity. Our analysis shows that the development of mainstream dams in the upper Mekong basin in the post-1991 period have resulted in a significant increase of 7 day minimum (+91.6%), fall rates (+42%), and the number of water level fluctuations (+75) observed in Chiang Sean. This effect diminishes downstream until it becomes negligible at Mukdahan (northeast Thailand), which represents a drainage area of over 50% of the total Mekong Basin. Further downstream at Pakse (southern Laos), alterations to the number of fluctuations and rise rate became strongly significant after 1991. The observed alterations slowly decrease downstream, but modified rise rates, fall rates, and dry season water levels were still quantifiable and significant as far as Prek Kdam. This paper provides the first set of evidence of hydrological alterations in the Mekong beyond the Chinese dam cascade in the upper Mekong. Given the evident alterations with no precedence at Pakse and downstream, post-1991 changes can also be directly attributed to water infrastructure development in the Chi and Mun basins of Thailand. A reduction of 23 and 11% in the water raising and fall rates respectively at Prek

  8. NM WAIDS: A PRODUCED WATER QUALITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE GIS DATABASE FOR NEW MEXICO OIL PRODUCERS

    SciTech Connect

    Martha Cather; Robert Lee; Ibrahim Gundiler; Andrew Sung; Naomi Davidson; Ajeet Kumar Reddy; Mingzhen Wei

    2003-04-01

    The New Mexico Water and Infrastructure Data System (NM WAIDS) seeks to alleviate a number of produced water-related issues in southeast New Mexico. The project calls for the design and implementation of a Geographical Information System (GIS) and integral tools that will provide operators and regulators with necessary data and useful information to help them make management and regulatory decisions. The major components of this system are: (1) databases on produced water quality, cultural and groundwater data, oil pipeline and infrastructure data, and corrosion information, (2) a web site capable of displaying produced water and infrastructure data in a GIS or accessing some of the data by text-based queries, (3) a fuzzy logic-based, site risk assessment tool that can be used to assess the seriousness of a spill of produced water, and (4) a corrosion management toolkit that will provide operators with data and information on produced waters that will aid them in deciding how to address corrosion issues. The various parts of NM WAIDS will be integrated into a website with a user-friendly interface that will provide access to previously difficult-to-obtain data and information. Primary attention during the first six months of this project has been focused on creating the water quality databases for produced water and surface water, along with collection of corrosion information and building parts of the corrosion toolkit. Work on the project to date includes: (1) Creation of a water quality database for produced water analyses. The database was compiled from a variety of sources and currently has over 4000 entries for southeast New Mexico. (2) Creation of a web-based data entry system for the water quality database. This system allows a user to view, enter, or edit data from a web page rather than having to directly access the database. (3) Creation of a semi-automated data capturing system for use with standard water quality analysis forms. This system improves the

  9. NM WAIDS: A PRODUCED WATER QUALITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE GIS DATABASE FOR NEW MEXICO OIL PRODUCERS

    SciTech Connect

    Martha Cather; Robert Lee; Ibrahim Gundiler; Andrew Sung

    2003-09-24

    The New Mexico Water and Infrastructure Data System (NM WAIDS) seeks to alleviate a number of produced water-related issues in southeast New Mexico. The project calls for the design and implementation of a Geographical Information System (GIS) and integral tools that will provide operators and regulators with necessary data and useful information to help them make management and regulatory decisions. The major components of this system are: (1) Databases on produced water quality, cultural and groundwater data, oil pipeline and infrastructure data, and corrosion information. (2) A web site capable of displaying produced water and infrastructure data in a GIS or accessing some of the data by text-based queries. (3) A fuzzy logic-based, site risk assessment tool that can be used to assess the seriousness of a spill of produced water. (4) A corrosion management toolkit that will provide operators with data and information on produced waters that will aid them in deciding how to address corrosion issues. The various parts of NM WAIDS will be integrated into a website with a user-friendly interface that will provide access to previously difficult-to-obtain data and information. Primary attention during the first six months of this project was focused on creating the water quality databases for produced water and surface water, along with collecting of corrosion information and building parts of the corrosion toolkit. Work on the project to date includes: (1) Creation of a water quality database for produced water analyses. The database was compiled from a variety of sources and currently has over 7000 entries for New Mexico. (2) Creation of a web-based data entry system for the water quality database. This system allows a user to view, enter, or edit data from a web page rather than having to directly access the database. (3) Creation of a semi-automated data capturing system for use with standard water quality analysis forms. This system improves the accuracy and speed

  10. Urban infrastructure and water management—Science capabilities of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Shawn C.; Fanelli, Rosemary M.; Selbig, William R.

    2016-04-29

    Managing the urban-water cycle has increasingly become a challenge for water-resources planners and regulators faced with the problem of providing clean drinking water to urban residents. Sanitary and combined sanitary and storm sewer networks convey wastewater to centralized treatment plants. Impervious surfaces, which include roads, parking lots, and buildings, increase stormwater runoff and the efficiency by which runoff is conveyed to nearby stream channels; therefore, impervious surfaces increase the risk of urban flooding and alteration of natural ecosystems. These challenges will increase with the expansion of urban centers and the probable effects of climate change on precipitation patterns. Understanding the urban-water cycle is critical to effectively manage water resources and to protect people, infrastructure, and urban-stream ecosystems. As a leader in water-supply, wastewater, and stormwater assessments, the U.S. Geological Survey has the expertise and resources needed to monitor, model, and interpret data related to the urban-water cycle and thereby enable water-resources managers to make informed decisions.

  11. Potential of green infrastructure to restore predevelopment water budget of a semi-arid urban catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Youcan; Burian, Steven; Pomeroy, Christine

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a study of the potential for green infrastructure (GI) to restore the predevelopment hydrologic cycle in a semi-arid urban catchment. Simulations of stormwater runoff from a 0.11-km2 urban catchment in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA for predeveloped (Natural Hydrology, NH), developed (Baseline, BL), and developed with GI (Green Infrastructure, GI) conditions were executed for a one-year period. The study was repeated for a relatively dry year, wet year, and an average year based on precipitation amounts in the year. Bioretention and green roofs were chosen for the GI plan. Results showed that the water budget of the catchment with the GI plan implemented more closely matches the NH water budget compared to the BL scenario, for all three years (dry, wet, average). The BL and GI scenarios showed more significant modifications to the water budget than what has been found by studies in humid climates. Compared to the BL condition, GI annually reduces surface runoff by 35%, 45%, and 43% and restores evapotranspiration by 18%, 19%, and 25% for the dry, average, wet years, respectively. Based on the introduced water budget restoration coefficient (WBRC), the water budget of the study catchment was restored by the GI plan to 90%, 90%, and 82% of the predevelopment state in the dry, average, and wet years, respectively. By comparing the WBRC estimated for other studies, it is further inferred that the water budget is more significantly affected by development and GI restoration in semi-arid than humid climates, but the differences lessen as the precipitation amount increases.

  12. Tools For Evaluating The Benefits Of Green Infrastructure For Urban Water Management: Informational Brief (WERF Report INFR5SG09b)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report identifies the practical challenges for evaluating the benefits of green infrastructure. It also discusses a more systematic approach to integrate cost-effective, high-performance urban water infrastructure practices with other environmental, social, and economic goa...

  13. Cultured Construction: Global Evidence of the Impact of National Values on Piped-to-Premises Water Infrastructure Development.

    PubMed

    Kaminsky, Jessica A

    2016-07-19

    In 2016, the global community undertook the Sustainable Development Goals. One of these goals seeks to achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all people by the year 2030. In support of this undertaking, this paper seeks to discover the cultural work done by piped water infrastructure across 33 nations with developed and developing economies that have experienced change in the percentage of population served by piped-to-premises water infrastructure at the national level of analysis. To do so, I regressed the 1990-2012 change in piped-to-premises water infrastructure coverage against Hofstede's cultural dimensions, controlling for per capita GDP, the 1990 baseline level of coverage, percent urban population, overall 1990-2012 change in improved sanitation (all technologies), and per capita freshwater resources. Separate analyses were carried out for the urban, rural, and aggregate national contexts. Hofstede's dimensions provide a measure of cross-cultural difference; high or low scores are not in any way intended to represent better or worse but rather serve as a quantitative way to compare aggregate preferences for ways of being and doing. High scores in the cultural dimensions of Power Distance, Individualism-Collectivism, and Uncertainty Avoidance explain increased access to piped-to-premises water infrastructure in the rural context. Higher Power Distance and Uncertainty Avoidance scores are also statistically significant for increased coverage in the urban and national aggregate contexts. These results indicate that, as presently conceived, piped-to-premises water infrastructure fits best with spatial contexts that prefer hierarchy and centralized control. Furthermore, water infrastructure is understood to reduce uncertainty regarding the provision of individually valued benefits. The results of this analysis identify global trends that enable engineers and policy makers to design and manage more culturally appropriate

  14. Capacity factor analysis for evaluating water and sanitation infrastructure choices for developing communities.

    PubMed

    Bouabid, Ali; Louis, Garrick E

    2015-09-15

    40% of the world's population lacks access to adequate supplies of water and sanitation services to sustain human health. In fact, more than 780 million people lack access to safe water supplies and about 2.5 billion people lack access to basic sanitation. Appropriate technology for water supply and sanitation (Watsan) systems is critical for sustained access to these services. Current approaches for the selection of Watsan technologies in developing communities have a high failure rate. It is estimated that 30%-60% of Watsan installed infrastructures in developing countries are not operating. Inappropriate technology is a common explanation for the high rate of failure of Watsan infrastructure, particularly in lower-income communities (Palaniappan et al., 2008). This paper presents the capacity factor analysis (CFA) model, for the assessment of a community's capacity to manage and sustain access to water supply and sanitation services. The CFA model is used for the assessment of a community's capacity to operate, and maintain a municipal sanitation service (MSS) such as, drinking water supply, wastewater and sewage treatment, and management of solid waste. The assessment of the community's capacity is based on seven capacity factors that have been identified as playing a key role in the sustainability of municipal sanitation services in developing communities (Louis, 2002). These capacity factors and their constituents are defined for each municipal sanitation service. Benchmarks and international standards for the constituents of the CFs are used to assess the capacity factors. The assessment of the community's capacity factors leads to determine the overall community capacity level (CCL) to manage a MSS. The CCL can then be used to assist the community in the selection of appropriate Watsan technologies for their MSS needs. The selection is done from Watsan technologies that require a capacity level to operate them that matches the assessed CCL of the

  15. Cybernation: The American Infrastructure in the Information Age. A Technical Primer on Risks and Reliability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-04-01

    of the nation’s largest The Technical Dimension long- distance carrier in New York City situation. When outages have threatened...intrusions to government World Wide Web sites in 1996 serve as another example of this class of attack. l In 1996, several Internet service providers were...aovernmellt-to-government f inancial transactions . l The transportation infrastructure. in addition to providing

  16. Cross-sectoral optimization and visualization of transformation processes in urban water infrastructures in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Baron, S; Kaufmann Alves, I; Schmitt, T G; Schöffel, S; Schwank, J

    2015-01-01

    Predicted demographic, climatic and socio-economic changes will require adaptations of existing water supply and wastewater disposal systems. Especially in rural areas, these new challenges will affect the functionality of the present systems. This paper presents a joint interdisciplinary research project with the objective of developing an innovative software-based optimization and decision support system for the implementation of long-term transformations of existing infrastructures of water supply, wastewater and energy. The concept of the decision support and optimization tool is described and visualization methods for the presentation of results are illustrated. The model is tested in a rural case study region in the Southwest of Germany. A transformation strategy for a decentralized wastewater treatment concept and its visualization are presented for a model village.

  17. Constraining nitrogen inputs to urban streams from leaking sewer infrastructure using inverse modeling: Implications for urban water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikora, M. T.; Elliott, E. M.; Bain, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    Excess fixed nitrogen contributes to stream degradation in densely populated regions, compounding problems of surface water contamination in urban landscapes. In particular, leaking sewer infrastructure is an acknowledged source of non-point source (NPS) nitrogen pollution to ground- and surface water in urban areas; however quantification of such contributions is exceedingly limited. This lack of knowledge inhibits efforts to understand urban nitrogen retention and export, despite the potential for this source to impact downstream water quality. Nine Mile Run (NMR), a restored urban stream in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (USA), drains a 1600 hectare urban watershed characterized by a high degree of impervious surface cover (38%). For years known locally as "stink creek," NMR remains significantly impacted by combined sewer overflows, leaky sewers, and degraded water quality. In order to assess sources of impairment, water samples were collected from four locations bi-weekly over two years, intensive sampling was conducted during one summer storm and DIN concentrations in water samples were analyzed (where DIN = nitrate + nitrite + ammonium). Using DIN concentrations, discharge records, published estimates of urban watershed nitrogen retention, and known inputs of atmospherically deposited nitrogen, a watershed nitrogen budget was constructed for NMR and subsequently inverted to constrain potential sewage inputs. Retention estimates ranging from 65 to 85% were applied and resulting calculations indicate that DIN contributions from sewage ranged from 5.5 to 25 kg ha-1yr-1. This research documents the potential contribution of sewage to DIN loads in urban streams and highlights the challenges of reducing nutrient pollution to receiving waters in cities with aging, degraded sewer lines.

  18. Drinking water quality in household supply infrastructure--A survey of the current situation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Völker, Sebastian; Schreiber, Christiane; Kistemann, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    As a result of the amendment to the German Drinking Water Ordinance in 2001, local public health authorities are obliged to monitor the water supply in installations providing water for public use (Section 18 German Drinking Water Ordinance). With a systematic and nationwide survey of locally available data relating to hygienic drinking water quality and the existing drinking water infrastructure in buildings, the extent of microbial contamination of in-building distribution systems in Germany is intended to be assessed. To gain an overview of the microbial contamination of drinking water in public buildings all 419 local public health authorities in Germany were contacted in 2007. In a detailed study with a representative cooperation level of 5% of these local public health authorities, the available data relating to microbiological, chemical, physical and technical parameters gained from in-building distribution systems were collected. Drinking water parameters were combined with regard to the total number of analyses and the absolute number as well as the percentage of limit compliance failures (n=108,288). Limits exceeded were classified as the failure to comply with the German Drinking Water Ordinance, DVGW technical regulations and Federal Environment Agency recommended limits. The highest rates of samples exceeding these limits were found for the parameter Legionella sp. which contaminated 12.8% of all samples (n=22,786; limit: 100 CFU/100ml), followed by heterotrophic plate count at 36 degrees C (3.5%, n=10,928; limit: 100 CFU/1 ml) and Pseudomonas sp. (2.9%, n=3468; limit: 0 CFU/100ml). Legionella sp. and Pseudomonas sp. pose a direct health risk to immunosuppressed users. Additionally, for some chemical parameters, such as nickel, iron and lead, a potential risk for the health of consumers was detected. Further data analysis may reveal whether this contamination is related to stagnation where there is only sporadic use or whether other factors are

  19. INNOVATION AND RESEARCH FOR WATER INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE 21ST CENTURY: U.S. EPA'S RESEARCH PLAN FOR GRAVITY SEWERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) has long recognized the need for research and development in the area of drinking water and wastewater infrastructure. Most recently in support of the Agency’s Sustainable Water Infrastructu...

  20. WATER INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE 21ST CENTURY: U.S. EPA’S RESEARCH PLANS FOR GRAVITY SEWERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) has long recognized the need for research and development in the area of drinking water and wastewater infrastructure. Most recently in support of the Agency’s Sustainable Water Infrastruct...

  1. Climate Change Impacts on US Precipitation Extremes and Consequences for Hydraulic Infrastructures and Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, S.; Kumar, D.; Mishra, V.; Ganguly, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    Precipitation extremes in the conterminous United States are expected to intensify and grow more frequent with climate change. However, translating this climate insight to metrics relevant for hydraulic infrastructures or water resources remains a challenge. The primary issue is one of scale, which in turn may ultimately stem from the space-time variability in, and our lack of understanding of, fine-scale precipitation processes. Here we examine the hypothesis that credible metrics for civil engineers and hydrologists can be obtained through extreme value analysis of regional climate model simulations. Specifically, we develop intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) simulations, and characterize uncertainties by comparing with observations. We attempt to understand the nature of the insights, if any, that can be extracted despite the uncertainties.

  2. Modeling the influence of various water stressors on regional water supply infrastructures and their embodied energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Weiwei; Zhang, Qiong

    2016-06-01

    Water supply consumes a substantial amount of energy directly and indirectly. This study aims to provide an enhanced understanding of the influence of water stressors on the embodied energy of water supply (EEWS). To achieve this goal, the EEWS in 75 North Carolina counties was estimated through an economic input-output based hybrid life cycle assessment. Ten water stressor indicators related to population, economic development, climate, water source, and land use were obtained for the 75 counties. A multivariate analysis was performed to understand the correlations between water stressor indicators and the EEWS. A regression analysis was then conducted to identify the statistically significant indicators in describing the EEWS. It was found that the total amount of water supply energy varies significantly among selected counties. Water delivery presents the highest energy use and water storage presents the least. The total embodied energy was found to be highly correlated with total population. The regression analysis shows that the total embodied energy can be best described by total population and temperature indicators with a relatively high R square value of 0.69.

  3. Regional scale monitoring of atmospheric water vapor content with GNSS infrastructure and numerical model predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozsa, Szabolcs; Zeno Gyongyosi, Andras; Bartholy, Judit; Kern, Aniko; Weidinger, Tamas; Decsi, Anna; Kenyeres, Ambrus; Dombai, Ferenc; Adam, Jozsef

    2013-04-01

    Water, which is present in the troposphere in all three phases, has a unique feature among atmospheric components. Besides the formation of clouds and precipitation, it has a key role in atmospheric energy transport and it is the most important greenhouse gas. Due to its temporal and spatial variability, the monitoring of water in the atmosphere requires observations with high temporal and spatial resolution. The water content in the air can be measured directly by radiosondes, in order to monitor the vertical structure of the lower 30-35 km. In addition, remote sensing devices installed on spacecrafts, airframes and the Earth's surface are also available for the measurement of water content. These sensors yield the total water amount of a column of air, the so-called precipitable water (PW) content, in units of kg m-2 or mm. Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are capable to monitor various parameters of the atmosphere. With the establishment of the active GNSS network in Hungary, it became feasible to quantify and monitor PW from GNSS observations. The advantage of this solution is the high spatial and temporal resolution of the observations. Modeling of the weather system is performed by the numerical solution of the atmospheric hydro-thermodynamic set of equations. Based on the actual weather as initial condition, the parameters of the expected weather can be estimated. In this study two different meteorological models (WRF and DBCRAS) - run at the Department of Meteorology at Eotvos Lorand University for weather research and forecasting purposes - are compared with the PW estimates provided by the GNSS infrastructure for 7 months in 2011. Deviation between measured data from different sources is near 1 mm in most cases. Forecast PW values show larger deviation from measured data, which results from weather condition dependent forecast errors.

  4. Resource modelling for control: how hydrogeological modelling can support a water quality monitoring infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scozzari, Andrea; Doveri, Marco

    2015-04-01

    The knowledge of the physical/chemical processes implied with the exploitation of water bodies for human consumption is an essential tool for the optimisation of the monitoring infrastructure. Due to their increasing importance in the context of human consumption (at least in the EU), this work focuses on groundwater resources. In the framework of drinkable water networks, the physical and data-driven modelling of transport phenomena in groundwater can help optimising the sensor network and validating the acquired data. This work proposes the combined usage of physical and data-driven modelling as a support to the design and maximisation of results from a network of distributed sensors. In particular, the validation of physico-chemical measurements and the detection of eventual anomalies by a set of continuous measurements take benefit from the knowledge of the domain from which water is abstracted, and its expected characteristics. Change-detection techniques based on non-specific sensors (presented by quite a large literature during the last two decades) have to deal with the classical issues of maximising correct detections and minimising false alarms, the latter of the two being the most typical problem to be faced, in the view of designing truly applicable monitoring systems. In this context, the definition of "anomaly" in terms of distance from an expected value or feature characterising the quality of water implies the definition of a suitable metric and the knowledge of the physical and chemical peculiarities of the natural domain from which water is exploited, with its implications in terms of characteristics of the water resource.

  5. Modeling complexity in engineered infrastructure system: Water distribution network as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Fang; Li, Xiang; Li, Ke

    2017-02-01

    The complex topology and adaptive behavior of infrastructure systems are driven by both self-organization of the demand and rigid engineering solutions. Therefore, engineering complex systems requires a method balancing holism and reductionism. To model the growth of water distribution networks, a complex network model was developed following the combination of local optimization rules and engineering considerations. The demand node generation is dynamic and follows the scaling law of urban growth. The proposed model can generate a water distribution network (WDN) similar to reported real-world WDNs on some structural properties. Comparison with different modeling approaches indicates that a realistic demand node distribution and co-evolvement of demand node and network are important for the simulation of real complex networks. The simulation results indicate that the efficiency of water distribution networks is exponentially affected by the urban growth pattern. On the contrary, the improvement of efficiency by engineering optimization is limited and relatively insignificant. The redundancy and robustness, on another aspect, can be significantly improved through engineering methods.

  6. Managing Uncertainty in Water Infrastructure Design Using Info-gap Robustness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irias, X.; Cicala, D.

    2013-12-01

    Info-gap theory, a tool for managing deep uncertainty, can be of tremendous value for design of water systems in areas of high seismic risk. Maintaining reliable water service in those areas is subject to significant uncertainties including uncertainty of seismic loading, unknown seismic performance of infrastructure, uncertain costs of innovative seismic-resistant construction, unknown costs to repair seismic damage, unknown societal impacts from downtime, and more. Practically every major earthquake that strikes a population center reveals additional knowledge gaps. In situations of such deep uncertainty, info-gap can offer advantages over traditional approaches, whether deterministic approaches that use empirical safety factors to address the uncertainties involved, or probabilistic methods that attempt to characterize various stochastic properties and target a compromise between cost and reliability. The reason is that in situations of deep uncertainty, it may not be clear what safety factor would be reasonable, or even if any safety factor is sufficient to address the uncertainties, and we may lack data to characterize the situation probabilistically. Info-gap is a tool that recognizes up front that our best projection of the future may be wrong. Thus, rather than seeking a solution that is optimal for that projection, info-gap seeks a solution that works reasonably well for all plausible conditions. In other words, info-gap seeks solutions that are robust in the face of uncertainty. Info-gap has been used successfully across a wide range of disciplines including climate change science, project management, and structural design. EBMUD is currently using info-gap to help it gain insight into possible solutions for providing reliable water service to an island community within its service area. The island, containing about 75,000 customers, is particularly vulnerable to water supply disruption from earthquakes, since it has negligible water storage and is

  7. Stream restoration and sanitary infrastructure alter sources and fluxes of water, carbon, and nutrients in urban watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennino, M. J.; Kaushal, S. S.; Mayer, P. M.; Utz, R. M.; Cooper, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    contamination was also suggested by additional tracer measurements including fluoride (added to drinking water) and iodide (contained in dietary salt). Our results suggest that integrating stream restoration with restoration of aging sanitary infrastructure can be critical to more effectively minimize watershed nutrient export. Given that both stream restoration and sanitary pipe repairs both involve extensive channel manipulation, they can be considered simultaneously in management strategies. In addition, ground water can be a major source of nutrient fluxes in urban watersheds, which has been less considered compared with upland sources and storm drains. Goundwater sources, fluxes, and flowpath should also be targeted in efforts to improve stream restoration strategies and prioritize hydrologic "hot spots" along watersheds where stream restoration is most likely to succeed.

  8. Innovation and Research for Water Infrastructure for the 21st Century: Cooperative Agreement

    EPA Science Inventory

    Through this $10 million cooperative agreement, The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) will increase its recognition as an active leader and supporter of research that seeks innovative solutions to problems posed by aging water i...

  9. Impacts of Green Infrastructure on the Water Budget and Other Ecosystem Services in Subhumid Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Y.; Burian, S. J.; Pardyjak, E.; Pomeroy, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Green infrastructure (GI) measures have been well established as part of low-impact development approaches for stormwater (SW) management. The origin of the concepts, practices and the preponderance of research have taken place in humid climates. Recent work has begun to explore and adapt GI to subhumid and semi-arid climates, which experience warmer and drier periods. But much remains unknown about effects of GI on the water cycle and how to effectively implement to maximize ecosystem benefits. This research synthesizes observation and modeling to address questions related to changes in evapotranspiration (ET), SW runoff volume, and other water cycle processes from GI introduction in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. First, the water budget of green roofs is being studied via weighing lysimeter systems on two rooftop gardens on the University of Utah campus. ET, outflow, and soil moisture have been measured for approximately one year. Up to this early summer, average ET rates for lysimeters of pure medium, Sedums, and Bluegrass are 1.85±1.01, 1.97±0.94, and 2.31±0.91 mm/d respectively; the maximum ET rate could reach 6.11 mm/d from Sedums. Over 2/3 of total rainfall and irrigation were slowly consumed via ET from green roof. Second, the observation studies are leading to new ET modeling techniques that are being incorporated into the U.S. EPA Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). The modified SWMM has been used to simulate ET, SW runoff volume, and overall water budget changes from GI implementation. Preliminary result shows that ET could account for 10% of the total inflows into bioretentions, and 25% of the inflows into landscapes; potential ET rates could vary up to 0.95 mm/hr across 53 subcatchments in the 29 acres catchment. The influence of various design factors for GI on SW runoff reduction and the water budget is also to be estimated. The application of the research is to analyze the water budget of the Red Butte Creek Watershed in Salt Lake City and to

  10. The inventions technology on water resources to support environmental engineering based infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunjoto, S.

    2017-03-01

    Since the Stockholm Declaration, declared on the United Nation Conference on the Human Environment in Sweden on 5-16 June 1972 and attended the 113 country delegations, all the infrastructure construction should comply the sustainable development. As a consequence, almost research and studies were directing to the environmental aspect of construction including on water resources engineering. This paper will present the inventions which are very useful for the design of infrastructure, especially on the Groundwater engineering. This field has been rapidly developed since the publication of the well known law of flow through porous materials by Henri Darcy in 1856 on his book "Les fontaine publiques de la ville de Dijon". This law states that the discharge through porous media is proportional to the product of the hydraulic gradient, the cross-sectional area normal to the flow and the coefficient of permeability of the material. Forchheimer in 1930 developed a breakthrough formula by simplifying solution in a steady state flow condition especially in the case of radial flow to compute the permeability coefficient of casing hole or tube test with zero inflow discharge. The outflow discharge on the holes is equal to shape factor of tip of casing (F) multiplied by coefficient of permeability of soils (K) and multiplied by hydraulic head (H). In 1988, Sunjoto derived an equation in unsteady state flow condition based on this formula. In 2002, Sunjoto developed several formulas of shape factor as the parameters of the equation. In the beginning this formula is implemented to compute for the dimension of recharge well as the best method of water conservation for the urban area. After a long research this formula can be implemented to compute the drawdown on pumping or coefficient of permeability of soil by pumping test. This method can substitute the former methods like Theis (1935), Cooper-Jacob (1946), Chow (1952), Glover (1966), Papadopulos-Cooper (1967), Todd (1980

  11. Stakeholder analysis combined with social network analysis provides fine-grained insights into water infrastructure planning processes.

    PubMed

    Lienert, Judit; Schnetzer, Florian; Ingold, Karin

    2013-08-15

    Environmental policy and decision-making are characterized by complex interactions between different actors and sectors. As a rule, a stakeholder analysis is performed to understand those involved, but it has been criticized for lacking quality and consistency. This lack is remedied here by a formal social network analysis that investigates collaborative and multi-level governance settings in a rigorous way. We examine the added value of combining both elements. Our case study examines infrastructure planning in the Swiss water sector. Water supply and wastewater infrastructures are planned far into the future, usually on the basis of projections of past boundary conditions. They affect many actors, including the population, and are expensive. In view of increasing future dynamics and climate change, a more participatory and long-term planning approach is required. Our specific aims are to investigate fragmentation in water infrastructure planning, to understand how actors from different decision levels and sectors are represented, and which interests they follow. We conducted 27 semi-structured interviews with local stakeholders, but also cantonal and national actors. The network analysis confirmed our hypothesis of strong fragmentation: we found little collaboration between the water supply and wastewater sector (confirming horizontal fragmentation), and few ties between local, cantonal, and national actors (confirming vertical fragmentation). Infrastructure planning is clearly dominated by engineers and local authorities. Little importance is placed on longer-term strategic objectives and integrated catchment planning, but this was perceived as more important in a second analysis going beyond typical questions of stakeholder analysis. We conclude that linking a stakeholder analysis, comprising rarely asked questions, with a rigorous social network analysis is very fruitful and generates complementary results. This combination gave us deeper insight into the

  12. Reconciling Scale Mismatch in Water Governance, Hydro-climatic Processes and Infrastructure Systems of Water Supply in Las Vegas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, M. E.; Alarcon, T.; Portney, K.; Islam, S.

    2013-12-01

    Water resource systems are a classic example of a common pool resource due to the high cost of exclusion and the subtractability of the resource; for common pool resources, the performance of governance systems primarily depends on how well matched the institutional arrangements and rules are to the biophysical conditions and social norms. Changes in water governance, hydro-climatic processes and infrastructure systems occur on disparate temporal and spatial scales. A key challenge is the gap between current climate change model resolution, and the spatial and temporal scale of urban water supply decisions. This gap will lead to inappropriate management policies if not mediated through a carefully crafted decision making process. Traditional decision support and planning methods (DSPM) such as classical decision analysis are not equipped to deal with a non-static climate. While emerging methods such as decision scaling, robust decision making and real options are designed to deal with a changing climate, governance systems have evolved under the assumption of a static climate and it is not clear if these methods are well suited to the existing governance regime. In our study, these questions are contextualized by examining an urban water utility that has made significant changes in policy to adapt to changing conditions: the Southern Nevada Water Authority (SNWA) which serves metropolitan Las Vegas. Like most desert cities, Las Vegas exists because of water; the artesian springs of the Las Vegas Valley once provided an ample water supply for Native Americans, ranchers and later a small railroad city. However, population growth has increased demands far beyond local supplies. The area now depends on the Colorado River for the majority of its water supply. Natural climate variability with periodic droughts has further challenged water providers; projected climate changes and further population growth will exacerbate these challenges. Las Vegas is selected as a case

  13. Improvements to water purification and sanitation infrastructure may reduce the diarrheal burden in a marginalized and flood prone population in remote Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The isolated northern region of Nicaragua has one of the highest rates of diarrheal disease in Central America. Political and environmental hardships faced by inhabitants of this region are contributing factors to this health inequity. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between water and latrine infrastructure and the prevalence of diarrhea in this region. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional survey of women of reproductive age was conducted in the Sahsa region of northern Nicaragua in July, 2009. Households were selected by two stage cluster sampling methodology. A questionnaire was administered in Spanish and Miskito with assessment of household and socioeconomic conditions, sanitation practices, and health care access. Diarrhea prevalence differences at the household level over a two week reporting period were estimated with a standardized instrument which included assessment of water treatment and latrine use and maintenance. Results There were 189 women enrolled in the current study. The use of water purification methods, such as chlorine and filters, and latrine ownership were not associated with reduced prevalence of household diarrhea in the two week reporting period. Latrine overflow, however, was associated with an increased prevalence of diarrhea during the same two week period [adjusted prevalence difference and 95% CI: 0.19 (0.03, 0.36)]. Conclusions Simple, low cost interventions that improve water and latrine infrastructure may reduce the prevalence of diarrheal disease in the isolated regions of Nicaragua and Central America. PMID:21143865

  14. Water Resources Sustainability in Northwest Mexico: Analysis of Regional Infrastructure Plans under Historical and Climate Change Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, D.; Robles-Morua, A.; Mayer, A. S.; Vivoni, E. R.

    2012-12-01

    The arid state of Sonora, Mexico, has embarked on a large water infrastructure project to provide additional water supply and improved sanitation to the growing capital of Hermosillo. The main component of the Sonora SI project involves an interbasin transfer from rural to urban water users that has generated conflicts over water among different social sectors. Through interactions with regional stakeholders from agricultural and water management agencies, we ascertained the need for a long-term assessment of the water resources of one of the system components, the Sonora River Basin (SRB). A semi-distributed, daily watershed model that includes current and proposed reservoir infrastructure was applied to the SRB. This simulation framework allowed us to explore alternative scenarios of water supply from the SRB to Hermosillo under historical (1980-2010) and future (2031-2040) periods that include the impact of climate change. We compared three precipitation forcing scenarios for the historical period: (1) a network of ground observations from Mexican water agencies; (2) gridded fields from the North America Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) at 12 km resolution; and (3) gridded fields from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model at 10 km resolution. These were compared to daily historical observations at two stream gauging stations and two reservoirs to generate confidence in the simulation tools. We then tested the impact of climate change through the use of the A2 emissions scenario and HadCM3 boundary forcing on the WRF simulations of a future period. Our analysis is focused on the combined impact of existing and proposed reservoir infrastructure at two new sites on the water supply management in the SRB under historical and future climate conditions. We also explore the impact of climate variability and change on the bimodal precipitation pattern from winter frontal storms and the summertime North American monsoon and its consequences on water

  15. Water-loss dehydration and aging.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Lee; Bunn, Diane; Jimoh, Florence O; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J

    2014-01-01

    This review defines water-loss and salt-loss dehydration. For older people serum osmolality appears the most appropriate gold standard for diagnosis of water-loss dehydration, but clear signs of early dehydration have not been developed. In older adults, lower muscle mass, reduced kidney function, physical and cognitive disabilities, blunted thirst, and polypharmacy all increase dehydration risk. Cross-sectional studies suggest a water-loss dehydration prevalence of 20-30% in this population. Water-loss dehydration is associated with higher mortality, morbidity and disability in older people, but evidence is still needed that this relationship is causal. There are a variety of ways we may be able to help older people reduce their risk of dehydration by recognising that they are not drinking enough, and being helped to drink more. Strategies to increase fluid intake in residential care homes include identifying and overcoming individual and institutional barriers to drinking, such as being worried about not reaching the toilet in time, physical inability to make or to reach drinks, and reduced social drinking and drinking pleasure. Research needs are discussed, some of which will be addressed by the FP7-funded NU-AGE (New dietary strategies addressing the specific needs of elderly population for a healthy ageing in Europe) trial.

  16. Green Infrastructure Research Promotes Students' Deeper Interest in Core Courses of a Water Resources Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerk, W.; Montalto, F. A.; Foti, R.

    2015-12-01

    As one of most innovative among low impact development technologies, Green Infrastructure (GI) is a new technology that presents a range of potential research opportunities. Inherently linked to sustainability, urban quality of life, resilience, and other such topics, GI also represents a unique opportunity to highlight the social relevance of practical STEM research to undergraduate students. The nature of research on urban GI, in fact, as well as the accessibility of the GI sites, allows students to combine hands-on experience with theoretical work. Furthermore, the range of scales of the projects is such that they can be managed within a single term, but does not preclude longer engagement. The Sustainable Water Resource Engineering lab at Drexel University is engaged in two types of GI research outside the classroom. One type is a research co-op research internship. The second is a selective university-wide faculty-mentored summer scholarship STAR (Students Tackling Advanced Research) specifically designed for freshmen. The research projects we developed for those curricula can be accomplished by undergraduate students, but also address a larger research need in this emerging field. The research tasks have included identifying and calibrating affordable instruments, designing and building experimental setups, and monitoring and evaluating performance of GI sites. The work also promoted deeper understanding of the hydrological processes and initiated learning beyond the students' current curricula. The practice of the Lab's research being embedded into the educational process receives positive feedback from the students and achieves meaningful and long-lasting learning objectives. The experience helps students to students acquire hands-on experience, improves their metacognition and evidence-based inquiring into real-world problems, and further advances decision-making and communication skills.

  17. Risk and opportunity in upgrading the US drinking water infrastructure system.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Jeffrey W; Louis, Garrick E

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents a practical risk assessment methodology to provide drinking water infrastructure (DWI) decision-makers with an objective risk assessment tool. The purpose of this risk assessment tool is to maintain the desired level-of-service or systems reliability [r(f)], while managing the financial uncertainty of the expected budgetary impact within the capital improvement program (CIP). The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the value of an objective risk assessment tool for estimating the DWI decision-maker's sensitivity to the risk of systems failure (R). The objectives are to: (1) incorporate probability of systems failure [p(f)] into the CIP budgetary analysis process and (2) evaluate the affects of p(f) on the expected CIP budgetary outcome. The magnitude of the expected budgetary impact is managed through the DWI decision-maker's sensitivity to R, which is represented by the level of the rate of reinvestment (RR). The expected result of the proposed risk assessment tool demonstrates that by proactively managing R to maintain a desired r(f) will effectively manage the impact of uncertainty on the expected budgetary outcome within the CIP. The expected contribution of the practical risk assessment methodology is to provide DWI decision-makers with the ability to reduce budgetary uncertainty when allocating limited financial resources among competing operational, repair, maintenance, and expansion activities within the CIP. The conclusions of the paper reveal that if DWI decision-makers assume risk-avoidance positions through proactive asset management (AM) strategies, they will achieve positive affects on expected budgetary outcomes.

  18. Arid Green Infrastructure for Water Control and Conservation State of the Science and Research Needs for Arid/Semi-Arid Regions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green infrastructure is an approach to managing wet weather flows using systems and practices that mimic natural processes. It is designed to manage stormwater as close to its source as possible and protect the quality of receiving waters. Although most green infrastructure pract...

  19. Accelerating the translation of research into practice in long term services and supports: a critical need for federal infrastructure at the nexus of aging and disability.

    PubMed

    Washko, Michelle M; Campbell, Margaret; Tilly, Jane

    2012-01-01

    The nexus of aging and disability, characterized by the phenomenon of aging with a disability, will become more visible as the population ages and the number of people with disabilities surviving to midlife increases. This article addresses 3 interrelated issues critical to the fields of aging and disability: increasing demand for community-based long-term services and supports, a paucity of evidence-based programs demonstrating effectiveness in facilitating independence for those aging with a disability, and lack of a federal infrastructure to support coordinated investments in research-to-practice for this population. Suggestions for federal interagency collaborations are given, along with roles for key stakeholders.

  20. Moving Targets, Long-Lived Infrastructure, and Increasing Needs for Integration and Adaptation in Water Management: An Illustration from Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Switzerland provides an example of successful management of water infrastructure and water resources that was accomplished largely without integration across sectors. Limitations in this approach have become apparent; decisions that were formerly based only on technical and economic feasibility must now incorporate broader objectives such as ecological impact. In addition, current and emerging challenges relate to increasingly complex problems that are likely to demand more integrated approaches. If such integration is to be of benefit, it must be possible to redirect resources across sectors, and the synergies derived from integration must outweigh the additional cost of increased complexity. PMID:22208812

  1. Moving targets, long-lived infrastructure, and increasing needs for integration and adaptation in water management: an illustration from Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Hering, J G; Hoehn, E; Klinke, A; Maurer, M; Peter, A; Reichert, P; Robinson, C; Schirmer, K; Schirmer, M; Stamm, C; Wehrli, B

    2012-01-03

    Switzerland provides an example of successful management of water infrastructure and water resources that was accomplished largely without integration across sectors. Limitations in this approach have become apparent; decisions that were formerly based only on technical and economic feasibility must now incorporate broader objectives such as ecological impact. In addition, current and emerging challenges relate to increasingly complex problems that are likely to demand more integrated approaches. If such integration is to be of benefit, it must be possible to redirect resources across sectors, and the synergies derived from integration must outweigh the additional cost of increased complexity.

  2. PROTECTING THE NATION'S CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE: THE VULNERABILITY OF U.S. WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Terrorism in the United States was not considered a serious threat until the second half of the 1990s. However, recent attacks both at home and abroad have forced government planners to consider the possibility that critical elements of the U.S. infrastructure might in fact be vu...

  3. GIS-based geospatial infrastructure of water resource assessment for supporting oil shale development in Piceance Basin of Northwestern Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei; Minnick, Matthew D.; Mattson, Earl D.; Geza, Mengistu; Murray, Kyle E.

    2015-04-01

    Oil shale deposits of the Green River Formation (GRF) in Northwestern Colorado, Southwestern Wyoming, and Northeastern Utah may become one of the first oil shale deposits to be developed in the U.S. because of their richness, accessibility, and extensive prior characterization. Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock that contains significant amounts of kerogen from which liquid hydrocarbons can be produced. Water is needed to retort or extract oil shale at an approximate rate of three volumes of water for every volume of oil produced. Concerns have been raised over the demand and availability of water to produce oil shale, particularly in semiarid regions where water consumption must be limited and optimized to meet demands from other sectors. The economic benefit of oil shale development in this region may have tradeoffs within the local and regional environment. Due to these potential environmental impacts of oil shale development, water usage issues need to be further studied. A basin-wide baseline for oil shale and water resource data is the foundation of the study. This paper focuses on the design and construction of a centralized geospatial infrastructure for managing a large amount of oil shale and water resource related baseline data, and for setting up the frameworks for analytical and numerical models including but not limited to three-dimensional (3D) geologic, energy resource development systems, and surface water models. Such a centralized geospatial infrastructure made it possible to directly generate model inputs from the same database and to indirectly couple the different models through inputs/outputs. Thus ensures consistency of analyses conducted by researchers from different institutions, and help decision makers to balance water budget based on the spatial distribution of the oil shale and water resources, and the spatial variations of geologic, topographic, and hydrogeological characterization of the basin. This endeavor

  4. GIS-based Geospatial Infrastructure of Water Resource Assessment for Supporting Oil Shale Development in Piceance Basin of Northwestern Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Wei; Minnick, Matthew D; Mattson, Earl D; Geza, Mengistu; Murray, Kyle E.

    2015-04-01

    Oil shale deposits of the Green River Formation (GRF) in Northwestern Colorado, Southwestern Wyoming, and Northeastern Utah may become one of the first oil shale deposits to be developed in the U.S. because of their richness, accessibility, and extensive prior characterization. Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock that contains significant amounts of kerogen from which liquid hydrocarbons can be produced. Water is needed to retort or extract oil shale at an approximate rate of three volumes of water for every volume of oil produced. Concerns have been raised over the demand and availability of water to produce oil shale, particularly in semiarid regions where water consumption must be limited and optimized to meet demands from other sectors. The economic benefit of oil shale development in this region may have tradeoffs within the local and regional environment. Due to these potential environmental impacts of oil shale development, water usage issues need to be further studied. A basin-wide baseline for oil shale and water resource data is the foundation of the study. This paper focuses on the design and construction of a centralized geospatial infrastructure for managing a large amount of oil shale and water resource related baseline data, and for setting up the frameworks for analytical and numerical models including but not limited to three-dimensional (3D) geologic, energy resource development systems, and surface water models. Such a centralized geospatial infrastructure made it possible to directly generate model inputs from the same database and to indirectly couple the different models through inputs/outputs. Thus ensures consistency of analyses conducted by researchers from different institutions, and help decision makers to balance water budget based on the spatial distribution of the oil shale and water resources, and the spatial variations of geologic, topographic, and hydrogeological Characterization of the basin. This endeavor

  5. Congressional Testimony: Testimony of Nikki L. Tinsley Before the Subcommittee on Water Resources and the Environment Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure United States House of Representati

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Testimony of Nikki L. Tinsley Inspector General U.S. Environmental Protection Agency before the Subcommittee on Water Resources and the Environment Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure United States House of Representatives

  6. Characterizing the impacts of water resources infrastructure, humans, and hydrologic nonstationarity on changes in flood risk across the Himalaya region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tullos, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    As flood control infrastructure reaches its design life, and climate change, population growth, and urban migration increase flood risk, the historical paradigm of store-then-release floodwaters behind rigid infrastructure is of decreasing physical and socioeconomic value. Instead, a new paradigm of sustainable flood management is emerging, which can be framed in the context of three elements that can contribute to and/or mitigate flood risk: 1) water resources infrastructure, 2) policies and socioeconomics, and 3) changing climates and land use. In this presentation, I present the results of analysis on the role of these three elements in contributing to flood risk of the Sutlej River (India) and the Koshi River (Nepal) basins for six historical flood events. The Himalaya region was selected based on the a) increasing intensity of monsoonal rains, b) increasing prevalence of glacial lake outburst floods, c) water resources management that achieves short-term development goals but lacks long-term sustainability, and d) other socio-economic, environmental, and geopolitical factors. I develop and apply a flood risk management framework that is based on metrics for characterizing the losses associated with the three elements contributing to major floods in the Himalaya region. Derived from a variety of data sources, results highlight how, across different hydrogeologic settings and various flood magnitudes, the largest influences on high flood losses are associated with inflexible water resources infrastructure and inappropriate development and flood management policies. Particularly for the most destructive events, which are generally associated with landslides and other natural hazards in this region, the effectiveness of some types of traditional and inflexible flood management infrastructure, including large dams and levees, is limited. As opposed to the probability of a particular flood event, findings illustrate the importance of the damages side of the flood

  7. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Lõhmus, Mare; Balbus, John

    2015-01-01

    Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens' quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion.

  8. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Lõhmus, Mare; Balbus, John

    2015-01-01

    Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens’ quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion. PMID:26615823

  9. Promising Data for Public Empowerment: The Making of Data Culture and Water Monitoring Infrastructures in the Marcellus Shale Gas Rush

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalbert, Kirk

    A recent wave of advanced technologies for collecting and interpreting data offer new opportunities for laypeople to contribute to environmental monitoring science. This dissertation examines the conditions in which building knowledge infrastructures and embracing data "cultures" empowers and disempowers communities to challenge polluting industries. The processes and technologies of data cultures give people new capacities to understand their world, and to formulate powerful scientific arguments. However, data cultures also make many aspects of social life invisible, and elevate quantitative objective analysis over situated, subjective observation. This study finds that data cultures can empower communities when concerned citizens are equal contributors to research partnerships; ones that enable them to advocate for more nuanced data cultures permitting of structural critiques of status-quo environmental governance. These arguments are developed through an ethnographic study of participatory watershed monitoring projects that seek to document the impacts of shale gas extraction in Pennsylvania, New York, and West Virginia. Energy companies are drilling for natural gas using highly controversial methods of extraction known as hydraulic fracturing. Growing evidence suggests that nearby watersheds can be impacted by a myriad of extraction related problems including seepage from damaged gas well casing, improper waste disposal, trucking accidents, and the underground migration of hydraulic fracking fluids. In response to these risks, numerous organizations are coordinating and carrying out participatory water monitoring efforts. All of these projects embrace data culture in different ways. Each monitoring project has furthermore constructed its own unique infrastructure to support the sharing, aggregation, and analysis of environmental data. Differences in data culture investments and infrastructure building make some projects more effective than others in empowering

  10. Assessment of stakeholder perceptions in water infrastructure projects using system-of-systems and binary probit analyses: a case study.

    PubMed

    Faust, Kasey; Abraham, Dulcy M; DeLaurentis, Dan

    2013-10-15

    Globally, water management is evolving toward integrating participatory processes for decision-making to increase the sustainability of the decision outcome. Information about the perceptions and concerns of stakeholders needs to be readily available to those involved in the decision-making process early in the planning stage to assist in developing viable alternatives that may be implementable with limited public opposition and engender general consensus among stakeholders. The current literature does not identify an appropriate means to incorporate stakeholder views early in the preliminary planning stages without requiring relatively large time commitments or the physical presence of the key stakeholders for meetings and discussions. This study develops and demonstrates a decision-support framework that incorporates the system-of-systems school of thought with binary probit analysis to aid in efficient participatory processes by providing insight regarding the stakeholders' demographics and select behavioral characteristics in a decision-making process. The methodology first frames the water system as a system-of-systems, an approach that inherently pinpoints the necessity for diverse stakeholder involvement and maps the stakeholders in the system's hierarchy. Then, binary probit analyses are used to quantify the effect of stakeholder characteristics on the likelihood that (1) they perceive or do not perceive a need for new capital-intensive water infrastructure, and (2) they support or oppose new capital-intensive water infrastructure. A water system decision in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta serves as a case study to demonstrate the methodology. Data regarding stakeholder beliefs and perceptions were collected via a web-based survey deployed throughout Southern and Central California The study results indicate that individuals between 18 and 25 years, persons living solely with their spouse, persons associated with environmental stakeholder groups, and

  11. Infrastructure for Training and Partnershipes: California Water and Coastal Ocean Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, David A.; Dozier, Jeffrey; Gautier, Catherine; Davis, Frank; Dickey, Tommy; Dunne, Thomas; Frew, James; Keller, Arturo; MacIntyre, Sally; Melack, John

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to advance the existing ICESS/Bren School computing infrastructure to allow scientists, students, and research trainees the opportunity to interact with environmental data and simulations in near-real time. Improvements made with the funding from this project have helped to strengthen the research efforts within both units, fostered graduate research training, and helped fortify partnerships with government and industry. With this funding, we were able to expand our computational environment in which computer resources, software, and data sets are shared by ICESS/Bren School faculty researchers in all areas of Earth system science. All of the graduate and undergraduate students associated with the Donald Bren School of Environmental Science and Management and the Institute for Computational Earth System Science have benefited from the infrastructure upgrades accomplished by this project. Additionally, the upgrades fostered a significant number of research projects (attached is a list of the projects that benefited from the upgrades). As originally proposed, funding for this project provided the following infrastructure upgrades: 1) a modem file management system capable of interoperating UNIX and NT file systems that can scale to 6.7 TB, 2) a Qualstar 40-slot tape library with two AIT tape drives and Legato Networker backup/archive software, 3) previously unavailable import/export capability for data sets on Zip, Jaz, DAT, 8mm, CD, and DLT media in addition to a 622Mb/s Internet 2 connection, 4) network switches capable of 100 Mbps to 128 desktop workstations, 5) Portable Batch System (PBS) computational task scheduler, and vi) two Compaq/Digital Alpha XP1000 compute servers each with 1.5 GB of RAM along with an SGI Origin 2000 (purchased partially using funds from this project along with funding from various other sources) to be used for very large computations, as required for simulation of mesoscale meteorology or climate.

  12. Effectiveness of Water Infrastructure for River Flood Management: Part 2 - Flood Risk Assessment and Its Changes in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Y.; Gusyev, M.; Arifuzzaman, B.; Khairul, I.; Iwami, Y.; Takeuchi, K.

    2015-06-01

    A case study of Bangladesh presents a methodological possibility based on a global approach for assessing river flood risk and its changes considering flood hazard, exposure, basic vulnerability and coping capacity. This study consists of two parts in the issue of flood change: hazard assessment (Part 1) and risk assessment (Part 2). In Part 1, a hazard modeling technology was introduced and applied to the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM) basin to quantify the change of 50- and 100-year flood hazards in Bangladesh under the present (1979-2003) and future (2075-2099) climates. Part 2 focuses on estimating nationwide flood risk in terms of affected people and rice crop damage due to a 50-year flood hazard identified in Part 1, and quantifying flood risk changes between the presence and absence of existing water infrastructure (i.e., embankments). To assess flood risk in terms of rice crop damage, rice paddy fields were extracted and flood stage-damage curves were created for maximum risk scenarios as a demonstration of risk change in the present and future climates. The preliminary results in Bangladesh show that a tendency of flood risk change strongly depends on the temporal and spatial dynamics of exposure and vulnerability such as distributed population and effectiveness of water infrastructure, which suggests that the proposed methodology is applicable anywhere in the world.

  13. Public Infrastructure Disparities and the Microbiological and Chemical Safety of Drinking and Surface Water Supplies in a Community Bordering a Landfill

    PubMed Central

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Wing, Steve; Wilson, Sacoby M.; Campbell, Robert L.; Caldwell, David; Hopkins, Barbara; O’Shea, Shannon; Yeatts, Karin

    2015-01-01

    The historically African-American Rogers-Eubanks community straddles unincorporated boundaries of two municipalities in Orange County, North Carolina, and predates a regional landfill sited along its border in 1972. Community members from the Rogers-Eubanks Neighborhood Association (RENA), concerned about deterioration of private wells and septic systems and a lack of public drinking water and sewer services, implemented a community-driven research partnership with university scientists and community-based organizations to investigate water and sewer infrastructure disparities and the safety of drinking and surface water supplies. RENA drafted memoranda of agreement with partners and trained community monitors to collect data (inventory households, map water and sewer infrastructure, administer household water and sewer infrastructure surveys, and collect drinking and surface water samples). Respondents to the surveys reported pervasive signs of well vulnerability (100%) and septic system failure (68%). Each 100-m increase in distance from the landfill was associated with a 600 most probable number/100 mL decrease in enterococci concentrations in surface water (95% confidence interval = −1106, −93). Pervasive private household water and sewer infrastructure failures and poor water quality were identified in this community bordering a regional landfill, providing evidence of a need for improved water and sanitation services. PMID:23858663

  14. Public infrastructure disparities and the microbiological and chemical safety of drinking and surface water supplies in a community bordering a landfill.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Christopher D; Wing, Steve; Wilson, Sacoby M; Campbell, Robert L; Caldwell, David; Hopkins, Barbara; O'Shea, Shannon; Yeatts, Karin

    2013-06-01

    The historically African-American Rogers-Eubanks community straddles unincorporated boundaries of two municipalities in Orange County, North Carolina, and predates a regional landfill sited along its border in 1972. Community members from the Rogers-Eubanks Neighborhood Association (RENA), concerned about deterioration of private wells and septic systems and a lack of public drinking water and sewer services, implemented a community-driven research partnership with university scientists and community-based organizations to investigate water and sewer infrastructure disparities and the safety of drinking and surface water supplies. RENA drafted memoranda of agreement with partners and trained community monitors to collect data (inventory households, map water and sewer infrastructure, administer household water and sewer infrastructure surveys, and collect drinking and surface water samples). Respondents to the surveys reported pervasive signs of well vulnerability (100%) and septic system failure (68%). Each 100-m increase in distance from the landfill was associated with a 600 most probable number/100 mL decrease in enterococci concentrations in surface water (95% confidence interval = -1106, -93). Pervasive private household water and sewer infrastructure failures and poor water quality were identified in this community bordering a regional landfill, providing evidence of a need for improved water and sanitation services.

  15. Rerouting Urban Waters: A Historic Examination of the Age of Imperviousness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, K. G.; Bain, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    From the 1600's to the 1900's landscapes along the Eastern United States underwent dramatic changes, including transitions from forest to production agriculture and eventually urban development. Legacy effects from decisions on sewer and water infrastructure built during the early 1900's are emerging today in degraded urban waterways. Impervious cover is often a factor used to predict water impairment. However, does imperviousness age or change through the course of landscape evolution? This study reconstructs the history of imperviousness in the Panther Hollow watershed (161 ha, Pittsburgh, PA) to examine these changes. We reconstruct the importance of factors influencing effective imperviousness from the 1800's to present including; (1) pipe and road network technological transitions, (2) land cover changes, particularly the loss of forest cover, and (3) modifications to local topography. Analysis reveals effective imperviousness (impervious area in the basin directly connected to stream channels) increased dramatically after 1900. Prior to 1900, water and sewer infrastructure was very limited. Local drainage networks generally followed the natural topography and households accessed water supplies from wells, precipitation harvesting or surface water. Road networks were sparse and predominantly dirt or aggregate surfaces. Forests and large family farms dominated land cover. Around 1910 public water supply expanded, significantly increasing effective imperviousness due to installation of brick and ceramic sewer infrastructure that routed waste waters directly to stream channels. Road networks also expanded and began transitioning from dirt roads to brick and eventually asphalt. Shifting to impervious paving materials required the installation of stormwater drainage. New drainage systems altered historic flow paths by re-routed large quantities of water through macro-pore sewer networks to local waterways. While this improvement prevented flooding to roadways, it

  16. Landsat: A Space Age Water Gauge

    NASA Video Gallery

    Water specialists Rick Allen, Bill Kramber and Tony Morse use Landsat thermal band data to measure the amount of water evaporating from the soil and transpiring from plants’ leaves – a process call...

  17. USEPA Safe and Sustainable Water Resources Program: Green Infrastructure for Stormwater Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    The water research portfolio of the USEPA Office of Research and Development (ORD) includes a significant focus on stormwater management as a major cause of contaminants in and degradation to surface waters. The importance of maintaining and restoring natural hydrology via green...

  18. An evaluation of security measures implemented to address physical threats to water infrastructure in the state of Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Jason R; French, P Edward

    2013-01-01

    The events of September 11, 2001, increased and intensified domestic preparedness efforts in the United States against terrorism and other threats. The heightened focus on protecting this nation's critical infrastructure included legislation requiring implementation of extensive new security measures to better defend water supply systems against physical, chemical/biological, and cyber attacks. In response, municipal officials have implemented numerous safeguards to reduce the vulnerability of these systems to purposeful intrusions including ongoing vulnerability assessments, extensive personnel training, and highly detailed emergency response and communication plans. This study evaluates fiscal year 2010 annual compliance assessments of public water systems with security measures that were implemented by Mississippi's Department of Health as a response to federal requirements to address these potential terrorist threats to water distribution systems. The results show that 20 percent of the water systems in this state had at least one security violation on their 2010 Capacity Development Assessment, and continued perseverance from local governments is needed to enhance the resiliency and robustness of these systems against physical threats.

  19. Addressing water resources risk in England and Wales: Long term infrastructure planning in a private, regulated industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Sean

    2015-04-01

    Water resources planning is a complex and challenging discipline in which decision makers must deal with conflicting objectives, contested socio-economic values and vast uncertainties, including long term hydrological variability. The task is arguably more demanding in England and Wales, where private water companies must adhere to a rigid set of regulatory planning guidelines in order to justify new infrastructural investments. These guidelines prescribe a "capacity expansion" approach to planning: ensure that a deterministic measure of supply, known as "Deployable Output," meets projected demand over a 25-year planning horizon. Deployable Output is derived using a method akin to yield analysis and is commensurate with the maximum rate of supply that a water resources system can sustain without incurring failure under a simulation of historical recorded hydrological conditions. This study examines whether Deployable Output analysis is fit to serve an industry in which: water companies are seeking to invest in cross-company water transfer schemes to deal with loss of water availability brought about by European environmental legislation and an increase in demand driven by population growth; water companies are expected address potential climate change impacts through their planning activities; and regulators wish to benchmark water resource system performance across the separate companies. Of particular interest, then, is the adequacy of Deployable Output analysis as a means to measuring current and future water shortage risk and comparing across supply systems. Data from the UK National River Flow Archive are used to develop a series of hypothetical reservoir systems in two hydrologically contrasting regions -- northwest England/north Wales and Southeast England. The systems are varied by adjusting the draft ratio (ratio of target annual demand to mean annual inflow), the inflow diversity (covariance of streamflow sequences supplying the system), the strength of

  20. Water Resources Adaptation to Global Changes: Risk Management through Sustainable Infrastructure Planning and Management - Paper

    EPA Science Inventory

    Global changes due to cyclic and long-term climatic variations, demographic changes and economic development, have impacts on the quality and quantity of potable and irrigation source waters. Internal and external climatic forcings, for example, redistribute precipitation season...

  1. Water Resources Adaptation to Global Changes: Risk Management through Sustainable Infrastructure Planning and Managements

    EPA Science Inventory

    Global changes due to cyclic and long-term climatic variations, demographic changes and economic development, have impacts on the quality and quantity of potable and irrigation source waters. Internal and external climatic forcings, for example, redistribute precipitation season...

  2. EPA Provides State of Rhode Island $18.2 Million for Water Infrastructure Projects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has awarded $18.2 million to the State of Rhode Island to help finance improvements to water projects that are essential to protecting public health and the environment.

  3. EPA Provides State of New Hampshire $22.7 Million for Water Infrastructure Projects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has awarded $22.7 million to the State of New Hampshire to help finance improvements to water projects that are essential to protecting public health and the environment.

  4. EPA Provides State of Massachusetts $63.7 Million for Water Infrastructure Projects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has awarded $63.7 million to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts to help finance improvements to water projects that are essential to protecting public health and the environment.

  5. EPA Provides State of Maine $19.6 Million for Water Infrastructure Projects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has awarded $19.6 million to the State of Maine to help finance improvements to water projects that are essential to protecting public health and the environment.

  6. EPA Provides State of Connecticut $26 Million for Water Infrastructure Projects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has awarded $26 million to the State of Connecticut to help finance improvements to water projects that are essential to protecting public health and the environment.

  7. EPA Provides State of Vermont $15.6 Million for Water Infrastructure Projects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has awarded $15.6 million to the State of Vermont to help finance improvements to water projects that are essential to protecting public health and the environment.

  8. Sustainable Urban Infrastructure Development and the Role of Water Technologies in the U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased climate variability and rapid urbanization are fundamentally changing the urban watershed hydrology and consequently sustainability of water systems. However, our urban planning and engineering practices are based on decades-old hydrological theory and guidance based o...

  9. Examination of State-of-the-Art Rehabilitation Technologies for the Nation’s Water Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    The average rate of water and wastewater system rehabilitation is not adequate to keep pace with increasing needs, quality demands, and continually deteriorating systems. Rehabilitation technologies in use today are generally effective, but there is still considerable room for i...

  10. Seismic events and their impacts on water infrastructure in a large urban conglomeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francisca Naranjo, Maria

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this work is to show a few examples of water-related hazards in urban zones subjected to seismic hazards. We present the case of Mexico City, an urban conglomeration with more than 20 million inhabitants, with soil subsidence due to excessive groundwater pumping and prone to a historical earthquake incidence (in magnitude and cost-damages). Past significant seismic events and their impacts on the water supply and sewage network are analyzed. Likewise, potential material and economic losses that the urban water network could face in case of an extreme earthquake are shown. Finally, cost-effective solutions are proposed in order to reduce water-related risks over the short and medium term following a seismic event of substantial magnitude.

  11. Using Naturally Occurring Radionuclides To Determine Drinking Water Age in a Community Water System.

    PubMed

    Waples, James T; Bordewyk, Jason K; Knesting, Kristina M; Orlandini, Kent A

    2015-08-18

    Drinking water quality in a community water system is closely linked to the age of water from initial treatment to time of delivery. However, water age is difficult to measure with conventional chemical tracers; particularly in stagnant water, where the relationship between disinfectant decay, microbial growth, and water age is poorly understood. Using radionuclides that were naturally present in source water, we found that measured activity ratios of (90)Y/(90)Sr and (234)Th/(238)U in discrete drinking water samples of known age accurately estimated water age up to 9 days old (σest: ± 3.8 h, P < 0.0001, r(2) = 0.998, n = 11) and 25 days old (σest: ± 13.3 h, P < 0.0001, r(2) = 0.996, n = 12), respectively. Moreover, (90)Y-derived water ages in a community water system (6.8 × 10(4) m(3) d(-1) capacity) were generally consistent with water ages derived from an extended period simulation model. Radionuclides differ from conventional chemical tracers in that they are ubiquitous in distribution mains and connected premise plumbing. The ability to measure both water age and an analyte (e.g., chemical or microbe) in any water sample at any time allows for new insight into factors that control drinking water quality.

  12. Using naturally occurring radionuclides to determine drinking water age in a community water system

    DOE PAGES

    Waples, James T.; Bordewyk, Jason K.; Knesting, Kristina M.; ...

    2015-07-22

    Drinking water quality in a community water system is closely linked to the age of water from initial treatment to time of delivery. However, water age is difficult to measure with conventional chemical tracers; particularly in stagnant water, where the relationship between disinfectant decay, microbial growth, and water age is poorly understood. Using radionuclides that were naturally present in source water, we found that measured activity ratios of 90Y/90Sr and 234Th/238U in discrete drinking water samples of known age accurately estimated water age up to 9 days old (σest: ± 3.8 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.998, n =more » 11) and 25 days old (σest: ± 13.3 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.996, n = 12), respectively. Moreover, 90Y-derived water ages in a community water system (6.8 × 104 m3 d–1 capacity) were generally consistent with water ages derived from an extended period simulation model. Radionuclides differ from conventional chemical tracers in that they are ubiquitous in distribution mains and connected premise plumbing. The ability to measure both water age and an analyte (e.g., chemical or microbe) in any water sample at any time allows for new insight into factors that control drinking water quality.« less

  13. Climate change and its impact on water infrastructure: the case of Alcala de Henares (Spain) and Mexico City (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naranjo, M.; Tortajada, C.

    2012-04-01

    Climate change and its possible impacts on precipitation are still a matter of controversy due to lack of data as well as models which are considered reliable. Even though the science of climate change has advanced significantly in recent years, many uncertainties still prevail, ranging from reliable prediction of extreme river flow events to downscaling of rainfall to smaller planning areas. That is, present knowledge is still insufficient to understand and accurately predict how global changes, climate change one of them, may affect precipitation and streamflows over specific geographical units. In terms of planning and investment in urban areas, where more than 50 percent of the population live at present, freshwater supply and flood risk management have to be considered on long-term basis. This includes development of water infrastructure for drinking water supply and drainage as well as flood control which responds to the needs of the growing populations and their economies. Impacts of climate change are slow over time and take place over thousands of years. However, their study is relatively recent, mostly in terms of impacts on the hydrological cycle and therefore in terms of run-off. In the case of urban centres, the rationale is that governments will have to adapt the water infrastructure according to the expected changes and thus have to plan for them. For example, in the case of Mexico City, the way the drainage system was designed 100 years ago is very different from the way it would be done at present and the way it would be planned in about 50 years time. In the case of the city of Alcalá de Henares in the region of Madrid, the analysis of precipitations has shown a slight tendency towards a wet period from the decade of the 60´s. Due to this tendency, the calculations for the design of water infrastructures have remained virtually unchanged. In the case of this specific city, there is no indication that there will be dramatic or rapid changes in

  14. 75 FR 16080 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Basewide Water Infrastructure...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... (e.g. power feeds, pump stations, pipes, etc.), with resulting service interruptions. As the potable... increase, adversely affecting MCBCP's mission. Repairs to and maintenance actions for the system are... replacement water lines, pump stations with emergency generators, connection to existing reservoirs...

  15. Green Infrastructure Benefits for Communities Managing Nitrate in their Drinking Water Sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrate in water moving through the “biologically active soil zone” of riparian zones, wetlands and streams may undergo denitrification. Therefore GI techniques such as conservation and restoration of riparian zones, wetlands and streams (daylighting) have the potential to remov...

  16. Drought Assessment Using Tritium River Water Measurements for Existing Dam Infrastructure in the Ishikari River basin, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusyev, M.; Morgenstern, U.; Stewart, M. K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Kashiwaya, K.; Kuribayashi, D.; Sawano, H.; Iwami, Y.

    2015-12-01

    A proposed methodology is based on estimated groundwater volumes from tritium river water measurements in the Ishikari River basin of Hokkaido Island, Japan. In our drought assessment, we characterize a groundwater storage that is available and can be used for the water supply during prolonged droughts. For the groundwater storage estimation, we utilized tritium river water measurements obtained during baseflows to estimate water mean transit times (MTTs). Tritium is ideally suited for characterization of the catchment's responses in river water samples with MTTs times up to 200 years. Tritium is a component of meteoric water, decays with a half-life of 12.32 years, and is inert in the subsurface. In Hokkaido, river water samples were collected in June, July and October 2014 at selected river gauging stations operated by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT). These stations record hourly water levels, have catchment areas between 45 and 377 km2 and are located upstream of MLIT dams at altitudes between 36 m and 860 m MSL. The measured tritium ranged between 4.065 TU (±0.07) and 5.290 TU (±0.09) with both lowest and highest tritium values analysed in June river samples at Tougeshita and Okukatsura stations, respectively. For the MTT estimation, we selected exponential(80%)-piston(20%) Lumped Parameter Model (LPM) with constructed tritium in Hokkaido precipitation and obtained a non-unique fit of young (1-11 years) and old (16-98 years) groundwater MTTs. This result indicates that the bomb-peak tritium is still present in Japanese groundwater and may take several years to flush out. From the MTTs and baseflow discharges, the calculated groundwater volume ranges between 13 MCM and 12500 MCM and indicates potentially available groundwater storage during prolonged droughts in the Hokkaido headwater catchments. In the future studies, the accuracy of the estimated groundwater volume can be increased by conducting another tritium sampling at

  17. Aging Water Infrastructure and Nutrient Control at WWTPs: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Research Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    What are… the effects of major influencing factors (climate change, population dynamics, etc.) on future system demands? the innovative technologies that can cost-effectively improve performance and extend the life of existing systems? the new designs and management approaches...

  18. Water Infrastructure Needs and Investment: Review and Analysis of Key Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-24

    Nicole T. Carter and Jeffrey A. Zinn . drinking water systems, for example), there is a perception that EPA’s programs are more geared to aiding small...Betsy A. Cody, Claudia Copeland, Mary Tiemann, Nicole T. Carter, and Jeffrey A. Zinn .) USDA Assistance Programs While EPA administers the largest federal...approximately one-quarter of those reporting saying that their needs exceed $1 million.28 CRS-20 28 (...continued) p. 79. 29 Statement of Howard

  19. Decontamination of Bacillus spores adhered to iron and cement-mortar drinking water infrastructure in a model system using disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Jeffrey G; Meiners, Greg; Heckman, Lee; Rice, Eugene W; Hall, John

    2017-02-01

    Decontamination of Bacillus spores adhered to common drinking water infrastructure surfaces was evaluated using a variety of disinfectants. Corroded iron and cement-mortar lined iron represented the infrastructure surfaces, and were conditioned in a 23 m long, 15 cm diameter (75 ft long, 6 in diameter) pilot-scale drinking water distribution pipe system. Decontamination was evaluated using increased water velocity (flushing) alone at 0.5 m s(-1) (1.7 ft s(-1)), as well as free chlorine (5 and 25 mg L(-1)), monochloramine (25 mg L(-1)), chlorine dioxide (5 and 25 mg L(-1)), ozone (2.0 mg L(-1)), peracetic acid 25 mg L(-1)) and acidified nitrite (0.1 mol L(-1) at pH 2 and 3), all followed by flushing at 0.3 m s(-1) (1 ft s(-1)). Flushing alone reduced the adhered spores by 0.5 and 2.0 log10 from iron and cement-mortar, respectively. Log10 reduction on corroded iron pipe wall coupons ranged from 1.0 to 2.9 at respective chlorine dioxide concentrations of 5 and 25 mg L(-1), although spores were undetectable on the iron surface during disinfection at 25 mg L(-1). Acidified nitrite (pH 2, 0.1 mol L(-1)) yielded no detectable spores on the iron surface during the flushing phase after disinfection. Chlorine dioxide was the best performing disinfectant with >3.0 log10 removal from cement-mortar at 5 and 25 mg L(-1). The data show that free chlorine, monochloramine, ozone and chlorine dioxide followed by flushing can reduce adhered spores by > 3.0 log10 on cement-mortar.

  20. Improving access to water supply and sanitation in urban India: microfinance for water and sanitation infrastructure development.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jenna; White, Gary; Damodaron, Said; Thorsten, Rich

    2008-01-01

    This article summarises initial findings of a study to explore the potential of providing micro-financing for low-income households wishing to invest in improved water supply and sanitation services. Through in-depth interviews with more than 800 households in the city of Hyderabad in India, we conclude that, even if provided with market (not concessional) rates of financing, a substantial proportion of poor households would invest in water and sewer network connections.

  1. Infrastructure sufficiency in meeting water demand under climate-induced socio-hydrological transition in the urbanizing Capibaribe River Basin - Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro Neto, A.; Scott, C. A.; Lima, E. A.; Montenegro, S. M. G. L.; Cirilo, J. A.

    2014-03-01

    Water availability for a range of human uses will increasingly be affected by climate change especially in the arid and semi-arid tropics. This paper aims to evaluate the ability of reservoirs and related infrastructure to meet targets for water supply in the Capibaribe River Basin (CRB), in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The basin has experienced spatial and sectoral (agriculture-urban) reconfiguration of water demands. Human settlements that were once dispersed, relying on intermittent sources of surface water, are now increasingly experiencing water-scarcity effects. As a result, rural populations in the CRB are concentrating around infrastructural water supplies in a socio-hydrological transition process that results from (a) hydroclimatic variability, (b) investment and assistance programs that may enhance but can also supplant local adaptive capacity, and (c) demographic trends driving urbanization of the state capital, Recife, which mirror urban growth across Brazil. In the CRB, demands are currently composed of 69.1% urban potable water, 14.3% industrial, 16.6% irrigation (with ecosystem-service demands met by residual flow). Based on the application of linked hydrologic and water-resources models using precipitation and temperature projections of the IPCC SRES A1B scenario, a reduction in rainfall of 31.8% translated to streamflow reduction of 67.4% under present reservoir operations rules. The increasing demand due to population was also taken into account. This would entail severe water supply reductions for human consumption (-45.3%) and irrigation (-78.0%) by the end of the 21st century. This study demonstrates the vulnerabilities of the infrastructure system during socio-hydrological transition in response to hydroclimatic and demand variabilities in the CRB and also indicates the differential spatial impacts and vulnerability of multiple uses of water to changes over time. The paper concludes with a discussion of the broader implications of climate

  2. MFC Communications Infrastructure Study

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Cannon; Terry Barney; Gary Cook; George Danklefsen, Jr.; Paul Fairbourn; Susan Gihring; Lisa Stearns

    2012-01-01

    Unprecedented growth of required telecommunications services and telecommunications applications change the way the INL does business today. High speed connectivity compiled with a high demand for telephony and network services requires a robust communications infrastructure.   The current state of the MFC communication infrastructure limits growth opportunities of current and future communication infrastructure services. This limitation is largely due to equipment capacity issues, aging cabling infrastructure (external/internal fiber and copper cable) and inadequate space for telecommunication equipment. While some communication infrastructure improvements have been implemented over time projects, it has been completed without a clear overall plan and technology standard.   This document identifies critical deficiencies with the current state of the communication infrastructure in operation at the MFC facilities and provides an analysis to identify needs and deficiencies to be addressed in order to achieve target architectural standards as defined in STD-170. The intent of STD-170 is to provide a robust, flexible, long-term solution to make communications capabilities align with the INL mission and fit the various programmatic growth and expansion needs.

  3. Using naturally occurring radionuclides to determine drinking water age in a community water system

    SciTech Connect

    Waples, James T.; Bordewyk, Jason K.; Knesting, Kristina M.; Orlandini, Kent A.

    2015-07-22

    Drinking water quality in a community water system is closely linked to the age of water from initial treatment to time of delivery. However, water age is difficult to measure with conventional chemical tracers; particularly in stagnant water, where the relationship between disinfectant decay, microbial growth, and water age is poorly understood. Using radionuclides that were naturally present in source water, we found that measured activity ratios of 90Y/90Sr and 234Th/238U in discrete drinking water samples of known age accurately estimated water age up to 9 days old (σest: ± 3.8 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.998, n = 11) and 25 days old (σest: ± 13.3 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.996, n = 12), respectively. Moreover, 90Y-derived water ages in a community water system (6.8 × 104 m3 d–1 capacity) were generally consistent with water ages derived from an extended period simulation model. Radionuclides differ from conventional chemical tracers in that they are ubiquitous in distribution mains and connected premise plumbing. The ability to measure both water age and an analyte (e.g., chemical or microbe) in any water sample at any time allows for new insight into factors that control drinking water quality.

  4. A flexible framework for process-based hydraulic and water quality modeling of stormwater green infrastructure performance

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Models that allow for design considerations of green infrastructure (GI) practices to control stormwater runoff and associated contaminants have received considerable attention in recent years. While popular, generally, the GI models are relatively simplistic. However,...

  5. Distribution system water age can create premise plumbing corrosion hotspots.

    PubMed

    Masters, Sheldon; Parks, Jeffrey; Atassi, Amrou; Edwards, Marc A

    2015-09-01

    Cumulative changes in chemical and biological properties associated with higher "water age" in distribution systems may impact water corrosivity and regulatory compliance with lead and copper action levels. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of water age and chemistry on corrosivity of various downstream premise plumbing pipe materials and configurations using a combination of controlled laboratory studies and a field survey. Examination of lead pipe, copper pipe with lead solder, and leaded brass materials in a replicated lab rig simulating premise plumbing stagnation events indicated that lead or copper release could increase as much as ∼440 % or decrease as much as 98 % relative to water treatment plant effluent. In field studies at five utilities, trends in lead and copper release were highly dependent on circumstance; for example, lead release increased with water age in 13 % of cases and decreased with water age in 33 % of conditions tested. Levels of copper in the distribution system were up to 50 % lower and as much as 30 % higher relative to levels at the treatment plant. In many cases, high-risks of elevated lead and copper did not co-occur, demonstrating that these contaminants will have to be sampled separately to identify "worst case" conditions for human exposure and monitoring.

  6. Water-Transfer Slows Aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Aviv; Weindling, Esther; Rabinovich, Efrat; Nachman, Iftach; Fuchs, Shai; Chuartzman, Silvia; Gal, Lihi; Schuldiner, Maya; Bar-Nun, Shoshana

    2016-01-01

    Transferring Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells to water is known to extend their lifespan. However, it is unclear whether this lifespan extension is due to slowing the aging process or merely keeping old yeast alive. Here we show that in water-transferred yeast, the toxicity of polyQ proteins is decreased and the aging biomarker 47Q aggregates at a reduced rate and to a lesser extent. These beneficial effects of water-transfer could not be reproduced by diluting the growth medium and depended on de novo protein synthesis and proteasomes levels. Interestingly, we found that upon water-transfer 27 proteins are downregulated, 4 proteins are upregulated and 81 proteins change their intracellular localization, hinting at an active genetic program enabling the lifespan extension. Furthermore, the aging-related deterioration of the heat shock response (HSR), the unfolded protein response (UPR) and the endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD), was largely prevented in water-transferred yeast, as the activities of these proteostatic network pathways remained nearly as robust as in young yeast. The characteristics of young yeast that are actively maintained upon water-transfer indicate that the extended lifespan is the outcome of slowing the rate of the aging process. PMID:26862897

  7. Flowpath delineation and ground water age, Allequash Basin, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pint, Christine D.; Hunt, Randall J.; Anderson, Mary P.

    2003-01-01

    An analysis of ground water flowpaths to a lake and creek in northern Wisconsin shows the flow system in a geologically simple basin dominated by lakes can be surprisingly complex. Differences in source area, i.e., lakes or terrestrial, combined with the presence of intervening lakes, which may or may not capture underflowing ground water as water moves downgradient from recharge areas, contribute to a complex mix of flowpaths. The result is water of different chemistry and vastly different ages may discharge in close proximity. Flowpaths, travel times, and capture zones in the Allequash Basin in northern Wisconsin were delineated using particle tracking based on a calibrated steady-state ground water flow model. The flowpath analysis supports the conclusions of Walker et al. (2003) who made inferences about flowpath characteristics from isotope and major ion chemistry. Simulated particle tracking agreed with Walker et al.'s measurements of water source (lake or terrestrial recharge) in the stream subsurface and also supported their assertion that ground water with a high calcium concentration in the lower basin of Allequash Lake is derived from long flowpaths. Numerical simulations show that ground water discharging in this area originates more than 5 km away in a source area located upgradient of Big Muskellunge Lake, which is upgradient of Allequash Lake. These results graphically illustrate that in settings with multiple sources of water with different age characteristics and converging flowlines (like the Allequash Basin) it may be difficult to obtain accurate estimates of ground water age by chemical analyses of ground water.

  8. Analyses of extreme precipitation and runoff events including uncertainties and reliability in design and management of urban water infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hailegeorgis, Teklu T.; Alfredsen, Knut

    2017-01-01

    There is a need for assessment of uncertainties and hence effects on reliability of design and management of stormwater pipes due to the prevalence of urban floods trigged by modification of land cover and high precipitation intensities respectively due to increasing urbanization and changing climate. Observed annual maximum series (AMS) of extreme precipitation intensities of 17 durations (1-min to 1440-min) and runoff records of 27 years from a 21.255 ha (23% impervious, 35% built-up and 41% open areas) Risvollan catchment in Trondheim City were used. Using a balanced bootstrap resampling (BBRS) with frequency analysis, we quantified considerable uncertainty in precipitation and runoff quantiles due to the sampling variability of systematic observations (e.g., -43% to +49% relative differences from the quantile estimates for the original sample). These differences are higher than suggested increase in design rainfall and floods by many countries for climate change adjustment. The uncertainties in IDF curves and derived design storm hyetographs are found to have large effects on the reliability of sizing of stormwater pipes. The study also indicated low validity of the assumptions on extreme precipitation and runoff relationships in the return period-based method for the partially paved urban catchment: (i) maximum of only 46% of the AMS of extreme precipitation and runoff events occurred concurrently and (ii) T-year return period extreme precipitation events do not necessarily result in T-year flood events. These indicate that there are effects of snowmelt seasonality, and probably catchment moisture states and interactions between the flows in subsurface media and pipes. The results substantiate the need for better understanding of relationships between precipitation and runoff extremes and urban runoff generation process, and importance of uncertainty assessment and application of reliability-based methods for design and management of water infrastructure.

  9. Preliminary GIS based analysis of seismic risk in water pipeline lifeline system in urban infrastructure of Chania (Crete)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouli, Maria; Papadopoulos, Ilias; Vallianatos, Filippos

    2013-08-01

    The lifelines seismic risk assessment is based on a fuzzy classification on parameters related to geometry (effective length distribution L) and constructive details (material type C) along with urban (U) and economic (E) parameters. Then a functional value G = f(L, C, U, E) is constructed as an indicator of risk of the element/system under investigation. In the present study a new functional Fg is introduced in a GIS environment. The application of spatial analysis methods provides a better understanding of the possible failure patterns and trends in water distribution networks. The Fg parameter takes into account the influence of geological and seismotectonic environment in a local scale, constructed in a way to reflect the amplification factor A (X), where X local coordinate of the cell, which experimentally could be estimated. The Fg= f(A(X), U(X), L(X)) is strongly affected by the local geotectonic conditions as well the spatial distribution of population and the geometrical lattice of pipe line system. The proposed index was applied in the city of Chania, Crete island, as the functioning of the infrastructure during and especially after a destructive earthquake, in the front of the Hellenic Arc, is of vital importance for the society and contributes to the rescue and emergency operations. We propose Fg mainly for systems where site effects are important and present a significant spatial inhomogeneity while at the same time the examined urban system has no constructive variability it time and space.

  10. Assessing the impact of transitions from centralised to decentralised water solutions on existing infrastructures – Integrated city-scale analysis with VIBe

    PubMed Central

    Sitzenfrei, Robert; Möderl, Michael; Rauch, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Traditional urban water management relies on central organised infrastructure, the most important being the drainage network and the water distribution network. To meet upcoming challenges such as climate change, the rapid growth and shrinking of cities and water scarcity, water infrastructure needs to be more flexible, adaptable and sustainable (e.g., sustainable urban drainage systems, SUDS; water sensitive urban design, WSUD; low impact development, LID; best management practice, BMP). The common feature of all solutions is the push from a central solution to a decentralised solution in urban water management. This approach opens up a variety of technical and socio-economic issues, but until now, a comprehensive assessment of the impact has not been made. This absence is most likely attributable to the lack of case studies, and the availability of adequate models is usually limited because of the time- and cost-intensive preparation phase. Thus, the results of the analysis are based on a few cases and can hardly be transferred to other boundary conditions. VIBe (Virtual Infrastructure Benchmarking) is a tool for the stochastic generation of urban water systems at the city scale for case study research. With the generated data sets, an integrated city-scale analysis can be performed. With this approach, we are able to draw conclusions regarding the technical effect of the transition from existing central to decentralised urban water systems. In addition, it is shown how virtual data sets can assist with the model building process. A simple model to predict the shear stress performance due to changes in dry weather flow production is developed and tested. PMID:24210508

  11. Assessing the impact of transitions from centralised to decentralised water solutions on existing infrastructures--integrated city-scale analysis with VIBe.

    PubMed

    Sitzenfrei, Robert; Möderl, Michael; Rauch, Wolfgang

    2013-12-15

    Traditional urban water management relies on central organised infrastructure, the most important being the drainage network and the water distribution network. To meet upcoming challenges such as climate change, the rapid growth and shrinking of cities and water scarcity, water infrastructure needs to be more flexible, adaptable and sustainable (e.g., sustainable urban drainage systems, SUDS; water sensitive urban design, WSUD; low impact development, LID; best management practice, BMP). The common feature of all solutions is the push from a central solution to a decentralised solution in urban water management. This approach opens up a variety of technical and socio-economic issues, but until now, a comprehensive assessment of the impact has not been made. This absence is most likely attributable to the lack of case studies, and the availability of adequate models is usually limited because of the time- and cost-intensive preparation phase. Thus, the results of the analysis are based on a few cases and can hardly be transferred to other boundary conditions. VIBe (Virtual Infrastructure Benchmarking) is a tool for the stochastic generation of urban water systems at the city scale for case study research. With the generated data sets, an integrated city-scale analysis can be performed. With this approach, we are able to draw conclusions regarding the technical effect of the transition from existing central to decentralised urban water systems. In addition, it is shown how virtual data sets can assist with the model building process. A simple model to predict the shear stress performance due to changes in dry weather flow production is developed and tested.

  12. Engineering Infrastructures: Problems of Safety and Security in the Russian Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhutov, Nikolay A.; Reznikov, Dmitry O.; Petrov, Vitaly P.

    Modern society cannot exist without stable and reliable engineering infrastructures (EI), whose operation is vital for any national economy. These infrastructures include energy, transportation, water and gas supply systems, telecommunication and cyber systems, etc. Their performance is commensurate with storing and processing huge amounts of information, energy and hazardous substances. Ageing infrastructures are deteriorating — with operating conditions declining from normal to emergency and catastrophic. The complexity of engineering infrastructures and their interdependence with other technical systems makes them vulnerable to emergency situations triggered by natural and manmade catastrophes or terrorist attacks.

  13. Total Water Management: A Watershed Based Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this urbanizing world, municipal water managers need to develop planning and management frameworks to meet challenges such as limiting fresh water supplies, degrading receiving waters, increasing regulatory requirements, flooding, aging infrastructure, rising utility (energy) ...

  14. Determining the water age of Lake Taihu during the water transfer from Yangtze River, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yiping; Acharya, Kumud; Zhu, Jianting; Yu, Zhongbo

    2010-05-01

    To improve water quality and alleviate the eutrophication problem for Lake Taihu, the third largest shallow lake in China, water transfer project from Yangtze River, was initiated to dilute the polluted water and export pollutants out of the lake in 2002. The impact of water transfer on transport processes of dissolved substance in the lake is studied by using the concept of water age using a three-dimensional numerical model, Environmental Fluid dynamic Code (EFDC). Influences of inflow tributaries and wind forcing on water age distribution are investigated. Model results show that the effect of water transfer on transport processes in the lake is strongly affected by hydrodynamic conditions induced by wind and inflow/outflow tributaries. Water age in Lake Taihu has highly spatial and temporal heterogeneity, with the mean water age of approximately 130 days in summer and 230 days in other seasons during the simulation year. Southeastly wind, the dominant wind direction in summer, could improve eastern areas of the lake which provide drinking water source and Meiliang Bay, the most polluted bay in the lake. The most efficient flow discharge of transferred water for diluting the lake could be approximately 100 m3/s while considering benefit/cost ratio. Additionally, the water transfer project just minor effects on parts of the lake rather than the entire lake, unless nutrient concentrations in the transferred water are reduced to a reasonable level. This study provides useful information for better understanding the complex hydrodynamic and mass transport processes in the lake, which is important for developing and implementing effective lake management strategies. Keywords: water transfer; water age; EFDC; Lake Taihu; Yangtze River

  15. Water matrix and age effects on microorganism Raman microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Ashish; Jabbour, Rabih E.; Treado, Patrick J.; Nelson, Matthew P.; Snyder, A. Peter

    2010-04-01

    Raman microspectroscopy is used to probe the age and milieu parameters for suspensions of bacteria for their detection in water backgrounds. No studies have been reported on the fate of Raman signatures over time for biologicals stored in water matrices. A FALCON II Raman Chemical Imaging System (ChemImage, Pittsburgh, PA) and 532 nm laser excitation source acquired the Raman spectra. MATLAB principal components (PC) analysis software was employed for data reduction. Suspensions of Bacillus atrophaeus, Bacillus thuringiensis, and three strains of E. coli (EC) were prepared in distilled and recipe tap water. Aliquots at 5 min, 5 hr, and 1, 2, and 7 days at 25 C were dried on microscope slides in replicate. Adequate spectral differences were observed for all three organism species. Microscope analysis showed that freshly suspended Bacillus spores and EC vegetative cells, in both water matrices, remained as spores after seven days. Agar plate growth procedures showed that the bacteria were still viable even after seven days resting in both water matrices. All three bacterial species were separated based on PC analysis; however, the three EC strains coalesced. The water matrix parameter was inconsistent in its ability to separate the Raman spectra in PC plots of the five bacteria. Within each group, the time parameter poorly separated the bacterial resting suspensions as the aging proceeded. A Mahalanobis linkage distance analysis (dendrogram) for all three species and strains in both water matrices confirmed a random order for all five suspension times.

  16. Impact of Plumbing Age on Copper Levels in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Theory and limited practical experiences suggest that higher copper levels in drinking water tap samples are typically associated with newer plumbing systems, and levels decrease with increasing plumbing age. Past researchers have developed a conceptual model to explain the “agin...

  17. ITER Cryoplant Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauve, E.; Monneret, E.; Voigt, T.; Vincent, G.; Forgeas, A.; Simon, M.

    2017-02-01

    The ITER Tokamak requires an average 75 kW of refrigeration power at 4.5 K and 600 kW of refrigeration Power at 80 K to maintain the nominal operation condition of the ITER thermal shields, superconducting magnets and cryopumps. This is produced by the ITER Cryoplant, a complex cluster of refrigeration systems including in particular three identical Liquid Helium Plants and two identical Liquid Nitrogen Plants. Beyond the equipment directly part of the Cryoplant, colossal infrastructures are required. These infrastructures account for a large part of the Cryoplants lay-out, budget and engineering efforts. It is ITER Organization responsibility to ensure that all infrastructures are adequately sized and designed to interface with the Cryoplant. This proceeding presents the overall architecture of the cryoplant. It provides order of magnitude related to the cryoplant building and utilities: electricity, cooling water, heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC).

  18. Is water age a reliable indicator for evaluating water quality effectiveness of water diversion projects in eutrophic lakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Zou, Rui; Wang, Yilin; Liu, Yong; Zhao, Lei; Zhu, Xiang; Guo, Huaicheng

    2016-11-01

    Water diversion has been applied increasingly to promote the exchange of lake water and to control eutrophication of lakes. The accelerated water exchange and mass transport by water diversion can usually be represented by water age. But the responses of water quality after water diversion is still disputed. The reliability of using water age for evaluating the effectiveness of water diversion projects in eutrophic lakes should be thereby explored further. Lake Dianchi, a semi-closed plateau lake in China, has suffered severe eutrophication since the 1980s, and it is one of the three most eutrophic lakes in China. There was no significant improvement in water quality after an investment of approximately 7.7 billion USD and numerous project efforts from 1996 to 2015. After the approval of the Chinese State Council, water has been transferred to Lake Dianchi to alleviate eutrophication since December 2013. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model and eight scenarios were developed in this study to quantity the influence of this water diversion project on water quality in Lake Dianchi. The model results showed that (a) Water quality (TP, TN, and Chla) could be improved by 13.5-32.2%, much lower than the approximate 50% reduction in water age; (b) Water exchange had a strong positive relationship with mean TP, and mean Chla had exactly the same response to water diversion as mean TN; (c) Water level was more beneficial for improving hydrodynamic and nutrient concentrations than variation in the diverted inflowing water volume; (d) The water diversion scenario of doubling the diverted inflow rate in the wet season with the water level of 1886.5 m and 1887 m in the remaining months was the best water diversion mode for mean hydrodynamics and TP, but the scenario of doubling the diverted inflow rate in the wet season with 1887 m throughout the year was optimum for mean TN and Chla; (e) Water age influenced the effectiveness of water diversion on the

  19. Detecting and mitigating aging in component cooling water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lofaro, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The time-dependent effects of aging on component cooling water (CCW) systems in nuclear power plants has been studied and documented as part of a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. It was found that age related degradation leads to failures in the CCW system which can result in an increase in system unavailability, if not properly detected and mitigated. To identify effective methods of managing this degradation, information on inspection, monitoring, and maintenance practices currently available was obtained from various operating plants and reviewed. The findings were correlated with the most common aging mechanisms and failure modes and a compilation of aging detection and mitigation practices was formulated. This paper discusses the results of this work.

  20. Detecting and mitigating aging in component cooling water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lofaro, R.J.

    1991-12-31

    The time-dependent effects of aging on component cooling water (CCW) systems in nuclear power plants has been studied and documented as part of a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. It was found that age related degradation leads to failures in the CCW system which can result in an increase in system unavailability, if not properly detected and mitigated. To identify effective methods of managing this degradation, information on inspection, monitoring, and maintenance practices currently available was obtained from various operating plants and reviewed. The findings were correlated with the most common aging mechanisms and failure modes and a compilation of aging detection and mitigation practices was formulated. This paper discusses the results of this work.

  1. Incorporating Green Infrastructure into TMDLs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The fact sheet provides examples of how some states describe green infrastructure and low impact development activities in their TMDL implementation sections to address stormwater-source impaired waters.

  2. Reliability of current CFC data for age dating of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davila, Pablo; Kuells, Christoph

    2010-05-01

    Age dating of water based on dissolved CFCs and Krypton-85 has been applied extensively for many years. CFCs were adopted as an approach for water dating due to the availability of global input functions and because of a straightforward methodology. In the last decade, due to international treaties, CFCs production and atmospheric concentrations of some trace gases (e.g. Krypton-85) are decreasing. The impact of reduced atmospheric trace gas concentrations on precision and uncertainty of age dating are investigated. Methods for the quantification of uncertainties and approaches for data analysis are presented. The uncertainty analysis is based on the application of different residence time distributions (piston-flow, exponential, advection-dispersion models and combined thereof) for trace gas concentrations and trace gas ratios. Different ways forward are presented to solve the problem of age ambiguity and increased uncertainty: the use of trace gas ratios is demonstrated and their potential of separating pre- and post-peak samples; the combined use of CFCs with additional tracers such as SF6 and 3H are discussed. While both SF6 and tritium have technical limitations themselves, such as multi-finality and observed deviations from the input function, benefit can be gained by combining them with other tracers or combined data analysis approaches. The quantification of uncertainties and of the adaptation of stringent data analysis provides a basis for the use and critical evaluation of CFCs as water age dating methods in the future.

  3. Water consumption in Iron Age, Roman, and Early Medieval Croatia.

    PubMed

    Lightfoot, E; Slaus, M; O'Connell, T C

    2014-08-01

    Patterns of water consumption by past human populations are rarely considered, yet drinking behavior is socially mediated and access to water sources is often socially controlled. Oxygen isotope analysis of archeological human remains is commonly used to identify migrants in the archeological record, but it can also be used to consider water itself, as this technique documents water consumption rather than migration directly. Here, we report an oxygen isotope study of humans and animals from coastal regions of Croatia in the Iron Age, Roman, and Early Medieval periods. The results show that while faunal values have little diachronic variation, the human data vary through time, and there are wide ranges of values within each period. Our interpretation is that this is not solely a result of mobility, but that human behavior can and did lead to human oxygen isotope ratios that are different from that expected from consumption of local precipitation.

  4. Climate change, water security and the need for integrated policy development: the case of on-farm infrastructure investment in the Australian irrigation sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraseni, T. N.; Mushtaq, S.; Reardon-Smith, K.

    2012-09-01

    The Australian Government is currently addressing the challenge of increasing water scarcity through significant on-farm infrastructure investment to facilitate the adoption of new water-efficient pressurized irrigation systems. However, it is highly likely that conversion to these systems will increase on-farm energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, suggesting potential conflicts in terms of mitigation and adaptation policies. This study explored the trade-offs associated with the adoption of more water efficient but energy-intensive irrigation technologies by developing an integrated assessment framework. Integrated analysis of five case studies revealed trade-offs between water security and environmental security when conversion to pressurized irrigation systems was evaluated in terms of fuel and energy-related emissions, except in cases where older hand-shift sprinkler irrigation systems were replaced. These results suggest that priority should be given, in implementing on-farm infrastructure investment policy, to replacing inefficient and energy-intensive sprinkler irrigation systems such as hand-shift and roll-line. The results indicated that associated changes in the use of agricultural machinery and agrochemicals may also be important. The findings of this study support the use of an integrated approach to avoid possible conflicts in designing national climate change mitigation and adaptation policies, both of which are being developed in Australia.

  5. Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, D.A.; Edson, J.L.; Fineman, C.F.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200{degrees}C (2,200{degrees}F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed.

  6. Infrastructure sufficiency in meeting water demand under climate-induced socio-hydrological transition in the urbanizing Capibaribe River basin - Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro Neto, A.; Scott, C. A.; Lima, E. A.; Montenegro, S. M. G. L.; Cirilo, J. A.

    2014-09-01

    Water availability for a range of human uses will increasingly be affected by climate change, especially in the arid and semiarid tropics. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the infrastructure sufficiency in meeting water demand under climate-induced socio-hydrological transition in the Capibaribe River basin (CRB). The basin has experienced spatial and sectoral (agriculture-to-urban) reconfiguration of water demands. Human settlements that were once dispersed, relying on intermittent sources of surface water, are now larger and more spatially concentrated, which increases water-scarcity effects. Based on the application of linked hydrologic and water-resources models using precipitation and temperature projections of the IPCC SRES (Special Report: Emissions Scenarios) A1B scenario, a reduction in rainfall of 26.0% translated to streamflow reduction of 60.0%. We used simulations from four members of the HadCM3 (UK Met Office Hadley Centre) perturbed physics ensemble, in which a single model structure is used and perturbations are introduced to the physical parameterization schemes in the model (Chou et al., 2012). We considered that the change of the water availability in the basin in the future scenarios must drive the water management and the development of adaptation strategies that will manage the water demand. Several adaptive responses are considered, including water-loss reductions, wastewater collection and reuse, and rainwater collection cisterns, which together have potential to reduce future water demand by 23.0%. This study demonstrates the vulnerabilities of the infrastructure system during socio-hydrological transition in response to hydroclimatic and demand variabilities in the CRB and also indicates the differential spatial impacts and vulnerability of multiple uses of water to changes over time. The simulations showed that the measures proposed and the water from interbasin transfer project of the São Francisco River had a positive

  7. Boiling-Water Reactor internals aging degradation study. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Luk, K.H.

    1993-09-01

    This report documents the results of an aging assessment study for boiling water reactor (BWR) internals. Major stressors for BWR internals are related to unsteady hydrodynamic forces generated by the primary coolant flow in the reactor vessel. Welding and cold-working, dissolved oxygen and impurities in the coolant, applied loads and exposures to fast neutron fluxes are other important stressors. Based on results of a component failure information survey, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and fatigue are identified as the two major aging-related degradation mechanisms for BWR internals. Significant reported failures include SCC in jet-pump holddown beams, in-core neutron flux monitor dry tubes and core spray spargers. Fatigue failures were detected in feedwater spargers. The implementation of a plant Hydrogen Water Chemistry (HWC) program is considered as a promising method for controlling SCC problems in BWR. More operating data are needed to evaluate its effectiveness for internal components. Long-term fast neutron irradiation effects and high-cycle fatigue in a corrosive environment are uncertainty factors in the aging assessment process. BWR internals are examined by visual inspections and the method is access limited. The presence of a large water gap and an absence of ex-core neutron flux monitors may handicap the use of advanced inspection methods, such as neutron noise vibration measurements, for BWR.

  8. Evaluation of Current Water Treatment and Distribution System Optimization to Provide Safe Drinking Water from Various Source Water Types and Conditions (Deliverable 5.2.C.1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasingly, drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) are being challenged by changes in the quality of their source waters and by their aging treatment and distribution system infrastructure. Individually or in combination, factors such as shrinking water and financial resources...

  9. Relation of Chlorofluorocarbon Ground-Water Age Dates to Water Quality in Aquifers of West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; Kurt, J.; Kozar, Mark D.

    2007-01-01

    The average apparent age of ground water in fractured-bedrock aquifers in West Virginia was determined using chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) dating methods. Since the introduction of CFC gases as refrigerants in the late 1930s, atmospheric concentrations have increased until production ceased in the mid-1990s. CFC dating methods are based on production records that date to the early 1940s, and the preservation of atmospheric CFC concentrations in ground water at the time of recharge. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) and Ambient Ground-Water Monitoring Network (AGN) programs in West Virginia from 1997 to 2005, 80 samples from the Appalachian Plateaus Physiographic Province, 27 samples from the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province, and 5 samples from the Ohio River alluvial aquifers were collected to estimate ground-water ages in aquifers of West Virginia. Apparent CFC ages of water samples from West Virginia aquifers ranged from 5.8 to 56 years. In the Appalachian Plateaus, topographically driven ground-water flow is evident from apparent ages of water samples from hilltop, hillside, and valley settings (median apparent ages of 12, 14, and 25 years, respectively). Topographic setting was the only factor that was found to be related to apparent ground-water age in the Plateaus at the scale of this study. Similar relations were not found in Valley and Ridge aquifers, indicating that other factors such as bedding or geologic structure may serve larger roles in controlling ground-water flow in that physiographic province. Degradation of CFCs was common in samples collected from methanogenic/anoxic aquifers in the Appalachian Plateaus and suboxic to anoxic aquifers in the Valley and Ridge. CFC contamination was most common in Ohio River alluvial aquifers and carbonate units of the Valley and Ridge, indicating that these highly transmissive surficial aquifers are the most vulnerable to water-quality degradation and may

  10. Enhancing Sustainable Communities With Green Infrastructure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This publication aims to help local governments, water utilities, nonprofit organizations, neighborhood groups, and other stakeholders integrate green infrastructure strategies into plans that can transform their communities.

  11. Total Water Management: A Watershed Based Approach - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT In this urbanizing world, municipal water managers need to develop planning and management frameworks to meet challenges such as limiting fresh water supplies, degrading receiving waters, increasing regulatory requirements, flooding, aging infrastructure, rising utility...

  12. International Needs for Infrastructure Nde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovics, John; Boller, Christian; Cawley, Peter; Spencer, Billie F.; Wang, Ming L.; Washer, Glenn

    2009-03-01

    The Aging of Infrastructure is a world wide problem of increasing importance, with the specifics varying from region to region depending on the age and nature of critical structures. It is clear that the NDE and SHM tools being developed by the QNDE community can play an important role in addressing the Aging Infrastructure problem, and the special evening session is designed to provide perspective to the developers of that technology through an overview of the international needs. A panel of speakers with experience with the unique situations in different regions of the world will first make a series of short presentations. This will be followed by a general discussion period.

  13. Pressurized-water reactor internals aging degradation study. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Luk, K.H.

    1993-09-01

    This report documents the results of a Phase I study on the effects of aging degradations on pr internals. Primary stressers for internals an generated by the primary coolant flow in the they include unsteady hydrodynamic forces and pump-generated pressure pulsations. Other stressors are applied loads, manufacturing processes, impurities in the coolant and exposures to fast neutron fluxes. A survey of reported aging-related failure information indicates that fatigue, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and mechanical wear are the three major aging-related degradation mechanisms for PWR internals. Significant reported failures include thermal shield flow-induced vibration problems, SCC in guide tube support pins and core support structure bolts, fatigue-induced core baffle water-jet impingement problems and excess wear in flux thimbles. Many of the reported problems have been resolved by accepted engineering practices. Uncertainties remain in the assessment of long-term neutron irradiation effects and environmental factors in high-cycle fatigue failures. Reactor internals are examined by visual inspections and the technique is access limited. Improved inspection methods, especially one with an early failure detection capability, can enhance the safety and efficiency of reactor operations.

  14. Ground-Water Age and its Water-Management Implications, Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glass, Roy L.

    2002-01-01

    The Cook Inlet Basin encompasses 39,325 square miles in south-central Alaska. Approximately 350,000 people, more than half of Alaska?s population, reside in the basin, mostly in the Anchorage area. However, rapid growth is occurring in the Matanuska?Susitna and Kenai Peninsula Boroughs to the north and south of Anchorage. Ground-water resources provide about one-third of the water used for domestic, commercial and industrial purposes in the Anchorage metropolitan area and are the sole sources of water for industries and residents outside Anchorage. In 1997, a study of the Cook Inlet Basin was begun as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Samples of ground water were collected from 35 existing wells in unconsolidated glacial and alluvial aquifers during 1999 to determine the regional quality of ground water beneath about 790 mi2 of developed land and to gain a better understanding of the natural and human factors that affect the water quality (Glass, 2001). Of the 35 wells sampled, 31 had water analyzed for atmospherically derived substances to determine the ground water?s travel time from its point of recharge to its point of use or discharge?also known as ground-water age. Ground water moves slowly from its point of recharge to its point of use or discharge. This water starts as rain and melting snow that soak into the ground as recharge. In the Matanuska?Susitna, Anchorage, and Kenai Peninsula areas, ground water generally moves from near the mountain fronts toward Cook Inlet or the major rivers. Much of the water pumped by domestic and public-supply wells may have traveled less than 10 miles, and the trip may have taken as short a time as a few days or as long as several decades. This ground water is vulnerable to contamination from the land surface, and many contaminants in the water would follow the same paths and have similar travel times from recharge areas to points of use as the chemical substances analyzed in

  15. EPA's Safe and Sustainable Water Resources Research Program: Water Systems Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water systems challenged by limited resources, aging infrastructure, shifting demographics, climate change, and extreme weather events need transformative approaches to meet public health and environmental goals, while optimizing water treatment and maximizing resource recovery a...

  16. Critical Infrastructure Rebuild Prioritization using Simulation Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    the water and allowing the water to flow to the turbine. ( SEDA Renewable Energy Web site) 24 2.4.3 Oil infrastructure In the Wikipedia...Critical Infrastructure Protection Workshop, Frankfurt Germany, September 2003 SEDA Renewable Energy & Cogeneration, “Hydro Power,” September 2006

  17. 43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... treatment facilities for potable water supplies, including desalination facilities; (d) Buildings necessary... may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? 404.9 Section 404.9 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL...

  18. Planning for community resilience to future United States domestic water demand

    EPA Science Inventory

    Costs of repairing and expanding aging infrastructure and competing demands for water from other sectors such as industry and agriculture are stretching water managers’ abilities to meet essential domestic drinking water needs for future generations. Using Bayesian statisti...

  19. Development of the Integrated Urban Water Management Tool (WERF Report INFR4SG09c)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The challenges of addressing the needs of aging water and wastewater infrastructure require new management approaches. Benefits including water savings, cost savings, and reduced wastewater production may be realized through the adoption of new integrated water management concep...

  20. Impact of wastewater infrastructure upgrades on the urban water cycle: Reduction in halogenated reaction byproducts following conversion from chlorine gas to ultraviolet light disinfection.

    PubMed

    Barber, Larry B; Hladik, Michelle L; Vajda, Alan M; Fitzgerald, Kevin C; Douville, Chris

    2015-10-01

    The municipal wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) infrastructure of the United States is being upgraded to expand capacity and improve treatment, which provides opportunities to assess the impact of full-scale operational changes on water quality. Many WWTFs disinfect their effluent prior to discharge using chlorine gas, which reacts with natural and synthetic organic matter to form halogenated disinfection byproducts (HDBPs). Because HDBPs are ubiquitous in chlorine-disinfected drinking water and have adverse human health implications, their concentrations are regulated in potable water supplies. Less is known about the formation and occurrence of HDBPs in disinfected WWTF effluents that are discharged to surface waters and become part of the de facto wastewater reuse cycle. This study investigated HDBPs in the urban water cycle from the stream source of the chlorinated municipal tap water that comprises the WWTF inflow, to the final WWTF effluent disinfection process before discharge back to the stream. The impact of conversion from chlorine-gas to low-pressure ultraviolet light (UV) disinfection at a full-scale (68,000 m(3) d(-1) design flow) WWTF on HDBP concentrations in the final effluent was assessed, as was transport and attenuation in the receiving stream. Nutrients and trace elements (boron, copper, and uranium) were used to characterize the different urban source waters, and indicated that the pre-upgrade and post-upgrade water chemistry was similar and insensitive to the disinfection process. Chlorinated tap water during the pre-upgrade and post-upgrade samplings contained 11 (mean total concentration=2.7 μg L(-1); n=5) and 10 HDBPs (mean total concentration=4.5 μg L(-1)), respectively. Under chlorine-gas disinfection conditions 13 HDBPs (mean total concentration=1.4 μg L(-1)) were detected in the WWTF effluent, whereas under UV disinfection conditions, only one HDBP was detected. The chlorinated WWTF effluent had greater relative proportions of

  1. Impact of wastewater infrastructure upgrades on the urban water cycle: Reduction in halogenated reaction byproducts following conversion from chlorine gas to ultraviolet light disinfection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber, Larry B.; Hladik, Michelle; Vajda, Alan M.; Fitzgerald, Kevin C.; Douville, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The municipal wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) infrastructure of the United States is being upgraded to expand capacity and improve treatment, which provides opportunities to assess the impact of full-scale operational changes on water quality. Many WWTFs disinfect their effluent prior to discharge using chlorine gas, which reacts with natural and synthetic organic matter to form halogenated disinfection byproducts (HDBPs). Because HDBPs are ubiquitous in chlorine-disinfected drinking water and have adverse human health implications, their concentrations are regulated in potable water supplies. Less is known about the formation and occurrence of HDBPs in disinfected WWTF effluents that are discharged to surface waters and become part of the de facto wastewater reuse cycle. This study investigated HDBPs in the urban water cycle from the stream source of the chlorinated municipal tap water that comprises the WWTF inflow, to the final WWTF effluent disinfection process before discharge back to the stream. The impact of conversion from chlorine-gas to low-pressure ultraviolet light (UV) disinfection at a full-scale (68,000 m3 d−1 design flow) WWTF on HDBP concentrations in the final effluent was assessed, as was transport and attenuation in the receiving stream. Nutrients and trace elements (boron, copper, and uranium) were used to characterize the different urban source waters, and indicated that the pre-upgrade and post-upgrade water chemistry was similar and insensitive to the disinfection process. Chlorinated tap water during the pre-upgrade and post-upgrade samplings contained 11 (mean total concentration = 2.7 μg L−1; n=5) and 10 HDBPs (mean total concentration = 4.5 μg L−1), respectively. Under chlorine-gas disinfection conditions 13 HDBPs (mean total concentration = 1.4 μg L−1) were detected in the WWTF effluent, whereas under UV disinfection conditions, only one HDBP was detected. The chlorinated WWTF effluent had greater relative

  2. Strategic plan for infrastructure optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Donley, C.D.

    1998-05-27

    This document represents Fluor Daniel Hanford`s and DynCorp`s Tri-Cities Strategic Plan for Fiscal Years 1998--2002, the road map that will guide them into the next century and their sixth year of providing safe and cost effective infrastructure services and support to the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Hanford Site. The Plan responds directly to the issues raised in the FDH/DOE Critical Self Assessment specifically: (1) a strategy in place to give DOE the management (systems) and physical infrastructure for the future; (2) dealing with the barriers that exist to making change; and (3) a plan to right-size the infrastructure and services, and reduce the cost of providing services. The Plan incorporates initiatives from several studies conducted in Fiscal Year 1997 to include: the Systems Functional Analysis, 200 Area Water Commercial Practices Plan, $ million Originated Cost Budget Achievement Plan, the 1OO Area Vacate Plan, the Railroad Shutdown Plan, as well as recommendations from the recently completed Review of Hanford Electrical Utility. These and other initiatives identified over the next five years will result in significant improvements in efficiency, allowing a greater portion of the infrastructure budget to be applied to Site cleanup. The Plan outlines a planning and management process that defines infrastructure services and structure by linking site technical base line data and customer requirements to work scope and resources. The Plan also provides a vision of where Site infrastructure is going and specific initiatives to get there.

  3. Infrastructure Ecology for Sustainable and Resilient Urban Infrastructure Design

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Hyunju; Pandit, Arka; Crittenden, John; Xu, Ming; Perrings, Charles; Wang, Dali; Li, Ke; French, Steve

    2010-10-01

    The population growth coupled with increasing urbanization is predicted to exert a huge demand on the growth and retrofit of urban infrastructure, particularly in water and energy systems. The U.S. population is estimated to grow by 23% (UN, 2009) between 2005 and 2030. The corresponding increases in energy and water demand were predicted as 14% (EIA, 2009) and 20% (Elcock, 2008), respectively. The water-energy nexus needs to be better understood to satisfy the increased demand in a sustainable manner without conflicting with environmental and economic constraints. Overall, 4% of U.S. power generation is used for water distribution (80%) and treatment (20%). 3% of U.S. water consumption (100 billion gallons per day, or 100 BGD) and 40% of U.S. water withdrawal (340 BGD) are for thermoelectric power generation (Goldstein and Smith, 2002). The water demand for energy production is predicted to increase most significantly among the water consumption sectors by 2030. On the other hand, due to the dearth of conventional water sources, energy intensive technologies are increasingly in use to treat seawater and brackish groundwater for water supply. Thus comprehending the interrelation and interdependency between water and energy system is imperative to evaluate sustainable water and energy supply alternatives for cities. In addition to the water-energy nexus, decentralized or distributed concept is also beneficial for designing sustainable water and energy infrastructure as these alternatives require lesser distribution lines and space in a compact urban area. Especially, the distributed energy infrastructure is more suited to interconnect various large and small scale renewable energy producers which can be expected to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In the case of decentralized water infrastructure, on-site wastewater treatment facility can provide multiple benefits. Firstly, it reduces the potable water demand by reusing the treated water for non-potable uses

  4. Infrastructure improvements for snowmelt runoff assessments of climate change impacts on water supplies in the Rio Grande basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has become apparent that the effects of climate change will be especially important for Southwestern US water users. The NSF-funded EPSCoR project “Climate Change Impacts on New Mexico’s Mountain Sources of Water” focuses on improving hydrometeorological measurements, developing basin-wide and s...

  5. Infrastructure improvements for snowmelt runoff forecasting and assessments of climate change impacts on water supplies in the Rio Grande Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    n the Southwest US, the southern Rocky Mountains provide a significant orographic barrier to prevailing moisture-laden Westerly winds, which results in snow accumulation and melt, both vitally important to the region’s water resources. The inherent variability of meteorological conditions in the Sou...

  6. Puerto Ricos Government to Make Major Upgrades to San Juan Water Infrastructure in Settlement with the Federal Government

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (New York, N.Y.) Under two settlements with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Justice, three Puerto Rico government agencies have agreed to upgrade portions of storm water systems they own within the Municipality of San Ju

  7. U.S. EPA Announces More than $182 Million for Drinking Water and Wastewater Infrastructure Projects in California

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The City of Carlsbad is using approximately $30 million through a one percent interest State Revolving Fund loan and an additional $7 million in other funding to expand its current water recycling facility capacity from 4,100 acre-feet per year to 7,235 ac

  8. Tritium/Helium-3 Apparent Ages of Shallow Ground Water, Portland Basin, Oregon, 1997-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01

    Water samples for tritium/helium-3 age dating were collected from 12 shallow monitoring wells in the Portland basin, Oregon, in 1997, and again in 1998. Robust tritium/helium-3 apparent (piston-flow) ages were obtained for water samples from 10 of the 12 wells; apparent ages ranged from 1.1 to 21.2 years. Method precision was demonstrated by close agreement between data collected in 1997 and 1998. Tritium/helium-3 apparent ages generally increase with increasing depth below the water table, and agree well with age/depth relations based on assumptions of effects of recharge rate on vertical ground-water movement.

  9. A novel approach for examining future US domestic water demand

    EPA Science Inventory

    Costs of repairing and expanding aging infrastructure and competing demands for water from other sectors such as industry and agriculture are stretching policy makers’ abilities to meet essential domestic drinking water needs for future generations. Using Bayesian statistic...

  10. SSWR Water Systems Project 3: Transformative Approaches and Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project aims to develop approaches and evaluate technologies that will help transform water systems towards a more sustainable future. Water systems challenged by issues such as shrinking resources, aging infrastructure, shifting demographics, and climate change need transf...

  11. 77 FR 27815 - Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... COMMISSION Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water AGENCY..., ``Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water.'' This LR-ISG... stainless steel structures and components exposed to treated borated water. The NRC published Revision 2...

  12. Soil infrastructure evolution and its effect on water transfer processes under contrasted tillage systems with preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvin, Nargish; Degré, Aurore; Chélin, Marie; Hiel, Marie-Pierre; Garré, Sarah; Bodson, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    The heterogeneity of soil structure and porosity are highly influenced by external factors like tillage systems and other land management approaches. The aim of this project is to investigate the effect of soil tillage along with residue management on the changing pattern of soil structure. This investigation will help to emphasize the different water flow dynamics especially the preferential flow processes through the soil that are influenced by the changes in structural distribution in the soil profile. Mostly the preferential flow of water is addressed by the apparent velocity through the soil but this study will focus on soil structure along with soil moisture dynamics at pedon scale or more specifically at aggregate scale. The experimentation has been started from June 2013 in the research field known as Solcouvert (objects: strip-till (ST) versus winter ploughing (WP)) and Solresidus (objects: no-till with organic matter restitution (NI) versus no-till without organic matter restitution (NO)). Soil profile description has been carried out in the four objects of land management. Soil sampling has been done in different depths of soil according to the soil profile description. Soil samples will be used for the measurement of water retention capacity (done), hydraulic conductivity and x-ray microtomography. The assessment of soil water retention curves with pressure plate technique show significantly (p<0.05) higher water retention (Hwr) in WP than ST at 9.8 to 98 hPa, Hwr in WP than NI at 39 to 14710 hPa, Hwr in ST than NI at 294 to 14710 hPa and Hwr in WP than NO at 69 to 98 hPa. There was no significant difference in the water retention between NO and NI and ST and NO. Since, tillage practices generally increase soil porosity, the correlation between soil hydraulics and porosity distribution would expect to be different for different tillage systems. In our study, WP retains more water due to the increase of macroporosity than ST, NI and NO. As the changes in

  13. Quality of Drinking Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  14. Lick Run: Green Infrastructure in Cincinnati and Beyond

    EPA Science Inventory

    By capturing and redistributing rain water or runoff in plant-soil systems such as green roofs, rain gardens or swales, green infrastructure restores natural hydrologic cycles and reduces runoff from overburdened gray infrastructure. Targeted ecosystem restoration, contaminant fi...

  15. South Africa's School Infrastructure Performance Indicator System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibberd, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    While some South African schools have excellent infrastructure, others lack basic services such as water and sanitation. This article describes the school infrastructure performance indicator system (SIPIS) in South Africa. The project offers an approach that can address both the urgent provision of basic services as well as support the…

  16. Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit is a toolkit of 5 EPA green infrastructure models and tools, along with communication materials, that can be used as a teaching tool and a quick reference resource when making GI implementation decisions.

  17. Green Infrastructure Modeling Tools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Modeling tools support planning and design decisions on a range of scales from setting a green infrastructure target for an entire watershed to designing a green infrastructure practice for a particular site.

  18. Climate Action Benefits: Infrastructure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides background on the relationship between infrastructure and climate change and describes what the CIRA Infrastructure analyses cover. It provides links to the subsectors Bridges, Roads, Urban Drainage, and Coastal Property.

  19. Infrastructure Improvements for Snowmelt Runoff Forecasting and Assessments of Climate Change Impacts on Water Supplies in the Rio Grande Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rango, A.; Steele, C. M.; Demouche, L.

    2009-12-01

    In the Southwest US, the southern Rocky Mountains provide a significant orographic barrier to prevailing moisture-laden Westerly winds, which results in snow accumulation and melt, both vitally important to the region’s water resources. The inherent variability of meteorological conditions in the Southwest, during both snowpack buildup and depletion, requires improved spatially-distributed data. The population of ground-based networks (SNOTEL, SCAN, and weather stations) is sparse and does not satisfactorily represent the variability of snow accumulation and melt. Remote sensing can be used to supplement data from ground networks, but the most frequently available remotely sensed product with the highest temporal and spatial resolution, namely snow cover, only provides areal data and not snow volume. Fortunately, the Snowmelt Runoff Model(SRM), which was developed in mountainous regions of the world, including the Rio Grande basin, accepts snow covered area as one of its major input variables along with temperature and precipitation. With the growing awareness of atmospheric warming and the southerly location of Southwest watersheds, it has become apparent that the effects of climate change will be especially important for Southwestern water users. The NSF-funded EPSCoR project “Climate Change Impacts on New Mexico’s Mountain Sources of Water” (started in 2009) has focused on improving hydrometeorological measurements, developing basin-wide and sub-basin snow cover mapping methods, generating snowmelt runoff simulations, forecasts, and long-term climate change assessments, and informing the public of the results through outreach and educational activities. Five new SNOTEL and four new SCAN sites are being installed in 2009-2010 and 12 existing basic SNOTEL sites are being upgraded. In addition, 30 automated precipitation gages are being added to New Mexico measurement networks. The first phase of snow mapping and modeling has focused on four sub basins

  20. Reductions in water and sodium intake by aged male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Begg, Denovan P; Sinclair, Andrew J; Weisinger, Richard S

    2012-11-01

    Aging results in reduced water and sodium intake responses in male rats. Because sex differences exist for water and sodium ingestion of young adult animals, we hypothesized that these sex differences would protect against the diminished water and sodium ingestion of aged female rats. Water and sodium intakes were examined in male and female young adult and aged Brown Norway rats in response to dipsogenic stimuli. Aged rats of both sexes consumed less water than young adult rats in response to 24-h water deprivation, thermal dehydration and hypertonic NaCl injection, but not to peripheral angiotensin II. Aged females consumed more water than males in response to hypertonic NaCl injection. Following sodium depletion, intake of 0.5 M NaCl solution over 2 h was higher in young adult rats than in aged rats. Aged animals had reduced angiotensin receptor 1A (AT(1A)) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) mRNA expression in hypothalamic tissue with no sex differences. These data indicate that female rats are not protected from water and sodium intake deficits that occur in aging and that sex differences in sodium intake in young adult rats are eliminated with aging.

  1. Siting algae cultivation facilities for biofuel production in the United States: trade-offs between growth rate, site constructability, water availability, and infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Venteris, Erik R; McBride, Robert C; Coleman, Andre M; Skaggs, Richard L; Wigmosta, Mark S

    2014-03-18

    Locating sites for new algae cultivation facilities is a complex task. The climate must support high growth rates, and cultivation ponds require appropriate land and water resources, as well as transportation and utility infrastructure. We employ our spatiotemporal Biomass Assessment Tool (BAT) to select promising locations based on the open-pond cultivation of Arthrospira sp. and strains of the order Sphaeropleales. A total of 64,000 sites across the southern United States were evaluated. We progressively applied screening criteria and tracked their impact on the number of potential sites, geographic location, and biomass productivity. Both strains demonstrated maximum productivity along the Gulf of Mexico coast, with the highest values on the Florida peninsula. In contrast, sites meeting all selection criteria for Arthrospira were located along the southern coast of Texas and for Sphaeropleales were located in Louisiana and southern Arkansas. Results were driven mainly by the lack of oil pipeline access in Florida and elevated groundwater salinity in southern Texas. The requirement for low-salinity freshwater (<400 mg L(-1)) constrained Sphaeropleales locations; siting flexibility is greater for salt-tolerant species like Arthrospira. Combined siting factors can result in significant departures from regions of maximum productivity but are within the expected range of site-specific process improvements.

  2. Siting algae cultivation facilities for biofuel production in the United States: trade-offs between growth rate, site constructability, water availability, and infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Venteris, Erik R.; McBride, Robert; Coleman, Andre M.; Skaggs, Richard; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2014-02-21

    Locating sites for new algae cultivation facilities is a complex task. The climate must support high growth rates, and cultivation ponds require appropriate land and water resources as well as key utility and transportation infrastructure. We employ our spatiotemporal Biomass Assessment Tool (BAT) to select promising locations based on the open-pond cultivation of Arthrospira sp. and a strain of the order Desmidiales. 64,000 potential sites across the southern United States were evaluated. We progressively apply a range of screening criteria and track their impact on the number of selected sites, geographic location, and biomass productivity. Both strains demonstrate maximum productivity along the Gulf of Mexico coast, with the highest values on the Florida peninsula. In contrast, sites meeting all selection criteria for Arthrospira were located along the southern coast of Texas and for Desmidiales were located in Louisiana and southern Arkansas. Site selection was driven mainly by the lack of oil pipeline access in Florida and elevated groundwater salinity in southern Texas. The requirement for low salinity freshwater (<400 mg L-1) constrained Desmidiales locations; siting flexibility is greater for salt-tolerant species such as Arthrospira. Combined siting factors can result in significant departures from regions of maximum productivity but are within the expected range of site-specific process improvements.

  3. Green infrastructure monitoring in Camden, NJ

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Camden County Municipal Utilities Authority (CCMUA) installed green infrastructure Stormwater Control Measures (SCMs) at multiple locations around the city of Camden, NJ. The SCMs include raised downspout planter boxes, rain gardens, and cisterns. The cisterns capture water ...

  4. Exploring Citizen Infrastructure and Environmental Priorities in Mumbai, India

    SciTech Connect

    Sperling, Joshua; Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Beig, Gufran

    2016-06-01

    Many cities worldwide seek to understand local policy priorities among their general populations. This study explores how differences in local conditions and among citizens within and across Mumbai, India shape local infrastructure (e.g. energy, water, transport) and environmental (e.g. managing pollution, climate-related extreme weather events) policy priorities for change that may or may not be aligned with local government action or global environmental sustainability concerns such as low-carbon development. In this rapidly urbanizing city, multiple issues compete for prominence, ranging from improved management of pollution and extreme weather to energy and other infrastructure services. To inform a broader perspective of policy priorities for urban development and risk mitigation, a survey was conducted among over 1200 citizens. The survey explored the state of local conditions, the challenges citizens face, and the ways in which differences in local conditions (socio-institutional, infrastructure, and health-related) demonstrate inequities and influence how citizens perceive risks and rank priorities for the future design and implementation of local planning, policy, and community-based efforts. With growing discussion and tensions surrounding the new urban sustainable development goal, announced by the UN in late September 2015, and a new global urban agenda document to be agreed upon at 'Habitat III', issues on whether sustainable urbanization priorities should be set at the international, national or local level remain controversial. As such, this study aims to first understand determinants of and variations in local priorities across one city, with implications discussed for local-to-global urban sustainability. Findings from survey results indicate the determinants and variation in conditions such as age, assets, levels of participation in residential action groups, the health outcome of chronic asthma, and the infrastructure service of piped water

  5. Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.

    SciTech Connect

    Liebrock, Lorie M.; Duggan, David Patrick

    2009-10-01

    This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

  6. Permafrost Hazards and Linear Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanilovskaya, Julia; Sergeev, Dmitry

    2014-05-01

    The international experience of linear infrastructure planning, construction and exploitation in permafrost zone is being directly tied to the permafrost hazard assessment. That procedure should also consider the factors of climate impact and infrastructure protection. The current global climate change hotspots are currently polar and mountain areas. Temperature rise, precipitation and land ice conditions change, early springs occur more often. The big linear infrastructure objects cross the territories with different permafrost conditions which are sensitive to the changes in air temperature, hydrology, and snow accumulation which are connected to climatic dynamics. One of the most extensive linear structures built on permafrost worldwide are Trans Alaskan Pipeline (USA), Alaska Highway (Canada), Qinghai-Xizang Railway (China) and Eastern Siberia - Pacific Ocean Oil Pipeline (Russia). Those are currently being influenced by the regional climate change and permafrost impact which may act differently from place to place. Thermokarst is deemed to be the most dangerous process for linear engineering structures. Its formation and development depend on the linear structure type: road or pipeline, elevated or buried one. Zonal climate and geocryological conditions are also of the determining importance here. All the projects are of the different age and some of them were implemented under different climatic conditions. The effects of permafrost thawing have been recorded every year since then. The exploration and transportation companies from different countries maintain the linear infrastructure from permafrost degradation in different ways. The highways in Alaska are in a good condition due to governmental expenses on annual reconstructions. The Chara-China Railroad in Russia is under non-standard condition due to intensive permafrost response. Standards for engineering and construction should be reviewed and updated to account for permafrost hazards caused by the

  7. 76 FR 69292 - Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... COMMISSION Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water AGENCY... Staff Guidance (LR-ISG), LR- ISG-2011-01, ``Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and... Learned (GALL) Report for the aging management of stainless steel structures and components exposed...

  8. Tritium as an indicator of ground-water age in Central Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradbury, Kenneth R.

    1991-01-01

    In regions where ground water is generally younger than about 30 years, developing the tritium input history of an area for comparison with the current tritium content of ground water allows quantitative estimates of minimum ground-water age. The tritium input history for central Wisconsin has been constructed using precipitation tritium measured at Madison, Wisconsin and elsewhere. Weighted tritium inputs to ground water reached a peak of over 2,000 TU in 1964, and have declined since that time to about 20-30 TU at present. In the Buena Vista basin in central Wisconsin, most ground-water samples contained elevated levels of tritium, and estimated minimum ground-water ages in the basin ranged from less than one year to over 33 years. Ground water in mapped recharge areas was generally younger than ground water in discharge areas, and estimated ground-water ages were consistent with flow system interpretations based on other data. Estimated minimum ground-water ages increased with depth in areas of downward ground-water movement. However, water recharging through thick moraine sediments was older than water in other recharge areas, reflecting slower infiltration through the sandy till of the moraine.

  9. IT Infrastructure Projects: A Framework for Analysis. ECAR Research Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grochow, Jerrold M.

    2014-01-01

    Just as maintaining a healthy infrastructure of water delivery and roads is essential to the functioning of cities and towns, maintaining a healthy infrastructure of information technology is essential to the functioning of universities. Deterioration in IT infrastructure can lead to deterioration in research, teaching, and administration. Given…

  10. Natural and Anthropogenic Water Treatment: How Riverine Ecosystem Services of Nitrogen Removal Interact with Wastewater Treatment Infrastructure in the Northeast U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, R. J.; Wollheim, W. M.; Whittinghill, K. A.; Mineau, M.; Rosenzweig, B.

    2014-12-01

    The magnitude and spatial distribution of point and non-point dissolved inorganic nitrogen (N) inputs to river systems greatly influences the potential for eutrophication of downstream water bodies. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), the predominant point source of N in the northeast US, remove some but not all of human waste N they receive. Excess enters rivers, which may further mitigate N concentrations by dilution and denitrification. WWTP effluent combines with upstream flows, which may include non-point sources of N due to agriculture or urbanization. Natural N removal capacities in rivers may however be overwhelmed and become N saturated, which reduces their effectiveness. As a result, natural and man-made services of N removal are intimately linked at the river network scale for provisions of suitable water quality and aquatic habitat. We assessed the summer N mitigation capacity of rivers relative to N removal in WWTPs in the northeastern U.S. using a N removal model developed within the Framework for Aquatic Modeling in the Earth System (FrAMES). The spatially distributed river network model predicts average daily dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations at a 3-minute river grid resolution, accounting for the mixing of natural areas, nonpoint sources, WWTP effluent, and instream denitrification, which is simulated as a function of river temperature, water residence time, and biogeochemical activity. Model validation was done using N concentration data from 750 USGS gauges across the northeast during the period 2000-2010. Confidence intervals (90%) are estimated for river N concentrations based on key uncertainties in simulated river width, uptake rates, and N loading rates. Model results suggest WWTPs potentially impact 25,770 km of river length (10.7% of total river length in the northeast) and increase N concentrations an average of 42.3% at the facility locations. The in-stream ecosystem service of N removal accounts for 2.7% of the total

  11. Age of irrigation water in ground water from the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer, south-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plummer, L.N.; Rupert, M.G.; Busenberg, E.; Schlosser, P.

    2000-01-01

    Stable isotope data (2H and 18O) were used in conjunction with chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He) data to determine the fraction and age of irrigation water in ground water mixtures from farmed parts of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) Aquifer in south-central Idaho. Two groups of waters were recognized: (1) regional background water, unaffected by irrigation and fertilizer application, and (2) mixtures of irrigation water from the Snake River with regional background water. New data are presented comparing CFC and 3H/3He dating of water recharged through deep fractured basalt, and dating of young fractions in ground water mixtures. The 3H/3He ages of irrigation water in most mixtures ranged from about zero to eight years. The CFC ages of irrigation water in mixtures ranged from values near those based on 3H/3He dating to values biased older than the 3H/3He ages by as much as eight to 10 years. Unsaturated zone air had CFC-12 and CFC-113 concentrations that were 60% to 95%, and 50% to 90%, respectively, of modern air concentrations and were consistently contaminated with CFC-11. Irrigation water diverted from the Snake River was contaminated with CFC-11 but near solubility equilibrium with CFC-12 and CFC-113. The dating indicates ground water velocities of 5 to 8 m/d for water along the top of the ESRP Aquifer near the southwestern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Many of the regional background waters contain excess terrigenic helium with a 3He/4He isotope ratio of 7 x 10-6 to 11 x 10-6 (R/Ra = 5 to 8) and could not be dated. Ratios of CFC data indicate that some rangeland water may contain as much as 5% to 30% young water (ages of less than or equal to two to 11.5 years) mixed with old regional background water. The relatively low residence times of ground water in irrigated parts of the ESRP Aquifer and the dilution with low-NO3 irrigation water from the Snake River lower the potential for

  12. The effects of aging on Boiling Water Reactor core isolation cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Bom Soon

    1994-06-01

    A study was performed to assess the effects of aging on the Reactor Core Isolation Cooling system in commercial Boiling Water Reactors. This study is part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The failure data, from national databases, as well as plant specific data were reviewed and analyzed to understand the effects of aging on the RCIC system. This analysis identified important components that should receive the highest priority in terms of aging management. The aging characterization provided information on the effects of aging on component failure frequency, failure modes, and failure causes.

  13. Tracer Cycles and Water Ages in Heterogeneous Catchments and Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, J. W.; Jasechko, S.

    2015-12-01

    Estimates of catchment mean transit times are often based on seasonal cycles of stable isotope tracers in precipitation and streamflow. In many cases these transit time estimates are derived directly from sine-wave fitting to the observed seasonal isotope cycles. Broadly similar results are also obtained from time-domain convolutions or explicit tracer modeling, because here too the dominant tracer signal that these techniques seek to match is the seasonal isotopic cycle. Here I use simple benchmark tests to show that estimates of mean transit times based on seasonal tracer cycles will typically be wrong by several hundred percent, when applied to catchments with realistic degrees of spatial heterogeneity. This aggregation bias arises from the strong nonlinearity in the relationship between tracer cycle amplitude and mean travel time. A similar bias arises in estimates of mean transit times in nonstationary catchments. Since typical real-world catchments are both spatially heterogeneous and nonstationary, this analysis poses a fundamental challenge to tracer-based estimates of mean transit times. I propose an alternative storage metric, the fraction of "young water" in streamflow, defined as the fraction of runoff with transit times of less than roughly 0.2 years. I show that young water fractions are virtually free of aggregation bias; that is, they can be accurately estimated from tracer cycles in highly heterogeneous mixtures of subcatchments with strongly contrasting transit time distributions. They can also be reliably estimated in strongly nonstationary catchments. Young water fractions can be estimated separately for individual flow regimes, allowing direct determination of how shifts in hydraulic regime alter the fraction of water reaching the stream by fast flowpaths. One can also estimate the chemical composition of idealized "young water" and "old water" end-members, using relationships between young water fractions and solute concentrations across

  14. WATER CONTENT-TEMPERATURE INTERACTIONS REGULATE SEED AGING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water content and temperature are important factors that influence the duration of seed survival in storage. The interacting effect of these two factors and the consequences on seed longevity is rarely recognized. An experiment to quantify the interaction was begun in 1994, using lettuce (Lactuca s...

  15. Future of Army Water Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Energy/ water nexus  Balancing supply with demand  Aging infrastructure  Complex water rights issues  Cost vs. price imbalance  Quality degradation...Energy/ Water Nexus • Thermoelectric power • Geothermal • Biofuels • Solar-hot water • Hydropower • Carbon Capture • “ Fracking ” Regional Water Balance...with Broad Applicability  Assess 30-year water supply and demand for sample of Army installations Method developed in 2009 at two pilot studies

  16. Infrastructure Survey 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the Group of Eight (Go8) conducted a survey on the state of its buildings and infrastructure. The survey is the third Go8 Infrastructure survey, with previous surveys being conducted in 2007 and 2009. The current survey updated some of the information collected in the previous surveys. It also collated data related to aspects of the…

  17. Smart Valley Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maule, R. William

    1994-01-01

    Discusses prototype information infrastructure projects in northern California's Silicon Valley. The strategies of the public and private telecommunications carriers vying for backbone services and industries developing end-user infrastructure technologies via office networks, set-top box networks, Internet multimedia, and "smart homes"…

  18. Sea Water Ageing of GFRP Composites and the Dissolved salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraverty, A. P.; Mohanty, U. K.; Mishra, S. C.; Satapathy, A.

    2015-02-01

    This paper houses the effect of sea water immersion on glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. The major sources of interest are study of sea water absorption, penetration of the dissolved salts, details of chemical and physical bonds at the interface, variations of mechanical properties and study of failure mechanisms as revealed through SEM fractographs. Eighteen ply GFRP composites are immersed in sea water for a period of one year in steps of two months durations. It is revealed that the moisture absorption transforms from a Fickian to non-Fickian behavior with lapse of time. The dissolved salt 'K' shows highest depth of penetration after one year of immersion while 'Na' shows a least depth of penetration, as revealed from the EDS spectra. It is also revealed that 'Ca' seems to have a sudden burst in the rate of penetration even surpassing that of 'K'. This trend can be attributed to the combined effect of ionic mobility of the various dissolved salts and the probable interaction between 'K' and the -OH group of epoxy resin. This interaction between dissolved 'K' and the -OH group in the polymer could have arrested the further advancement of 'K' salts in the polymer, resulting in comparatively high rates of 'Ca' penetration. The mechanical properties such as inter laminar shear stress (ILSS), stress and strain at rupture, glass transition temperature (Tg) and elastic modulus show a decreasing trend with the increased duration of immersion. As revealed from the SEM fractographs pot- holing, fiber pull-out, matrix crack etc. are seen to be the major reason for failure of the immersed samples under load.

  19. Radiocarbon age of waters in the deep Atlantic revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Broecker, W.S.; Virgilio, A. ); Peng, T.H. )

    1991-01-01

    The authors use a simple box model to evaluate the impact of temporal changes of the atmosphere's {sup 14}C/C on ventilation fluxes for the deep Atlantic calculated from radiocarbon measurements. The conclusion is that despite the fact that over the 300 year period from 1650 to 1950 the atmosphere's radiocarbon content declined at the same rate as radiocarbon decays, this temporal change has a relatively small impact (10-15%) on radiocarbon-based estimates of the ventilation rate of the deep Atlantic. The reason is that the radiocarbon content of the source waters for deep Atlantic are reasonably well buffered against changes in atmospheric {sup 14}C/C.

  20. Reduction of Auxin Transport Capacity with Age and Internal Water Deficits in Cotton Petioles 1

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, Thomas L.; Morgan, Page W.; Jordan, Wayne R.

    1980-01-01

    Auxin transport was examined in leaf petioles taken from the upper, middle, and lower leaf canopy of large cotton plants. The ability of petioles to transport auxin decreased with age (position) of the leaves. Plant water deficit reduced transport regardless of age. These correlations support the view that reduced transport capacity of petioles plays a significant role in the induction of abscission of lower or older leaves during water deficits. PMID:16661278

  1. Infrastructure Task Force Sustainable Infrastructure Goals and Concepts Document - November 2011

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document outlines the concepts of appropriate infrastructure and sustainable management entities to guide the coordinated federal efforts to achieve greater sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.

  2. Increased reservoir ages and poorly ventilated deep waters inferred in the glacial Eastern Equatorial Pacific

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, Maria; Skinner, Luke; Calvo, Eva; Pelejero, Carles; Cacho, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Consistent evidence for a poorly ventilated deep Pacific Ocean that could have released its radiocarbon-depleted carbon stock to the atmosphere during the last deglaciation has long been sought. Such evidence remains lacking, in part due to a paucity of surface reservoir age reconstructions required for accurate deep-ocean ventilation age estimates. Here we combine new radiocarbon data from the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP) with chronostratigraphic calendar age constraints to estimate shallow sub-surface reservoir age variability, and thus provide estimates of deep-ocean ventilation ages. Both shallow- and deep-water ventilation ages drop across the last deglaciation, consistent with similar reconstructions from the South Pacific and Southern Ocean. The observed regional fingerprint linking the Southern Ocean and the EEP is consistent with a dominant southern source for EEP thermocline waters and suggests relatively invariant ocean interior transport pathways but significantly reduced air–sea gas exchange in the glacial southern high latitudes. PMID:26137976

  3. Age of ground water in basalt aquifers near Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery, Skamania County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, Stephen R.

    1996-01-01

    A comparison of CFC data with both adjusted and unadjusted 14C data suggests that water discharging at the hatchery springs contains a mixture of modem and old water, where old water is defined as water recharged prior to 1944. The CFC data support a component of modem water, whereas the 14C data suggest a component of old water. Similar results were obtained from a comparison of CFC data with adjusted and unadjusted 14C data for water collected from Well 3. Well 3 is north of the hatchery springs, on a flow path that appears to be parallel to and similar in length to the flow path leading to the hatchery springs. Water from the Hatchery Well, however, may be devoid of modem water and appears to have an overall age on the order of thousands of years.

  4. Optimal selection and placement of green infrastructure to reduce impacts of land use change and climate change on hydrology and water quality: An application to the Trail Creek Watershed, Indiana.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaoze; Theller, Lawrence O; Pijanowski, Bryan C; Engel, Bernard A

    2016-05-15

    The adverse impacts of urbanization and climate change on hydrology and water quality can be mitigated by applying green infrastructure practices. In this study, the impacts of land use change and climate change on hydrology and water quality in the 153.2 km(2) Trail Creek watershed located in northwest Indiana were estimated using the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment-Low Impact Development 2.1 (L-THIA-LID 2.1) model for the following environmental concerns: runoff volume, Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Phosphorous (TP), Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), and Nitrate+Nitrite (NOx). Using a recent 2001 land use map and 2050 land use forecasts, we found that land use change resulted in increased runoff volume and pollutant loads (8.0% to 17.9% increase). Climate change reduced runoff and nonpoint source pollutant loads (5.6% to 10.2% reduction). The 2050 forecasted land use with current rainfall resulted in the largest runoff volume and pollutant loads. The optimal selection and placement of green infrastructure practices using L-THIA-LID 2.1 model were conducted. Costs of applying green infrastructure were estimated using the L-THIA-LID 2.1 model considering construction, maintenance, and opportunity costs. To attain the same runoff volume and pollutant loads as in 2001 land uses for 2050 land uses, the runoff volume, TSS, TP, TKN, and NOx for 2050 needed to be reduced by 10.8%, 14.4%, 13.1%, 15.2%, and 9.0%, respectively. The corresponding annual costs of implementing green infrastructure to achieve the goals were $2.1, $0.8, $1.6, $1.9, and $0.8 million, respectively. Annual costs of reducing 2050 runoff volume/pollutant loads were estimated, and results show green infrastructure annual cost greatly increased for larger reductions in runoff volume and pollutant loads. During optimization, the most cost-efficient green infrastructure practices were selected and implementation levels increased for greater reductions of runoff and nonpoint source pollutants.

  5. Paleoclimate Signals and Age Distributions from 41 Public Water Works in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broers, H. P.; Weert, J. D.; Sültenfuß, J.; Aeschbach, W.; Vonhof, H.; Casteleijns, J.

    2015-12-01

    Knowing the age distribution of water abstracted from public water supply wells is of prime importance to ensure customer trust and to underpin predictions of water quality evolution in time. Especially, age distributions enable the assessment of the vulnerability of well fields, both in relation to surface sources of contamination as in relation to subsurface sources, such as possibly related to shale gas extraction. We sampled the raw water of 41 large public supply well fields which represents a mixture of groundwaters and used the a discrete travel time distribution model (DTTDM, Visser et al. 2013, WRR) in order to quantify the age distribution of the mixture. Measurements included major ion chemistry, 3H, 3He, 4He, 18O, 2H, 14C, 13CDIC and 13CCH4 and the full range of noble gases. The heavier noble gases enable the calculation of the Noble Gas Temperature (NGT) which characterizes the temperature of past recharge conditions. The 14C apparent age of each mixture was derived correcting for dead carbon sources. The DTTDM used the 3H and 4He concentrations, the 14C apparent age and the NGT as the four distinctive tracers to estimate the age distributions. Especially 4He and NGT provide extra information on the older part of the age distributions and showed that the 14C apparent ages are often the result of mixing of waters ranging between 2.000 and 35.000 years old, instead of being discrete ages with a limited .variance as sometimes assumed.The results show a large range of age distributions, comprising vulnerable well fields with >60% young water (< 100 yrs) and well-protected well fields with >85% very old groundwater (> 25 kyrs) and all forms of TTD's in between. The age distributions are well in correspondence with the hydrogeological setting of the well fields; all well fields with an age distribution skewed towards older ages are in the Roer Valley Graben structure, where fluvial and marine aquitards provide protection from recent recharge. Especially

  6. [Attributes of forest infrastructure].

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun-kai; Jin, Ying-shan

    2007-06-01

    This paper discussed the origin and evolution of the conception of ecological infrastructure, the understanding of international communities about the functions of forest, the important roles of forest in China' s economic development and ecological security, and the situations and challenges to the ongoing forestry ecological restoration programs. It was suggested that forest should be defined as an essential infrastructure for national economic and social development in a modern society. The critical functions of forest infrastructure played in the transition of forestry ecological development were emphasized. Based on the synthesis of forest ecosystem features, it was considered that the attributes of forest infrastructure are distinctive, due to the fact that it is constructed by living biological material and diversified in ownership. The forestry ecological restoration program should not only follow the basic principles of infrastructural construction, but also take the special characteristics of forests into consideration in studying the managerial system of the programs. Some suggestions for the ongoing programs were put forward: 1) developing a modern concept of ecosystem where man and nature in harmony is the core, 2) formulating long-term stable investments for forestry ecological restoration programs, 3) implementing forestry ecological restoration programs based on infrastructure construction principles, and 4) managing forests according to the principles of infrastructural construction management.

  7. [Biobanks European infrastructure].

    PubMed

    Kinkorová, Judita; Topolčan, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Biobanks are structured repositories of human tissue samples connected with specific information. They became an integral part of personalized medicine in the new millennium. At the European research area biobanks are isolated not well coordinated and connected to the network. European commission supports European infrastructure BBMRI-ERIC (Biobanks and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure European Research Infrastructure Consortium), consortium of 54 members with more than 225 associated organizations, largely biobanks from over 30 countries. The aim is to support biomedical research using stored samples. Czech Republic is a member of the consortium as a national node BBMRI_CZ, consisting of five partners.

  8. Effect of disinfectant, water age, and pipe materials on bacterial and eukaryotic community structure in drinking water biofilm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Masters, Sheldon; Edwards, Marc A; Falkinham, Joseph O; Pruden, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Availability of safe, pathogen-free drinking water is vital to public health; however, it is impossible to deliver sterile drinking water to consumers. Recent microbiome research is bringing new understanding to the true extent and diversity of microbes that inhabit water distribution systems. The purpose of this study was to determine how water chemistry in main distribution lines shape the microbiome in drinking water biofilms and to explore potential associations between opportunistic pathogens and indigenous drinking water microbes. Effects of disinfectant (chloramines, chlorine), water age (2.3 days, 5.7 days), and pipe material (cement, iron, PVC) were compared in parallel triplicate simulated water distribution systems. Pyrosequencing was employed to characterize bacteria and terminal restriction fragment polymorphism was used to profile both bacteria and eukaryotes inhabiting pipe biofilms. Disinfectant and water age were both observed to be strong factors in shaping bacterial and eukaryotic community structures. Pipe material only influenced the bacterial community structure (ANOSIM test, P < 0.05). Interactive effects of disinfectant, pipe material, and water age on both bacteria and eukaryotes were noted. Disinfectant concentration had the strongest effect on bacteria, while dissolved oxygen appeared to be a major driver for eukaryotes (BEST test). Several correlations of similarity metrics among populations of bacteria, eukaryotes, and opportunistic pathogens, as well as one significant association between mycobacterial and proteobacterial operational taxonomic units, provides insight into means by which manipulating the microbiome may lead to new avenues for limiting the growth of opportunistic pathogens (e.g., Legionella) or other nuisance organisms (e.g., nitrifiers).

  9. Paleoclimate signals and age distributions from 41 public water works in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broers, Hans Peter; de Weert, Jasperien; Sueltenfuss, Juergen; Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner; Vonhof, Hubert; Casteleijns, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    Knowing the age distribution of water abstracted from public water supply wells is of prime importance to ensure customer trust and to underpin predictions of water quality evolution in time. Especially, age distributions enable the assessment of the vulnerability of well fields, both in relation to surface sources of contamination as in relation to subsurface sources, such as possibly related to shale gas extraction. We sampled the raw water of 41 large public supply well fields which represents a mixture of groundwaters and used the a discrete travel time distribution model (DTTDM, Visser et al. 2013, WRR) in order to quantify the age distribution of the mixture. Measurements included major ion chemistry, 3H, 3He, 4He, 18O, 2H, 14C, 13CDIC and 13CCH4 and the full range of noble gases. The heavier noble gases enable the calculation of the Noble Gas Temperature (NGT) which characterizes the temperature of past recharge conditions. The 14C apparent age of each mixture was derived correcting for dead carbon sources and included carbonate dissolution and methanogenesis as the defining processes. The DTTDM used the 3H and 4He concentrations, the 14C apparent age and the NGT as the four distinctive tracers to estimate the age distributions. The use of 18O was less effective because the processes that led to more enriched values are too uncertain . Especially 4He and NGT provide extra information on the older part of the age distributions and showed that the 14C apparent ages are often the result of mixing of waters ranging between 2.000 and 35.000 years old, instead of being discrete ages with a limited .variance as sometimes assumed. The results show a large range of age distributions, comprising vulnerable well fields with >60% young water (< 100 yrs) and well-protected well fields with >85% very old groundwater (> 25 kyrs) and all forms of TTD's in between. The age distributions are well in correspondence with the hydrogeological setting of the well fields; all well

  10. State of Technology for Rehabilitation of Water Distribution Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact that the lack of investment in water infrastructure will have on the performance of aging underground infrastructure over time is well documented and the needed funding estimates range as high as $325 billion over the next 20 years. With the current annual replacement...

  11. Influence of Water Age on Reclaimed Water Quality in Distribution Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated chemical and microbial water quality changes in two reclaimed waters as a function of residence time within distribution systems or storage time in tanks. Here we report the microbial water quality changes with particular focus on the incidence of waterborne and waterbased patho...

  12. IPHE Infrastructure Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    2010-02-01

    This proceedings contains information from the IPHE Infrastructure Workshop, a two-day interactive workshop held on February 25-26, 2010, to explore the market implementation needs for hydrogen fueling station development.

  13. Critical Infrastructure Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    2004-10-01

    The Critical Infrastructure Modeling System (CIMS) is a 3D modeling and simulation environment designed to assist users in the analysis of dependencies within individual infrastructure and also interdependencies between multiple infrastructures. Through visual cuing and textual displays, a use can evaluate the effect of system perturbation and identify the emergent patterns that evolve. These patterns include possible outage areas from a loss of power, denial of service or access, and disruption of operations. Method of Solution: CIMS allows the user to model a system, create an overlay of information, and create 3D representative images to illustrate key infrastructure elements. A geo-referenced scene, satellite, aerial images or technical drawings can be incorporated into the scene. Scenarios of events can be scripted, and the user can also interact during run time to alter system characteristics. CIMS operates as a discrete event simulation engine feeding a 3D visualization.

  14. Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green infrastructure, such as rain gardens, green roofs, porous pavement, cisterns, and constructed wetlands, is becoming an increasingly attractive way to recharge aquifers and reduce the amount of stormwater runoff that flows into wastewater treatment plants or into waterbodies...

  15. Distribution of uranium in drinking water and associated age-dependent radiation dose in India.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, S K; Mohapatra, S; Chakrabarty, A; Sumesh, C G; Jha, V N; Tripathi, R M; Puranik, V D

    2009-09-01

    Exposure due to natural radiation is of particular importance because it accounts for the largest contribution (nearly 85 %) to the total collective dose of the world population. An attempt has been made to present the feasibility of uranium occurrence in drinking water samples from different states of India, by laser-induced fluorimetry. The associated age-dependent radiation dose was estimated by taking the prescribed water intake values of different age groups. The concentration of uranium obtained, i.e. 0.1 +/- 0.01 to 19.6 +/- 1.8 microg l(-1), is well below the drinking water guideline value of 30 microg l(-1). The annual ingestion dose due to uranium in drinking water for various age groups is found to vary from 0.14 to 48 microSv y(-1).

  16. Clarkesville Green Infrastructure Implementation Strategy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The report outlines the 2012 technical assistance for Clarkesville, GA to develop a Green Infrastructure Implementation Strategy, which provides the basic building blocks for a green infrastructure plan:

  17. Climate control of decadal-scale increases in apparent ages of eogenetic karst spring water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jonathan B.; Kurz, Marie J.; Khadka, Mitra B.

    2016-09-01

    Water quantity and quality in karst aquifers may depend on decadal-scale variations in recharge or withdrawal, which we hypothesize could be assessed through time-series measurements of apparent ages of spring water. We tested this hypothesis with analyses of various age tracers (3H/3He, SF6, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113) and selected solute concentrations [dissolved oxygen (DO), NO3, Mg, and SO4] from 6 springs in a single spring complex (Ichetucknee springs) in northern Florida over a 16-yr period. These springs fall into two groups that reflect shallow short (Group 1) and deep long (Group 2) flow paths. Some tracer concentrations are altered, with CFC-12 and CFC-113 concentrations yielding the most robust apparent ages. These tracers show a 10-20-yr monotonic increase in apparent age from 1997 to 2013, including the flood recession that followed Tropical Storm Debby in mid-2012. This increase in age indicates most water discharged during the study period recharged the aquifer within a few years of 1973 for Group 2 springs and 1980 for Group 1 springs. Inverse correlations between apparent age and DO and NO3 concentrations reflect reduced redox state in older water. Positive correlations between apparent age and Mg and SO4 concentrations reflect increased water-rock reactions. Concentrated recharge in the decade around 1975 resulted from nearly 2 m of rain in excess of the monthly average that fell between 1960 and 2014, followed by a nearly 4 m deficit to 2014. This excess rain coincided with two major El Niño events during the maximum cool phase in the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Although regional water withdrawal increased nearly 5-fold between 1980 and 2005, withdrawals represent only 2-5% of Ichetucknee River flow and are less important than decadal-long variations in precipitation. These results suggest that groundwater management should consider climate cycles as predictive tools for future water resources.

  18. Body Water Indices as Markers of Aging in Male Masters Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Tuuri, Georgianna; Keenan, Michael J.; West, Kenneth M.; Delany, James P.; Loftin, J. Mark

    2005-01-01

    The association of age and weekly swim training distance with body water, lean tissue, fat mass and regional adiposity was examined in 27 male masters swimmers. Subjects ranged in age from 25.3 to 73.1 years (mean age = 47.7 ± 11.1 years). Weekly swim distances, estimated from self-reported swim logs, were from 3 400 to 17 500 m and averaged 10 016 ± 4 223 m. Total body water (TBW), and extracellular water (ECW) were predicted from multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis and intracellular water was estimated by difference. Lean soft tissue, bone mineral content, fat mass, and percent body fat were estimated from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Measures of skinfold thickness, waist circumference, and abdominal sagittal diameter provided an indication of regional adiposity. Total body water, ECW, and ICW mean values (ranges) were as follows: 47.4 ± 4.6 L (37.9-56.9 L), 19.6 ± 1.8 L., (16.4-24.8 L), and 27.8 ± 3.2 L (21.5-34.4 L). Mean percent body fat levels were 21.9 ± 6.6% and ranged from 10.3 to 34.9%. Age was negatively associated with ICW (p = 0.02) and with the ICW/TBW ratio (p = 0.00). Multiple-linear regression analysis backward method suggested that both lean tissue and fat mass were predictors of ICW although the association with fat mass did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.00 and p = 0.06 for lean and fat mass respectively). There was a tendency for greater lower abdominal thickness with increasing age (p = 0.08), but no other associations were observed between age or with swimming and body composition variables. Changes in ICW and the ration of ICW to TBW appeared to be the strongest marker of aging in this group of adult male competitive swimmers. Key PointsSubject age was negatively associated with the volume of intracellular water and with the intracellular-to-total body water ratio.There was a trend for age to be positively related to lower abdominal thickness.Weekly swim training distance was not associated with body water

  19. Ground-water ages in confined and unconfined aquifers beneath the High Plains, U. S. A

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, A.R. . Bureau of Economic Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Ages of confined and unconfined ground waters beneath the High Plains must be better known to evaluate water resources, explain differences in delta D and delta O-18 between the unconfined and confined aquifers, and help interpret Pleistocene and Holocene hydrologic history of the continental interior. Eighteen water samples were collected from a confined aquifer in Dockum Group (Triassic) sandstones beneath the southern High Plains in TX and NM from a confined aquifer in Dakota Formation (Cretaceous) sandstones beneath the central High Plains in southwestern KS, and from a sequence of confined aquifers in Upper Cretaceous to Tertiary rocks beneath the northern Great Plains in eastern WY and western NE. Seven samples were collected from the unconfined High Plains aquifer in the Ogallala Formation (Neogene) beneath the central and northern High Plains. Preliminary calculated ages suggest that waters in the High Plains aquifer are very young, probably less than 1,000 yr, and locally as young as 25 yr. Age of ground water in the deep confined aquifers appears to be 20,000 to 32,000 yr in the different study areas. Age of confined ground water appears to increase with predominant direction of ground-water flow beneath the central and northern High Plains but not beneath the southern High Plains, possibly reflecting greater downward leakage from the unconfined aquifer in the latter area.

  20. Linking High Frequency Variations in Stream Water DOC to Ages of Water Sources in Peat-Dominated Montane Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunaley, C.; Tetzlaff, D.; Lessels, J. S.; Soulsby, C.

    2015-12-01

    We combined time series of inferred DOC (from optical sensors) and stable isotopes in streams and watershed source areas to assess the link between water age and C fluxes. We monitored temporal dynamics of FDOM for 2 yrs at nested scales (0.9, 3.0 and 30km2) in a montane Scottish watershed. FDOM was strongly correlated (r2 ~ 0.8) with DOC allowing inference of 15 min timeseries. Marked seasonality was observed, with highest DOC concentrations (~25 mg l-1) in summer events and lower concentrations (~5mg l-1) in winter. During events, anticlockwise hysteresis was observed; consistent with expansion of the riparian saturation zone, increasing hydrological connectivity across peat soils and mobilizing DOC. Lag times for peak discharge and DOC were 1-12 hrs depending on event characteristics and antecedent conditions. Isotope time series from precipitation, streams and catchment source waters (overland flow and hillslope drainage) were also generated. These allowed us to model the non-stationary characteristics of their ages. Stream water age ranges from 3 months at high flows when overland flow dominates runoff to 4 yrs under baseflow. Overland flow age was a dominant influence on DOC transport. Highest concentrations occurred in small summer events with relatively young (<1 month old) overland flow waters generated after dry antecedent conditions, reflecting displacement of DOC-rich soil water. With wetting up in late summer/fall, overland flow is younger (< 1 week) diluting soil water DOC. Similar patterns occur across scales, though at 0.9km2 the dominance of a large peatland limits hysteresis, and maintains more constant DOC levels. At larger scales, DOC was more responsive but decreased more rapidly, reflecting a greater, but more transient influence of young overland flow. This shows the importance of riparian wetlands in regulating the quality and age of streams and the need to incorporate these sensitive areas in land management strategies.

  1. 18 CFR 35.35 - Transmission infrastructure investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transmission infrastructure investment. 35.35 Section 35.35 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... transmission infrastructure development. The Commission will approve recovery of prudently-incurred...

  2. 18 CFR 35.35 - Transmission infrastructure investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transmission infrastructure investment. 35.35 Section 35.35 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... transmission infrastructure development. The Commission will approve recovery of prudently-incurred...

  3. Building safeguards infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Rebecca S; Mcclelland - Kerr, John

    2009-01-01

    Much has been written in recent years about the nuclear renaissance - the rebirth of nuclear power as a clean and safe source of electricity around the world. Those who question the nuclear renaissance often cite the risk of proliferation, accidents or an attack on a facility as concerns, all of which merit serious consideration. The integration of these three areas - sometimes referred to as 3S, for safety, security and safeguards - is essential to supporting the growth of nuclear power, and the infrastructure that supports them should be strengthened. The focus of this paper will be on the role safeguards plays in the 3S concept and how to support the development of the infrastructure necessary to support safeguards. The objective of this paper has been to provide a working definition of safeguards infrastructure, and to discuss xamples of how building safeguards infrastructure is presented in several models. The guidelines outlined in the milestones document provide a clear path for establishing both the safeguards and the related infrastructures needed to support the development of nuclear power. The model employed by the INSEP program of engaging with partner states on safeguards-related topics that are of current interest to the level of nuclear development in that state provides another way of approaching the concept of building safeguards infrastructure. The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative is yet another approach that underscored five principal areas for growth, and the United States commitment to working with partners to promote this growth both at home and abroad.

  4. Toolkit of Available EPA Green Infrastructure Modeling ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is a software application designed tofacilitate integrated water resources management across wet and dry climate regions. It allows waterresources managers and planners to screen a wide range of practices across their watershed or jurisdictionfor cost-effectiveness and environmental and economic sustainability. WMOST allows users to select up to 15stormwater management practices, including traditional grey infrastructure, green infrastructure, and otherlow impact development practices. Stormwater discharges continue to cause impairment of our Nation’s waterbodies. Conventional stormwater infrastructure, or gray infrastructure, is largely designed to move stormwater away from urban areas through pipes and conduit. Runoff from these surfaces can overwhelm sewer systems and end up contaminating local waterways. When stormwater runs off impervious streets, parking lots, sidewalks, and rooftops, it carries pollutants such as motor oil, lawn chemicals, sediments, and pet waste to streams, rivers, and lakes. Runoff flows can also cause erosion and flooding that can damage property, infrastructure, and wildlife habitat. In addition to runoff problems, impervious surfaces also prevent water from penetrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. Green infrastructure (e.g., rain gardens, green roofs, porous pavement, cisterns) is becoming an increasingly attractive way to recharge aquifers and reduce the amou

  5. Toolkit of Available EPA Green Infrastructure Modeling ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This webinar will present a toolkit consisting of five EPA green infrastructure models and tools, along with communication material. This toolkit can be used as a teaching and quick reference resource for use by planners and developers when making green infrastructure implementation decisions. It can also be used for low impact development design competitions. Models and tools included: Green Infrastructure Wizard (GIWiz), Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST), Visualizing Ecosystem Land Management Assessments (VELMA) Model, Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), and the National Stormwater Calculator (SWC). This webinar will present a toolkit consisting of five EPA green infrastructure models and tools, along with communication material. This toolkit can be used as a teaching and quick reference resource for use by planners and developers when making green infrastructure implementation decisions. It can also be used for low impact development design competitions. Models and tools included: Green Infrastructure Wizard (GIWiz), Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST), Visualizing Ecosystem Land Management Assessments (VELMA) Model, Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), and the National Stormwater Calculator (SWC).

  6. Assessment of (226)Ra age-dependent dose from water intake.

    PubMed

    Porntepkasemsan, Boonsom; Srisuksawad, Kanitha

    2008-11-01

    The radioactivity in canal and ground waters collected in a 2-year long observation from the vicinity of the Rare Earth Research and Development Center (RRDC), Phathumthani Province, Thailand, was measured in order to determine the concentration of (226)Ra and to estimate the age-dependent effective dose to humans due to consumption. (226)Ra activities in both canal and ground waters were well below the WHO guidance level for drinking water quality of 1 Bq L(-1). The highest (226)Ra effective doses per year were found for infants and teens. However, the observed levels of calculated (226)Ra effective doses for all age groups in both canal and ground waters show satisfactory low values (less than 15 microSv yr(-1)). These values are acceptable in accordance with the WHO recommended reference dose level of 100 microSv yr(-1) from water intake of 2 Lday(-1).

  7. Translating CFC-based piston ages into probability density functions of ground-water age in karst

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, A.J.; Putnam, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    Temporal age distributions are equivalent to probability density functions (PDFs) of transit time. The type and shape of a PDF provides important information related to ground-water mixing at the well or spring and the complex nature of flow networks in karst aquifers. Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) concentrations measured for samples from 12 locations in the karstic Madison aquifer were used to evaluate the suitability of various PDF types for this aquifer. Parameters of PDFs could not be estimated within acceptable confidence intervals for any of the individual sites. Therefore, metrics derived from CFC-based apparent ages were used to evaluate results of PDF modeling in a more general approach. The ranges of these metrics were established as criteria against which families of PDFs could be evaluated for their applicability to different parts of the aquifer. Seven PDF types, including five unimodal and two bimodal models, were evaluated. Model results indicate that unimodal models may be applicable to areas close to conduits that have younger piston (i.e., apparent) ages and that bimodal models probably are applicable to areas farther from conduits that have older piston ages. The two components of a bimodal PDF are interpreted as representing conduit and diffuse flow, and transit times of as much as two decades may separate these PDF components. Areas near conduits may be dominated by conduit flow, whereas areas farther from conduits having bimodal distributions probably have good hydraulic connection to both diffuse and conduit flow. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Changes in volatile compounds of human urine as it ages: their interaction with water.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jae; Grigsby, Claude C; Smith, Brittany R; Rizki, Mateen M; Preti, George

    2013-12-15

    The urinary odors are commonly perceived as unpleasant. While numerous studies have identified the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from urine, the odorants responsible for the urine odor are not well characterized. Furthermore, anecdotal reports suggest that the odor of aged urine is different from that of fresh urine. However, no study has yet to investigate the specific VOCs released from aged urine. In this study, we analyzed and compared the VOCs released from fresh and aged urine samples, investigating the changes in the urinary VOCs as urine aged. We found an overall decrease in concentration of many urinary VOCs, and concluded this was due to the urine evaporating as it aged. On the contrary, some highly water-soluble compounds such as short and branched-chain organic acids and trimethylamine, increased. Their increased release is most likely due to the loss of water and the subsequent release of water-soluble VOCs as urine ages. We suggest that these VOCs may contribute to the odor of the aged urine.

  9. Strategy to Reduce Districts Sewer Overflows Will Include Green Infrastructure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (PHILADELPHIA- May 20, 2015) - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the District of Columbia (District) and DC Water today announced an agreement to modify a 2005 federal consent decree (CD) allowing DC Water to incorporate green infrastructure

  10. Chemistry and age of ground water in the southwestern Hueco Bolson, New Mexico and Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderholm, Scott K.; Heywood, Charles E.

    2003-01-01

    This report, prepared in cooperation with El Paso Water Utilities, presents the results of an investigation to determine the chemistry and age of ground water on the southwestern side of the Hueco Bolson. The radioactive isotope carbon-14 was used to estimate the length of time that water from wells has been isolated from the atmosphere, which is the modern carbon-14 reservoir. Nine wells on the southwestern side of the Hueco Bolson were sampled for analysis of common constituents, nutrients, total organic carbon, trace elements, stable isotopes, and radioactive isotopes. Dissolved-solids concentrations in water from the wells sampled ranged from 269 to 2,630 milligrams per liter. Sodium concentrations generally increased linearly with chloride concentrations, possibly indicating mixing of dilute recharge water with sodium chloride brine. Concentrations of nutrients and trace elements generally were small. The deuterium and oxygen-18 composition in all samples except those from wells adjacent to the Rio Grande indicates that infiltration of precipitation is the main source of water to these wells and that evaporation has not affected the isotopic composition of the water. The source of water from wells adjacent to the Rio Grande is probably not the same source as the water from wells adjacent to the Franklin Mountains. The calculated apparent carbon- 14 ages ranged from 12,100 to 25,500 years.

  11. Influence of fracture anisotropy on ground water ages and chemistry, Valley and Ridge province, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, W.C.; Plummer, L.N.; Busenberg, E.; Lindsey, B.D.; Gburek, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Model ground water ages based on chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He) data were obtained from two arrays of nested piezometers located on the north limb of an anticline in fractured sedimentary rocks in the Valley and Ridge geologic province of Pennsylvania. The fracture geometry of the gently east plunging fold is very regular and consists predominately of south dipping to subhorizontal to north dipping bedding-plane parting and east striking, steeply dipping axial-plane spaced cleavage. In the area of the piezometer arrays, which trend north-south on the north limb of the fold, north dipping bedding-plane parting is a more dominant fracture set than is steeply south dipping axial-plane cleavage. The dating of ground water from the piezometer arrays reveals that ground water traveling along paths parallel to the dip direction of bedding-plane parting has younger 3H/3He and CFC model ages, or a greater component of young water, than does ground water traveling along paths opposite to the dip direction. In predominantly unmixed samples there is a strong positive correlation between age of the young fraction of water and dissolved sodium concentration. The travel times inferred from the model ages are significantly longer than those previously calculated by a ground water flow model, which assumed isotropically fractured layers parallel to topography. A revised model factors in the directional anisotropy to produce longer travel times. Ground water travel times in the watershed therefore appear to be more influenced by anisotropic fracture geometry than previously realized. This could have significant implications for ground water models in other areas underlain by similarly tilted or folded sedimentary rock, such as elsewhere in the Valley and Ridge or the early Mesozoic basins.

  12. Spatial and temporal correlation of water quality parameters of produced waters from devonian-age shale following hydraulic fracturing.

    PubMed

    Barbot, Elise; Vidic, Natasa S; Gregory, Kelvin B; Vidic, Radisav D

    2013-03-19

    The exponential increase in fossil energy production from Devonian-age shale in the Northeastern United States has highlighted the management challenges for produced waters from hydraulically fractured wells. Confounding these challenges is a scant availability of critical water quality parameters for this wastewater. Chemical analyses of 160 flowback and produced water samples collected from hydraulically fractured Marcellus Shale gas wells in Pennsylvania were correlated with spatial and temporal information to reveal underlying trends. Chloride was used as a reference for the comparison as its concentration varies with time of contact with the shale. Most major cations (i.e., Ca, Mg, Sr) were well-correlated with chloride concentration while barium exhibited strong influence of geographic location (i.e., higher levels in the northeast than in southwest). Comparisons against brines from adjacent formations provide insight into the origin of salinity in produced waters from Marcellus Shale. Major cations exhibited variations that cannot be explained by simple dilution of existing formation brine with the fracturing fluid, especially during the early flowback water production when the composition of the fracturing fluid and solid-liquid interactions influence the quality of the produced water. Water quality analysis in this study may help guide water management strategies for development of unconventional gas resources.

  13. Vertical Gradients in Water Chemistry and Age in the Northern High Plains Aquifer, Nebraska, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, P.B.; Böhlke, J.K.; Carney, C.P.

    2007-01-01

    The northern High Plains aquifer is the primary source of water used for domestic, industrial, and irrigation purposes in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming. Despite the aquifer's importance to the regional economy, fundamental ground-water characteristics, such as vertical gradients in water chemistry and age, remain poorly defined. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, water samples from nested, short-screen monitoring wells installed in the northern High Plains aquifer were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace elements, dissolved organic carbon, pesticides, stable and radioactive isotopes, dissolved gases, and other parameters to evaluate vertical gradients in water chemistry and age in the aquifer. Chemical data and tritium and radiocarbon ages show that water in the aquifer was chemically and temporally stratified in the study area, with a relatively thin zone of recently recharged water (less than 50 years) near the water table overlying a thicker zone of older water (1,800 to 15,600 radiocarbon years). In areas where irrigated agriculture was an important land use, the recently recharged ground water was characterized by elevated concentrations of major ions and nitrate and the detection of pesticide compounds. Below the zone of agricultural influence, major-ion concentrations exhibited small increases with depth and distance along flow paths because of rock/water interactions. The concentration increases were accounted for primarily by dissolved calcium, sodium, bicarbonate, sulfate, and silica. In general, the chemistry of ground water throughout the aquifer was of high quality. None of the approximately 90 chemical constituents analyzed in each sample exceeded primary drinking-water standards. Mass-balance models indicate that changes in ground-water chemistry along flow paths in the aquifer can be accounted for by small amounts of feldspar and calcite dissolution; goethite and

  14. Significance of apparent discrepanices in water ages derived from atmospheric radionuclides at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, B.; Fabryka-Martin, J.; Wolfsberg, A.; Robinson, B.; Sharma, P.

    1995-02-23

    Cosmogenic {sup 36}Cl and {sup 14}C produced in the atmosphere are being used to estimate water residence times in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. Results thus far show a systematic discordance in that {sup 14}C-based ages are generally one to two orders of magnitude younger than {sup 36}Cl-based ages. This lack of concordance probably arises from one or more of the following reasons: (1) different transport mechanisms, e.g., vapor transport for {sup 14}C; (2) different magnitudes and timing of bomb-pulse signals; (3) mixing of waters from different flow paths; and (4) possibly inadequate methods for correcting for the effect of sample contamination by carbon or chlorine from sources other than the infiltrating water. Preliminary numerical simulation results using the FEHMN code suggest that spatial variation in infiltration rates can enhance lateral flow and mixing that leads to discordance in apparent ages depending on the dating technique. Examples are presented to show that disparate radiometric ages are inevitable and to be expected where mixing of waters of markedly different ages occurs.

  15. Size of age-0 crappies (Pomoxis spp.) relative to reservoir habitats and water levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaczka, Levi J.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2014-01-01

    Variable year-class strength is common in crappie Pomoxis spp. populations in many reservoirs, yet the mechanisms behind this variability are poorly understood. Size-dependent mortality of age-0 fishes has long been recognized in the population ecology literature; however, investigations about the effects of environmental factors on age-0 crappie size are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine if differences existed in total length of age-0 crappies between embayment and floodplain habitats in reservoirs, while accounting for potential confounding effects of water level and crappie species. To this end, we examined size of age-0 crappies in four flood-control reservoirs in northwest Mississippi over 4years. Age-0 crappies inhabiting uplake floodplain habitats grew to a larger size than fish in downlake embayments, but this trend depended on species, length of time a reservoir was dewatered in the months preceding spawning, and reservoir water level in the months following spawning. The results from our study indicate that water-level management may focus not only on allowing access to quality nursery habitat, but that alternating water levels on a multiyear schedule could increase the quality of degraded littoral habitats.

  16. Linking soil water balance and water age with leaching of nitrate to groundwater in an agricultural setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigler, W.; Ewing, S. A.; Payn, R. A.; Jones, C. A.; Weissmann, G. S.

    2013-12-01

    The effects of land management on groundwater chemistry are often poorly understood due to uncertainties about residence times of water and solutes in the unsaturated and the saturated zones. In central Montana, a strath terrace mantled with 20-100 cm of loess-derived clay loam is composed of 5-10 meters of gravel hosting a shallow aquifer overlying shale. The landform is isolated from mountain front stream recharge and drained by springs at the gravel/shale interface surrounding the terrace. Ninety three percent of the terrace surface is cultivated, predominantly for production of small grains. A typical cropping system on the terrace is a three year rotation of winter wheat, spring wheat or barley, and fallow, where each phase represents a different regime of evapotranspiration, recharge, fertilizer application, mineralization and nitrate leaching to groundwater. Age of water in discharge from the perched aquifer in the gravel can potentially be characterized by monitoring springs and streams that are ultimately sourced by infiltration and recharge across the terrace. Work presented here couples a simple daily soil water balance model with ground and surface water chemistry to infer travel times through the unsaturated and saturated zones. These results are evaluated against estimates of groundwater age derived from pool turnover time calculations, finite difference groundwater flow modeling, and use of chemical age tracers.

  17. A database of volcanic hazards and their physical impacts to critical infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Grant; Wilson, Thomas; Deligne, Natalia

    2013-04-01

    Approximately 10% of the world's population lives within 100 km of historically active volcanoes. Consequently, considerable critical infrastructure is at risk of being affected by volcanic eruptions, where critical infrastructure includes: electricity and wastewater networks; water supply systems; transport routes; communications; and buildings. Appropriate risk management strategies are required to minimise the risk to infrastructure, which necessitates detailed understanding of both volcanic hazards and infrastructure parameters and vulnerabilities. To address this, we are developing a database of the physical impacts and vulnerability of critical infrastructure observed during/following historic eruptions, placed in the context of event-specific volcanic hazard and infrastructure parameters. Our database considers: volcanic hazard parameters for each case study eruption (tephra thickness, dynamic pressure of PDCs, etc.); inventory of infrastructure elements present within the study area (geographical extent, age, etc.); the type and number of impacts and disruption caused to particular infrastructure sectors; and the quantified assessment of the vulnerability of built environments. Data have been compiled from a wide range of literature, focussing in particular on impact assessment studies which document in detail the damage sustained by critical infrastructure during a given eruption. We are creating a new vulnerability ranking to quantify the vulnerability of built environments affected by volcanic eruptions. The ranking is based upon a range of physical impacts and service disruption criteria, and is assigned to each case study. This ranking will permit comparison of vulnerabilities between case studies as well as indicate expected vulnerability during future eruptions. We are also developing hazard intensity thresholds indicating when specific damage states are expected for different critical infrastructure sectors. Finally, we have developed a data quality

  18. Ground-Water Age Dating in Community Wells in Oswego County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Komor, Stephen C.

    2001-01-01

    Officials in Oswego County, in north-central New York, have been concerned about potential contamination of community wells. Many of these wells are completed in unconfined glacial sand-and-gravel aquifers, although some are finished in till or in the underlying fractured and jointed bedrock of Late Ordovician and Early Silurian ages. Local shallow ground-water flow is affected by the orientation and hydraulic characteristics of the local topography and surficial sediments, whereas deeper regional flow is toward Lake Ontario. Concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons and tritium in water samples from 28 wells in the county were measured in 1999 for ground-water-age dating; results yield recharge dates ranging from about 1955 to 1994. The presence of water older than about 15 years in the sand-and-gravel aquifers differs from previous concepts of recharge sources and ground-water movement that were based on numerical modeling of ground-water flow. Young ground water (1 to 5 years old) probably represents recharge from recent precipitation and seepage from streams, whereas the oldest ground water (more than 40 years old) probably is derived from the fractured bedrock that underlies the glacial sediments or has moved along long flow paths in unconsolidated deposits, or through poorly permeable material. Some sand-and-gravel aquifers in Oswego County contain mixtures of old and young water. Wellhead-protection efforts need to focus on protection of the quality of young water in the sand-and-gravel aquifers because young water is more likely to be contaminated than old water.

  19. Effects of water-aging on self-healing dental composite containing microcapsules

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Junling; Weir, Michael D.; Melo, Mary Anne S.; Strassler, Howard E.; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to develop a self-healing dental composite containing poly(urea-formaldehyde) (PUF) shells with triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and N,N-dihydroxyethyl-p-toluidine (DHEPT) as healing liquid, and to investigate the mechanical properties of the composite and its self-healing efficacy after water-aging for 6 months. Methods PUF microspheres were synthesized encapsulating a TEGDMA-DHEPT healing liquid. Composite containing 30% of a resin matrix and 70% of glass fillers by mass was incorporated with 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% of microcapsules. A flexural test was used to measure flexural strength and elastic modulus. A single edge V-notched beam method was used to measure fracture toughness (KIC) and self-healing efficacy. Specimens were water-aged at 37 °C for 1 d to 6 months and then tested for self-healing. Fractured specimens were healed while being immersed in water to examine self-healing efficacy, in comparison with that in air. Results Incorporation of up to 7.5% of microcapsules into the resin composite achieved effective self-healing, without adverse effects on the virgin mechanical properties of the composite (p > 0.1). An excellent self-healing efficacy of 64%–77% recovery was obtained (mean ± sd; n = 6). Six months of water-aging did not decrease the self-healing efficacy compared to 1 d (p > 0.1). Exposure to water did not decrease the healing efficacy, compared to that healed in air (p > 0.1). Conclusions A composite was developed with excellent self-healing efficacy even while being immersed in water. The self-healing efficacy did not decrease with increasing water-aging time for 6 months. Clinical significance The novel self-healing composite may be promising for dental applications to heal cracks, resist fracture, and increase the durability and longevity. PMID:26808158

  20. Kwajalein Infrastructure Prioritization Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    GROUNDS-MAINTENANCE-SERVICE- CONTRACT-GUIDE-US-Army-Center>. David, Leonard. “ SpaceX Private Rocket Shifts to Island Launch.” 12 Aug. 2005. TechMedia...Network. 11 Sept. 2011. <http://www.space.com/1422- spacex -private-rocket-shifts-island-launch.html>. Kwajalein Infrastructure Prioritization

  1. An Infrastructure Roadmap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furgeson, Steven P.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how a master infrastructure plan for electrical and mechanical systems can help determine annual maintenance budgets, form annual capital-improvement budgets, take a snapshot of existing conditions, and lead to better energy management. Discusses important elements in such plans. (EV)

  2. Infrastructure Survey 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 the Group of Eight (Go8) released a first report on the state of its buildings and infrastructure, based on a survey undertaken in 2007. A further survey was undertaken in 2009, updating some information about the assessed quality, value and condition of buildings and use of space. It also collated data related to aspects of the estate not…

  3. An Infrastructure Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2013-01-01

    This article invites teachers to let their students' imaginations soar as they become part of a team that will design a whole new kind of living technological museum, a facility that celebrates the world of infrastructure. In this activity, a new two-story building will be built, occupying a vacant corner parcel of land, approximately 150…

  4. Assessment of age-dependent uranium intake due to drinking water in Hyderabad, India.

    PubMed

    Balbudhe, A Y; Srivastava, S K; Vishwaprasad, K; Srivastava, G K; Tripathi, R M; Puranik, V D

    2012-03-01

    A study has been done to assess the uranium intake through drinking water. The area of study is twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad, India. Uranium concentration in water samples was analysed by laser-induced fluorimetry. The associated age-dependent uranium intake was estimated by taking the prescribed water intake values. The concentration of uranium varies from below detectable level (minimum detectable level = 0.20 ± 0.02 μg l(-1)) to 2.50 ± 0.18 μg l(-1), with the geometric mean (GM) of 0.67 μg l(-1) in tap water, whereas in ground water, the range is 0.60 ± 0.05 to 82 ± 7.1 µg l(-1) with GM of 10.07 µg l(-1). The daily intake of uranium by drinking water pathway through tap water for various age groups is found to vary from 0.14 to 9.50 µg d(-1) with mean of 1.55 µg d(-1).

  5. Impacts of forest age on water use in Mountain ash forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Stephen A.; Beringer, Jason; Hutley, Lindsay B.; McGuire, A. David; Van Dijk, Albert; Kilinc, Musa

    2008-01-01

    Runoff from mountain ash (Eucalyptus regnans F.Muell.) forested catchments has been shown to decline significantly in the few decades following fire returning to pre-fire levels in the following centuries owing to changes in ecosystem water use with stand age in a relationship known as Kuczera's model. We examined this relationship between catchment runoff and stand age by measuring whole-ecosystem exchanges of water using an eddy covariance system measuring forest evapotranspiration (ET) combined with sap-flow measurements of tree water use, with measurements made across a chronosequence of three sites (24, 80 and 296 years since fire). At the 296-year old site eddy covariance systems were installed above the E. regnans overstorey and above the distinct rainforest understorey. Contrary to predictions from the Kuczera curve, we found that measurements of whole-forest ET decreased by far less across stand age between 24 and 296 years. Although the overstorey tree water use declined by 1.8mmday-1 with increasing forest age (an annual decrease of 657mm) the understorey ET contributed between 1.2 and 1.5mmday-1, 45% of the total ET (3mmday-1) at the old growth forest.

  6. 77 FR 16270 - Updated Aging Management Criteria for Reactor Vessel Internal Components of Pressurized Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... COMMISSION Updated Aging Management Criteria for Reactor Vessel Internal Components of Pressurized Water Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft interim staff guidance; request for comment... PWR Reactor Vessel Internal Components.'' This draft LR-ISG revises the guidance in the...

  7. Holocene reservoir age corrections for the Norwegian Sea based on cold-water corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson Dahl, Carin; Linge, Henriette; Ascough, Philippa; Fietske, Jan; Telford, Richard

    2010-05-01

    There is an offset in 14C age in organisms that lived contemporaneously in the atmosphere relative to those that lived in other carbon reservoirs, such as the ocean. Information about this offset, or reservoir age, R(t), is needed to accurately calibrate marine 14C dates. Although the reservoir age of the ocean is not constant, difficulties in reconstruction the temporal changes in R(t) through time often result in the use of a constant reservoir age correction based on the pre-industrial estimate. This makes detailed comparisons between different archives difficult. Holocene cold-water corals are abundant on the Norwegian shelf and can be dated independently using two different radiometric dating method. The reservoir age correction (?R) of surface ocean waters in the eastern Norwegian Sea was determined for two Holocene periods (9763-9262 and 3097-365 cal. BP) using paired U/Th and AMS 14C dating of nineteen samples of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa. Assessment of Holocene ?R values show that early Holocene ?R values are higher compared to the late Holocene. In addition, there also appears to be a trend of increasing ?R values for the past 3000 years BP in the eastern Norwegian Sea. Comparisons to ?R values from the British Isles point towards that there is a latitudinal dependence in ?R in the North Atlantic realm.

  8. Ground water age and nitrate distribution within a glacial aquifer beneath a thick unsaturated zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnston, C.T.; Cook, P.G.; Frape, S.K.; Plummer, L.N.; Busenberg, E.; Blackport, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    The impact on ground water quality from increasing fertilizer application rates over the past 40 years is evaluated within a glacial aquifer system beneath a thick unsaturated zone. Ground water ages within the aquifer could not be accurately determined from the measured distribution of 3H and as a result, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and 3H/3He dating techniques were applied. Beneath a 25 m thick unsaturated zone, ground water ages based on CFC-11 concentrations were greater than 3H/3He ground water ages by 6 to 10 years, due to the time lag associated with the diffusion of CFCs through the unsaturated zone. Using the corrected CFC-11 and 3H/3He ground water ages and the estimated travel time of 3H within the unsaturated zone, the approximate position of ground water recharged since the mid-1960s was determined. Nitrate concentrations within post mid-1960s recharge were generally elevated and near or above the drinking water limit of 10 mg-N/L. In comparison, pre mid-1960s recharge had nitrate concentrations <2.5 mg-N/L. The elevated NO3- concentrations in post mid-1960s recharge are attributed mainly to increasing fertilizer application rates between 1970 and the mid- to late 1980s. Anaerobic conditions suitable for denitrification are present within pre mid-1960s recharge indicating that removal of DO is a slow process taking tens of years. Over the next 10 to 20 years, nitrate concentrations at municipal well fields that are currently capturing aerobic ground water recharged near the mid-1960s are expected to increase because of the higher fertilizer application rates beginning in the 1970s and 1980s.The impact on ground water quality from increasing fertilizer application rates over the past 40 years is evaluated within a glacial aquifer system beneath a thick unsaturated zone. Beneath a 25 m thick unsaturated zone, ground water ages based on CFC-11 concentrations were greater than 3H/3He ground water ages by 6 to 10 years, due to the time lag associated with the

  9. Solute effects on the interaction between water and ethanol in aged whiskey.

    PubMed

    Nose, Akira; Hojo, Masashi; Suzuki, Mika; Ueda, Tadaharu

    2004-08-25

    The hydrogen-bonding structure of water-ethanol in whiskey was examined on the basis of (1)H NMR chemical shifts of the OH of water and ethanol. Phenolic acids and aldehydes (gallic, vanillic, and syringic acids; vanillin and syringaldehyde) exhibited their structure-making effects regardless of the presence or absence of 0.1 or 0.2 mol dm(-3) acetic acid. The OH-proton chemical shifts were measured for 32 malt whiskey samples of a distillery, aged for 0-23 years in five different types of casks. The OH-proton chemical shift values of the whiskies shifted toward the lower field in proportion to their contents of total phenols. It can be concluded that the strength of the hydrogen bonding in aged whiskies is directly predominated by acidic and phenolic components gained in oak wood casks and not dependent on just the aging time.

  10. Sources of nitrate contamination and age of water in large karstic springs of Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.G.

    2004-01-01

    In response to concerns about the steady increase in nitrate concentrations over the past several decades in many of Florida's first magnitude spring waters (discharge ???2.8 m3/s), multiple isotopic and other chemical tracers were analyzed in water samples from 12 large springs to assess sources and timescales of nitrate contamination. Nitrate-N concentrations in spring waters ranged from 0.50 to 4.2 mg/L, and ??15N values of nitrate in spring waters ranged from 2.6 to 7.9 per mil. Most ??15N values were below 6 per mil indicating that inorganic fertilizers were the dominant source of nitrogen in these waters. Apparent ages of groundwater discharging from springs ranged from 5 to about 35 years, based on multi-tracer analyses (CFC-12, CFC-113, SF6, 3H/3He) and a piston flow assumption; however, apparent tracer ages generally were not concordant. The most reliable spring-water ages appear to be based on tritium and 3He data, because concentrations of CFCs and SF6 in several spring waters were much higher than would be expected from equilibration with modern atmospheric concentrations. Data for all tracers were most consistent with output curves for exponential and binary mixing models that represent mixtures of water in the Upper Floridan aquifer recharged since the early 1960s. Given that groundwater transit times are on the order of decades and are related to the prolonged input of nitrogen from multiple sources to the aquifer, nitrate could persist in groundwater that flows toward springs for several decades due to slow transport of solutes through the aquifer matrix.

  11. Water age and stream solute dynamics at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (US)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botter, Gianluca; Benettin, Paolo; McGuire, Kevin; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The contribution discusses experimental and modeling results from a headwater catchment at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (New Hampshire, USA) to explore the link between stream solute dynamics and water age. A theoretical framework based on water age dynamics, which represents a general basis for characterizing solute transport at the catchment scale, is used to model both conservative and weathering-derived solutes. Based on the available information about the hydrology of the site, an integrated transport model was developed and used to estimate the relevant hydrochemical fluxes. The model was designed to reproduce the deuterium content of streamflow and allowed for the estimate of catchment water storage and dynamic travel time distributions (TTDs). Within this framework, dissolved silicon and sodium concentration in streamflow were simulated by implementing first-order chemical kinetics based explicitly on dynamic TTD, thus upscaling local geochemical processes to catchment scale. Our results highlight the key role of water stored within the subsoil glacial material in both the short-term and long-term solute circulation at Hubbard Brook. The analysis of the results provided by the calibrated model allowed a robust estimate of the emerging concentration-discharge relationship, streamflow age distributions (including the fraction of event water) and storage size, and their evolution in time due to hydrologic variability.

  12. Vertical Gradients in Water Chemistry and Age in the Southern High Plains Aquifer, Texas, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, P.B.; Böhlke, J.K.; Lehman, T.M.

    2004-01-01

    The southern High Plains aquifer is the primary source of water used for domestic, industrial, and irrigation purposes in parts of New Mexico and Texas. Despite the aquifer's importance to the overall economy of the southern High Plains, fundamental ground-water characteristics, such as vertical gradients in water chemistry and age, remain poorly defined. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, water samples from nested, short-screen monitoring wells installed in the southern High Plains aquifer at two locations (Castro and Hale Counties, Texas) were analyzed for field parameters, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, dissolved organic carbon, pesticides, stable and radioactive isotopes, and dissolved gases to evaluate vertical gradients in water chemistry and age in the aquifer. Tritium measurements indicate that recent (post-1953) recharge was present near the water table and that deeper water was recharged before 1953. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen were largest (2.6 to 5.6 milligrams per liter) at the water table and decreased with depth below the water table. The smallest concentrations were less than 0.5 milligram per liter. The largest major-ion concentrations generally were detected at the water table because of the effects of overlying agricultural activities, as indicated by postbomb tritium concentrations and elevated nitrate and pesticide concentrations at the water table. Below the zone of agricultural influence, major-ion concentrations exhibited small increases with depth and distance along flow paths because of rock/water interactions and mixing with water from the underlying aquifer in rocks of Cretaceous age. The concentration increases primarily were accounted for by dissolved sodium, bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate. Nitrite plus nitrate concentrations at the water table were 2.0 to 6.1 milligrams per liter as nitrogen, and concentrations substantially decreased with depth in the aquifer to a

  13. CP corrosion control of municipal infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Gummow, R.A.

    2000-02-01

    Since its introduction in 1824, cathodic protection (CP) technology has developed to become a fundamental tool for preventing corrosion on municipal infrastructure. Potable water storage tanks and piping, prestressed concrete cylinder pipe, reinforced concrete structures, bridges, parking structures, underground fuel tanks, and effluent treatment clarifiers now benefit from this technology.

  14. Closed-form approximations for two-dimensional groundwater age patterns in a fresh water lens.

    PubMed

    Greskowiak, Janek; Röper, Tania; Post, Vincent E A

    2013-01-01

    Simple closed-form approximations are presented for calculating the steady-state groundwater age distribution in two-dimensional vertical cross sections of idealized fresh water lenses overlying salt water, for aquifers that are vertically semi-infinite and of finite thickness. The approximations are developed on the basis of existing one-dimensional analytical solutions for travel-time calculation in fresh water lenses and approximate streamline formulations. The two-dimensional age distributions based on the closed-form solutions match convincingly with numerical simulations. As expected, notable deviations from the numerical solution are encountered at the groundwater flow divide and when submarine groundwater discharge occurs. Ratios of recharge over hydraulic conductivities are varied to explore how the magnitude of the deviations changes, and it is found that the approximate closed-form solutions perform well over a range of conditions found in natural systems.

  15. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  16. 18 CFR 388.113 - Accessing critical energy infrastructure information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... energy infrastructure information. 388.113 Section 388.113 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES INFORMATION AND REQUESTS § 388.113 Accessing critical energy infrastructure information. (a) Scope. This section governs access...

  17. 18 CFR 388.113 - Accessing critical energy infrastructure information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... energy infrastructure information. 388.113 Section 388.113 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES INFORMATION AND REQUESTS § 388.113 Accessing critical energy infrastructure information. (a) Scope. This section governs access...

  18. 18 CFR 388.113 - Accessing critical energy infrastructure information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... energy infrastructure information. 388.113 Section 388.113 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES INFORMATION AND REQUESTS § 388.113 Accessing critical energy infrastructure information. (a) Scope. This section governs access...

  19. 18 CFR 388.113 - Accessing critical energy infrastructure information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... energy infrastructure information. 388.113 Section 388.113 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES INFORMATION AND REQUESTS § 388.113 Accessing critical energy infrastructure information. (a) Scope. This section governs access...

  20. 18 CFR 388.113 - Accessing critical energy infrastructure information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... energy infrastructure information. 388.113 Section 388.113 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES INFORMATION AND REQUESTS § 388.113 Accessing critical energy infrastructure information. (a) Scope. This section governs access...

  1. 18 CFR 35.35 - Transmission infrastructure investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transmission... AND TARIFFS Transmission Infrastructure Investment Provisions § 35.35 Transmission infrastructure...) rate treatments for transmission of electric energy in interstate commerce by public utilities for...

  2. 18 CFR 35.35 - Transmission infrastructure investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transmission... AND TARIFFS Transmission Infrastructure Investment Provisions § 35.35 Transmission infrastructure...) rate treatments for transmission of electric energy in interstate commerce by public utilities for...

  3. 18 CFR 35.35 - Transmission infrastructure investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transmission... AND TARIFFS Transmission Infrastructure Investment Provisions § 35.35 Transmission infrastructure...) rate treatments for transmission of electric energy in interstate commerce by public utilities for...

  4. The link between access to urban environmental infrastructure services and health. USAID / Indonesia shifts program emphasis.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    This article describes urban women's role and access to sanitation and a safe water supply in Indonesia, and links potential improvements in women's health to improved access to urban infrastructure. In 1996, USAID discovered that morbidity was higher in female-headed households in urban areas. Female-headed households were only 6.5% of total households, but had 27% more illnesses than male-headed ones. USAID's study found that the health related problems of women were related to their poverty, illiteracy, lack of resources, and lack of access to the cleanest drinking water and wastewater disposal. Age was not a factor. Women had less access to clean drinking water, bathing, and toilet facilities. The USAID mission determined that its gender neutral approach to providing services was not reaching the neediest group. Women needed greater access to healthy urban environmental structures. The USAID shifted its erroneous assumption that female-headed households were headed by mostly old and widowed women and redesigned its infrastructure development to ensure that female-headed households received improved water and sanitation services. The USAID Mission also changed its practices by including women in planning and management of urban infrastructure services. The change was based on the belief that women decision-makers would improve how water, sanitation, and solid waste disposal services were provided. The Mission targeted 20% of its program funds for community participation of women. This effort will provide valuable insight into the role of women in urban service delivery.

  5. Structural health monitoring of civil infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Brownjohn, J M W

    2007-02-15

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) is a term increasingly used in the last decade to describe a range of systems implemented on full-scale civil infrastructures and whose purposes are to assist and inform operators about continued 'fitness for purpose' of structures under gradual or sudden changes to their state, to learn about either or both of the load and response mechanisms. Arguably, various forms of SHM have been employed in civil infrastructure for at least half a century, but it is only in the last decade or two that computer-based systems are being designed for the purpose of assisting owners/operators of ageing infrastructure with timely information for their continued safe and economic operation. This paper describes the motivations for and recent history of SHM applications to various forms of civil infrastructure and provides case studies on specific types of structure. It ends with a discussion of the present state-of-the-art and future developments in terms of instrumentation, data acquisition, communication systems and data mining and presentation procedures for diagnosis of infrastructural 'health'.

  6. The radiocarbon age of calcite dissolving at the sea floor: Estimates from pore water data

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, W.R.; McNichol, A.P.; McCorkle, D.C.

    2000-04-01

    The authors measured the radiocarbon content and stable isotopic composition of pore water and bottom water {Sigma}CO{sub 2}, sedimentary organic carbon, and CaCO{sub 3} at two sites on the Ceara Rise, one underlying bottom water that is supersaturated with respect to calcite (Site B), the other underlying under saturated bottom water (Site G). The results were combined with pore water O{sub 2}, {Sigma}CO{sub 2}, and Ca{sup 2+} profiles (Martin and Sayles, 1996) to estimate the radiocarbon content of the CaCO{sub 3} that is dissolving in the sediment mixed layer. At Site G, the CaCO{sub 3} that is dissolving in the upper 2 cm of the sediments is clearly younger (richer in {sup 14}C) than the bulk sedimentary CaCO{sub 3}, indicating that nonhomogeneous CaCO{sub 3} dissolution occurs there. The case for nonhomogeneous dissolution is much weaker at the site underlying supersaturated bottom water. The results indicate that nonhomogeneous dissolution occurs in sediments underlying under saturated bottom water, that the dissolution is rapid relative to the rate of homogenization of the CaCO{sub 3} in the mixed layer by bioturbation, and that the dissolution rate of CaCO{sub 3} decreases as it ages in the sediment mixed layer. The results support the hypothesis, based on solid phase analyses, that the preferential dissolution of young (i.e., radiocarbon-rich) CaCO{sub 3} leads to a pattern of increasing radiocarbon age of mixed-layer CaCO{sub 3} as the degree of under saturation of bottom water increases (Keir, 1984; Broecker et al., 1991).

  7. Age-dependent dose assessment of 226Ra from bottled water intake.

    PubMed

    Bronzovic, Maja; Marovic, Gordana

    2005-05-01

    Water may present a source of prolonged exposure to naturally occurring radionuclides. One of the most frequently occurring radionuclides in natural mineral and spring waters is 226Ra and its decay products. The contribution of drinking water to the total exposure is very small, at about 5% of the average effective dose attributable annually to natural background radiation, but that exposure contributes to the risk of adverse health consequences. In this study the mean values of 226Ra concentration determined in natural mineral and spring bottled waters range from 6 to 412 mBq L(-1), which is in accord with Croatian legislation. 226Ra effective doses per year from spring water consumption range up to 86 microSv, while 226Ra effective doses per year from mineral water consumption show much higher values. The highest 226Ra effective doses per year from mineral waters consumption, which are up to seven times higher than the dose recommended by WHO (100 microSv), were found in infants and teens. Based on this study, drinking of certain brands of bottled mineral water is not recommended for these age groups because assessed 226Ra effective doses per year exceed the recommended limits. From other research it is known that testosterone appears in elevated concentration during these life periods and affects bone calcification. Therefore, testosterone could affect the retention of 226Ra into the bone. To make more precise conclusions further research is necessary. Adults and especially elderly people are much less susceptible to the presence of 226Ra. According to the results obtained in this study, 226Ra effective doses per year assessed for these age groups were considerably lower (i.e., 10 microSv).

  8. Infrastructure Vulnerability Assessment Model (I-VAM).

    PubMed

    Ezell, Barry Charles

    2007-06-01

    Quantifying vulnerability to critical infrastructure has not been adequately addressed in the literature. Thus, the purpose of this article is to present a model that quantifies vulnerability. Vulnerability is defined as a measure of system susceptibility to threat scenarios. This article asserts that vulnerability is a condition of the system and it can be quantified using the Infrastructure Vulnerability Assessment Model (I-VAM). The model is presented and then applied to a medium-sized clean water system. The model requires subject matter experts (SMEs) to establish value functions and weights, and to assess protection measures of the system. Simulation is used to account for uncertainty in measurement, aggregate expert assessment, and to yield a vulnerability (Omega) density function. Results demonstrate that I-VAM is useful to decisionmakers who prefer quantification to qualitative treatment of vulnerability. I-VAM can be used to quantify vulnerability to other infrastructures, supervisory control and data acquisition systems (SCADA), and distributed control systems (DCS).

  9. Study on the behavior and mechanism of polycarbonate with hot-water aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, L. P.; Zhao, Y. X.; Zhou, C. H.; Huang, Y. H.; Tang, M.; Gao, J. G.

    2016-07-01

    The present work was concerned with hot-water aging behavior and mechanism of Bisphenol A polycarbonate (PC) used as food and packaging materials. It indicated that with the aging time prolonged, PC sample had internal defects and the mechanical properties of PC materials changed not too much, molecular weight decreased, thermal stability declined. Phenolic hydroxyl absorption intensity enhanced in IR spectra and the maximum absorption wavelength red shift of benzene in UV-Vis spectra, the level of BPA increased. The color change of PC sample was not apparent.

  10. In Situ Nuclear Characterization Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Smith; J. Rory Kennedy

    2011-11-01

    To be able to evolve microstructure with a prescribed in situ process, an effective measurement infrastructure must exist. This interdisciplinary infrastructure needs to be developed in parallel with in situ sensor technology. This paper discusses the essential elements in an effective infrastructure.

  11. Water-related infrastructure in a region of post-earthquake Haiti: high levels of fecal contamination and need for ongoing monitoring.

    PubMed

    Widmer, Jocelyn M; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Alam, Meer T; Morrissey, B David; Redden, Edsel; Rashid, Mohammed H; Diamond, Ulrica; Ali, Afsar; De Rochars, Madsen Beau; Blackburn, Jason K; Johnson, Judith A; Morris, J Glenn

    2014-10-01

    We inventoried non-surface water sources in the Leogane and Gressier region of Haiti (approximately 270 km(2)) in 2012 and 2013 and screened water from 345 sites for fecal coliforms and Vibrio cholerae. An international organization/non-governmental organization responsible for construction could be identified for only 56% of water points evaluated. Sixteen percent of water points were non-functional at any given time; 37% had evidence of fecal contamination, with spatial clustering of contaminated sites. Among improved water sources (76% of sites), 24.6% had fecal coliforms versus 80.9% in unimproved sources. Fecal contamination levels increased significantly from 36% to 51% immediately after the passage of Tropical Storm Sandy in October of 2012, with a return to 34% contamination in March of 2013. Long-term sustainability of potable water delivery at a regional scale requires ongoing assessment of water quality, functionality, and development of community-based management schemes supported by a national plan for the management of potable water.

  12. Water-Related Infrastructure in a Region of Post-Earthquake Haiti: High Levels of Fecal Contamination and Need for Ongoing Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Widmer, Jocelyn M.; Weppelmann, Thomas A.; Alam, Meer T.; Morrissey, B. David; Redden, Edsel; Rashid, Mohammed H.; Diamond, Ulrica; Ali, Afsar; De Rochars, Madsen Beau; Blackburn, Jason K.; Johnson, Judith A.; Morris, J. Glenn

    2014-01-01

    We inventoried non-surface water sources in the Leogane and Gressier region of Haiti (approximately 270 km2) in 2012 and 2013 and screened water from 345 sites for fecal coliforms and Vibrio cholerae. An international organization/non-governmental organization responsible for construction could be identified for only 56% of water points evaluated. Sixteen percent of water points were non-functional at any given time; 37% had evidence of fecal contamination, with spatial clustering of contaminated sites. Among improved water sources (76% of sites), 24.6% had fecal coliforms versus 80.9% in unimproved sources. Fecal contamination levels increased significantly from 36% to 51% immediately after the passage of Tropical Storm Sandy in October of 2012, with a return to 34% contamination in March of 2013. Long-term sustainability of potable water delivery at a regional scale requires ongoing assessment of water quality, functionality, and development of community-based management schemes supported by a national plan for the management of potable water. PMID:25071005

  13. Simulation of Water Age and Residence Time in the New York Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W. G.; Wilkin, J. L.; Schofield, O. M.

    2008-12-01

    Aiming at investigating the time scale of transporting biogeochemical tracers in the New York Bight (NYB), this work looks into the time scale associated with freshwater propagation in NYB. The Constituent-oriented Age and Residence-time Theory is applied in Regional Ocean Modeling System and then verified. Three-year mean age and two-year mean residence time simulations are carried out. Comparison between snapshots of modeled surface freshwater mean age and satellite measured channel ratio, an empirical proxy of age, shows agreement on the general patterns. Least square fit gives the first order estimation of the relationship between channel ratio and mean age. Time series show temporal and spatial variation in mean age, and seasonal averages demonstrate seasonality of surface mean age consistent with surface circulation. Correlation between surface mean age and wind shows major effects wind in different directions has on mean age. Time series of the mean residence time exhibits strong temporal fluctuation in the scale of days, and seasonal averages show seasonality in surface mean residence time, too. The surprising high value of mean residence time along the Long Island coast in spring and summer is caused by the reentry of previously exited water from the eastern boundary after wind changes direction. Correlation between mean residence time and wind shows major effects wind has on the time freshwater and tracers spend in the New York apex area. Results obtained here are very useful for coastal management and studies of local biogeochemical processes and larval dispersal given the ecological and economical importance of the New York Bay.

  14. Lability of drinking water treatment residuals (WTR) immobilized phosphorus: aging and pH effects.

    PubMed

    Agyin-Birikorang, Sampson; O'Connor, George A

    2007-01-01

    Time constraints associated with conducting long-term (>20 yr) field experiments to test the stability of drinking water treatment residuals (WTR) sorbed phosphorus (P) inhibit improved understanding of the fate of sorbed P in soils when important soil properties (e.g., pH) change. We used artificially aged samples to evaluate aging and pH effects on lability of WTR-immobilized P. Artificial aging was achieved through incubation at elevated temperatures (46 or 70 degrees C) for 4.5 yr, and through repeated wetting and drying for 2 yr. Using a modified isotopic ((32)P) dilution technique, coupled with a stepwise acidification procedure, we monitored changes in labile P concentrations over time. This technique enabled evaluation of the effect of pH on the lability of WTR-immobilized P. Within the pH range of 4 to 7, WTR amendment, coupled with artificial aging, ultimately reduced labile P concentrations by > or = 75% relative to the control (no-WTR) samples. Soil samples with different physicochemical properties from two 7.5-yr-old, one-time WTR-amended field sites were utilized to validate the trends observed with the artificially aged samples. Despite the differences in physicochemical properties among the three (two field-aged and one artificially aged) soil samples, similar trends of aging and pH effects on lability of WTR-immobilized P were observed. Labile P concentrations of the WTR-amended field-aged samples of the two sites decreased 6 mo after WTR amendment and the reduction persisted for 7.5 yr, ultimately resulting in > or = 70% reduction, compared to the control plots. We conclude that WTR application is capable of reducing labile P concentration in P-impacted soils, doing so for a long time, and that within the commonly encountered range of pH values for agricultural soils WTR-immobilized P should be stable.

  15. California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project

    SciTech Connect

    Heydorn, Edward C

    2013-03-12

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has completed a comprehensive, multiyear project to demonstrate a hydrogen infrastructure in California. The specific primary objective of the project was to demonstrate a model of a real-world retail hydrogen infrastructure and acquire sufficient data within the project to assess the feasibility of achieving the nation's hydrogen infrastructure goals. The project helped to advance hydrogen station technology, including the vehicle-to-station fueling interface, through consumer experiences and feedback. By encompassing a variety of fuel cell vehicles, customer profiles and fueling experiences, this project was able to obtain a complete portrait of real market needs. The project also opened its stations to other qualified vehicle providers at the appropriate time to promote widespread use and gain even broader public understanding of a hydrogen infrastructure. The project engaged major energy companies to provide a fueling experience similar to traditional gasoline station sites to foster public acceptance of hydrogen. Work over the course of the project was focused in multiple areas. With respect to the equipment needed, technical design specifications (including both safety and operational considerations) were written, reviewed, and finalized. After finalizing individual equipment designs, complete station designs were started including process flow diagrams and systems safety reviews. Material quotes were obtained, and in some cases, depending on the project status and the lead time, equipment was placed on order and fabrication began. Consideration was given for expected vehicle usage and station capacity, standard features needed, and the ability to upgrade the station at a later date. In parallel with work on the equipment, discussions were started with various vehicle manufacturers to identify vehicle demand (short- and long-term needs). Discussions included identifying potential areas most suited for hydrogen fueling stations

  16. Predictive parameters of Legionella pneumophila occurrence in hospital water: HPCs and plumbing system installation age.

    PubMed

    Ghanizadeh, Ghader; Mirmohamadlou, Ali; Esmaeli, Davoud

    2016-09-01

    Occurrence of Legionella pneumophila can be relevant to the installation age and the presence of heterotrophic plate counts (HPCs). This research illustrates L. pneumophila contamination of hospital water in accordance with the installation age and the presence of HPCs. One hundred and fifty samples were collected from hot and cold water systems and cultured on R2A and BCYE agar. L. pneumophila identification was done via specific biochemical tests. HPCs and L. pneumophila were detected in 96 and 37.3 % of the samples, respectively. The mean of HPCs density was 947 ± 998 CFU/ml; therefore, 52 % of the samples had higher densities than 500 CFU/ml. High densities of HPCs (>500 CFU/ml) led to colonization of L. pneumophila (≥1000 CFU/ml), mainly observed in cooling systems, gynecological, sonography, and NICU wards. Chi(2) test demonstrated that higher densities (>500 CFU/ml) of HPCs and L. pneumophila contamination in cold water were more frequent than warm water (OR: 2.3 and 1.49, respectively). Univariate regressions implied a significant difference between HPCs density and installation age in positive and negative tests of L. pneumophila (OR = 1.1, p < 0.001, OR = 1.2, p < 0.001). Mann-Whitney U test implied the significant effects of HPCs and installation age on L. pneumophila occurrences (p < 0.001). Spearman correlation and multivariate linear regression revealed significant differences between L. pneumophila and HPCs densities (r s  = 0.33, p < 0.001 and ß = 0.11, p = 0.02), but nonsignificant difference with installation age (r s  = 0.33, p < 0.001 and ß = 0.0, p = 0.91). The occurrence of L. pneumophila, HPCs, and installation age are relevant; so, plumbing system renovation with appropriate materials and promotion of the effective efforts for hospital's water quality assurance is highly recommended.

  17. Unintentional drowning mortality, by age and body of water: an analysis of 60 countries

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ching-Yih; Wang, Yi-Fong; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Kawach, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Background To examine unintentional drowning mortality by age and body of water across 60 countries, to provide a starting point for further in-depth investigations within individual countries. Methods The latest available three years of mortality data for each country were extracted from WHO Health Statistics and Information Services (updated at 13 November 2013). We calculated mortality rate of unintentional drowning by age group for each country. For countries using International Classification of Disease 10 (ICD-10) detailed 3 or 4 Character List, we further examined the body of water involved. Results A huge variation in age-standardised mortality rate (deaths per 100 000 population) was noted, from 0.12 in Turkey to 9.19 in Guyana. Of the ten countries with the highest age-standardised mortality rate, six (Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, Russia, Ukraine and Moldova) were in Eastern Europe and two (Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan) were in Central Asia. Some countries (Japan, Finland and Greece) had a relatively low rank in mortality rate among children aged 0–4 years, but had a high rank in mortality rate among older adults. On the contrary, South Africa and Colombia had a relatively high rank among children aged 0–4 years, but had a relatively low rank in mortality rate among older adults. With regard to body of water involved, the proportion involving a bathtub was extremely high in Japan (65%) followed by Canada (11%) and the USA (11%). Of the 13 634 drowning deaths involving bathtubs in Japan between 2009 and 2011, 12 038 (88%) were older adults aged 65 years or above. The percentage involving a swimming pool was high in the USA (18%), Australia (13%), and New Zealand (7%). The proportion involving natural water was high in Finland (93%), Panama (87%), and Lithuania (85%). Conclusions After considering the completeness of reporting and quality of classifying drowning deaths across countries, we conclude that drowning is a high-priority public health

  18. Visions for a Pan-European digital data infrastructure for groundwater quantity and quality data relevant for implementation of the Water Framework Directive.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinsby, Klaus; Broers, Hans Peter

    2014-05-01

    The EU Water Framework and Groundwater Directives stipulate that EU member states (MS) should ensure good groundwater chemical and quantitative by 2015. For the assessment of good chemical status the MS have to establish Natural Background Levels (NBLs) and Threshold Values (TVs) for groundwater bodies at risk and compare current concentration levels to these. In addition the MS shall ensure trend reversals in cases where contaminants or water levels show critical increasing or decreasing trends. The EU MS have to demonstrate that the quantitative and chemical status of its groundwater bodies does not put drinking water, ecosystems or other legitimate uses at risk. Easy on-line access to relevant visualizations of groundwater quality and quantity data of e.g. nitrate, chloride, arsenic and water tables in Europe's major aquifer types compiled from national databases would be of great importance for managers, authorities and scientists conducting risk and status assessments. The Water Resources Expert Group of the EuroGeoSurveys propose to develop Pan-European interactive on-line digital maps and visualizations of concentrations levels and trends, as well as calculated natural background levels and threshold values for the most important aquifer types of Europe mainly derived based on principles established in the former EU project "BRIDGE" - Background cRiteria for the IDentification of Groundwater Thresholds. Further, we propose to develop Pan-European digital and dynamic maps and cross sections in close collaboration with ecologists, which delineate dependent or associated terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems across Europe where groundwater quantity and quality plays a significant role in sustaining good ecological status of the ecosystem, and where the water resources and ecosystems are most vulnerable to climate change. Finally, integrated water resources management requires integrated consideration of both deep and shallow groundwater and surface water issues

  19. Slow Desorption of Phenanthrene from Silica Particles: Influence of Pore Size, Pore Water, and Aging Time

    SciTech Connect

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Fortman, Timothy J.; Riley, Robert G.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Wang, Zheming; Truex, Michael J.; Peyton, Brent M.

    2006-01-16

    When micro-porous and meso-porous silica particles were exposed to aqueous phenanthrene solutions for various durations it was observed that sorbed-phase phenanthrene concentrations increased with aging time only for meso-porous but not micro-porous silicas. Desorption equilibrium was reached almost instantaneously for the micro-porous particles while both the rate and extent of desorption decreased with increasing aging time for the meso-porous silicas. These findings indicate that phenanthrene can be sequestered within the internal pore-space of meso-porous silicas while the internal surfaces of micro-porous silicas are not accessible to phenanthrene sorption, possibly due to the presence of physi- or chemi-sorbed water that may sterically hinder the diffusion of phenanthrene inside water-filled micro-pores. By contrast, the internal surfaces of these micro-porous silicas are accessible to phenanthrene when aging methods are employed which assure that pores are devoid of physi-sorbed water. Consequently, when phenanthrene was incorporated into these particles using either supercritical CO2 or via solvent soaking, the aqueous desorption kinetics were extremely slow indicating effective sequestration of phenanthrene inside micro-porous particles. Finally, a two-compartment conceptual model is used to interpret the experimental findings.

  20. Neuromuscular and technical abilities related to age in water-polo players.

    PubMed

    De Siati, Fabio; Laffaye, Guillaume; Gatta, Giorgio; Dello Iacono, Antonio; Ardigò, Luca Paolo; Padulo, Johnny

    2016-08-01

    Testing is one of the important tasks in any multi-step sport programme. In most ball games, coaches assess motor, physical and technical skills on a regular basis in early stages of talent identification in order to further athletes' development. The purpose of the study was to investigate anthropometric variables and vertical jump heights as a free throw effectiveness predictor in water-polo players of different age groups. Two hundred and thirty-six young (10-18 years) male water-polo players partitioned into three age groups underwent anthropometric variables' measures and squat- and countermovement-jump tests, and performed water-polo free throws. Anthropometric variables, vertical jump heights and throw speed - as a proxy for free throw effectiveness - resulted different over age groups. Particularly, throw speed changed from 9.28 to 13.70 m · s(-1) (+48%) from younger to older players. A multiple-regression model indicated that body height, squat-jump height and throw time together explain 52% of variance of throw speed. In conclusion, tall height, high lower limb power and throwing quickness appeared to be relevant determinants for effective free throws. Such indications can help coaches during talent identification and development processes, even by means of novel training strategies. Further research is needed over different maturity statuses.

  1. Growth of Byssochlamys Nivea in Pineapple Juice Under the Effect of Water Activity and Ascospore Age

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, M.; Miorelli, S.; Massaguer, P.R.; Aragão, G.M.F.

    2011-01-01

    The study of thermal resistant mould, including Byssochlamys nivea, is of extreme importance since it has been associated with fruit and fruit products. The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of water activity (aw) and ascospore age (I) on the growth of Byssochlamys nivea in pineapple juice. Mold growth was carried out under different conditions of water activity (aw) (0.99, 0.96, 0.95, 0.93, 0.90) and ascospore age (I) (30, 51, 60, 69, 90 days). Growth parameters as length of adaptation phase (λ), maximum specific growth rate (µmax) and maximum diameter reached by the colony (A) were obtained through the fit of the Modified Gompertz model to experimental data (measuring radial colony diameter). Statistica 6.0 was used for statistical analyses (significance level α = 0.05). The results obtained clearly showed that water activity is statistically significant and that it influences all growth parameters, while ascospore age does not have any statistically significant influence on growth parameters. Also, these data showed that by increasing aw from 0.90 to 0.99, the λ value substantially decreased, while µmax and A values rose. The data contributed for the understanding of the behavior of B. nivea in pineapple juice. Therefore, it provided mathematical models that can well predict growth parameters, also helping on microbiological control and products’ shelf life determination. PMID:24031622

  2. Influence of Sea Water Aging on the Mechanical Behaviour of Acrylic Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P.; Le Gac, P.-Y.; Le Gall, M.

    2016-07-01

    A new matrix resin was recently introduced for composite materials, based on acrylic resin chemistry allowing standard room temperature infusion techniques to be used to produce recyclable thermoplastic composites. This is a significant advance, particularly for more environmentally-friendly production of large marine structures such as boats. However, for such applications it is essential to demonstrate that composites produced with these resins resist sea water exposure in service. This paper presents results from a wet aging study of unreinforced acrylic and glass and carbon fibre reinforced acrylic composites. It is shown that the acrylic matrix resin is very stable in seawater, showing lower property losses after seawater aging than those of a commonly-used epoxy matrix resin. Carbon fibre reinforced acrylic also shows good property retention after aging, while reductions in glass fibre reinforced composite strengths suggest that specific glass fibre sizing may be required for optimum durability.

  3. Aging assessment of the boiling-water reactor (BWR) standby liquid control system. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, R.D.; Johnson, A.B.; Buckley, G.D.; Larson, L.L.

    1992-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a Phase I aging assessment of the standby liquid control (SLC) system used in boiling-water reactors. The study was based on detailed reviews of SLC system component and operating experience information obtained from the Nuclear Plant Reliability Database System, the Nuclear Document System, Licensee Event Reports, and other databases. Sources dealing with sodium pentaborate, borates, boric acid, and the effects of environment and corrosion in the SLC system were reviewed to characterize chemical properties and corrosion characteristics of borated solutions. The leading aging degradation concern to date appears to be setpoint drift in relief valves, which has been discovered during routine surveillance and is thought to be caused by mechanical wear. Degradation was also observed in pump seals and internal valves. In general, however, the results of the Phase I study suggest that age-related degradation of SLC systems has not been serious.

  4. Aging assessment of the boiling-water reactor (BWR) standby liquid control system

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, R.D.; Johnson, A.B.; Buckley, G.D.; Larson, L.L.

    1992-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a Phase I aging assessment of the standby liquid control (SLC) system used in boiling-water reactors. The study was based on detailed reviews of SLC system component and operating experience information obtained from the Nuclear Plant Reliability Database System, the Nuclear Document System, Licensee Event Reports, and other databases. Sources dealing with sodium pentaborate, borates, boric acid, and the effects of environment and corrosion in the SLC system were reviewed to characterize chemical properties and corrosion characteristics of borated solutions. The leading aging degradation concern to date appears to be setpoint drift in relief valves, which has been discovered during routine surveillance and is thought to be caused by mechanical wear. Degradation was also observed in pump seals and internal valves. In general, however, the results of the Phase I study suggest that age-related degradation of SLC systems has not been serious.

  5. Influence of Sea Water Aging on the Mechanical Behaviour of Acrylic Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P.; Le Gac, P.-Y.; Le Gall, M.

    2017-02-01

    A new matrix resin was recently introduced for composite materials, based on acrylic resin chemistry allowing standard room temperature infusion techniques to be used to produce recyclable thermoplastic composites. This is a significant advance, particularly for more environmentally-friendly production of large marine structures such as boats. However, for such applications it is essential to demonstrate that composites produced with these resins resist sea water exposure in service. This paper presents results from a wet aging study of unreinforced acrylic and glass and carbon fibre reinforced acrylic composites. It is shown that the acrylic matrix resin is very stable in seawater, showing lower property losses after seawater aging than those of a commonly-used epoxy matrix resin. Carbon fibre reinforced acrylic also shows good property retention after aging, while reductions in glass fibre reinforced composite strengths suggest that specific glass fibre sizing may be required for optimum durability.

  6. Evaluating and Predicting the Effectiveness of Green Infrastructure on a Small Watershed Scale - Emphasis on Water Quality, Flow, Thermal Regime, Substrate Integrity, and Biological Condition

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessments of the effectiveness of stormwater best management practices (BMPs) have focused on measurement of load or concentration reductions, which can be translated to predict biological impacts based on chemical water quality criteria. However, many of the impacts of develo...

  7. Effect of disinfectant, water age, and pipe material on occurrence and persistence of Legionella, mycobacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and two amoebas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Masters, Sheldon; Hong, Yanjuan; Stallings, Jonathan; Falkinham, Joseph O; Edwards, Marc A; Pruden, Amy

    2012-11-06

    Opportunistic pathogens represent a unique challenge because they establish and grow within drinking water systems, yet the factors stimulating their proliferation are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of pipe materials, disinfectant type, and water age on occurrence and persistence of three opportunistic pathogens (Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), broader genera (Legionella and mycobacteria), and two amoeba hosts (Acanthamoeba spp. and Hartmanella vermiformis). Triplicate simulated distribution systems (SDSs) compared iron, cement, and PVC pipe materials fed either chlorinated or chloraminated tap water and were sampled at water ages ranging from 1 day to 5.7 days. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction quantified gene copies of target microorganisms in both biofilm and bulk water. Legionella, mycobacteria, P. aeruginosa, and both amoebas naturally colonized the six SDSs, but L. pneumophila and M. avium were not detected. Disinfectant type and dose was observed to have the strongest influence on the microbiota. Disinfectant decay was noted with water age, particularly in chloraminated SDSs (due to nitrification), generally resulting in increased microbial detection frequencies and densities with water age. The influence of pipe material became apparent at water ages corresponding to low disinfectant residual. Each target microbe appeared to display a distinct response to disinfectant type, pipe materials, water age, and their interactions. Differences between the first and the second samplings (e.g., appearance of Legionella, reduction in P. aeruginosa and Acanthamoeba) suggest a temporally dynamic drinking water microbial community.

  8. How perceived predation risk shapes patterns of aging in water fleas.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak, Barbara; Dawidowicz, Piotr; Prędki, Piotr; Dańko, Maciej J

    2015-09-01

    Predation is an important selection pressure which shapes aging patterns in natural populations, and it is also a significant factor in the life history decisions of individuals. Exposure to the perceived threat of size-dependent fish predation has been shown to trigger adaptive responses in animal life history including an increase in early reproductive output. In water fleas, this response to perceived predation risk appears to have a cost, as a lifespan in an environment free of predation cues is 20% longer. The aim of this study is to establish the biodemographic basis of phenotypic differences in the water flea lifespan which are induced by the cues of fish predation. We examined mortality by fitting the Gompertz-Makeham model of mortality to large cohorts of two cladoceran species, Daphnia longispina and Diaphanosoma brachyurum. Our findings indicate that perceived exposure to the threat of fish predation (induced through chemical cues) only accelerated the rate of aging in Diaphanosoma, and not in Daphnia where the treatment led to an earlier onset of aging. The second of these two phenotypic responses is consistent with the genetically based differences between Daphnia from habitats that differ with respect to predation risk. In contrast, the response of Diaphanosoma demonstrates that the cue of extrinsic mortality-in this case, fish predation-is a key factor in shaping these cladoceran life histories in the wild, and is one of the few interventions which has been shown to induce a plastic change in the rate of aging.

  9. Green Infrastructure Research and Demonstration at the Edison Environmental Center

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will review the need for storm water control practices and will present a portion of the green infrastructure research and demonstration being performed at the Edison Environmental Center.

  10. First year update on green infrastructure monitoring in Camden, NJ

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Camden County Municipal Utilities Authority (CCMUA) installed green infrastructure Stormwater Control Measures (SCMs) at multiple locations around the city of Camden, NJ. The SCMs include raised downspout planter boxes, rain gardens, and cisterns. The cisterns capture water ...

  11. EPA, Pueblo of Cochiti Develop Green Infrastructure Projects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Sept. 30, 2015) As different areas of the country become drier and hotter, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Pueblo of Cochiti, New Mexico, are developing green infrastructure projects that address water needs. The EPA

  12. Chlorine decay in drinking-water transmission and distribution systems: pipe service age effect.

    PubMed

    Al-Jasser, A O

    2007-01-01

    Water quality can deteriorate in the transmission and distribution system beyond the treatment plant. Minimizing the potential for biological regrowth can be attained by chlorinating the finished water. While flowing through pipes, the chlorine concentration decreases for different reasons. Reaction with the pipe material itself and the reaction with both the biofilm and tubercles formed on the pipe wall are known as pipe wall demand, which may vary with pipe parameters. The aim of this paper was to assess the impact of the service age of pipes on the effective chlorine wall decay constant. Three hundred and two pipe sections of different sizes and eight different pipe materials were collected and tested for their chlorine first-order wall decay constants. The results showed that pipe service age was an important factor that must not be ignored in some pipes such as cast iron, steel, cement-lined ductile iron (CLDI), and cement-lined cast iron (CLCI) pipes especially when the bulk decay is not significant relative to the wall decay. For the range of the 55 years of pipe service age used in this study, effective wall decay constants ranged from a decrease by -92% to an increase by +431% from the corresponding values in the recently installed pipes. The effect of service age on the effective wall decay constants was most evident in cast iron pipes, whereas steel pipes were less affected. Effective chlorine wall decay for CLCI and CLDI pipes was less affected by service age as compared to steel and cast iron pipes. Chlorine wall decay constants for PVC, uPVC, and polyethylene pipes were affected negatively by pipe service age and such effect was relatively small.

  13. Operational models of infrastructure resilience.

    PubMed

    Alderson, David L; Brown, Gerald G; Carlyle, W Matthew

    2015-04-01

    We propose a definition of infrastructure resilience that is tied to the operation (or function) of an infrastructure as a system of interacting components and that can be objectively evaluated using quantitative models. Specifically, for any particular system, we use quantitative models of system operation to represent the decisions of an infrastructure operator who guides the behavior of the system as a whole, even in the presence of disruptions. Modeling infrastructure operation in this way makes it possible to systematically evaluate the consequences associated with the loss of infrastructure components, and leads to a precise notion of "operational resilience" that facilitates model verification, validation, and reproducible results. Using a simple example of a notional infrastructure, we demonstrate how to use these models for (1) assessing the operational resilience of an infrastructure system, (2) identifying critical vulnerabilities that threaten its continued function, and (3) advising policymakers on investments to improve resilience.

  14. Green infrastructure as a climate change adaptation policy intervention: muddying the waters or clearing a path to a more secure future?

    PubMed

    Sussams, L W; Sheate, W R; Eales, R P

    2015-01-01

    As dangerous climate change looms, decision-makers are increasingly realising that societies will need to adapt to this threat as well as mitigate against it. Green infrastructure (GI) is increasingly seen as an ideal climate change adaptation policy response. However, with this research the authors identify a number of crucial knowledge gaps within GI and, consequently, call for caution and for a concerted effort to understand the concept and what it can really deliver. GI has risen to prominence in a range of policy areas in large part due to its perceived ability to produce multiple benefits simultaneously, termed 'multifunctionality'. This characteristic strengthens the political appeal of the policy in question at a time when environmental issues have slipped down political agendas. Multifunctionality, however, brings its own set of new challenges that should be evaluated fully before the policy is implemented. This research takes important first steps to developing a critical understanding of what is achievable within GI's capacity. It focuses on one of GI's single objectives, namely climate change adaptation, to focus the analysis of how current obstacles in applying GI's multifunctionality could lead to the ineffective delivery of its objective. By drawing on expert opinion from government officials and representatives from the private, non-government organisation (NGO) and academic sectors, this research questions GI's ability to be effectively 'multifunctional' with an inconsistent definition at its core, deficiencies in its understanding and conflicts within its governance. In light of these observations, the authors then reflect on the judiciousness of applying GI to achieve the other objectives it has also been charged with delivering.

  15. Effective Dose of Radon 222 Bottled Water in Different Age Groups Humans: Bandar Abbas City, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Kargosha, Morteza; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Radon 222 is a natural radioactive element with a half-life of 3.8 days. It is odorless and colorless as well as water-soluble. Consuming waters which contain high concentration of 222Rn would increase the effective dose received by different age groups. It would also be followed by an increased prevalence of cancer. In this research, 72 samples of the most commonly used bottled water in Bandar Abbas were collected in 3 consecutive months, May, June and July of 2013. Concentration 222Rn of was measured by radon-meter model RTM166-2. The effective dose received by the 4 age groups, male and female adults as well as children and infants was estimated using the equation proposed by UNSCEAR. The results revealed that the mean and range concentration of 222Rn in bottled waters were 641±9 Bq/m3 and 0-901 Bq/m3, respectively. The mean concentration of 222Rn in the well-known Marks followed this Zam Zam>Bishe>Koohrng>Dassani>Christal>Polour>Damavand>Sivan. Infants were observed to receive a higher effective dose than children. The highest and lowest effective dose received was found to belong to male adults and children, respectively. PMID:26383192

  16. Effective Dose of Radon 222 Bottled Water in Different Age Groups Humans: Bandar Abbas City, Iran.

    PubMed

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Kargosha, Morteza; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2015-06-04

    Radon 222 is a natural radioactive element with a half-life of 3.8 days. It is odorless and colorless as well as water-soluble. Consuming waters which contain high concentration of 222Rn would increase the effective dose received by different age groups. It would also be followed by an increased prevalence of cancer. In this research, 72 samples of the most commonly used bottled water in Bandar Abbas were collected in 3 consecutive months, May, June and July of 2013. Concentration 222Rn of was measured by radon-meter model RTM166-2. The effective dose received by the 4 age groups, male and female adults as well as children and infants was estimated using the equation proposed by UNSCEAR. The results revealed that the mean and range concentration of 222Rn in bottled waters were 641±9 Bq/m3 and 0-901 Bq/m3, respectively. The mean concentration of 222Rn in the well-known Marks followed this Zam Zam>Bishe>Koohrng>Dassani>Christal>Polour>Damavand>Sivan. Infants were observed to receive a higher effective dose than children. The highest and lowest effective dose received was found to belong to male adults and children, respectively.

  17. Cold Water Swimming Beneficially Modulates Insulin Sensitivity in Middle-Aged Individuals.

    PubMed

    Gibas-Dorna, Magdalena; Chęcińska, Zuzanna; Korek, Emilia; Kupsz, Justyna; Sowińska, Anna; Krauss, Hanna

    2016-10-01

    We determined whether cold water swimming for six consecutive months results in adaptive changes in body composition and insulin sensitivity. Thirty healthy subjects aged 50.2 ± 9.4 years were exposed to cold water at least twice a week. Body composition was determined and serum glucose and insulin served to calculate beta-cell function, insulin sensitivity, and resistance using HOMA2. Compared with control subjects, swimmers were overweight, and had greater percent body fat and beta cell function. Women had lower values of BMI, fat free mass, muscle mass, visceral adipose tissue level, and greater percent body fat than men. Increased insulin sensitivity and decreased insulin secretion and resistance from beginning to middle of swim season was observed in females and in lean subjects. Findings suggest that men and women differ in regard to body composition and response to repeated cold exposure. Cold water swimming may beneficially modulate insulin sensitivity in cold acclimated lean swimmers.

  18. Patterns and age distribution of ground-water flow to streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Modica, E.; Reilly, T.E.; Pollock, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    Simulations of ground-water flow in a generic aquifer system were made to characterize the topology of ground-water flow in the stream subsystem and to evaluate its relation to deeper ground-water flow. The flow models are patterned after hydraulic characteristics of aquifers of the Atlantic Coastal Plain and are based on numerical solutions to three-dimensional, steady-state, unconfined flow. The models were used to evaluate the effects of aquifer horizontal-to-vertical hydraulic conductivity ratios, aquifer thickness, and areal recharge rates on flow in the stream subsystem. A particle tracker was used to determine flow paths in a stream subsystem, to establish the relation between ground-water seepage to points along a simulated stream and its source area of flow, and to determine ground-water residence time in stream subsystems. In a geometrically simple aquifer system with accretion, the source area of flow to streams resembles an elongated ellipse that tapers in the downgradient direction. Increased recharge causes an expansion of the stream subsystem. The source area of flow to the stream expands predominantly toward the stream headwaters. Baseflow gain is also increased along the reach of the stream. A thin aquifer restricts ground-water flow and causes the source area of flow to expand near stream headwaters and also shifts the start-of-flow to the drainage basin divide. Increased aquifer anisotropy causes a lateral expansion of the source area of flow to streams. Ground-water seepage to the stream channel originates both from near- and far-recharge locations. The range in the lengths of flow paths that terminate at a point on a stream increase in the downstream direction. Consequently, the age distribution of ground water that seeps into the stream is skewed progressively older with distance downstream. Base flow ia an integration of ground water with varying age and potentially different water quality, depending on the source within the drainage basin

  19. Infrastructure for microsystem production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Heeren, Henne; Sanchez, Stefan; Elders, Job; Heideman, Rene G.

    1999-03-01

    Manufacturing of micro-systems differs from IC manufacturing because the market requires a diversity of products and lower volumes per product. In addition, a diversity of micro-technologies has been developed, including non-IC compatible processes and potentially IC compatible processes. An infrastructure for the production of micro- system devices is lacking. On one side the technology for MST is available at the universities and small university related companies. On the other side there are several small and medium enterprises and bigger companies wanting to implement MST devices in their products, but unwilling to be dependent on universities. Philips Electronics in the Netherlands and Twente MicroProducts realized this problem and have started a project to fill this gap. At this moment the basic of the infrastructure is available: OnStream BV, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, opened its waferfab and assembly facilities for the production of MST devices. Twente MicroProducts will take care of the design of the products and of the small-scale production. Integration of quality systems for maintenance, yield, statistical process control and production in a Manufacturing Execution System offers direct access for all people involved to all the relevant information. It also ensures quality of the products made. The available capabilities of the infrastructure in the current status are compared to the market needs. In this article, a description of a seamless Micro-System Engineering Foundry is given. A seamless organization is capable of helping the customer from design to production. Several examples are given.

  20. Use of environmental tracers to evaluate ground-water age and water-quality trends in a buried-valley aquifer, Dayton area, southwestern, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowe, Gary L.; Shapiro, Stephanie Dunkle; Schlosser, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC method) and tritium and helium isotopes (3H-3He method) were used as environmental tracers to estimate ground-water age in conjunction with efforts to develop a regional ground-water flow model of the buried-valley aquifer in the Dayton area, southwestern Ohio. This report describes results of CFC and water-quality sampling, summarizes relevant aspects of previously published work, and describes the use of 3H-3He ages to characterize temporal trends in ground-water quality of the buried-valley aquifer near Dayton, Ohio. Results of CFC sampling indicate that approximately 25 percent of the 137 sampled wells were contaminated with excess CFC's that rendered the ground water unsuitable for age dating. Evaluation of CFC ages obtained for the remaining samples indicated that the CFC compounds used for dating were being affected by microbial degradation. The degradation occurred under anoxic conditions that are found in most parts of the buried-valley aquifer. As a result, ground-water ages derived by the CFC method were too old and were inconsistent with measured tritium concentrations and independently derived 3H-3He ages. Limited data indicate that dissolved methane may play an important role in the degradation of the CFC's. In contrast, the 3H-3He technique was found to yield ground-water ages that were chemically and hydrologically reasonable. Ground-water ages derived by the 3H-3He technique were compared to values for selected water- quality characteristics to evaluate temporal trends in ground-water quality in the buried- valley aquifer. Distinct temporal trends were not identified for pH, alkalinity, or calcium and magnesium because of rapid equilibration of ground-water with calcite and dolomite in aquifer sediments. Temporal trends in which the amount of scatter and the number of outlier concentrations increased as ground-water age decreased were noted for sodium, potassium, boron, bromide, chloride, ammonia, nitrate, phosphate

  1. Aging of aluminum/iron-based drinking water treatment residuals in lake water and their association with phosphorus immobilization capability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changhui; Yuan, Nannan; Pei, Yuansheng; Jiang, He-Long

    2015-08-15

    Aluminum and Fe-based drinking water treatment residuals (DWTRs) have shown a high potential for use by geoengineers in internal P loading control in lakes. In this study, aging of Al/Fe-based DWTRs in lake water under different pH and redox conditions associated with their P immobilization capability was investigated based on a 180-day incubation test. The results showed that the DWTRs before and after incubation under different conditions have similar structures, but their specific surface area and pore volume, especially mesopores with radius at 2.1-5.0 nm drastically decreased. The oxalate extractable Al contents changed little although a small amount of Al transformed from oxidizable to residual forms. The oxalate extractable Fe contents also decreased by a small amount, but the transformation from oxidizable to residual forms were remarkable, approximately by 14.6%. However, the DWTRs before and after incubation had similar P immobilization capabilities in solutions and lake sediments. Even the maximum P adsorption capacity estimated by the Langmuir model increased after incubation. Therefore, it was not necessary to give special attention to the impact of Al and Fe aging on the effectiveness of DWTRs for geoengineering in lakes.

  2. Agile Infrastructure Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, P.; Ascenso, J.; Fedorko, I.; Fiorini, B.; Paladin, M.; Pigueiras, L.; Santos, M.

    2014-06-01

    At the present time, data centres are facing a massive rise in virtualisation and cloud computing. The Agile Infrastructure (AI) project is working to deliver new solutions to ease the management of CERN data centres. Part of the solution consists in a new "shared monitoring architecture" which collects and manages monitoring data from all data centre resources. In this article, we present the building blocks of this new monitoring architecture, the different open source technologies selected for each architecture layer, and how we are building a community around this common effort.

  3. The INSC Security Infrastructure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    Le but était de démontrer une infrastructure de réseau qui soutient la sécurité, l’interopérabilité, la maintenance, et la mobilité . La sécurité a...l’interopérabilité, la maintenance, et la mobilité . La sécurité a été fournie à la couche réseau en utilisant le protocole d’IPsec. Aucune sécurité

  4. Linking high-frequency DOC dynamics to the age of connected water sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunaley, C.; Tetzlaff, D.; Lessels, J.; Soulsby, C.

    2016-07-01

    We combined high-frequency dissolved organic matter fluorescence (FDOM) data with stable isotope observations to identify the sources and ages of runoff that cause temporal variability in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) within a peat-dominated Scottish catchment. FDOM was strongly correlated (r2 ˜ 0.8) with DOC, allowing inference of a 15 min time series. We captured 34 events over a range of hydrological conditions. Along with marked seasonality, different event responses were observed during summer depending on dry or wet antecedent conditions. The majority of events exhibited anticlockwise hysteresis as a result of the expansion of the riparian saturation zone, mobilizing previously unconnected DOC sources. Water ages from the main runoff sources were extracted from a tracer-aided hydrological model. Particularly useful were ages of overland flow, which were negatively correlated with DOC concentration. Overland flow age, which ranged between 0.2 and 360 days, reflected antecedent conditions, with younger water generally mobilizing the highest DOC concentrations in summer events. During small events with dry antecedent conditions, DOC response was proportionally higher due to the displacement and mixing of small volumes of previously unconnected highly concentrated riparian soil waters by new precipitation. During large events with wet antecedent conditions, the riparian saturation zone expands to organic layers on the hillslopes causing peaks in DOC. However, these peaks were limited by dilution and supply. This study highlights the utility of linking high-frequency DOC measurements with other tracers, allowing the effects of hydrologic connectivity and antecedent conditions on delivery of DOC to streams to be assessed.

  5. Water ages of 20 groundwater bodies and its relevance for the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kralik, Martin; Brielmann, Heike; Humer, Franko; Grath, Johannes; Sültenfuß, Jürgen; Philippitsch, Rudolf

    2015-04-01

    The 'Mean Residence Time' (MRT) of groundwater is required to develop reliable hydrogeological concepts of groundwater bodies as a prerequisite for a qualified monitoring and risk assessment. MRTs from monitoring wells help to assess if groundwater bodies are 'at risk' or 'not at risk' failing to meet good groundwater quantitative and chemical status according to the Water Framework Directive and therefore not being able to use the groundwater as drinking water or industrial water resource. A combination of 18O/2H, 3H, 3H/3He and in some cases additional CFC, SF6, 85Kr and 35S measurements allow to calculate reliable MRTs in 20 groundwater bodies covering 13% (approx.10719 km2) of the Austrian territory. Altogether 401 groundwater wells and springs from the existing groundwater monitoring network were analysed for δ18O (n=1500), 3H (n=800) and 3He (n=327) since 2006. Considering both the fact that monitoring wells may have multiple or long well screens and the inherent uncertainties of groundwater age dating techniques, age estimations were classified into 5 categories of short ( 50years) mean residence times for each monitoring site. Subsequently, median values of the MRT categories were assigned to each investigated groundwater body. These are valuable information to fix extraction rates, to set measures to improve the land use and groundwater protection and to validate hydrogeological concepts. Generally, MRTs of groundwater bodies increase from shallow Alpine groundwater bodies over deeper Alpine valley-aquifers to longer MRTs in the Pannonian climate range in the east of Austria.

  6. Sea Level Rise Impacts On Infrastructure Vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqualini, D.; Mccown, A. W.; Backhaus, S.; Urban, N. M.

    2015-12-01

    Increase of global sea level is one of the potential consequences of climate change and represents a threat for the U.S.A coastal regions, which are highly populated and home of critical infrastructures. The potential danger caused by sea level rise may escalate if sea level rise is coupled with an increase in frequency and intensity of storms that may strike these regions. These coupled threats present a clear risk to population and critical infrastructure and are concerns for Federal, State, and particularly local response and recovery planners. Understanding the effect of sea level rise on the risk to critical infrastructure is crucial for long planning and for mitigating potential damages. In this work we quantify how infrastructure vulnerability to a range of storms changes due to an increase of sea level. Our study focuses on the Norfolk area of the U.S.A. We assess the direct damage of drinking water and wastewater facilities and the power sector caused by a distribution of synthetic hurricanes. In addition, our analysis estimates indirect consequences of these damages on population and economic activities accounting also for interdependencies across infrastructures. While projections unanimously indicate an increase in the rate of sea level rise, the scientific community does not agree on the size of this rate. Our risk assessment accounts for this uncertainty simulating a distribution of sea level rise for a specific climate scenario. Using our impact assessment results and assuming an increase of future hurricanes frequencies and intensities, we also estimate the expected benefits for critical infrastructure.

  7. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  8. Climate Change and Future U.S. Electricity Infrastructure: the Nexus between Water Availability, Land Suitability, and Low-Carbon Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, J.; Halter, T.; Hejazi, M. I.; Jensen, E.; Liu, L.; Olson, J.; Patel, P.; Vernon, C. R.; Voisin, N.; Zuljevic, N.

    2014-12-01

    Integrated assessment models project the future electricity generation mix under different policy, technology, and socioeconomic scenarios, but they do not directly address site-specific factors such as interconnection costs, population density, land use restrictions, air quality, NIMBY concerns, or water availability that might affect the feasibility of achieving the technology mix. Moreover, since these factors can change over time due to climate, policy, socioeconomics, and so on, it is important to examine the dynamic feasibility of integrated assessment scenarios "on the ground." This paper explores insights from coupling an integrated assessment model (GCAM-USA) with a geospatial power plant siting model (the Capacity Expansion Regional Feasibility model, CERF) within a larger multi-model framework that includes regional climate, hydrologic, and water management modeling. GCAM-USA is a dynamic-recursive market equilibrium model simulating the impact of carbon policies on global and national markets for energy commodities and other goods; one of its outputs is the electricity generation mix and expansion at the state-level. It also simulates water demands from all sectors that are downscaled as input to the water management modeling. CERF simulates siting decisions by dynamically representing suitable areas for different generation technologies with geospatial analyses (informed by technology-specific siting criteria, such as required mean streamflow per the Clean Water Act), and then choosing siting locations to minimize interconnection costs (to electric transmission and gas pipelines). CERF results are compared across three scenarios simulated by GCAM-USA: 1) a non-mitigation scenario (RCP8.5) in which conventional fossil-fueled technologies prevail, 2) a mitigation scenario (RCP4.5) in which the carbon price causes a shift toward nuclear, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), and renewables, and 3) a repeat of scenario (2) in which CCS technologies are

  9. Antioxidant activity and delayed aging effects of hot water extract from Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana leaves.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Szu-Chin; Li, Wen-Hsuan; Shi, Yeu-Ching; Yen, Pei-Ling; Lin, Huan-You; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2014-05-07

    The antioxidant activity and delayed aging effects of hot water extracts from leaves of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana were investigated. Free radical, superoxide radical scavenging, and total phenolic content assays were employed to evaluate the in vitro activities of the extracts. In addition, in vivo assays using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans were also performed in this study. The results showed that among all soluble fractions obtained from the extracts, the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction has the best in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities. Moreover, it decreased significantly the deposition of lipofuscin (aging pigment) and extended the lifespan of C. elegans. Bioactivity-guided fractionation yielded six potent antioxidant constituents from the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction, namely, catechin, quercetin, quercetin-3-O-α-rhamnoyranoside, myricetin-3-O-α-rhamnoyranoside, vanillic acid, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. Quercetin-3-O-α-rhamnoyranoside pretreatment showed the highest survival of C. elegans upon juglone exposure. Taken together, the results revealed that hot water extracts from C. obtusa var. formosana leaves have the potential to be used as a source for antioxidant or delayed aging health food.

  10. Application of isotopes to estimate water ages in variable time scales in surface and groundwaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kralik, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Water-Isotopes (2H, 3H, 18O) are ideal tracers not only to determine the origin of waters in precipitation, surface water (river + lakes) as well as in groundwater close to the surface and in deep groundwater but also the mean residence time (MRT) in many applied projects as drinking water supply, hydroelectric power plants, road tunnels etc. . Their application has a long history, but must be always evaluated by a feasible hydrogeological concept and/or other isotope and geochemical tracers. In Alpine areas the retention of precipitation in form of snow and ice in the winter half year is indicated by the lowest 18O-values. The snow melt of the highest part of the recharge area is marked by the lowest 18O-values in the river water, but may not coincide with the maximum flow. Time-series of precipitation station in the mountain and on river station indicate the arrival of the peak snow-melt water in the river and in Low-land areas 4-7 month later. Tritium series indicate that MRTs of several Austrian rivers are in the range of 4 - 6 years. The seasonal input variation of in 18O in precipitation and/or river waters can be used to calculate by lumped parameter models MRT of groundwater at a certain well and compare it with lysimeter measurements and transient model simulations. The MRT of the dispersion model is in good agreement with the estimated time calculated by the numerical transport model and the vertical lysimeter measurements. The MRT of spring water was studied by several methods (3H/3He, SF6 and 85Kr) and a long time series of 3H-measurements. The gas tracers are in good agreement in the range of 6-10 year whereas the 3H-series model (dispersion model) indicate ages in the range of 18-23 years. The hydrogeological concept indicate that the precipitation infiltrates in a mountainous karst area, but the transfer into the porous aquifer in the Vienna Basin occurs either through rivers draining away in the basin or through the lateral transport from the karst

  11. Geriatric infrastructure, BRAC, and ecosystem service markets? End-of-life decisions for dams, roads, and offshore platforms (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, M. W.

    2010-12-01

    the Missouri and Iowa Rivers for wildlife conservation areas. Programs that link offshore oil platform decommissioning to marine conservation areas are also notable examples of creative linkages between infrastructure and conservation efforts. For federal infrastructure, the forthcoming Water Resources Development Act (WRDA) should include a BRAC-like program. Faced with a number of aging military bases, the Department of Defense (DOD) began identifying installations it would rather close than maintain or modernize. Overcoming political hurdles was accomplished via the Base Realignment and Closure Commission (BRAC), a bi-partisan commission that buffered politicians by creating a slate of closures for Congress and the President to approve or scuttle in toto. From 1988-2005, BRACs closed > 125 military installations, saving > $50 billion. DOD advocated BRAC because it increased efficiency by focusing funding on those bases central to DODs mission, and removed base funding decisions from political influence. Regardless of the approach, society must develop approaches from which to base difficult end-of-life decisions for infrastructure. In most cases, removing obsolete infrastructure can allow focus on infrastructure that remains critical to society.

  12. The future of infrastructure security :

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Pablo; Turnley, Jessica Glicken; Parrott, Lori K.

    2013-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories hosted a workshop on the future of infrastructure security on February 27-28, 2013, in Albuquerque, NM. The 17 participants came from backgrounds as diverse as federal policy, the insurance industry, infrastructure management, and technology development. The purpose of the workshop was to surface key issues, identify directions forward, and lay groundwork for cross-sectoral and cross-disciplinary collaborations. The workshop addressed issues such as the problem space (what is included in infrastructure problems?), the general types of threats to infrastructure (such as acute or chronic, system-inherent or exogenously imposed) and definitions of secure and resilient infrastructures. The workshop concluded with a consideration of stakeholders and players in the infrastructure world, and identification of specific activities that could be undertaken by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and other players.

  13. Michigan E85 Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Sandstrom, Matthew M.

    2012-03-30

    This is the final report for a grant-funded project to financially assist and otherwise provide support to projects that increase E85 infrastructure in Michigan at retail fueling locations. Over the two-year project timeframe, nine E85 and/or flex-fuel pumps were installed around the State of Michigan at locations currently lacking E85 infrastructure. A total of five stations installed the nine pumps, all providing cost share toward the project. By using cost sharing by station partners, the $200,000 provided by the Department of Energy facilitated a total project worth $746,332.85. This project was completed over a two-year timetable (eight quarters). The first quarter of the project focused on project outreach to station owners about the incentive on the installation and/or conversion of E85 compatible fueling equipment including fueling pumps, tanks, and all necessary electrical and plumbing connections. Utilizing Clean Energy Coalition (CEC) extensive knowledge of gasoline/ethanol infrastructure throughout Michigan, CEC strategically placed these pumps in locations to strengthen the broad availability of E85 in Michigan. During the first and second quarters, CEC staff approved projects for funding and secured contracts with station owners; the second through eighth quarters were spent working with fueling station owners to complete projects; the third through eighth quarters included time spent promoting projects; and beginning in the second quarter and running for the duration of the project was spent performing project reporting and evaluation to the US DOE. A total of 9 pumps were installed (four in Elkton, two in Sebewaing, one in East Lansing, one in Howell, and one in Whitmore Lake). At these combined station locations, a total of 192,445 gallons of E85, 10,786 gallons of E50, and 19,159 gallons of E30 were sold in all reporting quarters for 2011. Overall, the project has successfully displaced 162,611 gallons (2,663 barrels) of petroleum, and reduced

  14. Critical Infrastructure for Ocean Research and Societal Needs in 2030

    SciTech Connect

    National Research Council

    2011-04-22

    The United States has jurisdiction over 3.4 million square miles of ocean expanse greater than the land area of all fifty states combined. This vast marine area offers researchers opportunities to investigate the ocean's role in an integrated Earth system, but also presents challenges to society, including damaging tsunamis and hurricanes, industrial accidents, and outbreaks of waterborne diseases. The 2010 Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Horizon oil spill and 2011 Japanese earthquake and tsunami are vivid reminders that a broad range of infrastructure is needed to advance our still-incomplete understanding of the ocean. The National Research Council (NRC)'s Ocean Studies Board was asked by the National Science and Technology Council's Subcommittee on Ocean Science and Technology, comprised of 25 U.S. government agencies, to examine infrastructure needs for ocean research in the year 2030. This request reflects concern, among a myriad of marine issues, over the present state of aging and obsolete infrastructure, insufficient capacity, growing technological gaps, and declining national leadership in marine technological development; issues brought to the nation's attention in 2004 by the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy. A 15-member committee of experts identified four themes that encompass 32 future ocean research questions enabling stewardship of the environment, protecting life and property, promoting economic vitality, and increasing fundamental scientific understanding. Many of the questions in the report (e.g., sea level rise, sustainable fisheries, the global water cycle) reflect challenging, multidisciplinary science questions that are clearly relevant today, and are likely to take decades of effort to solve. As such, U.S. ocean research will require a growing suite of ocean infrastructure for a range of activities, such as high quality, sustained time series observations or autonomous monitoring at a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. Consequently, a

  15. Estimating the age of healthy infants from quantitative myelin water fraction maps.

    PubMed

    Dean, Douglas C; O'Muircheartaigh, Jonathan; Dirks, Holly; Waskiewicz, Nicole; Lehman, Katie; Walker, Lindsay; Piryatinsky, Irene; Deoni, Sean C L

    2015-04-01

    The trajectory of the developing brain is characterized by a sequence of complex, nonlinear patterns that occur at systematic stages of maturation. Although significant prior neuroimaging research has shed light on these patterns, the challenge of accurately characterizing brain maturation, and identifying areas of accelerated or delayed development, remains. Altered brain development, particularly during the earliest stages of life, is believed to be associated with many neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. In this work, we develop a framework to construct voxel-wise estimates of brain age based on magnetic resonance imaging measures sensitive to myelin content. 198 myelin water fraction (VF(M) ) maps were acquired from healthy male and female infants and toddlers, 3 to 48 months of age, and used to train a sigmoidal-based maturational model. The validity of the approach was then established by testing the model on 129 different VF(M) datasets. Results revealed the approach to have high accuracy, with a mean absolute percent error of 13% in males and 14% in females, and high predictive ability, with correlation coefficients between estimated and true ages of 0.945 in males and 0.94 in females. This work represents a new approach toward mapping brain maturity, and may provide a more faithful staging of brain maturation in infants beyond chronological or gestation-corrected age, allowing earlier identification of atypical regional brain development.

  16. Green Infrastructure, Groundwater and the Sustainable City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Band, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    The management of water is among the most important attributes of urbanization. Provision of sufficient quantities and quality of freshwater, treatment and disposal of wastewater and flood protection are critical for urban sustainability. Over the last century, two major shifts in water management paradigms have occurred, the first to improve public health with the provision of infrastructure for centralized sanitary effluent collection and treatment, and the rapid drainage and routing of stormwater. A current shift in paradigm is now occurring in response to the unintended consequences of sanitary and stormwater management, which have degraded downstream water bodies and shifted flood hazard downstream. Current infrastructure is being designed and implemented to retain, rather than rapidly drain, stormwater, with a focus on infiltration based methods. In urban areas, this amounts to a shift in hydrologic behavior to depression focused recharge. While stormwater is defined as surface flow resulting from developed areas, an integrated hydrologic systems approach to urban water management requires treatment of the full critical zone. In urban areas this extends from the top of the vegetation and building canopy, to a subsurface depth including natural soils, fill, saprolite and bedrock. In addition to matric and network flow in fracture systems, an urban "karst" includes multiple generations of current and past infrastructure, which has developed extensive subsurface pipe networks for supply and drainage, enhancing surface/groundwater flows and exchange. In this presentation, Band will discuss the need to focus on the urban critical zone, and the development and adaptation of new modeling and analytical approaches to understand and plan green infrastructure based on surface/groundwater/ecosystem interactions, and implications for the restoration and new design of cities.

  17. Utilities building NGV infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    Gas utilities across the US are aggressively pursuing the natural gas vehicle market by putting in place the infrastructure needed to ensure the growth of the important market. The first annual P and GJ NGV Marketing Survey has revealed many utilities plant to build and continue building NGV fueling facilities. The NGV industry in the US is confronting a classic chicken-or-egg quandary. Fleet operators and individual drivers are naturally unwilling to commit to a natural gas vehicle fuel until sufficient fueling facilities are in place, yet service station operators are reluctant to add NGV refueling capacity until enough CNG vehicles are on the road to create demand. The future of the NGV market is bright, but continued research and product improvements by suppliers as well as LDCs is needed if the potential is to be fulfilled. Advances in refueling facilities must continue if the market is to develop.

  18. Energy Transmission and Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Mathison, Jane

    2012-12-31

    The objective of Energy Transmission and Infrastructure Northern Ohio (OH) was to lay the conceptual and analytical foundation for an energy economy in northern Ohio that will: • improve the efficiency with which energy is used in the residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and transportation sectors for Oberlin, Ohio as a district-wide model for Congressional District OH-09; • identify the potential to deploy wind and solar technologies and the most effective configuration for the regional energy system (i.e., the ratio of distributed or centralized power generation); • analyze the potential within the district to utilize farm wastes to produce biofuels; • enhance long-term energy security by identifying ways to deploy local resources and building Ohio-based enterprises; • identify the policy, regulatory, and financial barriers impeding development of a new energy system; and • improve energy infrastructure within Congressional District OH-09. This objective of laying the foundation for a renewable energy system in Ohio was achieved through four primary areas of activity: 1. district-wide energy infrastructure assessments and alternative-energy transmission studies; 2. energy infrastructure improvement projects undertaken by American Municipal Power (AMP) affiliates in the northern Ohio communities of Elmore, Oak Harbor, and Wellington; 3. Oberlin, OH-area energy assessment initiatives; and 4. a district-wide conference held in September 2011 to disseminate year-one findings. The grant supported 17 research studies by leading energy, policy, and financial specialists, including studies on: current energy use in the district and the Oberlin area; regional potential for energy generation from renewable sources such as solar power, wind, and farm-waste; energy and transportation strategies for transitioning the City of Oberlin entirely to renewable resources and considering pedestrians, bicyclists, and public transportation as well as drivers

  19. Explorations Around "Graceful Failure" in Transportation Infrastructure: Lessons Learned By the Infrastructure and Climate Network (ICNet)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, J. M.; Thomas, N.; Mo, W.; Kirshen, P. H.; Douglas, E. M.; Daniel, J.; Bell, E.; Friess, L.; Mallick, R.; Kartez, J.; Hayhoe, K.; Croope, S.

    2014-12-01

    Recent events have demonstrated that the United States' transportation infrastructure is highly vulnerable to extreme weather events which will likely increase in the future. In light of the 60% shortfall of the $900 billion investment needed over the next five years to maintain this aging infrastructure, hardening of all infrastructures is unlikely. Alternative strategies are needed to ensure that critical aspects of the transportation network are maintained during climate extremes. Preliminary concepts around multi-tier service expectations of bridges and roads with reference to network capacity will be presented. Drawing from recent flooding events across the U.S., specific examples for roads/pavement will be used to illustrate impacts, disruptions, and trade-offs between performance during events and subsequent damage. This talk will also address policy and cultural norms within the civil engineering practice that will likely challenge the application of graceful failure pathways during extreme events.

  20. Predicting water age distribution in the Pearl River Estuary using a three-dimensional model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yuheng; Lin, Binliang; Sun, Jian; Pan, Shunqi

    2014-11-01

    The age of water (AW) concept is applied to investigate the water exchange process in a large and density stratified estuary, namely the Pearl River Estuary. A three-dimensional AW model has been built based on an existing hydrodynamic and solute transport model. The model is used to determine the AW distributions inside the Pearl River Estuary under various hydrodynamic conditions. The predicted mean AW values during the dry and wet seasons are approximately 25 and 10 days, respectively. In general, lower AW values are observed in the upper layers near the water surface, while higher values are observed in the lower layers near the bed. The difference becomes more pronounced during the wet season when the river discharge is very large. The tidal influence is relatively small. The variation of tidal forcing impacts mainly on the AW fluctuation range, but it has limited impact on the tidally averaged AW value. Moreover, the AW vertical difference is enhanced during neap tides. A comparison between the predictions using barotropic and baroclinic models indicates that the density-induced circulation has a significant impact on the water exchange rate.

  1. Groundwater Age in Multi-Level Water Quality Monitor Wells on California Central Valley Dairies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esser, B. K.; Visser, A.; Hillegonds, D. J.; Singleton, M. J.; Moran, J. E.; Harter, T.

    2011-12-01

    Dairy farming in California's Central Valley is a significant source of nitrate to underlying aquifers. One approach to mitigation is to implement farm-scale management plans that reduce nutrient loading to groundwater while sustaining crop yield. While the effect of different management practices on crop yield is easily measured, their effect on groundwater quality has only infrequently been evaluated. Documenting and predicting the impact of management on water quality requires a quantitative assessment of transport (including timescale and mixing) through the vadose and saturated zones. In this study, we measured tritium, helium isotopic composition, and noble gas concentrations in groundwater drawn from monitor wells on several dairies in the Lower San Joaquin Valley and Tulare Lake Basin of California's Central Valley in order to predict the timescales on which changes in management may produce observable changes in groundwater quality. These dairies differ in age (from <10 to >100 years old), thickness of the vadose zone (from <10 to 60 m), hydrogeologic setting, and primary source of irrigation water (surface or groundwater). All of the dairies use manure wastewater for irrigation and fertilization. Three of the dairies have implemented management changes designed to reduce nutrient loading and/or water usage. Monitor wells in the southern Tulare Lake Basin dairies were installed by UC-Davis as multi-level nested wells allowing depth profiling of tritium and noble gases at these sites. Tritium/helium-3 groundwater ages, calculated using a simple piston-flow model, range from <2 to >50 years. Initial tritium (the sum of measured tritium and tritiogenic helium-3) is close to or slightly above precipitation in the calculated recharge year for young samples; and significantly above the precipitation curve for older samples. This pattern is consistent with the use of 20-30 year old groundwater recharged before 1980 for irrigation, and illustrates how irrigation

  2. Assessing the risk posed by natural hazards to infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eidsvig, Unni; Kristensen, Krister; Vidar Vangelsten, Bjørn

    2015-04-01

    The modern society is increasingly dependent on infrastructures to maintain its function, and disruption in one of the infrastructure systems may have severe consequences. The Norwegian municipalities have, according to legislation, a duty to carry out a risk and vulnerability analysis and plan and prepare for emergencies in a short- and long term perspective. Vulnerability analysis of the infrastructures and their interdependencies is an important part of this analysis. This paper proposes a model for assessing the risk posed by natural hazards to infrastructures. The model prescribes a three level analysis with increasing level of detail, moving from qualitative to quantitative analysis. This paper focuses on the second level, which consists of a semi-quantitative analysis. The purpose of this analysis is to perform a screening of the scenarios of natural hazards threatening the infrastructures identified in the level 1 analysis and investigate the need for further analyses, i.e. level 3 quantitative analyses. The proposed level 2 analysis considers the frequency of the natural hazard, different aspects of vulnerability including the physical vulnerability of the infrastructure itself and the societal dependency on the infrastructure. An indicator-based approach is applied, ranking the indicators on a relative scale. The proposed indicators characterize the robustness of the infrastructure, the importance of the infrastructure as well as interdependencies between society and infrastructure affecting the potential for cascading effects. Each indicator is ranked on a 1-5 scale based on pre-defined ranking criteria. The aggregated risk estimate is a combination of the semi-quantitative vulnerability indicators, as well as quantitative estimates of the frequency of the natural hazard and the number of users of the infrastructure. Case studies for two Norwegian municipalities are presented, where risk to primary road, water supply and power network threatened by storm

  3. Water age, exposure time, and local flushing time in semi-enclosed, tidal basins with negligible freshwater inflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viero, Daniele Pietro; Defina, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Within the framework of tidally flushed, semi-enclosed basins with negligible freshwater inflow, and under steady periodic flow conditions, three frequently used local transport time scales to quantify the efficiency of water renewal, namely water age, exposure time, and local flushing time are studied and compared to each other. In these environments, water renewal is strongly controlled by diffusion, and it is significantly affected by the return flow (i.e., the fraction of effluent water that returns into the basin on each flood tide). The definition of water age is here modified to account for the return flow, in analogy with exposure time and local flushing time. We consider approximate time scales, whose accuracy is analyzed, in order to overcome problems related to the size of the computational domain and to reduce the computational effort. A new approximate procedure is introduced to estimate water age, which is based on the water aging rate. Also, the concept of local flushing time as a relevant time scale is introduced. Under steady periodic conditions, we demonstrate that the local flushing time quantitatively corresponds to water age, and well approximates exposure time when the flow is dominated by diffusion. Since the effort required to compute water age and exposure time is greater than that required to compute the local flushing time, the present results can also have a practical interest in the assessment of water renewal efficiency of semi-enclosed water basins. The results of a modeling study, in which the lagoon of Venice is used as a benchmark, confirm the substantial quantitative equivalence between these three transport time scales in highly diffusive environments.

  4. Preliminary estimates of residence times and apparent ages of ground water in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, and water-quality data from a survey of springs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Focazio, Michael J.; Plummer, L. Neil; Bohlke, John K.; Busenberg, Eurybiades; Bachman, L. Joseph; Powars, David S.

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge of the residence times of the ground-water systems in Chesapeake Bay watershed helps resource managers anticipate potential delays between implementation of land-management practices and any improve-ments in river and estuary water quality. This report presents preliminary estimates of ground-water residence times and apparent ages of water in the shallow aquifers of the Chesapeake Bay watershed. A simple reservoir model, published data, and analyses of spring water were used to estimate residence times and apparent ages of ground-water discharge. Ranges of aquifer hydraulic characteristics throughout the Bay watershed were derived from published literature and were used to estimate ground-water residence times on the basis of a simple reservoir model. Simple combinations of rock type and physiographic province were used to delineate hydrogeomorphic regions (HGMR?s) for the study area. The HGMR?s are used to facilitate organization and display of the data and analyses. Illustrations depicting the relation of aquifer characteristics and associated residence times as a continuum for each HGMR were developed. In this way, the natural variation of aquifer characteristics can be seen graphically by use of data from selected representative studies. Water samples collected in September and November 1996, from 46 springs throughout the watershed were analyzed for chlorofluorocarbons (CFC?s) to estimate the apparent age of ground water. For comparison purposes, apparent ages of water from springs were calculated assuming piston flow. Additi-onal data are given to estimate apparent ages assuming an exponential distribution of ages in spring discharge. Additionally, results from previous studies of CFC-dating of ground water from other springs and wells in the watershed were compiled. The CFC data, and the data on major ions, nutrients, and nitrogen isotopes in the water collected from the 46 springs are included in this report. The apparent ages of water

  5. Comparison of 85KR and 3H Apparent Ground-Water Ages for Source Water Vulterability in the COLLYER RIVER CATCHMENT, MAINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Apparent ground-water ages as determined by the noble gas isotope 85Kr and the water isotope 3H are compared. Refined gas extraction methodology at the wellhead permits efficient collection of Kr for 85Kr isotope enrichment. 85Kr isoch...

  6. Neurobehavioral Function in School-Age Children Exposed to Manganese in Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Oulhote, Youssef; Mergler, Donna; Barbeau, Benoit; Bellinger, David C.; Bouffard, Thérèse; Brodeur, Marie-Ève; Saint-Amour, Dave; Legrand, Melissa; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Background: Manganese neurotoxicity is well documented in individuals occupationally exposed to airborne particulates, but few data are available on risks from drinking-water exposure. Objective: We examined associations of exposure from concentrations of manganese in water and hair with memory, attention, motor function, and parent- and teacher-reported hyperactive behaviors. Methods: We recruited 375 children and measured manganese in home tap water (MnW) and hair (MnH). We estimated manganese intake from water ingestion. Using structural equation modeling, we estimated associations between neurobehavioral functions and MnH, MnW, and manganese intake from water. We evaluated exposure–response relationships using generalized additive models. Results: After adjusting for potential confounders, a 1-SD increase in log10 MnH was associated with a significant difference of –24% (95% CI: –36, –12%) SD in memory and –25% (95% CI: –41, –9%) SD in attention. The relations between log10 MnH and poorer memory and attention were linear. A 1-SD increase in log10 MnW was associated with a significant difference of –14% (95% CI: –24, –4%) SD in memory, and this relation was nonlinear, with a steeper decline in performance at MnW > 100 μg/L. A 1-SD increase in log10 manganese intake from water was associated with a significant difference of –11% (95% CI: –21, –0.4%) SD in motor function. The relation between log10 manganese intake and poorer motor function was linear. There was no significant association between manganese exposure and hyperactivity. Conclusion: Exposure to manganese in water was associated with poorer neurobehavioral performances in children, even at low levels commonly encountered in North America. Citation: Oulhote Y, Mergler D, Barbeau B, Bellinger DC, Bouffard T, Brodeur ME, Saint-Amour D, Legrand M, Sauvé S, Bouchard MF. 2014. Neurobehavioral function in school-age children exposed to manganese in drinking water. Environ Health

  7. Numerical study on the influences of Nanliu River runoff and tides on water age in Lianzhou Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jing; Zhang, Xueqing; Liu, Jinliang; Liu, Rui; Wang, Xing

    2016-09-01

    The concept of water age is applied to calculate the timescales of the transport processes of freshwater in Lianzhou Bay, using a model based on ECOMSED. In this study, water age is defined as the time that has elapsed since the water parcel enters the Nanliu River. The results show that the mean age at a specified position and the runoff of the Nanliu River are well correlated and can be approximately expressed by a natural logarithmic function. During the neap tide, it takes 70, 60 and 40 days in the dry, normal and rainy seasons for water to travel from the mouth of the Nanliu River to the northeast of Lianzhou Bay, respectively, which is not beneficial to water exchange in the bay. Tides significantly influence the model results; it takes five less days for the tracer to be transported from the mouth of the Nanliu River to the north of Guantouling during the spring tide than during the neap tide.

  8. Cyber and physical infrastructure interdependencies.

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Laurence R.; Kelic, Andjelka; Warren, Drake E.

    2008-09-01

    The goal of the work discussed in this document is to understand the risk to the nation of cyber attacks on critical infrastructures. The large body of research results on cyber attacks against physical infrastructure vulnerabilities has not resulted in clear understanding of the cascading effects a cyber-caused disruption can have on critical national infrastructures and the ability of these affected infrastructures to deliver services. This document discusses current research and methodologies aimed at assessing the translation of a cyber-based effect into a physical disruption of infrastructure and thence into quantification of the economic consequences of the resultant disruption and damage. The document discusses the deficiencies of the existing methods in correlating cyber attacks with physical consequences. The document then outlines a research plan to correct those deficiencies. When completed, the research plan will result in a fully supported methodology to quantify the economic consequences of events that begin with cyber effects, cascade into other physical infrastructure impacts, and result in degradation of the critical infrastructure's ability to deliver services and products. This methodology enables quantification of the risks to national critical infrastructure of cyber threats. The work addresses the electric power sector as an example of how the methodology can be applied.

  9. Cyberwarfare on the Electricity Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Murarka, N.; Ramesh, V.C.

    2000-03-20

    The report analyzes the possibility of cyberwarfare on the electricity infrastructure. The ongoing deregulation of the electricity industry makes the power grid all the more vulnerable to cyber attacks. The report models the power system information system components, models potential threats and protective measures. It therefore offers a framework for infrastructure protection.

  10. Education, Infrastructure and America's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley-Braun, Carol

    1997-01-01

    Senator Carol Moseley-Braun, D-Ill., a recognized advocate for federal funding of educational facilities, describes the strategy of placing school infrastructure in the same category as commercial and transportation infrastructure. Three researchers in the facilities field present empirical evidence that facility conditions directly affect…

  11. The 1990 direct support infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The airport and cargo terminal were individually analyzed in depth as the principal direct infrastructure components having cross impacts with aircraft carrying cargo. Containerization was also addressed in depth as an infrastructure component since it categorically is linked with and cross impacted by the aircraft, the cargo terminal, the surface transport system, the shipper and consignee, and the actual cargo being moved.

  12. Influence of water quality and age on nickel toxicity to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Hoang, Tham Chung; Tomasso, Joseph R; Klaine, Stephen J

    2004-01-01

    This research characterized the effects of water quality and organism age on the toxicity of nickel (Ni) to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to facilitate the accurate development of site-specific water-quality criteria. Nickel sulfate hexahydrate (NiSO4 x 6H2O) was used as the Ni source for performing acute toxicity tests (median lethal concentration after 96-h exposure [96-h LC50]) with < 1-d-old and 28-d-old P. promelas under varying regimes of hardness, pH, alkalinity, and natural organic matter (NOM). The toxicity of Ni was inversely related to water hardness between hardness values of 20 and 150 mg/L (as CaCO3). Below 30 mg/L alkalinity, Ni toxicity was related to alkalinity. The effect of pH was confounded by hardness and the presence of NOM. In the absence of NOM, the toxicity of Ni increased as pH increased at high hardness and alkalinity. In general, 28-d-old fish were less sensitive than < 1-d-old fish to Ni. This lower sensitivity ranged from 12-fold at low hardness and alkalinity (20 and 4 mg/L, respectively) to 5-fold at high hardness and alkalinity (100 and 400 mg/L, respectively). The presence of NOM (10 mg/L as dissolved organic carbon [DOC]) reduced Ni toxicity by up to 50%, but this effect appeared to be saturated above DOC at 5 mg/L. Incubating Ni with the NOM solution from 1 to 17 days had no effect on Ni toxicity. When using multivariate analysis, the 96-h LC50 for Ni was a function of fish age, alkalinity, hardness, and NOM (96-h LC50 = -0.642 + 0.270(fish age) + 0.005(alkalinity) + 0.018(hardness) + 0.138(DOC)). When using this model, we found a strong relationship between measured and predicted 96-h LC50 values (r2 = 0.94) throughout the treatment water qualities. The biotic ligand model (BLM) did not accurately predict Ni toxicity at high or low levels of alkalinity. Results of our research suggest that the BLM could be improved by considering NiCO3 to be bioavailable.

  13. Distributed Data Integration Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Critchlow, T; Ludaescher, B; Vouk, M; Pu, C

    2003-02-24

    The Internet is becoming the preferred method for disseminating scientific data from a variety of disciplines. This can result in information overload on the part of the scientists, who are unable to query all of the relevant sources, even if they knew where to find them, what they contained, how to interact with them, and how to interpret the results. A related issue is keeping up with current trends in information technology often taxes the end-user's expertise and time. Thus instead of benefiting from this information rich environment, scientists become experts on a small number of sources and technologies, use them almost exclusively, and develop a resistance to innovations that can enhance their productivity. Enabling information based scientific advances, in domains such as functional genomics, requires fully utilizing all available information and the latest technologies. In order to address this problem we are developing a end-user centric, domain-sensitive workflow-based infrastructure, shown in Figure 1, that will allow scientists to design complex scientific workflows that reflect the data manipulation required to perform their research without an undue burden. We are taking a three-tiered approach to designing this infrastructure utilizing (1) abstract workflow definition, construction, and automatic deployment, (2) complex agent-based workflow execution and (3) automatic wrapper generation. In order to construct a workflow, the scientist defines an abstract workflow (AWF) in terminology (semantics and context) that is familiar to him/her. This AWF includes all of the data transformations, selections, and analyses required by the scientist, but does not necessarily specify particular data sources. This abstract workflow is then compiled into an executable workflow (EWF, in our case XPDL) that is then evaluated and executed by the workflow engine. This EWF contains references to specific data source and interfaces capable of performing the desired

  14. Cortical Bone Water Concentration: Dependence of MR Imaging Measures on Age and Pore Volume Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cheng; Seifert, Alan C.; Rad, Hamidreza Saligheh; Bhagat, Yusuf A.; Rajapakse, Chamith S.; Sun, Wenli; Lam, Shing Chun Benny

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To quantify bulk bone water to test the hypothesis that bone water concentration (BWC) is negatively correlated with bone mineral density (BMD) and is positively correlated with age, and to propose the suppression ratio (SR) (the ratio of signal amplitude without to that with long-T2 suppression) as a potentially stronger surrogate measure of porosity, which is evaluated ex vivo and in vivo. Materials and Methods Human subject studies were conducted in compliance with institutional review board and HIPAA regulations. Healthy men and women (n = 72; age range, 20–80 years) were examined with a hybrid radial ultrashort echo time magnetic resonance (MR) imaging sequence at 3.0 T, and BWC was determined in the tibial midshaft. In a subset of 40 female subjects, the SR was measured with a similar sequence. Cortical volumetric BMD (vBMD) was measured by means of peripheral quantitative computed tomography (CT). The method was validated against micro-CT–derived porosity in 13 donor human cortical bone specimens. Associations among parameters were evaluated by using standard statistical tools. Results BWC was positively correlated with age (r = 0.52; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.22, 0.73; P = .002) and negatively correlated with vBMD at the same location (r = −0.57; 95% CI: −0.76, −0.29; P < .001). Data were suggestive of stronger associations with SR (r = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.81, P < .001 for age; r = −0.67, 95% CI: −0.82, −0.43, P < .001 for vBMD; P < .001 for both), indicating that SR may be a more direct measure of porosity. This interpretation was supported by ex vivo measurements showing SR to be strongly positively correlated with micro-CT porosity (r = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.64, 0.96; P < .001) and with age (r = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.96; P < .001). Conclusion The MR imaging–derived SR may serve as a biomarker for cortical bone porosity that is potentially superior to BWC, but corroboration in larger cohorts is indicated. © RSNA, 2014 PMID

  15. Partition behavior of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons between aged coal tar and water

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, L.H.; Endo, S.; Eberhardt, C.; Grathwohl, P.; Schmidt, T.C.

    2009-08-15

    Coal tar aged in a large-scale, artificial aquifer experiment for five years was subsequently investigated for leaching behavior of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). After five years, the initially liquid coal tar had solidified and formed segregated particles with a grain size similar to that of the sandy aquifer material. The composition of the aged coal tar (ACT) with regard to PAHs was remarkably different from that of the original bulk coal tar (BCT), because most of the low-molecular-weight compounds had been depleted. Equilibrium aqueous-phase concentrations of 17 PAHs leaching from the aquifer material containing the ACT were measured from consecutive equilibration steps at increasing temperatures of between 25 and 100 {sup o}C using accelerated solvent extraction. The results showed 2-to 5,000-fold lower concentrations than those from BCT, indicating dramatic changes of dissolution behavior of PAHs from coal tar after the five-year aging period. Predictions based on Raoult's law with the subcooled liquid solubilities substantially overestimated the equilibrium aqueous-phase concentrations of the PAHs from ACT, whereas the estimations were reasonable if the solid solubilities were employed instead. The enthalpies of phase transfer from ACT to water were determined based on the van't Hoff equation. The resulting values agreed with the dissolution enthalpies of pure solid rather than subcooled liquid PAHs.

  16. Insights for aging management of light water reactor components: Metal containments. Volume 5

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, V.N.; Sinha, U.P.; Smith, S.K.

    1994-03-01

    This report evaluates the available technical information and field experience related to management of aging damage to light water reactor metal containments. A generic aging management approach is suggested for the effective and comprehensive aging management of metal containments to ensure their safe operation. The major concern is corrosion of the embedded portion of the containment vessel and detection of this damage. The electromagnetic acoustic transducer and half-cell potential measurement are potential techniques to detect corrosion damage in the embedded portion of the containment vessel. Other corrosion-related concerns include inspection of corrosion damage on the inaccessible side of BWR Mark I and Mark II containment vessels and corrosion of the BWR Mark I torus and emergency core cooling system piping that penetrates the torus, and transgranular stress corrosion cracking of the penetration bellows. Fatigue-related concerns include reduction in the fatigue life (a) of a vessel caused by roughness of the corroded vessel surface and (b) of bellows because of any physical damage. Maintenance of surface coatings and sealant at the metal-concrete interface is the best protection against corrosion of the vessel.

  17. Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) reproduction is impaired in aged oil sands process-affected waters.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Richard J; Frank, Richard A; Oakes, Ken D; Servos, Mark R; Young, Rozlyn F; Fedorak, Phillip M; MacKinnon, Mike D; Solomon, Keith R; Dixon, D George; Van Der Kraak, Glen

    2011-01-17

    Large volumes of fluid tailings are generated during the extraction of bitumen from oil sands. As part of their reclamation plan, oil sands operators in Alberta propose to transfer these fluid tailings to end pit lakes and, over time, these are expected to develop lake habitats with productive capabilities comparable to natural lakes in the region. This study evaluates the potential impact of various oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW) on the reproduction of adult fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) under laboratory conditions. Two separate assays with aged OPSW (>15 years) from the experimental ponds at Syncrude Canada Ltd. showed that water containing high concentrations of naphthenic acids (NAs; >25 mg/l) and elevated conductivity (>2000 μS/cm) completely inhibited spawning of fathead minnows and reduced male secondary sexual characteristics. Measurement of plasma sex steroid levels showed that male fathead minnows had lower concentrations of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone whereas females had lower concentrations of 17β-estradiol. In a third assay, fathead minnows were first acclimated to the higher salinity conditions typical of OSPW for several weeks and then exposed to aged OSPW from Suncor Energy Inc. (NAs ∼40 mg/l and conductivity ∼2000 μS/cm). Spawning was significantly reduced in fathead minnows held in this effluent and male fathead minnows had lower concentrations of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that aged OSPW has the potential to negatively affect the reproductive physiology of fathead minnows and suggest that aquatic habitats with high NAs concentrations (>25 mg/l) and conductivities (>2000 μS/cm) would not be conducive for successful fish reproduction.

  18. Effects of soil enrichment, watering and seedling age on establishment of Mediterranean woody species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siles, Gemma; Rey, Pedro J.; Alcántara, Julio M.; Bastida, Jesús M.; Herreros, Jose L.

    2010-07-01

    Vegetation restoration in strongly degraded lands has inherent limitations. Among the most relevant limitations in Mediterranean Mountains are severe drought and stressful levels of irradiance during summer. Thus, it is common that seedlings planted in open ground incur high rates of early mortality. In the context of a project of restoration of a burned area in Southern Spain, we evaluate the efficiency of watering and enrichment with native soil, and the influence of seedling age on survival and growth of 9 late-successional tall shrubs and trees planted in open ground. We also explore how small-scale variation in environmental variables relates to establishment success. Our results show an overall positive effect of watering on the survival of planted seedlings, while the effects of enrichment with native soil and age of planted seedlings were species-specific. Seedling establishment varied markedly with the presence of ravines, which duplicated seedling survival. This suggests that ravines may be more easily restored, improving their role as corridors in landscape designs of restoration. Independently of the treatment applied, Rosa sp. and Crataegus monogyna, both fleshy-fruited species, had the highest rates of establishment. In conclusion, this study shows the viability of low aggressive restoration techniques to assist vegetation recovery in fire-degraded environments. Specifically, watering and planting in ravines should be considered where restoration practices are applied in areas lacking vegetation cover. Some species highly attractive for animal dispersers and of easy establishment ( Rosa sp. and Crataegus sp.) could be used to enhance spontaneous regeneration within and beyond corridors through increasing seed attraction and dissemination.

  19. Radiocarbon ages of pre-bomb clams and the hard-water effect in Lakes Michigan and Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rea, David K.; Colman, Steven M.

    1995-01-01

    Five radiocarbon ages, all determined by accelerator mass spectrometry, have been obtained for two pre-bomb bivalves from Lake Michigan and one from Lake Huron. After correcting those ages for the fractionation of14C in calcite and for the radioactively inert CO2 in the atmosphere, we find residual ages, caused by the hard water effect, of about 250 years for Lake Michigan and 440 years for Lake Huron.

  20. Apparent chlorofluorocarbon age of ground water of the shallow aquifer system, Naval Weapons Station Yorktown, Yorktown, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelms, David L.; Harlow,, George E.; Brockman, Allen R.

    2001-01-01

    Apparent ages of ground water are useful in the analysis of various components of flow systems, and results of this analysis can be incorporated into investigations of potential pathways of contaminant transport. This report presents the results of a study in 1997 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Naval Weapons Station Yorktown, Base Civil Engineer, Environmental Directorate, to describe the apparent age of ground water of the shallow aquifer system at the Station. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), tritium (3H), dissolved gases, stable isotopes, and water-quality field properties were measured in samples from 14 wells and 16 springs on the Station in March 1997. Nitrogen-argon recharge temperatures range from 5.9?C to 17.3?C with a median temperature of 10.9?C, which indicates that ground-water recharge predominantly occurs in the cold months of the year. Concentrations of excess air vary depending upon geohydrologic setting (recharge and discharge areas). Apparent ground-water ages using a CFC-based dating technique range from 1 to 48 years with a median age of 10 years. The oldest apparent CFC ages occur in the upper parts of the Yorktown-Eastover aquifer, whereas the youngest apparent ages occur in the Columbia aquifer and the upper parts of the discharge area setting, especially springs. The vertical distribution of apparent CFC ages indicates that groundwater movement between aquifers is somewhat retarded by the leaky confining units, but the elapsed time is relatively short (generally less than 35 years), as evidenced by the presence of CFCs at depth. The identification of binary mixtures by CFC-based dating indicates that convergence of flow lines occurs not only at the actual point of discharge, but also in the subsurface. The CFC-based recharge dates are consistent with expected 3H concentrations measured in the water samples from the Station. The concentration of 3H in ground water ranges from below the USGS laboratory minimum

  1. MOEMS industrial infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Heeren, Henne; Paschalidou, Lia

    2004-08-01

    Forecasters and analysts predict the market size for microsystems and microtechnologies to be in the order of 68 billion by the year 2005 (NEXUS Market Study 2002). In essence, the market potential is likely to double in size from its 38 billion status in 2002. According to InStat/MDR the market for MOEMS (Micro Optical Electro Mechanical Systems) in optical communication will be over $1.8 billion in 2006 and WTC states that the market for non telecom MOEMS will be even larger. Underpinning this staggering growth will be an infrastructure of design houses, foundries, package/assembly providers and equipment suppliers to cater for the demand in design, prototyping, and (mass-) production. This infrastructure is needed to provide an efficient route to commercialisation. Foundries, which provide the infrastructure to prototype, fabricate and mass-produce the designs emanating from the design houses and other companies. The reason for the customers to rely on foundries can be diverse: ranging from pure economical reasons (investments, cost-price) to technical (availability of required technology). The desire to have a second source of supply can also be a reason for outsourcing. Foundries aim to achieve economies of scale by combining several customer orders into volume production. Volumes are necessary, not only to achieve the required competitive cost prices, but also to attain the necessary technical competence level. Some products that serve very large markets can reach such high production volumes that they are able to sustain dedicated factories. In such cases, captive supply is possible, although outsourcing is still an option, as can be seen in the magnetic head markets, where captive and non-captive suppliers operate alongside each other. The most striking examples are: inkjet heads (>435 million heads per year) and magnetic heads (>1.5 billion heads per year). Also pressure sensor and accelerometer producers can afford their own facilities to produce the

  2. JINR cloud infrastructure evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, A. V.; Balashov, N. A.; Kutovskiy, N. A.; Semenov, R. N.

    2016-09-01

    To fulfil JINR commitments in different national and international projects related to the use of modern information technologies such as cloud and grid computing as well as to provide a modern tool for JINR users for their scientific research a cloud infrastructure was deployed at Laboratory of Information Technologies of Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. OpenNebula software was chosen as a cloud platform. Initially it was set up in simple configuration with single front-end host and a few cloud nodes. Some custom development was done to tune JINR cloud installation to fit local needs: web form in the cloud web-interface for resources request, a menu item with cloud utilization statistics, user authentication via Kerberos, custom driver for OpenVZ containers. Because of high demand in that cloud service and its resources over-utilization it was re-designed to cover increasing users' needs in capacity, availability and reliability. Recently a new cloud instance has been deployed in high-availability configuration with distributed network file system and additional computing power.

  3. Flexible Computational Science Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Bergen, Ben; Moss, Nicholas; Charest, Marc Robert Joseph

    2016-04-06

    FleCSI is a compile-time configurable framework designed to support multi-physics application development. As such, FleCSI attempts to provide a very general set of infrastructure design patterns that can be specialized and extended to suit the needs of a broad variety of solver and data requirements. Current support includes multi-dimensional mesh topology, mesh geometry, and mesh adjacency information, n-dimensional hashed-tree data structures, graph partitioning interfaces, and dependency closures. FleCSI also introduces a functional programming model with control, execution, and data abstractions that are consistent with both MPI and state-of-the-art task-based runtimes such as Legion and Charm++. The FleCSI abstraction layer provides the developer with insulation from the underlying runtime, while allowing support for multiple runtime systems, including conventional models like asynchronous MPI. The intent is to give developers a concrete set of user-friendly programming tools that can be used now, while allowing flexibility in choosing runtime implementations and optimizations that can be applied to architectures and runtimes that arise in the future. The control and execution models in FleCSI also provide formal nomenclature for describing poorly understood concepts like kernels and tasks.

  4. Tensile properties and translaminar fracture toughness of glass fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester resin composites aged in distilled and salt water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiman, Gozali, M. Hulaifi; Setyawan, Paryanto Dwi

    2016-03-01

    Glass fiber reinforced polymer has been widely used in chemical industry and transportation due to lightweight and cost effective manufacturing. However due to the ability to absorb water from the environment, the durability issue is of interest for up to days. This paper investigated the water uptake and the effect of absorbed water on the tensile properties and the translaminar fracture toughness of glass fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester composites (GFRP) aged in distilled and salt water up to 30 days at a temperature of 50°C. It has been shown that GFRP absorbed more water in distilled water than in salt water. In distilled water, the tensile strength of GFRP tends to decrease steeply at 7 days and then slightly recovered for further immersion time. In salt water, the tensile strength tends to decrease continually up to 30 days immersion. The translaminar fracture toughness of GFRP aged in both distilled and salt-water shows the similar behavior. The translaminar fracture toughness increases after 7 days immersion and then tends to decrease beyond that immersion time. In the existence of ionics content in salt water, it causes more detrimental effect on the mechanical properties of fiberglass/unsaturated polyester composites compared to that of distilled water.

  5. UTILITY EXPERIENCE WITH INNOVATIVE WATER MAIN REHAB TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    All utilities are motivated to renew their aging infrastructure in the most efficient manner with respect to cost and minimal disruption to the community. American Water was given an opportunity to participate in an EPA funded project to demonstrate innovative water (and wastewa...

  6. EPA's Safe and Sustainable Water Resources Research Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasing demands for sources of clean water—combined with changing land use practices, population growth, aging infrastructure, and climate change and variability—pose significant threats to our water resources. Failure to manage the Nation’s waters in an inte...

  7. Condition Assessment Technologies for Water Transmission and Distribution Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Aging Water Infrastructure Research Program, this research was conducted to identify and characterize the state of the technology for structural condition assessment of drinking water transmission and distribution syst...

  8. Zonation of bacterioplankton communities along aging upwelled water in the northern Benguela upwelling

    PubMed Central

    Bergen, Benjamin; Herlemann, Daniel P. R.; Jürgens, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Upwelling areas are shaped by enhanced primary production in surface waters, accompanied by a well-investigated planktonic succession. Although bacteria play an important role in biogeochemical cycles of upwelling systems, little is known about bacterial community composition and its development during upwelling events. The aim of this study was to investigate the succession of bacterial assemblages in aging upwelled water of the Benguela upwelling from coastal to offshore sites. Water from the upper mixed layer at 12 stations was sampled along two transects from the origin of the upwelling to a distance of 220 km. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was then used in a bacterial diversity analysis and major bacterial taxa were quantified by catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization. Additionally, bacterial cell numbers and bacterial production were assessed. Community statistical analysis revealed a reproducible zonation along the two transects, with four clusters of significantly different microbial assemblages. Clustering was mainly driven by phytoplankton composition and abundance. Similar to the temporal succession that occurs during phytoplankton blooms in temperate coastal waters, operational taxonomic units (OTUs) affiliated with Bacteroidetes and Gammaproteobacteria were dominant during algal blooming whereas “Pelagibacterales” were highly abundant in regions with low algal abundance. The most dominant heterotrophic OTU (9% of all reads) was affiliated with “Pelagibacterales” and showed a strong negative correlation with phytoplankton. By contrast, the second most abundant heterotrophic OTU (6% of all reads) was affiliated with the phylum Verrucomicrobia and correlated positively with phytoplankton. Together with the close relation of bacterial production and phytoplankton abundance, our results showed that bacterial community dynamics is strongly driven by the development and composition of the phytoplankton community. PMID

  9. Meeting Hanford's Infrastructure Requirements - 12505

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, Karen

    2012-07-01

    Hanford, by all accounts, is an enormous and complex project, with thousands of disparate, but co-mingled activities in motion on any given day. The primary target of the mission at Hanford is cleanup of the 586 square-mile site, but there is the equally vital mission of site services and infrastructure. Without functions like the well-maintained site roads, electricity, water, and emergency management services, not a single cleanup project could be undertaken. As the cleanup projects evolve - with new work-scope emerging, while existing projects are completed - there becomes a very real need to keep projects integrated and working to the same 'blueprint'. And the Hanford blueprint extends for years and includes myriad variables that come with meeting the challenges and complexities associated with Hanford cleanup. Because of an innovative and unique contracting strategy, the Department of Energy (DOE) found a way to keep the cleanup projects un-encumbered from the side task of having to self-provide their individual essential site services, thus allowing the cleanup contractors to concentrate their efforts on their primary mission of cleaning up the site. These infrastructure and support services also need to be provided efficiently and cost effectively - done primarily through 'right-sizing' efforts. The real innovation came when DOE had the foresight to include a second provision in this contract which specifically asked for a specialized role of site integrator and innovator, with a special emphasis placed on providing substantial cost savings for the government. The need for a true site integrator function was necessitated by the ever-increasing complexity of projects at Hanford and the progression of cleanup at others. At present, there are two main DOE offices overseeing the cleanup work and six primary contractors performing that work. Each of these contractors works to separate schedules and cleanup milestones, and the nature of the cleanup differs, but

  10. Movement and Age of Ground Water in the Western Part of the Mojave Desert, Southern California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John A.; Michel, Robert L.

    2004-01-01

    Tritium and carbon-14 data in water from wells in the Mojave River and the Morongo ground-water basins in the western part of the Mojave Desert show recent recharge focused in the floodplain aquifer along the Mojave River. Older ground water was present in parts of the regional aquifer that surround and underlie the floodplain aquifer. Movement of water between the floodplain and the regional aquifers occurs near on the upgradient side of faults as water from the regional aquifer discharges to the floodplain aquifer and on the downgradient side of the faults where water from the floodplain aquifer recharges the regional aquifer. On the basis of carbon-14 ages, corrected for mineralogic reactions with aquifer materials, water from some wells was recharged more than 20,000 years ago. Geochemical data show ground-water recharge has gradually decreased as the climate changed since that time.

  11. Carbon emissions of infrastructure development.

    PubMed

    Müller, Daniel B; Liu, Gang; Løvik, Amund N; Modaresi, Roja; Pauliuk, Stefan; Steinhoff, Franciska S; Brattebø, Helge

    2013-10-15

    Identifying strategies for reconciling human development and climate change mitigation requires an adequate understanding of how infrastructures contribute to well-being and greenhouse gas emissions. While direct emissions from infrastructure use are well-known, information about indirect emissions from their construction is highly fragmented. Here, we estimated the carbon footprint of the existing global infrastructure stock in 2008, assuming current technologies, to be 122 (-20/+15) Gt CO2. The average per-capita carbon footprint of infrastructures in industrialized countries (53 (± 6) t CO2) was approximately 5 times larger that that of developing countries (10 (± 1) t CO2). A globalization of Western infrastructure stocks using current technologies would cause approximately 350 Gt CO2 from materials production, which corresponds to about 35-60% of the remaining carbon budget available until 2050 if the average temperature increase is to be limited to 2 °C, and could thus compromise the 2 °C target. A promising but poorly explored mitigation option is to build new settlements using less emissions-intensive materials, for example by urban design; however, this strategy is constrained by a lack of bottom-up data on material stocks in infrastructures. Infrastructure development must be considered in post-Kyoto climate change agreements if developing countries are to participate on a fair basis.

  12. Storage Dynamics and Non-Linear Connectivity between Landscape Units Control Runoff Generation and Stream Water Age Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulsby, C.; Birkel, C.; Geris, J.; Tetzlaff, D.

    2015-12-01

    We assess the influence of storage dynamics and non-linearities in hydrological connectivity on runoff generation and stream water ages, using a long-term record of daily isotopes in precipitation and stream flow. These were used to test a parsimonious tracer-aided runoff model for a Scottish catchment. The model tracks tracers and the ages of water fluxes through and between conceptual stores representing steeper hillslopes, dynamically saturated riparian peatlands and deeper groundwater (i.e. the main landscape units involved in runoff generation). Storage is largest in groundwater and on the steep hillslopes, though most dynamic mixing occurs in smaller stores in the riparian peat. The model also couples the ecohydrological effects of different vegetation communities in contrasting landscape units, by estimating evaporation, resulting moisture deficits and the ages of evaporated waters, which also affect the generation and age of runoff. Both stream flow and isotope variations are well-captured by the model, and the simulated storage and tracer dynamics in the main landscape units are consistent with independent measurements. The model predicts the mean age of runoff as ~1.8 years. On a daily basis, this varies from ~1 month in storm events, when younger waters draining the riparian peatland dominate, to around 4 years in dry periods, when groundwater sustains flow. Hydrological connectivity between the units varies non-linearly with storage which depends upon antecedent conditions and event characteristics. This, in turn, determines the spatial distribution of flow paths and the integration of their contrasting non-stationary ages. Improving the representation of storage dynamics and quantifying the ages of water fluxes in such models gives a more complete conceptualisation of the importance of the soil water fluxes in critical zone processes and a framework for tracking diffuse pollutants in water quality assessment.

  13. Effects of pig age at market weight and magnesium supplementation through drinking water on pork quality.

    PubMed

    Frederick, B R; van Heugten, E; See, M T

    2006-06-01

    Thirty-two halothane-negative pigs (109 +/- 0.6 kg of BW) were used to determine the effect of pig age at marketing (and thus growth rate), and magnesium supplementation through drinking water, on pork quality. Two initial groups of 50 pigs that differed by 30 +/- 2 d of age were fed diets to meet or exceed nutrient requirements beginning at 28 kg of BW. Sixteen average, representative pigs were selected from each group to represent older, slow-growing pigs and younger, fast-growing pigs. For the duration of the study, pigs were individually penned, provided 2.7 kg of feed (0.12% Mg) daily, and allowed free access to water. After 7 d of adjustment, pigs were blocked by sex and BW and allotted to 0 or 900 mg of supplemental Mg/L as MgSO4 in drinking water for 2 d before slaughter. All 32 pigs were then transported (110 km) to a commercial abattoir on the same day and slaughtered 2.5 h after arrival. Longissimus and semimembranosus (SM) chops were packaged and stored to simulate display storage for fluid loss and Minolta color determinations at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 d. Two remaining sections of the LM were vacuum-packaged and stored at 4 degrees C for 25 or 50 d. Fast- (younger) and slow- (older) growing pigs differed by 27 +/- 0.3 d of age (153 and 180 +/- 0.3 d; P < 0.001) at similar BW (108 and 110 +/- 0.6 kg of BW; P = 0.13). Supplementation of Mg tended to increase plasma Mg concentration (24.1 vs. 21.8 +/- 0.8 ppm; P = 0.06) but did not affect Mg concentration in LM or SM. Fluid loss of displayed LM or SM, and purge loss, color, and oxidation of vacuum-packaged LM or SM were not affected by age or Mg (P > 0.10). Surface exudate of the SM from older pigs was lower than that of younger pigs (61 vs. 74 +/- 6 mg; P = 0.05) but was not different for the LM (P = 0.22). The LM from older pigs displayed for 4 and 8 d; P < 0.05) were less yellow (lower b*) than younger pigs. The SM from older pigs had lower lightness (L*) initially (47.9 vs. 49.5 +/- 0.4) and after 2 d (49

  14. The Fermilab data storage infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Jon A Bakken et al.

    2003-02-06

    Fermilab, in collaboration with the DESY laboratory in Hamburg, Germany, has created a petabyte scale data storage infrastructure to meet the requirements of experiments to store and access large data sets. The Fermilab data storage infrastructure consists of the following major storage and data transfer components: Enstore mass storage system, DCache distributed data cache, ftp and Grid ftp for primarily external data transfers. This infrastructure provides a data throughput sufficient for transferring data from experiments' data acquisition systems. It also allows access to data in the Grid framework.

  15. Source and age of carbon in peatland surface waters: new insights from 14C analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billett, Michael; Garnett, Mark; Dinsmore, Kerry; Leith, Fraser

    2013-04-01

    analysis of peatland surface waters reveals multiple sources and ages for CO2, CH4, DOC and POC with different ages characterising individual peatlands. This implies that carbon transport from peat to stream is more complex than previously thought. Dual isotope (δ13C and 14C) analysis of carbon in its various aquatic forms is clearly a powerful tool in developing a better understanding of the functioning and stability of carbon-rich landscapes.

  16. The Integrated Behavioural Model for Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene: a systematic review of behavioural models and a framework for designing and evaluating behaviour change interventions in infrastructure-restricted settings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    exist, yet with some limitations. The IBM-WASH model aims to provide both a conceptual and practical tool for improving our understanding and evaluation of the multi-level multi-dimensional factors that influence water, sanitation, and hygiene practices in infrastructure-constrained settings. We outline future applications of our proposed model as well as future research priorities needed to advance our understanding of the sustained adoption of water, sanitation, and hygiene technologies and practices. PMID:24160869

  17. Precipitation; ground-water age; ground-water nitrate concentrations, 1995-2002; and ground-water levels, 2002-03 in Eastern Bernalillo County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchard, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    The eastern Bernalillo County study area consists of about 150 square miles and includes all of Bernalillo County east of the crests of the Sandia and Manzanita Mountains. Soil and unconsolidated alluvial deposits overlie fractured and solution-channeled limestone in most of the study area. North of Interstate Highway 40 and east of New Mexico Highway 14, the uppermost consolidated geologic units are fractured sandstones and shales. Average annual precipitation at three long-term National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration precipitation and snowfall data-collection sites was 14.94 inches at approximately 6,300 feet (Sandia Ranger Station), 19.06 inches at about 7,020 feet (Sandia Park), and 23.07 inches at approximately 10,680 feet (Sandia Crest). The periods of record at these sites are 1933-74, 1939-2001, and 1953-79, respectively. Average annual snowfall during these same periods of record was 27.7 inches at Sandia Ranger Station, 60.8 inches at Sandia Park, and 115.5 inches at Sandia Crest. Seven precipitation data-collection sites were established during December 2000-March 2001. Precipitation during 2001-03 at three U.S. Geological Survey sites ranged from 66 to 94 percent of period-of-record average annual precipitation at corresponding National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration long-term sites in 2001, from 51 to 75 percent in 2002, and from 34 to 81 percent during January through September 2003. Missing precipitation records for one site resulted in the 34-percent value in 2003. Analyses of concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113 in ground-water samples from nine wells and one spring were used to estimate when the sampled water entered the ground-water system. Apparent ages of ground water ranged from as young as about 10 to 16 years to as old as about 20 to 26 years. Concentrations of dissolved nitrates in samples collected from 24 wells during 2001-02 were similar to concentrations in samples collected from the same

  18. 18 CFR 5.30 - Critical energy infrastructure information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Critical energy infrastructure information. 5.30 Section 5.30 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE...

  19. 18 CFR 5.30 - Critical energy infrastructure information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Critical energy infrastructure information. 5.30 Section 5.30 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE...

  20. 18 CFR 5.30 - Critical energy infrastructure information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Critical energy infrastructure information. 5.30 Section 5.30 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE...

  1. 18 CFR 5.30 - Critical energy infrastructure information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Critical energy infrastructure information. 5.30 Section 5.30 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE...

  2. 18 CFR 5.30 - Critical energy infrastructure information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Critical energy infrastructure information. 5.30 Section 5.30 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE...

  3. Ground water/surface water interactions in Lake Naivasha, Kenya, using delta 18O, delta D, and 3H/3He age-dating.

    PubMed

    Ojiambo, B S; Poreda, R J; Lyons, W B

    2001-01-01

    We have analyzed a series of ground water samples from the Lake Naivasha region, Kenya, for their helium isotopic composition. Lake Naivasha is unique among the East Africa Rift Valley lakes in that it is fresh. It has long been thought that the low salinity of this lake is due, in part, to rapid water loss from the lake into the local ground water system. Our results show that the Olkaria geothermal waters, south of the lake, are devoid of tritium and, thus, are more than 50 years old. An important implication of these results is that even if Olkaria geothermal reservoir water originated from Lake Naivasha, it has been underground for a long time, (> 50 years) and is not derived from present-day Lake Naivasha water. This flow time is of the same order of magnitude as conservative major solutes, such as chloride, as determined through residence time calculations. On the north side of Lake Naivasha, deep wells (91 m) have water approximately 20 years old. Water from these wells has stable isotopic values resembling those of nearby rivers, and high-elevation eastern Rift water. This indicates that this water recharges from rains from high eastern Rift Valley escarpments. Many of the shallow wells on the south side of the lake have 3H/3He ages between four and 17 years. The young ages and the delta 18 O-enriched signature of the water from these wells indicate that they are recharged by a mixture of water from the lake, Rift flanks, and water from deep pumping wells that is recharged during irrigation. Water mixing ratio calculations using delta 18O and delta D isotopes show that about 50% to 70% of the southern ground water system is derived from the lake, while the Olkaria geothermal reservoir water shows that 40% to 50% of this water is originally lake water. Calculated mean recharge rates range from 0.10 to 1.59 m/yr with a mean of 0.52 +/- 0.40 m/yr. Estimated horizontal velocity from 3H/3He age dating between Lake Naivasha and a well about 3 km to the south is

  4. Framework for Vulnerability Assessment of Coastal Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrien, P. S.; Moritz, H. R.; White, K. D.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal infrastructure can be highly vulnerable to changing climate, including increasing sea levels and altered frequency and intensity of coastal storms. Existing coastal infrastructure may be of a sufficient age that it is already experiencing noticeable impacts from global sea level rise, and require a variety of potential preparedness and resilience measures to adapt to changing climate. Methods to determine vulnerability to changing sea level and support planning of potential future adaptation measures are needed for application to projects having multiple purposes (e.g., navigation, coastal risk reduction). Here we describe a potential framework for assessing projects with several components typical of existing coastal infrastructure spanning a range of engineering disciplines (e.g., hydrology, geotechnical, structural, electrical, and mechanical). The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Climate Preparedness and Resilience Register (CPRR) framework is currently under development. It takes a tiered approach as described in earlier USACE guidance (Engineer Technical Letter 1100-2-1) using the three scenarios prescribed by Engineer Regulation ER 1100-2-8162. Level 1 is a qualitative assessment defining the major sea level change-related impacts and ranks them in order of soonest occurrence. Level 2 is a quantitative evaluation that analyzes current and future performance of individual project components, including electrical, mechanical and structural components and functions using the sea level change scenarios prescribed by ER 1100-2-8162. Level 3 proposes adaptation measures per ETL 1100-2-1 and evaluates changes in sea level change-related impacts.

  5. Securing the United States' power infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Happenny, Sean F.

    2015-08-01

    The United States’ power infrastructure is aging, underfunded, and vulnerable to cyber attack. Emerging smart grid technologies may take some of the burden off of existing systems and make the grid as a whole more efficient, reliable, and secure. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is funding research into several aspects of smart grid technology and grid security, creating a software simulation tool that will allow researchers to test power distribution networks utilizing different smart grid technologies to determine how the grid and these technologies react under different circumstances. Demonstrating security in embedded systems is another research area PNNL is tackling. Many of the systems controlling the U.S. critical infrastructure, such as the power grid, lack integrated security and the networks protecting them are becoming easier to breach. Providing a virtual power substation network to each student team at the National Collegiate Cyber Defense Competition, thereby supporting the education of future cyber security professionals, is another way PNNL is helping to strengthen the security of the nation’s power infrastructure.

  6. Methane Gas Emissions - is Older Infrastructure Leakier?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, L. P.; Caulton, D.; Zondlo, M. A.; Lane, H.; Lu, J.; Golston, L.; Pan, D.

    2015-12-01

    Large gains in natural gas production from hydraulic fracturing is reinvigorating the US energy economy. It is a clean burning fuel with lower emissions than that of coal or oil. Studies show that methane (CH4) leaks from natural gas infrastructure vary widely. A broader question is whether leak rates of methane might offset the benefits of combustion of natural gas. Excess methane (CH4) is a major greenhouse gas with a radiative forcing constant of 25 times that of CO2 when projected over a 100-year period. An extensive field study of 250 wells in the Marcellus Shale conducted in July 2015 examined the emission rates of this region and identifed super-emitters. Spud production data will provide information as to whether older infrastructure is responsible for more of the emissions. Quantifying the emission rate was determined by extrapolating methane releases at a distance from private well pads using an inverse Gaussian plume model. Wells studied were selected by prevailing winds, distance from public roads, and topographical information using commercial (ARCGIS and Google Earth), non-profit (drillinginfo), and government (State of PA) databases. Data were collected from the mobile sensing lab (CH4, CO2 and H2O sensors), as well as from a stationary tower. Emission rates from well pads will be compared to their original production (spud dates) to evaluate whether infrastructure age and total production correlates with the observed leak rates. Very preliminary results show no statistical correlation between well pad production rates and observed leak rates.

  7. Age distribution of permfrost soil & surface water particulate organic carbon in the Lena Delta, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterfeld, M.; Flerus, R.; Koch, B.; Mollenhauer, G.

    2012-04-01

    Since several millennia huge amounts of organic carbon (OC) are stored frozen in circumarctic permafrost soils making up almost twice the amount of carbon currently present in the atmosphere. During the course of a proposed rapid climate change in the Arctic large quantities of this old OC are expected to be remobilized in dissolved (DOC) and particulate phases (POC) and exported to the Arctic shelf seas. Previous studies have shown that at present, DOC in Arctic river runoff is predominantly composed of relatively fresh organic material likely derived from the uppermost soil horizons. POC age data are scarce and where present show that it is substantially older than DOC. With our study we want to add information on the riverine POC exported by the Lena River to the Laptev Sea. Permafrost soil samples and surface water particulate matter (SPM) were collected in July/August 2009/2010 throughout the delta. Additional SPM samples were taken May/June 2011 during the spring flood and shortly after off the Island of Samoylov within the delta. Particulate organic carbon (POC) contents for 2009 vary between 280µg/L and 2155µg/L with an average of 918µg/L which is within the range of previously reported values. The Δ14C concentrations for POC of the same year show a broad range from -262‰ to -55‰ (average -158‰), which translates into ages of 2380±30yrs BP and 395±35yrs BP respectively (average ca. 1300yrs BP). The POC Δ14C concentrations reflect the age distribution found in the upper 1.4m of a permafrost peat cliff on Samoylov Island (-274‰ or 2510±30yrs BP). Karlsson et al (2011) found that POC samples in the SE Laptev Sea just off the Lena Delta contain young and bioavailable material interpreted to be derived from surface soils, which is in agreement with our late summer data. With the surface water POC contents in the Lena Delta of three consecutive years including one spring flood event presented here we improve our understanding of the interannual

  8. Green Infrastructure for Arid Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    how green infrastructure practices and the many associated benefits can be effective not only in wetter climates, but also for those communities in arid and semi-arid regions around the nation that have different precipitation patterns

  9. Risk assessment of mountain infrastructure destabilization in the French Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvillard, Pierre-Allain; Ravanel, Ludovic; Deline, Philip

    2015-04-01

    In the current context of imbalance of geosystems in connection with the rising air temperature for several decades, high mountain environments are especially affected by the shrinkage of glaciers and the permafrost degradation which can trigger slope movements in the rock slopes (rockfall, rock avalanches) or in superficial deposits (slides, rock glacier rupture, thermokarst). These processes generate a risk of direct destabilization for high mountain infrastructure (huts, cable-cars...) in addition to indirect risks for people and infrastructure located on the path of moving rock masses. We here focus on the direct risk of infrastructure destabilization due to permafrost degradation and/or glacier shrinkage in the French Alps. To help preventing these risks, an inventory of all the infrastructure was carried out with a GIS using different data layers among which the Alpine Permafrost Index Map and inventories of the French Alps glaciers in 2006-2009, 1967-1971 and at the end of the Little Ice Age. 1769 infrastructures have been identified in areas likely characterized by permafrost and/or possibly affected by glacier shrinkage. An index of risk of destabilization has been built to identify and to rank infrastructure at risk. This theoretical risk index includes a characterization of hazards and a diagnosis of the vulnerability. The value of hazard is dependent on passive factors (topography, lithology, geomorphological context...) and on so-considered active factors (thermal state of the permafrost, and changing constraints on slopes related to glacier shrinkage). The diagnosis of vulnerability has meanwhile been established by combining the level of potential damage to the exposed elements with their operational and financial values. The combination of hazard and vulnerability determines a degree of risk of infrastructure destabilization (from low to very high). Field work and several inventories of infrastructure damages were used to validate it. The

  10. A European perspective--the European clinical research infrastructures network.

    PubMed

    Demotes-Mainard, J; Kubiak, C

    2011-11-01

    Evaluating research outcomes requires multinational cooperation in clinical research for optimization of treatment strategies and comparative effectiveness research, leading to evidence-based practice and healthcare cost containment. The European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) is a distributed ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) roadmap pan-European infrastructure designed to support multinational clinical research, making Europe a single area for clinical studies, taking advantage of its population size to access patients, and unlocking latent scientific potential. Servicing multinational trials started during its preparatory phase, and ECRIN will now apply for an ERIC (European Research Infrastructures Consortium) status by 2011. By creating a single area for clinical research in Europe, this achievement will contribute to the implementation of the Europe flagship initiative 2020 'Innovation Union', whose objectives include defragmentation of the research and education capacity, tackling the major societal challenges starting with the area of healthy ageing, and removing barriers to bring ideas to the market.

  11. Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) ameliorates age-related deficits in water maze performance, especially in male rats.

    PubMed

    Kougias, Daniel G; Hankosky, Emily R; Gulley, Joshua M; Juraska, Janice M

    2017-03-01

    Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) is commonly supplemented to maintain muscle in elderly and clinical populations and has potential as a nootropic. Previously, we have shown that in both male and female rats, long-term HMB supplementation prevents age-related dendritic shrinkage within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and improves cognitive flexibility and working memory performance that are both age- and sex-specific. In this study, we further explore the cognitive effects by assessing visuospatial learning and memory with the Morris water maze. Female rats were ovariectomized at 11months of age to model human menopause. At 12months of age, male and female rats received relatively short- or long-term (1- or 7-month) dietary HMB (450mg/kg/dose) supplementation twice a day prior to testing. Spatial reference learning and memory was assessed across four days in the water maze with four trials daily and a probe trial on the last day. Consistent with previous work, there were age-related deficits in water maze performance in both sexes. However, these deficits were ameliorated in HMB-treated males during training and in both sexes during probe trial performance. Thus, HMB supplementation prevented the age-related decrement in water maze performance, especially in male rats.

  12. Age and source of water in springs associated with the Jacksonville Thrust Fault Complex, Calhoun County, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, James L.

    2004-01-01

    Water from wells and springs accounts for more than 90 percent of the public water supply in Calhoun County, Alabama. Springs associated with the Jacksonville Thrust Fault Complex are used for public water supply for the cities of Anniston and Jacksonville. The largest ground-water supply is Coldwater Spring, the primary source of water for Anniston, Alabama. The average discharge of Coldwater Spring is about 32 million gallons per day, and the variability of discharge is about 75 percent. Water-quality samples were collected from 6 springs and 15 wells in Calhoun County from November 2001 to January 2003. The pH of the ground water typically was greater than 6.0, and specific conductance was less than 300 microsiemens per centimeter. The water chemistry was dominated by calcium, carbonate, and bicarbonate ions. The hydrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of the water samples indicates the occurrence of a low-temperature, water-rock weathering reaction known as silicate hydrolysis. The residence time of the ground water, or ground-water age, was estimated by using analysis of chlorofluorocarbon, sulfur hexafluoride, and regression modeling. Estimated ground-water ages ranged from less than 10 to approximately 40 years, with a median age of about 18 years. The Spearman rho test was used to identify statistically significant covariance among selected physical properties and constituents in the ground water. The alkalinity, specific conductance, and dissolved solids increased as age increased; these correlations reflect common changes in ground-water quality that occur with increasing residence time and support the accuracy of the age estimates. The concentration of sodium and chloride increased as age increased; the correlation of these constituents is interpreted to indicate natural sources for chloride and sodium. The concentration of silica increased as the concentration of potassium increased; this correlation, in addition to the isotopic data, is evidence that

  13. Infrastructure dynamics: A selected bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dajani, J. S.; Bencosme, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    The term infrastructure is used to denote the set of life support and public service systems which is necessary for the development of growth of human settlements. Included are some basic references in the field of dynamic simulation, as well as a number of relevant applications in the area of infrastructure planning. The intent is to enable the student or researcher to quickly identify such applications to the extent necessary for initiating further work in the field.

  14. Open Component Portability Infrastructure (OPENCPI)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    OPEN COMPONENT PORTABILITY INFRASTRUCTURE (OPENCPI) MERCURY FEDERAL SYSTEMS, INC. MARCH 2013 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT...NUMBER OC 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER PI 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Mercury Federal Systems, Inc. 1901 South Bell Street, Suite...Component Portability Infrastructure (OPENCPI) ,” AFRL-RI-RS-TR- 2009-257, Mercury Federal Systems, Inc., Arlington, VA, Nov 2009. 2. Kulp, J., “OpenCPI

  15. Water Intake by Outdoor Temperature Among Children Aged 1–10 Years: Implications for Community Water Fluoridation in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio D.; Sohn, Woosung; Wei, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Objective The U.S. water fluoridation recommendations, which have been in place since 1962, were based in part on findings from the 1950s that children's water intake increased with outdoor temperature. We examined whether or not water intake is associated with outdoor temperature. Methods Using linked data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004 and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, we examined reported 24-hour total and plain water intake in milliliters per kilogram of body weight per day of children aged 1–10 years by maximum outdoor temperature on the day of reported water intake, unadjusted and adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and poverty status. We applied linear regression methods that were used in previously reported analyses of data from NHANES 1988–1994 and from the 1950s. Results We found that total water intake was not associated with temperature. Plain water intake was weakly associated with temperature in unadjusted (coefficient 5 0.2, p=0.015) and adjusted (coefficient 5 0.2, p=0.013) linear regression models. However, these models explained little of the individual variation in plain water intake (unadjusted: R2=0.005; adjusted: R2=0.023). Conclusion Optimal fluoride concentration in drinking water to prevent caries need not be based on outdoor temperature, given the lack of association between total water intake and outdoor temperature, the weak association between plain water intake and outdoor temperature, and the minimal amount of individual variance in plain water intake explained by outdoor temperature. These findings support the change in the U.S. Public Health Service recommendation for fluoride concentration in drinking water for the prevention of dental caries from temperature-related concentrations to a single concentration that is not related to outdoor temperature. PMID:26346578

  16. Ground-water age, flow, and quality near a landfill, and changes in ground-water conditions from 1976 to 1996 in the Swinomish Indian Reservation, northwestern Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, B.E.; Cox, S.E.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the results of two related studies: a study of ground-water age, flow, and quality near a landfill in the south-central part of the Swinomish Indian Reservation; and a study of changes in ground-water conditions for the entire reservation from 1976 to 1996. The Swinomish Indian Reservation is a 17-square-mile part of Fidalgo Island in northwestern Washington. The groundwater flow system in the reservation is probably independent of other flow systems in the area because it is almost completely surrounded by salt water. There has been increasing stress on the ground-water resources of the reservation because the population has almost tripled during the past 20 years, and 65 percent of the population obtain their domestic water supply from the local ground-water system. The Swinomish Tribe is concerned that increased pumping of ground water might have caused decreased ground-water discharge into streams, declines in ground-water levels, and seawater intrusion into the ground-water system. There is also concern that leachate from an inactive landfill containing mostly household and wood-processing wastes may be contaminating the ground water. The study area is underlain by unconsolidated glacial and interglacial deposits of Quaternary age that range from about 300 to 900 feet thick. Five hydrogeologic units have been defined in the unconsolidated deposits. From top to bottom, the hydrogeologic units are a till confining bed, an outwash aquifer, a clay confining bed, a sea-level aquifer, and an undifferentiated unit. The ground-water flow system of the reservation is similar to other island-type flow systems. Water enters the system through the water table as infiltration and percolation of precipitation (recharge), then the water flows downward and radially outward from the center of the island. At the outside edges of the system, ground water flows upward to discharge into the surrounding saltwater bodies. Average annual recharge is estimated to

  17. [The statement of Polish Gynaecologic Society experts concerning drinking water consumption in women in reproductive age, pregnancy and breast feeding].

    PubMed

    Tomasz, Niemiec

    2009-07-01

    Water is a substance essential for life. It creates the environment of our body, keeps it's homeostasis, enables every biochemical reaction and metabolic processes in human organism. Maternal hydratation is essential for homeostasis of two organisms and drinking water influences the amniotic fluid volume, fetal well-being and removes toxic metabolic products. The chemical contaminants of drinking water and products of it's chlorination and ozonization could be responsible for spontaneous abortion, birth defects and perinatal complications. Therefore it is recommended to drink natural mineral water for women in reproductive age.

  18. Water Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    How WIFIA works, program implementation, program guidance, how potential recipients can obtain funding, and project eligibility. WIFIA works with State Revolving Funds to provide subsidized financing for large dollar-value projects.

  19. Groundwater Ages and Stable Isotope Fingerprints of Contaminated Water to Examine Potential Solute Sources at a Uranium Processing Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, T. G.; Solomon, D. K.

    2007-12-01

    To evaluate sources of high solute concentrations in groundwater near a uranium processing facility, groundwater recharge dates are correlated to specific solute concentrations and depth in the water column. Stable isotopes are also used as potential fingerprints of water sourced from mill tailing cells. Passive diffusion samplers, to be analyzed for 3He/4He ratio, were deployed in 15 different wells with samplers at two depths in the saturated interval. Low-flow purging and sampling was then conducted to isolate sampling points at different depths in the wells, with sampling at multiple depths being completed in 4 of the 15 wells sampled. Laboratory analyses were conducted for CFC recharge age, as well as T/3He recharge age. Contract laboratories analyzed for: deuterium and oxygen-18 isotopes of water; sulfur-34 and oxygen-18 isotopes of sulfate; trace metals uranium, manganese, and selenium; and nitrate and sulfate. Analysis for 235U/238U isotope ratios will be conducted to further identify fingerprint signals of source water. Groundwater recharge ages determined using CFC analysis show some vertical stratification in ages across the water column. Upon initial data processing and analysis, measured CFC ages ranged from 30 to 40 years within the water column of one well to only several years difference in another well. Additional results for trace metal concentrations, stable isotope ratios, and T/3He recharge ages will be reported when results are received. Further post-processing of CFC laboratory analysis and noble gas analyses will provide greater clarity as to groundwater ages within the aquifer and, combined with field pumping data, will allow for a comprehensive groundwater model to be constructed. This study provides great insight to potential mine tailings leakage problems and using isotopes and groundwater age dating techniques as a means of tracing contaminated groundwater to the leakage source. Utilizing stable isotopes of water and sulfate, combined

  20. China national space remote sensing infrastructure and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming

    2016-07-01

    Space Infrastructure is a space system that provides communication, navigation and remote sensing service for broad users. China National Space Remote Sensing Infrastructure includes remote sensing satellites, ground system and related systems. According to the principle of multiple-function on one satellite, multiple satellites in one constellation and collaboration between constellations, series of land observation, ocean observation and atmosphere observation satellites have been suggested to have high, middle and low resolution and fly on different orbits and with different means of payloads to achieve a high ability for global synthetically observation. With such an infrastructure, we can carry out the research on climate change, geophysics global surveying and mapping, water resources management, safety and emergency management, and so on. I This paper gives a detailed introduction about the planning of this infrastructure and its application in different area, especially the international cooperation potential in the so called One Belt and One Road space information corridor.

  1. Rural health clinics infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, K.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses programs which were directed at the installation of photovoltaic power systems in rural health clinics. The objectives included: vaccine refrigeration; ice pack freezing; lighting; communications; medical appliances; sterilization; water purification; and income generation. The paper discusses two case histories, one in the Dominican Republic and one in Colombia. The author summarizes the results of the programs, both successes and failures, and offers an array of conclusions with regard to the implementation of future programs of this general nature.

  2. Impact of shelterbelts of different age on the content of nitrates and phosphates in ground water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaskulska, Renata; Wojciech Szajdak, Lech

    2010-05-01

    The investigations were carried out in the Agroecological Landscape Park situated 40 km South-West of Poznań in the upper Obra River watershed, Poland. The arable land constitutes 70%, shelterbelts and small afforestations about 14% and meadows and pastures about 12%. Shelterbelts belong to very efficient biogeochemical barriers. They decrease the migration of chemical compounds between ecosystems. The direction of ground water flow was from the adjoining cultivated field towards shelterbelts. Two shelterbelts of different humus guantity in surface layer soils were investigated. The age and species composition of plant was taken under consideration. The first one is 160-year-old shelterbelt, where predominant species is Robinia pseudoacacia, Quercus rober and Alnus glutinosa and is characterized by a well-developed humus level. The other one is 14-year-old shelterbelt. It includes 13 species of trees (Quercus petrea, Larix deciduas, Pinus silvestri, Populus nigra, Sorbus aucuparia) and reveals a small amount of humus. The soils are minerals, grey-brown podzolic in surface layer soils compound from light loamy sands and weakly loamy sands. The contents of N-NO3-, P-PO4-3, were investigated in the ground water under shelterbelts and adjoining cultivated fields. In addition, cationic sorptive capacity, specific surface areas, TOC were determined in soils. The smallest concentrations of nitrates (3.35 mg×l-1) and phosphates (0.02 mg×l-1) were observed in ground water under the 160-year-old shelterbelt. The physicochemical properties of soils under 160-year-old shelterbelt: specific surface areas (20.3 m2×g-1), cationic sorptive capacity (24.8 cmol(+)×kg-1), TOC (4.3%) was higher than in 14-year-old shelterbelt and in adjoining cultivated fields. The results revealed, that the 160-year-old shelterbelt characterizing developed humus more effectively than 14-year-old shelterbelt decreases the amounts of chemical compounds in ground water and sufficiently fulfils the

  3. α-HCH enantiomer fraction (EF): A novel approach to calculate the ventilation age of water in the Arctic Ocean?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pućko, Monika; Macdonald, Robie W.; Barber, David G.; Rosenberg, Bruno; Gratton, Yves; Stern, Gary A.

    2012-08-01

    α-HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) and the enantiomeric fraction (EF) of its mirror-image isomers have been determined for water column profiles in the southern Beaufort Sea in 2004 and 2007. Using estimated rates of metabolic degradation, we have applied a simple kinetic model to convert the observed EFs to apparent ventilation ages of the water masses in the study region. We found an age of 1.7 ± 0.1 years for the Polar Mixed Layer (PML), 6.6 ± 0.6 for the core of the Pacific Layer centered at salinity 33.1, and 21.7 ± 0.5 years for the core of the Atlantic Layer identified by a Tmax of ˜0.5°C. These ages are in reasonable accord with other methods used to date water masses in the Arctic Ocean suggesting that α-HCH has an unexploited potential as a dating tool.

  4. Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, G; Abhayaratne, P; Bale, J; Bhattacharjee, A; Blair, C; Hansell, L; Jayne, A; Kosal, M; Lucas, S; Moran, K; Seroki, L; Vadlamudi, S

    2006-12-04

    Certain types of infrastructure--critical infrastructure (CI)--play vital roles in underpinning our economy, security and way of life. These complex and often interconnected systems have become so ubiquitous and essential to day-to-day life that they are easily taken for granted. Often it is only when the important services provided by such infrastructure are interrupted--when we lose easy access to electricity, health care, telecommunications, transportation or water, for example--that we are conscious of our great dependence on these networks and of the vulnerabilities that stem from such dependence. Unfortunately, it must be assumed that many terrorists are all too aware that CI facilities pose high-value targets that, if successfully attacked, have the potential to dramatically disrupt the normal rhythm of society, cause public fear and intimidation, and generate significant publicity. Indeed, revelations emerging at the time of this writing about Al Qaida's efforts to prepare for possible attacks on major financial facilities in New York, New Jersey, and the District of Columbia remind us just how real and immediate such threats to CI may be. Simply being aware that our nation's critical infrastructure presents terrorists with a plethora of targets, however, does little to mitigate the dangers of CI attacks. In order to prevent and preempt such terrorist acts, better understanding of the threats and vulnerabilities relating to critical infrastructure is required. The Center for Nonproliferation Studies (CNS) presents this document as both a contribution to the understanding of such threats and an initial effort at ''operationalizing'' its findings for use by analysts who work on issues of critical infrastructure protection. Specifically, this study focuses on a subsidiary aspect of CI threat assessment that has thus far remained largely unaddressed by contemporary terrorism research: the motivations and related factors that determine whether a terrorist

  5. One-year water-ageing of calcium phosphate composite containing nano-silver and quaternary ammonium to inhibit biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lei; Zhang, Ke; Zhou, Chen-Chen; Weir, Michael D; Zhou, Xue-Dong; Xu, Hockin H K

    2016-01-01

    Dental composites are commonly used restorative materials; however, secondary caries due to biofilm acids remains a major problem. The objectives of this study were (1) to develop a composite containing quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM), nanoparticles of silver (NAg), and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP), and (2) to conduct the first investigation of the mechanical properties, biofilm response and acid production vs water-ageing time from 1 day to 12 months. A 4 × 5 design was utilized, with four composites (NACP-QADM composite, NACP-NAg composite, NACP-QADM-NAg composite, and a commercial control composite), and five water-ageing time periods (1 day, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months). After each water-ageing period, the mechanical properties of the resins were measured in a three-point flexure, and antibacterial properties were tested via a dental plaque biofilm model using human saliva as an inoculum. After 12 months of water-ageing, NACP-QADM-NAg had a flexural strength and elastic modulus matching those of the commercial control (P>0.1). Incorporation of QADM or NAg into the NACP composite greatly reduced biofilm viability, metabolic activity and acid production. A composite containing both QADM and NAg possessed a stronger antibacterial capability than one with QADM or NAg alone (P<0.05). The anti-biofilm activity was maintained after 12 months of water-ageing and showed no significant decrease with increasing time (P>0.1). In conclusion, the NACP-QADM-NAg composite decreased biofilm viability and lactic acid production, while matching the load-bearing capability of a commercial composite. There was no decrease in its antibacterial properties after 1 year of water-ageing. The durable antibacterial and mechanical properties indicate that NACP-QADM-NAg composites may be useful in dental restorations to combat caries. PMID:27281037

  6. Intake of dietary salt and drinking water: Implications for the development of age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Hollborn, Margrit; Kohen, Leon; Wiedemann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Systemic hypertension is a risk factor of age-related retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. High intake of dietary salt and low intake of water increase extracellular osmolality resulting in hypertension, in particular in salt-sensitive individuals. This review summarizes the present knowledge regarding the impact of salt and water intake on the regulation of blood pressure, retinal function, and the development of age-related retinal diseases. Methods A literature search of the Medline database and a summary of recent studies that used human RPE cells. Results The salt sensitivity of the blood pressure and plasma osmolality increase with age, and body water deficits are common in older individuals. High plasma osmolality has adverse effects in the retina. In RPE cells, high osmolality induces expression and secretion of angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), placental growth factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor, and expression of aquaporin-5, a water channel implicated in transepithelial water transport. The transcriptional activities of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and nuclear factor of activated T cell 5 (NFAT5) are critical for the production of VEGF in response to salt-induced osmotic stress. Salt-induced osmotic stress also induces priming of the NLRP3 inflammasome and activates inflammatory enzymes in RPE cells. Conclusions Raised plasma osmolality may aggravate age-related retinal diseases by stimulation of local inflammation and angiogenic factor production in the RPE. Alterations in salt and water consumption, and of minerals that stimulate renal salt excretion, may offer nutritional approaches to prevent age-related retinal disorders, in particular in salt-sensitive individuals and individuals who show signs of body dehydration. PMID:28031693

  7. One-year water-ageing of calcium phosphate composite containing nano-silver and quaternary ammonium to inhibit biofilms.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lei; Zhang, Ke; Zhou, Chen-Chen; Weir, Michael D; Zhou, Xue-Dong; Xu, Hockin H K

    2016-09-29

    Dental composites are commonly used restorative materials; however, secondary caries due to biofilm acids remains a major problem. The objectives of this study were (1) to develop a composite containing quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM), nanoparticles of silver (NAg), and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP), and (2) to conduct the first investigation of the mechanical properties, biofilm response and acid production vs water-ageing time from 1 day to 12 months. A 4 × 5 design was utilized, with four composites (NACP-QADM composite, NACP-NAg composite, NACP-QADM-NAg composite, and a commercial control composite), and five water-ageing time periods (1 day, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months). After each water-ageing period, the mechanical properties of the resins were measured in a three-point flexure, and antibacterial properties were tested via a dental plaque biofilm model using human saliva as an inoculum. After 12 months of water-ageing, NACP-QADM-NAg had a flexural strength and elastic modulus matching those of the commercial control (P>0.1). Incorporation of QADM or NAg into the NACP composite greatly reduced biofilm viability, metabolic activity and acid production. A composite containing both QADM and NAg possessed a stronger antibacterial capability than one with QADM or NAg alone (P<0.05). The anti-biofilm activity was maintained after 12 months of water-ageing and showed no significant decrease with increasing time (P>0.1). In conclusion, the NACP-QADM-NAg composite decreased biofilm viability and lactic acid production, while matching the load-bearing capability of a commercial composite. There was no decrease in its antibacterial properties after 1 year of water-ageing. The durable antibacterial and mechanical properties indicate that NACP-QADM-NAg composites may be useful in dental restorations to combat caries.

  8. Ground-Water Flow Direction, Water Quality, Recharge Sources, and Age, Great Sand Dunes National Monument, South-Central Colorado, 2000-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2004-01-01

    Great Sand Dunes National Monument is located in south-central Colorado along the eastern edge of the San Luis Valley. The Great Sand Dunes National Monument contains the tallest sand dunes in North America; some rise up to750 feet. Important ecological features of the Great Sand Dunes National Monument are palustrine wetlands associated with interdunal ponds and depressions along the western edge of the dune field. The existence and natural maintenance of the dune field and the interdunal ponds are dependent on maintaining ground-water levels at historic elevations. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study, in collaboration with the National Park Service, of ground-water flow direction, water quality, recharge sources, and age at the Great Sand Dunes National Monument. A shallow unconfined aquifer and a deeper confined aquifer are the two principal aquifers at the Great Sand Dunes National Monument. Ground water in the unconfined aquifer is recharged from Medano and Sand Creeks near the Sangre de Cristo Mountain front, flows underneath the main dune field, and discharges to Big and Little Spring Creeks. The percentage of calcium in ground water in the unconfined aquifer decreases and the percentage of sodium increases because of ionic exchange with clay minerals as the ground water flows underneath the dune field. It takes more than 60 years for the ground water to flow from Medano and Sand Creeks to Big and Little Spring Creeks. During this time, ground water in the upper part of the unconfined aquifer is recharged by numerous precipitation events. Evaporation of precipitation during recharge prior to reaching the water table causes enrichment in deuterium (2H) and oxygen-18 (18O) relative to waters that are not evaporated. This recharge from precipitation events causes the apparent ages determined using chlorofluorocarbons and tritium to become younger, because relatively young precipitation water is mixing with older waters

  9. Removal of Mn2+ from water by "aged" biofilter media: the role of catalytic oxides layers.

    PubMed

    Sahabi, Danladi Mahuta; Takeda, Minoru; Suzuki, Ichiro; Koizumi, Jun-ichi

    2009-02-01

    The present work was aimed at evaluating the surface coatings characteristics and autocatalytic manganese oxidation potentials of two groups of "aged" biofilter media. This refers to the anthracite filter media of a biological water treatment plant on which metal oxides and a biofilm have deposited on the surface of the filter media over long time of filtration. Duplicate samples of anthracite filter media were collected from each of the six filter wells in the plant and classified into two groups, based on their duration of operation, as 3-years filter media and 15-years filter media. Batch experiments showed that the 15-years filter media exhibited very high manganese sorption capacity and were less dependent on the microbial activity than the 3-years filter media. Results of the surface coatings analyses indicated that the biofilter materials is predominantly composed of variable layers of manganese and iron oxides, with microbial biomass contributing only about 3.5 and 1.4% of the dry weight of the surface coatings on the 3- and 15-years filter media respectively. Investigations onto the Mn2+ sorption by the lyophilized biofilter media showed that, the sorption kinetics on the catalytic oxides layers followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics model, thus suggesting chemisorption as the dominant mechanism of Mn2+ removal. This implied that manganese removal by these biofilters is mainly by adsorption of Mn2+ onto the iron and manganese (catalytic) oxides layers and autocatalytic oxidation. The present study has clearly linked Mn2+ oxidation to the catalytic oxides layers on the aged biofilter media.

  10. 21st Century Water Asset Accounting - Case Studies Report (WERF Report INFR6R12a)

    EPA Science Inventory

    America’s decaying water infrastructure presents significant financial and logistical challenges for water utilities. Green infrastructure has been gaining traction as a viable alternative and complement to traditional “grey” infrastructure for water management. Current accounti...

  11. On the Storm Surge and Sea Level Rise Projections for Infrastructure Risk Analysis and Adaptation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Storm surge can cause coastal hydrology changes, flooding, water quality changes, and even inundation of low-lying terrain. Strong wave actions and disruptive winds can damage water infrastructure and other environmental assets (hazardous and solid waste management facilities, w...

  12. Sea Water Ageing of Composites for Ocean Energy Conversion Systems: Influence of Glass Fibre Type on Static Behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisseau, Amélie; Davies, Peter; Thiebaud, Frédéric

    2012-06-01

    Composite material components will be an essential part of ocean energy recovery devices, and their long term durability in sea water must be guaranteed. Despite extensive experience for boat structures and wind turbines few data exist to design structures subjected to a combination of mechanical loads and sea water immersion. This paper presents the first results from an experimental study, performed jointly with fibre manufacturers, and a resin supplier, to fill this gap. The experimental study is completed by numerical modelling to simulate the coupling between water absorption and mechanical behaviour. Sea water ageing is shown to result in a drop in quasi-static mechanical properties and a change in flexural mode from compression to tension at longer ageing times, which is consistent with results from the numerical simulations.

  13. Neospora caninum serostatus is affected by age and species variables in cohabiting water buffaloes and beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Moore, D P; Konrad, J L; San Martino, S; Reichel, M P; Cano, D B; Méndez, S; Späth, E J L; Odeón, A C; Crudeli, G; Campero, C M

    2014-07-14

    The aim of this study was to investigate how Neospora caninum serostatus may be affected by variables such as host species (water buffaloes or cattle) and age in animals cohabiting in the same ranch. A convenience cross-sectional study was performed on four ranches in the Northeast of Argentina, where water buffalo are cohabitating with beef cattle. Blood samples were collected from 1350 female water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and 880 female beef cattle (Bos taurus and Bos indicus crossbreeds) from four ranches. Calving and weaning percentages at herd level for each ranch were also recorded. N. caninum antibody levels were measured by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) (reciprocal antibody titers ≥ 100). Serological results were classified into 2 categories (0: negative; 1: positive). A logistic regression model was used to describe the relationship between N. caninum serostatus and specie (water buffalo or cattle), age or ranch and their interactions. Likelihood ratio tests were used to assess the significance of the model and their terms. Odds ratios were estimated and 95% profile likelihood (LR) and Wald confidence intervals (CI) obtained. Overall, specific antibody titers were found in 43.3% (584/1350) of water buffaloes and 28.6% (252/880) of cattle. Seropositive water buffaloes and cattle were observed on all ranches. Age was statistically significant (p=0.01) with an overall estimate of logit (log odds) of age of 0.03 for both species. This indicates that for every one year increase in age, the expected change in log odds of being seropositive increased by 0.03. On three of four ranches a water buffalo was 4.48, 1.54 and 2.25 times more likely to be seropositive than cattle for animals of the same age. The N. caninum serostatus was affected by age in the first place, but also by species on at least three of the four ranches. Calving and weaning percentages were higher in water buffaloes than in beef cattle (p<0.05). Even though the low

  14. Space Agency Workshop Considers Effect of Climate Change on Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Brown, Molly

    2009-10-01

    Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation: NASA Mission and Infrastructure; Kennedy Space Center, Florida, 28-30 July 2009; With centers located throughout the country, NASA could experience a range of climate change hazards. Depending on the region, these hazards are likely to include more extreme and frequent high temperatures, more frequent and intense precipitation events, changing water availability, and sea level rise. These changing climate hazards could undermine key NASA missions by damaging operations and critical infrastructure assets. The specific effects of climate change may include shifting availability, reliability, and cost of water and energy; and changes in safety and operations related to more extreme events (e.g., floods, fire).

  15. Chlorofluorocarbon and tritium age determination of ground-water recharge in the Ryan Flat subbasin, Trans-Pecos Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartolino, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the relative influence of mountain-front infiltration in the Ryan Flat subbasin and to determine whether recent recharge (post-1940), which is of importance to water-use planning, has reached the Salt Basin aquifer, Trans-Pecos Texas. The alluvial and volcanic Salt Basin aquifer lies within a bolson, and the average depth to water in most of the subbasin is approximately 250 feet. Concentrations of the chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113, as well as tritium, were measured in water from 10 wells in the study area. CFC-model recharge dates ranged from pre-1940 to the early 1970's. Ground water in five wells had CFC-model dates of pre-1940 or pre-1945. Ground water in two wells had dates of the mid- to late 1940's. Ground water from one well had a CFC-model recharge age of the early 1950's. Samples from the remaining two wells were most probably contaminated in some manner and are probably unreliable. CFC-model ages were calculated independently for the three chlorofluorocarbons, though the presence of volatile organic compounds affected agreement among them. Tritium activities in the nine wells for which tritium was analyzed indicated pre-1953 recharge and thus agreed approximately with the CFC-model dates. Ground water was analyzed for selected water-quality constituents. Water from all wells met U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national primary and secondary drinking water standards for all tested constituents except fluoride in samples from three wells. Silica concentrations in water from six wells exceeded a range considered typical in natural waters.

  16. Towards an Infrastructure for MLS Distributed Computing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    Distributed computing owes its success to the development of infrastructure, middleware, and standards (e.g., CORBA) by the computing industry. This...Government must protect national security information against unauthorized information flow. To support MLS distributed computing , a MLS infrastructure...protection of classified information and use both the emerging distributed computing and commercial security infrastructures. The resulting infrastructure

  17. Agent-based modeling of complex infrastructures

    SciTech Connect

    North, M. J.

    2001-06-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) can be applied to investigate complex infrastructures and infrastructure interdependencies. The CAS model agents within the Spot Market Agent Research Tool (SMART) and Flexible Agent Simulation Toolkit (FAST) allow investigation of the electric power infrastructure, the natural gas infrastructure and their interdependencies.

  18. Critical Infrastructures: Background, Policy, and Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-07

    Government Accountability Office, Critical Infrastructure Protection: Challenges for Selected Agencies and Industry Sectors. Repot to the Committee on...the federal government to develop and implement plans that would protect government -operated infrastructures and called for a dialogue between... government and the private sector to develop a National Infrastructure Assurance Plan that would protect all of the nation’s critical infrastructures by

  19. Water Finance Forum - New Jersey

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presentations and materials from the Regional Finance Forum, Financing Resilient and Sustainable Water Infrastructure, held in Iselin, New Jersey, on December 2, 2015. The forum was co-sponsored by EPA's Water Infrastructure and Resiliency Finance Center,

  20. Water Finance Forum-Texas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Regional Finance Forum: Financing Resilient and Sustainable Water Infrastructure, held in Addison, Texas, September 10-11, 2015.Co-sponsored by EPA's Water Infrastructure and Resiliency Finance Center and the Environmental Finance Center Network.

  1. Infrastructure Commons in Economic Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frischmann, Brett M.

    This chapter briefly summarizes a theory (developed in substantial detail elsewhere)1 that explains why there are strong economic arguments for managing and sustaining infrastructure resources in an openly accessible manner. This theory facilitates a better understanding of two related issues: how society benefits from infrastructure resources and how decisions about how to manage or govern infrastructure resources affect a wide variety of public and private interests. The key insights from this analysis are that infrastructure resources generate value as inputs into a wide range of productive processes and that the outputs from these processes are often public goods and nonmarket goods that generate positive externalities that benefit society as a whole. Managing such resources in an openly accessible manner may be socially desirable from an economic perspective because doing so facilitates these downstream productive activities. For example, managing the Internet infrastructure in an openly accessible manner facilitates active citizen involvement in the production and sharing of many different public and nonmarket goods. Over the last decade, this has led to increased opportunities for a wide range of citizens to engage in entrepreneurship, political discourse, social network formation, and community building, among many other activities. The chapter applies these insights to the network neutrality debate and suggests how the debate might be reframed to better account for the wide range of private and public interests at stake.

  2. Age and quality of ground water and sources of nitrogen in the aquifers in Pumpkin Creek Valley, western Nebraska, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steele, G.V.; Cannia, J.C.; Sibray, S.S.; McGuire, V.L.

    2005-01-01

    Ground water is the source of drinking water for the residents of Pumpkin Creek Valley, western Nebraska. In this largely agricultural area, shallow aquifers potentially are susceptible to nitrate contamination. During the last 10 years, ground-water levels in the North Platte Natural Resources District have declined and contamination has become a major problem for the district. In 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey and the North Platte Natural Resources District began a cooperative study to determine the age and quality of the ground water and the sources of nitrogen in the aquifers in Pumpkin Creek Valley. Water samples were collected from 8 surface-water sites, 2 springs, and 88 ground-water sites during May, July, and August 2000. These samples were analyzed for physical properties, nutrients or nitrate, and hydrogen and oxygen isotopes. In addition, a subset of samples was analyzed for any combination of chlorofluorocarbons, tritium, tritium/helium, sulfur-hexafluoride, carbon-14, and nitrogen-15. The apparent age of ground water in the alluvial aquifer typically varied from about 1980 to modern, whereas ground water in the fractured Brule Formation had a median value in the 1970s. The Brule Formation typically contained ground water that ranged from the 1940s to the 1990s, but low-yield wells had apparent ages of 5,000 to 10,000 years before present. Data for oxygen-18 and deuterium indicated that lake-water samples showed the greatest effects from evaporation. Ground-water data showed no substantial evaporative effects and some ground water became isotopically heavier as the water moved downgradient. In addition, the physical and chemical ground-water data indicate that Pumpkin Creek is a gaining stream because little, if any, of its water is lost to the ground-water system. The water-quality type changed from a sodium calcium bicarbonate type near Pumpkin Creek's headwaters to a calcium sodium bicarbonate type near its mouth. Nitrate concentrations were

  3. Translational and rotational dynamics of water contained in aged Portland cement pastes studied by quasi-elastic neutron scattering.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Zhang, Li-Li; Yi, Zhou; Fratini, Emiliano; Baglioni, Piero; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2015-08-15

    Cement is a widely used construction material in the world. The quality and durability of aged cement pastes have a strong relationship with the water contained in it. The translational and rotational dynamics of water in ordinary Portland cement (OPC) pastes cured for 7, 14 and 30days were studied by analyzing Quasi-elastic Neutron Scattering (QENS) data. The effect of a new super-plasticizer (SP) additive was also studied by comparing the samples with and without the additive. By fitting the QENS spectra with the Jump-diffusion and Rotation-diffusion Model (JRM), six important parameters including the bound water index (BWI), the self-diffusion coefficient, D(t), the average residence time, τ0, the rotational diffusion constant, D(r), the rotational residence time, τ(r), and the mean squared displacement (MSD), 〈u(2)〉, were obtained. From these parameters, we can quantitatively follow the evolution of the bound water fraction (BWI). We can clearly see the different time ranges for the translational and rotational dynamics of water contained in the OPC pastes by τ0 and τ(r). From the MSD values compared with those of molecular dynamics simulation, we can distinguish between immobile water (mainly bound water) and mobile water, which includes confined water and ultraconfined water. Furthermore, by the fitted parameters' values and their change of slopes with increasing setting time for cement pastes with and without additive SP, it becomes clear that the effect of additive SP is to make the mobile water more confined and induce a more uniform the aging process during the evolution of the OPC pastes.

  4. Aging of the nanosized photochromic WO3 films and the role of adsorbed water in the photochromism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilyuk, A. I.

    2016-02-01

    Here it has been reported on aging of the nanosized WO3 film, which is revealed is continuous reduction of the photochromic sensitivity over time. Water molecules physically adsorbed on the film surface from ambient air form donor-acceptor and hydrogen bonds, changing gradually the adsorption state to chemisorption which prevents an access of organic molecules that serve as hydrogen donors by the photochromism. The mechanism of the process has been investigated and discussed. The role of water in the photochromism has been highlighted. The difference in the efficiency for being of a hydrogen donor in the photochromic process between water and organic molecules is discussed.

  5. Development of a lunar infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of building an infrastructure on the moon is discussed, assuming that earth-to-moon and moon-to-earth transport will be available. The sequence of events which would occur in the process of building an infrastructure is examined. The human needs which must be met on a lunar base are discussed, including minimal life support, quality of life, and growth stages. The technology available to meet these needs is reviewed and further research in fields related to a lunar base, such as the study of the moon's polar regions and the limits of lunar agriculture, is recommended.

  6. Modeling flood induced interdependencies among hydroelectricity generating infrastructures.

    PubMed

    Sultana, S; Chen, Z

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents a new kind of integrated modeling method for simulating the vulnerability of a critical infrastructure for a hazard and the subsequent interdependencies among the interconnected infrastructures. The developed method has been applied to a case study of a network of hydroelectricity generating infrastructures, e.g., water storage concrete gravity dam, penstock, power plant and transformer substation. The modeling approach is based on the fragility curves development with Monte Carlo simulation based structural-hydraulic modeling, flood frequency analysis, stochastic Petri net (SPN) modeling, and Markov Chain analysis. A certain flood level probability can be predicted from flood frequency analysis, and the most probable damage condition for this hazard can be simulated from the developed fragility curves of the dam. Consequently, the resulting interactions among the adjacent infrastructures can be quantified with SPN analysis; corresponding Markov Chain analysis simulates the long term probability matrix of infrastructure failures. The obtained results are quite convincing to prove the novel contribution of this research to the field of infrastructure interdependency analysis which might serve as a decision making tool for flood related emergency response and management.

  7. [Dry matter storage and water soluble sugar content in different age classes rhizomes of Phragmites communis population in dry land habitat of Songnen Plain of China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yun-Fei; Zhang, Bao-Tian; Tian, Shang-Yi

    2008-09-01

    Based on the investigation and measurement of Phragmites communis in a single dominant species community in dry land habitat of Songnen Plain, the seasonal variation of dry matter storage and water soluble sugar content in different age classes rhizomes at three growth stages were analyzed. The results showed that at all growth stages, younger age class rhizomes had lower dry matter storage and water soluble sugar content, and there was an obvious difference between younger and older age classes. The dry matter storage and water soluble sugar content in younger age class rhizomes increased rapidly with growth season, and the difference between younger and older age classes reduced gradually. In the whole growth season, all the rhizomes of six age classes kept up the activities in nutrient consumption, re-storage and even overcompensating storage, and the activities of younger age class rhizomes were much higher. The dry matter storage and water soluble sugar content in older age class rhizomes increased with year. There existed extremely significant differences (P < 0.01) in the dry matter storage within and among different age class rhizomes, and the difference was larger within age classes than among age classes. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in water soluble sugar content were also observed among different age class rhizomes. The dry matter storage and water soluble sugar content in P. communis rhizomes increased in quadratic with increasing age class.

  8. Can Sensors Solve the Deterioration Problems of Public Infrastructure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miki, Chitoshi

    2014-11-01

    Various deteriorations are detected in public infrastructures, such as bridges, viaducts, piers and tunnels and caused fatal accidents in some cases. The possibility of the applications of health monitoring by using sensors is the issues of this lecture. The inspection and diagnosis are essential in the maintenance works which include appropriate rehabilitations and replacements. The introduction of monitoring system may improve accuracy and efficiency of inspection and diagnosis. This seems to be innovation of maintenance, old structures may change smart structures by the installation of nerve network and brain, specifically. Cost- benefit viewpoint is also important point, because of public infrastructures. The modes of deterioration are fatigue, corrosion, and delayed fracture in steel, and carbonization and alkali aggregate reaction in concrete. These are like adult disease in human bodies. The developments of Infrastructures in Japan were concentrated in the 1960th and 1970th. These ages are approaching 50 and deterioration due to aging has been progress gradually. The attacks of earthquakes are also a major issue. Actually, these infrastructures have been supporting economic and social activities in Japan and the deterioration of public infrastructure has become social problems. How to secure the same level of safety and security for all public infrastructures is the challenge we face now. The targets of monitoring are external disturbances such as traffic loads, earthquakes, winds, temperature, responses against external disturbances, and the changes of performances. In the monitoring of infrastructures, 3W1H(WHAT, WHERE, WHEN and HOW) are essential, that is what kind of data are necessary, where sensors place, when data are collected, and how to collect and process data. The required performances of sensors are accuracy, stability for long time. In the case of long term monitoring, the durability of systems needs more than five years, because the interval

  9. Critical Infrastructure Protection II, The International Federation for Information Processing, Volume 290.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papa, Mauricio; Shenoi, Sujeet

    The information infrastructure -- comprising computers, embedded devices, networks and software systems -- is vital to day-to-day operations in every sector: information and telecommunications, banking and finance, energy, chemicals and hazardous materials, agriculture, food, water, public health, emergency services, transportation, postal and shipping, government and defense. Global business and industry, governments, indeed society itself, cannot function effectively if major components of the critical information infrastructure are degraded, disabled or destroyed. Critical Infrastructure Protection II describes original research results and innovative applications in the interdisciplinary field of critical infrastructure protection. Also, it highlights the importance of weaving science, technology and policy in crafting sophisticated, yet practical, solutions that will help secure information, computer and network assets in the various critical infrastructure sectors. Areas of coverage include: - Themes and Issues - Infrastructure Security - Control Systems Security - Security Strategies - Infrastructure Interdependencies - Infrastructure Modeling and Simulation This book is the second volume in the annual series produced by the International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP) Working Group 11.10 on Critical Infrastructure Protection, an international community of scientists, engineers, practitioners and policy makers dedicated to advancing research, development and implementation efforts focused on infrastructure protection. The book contains a selection of twenty edited papers from the Second Annual IFIP WG 11.10 International Conference on Critical Infrastructure Protection held at George Mason University, Arlington, Virginia, USA in the spring of 2008.

  10. Ground-Water Age and Quality in the High Plains Aquifer near Seward, Nebraska, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Landon, Matthew K.; Turco, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Seward, Nebraska, conducted a study of ground-water age and quality to improve understanding of: (1) traveltimes from recharge areas to public-supply wells, (2) the effects of geochemical reactions in the aquifer on water quality, and (3) how water quality has changed historically in response to land-use practices. Samples were collected from four supply wells in the Seward west well field and from nine monitoring wells along two approximate ground-water flow paths leading to the well field. Concentrations of three different chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-12, CFC-11, and CFC-113), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and ratios of tritium (3H) to helium-3 (3He) isotope derived from radioactive decay of 3H were used to determine the apparent recharge age of ground-water samples. Age interpretations were based primarily on 3H/3He and CFC-12 data. Estimates of apparent ground-water age from tracer data were complicated by mixing of water of different ages in 10 of the 13 ground-water samples collected. Apparent recharge dates of unmixed ground-water samples or mean recharge dates of young fractions of mixed water in samples collected from monitoring wells ranged from 1985 to 2002. For monitoring-well samples containing mixed water, the fraction of the sample composed of young water ranged from 26 to 77 percent of the sample. Apparent mean recharge dates of young fractions in samples collected from four supply wells in the Seward west well field ranged from about 1980 to 1990. Estimated fractions of the samples composed of young water ranged from 39 to 54 percent. It is implicit in the mixing calculations that the remainder of the sample that is not young water is composed of water that is more than 60 years old and contains no detectable quantities of modern atmospheric tracers. Estimated fractions of the mixed samples composed of 'old' water ranged from 23 to 74 percent. Although alternative mixing models can be used to

  11. Mapping Africa's Initiative at Building an Information and Communications Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thapisa, Amos P. N.; Birabwa, Elizabeth

    1998-01-01

    Examines Africa's initiative in building a regional plan for a national information and communication infrastructure (NICIP) in every African state and the challenges and opportunities confronting Africa as it enters the information age. The role of information, communication, and knowledge in accelerating African socio-economic development is…

  12. Well-Being at School: Does Infrastructure Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuyvers, Katrien; De Weerd, Gio; Dupont, Sanne; Mols, Sophie; Nuytten, Chantal

    2011-01-01

    Research in the field of well-being among Flemish students in secondary schools has shown that age is an important predictor of well-being. What is the impact of school infrastructure on the well-being of students in Flemish secondary schools? A study, commissioned by AGIOn (the Flemish agency that subsidises school buildings), investigated the…

  13. Evaluation of the Training Centre Infrastructure Fund (TCIF). Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Training Centre Infrastructure Fund (TCIF) was initially announced in Budget 2004 and represented an immediate measure of the broader Workplace Skills Strategy. TCIF was a three-year $25 million pilot project, designed to address the growing need for union-employer training centres to replace aging equipment and simulators that were not up to…

  14. Stream water age distributions controlled by storage dynamics and nonlinear hydrologic connectivity: Modeling with high‐resolution isotope data

    PubMed Central

    Birkel, C.; Geris, J.; Dick, J.; Tunaley, C.; Tetzlaff, D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To assess the influence of storage dynamics and nonlinearities in hydrological connectivity on time‐variant stream water ages, we used a new long‐term record of daily isotope measurements in precipitation and streamflow to calibrate and test a parsimonious tracer‐aided runoff model. This can track tracers and the ages of water fluxes through and between conceptual stores in steeper hillslopes, dynamically saturated riparian peatlands, and deeper groundwater; these represent the main landscape units involved in runoff generation. Storage volumes are largest in groundwater and on the hillslopes, though most dynamic mixing occurs in the smaller stores in riparian peat. Both streamflow and isotope variations are generally well captured by the model, and the simulated storage and tracer dynamics in the main landscape units are consistent with independent measurements. The model predicts that the average age of stream water is ∼1.8 years. On a daily basis, this varies between ∼1 month in storm events, when younger waters draining the hillslope and riparian peatland dominates, to around 4 years in dry periods when groundwater sustains flow. This variability reflects the integration of differently aged water fluxes from the main landscape units and their mixing in riparian wetlands. The connectivity between these spatial units varies in a nonlinear way with storage that depends upon precipitation characteristics and antecedent conditions. This, in turn, determines the spatial distribution of flow paths and the integration of their contrasting nonstationary ages. This approach is well suited for constraining process‐based modeling in a range of northern temperate and boreal environments. PMID:27478255

  15. The influence of age on the renal response to water deprivation in man.

    PubMed

    Rowe, J W; Shock, N W; DeFronzo, R A

    1976-01-01

    Alterations in urine concentrating ability with age were examined in 98 active community-dwelling volunteers (aged 20-79 years) who were free from evidence of diseases known to adversely affect renal function. There was a significant decrease in urine osmolality reached after 12 h dehydration with advancing age, which could not be correlated with the age-related decline in creatinine clearance. A significant age-related diminution in the ability to conserve solute was also observed. This inability to conserve solute may result in diminished medullary tonicity and impaired urinary concentrating ability.

  16. Linking ground-water age and chemistry data along flow paths: Implications for trends and transformations of nitrate and pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tesoriero, A.J.; Saad, D.A.; Burow, K.R.; Frick, E.A.; Puckett, L.J.; Barbash, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Tracer-based ground-water ages, along with the concentrations of pesticides, nitrogen species, and other redox-active constituents, were used to evaluate the trends and transformations of agricultural chemicals along flow paths in diverse hydrogeologic settings. A range of conditions affecting the transformation of nitrate and pesticides (e.g., thickness of unsaturated zone, redox conditions) was examined at study sites in Georgia, North Carolina, Wisconsin, and California. Deethylatrazine (DEA), a transformation product of atrazine, was typically present at concentrations higher than those of atrazine at study sites with thick unsaturated zones but not at sites with thin unsaturated zones. Furthermore, the fraction of atrazine plus DEA that was present as DEA did not increase as a function of ground-water age. These findings suggest that atrazine degradation occurs primarily in the unsaturated zone with little or no degradation in the saturated zone. Similar observations were also made for metolachlor and alachlor. The fraction of the initial nitrate concentration found as excess N2 (N2 derived from denitrification) increased with ground-water age only at the North Carolina site, where oxic conditions were generally limited to the top 5??m of saturated thickness. Historical trends in fluxes to ground water were evaluated by relating the times of recharge of ground-water samples, estimated using chlorofluorocarbon concentrations, with concentrations of the parent compound at the time of recharge, estimated by summing the molar concentrations of the parent compound and its transformation products in the age-dated sample. Using this approach, nitrate concentrations were estimated to have increased markedly from 1960 to the present at all study sites. Trends in concentrations of atrazine, metolachlor, alachlor, and their degradates were related to the timing of introduction and use of these compounds. Degradates, and to a lesser extent parent compounds, were detected

  17. Aging of the containment pressure boundary in light-water reactor plants

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.R.

    1997-01-01

    Research is being conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to address aging of the containment pressure boundary in light-water reactor plants. The objectives of this work are to (1) identify the significant factors related to occurrence of corrosion, efficacy of inspection, and structural capacity reduction of steel containments and liners of concrete containments, and to make recommendations on use of risk models in regulatory decisions; (2) provide NRC reviewers a means of establishing current structural capacity margins for steel containments, and concrete containments as limited by liner integrity; and (3) provide recommendations, as appropriate, on information to be requested of licensees for guidance that could be utilized by NRC reviewers in assessing the seriousness of reported incidences of containment degradation. In meeting these objectives research is being conducted in two primary task areas - pressure boundary condition assessment and root-cause resolution practices, and reliability-based condition assessments. Under the first task area a degradation assessment methodology was developed for use in characterizing the in-service condition of metal and concrete containment pressure boundary components and quantifying the amount of damage that is present. An assessment of available destructive and nondestructive techniques for examining steel containments and liners is ongoing. Under the second task area quantitative structural reliability analysis methods are being developed for application to degraded metallic pressure boundaries to provide assurances that they will be able to withstand future extreme loads during the desired service period with a level of reliability that is sufficient for public safety. To date, mathematical models that describe time-dependent changes in steel due to aggressive environmental factors have been identified, and statistical data supporting their use in time-dependent reliability analysis have been summarized.

  18. FOSS Tools for Research Infrastructures - A Success Story?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stender, V.; Schroeder, M.; Wächter, J.

    2015-12-01

    Established initiatives and mandated organizations, e.g. the Initiative for Scientific Cyberinfrastructures (NSF, 2007) or the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI, 2008), promote and foster the development of sustainable research infrastructures. The basic idea behind these infrastructures is the provision of services supporting scientists to search, visualize and access data, to collaborate and exchange information, as well as to publish data and other results. Especially the management of research data is gaining more and more importance. In geosciences these developments have to be merged with the enhanced data management approaches of Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI). The Centre for GeoInformationTechnology (CeGIT) at the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences has the objective to establish concepts and standards of SDIs as an integral part of research infrastructure architectures. In different projects, solutions to manage research data for land- and water management or environmental monitoring have been developed based on a framework consisting of Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) components. The framework provides basic components supporting the import and storage of data, discovery and visualization as well as data documentation (metadata). In our contribution, we present our data management solutions developed in three projects, Central Asian Water (CAWa), Sustainable Management of River Oases (SuMaRiO) and Terrestrial Environmental Observatories (TERENO) where FOSS components build the backbone of the data management platform. The multiple use and validation of tools helped to establish a standardized architectural blueprint serving as a contribution to Research Infrastructures. We examine the question of whether FOSS tools are really a sustainable choice and whether the increased efforts of maintenance are justified. Finally it should help to answering the question if the use of FOSS for Research Infrastructures is a

  19. EPA's Ongoing Green Infrastructure Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Infrastructure is a concept originating in the United States in the mid-1990's that highlights the importance of the natural environment in decisions about land use planning. In particular there is an emphasis on the “life support” functions provided by the natural environm...

  20. Managing Mission-Critical Infrastructure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeding, Marshall

    2012-01-01

    In the library context, they depend on sophisticated business applications specifically designed to support their work. This infrastructure consists of such components as integrated library systems, their associated online catalogs or discovery services, and self-check equipment, as well as a Web site and the various online tools and services…

  1. Impact of Declining Rural Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Fiona Haslem

    A study investigated the impact of declining rural community infrastructure on social, environmental, and economic well-being in Western Australia's central wheatbelt. Questionnaires were completed by 398 residents of the central wheatbelt, on-farm interviews were conducted with 68 respondents, and 4 focus groups were held in area towns.…

  2. Infrastructure for large space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacEwen, Howard A.; Lillie, Charles F.

    2016-10-01

    It is generally recognized (e.g., in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration response to recent congressional appropriations) that future space observatories must be serviceable, even if they are orbiting in deep space (e.g., around the Sun-Earth libration point, SEL2). On the basis of this legislation, we believe that budgetary considerations throughout the foreseeable future will require that large, long-lived astrophysics missions must be designed as evolvable semipermanent observatories that will be serviced using an operational, in-space infrastructure. We believe that the development of this infrastructure will include the design and development of a small to mid-sized servicing vehicle (MiniServ) as a key element of an affordable infrastructure for in-space assembly and servicing of future space vehicles. This can be accomplished by the adaptation of technology developed over the past half-century into a vehicle approximately the size of the ascent stage of the Apollo Lunar Module to provide some of the servicing capabilities that will be needed by very large telescopes located in deep space in the near future (2020s and 2030s). We specifically address the need for a detailed study of these servicing requirements and the current proposals for using presently available technologies to provide the appropriate infrastructure.

  3. Internet 2 Distributed Storage Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simco, Greg

    2003-01-01

    The Distributed Storage Infrastructure (DSI) project, a cooperative effort of the University of Tennessee and University of North Carolina, is an example of the Internet 2 (I2) efforts to enable remote collaboration among the research and educational communities. It extends the domain of a distributed high-speed computing environment to enable…

  4. Green Infrastructure Models and Tools

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project is to modify and refine existing models and develop new tools to support decision making for the complete green infrastructure (GI) project lifecycle, including the planning and implementation of stormwater control in urban and agricultural settings,...

  5. 2009 Infrastructure Platform Review Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, John

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass program‘s Infrastructure platform review meeting, held on February 19, 2009, at the Marriott Residence Inn, National Harbor, Maryland.

  6. Overview of EPA Research On Condition Assessment of Drinking Water Mains

    EPA Science Inventory

    This slide presentation provides an overview of condition assessment research that is part of EPA Office of Research and Development’s Aging Water Infrastructure Research Plan (AWIRP). The primary focus is on a water main condition assessment technology forum and associated whit...

  7. A review and rationale for studying the cardiovascular effects of drinking water arsenic in women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Richard K

    2007-08-01

    Drinking water arsenic has been shown to be associated with a host of adverse health outcomes at exposure levels >300 microg of As/L. However, the results are not consistent at exposures below this level. We have reviewed selected articles that examine the effects of drinking water arsenic on cardiovascular outcomes and present a rationale for studying these effects on women of reproductive age, and also over the course of pregnancy when they would potentially be more susceptible to adverse cardiovascular and reproductive outcomes. It is only recently that reproductive effects have been linked to drinking water arsenic. However, there is a paucity of information about the cardiovascular effects of drinking water arsenic on women of reproductive age. Under the cardiovascular challenge of pregnancy, we hypothesize that women with a slightly elevated exposure to drinking water arsenic may exhibit adverse cardiovascular outcomes at higher rates than in the general population. Studying sensitive clinical and sub-clinical indicators of disease in susceptible sub-populations may yield important information about the potentially enormous burden of disease related to low-level drinking water arsenic exposure.

  8. A review and rationale for studying the cardiovascular effects of drinking water arsenic in women of reproductive age

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, Richard K.

    2007-08-01

    Drinking water arsenic has been shown to be associated with a host of adverse health outcomes at exposure levels > 300 {mu}g of As/L. However, the results are not consistent at exposures below this level. We have reviewed selected articles that examine the effects of drinking water arsenic on cardiovascular outcomes and present a rationale for studying these effects on women of reproductive age, and also over the course of pregnancy when they would potentially be more susceptible to adverse cardiovascular and reproductive outcomes. It is only recently that reproductive effects have been linked to drinking water arsenic. However, there is a paucity of information about the cardiovascular effects of drinking water arsenic on women of reproductive age. Under the cardiovascular challenge of pregnancy, we hypothesize that women with a slightly elevated exposure to drinking water arsenic may exhibit adverse cardiovascular outcomes at higher rates than in the general population. Studying sensitive clinical and sub-clinical indicators of disease in susceptible sub-populations may yield important information about the potentially enormous burden of disease related to low-level drinking water arsenic exposure.

  9. Protein conformational modifications and kinetics of water-protein interactions in milk protein concentrate powder upon aging: effect on solubility.

    PubMed

    Haque, Enamul; Bhandari, Bhesh R; Gidley, Michael J; Deeth, Hilton C; Møller, Sandie M; Whittaker, Andrew K

    2010-07-14

    Protein conformational modifications and water-protein interactions are two major factors believed to induce instability of protein and eventually affect the solubility of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powder. To test these hypotheses, MPC was stored at different water activities (a(w) 0.0-0.85) and temperatures (25 and 45 degrees C) for up to 12 weeks. Samples were examined periodically to determine solubility, change in protein conformation by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and principal component analysis (PCA), and water status (interaction of water with the protein molecule/surface) by measuring the transverse relaxation time (T(2)) with proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR). The solubility of MPC decreased significantly with aging, and this process was enhanced by increasing water activity (a(w)) and storage temperature. Minor changes in protein secondary structure were observed with FTIR, which indicated some degree of unfolding of protein molecules. PCA of the FTIR data was able to discriminate samples according to moisture content and storage period. Partial least-squares (PLS) analysis showed some correlation between FTIR spectral feature and solubility. The NMR T(2) results indicated the presence of three distinct populations of water molecules, and the proton signal intensity and T(2) values of proton fractions varied with storage conditions (humidity, temperature) and aging. Results suggest that protein/protein interactions may be initiated by unfolding of protein molecules that eventually affects solubility.

  10. Eutrophication of Water Bodies: Insights for an Age-Old Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, G. Fred; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Reviews the current state of information on the significance of phosphate as a water pollutant and the relationship between phosphorus loads and water quality. Areas that need additional research are discussed. (Author/BB)

  11. Severity of spatial learning impairment in aging: Development of a learning index for performance in the Morris water maze.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Michela; Burwell, Rebecca; Burchinal, Margaret

    2015-08-01

    The Morris water maze task was originally designed to assess the rat's ability to learn to navigate to a specific location in a relatively large spatial environment. This article describes new measures that provide information about the spatial distribution of the rat's search during both training and probe trial performance. The basic new measure optimizes the use of computer tracking to identify the rat's position with respect to the target location. This proximity measure was found to be highly sensitive to age-related impairment in an assessment of young and aged male Long-Evans rats. Also described is the development of a learning index that provides a continuous, graded measure of the severity of age-related impairment in the task. An index of this type should be useful in correlational analyses with other neurobiological or behavioral measures for the study of individual differences in functional/biological decline in aging.

  12. Effects of Time of Day, Age and Gender on the Ability to Conserve Water Load

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-10-01

    previously shown that the diuresis and natriuresis associated with either head-out immersion in water or in response to infusion of 2 liters of...response to a water load of 12 ml/kg lean body mass. We observed a 20% greater (P < 0.05) diuresis in response to a water load during the daytime compared...Vasopressin, plasma osmolality, urinary osmolality, diuresis , free water clearance, 16. fIfiCE CODE osmotic clearance 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18

  13. Improving estimates of surface water radiocarbon reservoir ages in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenop, Rosanna; Burke, Andrea; Rae, James; Austin, William; Reimer, Paula; Blaauw, Maarten; Crocker, Anya; Chalk, Thomas; Barker, Stephen; Knutz, Paul; Hall, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Radiocarbon measurements from foraminifera in marine sediment cores are widely used to constrain age models and the timing of paleoceanographic events, as well as past changes in ocean circulation and carbon cycling. However, the use of radiocarbon for both dating and palaeoceanographic applications is limited in sediment cores by a lack of knowledge about the surface ocean radiocarbon reservoir age and how it varies in both space and time. Typically, to convert a planktic radiocarbon age into a calendar age, an assumed constant reservoir age is applied. However, there is mounting evidence to suggest that this assumption of constant reservoir age through time is an oversimplification, particularly for the high latitude oceans during the cold climates of the last glacial and deglacial periods. Here we present new high-resolution radiocarbon records together with tephra tie points and 230-thorium (230Th) constrained sedimentation rates to improve estimates of radiocarbon reservoir age in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean. In addition we will explore the impact of the new reservoir ages for both the age models of the cores studied, as well as the palaeoceanographic implications of these reservoir age changes during intervals of rapid climate change over the past 40,000 years.

  14. Dry aging of beef in a bag highly permeable to water vapour.

    PubMed

    Ahnström, Maria Lundesjö; Seyfert, Mark; Hunt, Melvin C; Johnson, Dallas E

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare traditional dry aging of beef with a novel technique of dry aging in a highly moisture-permeable bag. Four equal-sized sections from paired beef strip loins were dry aged traditionally, unpackaged, or packaged in the experimental bag for 14 or 21d at 3°C. No differences (P>0.05) were noted for pH, moisture, fat, total plate counts, cook loss, shear force, or any measured sensory attribute between the two aging treatments after either aging period. After 21d, however, dry aging in the bag (versus traditional dry aging) decreased (P<0.05) weight loss during aging, trim loss after aging, and yeast counts on lean tissue and increased lactic acid bacteria counts (P<0.05) on adipose and lean tissue. Dry aging in a highly moisture-permeable bag is feasible, will positively impact yields and reduce microbial spoilage, and will have no negative impact on product quality.

  15. Numerical simulation of transient groundwater age distributions assisting land and water management in the Middle Wairarapa Valley, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toews, Michael W.; Daughney, Christopher J.; Cornaton, Fabien J.; Morgenstern, Uwe; Evison, Ryan D.; Jackson, Bethanna M.; Petrus, Karine; Mzila, Doug

    2016-12