Science.gov

Sample records for aging wire problems

  1. Problems with aging wiring in Naval aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Frank J.

    1994-01-01

    The Navy is experiencing a severe aircraft electrical wiring maintenance problem as a result of the extensive use of an aromatic polyimide insulation that is deteriorating at a rate that was unexpected when this wire was initially selected. This problem has significantly affected readiness, reliability, and safety and has greatly increased the cost of ownership of Naval aircraft. Failures in wire harnesses have exhibited arcing and burning that will propagate drastically, to the interruption of many electrical circuits from a fault initiated by the failure of deteriorating wires. There is an urgent need for a capability to schedule aircraft rewiring in an orderly manner with a logically derived determination of which aircraft have aged to the point of absolute necessity. Excessive maintenance was demonstrated to result from the accelerated aging due to the parameters of moisture, temperature, and strain that exist in the Naval Aircraft environment. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that MIL-W-81381 wire insulation when aged at high humidities followed the classical Arrhenius thermal aging relationship. In an extension of the project a multifactor formula was developed that is now capable of predicting life under varying conditions of these service parameters. An automated test system has also been developed to analyze the degree of deterioration that has occurred in wires taken from an aircraft in order to obtain an assessment of remaining life. Since it is both physically and financially impossible to replace the wiring in all the Navy's aircraft at once, this system will permit expedient scheduling so that those aircraft that are most probable to have wiring failure problems can be overhauled first.

  2. Review of wire chamber aging

    SciTech Connect

    Va'Vra, J.

    1986-02-01

    This paper makes an overview of the wire chamber aging problems as a function of various chamber design parameters. It emphasizes the chemistry point of view and many examples are drawn from the plasma chemistry field as a guidance for a possible effort in the wire chamber field. The paper emphasizes the necessity of variable tuning, the importance of purity of the wire chamber environment, as well as it provides a practical list of presently known recommendations. In addition, several models of the wire chamber aging are qualitatively discussed. The paper is based on a summary talk given at the Wire Chamber Aging Workshop held at LBL, Berkeley on January 16-17, 1986. Presented also at Wire Chamber Conference, Vienna, February 25-28, 1986. 74 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. Anode wire aging tests with selected gases

    SciTech Connect

    Kadyk, J.; Wise, J.; Hess, D.; Williams, M. )

    1990-04-01

    As a continuation of earlier wire aging investigations, additional candidates for wire chamber gas and wire have been tested. These include the gases: argon/ethane, HRS gas, dimethyl ether, carbon dioxide/ethane, and carbon tetrafluoride/isobutane. Wires used were: gold- plated tungsten, Stablohm, Nicotin, and Stainless Steel. Measurements were made of the effects upon wire aging of impurities from plumbing materials or contamination from various types of oil. Attempts were made to induce wire aging by adding measured amounts of oxygen and halogen (methyl chloride) with negative results. In this paper, the possible role of electronegativity in the wire aging process is discussed, and measurements of electronegativity are made with several single carbon Freons, using both an electron capture detector and a wire chamber operating with dimethyl ether.

  4. Wire ageing with the TEA photocathode

    SciTech Connect

    Va`vra, J.

    1996-06-01

    Recently several RICH protypes successfully tested a gaseous TEA photocathode. However, its wire ageing behavior is unknown. In principle, TEA is a more strongly bonded molecule than TMAE, and, as a result, one would expect better wire ageing behavior. This paper explores this question.

  5. Application of Ultrasonic Guided Waves for Evaluating Aging Wire Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anastasi, Robert F.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2005-01-01

    Aging wiring has become a critical issue to the aerospace and aircraft industries due to Shuttle and aircraft incidents. The problem is that over time the insulation on wire becomes brittle and cracks. This exposes the underlying conductive wire to the potential for short circuits and fire. Popular methods of monitoring aging wire problems focuses on applying electrical sensing techniques that are sensitive to the conductor's condition, but not very sensitive to the wire insulation's condition. Measurement of wire insulation stiffness and ultrasonic properties by ultrasonic guided waves is being examined. Experimental measurements showed that the lowest order extensional mode could be sensitive to stiffness changes in the wire insulation. To test this theory conventional wire samples were heat damaged in an oven, in a range of heating conditions. The samples were 12, 16, and 20 gauge and the heat damage introduced material changes in the wire insulation that made the originally flexible insulation brittle and darker in color. Results showed that extensional mode phase velocity increased for the samples that were exposed to heat for longer duration.

  6. Methods for Anticipating Problems with Electrical Wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cramer, K. Elliott (Inventor); Perey, Daniel F. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Passive and active methods for anticipating problems with electrical wiring are provided. An insulative material in contact with an electrical conductor has at least one impurity that is impregnated in the insulative material and/or disposed thereon. An environment around the electrical conductor is monitored for the presence or the level of the impurity(ies) emanating from the insulative material in the form of a gaseous effluent. An alarm signal is generated when a predetermined level of the gaseous effluent is detected.

  7. Aging analyses of aircraft wire insulation

    SciTech Connect

    GILLEN,KENNETH T.; CLOUGH,ROGER LEE; CELINA,MATHIAS C.; AUBERT,JAMES H.; MALONE,G. MICHAEL

    2000-05-08

    Over the past two decades, Sandia has developed a variety of specialized analytical techniques for evaluating the long-term aging and stability of cable insulation and other related materials. These techniques have been applied to cable reliability studies involving numerous insulation types and environmental factors. This work has allowed the monitoring of the occurrence and progression of cable material deterioration in application environments, and has provided insights into material degradation mechanisms. It has also allowed development of more reliable lifetime prediction methodologies. As a part of the FAA program for intrusive inspection of aircraft wiring, they are beginning to apply a battery of techniques to assessing the condition of cable specimens removed from retired aircraft. It is anticipated that in a future part of this program, they may employ these techniques in conjunction with accelerated aging methodologies and models that the authros have developed and employed in the past to predict cable lifetimes. The types of materials to be assessed include 5 different wire types: polyimide, PVC/Glass/Nylon, extruded XL-polyalkene/PVDF, Poly-X, and XL-ETFE. This presentation provides a brief overview of the main techniques that will be employed in assessing the state of health of aircraft wire insulation. The discussion will be illustrated with data from their prior cable aging studies, highlighting the methods used and their important conclusions. A few of the techniques that they employ are widely used in aging studies on polymers, but others are unique to Sandia. All of their techniques are non-proprietary, and maybe of interest for use by others in terms of application to aircraft wiring analysis. At the end of this report is a list showing some leading references to papers that have been published in the open literature which provide more detailed information on the analytical techniques for elastomer aging studies. The first step in the

  8. The aging of wire chambers filled with dimethyl ether: wire and construction materials and freon impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jibaly, Mohammed; Majewski, Stan; Chrusch, Peter; Wojcik, Randolph; Sauli, Fabio; Gaudaen, Jan

    1989-11-01

    This is a complete summary of our study of the aging of different types of wire chambers, with a variety of construction materials and wires, filled with dimethyl ether (DME) of varying degrees of purity. The resistive Nicotin and Stablohm wires were corroded by DME, producing fast aging. The moderately resistive stainless steel wires were able to withstand extended irradiation (up to 1 C/cm) in high-purity DME without any apparent damage; and gold-plated tungsten and molybdenum wires exhibited a comparable behavior. Many construction materials were tested and recommendations are thus reached as to what kinds of materials are safe in building DME-operated wire chambers. Among many different Freon and hydrocarbon impurities detected in DME by means of gas chromatography (GC), Freon-11 was found to be mostly responsible for the aging, even with noncorrosive stainless steel or gold-plated wires. The availability and feasibility of obtaining Freon-free DME is reported as well.

  9. Investigating the Use of Ultrasonic Guided Waves for Aging Wire Insulation Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anastasi, Robert F.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2002-01-01

    Aging wiring has become a critical issue to DoD, NASA, FAA, and Industry. The problem is that insulation on environmentally aged wire becomes brittle and cracks. This exposes the underlying conductive wire to the potential for short circuits and fire. The difficulty is that techniques to monitor aging wire problems focus on applying electrical sensing techniques that are not very sensitive to the wire insulation. Thus, the development of methods to quantify and monitor aging wire insulation is highly warranted. Measurement of wire insulation stiffness by ultrasonic guided waves is being examined. Initial laboratory tests were performed on a simple model consisting of a solid cylinder and then a solid cylinder with a polymer coating. Experimental measurements showed that the lowest order axisymmetric mode may be sensitive to stiffness changes in the wire insulation. To test this theory, mil-spec wire samples MIL-W-81381, MIL-W-22759/34, and MIL-W-22759/87 (typically found in aircraft) were heat-damaged in an oven, in a range of heating conditions. The samples were 12, 16, and 20 gauge and the heat-damage introduced material changes in the wire-insulation that made the originally flexible insulation brittle and darker in color. Axisymmetric mode phase velocity increased for the samples that were exposed to heat for longer duration. For example, the phase velocity in the 20-gauge MIL-W-22759/34 wire changed from a baseline value of 2790m/s to 3280m/s and 3530m/s for one-hour exposures to 3490C and 3990C, respectively. Although the heat-damage conditions are not the same as environmental aging, we believe that with further development and refinements, the ultrasonic guided waves can be used to inspect wire-insulation for detrimental environmental aging conditions.

  10. An aging study of wire chambers with dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Jibaly, M.; Chrusch, P. Jr.; Hilgenberg, G.; Majewski, S.; Wojcik, R.; Sauli, F.; Gaudaen, J.

    1989-02-01

    The authors report results on the aging of different types of resistive and non-resistive wires in wire chambers filled with dimethyl ether (DME) of varying degrees of purity. Among the Freon impurities detected in our DME batches, only Freon-11 was found to contribute to the aging process. Of the resistive wires, Nicotin and Stablohm produced fast aging, whereas stainless steel withstood extended irradiation in purified DME (up to 1 C/cm) without any apparent damage. Gold-plated tungsten and molybdenum wires produced results comparable to those of the stainless steel.

  11. Space Shuttle Columbia Aging Wiring Failure Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDaniels, Steven J.

    2005-01-01

    A Space Shuttle Columbia main engine controller 14 AWG wire short circuited during the launch of STS-93. Post-flight examination divulged that the wire had electrically arced against the head of a nearby bolt. More extensive inspection revealed additional damage to the subject wire, and to other wires as well from the mid-body of Columbia. The shorted wire was to have been constructed from nickel-plated copper conductors surrounded by the polyimide insulation Kapton, top-coated with an aromatic polyimide resin. The wires were analyzed via scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX), and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA); differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed on the polyimide. Exemplar testing under laboratory conditions was performed to replicate the mechanical damage characteristics evident on the failed wires. The exemplar testing included a step test, where, as the name implies, a person stepped on a simulated wire bundle that rested upon a bolt head. Likewise, a shear test that forced a bolt head and a torque tip against a wire was performed to attempt to damage the insulation and conductor. Additionally, a vibration test was performed to determine if a wire bundle would abrade when vibrated against the head of a bolt. Also, an abrasion test was undertaken to determine if the polyimide of the wire could be damaged by rubbing against convolex helical tubing. Finally, an impact test was performed to ascertain if the use of the tubing would protect the wire from the strike of a foreign object.

  12. Ultrasonic Guided Waves for Aging Wire Insulation Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anastasi, Robert F.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2001-01-01

    Environmentally aged wire insulation can become brittle and crack and thus expose the underlying conductive wire to the potential for short circuits and fire. The feasibility of using ultrasonic guided waves to measure insulation condition was examined. First a simple model to study guided wave propagation in a bare and thin plastic coated wire was examined and then some aviation grade wire samples that had been heat-damaged. Initial measurements indicate that ultrasonic guided wave velocity can be used to monitor insulation stiffness.

  13. Wire aging of hydrocarbon gases with TMAE additions

    SciTech Connect

    Va'vra, J.

    1986-10-01

    We report on experimental results describing wire aging properties of the CRID/RICH detectors in the TMAE gas environment. This test used 7 ..mu..m and 33 ..mu..m diameter carbon fibers, and 20 ..mu..m diameter gold-plated tungsten wires as sense wires, and operated in gas mixtures of either CH/sub 4/ or C/sub 2/H/sub 6/ at 1 atm, together with 0.6 Torr of the photoionizing vapor TMAE (tetrakis dimethylamino ethylene), which serves as a photocathode in the CRID detectors. The wires were damaged by the /sup 55/Fe x-rays. This paper is based on irradiation of 20 wires, each being a separate test. The gas purity was consistent with requirements of CRID detectors (<1 ppM of oxygen, <1 ppM of water). The test explored the aging as a function of wire diameter, wire material, gas flow, gas temperature, rate of radiation and gas type. Several chemical analyses of the deposit samples were performed (FTIR, ESCA and GC-MS techniques).

  14. Accelerated aging test results for aerospace wire insulation constructions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, William G.

    1995-01-01

    Several wire insulation constructions were evaluated with and without continuous glow discharges at low pressure and high temperature to determine the aging characteristics of acceptable wire insulation constructions. It was known at the beginning of the test program that insulation aging takes several years when operated at normal ambient temperature and pressure of 20 C and 760 torr. Likewise, it was known that the accelerated aging process decreases insulation life by approximately 50% for each 10 C temperature rise. Therefore, the first phases of the program, not reported in these test results, were to select wire insulation constructions that could operate at high temperature and low pressure for over 10,000 hours with negligible shrinkage and little materials' deterioration.The final phase of the program was to determine accelerated aging characteristics. When an insulation construction is subjected to partial discharges the insulation is locally heated by the bombardment of the discharges, the insulation is also subjected to ozone and other deteriorating gas particles that may significantly increase the aging process. Several insulation systems using either a single material or combinations of teflon, kapton, and glass insulation constructions were tested. All constructions were rated to be partial discharge and/or corona-free at 240 volts, 400 Hz and 260 C (500 F) for 50, 000 hours at altitudes equivalent to the Paschen law. Minimum partial discharge aging tests were preceded by screening tests lasting 20 hours at 260 C. The aging process was accelerated by subjecting the test articles to temperatures up to 370 C (700 F) with and without partial discharges. After one month operation with continuous glow discharges surrounding the test articles, most insulation systems were either destroyed or became brittle, cracked, and unsafe for use. Time with space radiation as with partial discharges is accumulative.

  15. Aging and skilled problem solving.

    PubMed

    Charness, N

    1981-03-01

    Information-processing models of problem solving too often are based on restrictive age ranges. On the other hand, gerontologists have investigated few problem-solving tasks and have rarely generated explicit models. As this article demonstrates, both fields can benefit by closer collaboration. One major issue in gerontology is whether aging is associated with irreversible decrement or developmental plasticity. If both processes occur, then an appropriate strategy for investigating aging is to equate age groups for molar problem-solving performance and search for differences in the underlying components. This strategy was adopted to examine the relation of age and skill to problem solving in chess. Chess players were selected to vary widely in age and skill such that these variables were uncorrelated. Problem-solving and memory tasks were administered. Skill level was the only significant predictor for accuracy in both a choose-a-move task and a speeded end-game evaluation task. Age (negatively) and skill (positively) jointly determined performance in an unexpected recall task. Efficient chunking in recall was positively related to skill, though negatively related to age. Recognition confidence, though not accuracy, was negatively related to age. Thus despite age-related declines in encoding and retrieval of information, older players match the problem-solving performance of equivalently skilled younger players. Apparently, they can search the problem space more efficiently, as evidenced by taking less time to select an equally good move. Models of chess skill that stress that role of encoding efficiency, as indexed by chunking in recall, need to be modified to account for performance over the life span.

  16. Some results on the ageing of wire chambers with dimethyl ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jibaly, Mohammed; Chrusch, Peter; Hilgenberg, Gregory; Majewski, Stan; Wojcik, Randolph; Weintraub, Randy; Sauli, Fabio

    1988-12-01

    Ageing results of three test wire detectors when filled with dimethyl ether (DME) are presented. DME gas was analyzed before and during the tests for the presence of electronegative impurities, such as Freons. A strong dependence of the rate of ageing on the wire composition was observed. The resistive wires, such as Stablohm and Nicotin, produced fast ageing. Also, even the best available purified DME, as of today, used with gold-plated wires, produced some slow ageing. The rate of amplitude decrease depended on the Freon impurity level.

  17. Revisit of cosmic age problem

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Shuang; Li Xiaodong; Li Miao

    2010-11-15

    We investigate the cosmic age problem associated with 9 extremely old globular clusters in M31 galaxy and 1 very old high-z quasar automatic plate-measuring machine 08279+5255 at z=3.91. These 9 globular clusters have not been used to study the cosmic age problem in the previous literature. By evaluating the age of the Universe in the {Lambda} cold dark matter model with the observational constraints from the Type Ia supernovae, the baryon acoustic oscillations, the cosmic microwave background, and the independent H{sub 0} measurements, we find that the existence of 5 globular clusters and 1 high-z quasar are in tension (over 2{sigma} confidence level) with the current cosmological observations. So if the age estimates of these objects are correct, the cosmic age puzzle still remains in the standard cosmology. Moreover, we extend our investigations to the cases of the interacting dark energy models. It is found that although the introduction of the interaction between dark sectors can give a larger cosmic age, the interacting dark energy models still have difficulty to pass the cosmic age test.

  18. Investigating the Use of Ultrasound for Evaluating Aging Wiring Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madaras, Eric I.; Anastasi, Robert F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews our initial efforts to investigate the use of ultrasound to evaluate wire insulation. Our initial model was a solid conductor with heat shrink tubing applied. In this model, various wave modes were identified. Subsequently, several aviation classes of wires (MIL-W- 81381, MIL-W-22759/34, and MIL-W-22759/87) were measured. The wires represented polyimide and ethylene-tetraflouroethylene insulations, and combinations of polyimide and flouropolymer plastics. Wire gages of 12, 16, and 20 AWG sizes were measured. Finally, samples of these wires were subjected to high temperatures for short periods of time to cause the insulation to degrade. Subsequent measurements indicated easily detectable changes.

  19. Wire perturbations in the Staffman-Taylor problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, D. C.

    1988-01-01

    Zocchi et al. (1987) discovered that when two wires are symmetrically placed along the center of a Hele-Shaw cell, symmetric but narrow fingers of dimensionless width lambda less than 0.5 develop. The value of lambda decreases as the pushing velocity increases, but at a certain critical finger width the finger suddenly undergoes a transition to the asymmetrical state. A simple theory to predict this critical finger width as a function of D, the dimensionless distance between two wires is developed by assuming that the finger opens up a negative angle at the contact point.

  20. Final report on development of Pulse Arrested Spark Discharge (PASD) for aging aircraft wiring application

    SciTech Connect

    Lockner, Thomas Ramsbeck; Howard, R. Kevin; Pena, Gary Edward; Schneider, Larry X.; Higgins, Matthew B.; Glover, Steven Frank

    2006-09-01

    Pulsed Arrested Spark Discharge (PASD) is a Sandia National Laboratories Patented, non-destructive wiring system diagnostic that has been developed to detect defects in aging wiring systems in the commercial aircraft fleet. PASD was previously demonstrated on relatively controlled geometry wiring such as coaxial cables and shielded twisted-pair wiring through a contract with the U.S. navy and is discussed in a Sandia National Laboratories report, SAND2001-3225 ''Pulsed Arrested Spark Discharge (PASD) Diagnostic Technique for the Location of Defects in Aging Wiring Systems''. This report describes an expansion of earlier work by applying the PASD technique to unshielded twisted-pair and discrete wire configurations commonly found in commercial aircraft. This wiring is characterized by higher impedances as well as relatively non-uniform impedance profiles that have been found to be challenging for existing aircraft wiring diagnostics. Under a three year contract let by the Federal Aviation Administration, Interagency Agreement DTFA-03-00X90019, this technology was further developed for application on aging commercial aircraft wiring systems. This report describes results of the FAA program with discussion of previous work conducted under U.S. Department of Defense funding.

  1. Test of the wire ageing induced by radiation for the CMS barrel muon chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, E.; Gasparini, F.

    2001-06-01

    We have carried out laboratory tests to measure the ageing of a wire tube due to pollutants outgassed by various materials. The tested materials are those used in the barrel muon drift tubes of the CMS experiment at LHC. An X-ray gun irradiated the test tube to accelerate the ageing process. No ageing effect has been measured for a period equivalent to 10 years of operation at LHC.

  2. Wired Style: Principles of English Usage in the Digital Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Constance, Ed.

    Not intended to replace traditional style and grammar manuals, this manual digs into questions that the "Chicago Manual of Style," the "AP Guide," and "Strunk and White" do not even imagine--it aims to give the user a feel for the new language that is evolving in the digital age. The manual might be considered an experiment in nonlinear, networked…

  3. Aging, tumor suppression and cancer: High-wire act!

    SciTech Connect

    Campisi, Judith

    2004-08-15

    Evolutionary theory holds that aging is a consequence of the declining force of natural selection with age. We discuss here the evidence that among the causes of aging in complex multicellular organisms, such as mammals, is the antagonistically pleiotropic effects of the cellular responses that protect the organism from cancer. Cancer is relatively rare in young mammals, owing in large measure to the activity of tumor suppressor mechanisms. These mechanisms either protect the genome from damage and/or mutations, or they elicit cellular responses--apoptosis or senescence--that eliminate or prevent the proliferation of somatic cells at risk for neoplastic transformation.We focus here on the senescence response, reviewing its causes, regulation and effects. In addition, we describe recent data that support the idea that both senescence and apoptosis may indeed be the double-edged swords predicted by the evolutionary hypothesis of antagonistic pleiotropy--protecting organisms from cancer early in life, but promoting aging phenotypes, including late life cancer, in older organisms.

  4. Restoring contaminated wires, removing gas contaminants, and aging studies of drift tube chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Thomas

    2003-12-01

    The original muon detection system of the Fermilab D0 colliding beam experiment contained 12,000 drift cells 10 cm×5 cm in cross-section and up to 580 cm in length. The gas mixture used was Ar/CF 4/CO 2 (90:6:4). There was one recycling gas system for all the chambers. During the first year of operation, it was discovered that inefficient cells, all in regions of high radiation, had a contaminating shell of crud coating their wires. The source of the contaminant was outgassing of the cathode pads, which were made from a laminate of fiberglass and epoxy/polyester resin, with a copper cladding on one surface. The vapor formed a brittle sheath on the wires, but only in regions of high current discharge due to radiation from the accelerator and colliding beams. A method for cleaning wires in place was devised. By heating the wire quickly to a temperature close to the melting temperature of gold, the sheath was ripped to shreds and blown away. The procedure for "zapping" wires and for removing the contaminating vapor is presented. The upgraded D0 experiment now uses Iarocci-type mini-drift tubes for the forward muon system. The results of aging tests for these chambers are also presented.

  5. Slowed ageing, welfare, and population problems.

    PubMed

    Wareham, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    Biological studies have demonstrated that it is possible to slow the ageing process and extend lifespan in a wide variety of organisms, perhaps including humans. Making use of the findings of these studies, this article examines two problems concerning the effect of life extension on population size and welfare. The first--the problem of overpopulation--is that as a result of life extension too many people will co-exist at the same time, resulting in decreases in average welfare. The second--the problem of underpopulation--is that life extension will result in too few people existing across time, resulting in decreases in total welfare. I argue that overpopulation is highly unlikely to result from technologies that slow ageing. Moreover, I claim that the problem of underpopulation relies on claims about life extension that are false in the case of life extension by slowed ageing. The upshot of these arguments is that the population problems discussed provide scant reason to oppose life extension by slowed ageing.

  6. Effective-medium model of wire metamaterials in the problems of radiative heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Mirmoosa, M. S. Nefedov, I. S. Simovski, C. R.; Rüting, F.

    2014-06-21

    In the present work, we check the applicability of the effective medium model (EMM) to the problems of radiative heat transfer (RHT) through so-called wire metamaterials (WMMs)—composites comprising parallel arrays of metal nanowires. It is explained why this problem is so important for the development of prospective thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems. Previous studies of the applicability of EMM for WMMs were targeted by the imaging applications of WMMs. The analogous study referring to the transfer of radiative heat is a separate problem that deserves extended investigations. We show that WMMs with practically realizable design parameters transmit the radiative heat as effectively homogeneous media. Existing EMM is an adequate tool for qualitative prediction of the magnitude of transferred radiative heat and of its effective frequency band.

  7. Space age management for social problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    Attempts to apply space age management to social problems were plagued with difficulties. Recent experience in the State of Delaware and in New York City, however, indicate new possibilities. Project management as practiced in NASA was applied with promising results in programs dealing with housing and social services. Such applications are feasible, according to recent research, because project management utilizes social and behavioral approaches, as well as advanced management tools, such as PERT, to achieve results.

  8. Mental health problems of aging and the aged*

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Martin

    1959-01-01

    The rapid increase in admission rates to mental hospitals in many countries in recent decades threatens to create serious problems. These may be to some extent remediable in that social factors are important in deciding the chances of admission to hospital, as well as the frequency of suicide, which reaches a peak among the aged in most countries. All communities possess valuable assets in the form of existing links between the aged and their families which may be lost by indiscriminate community planning. Although some psychological decline is inevitable during senescence, it is becoming clear that much that once passed for the ineluctable effects of mental and physical aging is due to disease that may be ameliorated or cured. The relationship between mental and physical health is particularly close in old age, and the effective treatment of the aged person with a psychiatric disorder demands the full resources of general medicine as well as psychiatry. For successful rehabilitation a full community service for the aged and proper integration of the work of the family doctor with that of preventive and hospital services are essential. The possibilities of prevention can be enhanced by fostering physical well-being and healthy adjustment during earlier stages of life, as well as by ascertaining, and remedying as far as possible, the mental and physical disorders of the aged in the early stages of their development. There is great scope for biological, medical and sociological research to define reasons for the wide variations in mental and physical well-being in old age. PMID:14439413

  9. Wire chamber

    DOEpatents

    Atac, Muzaffer

    1989-01-01

    A wire chamber or proportional counter device, such as Geiger-Mueller tube or drift chamber, improved with a gas mixture providing a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor.

  10. Aging of gaseous detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Va'Vra, J.

    1990-03-01

    This paper makes an overview of developments in the wire chamber aging field since the wire chamber aging workshop held at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California on January 16--17, 1986. The author discusses new techniques to analyze the gas impurities and the wire aging products, wire nonaging'' in clean systems, wire aging in systems containing various impurities, various examples of problems which can prime'' surfaces prior to the occurrence of the aging, and some recent aging experience with the SSC micro-straw tubes.'' 35 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Eigenfunction-expansion method for solving the quantum-wire problem: Formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraff, G. A.; Gershoni, D.

    1991-02-01

    We present a method of formulating the multiband-envelope-function equations for a quantum structure whose internal interfaces are perpendicular planes. The method can be used for quantum wells, quantum wires, or quantum dots (one-, two-, or three-dimensional confinement of the electronic wave function), as well as for periodic repetitions (superlattices) of these elementary structures. The technique used is expansion of the multiband envelope functions in a Fourier series for each of the coordinates x, y, and z. Special attention is paid to formulating interface-matching conditions that impose Hermiticity on the resulting systems of equations. This demand leads to the usual condition that the normal component of the current must be continuous across each internal interface. The method we have devised is similar to the one used by Altarelli for the quantum-well problem in that it leads to a secular equation that is solved by diagonalizing an energy-independent matrix. It differs in that here, the envelope functions are expanded in smooth continuous functions using the same expansion coefficients in all regions of the structure. Using this method, one can now calculate the optical absorption, its frequency, and polarization dependence, with the same amount of detail that has previously been possible only for confinement in one dimension, namely, in the quantum well and one-dimensional superlattice.

  12. Aging Wire Insulation Assessment by Phase Spectrum Examination of Ultrasonic Guided Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anastasi, Robert F.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2003-01-01

    Wire integrity has become an area of concern to the aerospace community including DoD, NASA, FAA, and Industry. Over time and changing environmental conditions, wire insulation can become brittle and crack. The cracks expose the wire conductor and can be a source of equipment failure, short circuits, smoke, and fire. The technique of using the ultrasonic phase spectrum to extract material properties of the insulation is being examined. Ultrasonic guided waves will propagate in both the wire conductor and insulation. Assuming the condition of the conductor remains constant then the stiffness of the insulator can be determined by measuring the ultrasonic guided wave velocity. In the phase spectrum method the guided wave velocity is obtained by transforming the time base waveform to the frequency domain and taking the phase difference between two waveforms. The result can then be correlated with a database, derived by numerical model calculations, to extract material properties of the wire insulator. Initial laboratory tests were performed on a simple model consisting of a solid cylinder and then a solid cylinder with a polymer coating. For each sample the flexural mode waveform was identified. That waveform was then transformed to the frequency domain and a phase spectrum was calculated from a pair of waveforms. Experimental results on the simple model compared well to numerical calculations. Further tests were conducted on aircraft or mil-spec wire samples, to see if changes in wire insulation stiffness can be extracted using the phase spectrum technique.

  13. Disuse and aging: same problem, different outcomes.

    PubMed

    Timiras, P S

    1994-05-01

    Many of the changes that accompany physical inactivity coincide with those that occur during aging. These changes are generally grouped under the term of 'disuse' (or "lack of use" or "inappropriately modulated stimulation"). Studies of long-term space travel have revealed that weightlessness in space also induces changes resembling those of aging and physical inactivity. The relationship between disuse (due to bed rest, insufficient exercise, or lack of gravity) and aging has some definite practical implications. As life expectancy is lenghtened in all populations worldwide, the number of elderly with varying degrees of disability leading to reduced physical activity also increases. Changes induced by bed rest as a consequence of disease may also be superimposed on aging changes and further diminish physiologic reserves and accelerate pathology. Therefore, the study of disuse, irrespective of its etiology, may serve as a model for understanding not only some of the functional changes induced by lack of activity and/or gravity but also some of the disabilities of old age. Indeed, a better understanding of disuse phenomena will make it possible to establish programs of prevention and rehabilitation that will ameliorate both disuse and aging deficits.

  14. The Legs Problem--For All Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Jenni

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an example of a versatile multi-solution problem that can be used right across the primary years. The basic problem is: "Noah saw 16 legs go past him into the Ark. How many creatures did he see?" Any even number can be used, although, 2 legs allows only one answer and with 16 legs there are already 14 different solutions, so…

  15. Teaching Problem Solving Skills to Elementary Age Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Debra L.; Jones, Vita L.; Barnett, Crystal; Pavelek, Karin; Nguyen, Hoang; Sparks, Shannon L.

    2014-01-01

    Students with disabilities need problem-solving skills to promote their success in solving the problems of daily life. The research into problem-solving instruction has been limited for students with autism. Using a problem-solving intervention and the Self Determined Learning Model of Instruction, three elementary age students with autism were…

  16. Tuberculosis and aging: a global health problem.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, S

    2001-10-01

    Despite the World Health Organization's declaration that the spread of tuberculosis is a global emergency and despite the implementation of strong tuberculosis-control initiatives, this highly infectious disease continues to affect all vulnerable populations, including the elderly population (age > or =65 years). Tuberculosis in aging adults remains a clinical and epidemiological challenge. Atypical clinical manifestations of tuberculosis in older persons can result in delay in diagnosis and initiation of treatment; thus, unfortunately, higher rates of morbidity and mortality from this treatable infection can occur. Underlying illnesses, age-related diminution in immune function, the increased frequency of adverse drug reactions, and institutionalization can complicate the overall clinical approach to tuberculosis in elderly patients; maintenance of a high index of suspicion for tuberculosis in this vulnerable population is, thus, undoubtedly justifiable.

  17. Laser Wire Stripper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    NASA-developed space shuttle technology is used in a laser wire stripper designed by Raytheon Company. Laser beams cut through insulation on a wire without damaging conductive metal, because laser radiation that melts plastic insulation is reflected by the metal. The laser process is fast, clean, precise and repeatable. It eliminates quality control problems and the expense of rejected wiring.

  18. Thermomechanical properties of Ni-Ti shape memory wires containing nanoscale precipitates induced by stress-assisted ageing.

    PubMed

    Cong, D Y; Saha, G; Barnett, M R

    2014-12-01

    This paper systematically examines the thermomechanical properties and phase transformation behaviour of slightly Ni-rich Ni-Ti biomedical shape memory wires containing homogeneously distributed nanoscale precipitates induced by stress-assisted ageing. In contrast to previous studies, particular attention is paid to the role of precipitates in impeding twin boundary movement (TBM) and its underlying mechanisms. The size and volume fraction of precipitates are altered by changing the ageing time. The martensitic transformation temperatures increase with prolonged ageing time, whereas the R-phase transformation temperature remains relatively unchanged. The stress-strain behaviour in different phase regions during both cooling and heating is comprehensively examined, and the underlying mechanisms for the temperature- and thermal-history-dependent behaviour are elucidated with the help of the established stress-temperature phase diagram. The effect of precipitates on TBM is explored by mechanical testing at 133K. It is revealed that the critical stress for TBM (σcr) increases with increasing ageing time. There is a considerable increase of 104MPa in σcr in the sample aged at 773K for 120min under 70MPa compared with the solution-treated sample, owing to the presence of precipitates. The Orowan strengthening model of twinning dislocations is insufficient to account for this increase in σcr. The back stress generation is the predominant mechanism for the interactions between precipitates and twin boundaries during TBM that give rise to the increase in σcr. Such results provide new insights into the thermomechanical properties of precipitate containing Ni-Ti biomedical shape memory wires, which are instructive for developing high-performance biomedical shape memory alloys.

  19. Coping With the Problems of a Technological Age, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    This is another report in a series of programs dealing with the problems of a technological age. It is assumed that teachers will use both parts of this report. Part I deals with the problems of technology and how it affects our lives. It also discusses the energy crisis created, in part, by technology and deals specifically with coal and…

  20. Subjective Age in Early Adolescence: Relationships with Chronological Age, Pubertal Timing, Desired Age, and Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubley, Anita M.; Arim, Rubab G.

    2012-01-01

    Subjective age generally refers to the age that one feels. In a cross-sectional questionnaire study of 245 adolescents ages 10-14 years, we examined (a) whether, and when, a cross-over in subjective age occurs, (b) differences in subjective age among pubertal timing groups, (c) correlations between subjective age and each of desired age and five…

  1. Model-Based Testability Assessment and Directed Troubleshooting of Shuttle Wiring Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deb, Somnath; Domagala, Chuck; Shrestha, Roshan; Malepati, Venkatesh; Cavanaugh, Kevin; Patterson-Hine, Ann; Sanderfer, Dwight; Cockrell, Jim; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We have recently completed a pilot study on the Space shuttle wiring system commissioned by the Wiring Integrity Research (WIRe) team at NASA Ames Research Center, As the space shuttle ages, it is experiencing wiring degradation problems including arcing, chaffing insulation breakdown and broken conductors. A systematic and comprehensive test process is required to thoroughly test and quality assure (QA) the wiring systems. The NASA WIRe team recognized the value of a formal model based analysis for risk-assessment and fault coverage analysis. However. wiring systems are complex and involve over 50,000 wire segments. Therefore, NASA commissioned this pilot study with Qualtech Systems. Inc. (QSI) to explore means of automatically extracting high fidelity multi-signal models from wiring information database for use with QSI's Testability Engineering and Maintenance System (TEAMS) tool.

  2. Effects of thermal aging and neutron irradiation on the mechanical properties of three-wire stainless steel weld overlay cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Haggag, F.M.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1997-05-01

    Thermal aging of three-wire series-arc stainless steel weld overlay cladding at 288{degrees}C for 1605 h resulted in an appreciable decrease (16%) in the Charpy V-notch (CVN) upper-shelf energy (USE), but the effect on the 41-J transition temperature shift was very small (3{degrees}C). The combined effect of aging and neutron irradiation at 288{degrees}C to a fluence of 5 x 10{sup 19} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (> 1 MeV) was a 22% reduction in the USE and a 29{degrees}C shift in the 41-J transition temperature. The effect of thermal aging on tensile properties was very small. However, the combined effect of irradiation and aging was an increase in the yield strength (6 to 34% at test temperatures from 288 to {minus}125{degrees}C) but no apparent change in ultimate tensile strength or total elongation. Neutron irradiation reduced the initiation fracture toughness (J{sub Ic}) much more than did thermal aging alone. Irradiation slightly decreased the tearing modulus, but no reduction was caused by thermal aging alone. Other results from tensile, CVN, and fracture toughness specimens showed that the effects of thermal aging at 288 or 343{degrees}C for 20,000 h each were very small and similar to those at 288{degrees}C for 1605 h. The effects of long-term thermal exposure time (50,000 h and greater) at 288{degrees}C will be investigated as the specimens become available in 1996 and beyond.

  3. Effect of chemical etching and aging in boiling water on the corrosion resistance of Nitinol wires with black oxide resulting from manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Shabalovskaya, S; Rondelli, G; Anderegg, J; Simpson, B; Budko, S

    2003-07-15

    The effect of chemical etching in a HF/HNO(3) acid solution and aging in boiling water on the corrosion resistance of Nitinol wires with black oxide has been evaluated with the use of potentiodynamic, modified potentiostatic ASTM F746, and scratch tests. Scanning-electron microscopy, elemental XPS, and Auger analysis were employed to characterize surface alterations induced by surface treatment and corrosion testing. The effect of aging in boiling water on the temperatures of martensitic transformations and shape recovery was evaluated by means of measuring the wire electroresistance. After corrosion tests, as-received wires revealed uniformly cracked surfaces reminiscent of the stress-corrosion-cracking phenomenon. These wires exhibited negative breakdown potentials in potentiostatic tests and variable breakdown potentials in potentiodynamic tests (- 100 mV to + 400 mV versus SCE). Wires with treated surfaces did not reveal cracking or other traces of corrosion attacks in potentiodynamic tests up to + 900-1400-mV potentials and no pitting after stimulation at + 800 mV in potentiostatic tests. They exhibited corrosion behavior satisfactory for medical applications. Significant improvement of corrosion parameters was observed on the reverse scans in potentiodynamic tests after exposure of treated wires to potentials > 1000 mV. In scratch tests, the prepared surfaces repassivated only at low potentials, comparable to that of stainless steel. Tremendous improvement of the corrosion behavior of treated Nitinol wires is associated with the removal of defect surface material and the growth of stable TiO(2) oxide. The role of precipitates in the corrosion resistance of Nitinol-scratch repassivation capacity in particular-is emphasized in the discussion.

  4. Reliability Assessment and Activation Energy Study of Au and Pd-Coated Cu Wires Post High Temperature Aging in Nanoscale Semiconductor Packaging.

    PubMed

    Gan, C L; Hashim, U

    2013-06-01

    Wearout reliability and high temperature storage life (HTSL) activation energy of Au and Pd-coated Cu (PdCu) ball bonds are useful technical information for Cu wire deployment in nanoscale semiconductor device packaging. This paper discusses the influence of wire type on the wearout reliability performance of Au and PdCu wire used in fine pitch BGA package after HTSL stress at various aging temperatures. Failure analysis has been conducted to identify the failure mechanism after HTSL wearout conditions for Au and PdCu ball bonds. Apparent activation energies (Eaa) of both wire types are investigated after HTSL test at 150 °C, 175 °C and 200 °C aging temperatures. Arrhenius plot has been plotted for each ball bond types and the calculated Eaa of PdCu ball bond is 0.85 eV and 1.10 eV for Au ball bond in 110 nm semiconductor device. Obviously Au ball bond is identified with faster IMC formation rate with IMC Kirkendall voiding while PdCu wire exhibits equivalent wearout and or better wearout reliability margin compare to conventional Au wirebond. Lognormal plots have been established and its mean to failure (t50) have been discussed in this paper.

  5. Vision impairment and dual sensory problems in middle age

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, Piers; Dickinson, Christine; Emsley, Richard; Bishop, Paul; Cruickshanks, Karen; Edmondson-Jones, Mark; McCormack, Abby; Fortnum, Heather; Moore, David R.; Norman, Paul; Munro, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Vision and hearing impairments are known to increase in middle age. In this study we describe the prevalence of vision impairment and dual sensory impairment in UK adults aged 40 to 69 years in a very large and recently ascertained data set. The associations between vision impairment, age, sex, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity are reported. Methods This research was conducted using the UK Biobank Resource, with subsets of UK Biobank data analysed with respect to self-report of eye problems and glasses use. Better-eye visual acuity with habitually worn refractive correction was assessed with a logMAR chart (n = 116,682). Better-ear speech reception threshold was measured with an adaptive speech in noise test, the Digit Triplet Test (n = 164,770). Prevalence estimates were weighted with respect to UK 2001 Census data. Results Prevalence of mild visual impairment and low vision was estimated at 15.2% (95% CI 14.9–15.5%) and 0.9% (95% CI 0.8–1.0%), respectively. Use of glasses was 88.0% (95% CI 87.9–88.1%). The prevalence of dual sensory impairment was 3.1% (95% CI 3.0–3.2%) and there was a nine-fold increase in the prevalence of dual sensory problems between the youngest and oldest age groups. Older adults, those from low socioeconomic and ethnic minority backgrounds were most at risk for vision problems. Conclusions Mild vision impairment is common in middle aged UK adults, despite widespread use of spectacles. Possible barriers to optometric care for those from low socioeconomic and ethnic minority backgrounds may require attention. A higher than expected prevalence of dual impairment suggests that hearing and vision problems share common causes. Optometrists should consider screening for hearing problems, particularly among older adults. PMID:24888710

  6. Sustained Attention at Age 5 Predicts Attention-Related Problems at Age 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Anne; Razza, Rachel A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study tested whether two aspects of sustained attention (focused attention and lack of impulsivity) measured at child age 5 predicted attention problems reported by mothers and teachers at age 9. Because lack of impulsivity reflects the executive control network, and ADHD is commonly characterized as a deficit in executive function, it was…

  7. [Very old age in an ageing society. Theoretical challenges, empirical problems and sociopolitical responsibilities].

    PubMed

    Motel-Klingebiel, A; Ziegelmann, J P; Wiest, M

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on very old age as a challenge for ageing theory, as an empirical problem and as a scope for social policy and it introduces the contributions of the special issue "Very old age in an ageing society". Especially the need for (re-)integration of the life-phases of young and old age is discussed from the position of social and behavioural ageing research. While reaching very old age is an increasingly normal life-event, and thus there is an increasing need for knowledge, there is currently only limited knowledge about it. It is particularly the diversity and inequality within old and very old age and the pathways into latest life that needs to be targeted. Finally, normative patterns and biographical outlines of this increasingly important phase of life need to be developed.

  8. Sleep problems of school-aged children: a complementary view.

    PubMed

    Paavonen, E J; Aronen, E T; Moilanen, I; Piha, J; Räsänen, E; Tamminen, T; Almqvist, F

    2000-02-01

    The aim of this population-based multicentre study was to evaluate the prevalence rates of sleep problems among 8-9-y-old children. The sample consisted of 5813 Finnish children, making up 10% of the age cohort. Both parents and children provided information. Disturbed sleep was reported by 21.7% of parents. Most of the problems were mild; only 0.3% were serious. Dyssomnias were frequent: 11.1% had difficulties with sleep onset, 7.1% with night waking and 2.3% with waking too early. Multiple sleep problems were present in 9.1% of the children. 17.8% of children reported disturbed sleep, 12.7% had problems many nights and 5.1% every night. In 32.0% of cases, either the parent or the child reported disturbed sleep; 7.4% of these reports came from both the parent and the child, 14.1% from the parent only and 10.3% from the child only. The correspondence between informants was poor (kappa = 0.224). Sleeping problems were associated with somatic and psychiatric problems. It is concluded that by restricting questioning to parents only, one-third of all potential cases of sleep problems may go unnoticed. In order to increase the sensitivity of screening children's sleep problems, both parents and children should provide information in epidemiological settings as well as in clinical work. PMID:10709895

  9. DNA damage and ageing: new-age ideas for an age-old problem

    PubMed Central

    Garinis, George A.; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T. J.; Vijg, Jan; Hoeijmakers, Jan H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Loss of genome maintenance may causally contribute to ageing, as exemplified by the premature appearance of multiple symptoms of ageing in a growing family of human syndromes and in mice with genetic defects in genome maintenance pathways. Recent evidence revealed a similarity between such prematurely ageing mutants and long-lived mice harbouring mutations in growth signalling pathways. At first sight this seems paradoxical as they represent both extremes of ageing yet show a similar ‘survival’ response that is capable of delaying age-related pathology and extending lifespan. Understanding the mechanistic basis of this response and its connection with genome maintenance would open exciting possibilities for counteracting cancer or age-related diseases, and for promoting longevity. PMID:18978832

  10. Basic Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

    This module is the first in a series of three wiring publications; it serves as the foundation for students enrolled in a wiring program. It is a prerequisite to either "Residential Wiring" or "Commercial and Industrial Wiring." The module contains 16 instructional units that cover the following topics: occupational introduction; general safety;…

  11. The greying intensivist: ageing and medical practice - everyone's problem.

    PubMed

    Skowronski, George A; Peisah, Carmelle

    2012-05-01

    The medical profession is ageing in parallel with the wider community, with more Australian doctors working into their 70s. This has implications for workforce planning and raises questions about competence. However, no Australian specialist college has policies relating to the special circumstances of ageing practitioners. Ageing practitioners are affected by a number of age-related sensory and neurocognitive changes, including a decline in processing speed, reduced problem-solving ability and fluid intelligence, impaired hearing and sight, and reduced manual dexterity. A policy of mandatory retirement is not consistent with the wide individual variations in cognitive ageing. However, there may be an age ceiling, which varies by medical specialty and individual. Studies show the older doctors in several specialties perform worse than their younger colleagues. Older doctors, many of whom are found to be cognitively impaired, are more likely to be reported to the authorities for poor performance. The wisdom and experience of older doctors is of great value. However, work adaptations may need to be considered. For intensivists, these could include part-time work towards retirement, reduced after-hours call and shift work, and reduced exposure to acute crisis intervention, with an increased focus on mentoring, teaching, administration and research.

  12. Surface conditions of Nitinol wires, tubing, and as-cast alloys. The effect of chemical etching, aging in boiling water, and heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Shabalovskaya, S A; Anderegg, J; Laab, F; Thiel, P A; Rondelli, G

    2003-04-15

    The surface conditions of Nitinol wires and tubing were evaluated with the use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, high-resolution Auger spectroscopy, electron backscattering, and scanning-electron microscopy. Samples were studied in the as-received state as well as after chemical etching, aging in boiling water, and heat treatment, and compared to a mechanically polished 600-grit-finish Nitinol surface treated similarly. General regularities in surface behavior induced by the examined surface treatments are similar for wires, tubing, and studied as-cast alloy, though certain differences in surface Ni concentration were observed. Nitinol wires and tubing from various suppliers demonstrated great variability in Ni surface concentration (0.5-15 at.%) and Ti/Ni ratio (0.4-35). The wires in the as-received state, with the exception of those with a black oxide originating in the processing procedure, revealed nickel and titanium on the surface in both elemental and oxidized states, indicating a nonpassive surface. Shape-setting heat treatment at 500 degrees C for 15 min resulted in tremendous increase in the surface Ni concentration and complete Ni oxidation. Preliminary chemical etching and boiling in water successfully prevented surface enrichment in Ni, initially resulting from heat treatment. A stoichiometric uniformly amorphous TiO(2) oxide generated during chemical etching and aging in boiling water was reconstructed at 700 degrees C, revealing rutile structure.

  13. Apollo experience report: Electrical wiring subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    The general requirements of the electrical wiring subsystems and the problem areas and solutions that occurred during the major part of the Apollo Program are detailed in this report. The concepts and definitions of specific requirements for electrical wiring; wire-connecting devices; and wire-harness fabrication, checkout, and installation techniques are discussed. The design and development of electrical wiring and wire-connecting devices are described. Mission performance is discussed, and conclusions and recommendations for future programs are presented.

  14. Internal wire guide for GTAW welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E. (Inventor); Dyer, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A welding torch for gas tungsten arc welding apparatus has a filler metal wire guide positioned within the torch, and within the shielding gas nozzle. The wire guide is adjacent to the tungsten electrode and has a ceramic liner through which the wire is fed. This reduces the size of the torch and eliminates the outside clearance problems that exit with external wire guides. Additionally, since the wire is always within the shielding gas, oxidizing of the wire is eliminated.

  15. Electrode carrying wire for GTAW welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E. (Inventor); Dyer, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A welding torch for gas tungsten arc welding apparatus has a hollow tungsten electrode including a ceramic liner and forms the filler metal wire guide. The wire is fed through the tungsten electrode thereby reducing the size of the torch to eliminate clearance problems which exist with external wire guides. Since the wire is preheated from the tungsten more wire may be fed into the weld puddle, and the wire will not oxidize because it is always within the shielding gas.

  16. Sustained Attention at Age 5 Predicts Attention-Related Problems at Age 9

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Anne; Razza, Rachel; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study tested whether two aspects of sustained attention (focused attention and lack of impulsivity) measured at child age 5 predicted attention problems reported by mothers and teachers at age 9. Because lack of impulsivity reflects the executive control network, and ADHD is commonly characterized as a deficit in executive function, it was expected to have more predictive power than focused attention. Data were drawn from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. Focused attention and lack of impulsivity, measured in a laboratory task at age 5, were equally predictive of attention problems at age 9, including the mother’s report of whether the child had been diagnosed with ADHD. However, age 9 teacher-reported hyperactivity was not predicted by focused attention, and only marginally predicted by lack of impulsivity. Results complement an earlier study showing that both focused attention and lack of impulsivity at age 5 predicted children’s approaches to learning at age 9 (Razza, Martin, & Brooks-Gunn, 2011). PMID:23226909

  17. Solution of an insight problem at different age levels.

    PubMed

    Antonietti, A; Nava, B

    1995-06-01

    The purpose was to study performance on an insight problem by 3- to 25-yr.-olds. A task involving restructuring and requiring two wooden blocks be fitted together to form a tetrahedron was presented to five groups of 20 subjects each from kindergarten, primary school, secondary school, high school, and a university. The frequencies of solvers within each group increased from the first age group to the third but then remained constant. Solution times and frequencies of solutions attempted were not significantly different among the five groups. Perhaps insight does not follow the same developmental trend as other thinking processes. PMID:7478880

  18. Cataracts. Lifting the clouds on an age-old problem.

    PubMed

    Trudo, E W; Stark, W J

    1998-05-01

    Cataracts are the most common treatable form of reduced vision in older adults. Although the incidence of cataracts is high after age 65, careful history taking and clinical examination are essential to establish the diagnosis. Cataract surgery is medically indicated when the view to the retina is obscured or lens-induced disorders place the eye at risk for further damage. However, even when patients have no specific associated medical problem, other than decreased visual acuity, cataract extraction offers an important means for maintaining independence and improving quality of life.

  19. An example of branching in a variational problem. [shape of liquid suspended from wire in zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darbro, W.

    1978-01-01

    In an experiment in space it was found that when a cubical frame was slowly withdrawn from a soap solution, the wire frame retained practically a full cube of liquid. Removed from the frame (by shaking), the faces of the cube became progressively more concave, until adjacent faces became tangential. In the present paper a mathematical model describing the shape a liquid takes due to its surface tension while suspended on a wire frame in zero-g is solved by use of Lagrange multipliers. It is shown how the configuration of soap films so bounded is dependent upon the volume of liquid trapped in the films. A special case of the solution is a soap film naturally formed on a cubical wire frame.

  20. Effect of cooling rate after hot rolling and of multistage strain aging on the drawability of low-carbon-steel wire rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri, A. Karimi; Maccagno, T. M.; Jonas, J. J.

    1995-05-01

    Tensile testing was used to simulate the multistage strain aging occurring in low-C steel during the relatively short intervals between dies in a multiple-die wire-drawing machine. The effects were examined of three simulated post-hot-rolling cooling rates and three thermal treatments on the strain-aging susceptibility of a high- and a low-N steel. This was measured by applying a 6 pct tensile strain, followed by aging at either 65° or 100 °C for 20 seconds, and then pulling the specimen to failure at room temperature. Increases in flow stress and decreases in the elongation to fracture both indicated high susceptibility to strain aging. It was found that the nitrogen content, the cooling rate from the hot-rolling temperature to about 300 °C, as well as the cooling rate below 300 °C, all have dramatic effects on the strain-aging behavior. Moreover, multistage strain aging is more severe than single-stage strain aging. The implications of these observations on increasing the drawability of low-carbon-steel wire are discussed.

  1. Next Generation Wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Petro; Jolley, Scott; Fitzpatrick, Lilliana; Vinje, Rubiela; Williams, Martha; Clayton, LaNetra; Roberson, Luke; Smith, Trent; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo

    2007-01-01

    Wiring is a major operational component on aerospace hardware that accounts for substantial weight and volumetric space. Over time wire insulation can age and fail, often leading to catastrophic events such as system failure or fire. The next generation of wiring must be reliable and sustainable over long periods of time. These features will be achieved by the development of a wire insulation capable of autonomous self-healing that mitigates failure before it reaches a catastrophic level. In order to develop a self-healing insulation material, three steps must occur. First, methods of bonding similar materials must be developed that are capable of being initiated autonomously. This process will lead to the development of a manual repair system for polyimide wire insulation. Second, ways to initiate these bonding methods that lead to materials that are similar to the primary insulation must be developed. Finally, steps one and two must be integrated to produce a material that has no residues from the process that degrades the insulating properties of the final repaired insulation. The self-healing technology, teamed with the ability to identify and locate damage, will greatly improve reliability and safety of electrical wiring of critical systems. This paper will address these topics, discuss the results of preliminary testing, and remaining development issues related to self-healing wire insulation.

  2. Peer Problems Mediate the Relationship between Developmental Coordination Disorder and Behavioral Problems in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Matthias Oliver; Bos, Klaus; Jascenoka, Julia; Jekauc, Darko; Petermann, Franz

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insights into the relationship between developmental coordination disorder, peer problems, and behavioral problems in school-aged children where both internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems were considered. We assumed that the relationship between developmental coordination disorder and…

  3. The problem of age determination in living individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Marina A. P.; Cardoso, Hugo F. V.

    2013-10-01

    The increase of international illegal emigration has raise the need for forensic age estimation of foreigners without valid identification documents. In this work the discussion is about some methods to estimate age in humans, with the emphasis on their importance and constrains. Some preliminary results and a brief statistical discussion, concerning its accuracy, are performed.

  4. Psychological Problems of Normal Aging: Implications for Public Library Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Mary Dale

    Few people are conditioned in the middle years to cope with the prospect of old age and retirement. If public libraries could act as the liaison in this transition, perhaps more people would be prepared to lead productive lives after age 65. Public libraries set aside sections for children and young adults but fail to do the same for the elderly.…

  5. Wire Wise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanquist, Barry

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how today's technology is encouraging schools to invest in furnishings that are adaptable to computer use and telecommunications access. Explores issues concerning modularity, wiring management, ergonomics, durability, price, and aesthetics. (GR)

  6. The Current in a Wire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This little problem arose because I was frustrated with the standard electromagnetism texts, which show the magnetic field due to a current-bearing wire outside the wire [proportional to] 1/r and inside [proportional to] r. However, they never point out that the moving electrons must be influenced by the magnetic field created by the other moving…

  7. Problems and priorities in epidemiologic research on human health effects related to wiring code and electric and magnetic fields.

    PubMed Central

    Siemiatycki, J

    1993-01-01

    Because of a reported excess of cancers among children living near power lines, there is some concern that electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) induced by electric power sources may affect human health, and this possibility has provoked considerable controversy. The scientific question of whether there are such health effects is far from resolved. Building upon a set of detailed reviews of the available evidence, this paper proposes research priorities and places particular emphasis on epidemiologic research. The most pressing need is to verify the validity of the claim that childhood cancer risk is affected by the type of wiring code in the vicinity of the household. More useful work can be done to verify this in the areas in which such studies have already been carried out, and additional studies should be done elsewhere. Methodological investigation of the interrelationships among different measures and proxies for EMF is needed, and this could feed back to influence the type of EMF measures used in epidemiologic studies. Studies of cancer among adults in relation to EMFs in the work place are needed. Of lower priority are studies of adverse reproductive outcomes in relation to parental EMF exposure and studies of the neurobehavioral impact of chronic EMF exposure. This article also discusses the structural impediments of conducting environmental epidemiology research and argues that bold, large-scale epidemiologic monitoring systems are needed. There is a discussion of the interface between epidemiology and public policy in a topic area as controversial as EMFs. PMID:8206022

  8. Goals and everyday problem solving: examining the link between age-related goals and problem-solving strategy use.

    PubMed

    Hoppmann, Christiane A; Coats, Abby Heckman; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda

    2008-07-01

    Qualitative interviews on family and financial problems from 332 adolescents, young, middle-aged, and older adults, demonstrated that developmentally relevant goals predicted problem-solving strategy use over and above problem domain. Four focal goals concerned autonomy, generativity, maintaining good relationships with others, and changing another person. We examined both self- and other-focused problem-solving strategies. Autonomy goals were associated with self-focused instrumental problem solving and generative goals were related to other-focused instrumental problem solving in family and financial problems. Goals of changing another person were related to other-focused instrumental problem solving in the family domain only. The match between goals and strategies, an indicator of problem-solving adaptiveness, showed that young individuals displayed the greatest match between autonomy goals and self-focused problem solving, whereas older adults showed a greater match between generative goals and other-focused problem solving. Findings speak to the importance of considering goals in investigations of age-related differences in everyday problem solving.

  9. Improved wire chamber

    DOEpatents

    Atac, M.

    1987-05-12

    An improved gas mixture for use with proportional counter devices, such as Geiger-Mueller tubes and drift chambers. The improved gas mixture provides a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor. 2 figs.

  10. The 2030 Problem: Caring for Aging Baby Boomers

    PubMed Central

    Knickman, James R; Snell, Emily K

    2002-01-01

    Objective To assess the coming challenges of caring for large numbers of frail elderly as the Baby Boom generation ages. Study Setting A review of economic and demographic data as well as simulations of projected socioeconomic and demographic patterns in the year 2030 form the basis of a review of the challenges related to caring for seniors that need to be faced by society. Study Design A series of analyses are used to consider the challenges related to caring for elders in the year 2030: (1) measures of macroeconomic burden are developed and analyzed, (2) the literatures on trends in disability, payment approaches for long-term care, healthy aging, and cultural views of aging are analyzed and synthesized, and(3)simulations of future income and assets patterns of the Baby Boom generation are developed. Principal Findings The economic burden of aging in 2030 should be no greater than the economic burden associated with raising large numbers of baby boom children in the 1960s. The real challenges of caring for the elderly in 2030 will involve: (1) making sure society develops payment and insurance systems for long-term care that work better than existing ones, (2) taking advantage of advances in medicine and behavioral health to keep the elderly as healthy and active as possible, (3) changing the way society organizes community services so that care is more accessible, and (4) altering the cultural view of aging to make sure all ages are integrated into the fabric of community life. Conclusions To meet the long-term care needs of Baby Boomers, social and public policy changes must begin soon. Meeting the financial and social service burdens of growing numbers of elders will not be a daunting task if necessary changes are made now rather than when Baby Boomers actually need long-term care. PMID:12236388

  11. Systemic Problems: A perspective on stem cell aging and rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Conboy, Irina M; Conboy, Michael J; Rebo, Justin

    2015-10-01

    This review provides balanced analysis of the advances in systemic regulation of young and old tissue stem cells and suggests strategies for accelerating development of therapies to broadly combat age-related tissue degenerative pathologies. Many highlighted recent reports on systemic tissue rejuvenation combine parabiosis with a "silver bullet" putatively responsible for the positive effects. Attempts to unify these papers reflect the excitement about this experimental approach and add value in reproducing previous work. At the same time, defined molecular approaches, which are "beyond parabiosis" for the rejuvenation of multiple old organs represent progress toward attenuating or even reversing human tissue aging.

  12. Systemic Problems: A perspective on stem cell aging and rejuvenation

    PubMed Central

    Conboy, Irina M.; Conboy, Michael J.; Rebo, Justin

    2015-01-01

    This review provides balanced analysis of the advances in systemic regulation of young and old tissue stem cells and suggests strategies for accelerating development of therapies to broadly combat age-related tissue degenerative pathologies. Many highlighted recent reports on systemic tissue rejuvenation combine parabiosis with a “silver bullet” putatively responsible for the positive effects. Attempts to unify these papers reflect the excitement about this experimental approach and add value in reproducing previous work. At the same time, defined molecular approaches, which are “beyond parabiosis” for the rejuvenation of multiple old organs represent progress toward attenuating or even reversing human tissue aging. PMID:26540176

  13. Delirium in the elderly: current problems with increasing geriatric age

    PubMed Central

    Kukreja, Deepti; Günther, Ulf; Popp, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Delirium is an acute disorder of attention and cognition seen relatively commonly in people aged 65 yr or older. The prevalence is estimated to be between 11 and 42 per cent for elderly patients on medical wards. The prevalence is also high in nursing homes and long term care (LTC) facilities. The consequences of delirium could be significant such as an increase in mortality in the hospital, long-term cognitive decline, loss of autonomy and increased risk to be institutionalized. Despite being a common condition, it remains under-recognised, poorly understood and not adequately managed. Advanced age and dementia are the most important risk factors. Pain, dehydration, infections, stroke and metabolic disturbances, and surgery are the most common triggering factors. Delirium is preventable in a large proportion of cases and therefore, it is also important from a public health perspective for interventions to reduce further complications and the substantial costs associated with these. Since the aetiology is, in most cases, multfactorial, it is important to consider a multi-component approach to management, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological. Detection and treatment of triggering causes must have high priority in case of delirium. The aim of this review is to highlight the importance of delirium in the elderly population, given the increasing numbers of ageing people as well as increasing geriatric age. PMID:26831414

  14. Home and School Technology: Wired versus Wireless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2001-01-01

    Presents results of informal research on smart homes and appliances, structured home wiring, whole-house audio/video distribution, hybrid cable, and wireless networks. Computer network wiring is tricky to install unless all-in-one jacketed cable is used. Wireless phones help installers avoid pre-wiring problems in homes and schools. (MLH)

  15. Age Moderates the Relationship between Social Support and Psychosocial Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segrin, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Examines the association between social support from various sources and psychosocial problems, and how these associations vary over the life span. Finds that perceived social support and contact with social network members appears to have beneficial effects for all participants, as evidenced through reduced symptoms of depression and loneliness.…

  16. [PROBLEM OF ENDOMETRIUM HYPERPLASTIC PROCESSES IN REPRODUCTIVE AGE WOMEN].

    PubMed

    Bazyuta, L Z; Polyova, S P; Tsintar, S A

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the risk factors of endometrium hyperplastic processes (EHP) in reproduc- tive age women. It is shown that EHP occur in response to hormonal homeostasis violations of the target tissues. It is established that the biologically active substances, which are closely related to immune mechanisms of the reproductive system functioning take place in regulatory mechanisms of cell growth and differentiation of endometrium. PMID:27491143

  17. Temporal evolution of isolated pulsars; Age-Tau problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutukcu, Pinar; Ankay, Askin

    2014-09-01

    In this work, we examine the evolution of a sample of isolated pulsars connected to Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) five of which have measured braking indices. For the pulsars in our sample without measured braking index values we have calculated the estimated braking indices adopting the supernova remnant ages as the real ages of pulsar-SNR pairs assuming short initial spin periods (10-30 ms). Some of these pulsars exhibit at least one order of magnitude differences between the characteristic pulsar ages and the ages of the SNRs they are physically connected to. We adopt an exponential B-decay model, which is the decrease in the surface dipole magnetic field component perpendicular to the spin axis, in order to explain the evolutions of such pulsars on the spin period versus the spin period change diagram. The decay can be either due to a decrease in the angle between the spin axis and the magnetic axis and/or due to a decay in the surface dipole magnetic field itself. Based on a previous work by Ankay et al. on the X-ray pulsar 1E1207-5209 we show that there are some other young isolated pulsars which experience B-decay as the predominant effect throughout their observational lifetimes. As compared to ordinary radio pulsars the magneto-dipole radiation torques are not so effective for such pulsars and the characteristic decay times are significantly shorter (about three orders of magnitude). Assuming simple exponential evolutionary tracks we give possible physical interpretations for this new class of neutron stars by examining the observational data of each pulsar-SNR pair.

  18. Age, Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, Body Composition, and Incidence of Orthopedic Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Effects of age, physical activity, physical fitness, and body mass index (BMI) on the occurrence of orthopedic problems were examined. For men, physical fitness, BMI, and physical activity were associated with orthopedic problems; for women, physical activity was the main predictor. Age was not a factor for either gender. (JD)

  19. Attachment Style, Home-Leaving Age and Behavioral Problems among Residential Care Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shechory, Mally; Sommerfeld, Eliane

    2007-01-01

    In a prospective study, the attachment style, home-leaving age, length of time in residential care, and behavioral problems among Israeli residential care children (N=68), were studied. Data analyses showed that children removed from their homes at a later age suffered from higher levels of anxiety, depression and social problems compared to…

  20. Pontryagin's principle for control problems in age-dependent population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Brokate, M

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, Pontryagin's principle is proved for a fairly general problem of optimal control of populations with continuous time and age variable. As a consequence, maximum principles are developed for an optimal harvesting problem and a problem of optimal birth control.

  1. No Wires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLoughry, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    The University of California at Santa Cruz has completed a successful test of a wireless computer network that would enable students and professors to get on line from anywhere on campus. The network, linked by radio waves, could save millions of dollars in campus wiring costs and would better meet student and faculty information needs. (MSE)

  2. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, J.

    1990-05-01

    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an {sup 55}Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed.

  3. 'Light and Wires in a Box': The Computer-Oriented Information Age in Support of Effective Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindenau, Suzanne E.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the computer-oriented information age, skills workers will need to keep pace, and how information technologies (microcomputers, communications satellites, and cable systems) can be utilized to support effective higher education. Obstacles to information technology use in education and how schools fail learners if technology is not…

  4. Nondestructive Evaluation of Aircraft and Spacecraft Wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, John E.; Tucholski, Edward J.; Green, Robert E., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Spacecraft, and especially aircraft, often fry well past their original design lives and, therefore, the need to develop nondestructive evaluation procedures for inspection of vital structures in these craft is extremely important. One of the more recent problems is the degradation of wiring and wiring insulation. The present paper describes several nondestructive characterization methods which afford the possibility to detect wiring and insulation degradation in-situ prior to major problems with the safety of aircraft and spacecraft.

  5. Recognition of Psychiatric Disorders, and Self-Perceived Problems. A Follow-up Study from Age 8 to Age 18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sourander, Andre; Haavisto, Antti; Ronning, John A.; Multimaki, Petteri; Parkkola, Kai; Santalahti, Paivi; Nikolakaros, Georgios; Helenius, Hans; Moilanen, Irma; Tamminen, Tuula; Piha, Jorma; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the rate of, and factors associated with, recognition of psychiatric disorders and self-perceived problems among 18-year-old adolescent boys. Method: The study population consisted of 2347 Finnish boys born during 1981 attending military call-up (79.7% of the original sample). At age 8, the boys were evaluated by parental and…

  6. Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire

    DOEpatents

    Brandon, Eldon D.; Hooper, Frederick M.; Reichenbach, Marvin L.

    1992-01-01

    A device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than 0.04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut.

  7. Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire

    DOEpatents

    Brandon, E.D.; Hooper, F.M.; Reichenbach, M.L.

    1992-08-11

    A device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than 0.04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut. 1 figure.

  8. Procedural Complexity of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act: An Age-Old Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheeder, Robert E.

    1980-01-01

    The procedural prerequisites to an Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) action are examined. The 1978 amendments to the Act as well as the leading decisions involving procedural matters are discussed. Available from The Duquesne Law Review, 901 Rockwell Hall, 600 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, PA 15219. (Author/MLF)

  9. Trajectories of gambling problems from mid-adolescence to age 30 in a general population cohort.

    PubMed

    Carbonneau, René; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E

    2015-12-01

    Studies of gambling starting before adulthood in the general population are either cross-sectional, based on the stability of these behaviors between 2 time points, or cover a short developmental period. The present study aimed at investigating the developmental trajectories of gambling problems across 3 key periods of development, mid-adolescence, early adulthood, and age 30, in a mixed-gender cohort from the general population. Using a semiparametric mixture model, trajectories were computed based on self-reports collected at ages 15 (N = 1,882), 22 (N = 1,785), and 30 (N = 1,358). Two distinct trajectories were identified: 1 trajectory including males and females who were unlikely to have experienced gambling problems across the 15-year period, and 1 trajectory including participants likely to have experienced at least 1 problem over the last 12 months at each time of assessment. Participants following a high trajectory were predominantly male, participated frequently in 3 to 4 different gambling activities, and were more likely to report substance use and problems related to their alcohol and drug consumption at age 30. Thus, gambling problems in the general population are already observable at age 15 in a small group of individuals, who maintain some level of these problems through early adulthood, before moderately but significantly desisting by age 30, while also experiencing other addictive behaviors and related problems. PMID:26168229

  10. [Problems associated with chronological age estimation of children exploited in child pornography production].

    PubMed

    Bednarek, Jarosław

    2006-01-01

    Chronological age assessment of young persons featuring in pornographic pictures and videos is crucial to prove a violation of law. The paper discusses possibilities of and difficulties inherent in age estimation in cases of production and distribution of child pornography. The presented problems were divided into technical and individual development-associated issues. Technical difficulties included lack of a reference system for biological features reconstruction, poor quality and resolution of pictures or movies, pictures retouching and photomontage. The author stressed that biological hindrances in age assessment were the consequences of interpersonal variation of developmental patterns, namely overlapping of ranges typical for feature values at particular ages and biological variations between different human populations. The described problems can render age estimation impossible or far from precise. Developing more accurate methods of estimating age from pictures and videos requires the collaboration of specialists in the field of auxology, anthropology, pediatrics, as well as experts in photography and video techniques. PMID:17131758

  11. [Problems associated with chronological age estimation of children exploited in child pornography production].

    PubMed

    Bednarek, Jarosław

    2006-01-01

    Chronological age assessment of young persons featuring in pornographic pictures and videos is crucial to prove a violation of law. The paper discusses possibilities of and difficulties inherent in age estimation in cases of production and distribution of child pornography. The presented problems were divided into technical and individual development-associated issues. Technical difficulties included lack of a reference system for biological features reconstruction, poor quality and resolution of pictures or movies, pictures retouching and photomontage. The author stressed that biological hindrances in age assessment were the consequences of interpersonal variation of developmental patterns, namely overlapping of ranges typical for feature values at particular ages and biological variations between different human populations. The described problems can render age estimation impossible or far from precise. Developing more accurate methods of estimating age from pictures and videos requires the collaboration of specialists in the field of auxology, anthropology, pediatrics, as well as experts in photography and video techniques.

  12. Sleep Problems in Chinese School-Aged Children with a Parent-Reported History of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Shenghui; Jin, Xinming; Yan, Chonghuai; Wu, Shenghu; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiaoming

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to survey the prevalence of parent-reported ADHD diagnosis and to assess its associations with sleep problems among urban school-aged children in China. Method: A random sample of 20,152 school-aged children participated in a cross-sectional survey in eight cities of China. A parent-administered questionnaire and the…

  13. Age and Gender Differences in Coping Style across Various Problems: Omani Adolescents' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Bahrani, Muna; Aldhafri, Said; Alkharusi, Hussain; Kazem, Ali; Alzubiadi, Abdulqawi

    2013-01-01

    This study examines adolescents' coping styles, with relation to their gender and age and level, of six types of problems. The participants were 1843 adolescents (51.7% female and 48.3% male) from the Sultanate of Oman with a mean age of 15.75. Two scales examining general adaptive and maladaptive coping styles and levels of school, economic,…

  14. Problems of Children of School Age (5-9 Years): Report on a Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This report presents the proceedings of a working group convened in Copenhagen in November 1975 by the World Health Organization to discuss the problems of children 5 to 9 years. The report focuses on a survey of the general problems of European children of this particular age, individual risk factors, and individual groups at risk, and suggests…

  15. The Problem of the Aging Surgeon: When Surgeon Age Becomes a Surgical Risk Factor

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The question of when a surgeon should retire has been the subject of debate for decades. Both anecdotal evidence and objective testing of surgeons suggest age causes deterioration in physical and cognitive performance. Medical education, residency and fellowship training, and technology evolve at a rapid pace, and the older a surgeon is, the more likely it is he or she is remote from his or her initial education in his or her specialty. Research also shows surgeons are reluctant to plan for retirement. Although there is no federally mandated retirement age for surgeons in the United States, surgeons must realize their skills will decline, a properly planned retirement can be satisfying, and the retired surgeon has much to offer the medical and teaching community. PMID:18975041

  16. Snow blindness and other eye problems during the heroic age of Antarctic exploration.

    PubMed

    Guly, Henry R

    2012-03-01

    During the heroic age of Antarctic exploration, snow blindness was a common problem, but not all the descriptions of it fit the modern view of the disease, and some of the explorers complained of long-term problems. This article describes the snow blindness and other eye problems that occurred during this era. It also describes how snow blindness was prevented and treated. PMID:22441095

  17. Young Girls’ and Caretakers’ Reports of Problem Behavior: Comprehension and Concordance Across Age, Race, and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Slocum, Lee Ann; Simpson, Sally S.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Loeber, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses a research instrument developed and utilized by the Pittsburgh Girls Study that asked young girls (ages 7 and 8) and their caretakers to report on the girls’ involvement in a variety of problem behaviors. In this article, the authors evaluate whether comprehension, prevalence, and caretaker–child concordance of problem behaviors varied by child age and race. Results indicate that the girls understood most questions (except for some related to drug use) and that comprehension and reported involvement increased with age. Findings show that nonwhites showed greater comprehension and reported more involvement in problem behavior than Whites. Overall, the authors find modest concordance between reports from the girls and their caretakers, with greater agreement for nonwhites and older children. The authors conclude that a more comprehensive understanding of youth problem behavior is gained when both caretakers and children provide reports. PMID:22457546

  18. Vascular Calcification in Uremia: New-Age Concepts about an Old-Age Problem.

    PubMed

    Smith, Edward R

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark of aging, and major contributor to the increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), is the progressive structural and functional deterioration of the arteries and concomitant accrual of mineral. Vascular calcification (VC) was long viewed as a degenerative age-related pathology that resulted from the passive deposition of mineral in the extracellular matrix; however, since the discovery of "bone-related" protein expression in calcified atherosclerotic plaques over 20 years ago, a plethora of studies have evoked the now widely accepted view that VC is a highly regulated and principally cell-mediated phenomenon that recapitulates many features of physiologic ossification. Central to this theory are changes in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotype and viability, thought to be driven by chronic exposure to a number of dystrophic stimuli characteristics of the uremic state. Here, dedifferentiated synthetic VSMCs are seen to spawn calcifying matrix vesicles that actively seed mineralization of the arterial matrix. This review provides an overview of the major epidemiological, histological, and molecular aspects of VC in the context of CKD, and a counterpoint to the prevailing paradigm that emphasizes the primacy of VSMC-mediated mechanisms. Particular focus is given to the import of protein and small molecule inhibitors in regulating physiologic and pathological mineralization and the emerging role of mineral nanoparticles and their interplay with proinflammatory processes.

  19. Vascular Calcification in Uremia: New-Age Concepts about an Old-Age Problem.

    PubMed

    Smith, Edward R

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark of aging, and major contributor to the increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), is the progressive structural and functional deterioration of the arteries and concomitant accrual of mineral. Vascular calcification (VC) was long viewed as a degenerative age-related pathology that resulted from the passive deposition of mineral in the extracellular matrix; however, since the discovery of "bone-related" protein expression in calcified atherosclerotic plaques over 20 years ago, a plethora of studies have evoked the now widely accepted view that VC is a highly regulated and principally cell-mediated phenomenon that recapitulates many features of physiologic ossification. Central to this theory are changes in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotype and viability, thought to be driven by chronic exposure to a number of dystrophic stimuli characteristics of the uremic state. Here, dedifferentiated synthetic VSMCs are seen to spawn calcifying matrix vesicles that actively seed mineralization of the arterial matrix. This review provides an overview of the major epidemiological, histological, and molecular aspects of VC in the context of CKD, and a counterpoint to the prevailing paradigm that emphasizes the primacy of VSMC-mediated mechanisms. Particular focus is given to the import of protein and small molecule inhibitors in regulating physiologic and pathological mineralization and the emerging role of mineral nanoparticles and their interplay with proinflammatory processes. PMID:26676134

  20. Coercive Family Process and Early-Onset Conduct Problems From Age 2 to School Entry

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Justin D.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Wilson, Melvin N.; Winter, Charlotte C.; Patterson, Gerald R.

    2013-01-01

    The emergence and persistence of conduct problems during early childhood is a robust predictor of behavior problems in school and future maladaptation. In this study we examined the reciprocal influences between observed coercive interactions between children and caregivers, oppositional and aggressive behavior, and growth in parent report of early childhood (ages 2–5) and school-age conduct problems (age 7.5 and 8.5). Participants were drawn from the Early Steps multisite randomized prevention trial that includes an ethnically diverse sample of male and female children and their families (N = 731). A parallel process growth model combining latent trajectory and cross-lagged approaches revealed the amplifying effect of observed coercive caregiver–child interactions on children's noncompliance, whereas child oppositional and aggressive behaviors did not consistently predict increased coercion. The slope and initial levels of child oppositional and aggressive behaviors and the stability of caregiver–child coercion were predictive of teacher-reported oppositional behavior at school age. Families assigned to the Family Check-Up condition had significantly steeper declines in child oppositional and aggressive behavior and moderate reductions in oppositional behavior in school and in coercion at age 3. Results were not moderated by child gender, race/ethnicity, or assignment to the intervention condition. The implications of these findings are discussed with respect to understanding the early development of conduct problems and to designing optimal strategies for reducing problem behavior in early childhood with families most in need. PMID:24690305

  1. Clarifying the Associations between Age at Menarche and Adolescent Emotional and Behavioral Problems

    PubMed Central

    Van Hulle, Carol A.; Beasley, William H.; Rodgers, Joseph L.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.

    2015-01-01

    Better understanding risk factors for the development of adolescent emotional and behavioral problems can help with intervention and prevention efforts. Previous studies have found that an early menarcheal age predicts several adolescent problems, including depressive symptoms, delinquency, and early age at first intercourse. Few studies, nevertheless, have explicitly tested (a) whether the associations with menarcheal age vary across racial/ethnic groups or (b) whether the sources of the associations are within-families (i.e., consistent with a direct, causal link) or only between-families (i.e., due to selection or confounding factors). The current study analyzed data from a nationally representative US Sample of females (N = 5,637). We examined whether race/ethnicity moderated the associations between early menarche and several adolescent problems by using multiple-group analyses and we examined the degree to which genetic and environmental factors shared by family members account for the associations by comparing sisters and cousins with differing menarcheal ages. Menarcheal age predicted subsequent depressive symptoms, delinquency, and early age at first intercourse in the population. The magnitudes of the associations were similar across all racial/ethnic groups for all outcomes. The within-family associations (i.e., when comparing siblings and cousins with different menarcheal age) were large and statistically significant when predicting early intercourse, but not the other outcomes. The findings suggest that selection or confounding factors account for the associations between menarcheal age and subsequent depressive symptoms and delinquency, whereas the independent association between menarcheal age and early age at first intercourse is consistent with a direct, causal effect. PMID:25687264

  2. Vibrating wire for beam profile scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arutunian, S. G.; Dobrovolski, N. M.; Mailian, M. R.; Sinenko, I. G.; Vasiniuk, I. E.

    1999-12-01

    A method that measures the transverse profile (emittance) of the bunch by detecting radiation arising at the scattering of the bunch on scanning wire is widely used. In this work information about bunch scattering is obtained by measuring the oscillation frequency of the tightened scanning wire. In such a way, the system of radiation (or secondary particles) extraction and measurement can be removed. The entire unit consists of a compact fork with tightened wire and a scanning system. Normal oscillation frequency of a wire depends on wire tension, its geometric parameters, and, in a second approximation, its elastic characteristics. Normal oscillations are generated by interaction of an alternating current through the wire with magnetic field of a permanent magnet. In this case, it is suggested that the magnetic field of the accelerator (field of dipole magnets or quadrupole magnets) be used for excitation of oscillations. The dependence of oscillation frequency on beam scattering is determined by several factors, including changes of wire tension caused by transverse force of the beam and influence of beam self-field. Preliminary calculations show that the influence of wire heating will dominate. We have studied strain gauges on the basis of vibrating wire from various materials (tungsten, beryl bronze, and niobium zirconium alloys). A scheme of normal oscillation generation by alternating current in autogeneration circuit with automatic frequency adjustment was selected. A special method of wire fixation and elimination of transverse degrees of freedom allows us to achieve relative stability better than 10-5 during several days at a relative resolution of 10-6. Experimental results and estimates of wire heating of existing scanners show that the wire heats up to a few hundred grades, which is enough for measurements. The usage of wire of micrometer thickness diminishes the problem of wire thermalization speed during the scanning of the bunch.

  3. GI problems in the elderly, Part I: Aging-related considerations.

    PubMed

    Levitan, R

    1989-09-01

    Gastrointestinal problems are very common in the elderly; they account for 20% of all geriatric deaths. The evaluation of gastrointestinal ailments is difficult in the aged due to variation in signs and symptoms, coexisting nutritional problems, lack of patient cooperation, presence of comorbidity, and effects of polypharmacy. Poor clinical histories are common and gastrointestinal ailments may be atypical. Non-compliance with therapy and testing is a common problem and unrealistic expectations from interventions are the rule rather than the exception. Iatrogenic disorders must be ruled out in all patients with gastrointestinal symptoms; an accurate drug and nutritional history is critical for achieving success in the management of the elderly.

  4. Playing-Related Musculoskeletal Problems in Child Instrumentalists: The Influence of Gender, Age and Instrument Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranelli, Sonia; Smith, Anne; Straker, Leon

    2011-01-01

    Playing-related musculoskeletal problems (PRMP) are common in adult musicians. The limited available evidence suggests PRMP are common in children and adolescents and that risk factors may be similar. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PRMP in children and adolescents and their associations with female gender, age and…

  5. Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…

  6. The Experience of Anger and Sadness in Everyday Problems Impacts Age Differences in Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Coats, Abby Heckman

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined regulation of the discrete emotions anger and sadness in adolescents through older adults in the context of describing everyday problem situations. The results support previous work; in comparison to younger age groups, older adults reported that they experienced less anger and reported that they used more passive and fewer…

  7. Twinship as a Protective Factor against Behavioural and Emotional Problems at Preschool Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirkkonen, Tiina; Joskitt, Leena; Kunelius, Anne; Huhtaniska, Marika; Ebeling, Hanna; Moilanen, Irma

    2016-01-01

    Early attachment has both protective and risk factors as regards later mental health. In Finland, insecure-avoidant-type attachment is overrepresented. Does this indicate a risk for emotional and behavioural problems at preschool age? In this study, we examined and compared the association between attachment and mental health in Finnish singletons…

  8. A Narrative Review of Problem-Based Learning with School-Aged Children: Implementation and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerzembek, Gabi; Murphy, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews empirical studies that have evaluated the impact of problem-based learning (PBL) on school-aged pupils, in order to summarise how it has been implemented and to assess its effects on academic and personal development. Following electronic searches of PsychINFO, the British Education Index and the Cochrane review database, six…

  9. Moral Discourse and Public Policy in Aging: Framing Problems, Seeking Solutions, and "Public Ethics."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Phillip G.

    1993-01-01

    Examples from Canada and the United States are used to explore social values such as individualism vs. collectivism; definition and solution of social problems; social construction of the "crisis" of aging; and public debate and moral discourse as a process for developing public policy. (SK)

  10. Young Girls' and Caretakers' Reports of Problem Behavior: Comprehension and Concordance across Age, Race, and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slocum, Lee Ann; Simpson, Sally S.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses a research instrument developed and utilized by the Pittsburgh Girls Study that asked young girls (ages 7 and 8) and their caretakers to report on the girls' involvement in a variety of problem behaviors. In this article, the authors evaluate whether comprehension, prevalence, and caretaker-child concordance of problem…

  11. Windows: Life after Wire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razwick, Jerry

    2003-01-01

    Although wired glass is extremely common in school buildings, the International Building Code adopted new standards that eliminate the use of traditional wired glass in K-12 schools, daycare centers, and athletic facilities. Wired glass breaks easily, and the wires can cause significant injuries by forming dangerous snags when the glass breaks.…

  12. Age and Gender Differences in Emotion Regulation Strategies: Autobiographical Memory, Rumination, Problem Solving and Distraction.

    PubMed

    Ricarte Trives, Jorge Javier; Navarro Bravo, Beatriz; Latorre Postigo, José Miguel; Ros Segura, Laura; Watkins, Ed

    2016-01-01

    Our study tested the hypothesis that older adults and men use more adaptive emotion regulatory strategies but fewer negative emotion regulatory strategies than younger adults and women. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that rumination acts as a mediator variable for the effect of age and gender on depression scores. Differences in rumination, problem solving, distraction, autobiographical recall and depression were assessed in a group of young adults (18-29 years) compared to a group of older adults (50-76 years). The older group used more problem solving and distraction strategies when in a depressed state than their younger counterparts (ps .06). Ordinary least squares regression analyses with bootstrapping showed that rumination mediated the association between age, gender and depression scores. These results suggest that older adults and men select more adaptive strategies to regulate emotions than young adults and women with rumination acting as a significant mediator variable in the association between age, gender, and depression. PMID:27425806

  13. Auditory event-related potentials measured in kindergarten predict later reading problems at school age.

    PubMed

    Hämäläinen, Jarmo A; Guttorm, Tomi K; Richardson, Ulla; Alku, Paavo; Lyytinen, Heikki; Leppänen, Paavo H T

    2013-01-01

    Identifying children at risk for reading problems or dyslexia at kindergarten age could improve support for beginning readers. Brain event-related potentials (ERPs) were measured for temporally complex pseudowords and corresponding non-speech stimuli from 6.5-year-old children who participated in behavioral literacy tests again at 9 years in the second grade. Children who had reading problems at school age had larger N250 responses to speech and non-speech stimuli particularly at the left hemisphere. The brain responses also correlated with reading skills. The results suggest that atypical auditory and speech processing are a neural-level risk factor for future reading problems. [Supplementary material is available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Developmental Neuropsychology for the following free supplemental resources: Sound files used in the experiments. Three speech sounds and corresponding non-speech sounds with short, intermediate, and long gaps]. PMID:24219695

  14. ALPS: The Age-Layered Population Structure for Reducing the Problem of Premature Convergence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornby, Gregory S.

    2006-01-01

    To reduce the problem of premature convergence we define a new attribute of an individual, its age, and propose the Age-Layered Population Structure (ALPS), in which age is used to restrict competition and breeding between members of the population. ALPS differs from a typical EA by segregating individuals into different age-layers by their age - a measure of how long the genetic material has been in the population - and by regularly replacing all individuals in the bottom layer with randomly generated ones. The introduction of new, randomly generated individuals at regular intervals results in an EA that is never completely converged and is always looking at new parts of the fitness landscape. By using age to restrict competition and breeding search is able to develop promising young individuals without them being dominated by older ones. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the ALPS algorithm on an antenna design problem in which evolution with ALPS produces antennas more than twice as good as does evolution with two other types of EAs. Further analysis shows that the ALPS model does allow the offspring of newly generated individuals to move the population out of mediocre local-optima to better parts of the fitness landscape.

  15. Problems in estimating age-specific survival rates from recovery data of birds ringed as young

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, D.R.; Burnham, Kenneth P.; White, Gary C.

    1985-01-01

    (1) The life table model is frequently employed in the analysis of ringer samples of young in bird populations. The basic model is biologically unrealistic and of little use in making inferences concerning age-specific survival probabilities. (2) This model rests on a number of restrictive assumptions, the failure of which causes serious biases. Several important assumptions are not met with real data and the estimators of age-specific survival are not robust enough to these failures. (3) Five major problems in the use of the life table method are reviewed. Examples are provided to illustrate several of the problems involved in using this method in making inferences about survival rates and its age-specific nature. (4) We conclude that this is an invalid procedure and it should not be used. Furthermore, ringing studies involving only young birds are pointless as regards survival estimation because no valid method exists for estimating age-specific or time-specific survival rates from such data. (5) In our view, inferences about age-specific survival rates are possible only if both young and adult (or young, subadult and adult) age classes are ringed each year for k years (k ≥ 2).

  16. Impact of Inuit customary adoption on behavioral problems in school-age Inuit children.

    PubMed

    Decaluwe, Béatrice; Jacobson, Sandra W; Poirier, Marie-Andrée; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Jacobson, Joseph L; Muckle, Gina

    2015-05-01

    A large proportion of Inuit children in Arctic Quebec are adopted in accordance with traditional Inuit customs. In contrast to adoptions in Southern Canada and the United States, the child is adopted at birth and by a close family member; he or she knows who his or her biological parents are, and will typically have contact with them. Studies of other populations have reported an increased incidence of behavior problems in adopted compared with nonadopted children. This study examined the actual extent of the increase in the number of behavior problems seen in Inuit children adopted in accordance with traditional customs. In a prospective longitudinal study conducted in the Canadian Arctic (n = 46 adopted and 231 nonadopted children), prenatal and familial variables were documented at birth and at school age (M = 11.3 years). Behavior problems were assessed on the Teacher Report Form of the Child Behavior Checklist. Adopted children lived in more economically disadvantaged families, but their caregivers were less prone to depression, domestic violence, or alcohol abuse compared with those of the nonadopted children. The adoption status was not related to the teacher's report of attention problems, externalizing or internalizing behaviors, after controlling for confounders. Despite less favorable socioeconomic circumstances, a higher extent of behavioral problems was not seen at school age in Inuit children adopted at birth by a family member. Psychosocial stressors associated with adoption are more likely to be responsible for an association with higher levels of childhood behavior problems rather than adoption per se.

  17. Impact of Inuit customary adoption on behavioral problems in school-age Inuit children.

    PubMed

    Decaluwe, Béatrice; Jacobson, Sandra W; Poirier, Marie-Andrée; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Jacobson, Joseph L; Muckle, Gina

    2015-05-01

    A large proportion of Inuit children in Arctic Quebec are adopted in accordance with traditional Inuit customs. In contrast to adoptions in Southern Canada and the United States, the child is adopted at birth and by a close family member; he or she knows who his or her biological parents are, and will typically have contact with them. Studies of other populations have reported an increased incidence of behavior problems in adopted compared with nonadopted children. This study examined the actual extent of the increase in the number of behavior problems seen in Inuit children adopted in accordance with traditional customs. In a prospective longitudinal study conducted in the Canadian Arctic (n = 46 adopted and 231 nonadopted children), prenatal and familial variables were documented at birth and at school age (M = 11.3 years). Behavior problems were assessed on the Teacher Report Form of the Child Behavior Checklist. Adopted children lived in more economically disadvantaged families, but their caregivers were less prone to depression, domestic violence, or alcohol abuse compared with those of the nonadopted children. The adoption status was not related to the teacher's report of attention problems, externalizing or internalizing behaviors, after controlling for confounders. Despite less favorable socioeconomic circumstances, a higher extent of behavioral problems was not seen at school age in Inuit children adopted at birth by a family member. Psychosocial stressors associated with adoption are more likely to be responsible for an association with higher levels of childhood behavior problems rather than adoption per se. PMID:25985112

  18. Age differences in relationships between crystallized and fluid intelligences and problem solving.

    PubMed

    Hayslip, B; Sterns, H L

    1979-05-01

    One hundred and sixty-two subjects at three age levels were tested to examine the relationship between crystallized (Gc) and fluid (Gf) abilities and three problem solving tasks varying in the abstractness concreteness of their stimuli and emphasis on past experience. It was predicted that the difference in correlations between crystallized and fluid abilities and each of these tasks would increase with increased age. The hypotheses were partially supported in the young and elderly groups of subjects. On tasks using concrete stimuli, emphasizing past experience, where no cross-sectional decline was observed, Gc (relative to Gf) accounted for an increasing proportion of variance in performance with increased age. On tasks using abstract stimuli, de-emphasizing past experience, where significant cross-sectional declines were obtained, Gf (relative to Gc) correlated more highly with performance. Contrary to previous research, relationships between Gf and Bc supported a reintegration of abilities in old age.

  19. Influence of personality, age, sex, and estrous state on chimpanzee problem-solving success

    PubMed Central

    Hopper, Lydia M.; Price, Sara A.; Freeman, Hani D.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of individual problem solvers for group- and individual-level fitness, the correlates of individual problem-solving success are still an open topic of investigation. In addition to demographic factors, such as age or sex, certain personality dimensions have also been revealed as reliable correlates of problem-solving by animals. Such correlates, however, have been little-studied in chimpanzees. To empirically test the influence of age, sex, estrous state, and different personality factors on chimpanzee problem-solving, we individually tested 36 captive chimpanzees with two novel foraging puzzles. We included both female (N = 24) and male (N = 12) adult chimpanzees (aged 14–47 years) in our sample. We also controlled for the females’ estrous state—a potential influence on cognitive reasoning—by testing cycling females both when their sexual swelling was maximally tumescent (associated with the luteinizing hormone surge of a female’s estrous cycle) and again when it was detumescent. Although we found no correlation between the chimpanzees’ success with either puzzle and their age or sex, the chimpanzees’ personality ratings did correlate with responses to the novel foraging puzzles. Specifically, male chimpanzees that were rated highly on the factors Methodical, Openness (to experience), and Dominance spent longer interacting with the puzzles. There was also a positive relationship between the latency of females to begin interacting with the two tasks and their rating on the factor Reactivity/Undependability. No other significant correlations were found, but we report tentative evidence for increased problem-solving success by the females when they had detumescent estrous swellings. PMID:24322874

  20. Influence of personality, age, sex, and estrous state on chimpanzee problem-solving success.

    PubMed

    Hopper, Lydia M; Price, Sara A; Freeman, Hani D; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Kendal, Rachel L

    2014-07-01

    Despite the importance of individual problem solvers for group- and individual-level fitness, the correlates of individual problem-solving success are still an open topic of investigation. In addition to demographic factors, such as age or sex, certain personality dimensions have also been revealed as reliable correlates of problem-solving by animals. Such correlates, however, have been little-studied in chimpanzees. To empirically test the influence of age, sex, estrous state, and different personality factors on chimpanzee problem-solving, we individually tested 36 captive chimpanzees with two novel foraging puzzles. We included both female (N=24) and male (N=12) adult chimpanzees (aged 14-47 years) in our sample. We also controlled for the females' estrous state-a potential influence on cognitive reasoning-by testing cycling females both when their sexual swelling was maximally tumescent (associated with the luteinizing hormone surge of a female's estrous cycle) and again when it was detumescent. Although we found no correlation between the chimpanzees' success with either puzzle and their age or sex, the chimpanzees' personality ratings did correlate with responses to the novel foraging puzzles. Specifically, male chimpanzees that were rated highly on the factors Methodical, Openness (to experience), and Dominance spent longer interacting with the puzzles. There was also a positive relationship between the latency of females to begin interacting with the two tasks and their rating on the factor Reactivity/Undependability. No other significant correlations were found, but we report tentative evidence for increased problem-solving success by the females when they had detumescent estrous swellings.

  1. Wire breakage in SLC wire profile monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Field, C.; McCormick, D.; Raimondi, P.; Ross, M.

    1998-12-10

    Wire-scanning beam profile monitors are used at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) for emittance preservation control and beam optics optimization. Twenty such scanners have proven most useful for this purpose and have performed a total of 1.5 million scans in the 4 to 6 years since their installation. Most of the essential scanners are equipped with 20 to 40 {mu}m tungsten wires. SLC bunch intensities and sizes often exceed 2x10{sup 7}particles/{mu}m{sup 2} (3C/m{sup 2}). We believe that this has caused a number of tungsten wire failures that appear at the ends of the wire, near the wire support points, after a few hundred scans are accumulated. Carbon fibers, also widely used at SLAC (1), have been substituted in several scanners and have performed well. In this paper, we present theories for the wire failure mechanism and techniques learned in reducing the failures.

  2. Wire breakage in SLC wire profile monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Field, C.; McCormick, D.; Raimondi, P.; Ross, M.

    1998-05-01

    Wire scanning beam profile monitors are used at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) for emittance preservation control and beam optics optimization. Twenty such scanners have proven most useful for this purpose and have performed a total of 1.5 million scans in the 4 to 6 years since their installation. Most of the essential scanners are equipped with 20 to 40 {micro}m tungsten wires. SLC bunch intensities and sizes often exceed 2 x 10{sup 7} particles/{micro}m{sup 2} (3C/m{sup 2}). The authors believe that this has caused a number of tungsten wire failures that appear at the ends of the wire, near the wire support points, after a few hundred scans are accumulated. Carbon fibers, also widely used at SLAC, have been substituted in several scanners and have performed well. In this paper, the authors present theories for the wire failure mechanism and techniques learned in reducing the failures.

  3. Internal Wire Guide For Gas/Tungsten-Arc Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E.; Dyer, Gerald E.

    1990-01-01

    Wire kept in shielding gas, preventing oxidation. Guide inside gas cup of gas/tungsten-arc welding torch feeds filler wire to weld pool along line parallel to axis of torch. Eliminates problem of how to place and orient torch to provide clearance for external wire guide.

  4. Active and Healthy Ageing as a Wicked Problem: The Contribution of a Multidisciplinary Research University.

    PubMed

    Riva, Giuseppe; Graffigna, Guendalina; Baitieri, Maddalena; Amato, Alessandra; Bonanomi, Maria Grazia; Valentini, Paolo; Castelli, Guido

    2014-01-01

    The quest for an active and healthy ageing can be considered a "wicked problem." It is a social and cultural problem, which is difficult to solve because of incomplete, changing, and contradictory requirements. These problems are tough to manage because of their social complexity. They are a group of linked problems embedded in the structure of the communities in which they occur. First, they require the knowledge of the social and cultural context in which they occur. They can be solved only by understanding of what people do and why they do it. Second, they require a multidisciplinary approach. Wicked problems can have different solutions, so it is critical to capture the full range of possibilities and interpretations. Thus, we suggest that Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (UCSC) is well suited for accepting and managing this challenge because of its applied research orientation, multidisciplinary approach, and integrated vision. After presenting the research activity of UCSC, we describe a possible "systems thinking" strategy to consider the complexity and interdependence of active ageing and healthy living.

  5. Concealed wire tracing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest.

  6. Early Childhood Precursors and School age Correlates of Different Internalising Problem Trajectories Among Young Children.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Alison; Sweeting, Helen; Wight, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    It is unclear why trajectories of internalising problems vary between groups of young children. This is the first attempt in the United Kingdom to identify and explain different trajectories of internalising problems from 46 to 94 months. Using both mother- and child-reported data from the large Growing Up in Scotland (GUS) birth cohort (N = 2901; male N = 1497, female N = 1404), we applied growth mixture modelling and multivariable multinomial regression models. Three trajectories were identified: low-stable, high-decreasing and medium-increasing. There were no gender differences in trajectory shape, membership, or importance of covariates. Children from both elevated trajectories shared several early risk factors (low income, poor maternal mental health, poor partner relationship, pre-school behaviour problems) and school-age covariates (low mother-child warmth and initial school maladjustment) and reported fewer supportive friendships at 94 months. However, there were also differences in covariates between the two elevated trajectories. Minority ethnic status and pre-school conduct problems were more strongly associated with the high-decreasing trajectory; and covariates measured after school entry (behaviour problems, mother-child conflict and school maladjustment) with the medium-increasing trajectory. This suggests a greater burden of early risk for the high-decreasing trajectory, and that children with moderate early problem levels were more vulnerable to influences after school transition. Our findings largely support the sparse existing international evidence and are strengthened by the use of child-reported data. They highlight the need to identify protective factors for children with moderate, as well as high, levels of internalising problems at pre-school age, but suggest different approaches may be required. PMID:26747450

  7. Wired Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Herb

    1996-01-01

    Examines how the Internet serves the scientific research community. Highlights include collaboration and large group communication via e-mail; USENET discussion groups; advantages of the World Wide Web and software-based simulations; changes in information storage; and benefits and problems of electronic publishing and online journals. (AEF)

  8. Aging and sequential modulations of poorer strategy effects: An EEG study in arithmetic problem solving.

    PubMed

    Hinault, Thomas; Lemaire, Patrick; Phillips, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated age-related differences in electrophysiological signatures of sequential modulations of poorer strategy effects. Sequential modulations of poorer strategy effects refer to decreased poorer strategy effects (i.e., poorer performance when the cued strategy is not the best) on current problem following poorer strategy problems compared to after better strategy problems. Analyses on electrophysiological (EEG) data revealed important age-related changes in time, frequency, and coherence of brain activities underlying sequential modulations of poorer strategy effects. More specifically, sequential modulations of poorer strategy effects were associated with earlier and later time windows (i.e., between 200- and 550 ms and between 850- and 1250 ms). Event-related potentials (ERPs) also revealed an earlier onset in older adults, together with more anterior and less lateralized activations. Furthermore, sequential modulations of poorer strategy effects were associated with theta and alpha frequencies in young adults while these modulations were found in delta frequency and theta inter-hemispheric coherence in older adults, consistent with qualitatively distinct patterns of brain activity. These findings have important implications to further our understanding of age-related differences and similarities in sequential modulations of cognitive control processes during arithmetic strategy execution.

  9. Relationship between age at gonadectomy and health problems in kittens adopted from shelters.

    PubMed

    Porters, N; Polis, I; Moons, C P H; Van de Maele, I; Ducatelle, R; Goethals, K; Duchateau, L; de Rooster, H

    2015-05-30

    Prepubertal gonadectomy (PPG) is promoted as a way of managing overpopulation in cats, but concerns about PPG and potential health issues still exist. The objective of the present study was to evaluate short-term and long-term health problems in cats subjected to PPG in comparison to gonadectomy at traditional age (TAG). In a prospective clinical trial, 800 shelter kittens aged between approximately 8 weeks and 12 weeks were recruited before adoption and randomly assigned to either the PPG group (gonadectomy performed immediately) or the TAG group (gonadectomy delayed until six months to eight months of age). Short-term health issues included mortality between when kittens arrived at the clinic and up to seven days after they returned to the shelter, as well as the occurrence of various other health issues arising in the first month following adoption. Kittens were followed-up until 24 months of age specifically for feline lower urinary tract disease, urethral obstruction (male cats), lameness, fractures and hypersensitivity disorders with dermatological presentation. In the short term, there were no significant differences between health problems in PPG and TAG kittens. Similarly, no significant differences were observed between treatment groups in terms of the type or number of health issues in the long term. In conclusion, there are no health-related contraindications to advocating PPG strategies in shelter cats. Ideally, PPG should be performed at the shelter facility itself as long as excellent infectious disease control and postoperative clinical observation before adoption are guaranteed. PMID:25820324

  10. Foraminiferal faunal estimates of paleotemperature: Circumventing the no-analog problem yields cool ice age tropics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mix, A.C.; Morey, A.E.; Pisias, N.G.; Hostetler, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    The sensitivity of the tropics to climate change, particularly the amplitude of glacial-to-interglacial changes in sea surface temperature (SST), is one of the great controversies in paleoclimatology. Here we reassess faunal estimates of ice age SSTs, focusing on the problem of no-analog planktonic foraminiferal assemblages in the equatorial oceans that confounds both classical transfer function and modern analog methods. A new calibration strategy developed here, which uses past variability of species to define robust faunal assemblages, solves the no-analog problem and reveals ice age cooling of 5??to 6??C in the equatorial current systems of the Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans. Classical transfer functions underestimated temperature changes in some areas of the tropical oceans because core-top assemblages misrepresented the ice age faunal assemblages. Our finding is consistent with some geochemical estimates and model predictions of greater ice age cooling in the tropics than was inferred by Climate: Long-Range Investigation, Mapping, and Prediction (CLIMAP) [1981] and thus may help to resolve a long-standing controversy. Our new foraminiferal transfer function suggests that such cooling was limited to the equatorial current systems, however, and supports CLIMAP's inference of stability of the subtropical gyre centers.

  11. Wire Detection Algorithms for Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasturi, Rangachar; Camps, Octavia I.

    2002-01-01

    In this research we addressed the problem of obstacle detection for low altitude rotorcraft flight. In particular, the problem of detecting thin wires in the presence of image clutter and noise was studied. Wires present a serious hazard to rotorcrafts. Since they are very thin, their detection early enough so that the pilot has enough time to take evasive action is difficult, as their images can be less than one or two pixels wide. Two approaches were explored for this purpose. The first approach involved a technique for sub-pixel edge detection and subsequent post processing, in order to reduce the false alarms. After reviewing the line detection literature, an algorithm for sub-pixel edge detection proposed by Steger was identified as having good potential to solve the considered task. The algorithm was tested using a set of images synthetically generated by combining real outdoor images with computer generated wire images. The performance of the algorithm was evaluated both, at the pixel and the wire levels. It was observed that the algorithm performs well, provided that the wires are not too thin (or distant) and that some post processing is performed to remove false alarms due to clutter. The second approach involved the use of an example-based learning scheme namely, Support Vector Machines. The purpose of this approach was to explore the feasibility of an example-based learning based approach for the task of detecting wires from their images. Support Vector Machines (SVMs) have emerged as a promising pattern classification tool and have been used in various applications. It was found that this approach is not suitable for very thin wires and of course, not suitable at all for sub-pixel thick wires. High dimensionality of the data as such does not present a major problem for SVMs. However it is desirable to have a large number of training examples especially for high dimensional data. The main difficulty in using SVMs (or any other example-based learning

  12. The problem of calibration: A possible way to overcome the drawbacks of age models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, B.; Heitzig, J.; Rehfeld, K.; Marwan, N.; Kurths, J.

    2012-04-01

    Constructing a meaningful age model from a set of radiocarbon age-depth measurements made on a palaeoclimatic archive is the crucial backbone of all proxy-based research carried out thereafter. Significant progress in the development of Monte Carlo based interpolation techniques and Bayesian methods has been made recently, targeting the uncertainties of radiocarbon dating, which then reflect meaningfully as time domain errors in the proxy vs. time relationship. However, one primary limitation of these approaches is the debatable assumption of Gaussianity of the errors in calibrated ages as calibration often results in highly irregular and non-trivial probability distributions of the age for every measurement. Here, we present a method that circumvents this limitation by focussing on the construction of the proxy vs. time relationship rather than emphasising on the estimation of an age-depth relation as the intermediary step. Our method is based on a simple analysis of the involved probabilistic uncertainties and the use of (preferably non-parametric) regression methods that give an estimate of the uncertainty of regression at every point as well. With the appropriate use of Bayes' Theorem we then provide a regression-based estimator for the proxy measurements and compute the respective distribution parameters (such as mean and variance) that quantify the uncertainties of the proxy in the time domain. We verify this method with the help of an artificial data set involving the accumulation history of a simulated core and noisy radiocarbon dating and proxy measurements made on it. To our best knowledge, this is the first method that manages to overcome the fundamental problem of irregular distributions induced by calibration of radiocarbon ages. We feel that this approach shall enable us to look at the problem of dating uncertainties in a new light and open up newer possibilities for studying not only speleothem proxies but, more generally, from other palaeoclimatic

  13. Impact of Inuit customary adoption on behavioral problems in school-age Inuit children

    PubMed Central

    Decaluwe, Béatrice; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Poirier, Marie-Andrée; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Muckle, Gina

    2015-01-01

    A large proportion of Inuit children in Arctic Quebec are adopted in accordance with traditional Inuit customs. In contrast to adoptions in Southern Canada and the USA, the child is adopted at birth and by a close family member; he/she knows who his/her biological parents are, and will typically have contact with them. Studies of other populations have reported an increased incidence of behavior problems in adopted compared with non-adopted children. Objectives This study examined the actual extent of the increase in the number of behavior problems seen in Inuit children adopted in accordance with traditional customs. Methods In a prospective longitudinal study conducted in the Canadian Arctic (n = 46 adopted and 231 non-adopted children), prenatal and familial variables were documented at birth and at school age (M = 11.3 years). Behavior problems were assessed on the Teacher Report Form of the Child Behavior Checklist. Results Adopted children lived in more economically disadvantaged families, but their caregivers were less prone to depression, domestic violence, or alcohol abuse compared with those of the non-adopted children. The adoption status was not related to the teacher’s report of attention problems, externalizing or internalizing behaviors, after controlling for confounders. Conclusion Despite less favorable socioeconomic circumstances, a higher extent of behavioral problems was not seen at school age in Inuit children adopted at birth by a family member. Psychosocial stressors associated with adoption are more likely to be responsible for an association with higher levels of childhood behavior problems rather than adoption per se. PMID:25985112

  14. Cable Bundle Wire Derating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, Ray A.; Leidecker, Henning

    1998-01-01

    The allowable operating currents of electrical wiring when used in the space vacuum environment is predominantly determined by the maximum operating temperature of the wire insulation. For Kapton insulated wire this value is 200 C. Guidelines provided in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Preferred Parts List (PPL) limit the operating current of wire within vacuum to ensure the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded. For 20 AWG wire, these operating parameters are: 3.7 amps per wire, bundle of 15 or more wires, 70 C environment, and vacuum of 10(exp -5) torr or less. To determine the behavior and temperature of electrical wire at different operating conditions, a thermal vacuum test was performed on a representative electrical harness of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power distribution system. This paper describes the test and the results.

  15. Cable Bundle Wire Derating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, Ray A.; Leidecker, Henning

    1999-01-01

    The allowable operating currents of electrical wiring when used in the space vacuum environment is predominantly determined by the maximum operating temperature of the wire insulation. For Kapton insulated wire this value is 200 degree C. Guidelines provided in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Preferred Parts List (PPL) limit the operating current of wire within vacuum to ensure the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded. For 20 AWG wire, these operating parameters are: (1) 3.7 amps per wire (2) bundle of 15 or more wires (3) 70 C environment (4) vacuum of 10(exp -5) torr or less To determine the behavior and temperature of electrical wire at different operating conditions, a thermal vacuum test was performed on a representative electrical harness of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power distribution system. This paper describes the test and the results.

  16. Cable Bundle Wire Derating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, Ray A.; Leidecker, Henning

    1998-01-01

    The allowable operating currents of electrical wiring when used in the space vacuum environment is predominantly determined by the maximum operating temperature of the wire insulation. For Kapton insulated wire this value is 200 C. Guidelines provided in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Preferred Parts List (PPL) limit the operating current of wire within vacuum to ensure the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded. For 20 AWG wire, these operating parameters are: (1) 3.7 amps per wire; (2) bundle of 15 or more wires; (3) 70 C environment: and (4) vacuum of 10(exp -5) torr or less. To determine the behavior and temperature of electrical wire at different operating conditions, a thermal vacuum test was performed on a representative electrical harness of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power distribution system. This paper describes the test and the results.

  17. Wire harness twisting aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casey, E. J.; Commadore, C. C.; Ingles, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Long wire bundles twist into uniform spiral harnesses with help of simple apparatus. Wires pass through spacers and through hand-held tool with hole for each wire. Ends are attached to low speed bench motor. As motor turns, operator moves hand tool away forming smooth twists in wires between motor and tool. Technique produces harnesses that generate less radio-frequency interference than do irregularly twisted cables.

  18. Small for gestational age as a predictor of behavioral and learning problems in twins.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Rosanna; Hay, David; Levy, Florence

    2003-02-01

    The study examines the effects of being born small for gestational age (SGA) on rates of behavioral problems in twins and siblings, utilising data from the Australian Twin Study of disruptive behavior disorders in twins and their siblings. Participants were 3944 twins and their siblings who were assessed at two intervals three years apart. At the first assessment (1991), they ranged between 4 and 12 years of age. Items assessing Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder were based on DSM-III-R criteria (Time 1) and DSM-IV criteria (Time 2). Other measures included history of speech and reading therapy, demographic information and obstetric and neonatal history. Results indicated that both male and female twins, who were extremely growth restricted (small for gestational age up to the third percentile-WGA3) showed more inattention, and poorer speech and reading scores. The effects were greater for males. Male twins who were small for gestation age, up to the 10th percentile, were more likely to have a DSM-IV diagnosis of Inattention. Implications of these results included WGA3 male twins being at a "triple disadvantage" for subsequent behavioral and learning problems, in that being male, being a twin and being small for gestational age are all significant factors. Recommendations are made for early intervention for low birthweight male twins. The study is consistent with recent follow-up studies of very-low-birthweight singletons, indicating male disadvantage in cognitive outcome. While there is some genetic component to SGA, it does constitute a potentially major contribution to common environmental effects that must be considered in twin-based genetic analyses. PMID:12626228

  19. EMF wire code research

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.

    1993-11-01

    This paper examines the results of previous wire code research to determines the relationship with childhood cancer, wire codes and electromagnetic fields. The paper suggests that, in the original Savitz study, biases toward producing a false positive association between high wire codes and childhood cancer were created by the selection procedure.

  20. Chemistry of radiation damage to wire chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, J.

    1992-08-01

    Proportional counters are used to study aspects of radiation damage to wire chambers (wire aging). Principles of low-pressure, rf plasma chemistry are used to predict the plasma chemistry in electron avalanches (1 atm, dc). (1) Aging is studied in CF{sub 4}/iC{sub 4}H{sub 10} gas mixtures. Wire deposits are analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy. An apparent cathode aging process resulting in loss of gain rather than in a self-sustained current is observed in CF{sub 4}-rich gases. A four-part model considering plasma polymerization of the hydrocarbon, etching of wire deposits by CF{sub 4}, acceleration of deposition processes in strongly etching environments, and reactivity of the wire surface is developed to understand anode wire aging in CF{sub 4}/iC{sub 4}H{sub 10} gases. Practical guidelines suggested by the model are discussed. (2) Data are presented to suggest that trace amounts of Freons do not affect aging rates in either dimethyl ether or Ar/C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. Apparent loss of gain is explained by attachment of primary electrons to a continuously increasing concentration of Freon 11 (CCl{sub 3}F) in the counter gas. An increase in the concentration of Freon 11 in dimethyl ether is caused by a distillation process in the gas supply bottle and is a natural consequence of the unequal volatilities of the two compounds.

  1. Wiring Damage Analyses for STS OV-103

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Walter, III

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the Shuttle Program s belief that Space Transportation System (STS) wiring damage occurrences are random, that is, a constant occurrence rate. Using Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA)-derived data for STS Space Shuttle OV-103, wiring damage was observed to increase over the vehicle s life. Causal factors could include wiring physical deterioration, maintenance and inspection induced damage, and inspection process changes resulting in more damage events being reported. Induced damage effects cannot be resolved with existent data. Growth analysis (using Crow-AMSAA, or CA) resolved maintenance/inspection effects (e.g., heightened awareness) on all wire damages and indicated an overall increase since Challenger Return-to-Flight (RTF). An increasing failure or occurrence rate per flight cycle was seen for each wire damage mode; these (individual) rates were not affected by inspection process effects, within statistical error.

  2. Family Emotional Climate and Sibling Relationship Quality: Influences on Behavioral Problems and Adaptation in Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modry-Mandell, Kerri L.; Gamble, Wendy C.; Taylor, Angela R.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the impact of family emotional climate and sibling relationship quality on behavioral problems and adaptation in preschool-aged children. Participants were 63 mothers with a preschool-aged child enrolled in a Southern Arizona Head Start Program. Siblings were identified as children closest in age to target child. Mothers of…

  3. Parental Monitoring Mediates the Effects of Age and Sex on Problem Behaviors among African American Urban Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Maryse H.; Miller, Bobbi Viegas; O'Donnell, Philip C.; Wasserman, Michelle S.; Colder, Craig

    2004-01-01

    Adolescent delinquency, drug use and aggression remain societal concerns. These problems are more common with adolescent boys than girls, and tend to increase with age. Although a lack of parental monitoring has been found to be related to problem behaviors, the mediating role of monitoring on the relationship of sex and grade to problem behaviors…

  4. Developmental Risk and Young Children’s Regulatory Strategies: Predicting Behavior Problems at Age Five

    PubMed Central

    Gerstein, Emily D.; Arbona, Anita Pedersen y; Crnic, Keith A.; Ryu, Ehri; Baker, Bruce L.; Blacher, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Children with early developmental delays are at heightened risk for behavior problems and comorbid psychopathology. This study examined the trajectories of regulatory capabilities and their potentially mediating role in the development of behavior problems for children with and without early developmental delays. A sample of 231 children comprised of 137 typically developing children and 94 children with developmental delays were examined during mildly frustrating laboratory tasks across the preschool period (ages 3–5). Results indicated that children with delays had greater use of maladaptive strategies (distraction, distress venting) and lower use of adaptive strategies (constructive coping) than typically developing children. For both groups, strategies had similar rates of growth across time; maladaptive strategies decreased and adaptive strategies increased. The intercept of strategy use, but not the slope, was found to mediate the relation between developmental risk and externalizing behaviors. Findings support that dysregulation, rather than the developmental risk, may be responsible for the high levels of comorbid psychopathology. PMID:21107675

  5. Large time behavior in a nonlinear age-dependent population dynamics problem with spatial diffusion.

    PubMed

    Langlais, M

    1988-01-01

    In this work we analyze the large time behavior in a nonlinear model of population dynamics with age-dependence and spatial diffusion. We show that when t----+ infinity either the solution of our problem goes to 0 or it stabilizes to a nontrivial stationary solution. We give two typical examples where the stationary solutions can be evaluated upon solving very simple partial differential equations. As a by-product of the extinction case we find a necessary condition for a nontrivial periodic solution to exist. Numerical computations not described below show a rapid stabilization.

  6. Adaptation of Social Problem Solving for Children Questionnaire in 6 Age Groups and its Relationships with Preschool Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dereli-Iman, Esra

    2013-01-01

    Social Problem Solving for Child Scale is frequently used to determine behavioral problems of children with their own word and to identify ways of conflict encountered in daily life, and interpersonal relationships in abroad. The primary purpose of this study was to adapt the Wally Child Social Problem-Solving Detective Game Test. In order to…

  7. NASA requirements and applications environments for electrical power wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stavnes, Mark W.; Hammoud, Ahmad N.

    1992-01-01

    Serious problems can occur from insulation failures in the wiring harnesses of aerospace vehicles. In most recorded incidents, the failures have been identified to be the result of arc tracking, the propagation of an arc along wiring bundles through degradation of insulation. Propagation of the arc can lead to the loss of the entire wiring harness and the functions which it supports. While an extensive database of testing for arc track resistant wire insulations has been developed for aircraft applications, the counterpart requirements for spacecraft are very limited. The electrical, thermal, mechanical, chemical, and operational requirements for specification and testing of candidate wiring systems for spacecraft applications is presented.

  8. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and...

  9. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and...

  10. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires...

  12. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires...

  15. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires...

  18. Lingual straight wire method.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Kyoto; Scuzzo, Giuseppe; Lombardo, L U C A; Takemoto, Y U I

    2009-12-01

    The mushroom arch-wire is mainly used in lingual orthodontic treatment but the complicated wire bending it requires affects both the treatment results and the time spent at the chair. The author proposes a new lingual straight wire method (LSW) in order to facilitate arch coordination and simplify the mechanics. The attention paid to the set-up model and bracket positioning and bonding plus the use of the new LSW method will also improve patient comfort.

  19. Sintered wire annode

    DOEpatents

    Falce, Louis R.; Ives, R. Lawrence

    2007-12-25

    A plurality of high atomic number wires are sintered together to form a porous rod that is parted into porous disks which will be used as x-ray targets. A thermally conductive material is introduced into the pores of the rod, and when a stream of electrons impinges on the sintered wire target and generates x-rays, the heat generated by the impinging x-rays is removed by the thermally conductive material interspersed in the pores of the wires.

  20. Concealed wire tracing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface is disclosed. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest. 4 figs.

  1. Wire-inhomogeneity detector

    DOEpatents

    Gibson, G.H.; Smits, R.G.; Eberhard, P.H.

    1982-08-31

    A device for uncovering imperfections in electrical conducting wire, particularly superconducting wire, by detecting variations in eddy currents. Eddy currents effect the magnetic field in a gap of an inductor, contained in a modified commercial ferrite core, through which the wire being tested is passed. A small increase or decrease in the amount of conductive material, such as copper, in a fixed cross section of wire will unbalance a bridge used to measure the impedance of the inductor, tripping a detector and sounding an alarm.

  2. Anabolic androgenic steroid induced myocardial toxicity: an evolving problem in an ageing population

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Richard D; Weiner, Rory B; Pope, Harrison; Kanayama, Gen; Hutter, Adolph M; Fifer, Michael A; Dec, G William; Baggish, Aaron L

    2011-01-01

    Widespread use of anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse is a rapidly increasing public health concern with an expanding demographic. Previous studies and reports have been exclusive to young individuals at low risk for traditional, non-AAS associated, cardiovascular disease. To date, the impact of AAS use on older patients has not been well characterised. The patient herein presented documents a dramatic case of an older individual who developed decompensated heart failure secondary to illicit use of AAS, highlighting an evolving problem among a rapidly expanding demographic and illustrating that a) AAS, used to alter appearance or augment performance, is no longer an issue confined to young adults; b) older individuals with ageing myocardium may be particularly susceptible to AAS toxicity and may present with fulminate congestive heart failure; and that c) AAS abstinence coupled with traditional heart failure pharmacotherapy may be an effective treatment for this condition. PMID:22688938

  3. Evaluating age differences in coping motives as a mediator of the link between social anxiety symptoms and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Clerkin, Elise M; Werntz, Alexandra J; Magee, Joshua C; Lindgren, Kristen P; Teachman, Bethany A

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate whether coping motives mediate the relationship between self-reported symptoms of social anxiety and alcohol problems across different age groups, building on previous research conducted among emerging adults. This study focuses on adult drinkers, including emerging adults (aged 18-25 years; n = 148), young adults (aged 26-39 years; n = 68), and middle-aged adults (aged 40-65 years; n = 51). All participants completed measures of social anxiety symptoms, alcohol problems, and coping motives, administered via the Web. Invariance tests using structural equation modeling suggested that among emerging adults (and to some degree middle-aged adults), coping motives mediated the positive relationship between symptoms of social anxiety and alcohol problems. Interestingly, coping motives appeared to suppress a negative relationship between social anxiety and alcohol problems in young adults. Results suggest that it is critical to consider age differences when attempting to understand the relationships between symptoms of social anxiety, alcohol problems, and coping motives. PMID:24841182

  4. 1998 wire development workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development.

  5. LANSCE wire scanning diagnostics device mechanical design

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is one of the major experimental science facilities at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The core of LANSCE's work lies in the operation of a powerful linear accelerator, which accelerates protons up to 84% the speed oflight. These protons are used for a variety of purposes, including materials testing, weapons research and isotopes production. To assist in guiding the proton beam, a series of over one hundred wire scanners are used to measure the beam profile at various locations along the half-mile length of the particle accelerator. A wire scanner is an electro-mechanical device that moves a set of wires through a particle beam and measures the secondary emissions from the resulting beam-wire interaction to obtain beam intensity information. When supplemented with data from a position sensor, this information is used to determine the cross-sectional profile of the beam. This measurement allows beam operators to adjust parameters such as acceleration, beam steering, and focus to ensure that the beam reaches its destination as effectively as possible. Some of the current wire scanners are nearly forty years old and are becoming obsolete. The problem with current wire scanners comes in the difficulty of maintenance and reliability. The designs of these wire scanners vary making it difficult to keep spare parts that would work on all designs. Also many of the components are custom built or out-dated technology and are no longer in production.

  6. VIEW SOUTHEASTBUILDING 4 NO. 1 WIRE MILL (1871) WIRE DRAWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTHEAST-BUILDING 4 NO. 1 WIRE MILL (1871) WIRE DRAWING MACHINE - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  7. Sleep, Cognition, and Behavioral Problems in School-Age Children: A Century of Research Meta-Analyzed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astill, Rebecca G.; Van der Heijden, Kristiaan B.; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.

    2012-01-01

    Clear associations of sleep, cognitive performance, and behavioral problems have been demonstrated in meta-analyses of studies in adults. This meta-analysis is the first to systematically summarize all relevant studies reporting on sleep, cognition, and behavioral problems in healthy school-age children (5-12 years old) and incorporates 86 studies…

  8. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction

  9. Heat Transfer Analysis in Wire Bundles for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, S. L.; Iamello, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Design of wiring for aerospace vehicles relies on an understanding of "ampacity" which refers to the current carrying capacity of wires, either, individually or in wire bundles. Designers rely on standards to derate allowable current flow to prevent exceedance of wire temperature limits due to resistive heat dissipation within the wires or wire bundles. These standards often add considerable margin and are based on empirical data. Commercial providers are taking an aggressive approach to wire sizing which challenges the conventional wisdom of the established standards. Thermal modelling of wire bundles may offer significant mass reduction in a system if the technique can be generalized to produce reliable temperature predictions for arbitrary bundle configurations. Thermal analysis has been applied to the problem of wire bundles wherein any or all of the wires within the bundle may carry current. Wire bundles present analytical challenges because the heat transfer path from conductors internal to the bundle is tortuous, relying on internal radiation and thermal interface conductance to move the heat from within the bundle to the external jacket where it can be carried away by convective and radiative heat transfer. The problem is further complicated by the dependence of wire electrical resistivity on temperature. Reduced heat transfer out of the bundle leads to higher conductor temperatures and, hence, increased resistive heat dissipation. Development of a generalized wire bundle thermal model is presented and compared with test data. The steady state heat balance for a single wire is derived and extended to the bundle configuration. The generalized model includes the effects of temperature varying resistance, internal radiation and thermal interface conductance, external radiation and temperature varying convective relief from the free surface. The sensitivity of the response to uncertainties in key model parameters is explored using Monte Carlo analysis.

  10. An advanced arc track resistant airframe wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beatty, J.

    1995-11-01

    Tensolite, a custom cable manufacturer specializing in high temperature materials as the dielectric medium, develops an advance arc track resistant airframe wire called Tufflite 2000. Tufflite 2000 has the following advantages over the other traditional wires: lighter weight and smaller in diameter; excellent wet and dry arc track resistance; superior dynamic cut-through performance even at elevated temperatures; flight proven performance on Boeing 737 and 757 airplanes; and true 260 C performance by utilizing Nickel plated copper conductors. This paper reports the different tests performed on Tufflite 2000: accelerated aging, arc resistance (wet and dry), dynamic cut through, humidity resistance, wire-to-wire abrasion, flammability, smoke, weight, notch sensitivity, flexibility, and markability. It particularly focuses on the BSI (British Standards Institute) dry arc resistance test and BSI wet arc tracking.

  11. An advanced arc track resistant airframe wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beatty, J.

    1995-01-01

    Tensolite, a custom cable manufacturer specializing in high temperature materials as the dielectric medium, develops an advance arc track resistant airframe wire called Tufflite 2000. Tufflite 2000 has the following advantages over the other traditional wires: lighter weight and smaller in diameter; excellent wet and dry arc track resistance; superior dynamic cut-through performance even at elevated temperatures; flight proven performance on Boeing 737 and 757 airplanes; and true 260 C performance by utilizing Nickel plated copper conductors. This paper reports the different tests performed on Tufflite 2000: accelerated aging, arc resistance (wet and dry), dynamic cut through, humidity resistance, wire-to-wire abrasion, flammability, smoke, weight, notch sensitivity, flexibility, and markability. It particularly focuses on the BSI (British Standards Institute) dry arc resistance test and BSI wet arc tracking.

  12. Commercial and Industrial Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

    This module is the third in a series of three wiring publications, includes additional technical knowledge and applications required for job entry in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. The module contains 15 instructional units that cover the following topics: blueprint reading and load calculations; tools and equipment; service;…

  13. 2016 MOST WIRED.

    PubMed

    Barr, Paul; Butcher, Lola; Hoppszallern, Suzanna

    2016-07-01

    This year's IT survey shows that hospitals are aggressively fighting cyber crime and looking for ways to use data to help in the transition to value-based care. Find out who made the 2016 lists of Most Wired, Most Advanced, Most Improved and Most Wired-Small and Rural. PMID:27526506

  14. 2016 MOST WIRED.

    PubMed

    Barr, Paul; Butcher, Lola; Hoppszallern, Suzanna

    2016-07-01

    This year's IT survey shows that hospitals are aggressively fighting cyber crime and looking for ways to use data to help in the transition to value-based care. Find out who made the 2016 lists of Most Wired, Most Advanced, Most Improved and Most Wired-Small and Rural.

  15. Characteristics of problem gamblers 56 years of age or older: a statewide study of casino self-excluders.

    PubMed

    Nower, Lia; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2008-09-01

    Gambling among older adults appears to be increasing, though little is known about the characteristics of older adult problem gamblers. The purpose of this study was to compare older adults to younger and middle-aged adults in a cohort of problem gamblers participating in a state-administered casino self-exclusion program. Self-reported problem gamblers (N = 1,601) who voluntary banned themselves from Missouri casinos from 2001 to 2003 were categorized by age as younger adults (ages 21 to 35; n = 490), middle-aged adults (ages 36 to 55; n = 950), and older adults (ages 56 to 79; n = 161), and were compared with respect to demographic variables, gambling participation, and reasons for self-exclusion. Older adult self-excluders typically began gambling in midlife, experienced gambling problems around age 60, reported preferences for nonstrategic forms of gambling, and identified fear of suicide as the primary reason for self-excluding. Implications for intervention, prevention and treatment are discussed.

  16. Preterm birth and behaviour problems in infants and preschool-age children: a review of the recent literature.

    PubMed

    Arpi, Elena; Ferrari, Fabrizio

    2013-09-01

    The behaviour problems of children born preterm at school age are well known, but there have been few studies on the behaviour problems of preterm-born infants during infancy and at preschool age. Fourteen cohort studies published in PubMed and PsycINFO between 2000 and 2012 were reviewed with a focus on the type, occurrence, comorbidity, stability, prediction, perinatal, social, and relational risk factors for behaviour problems of preterm-born children in infancy (0-2y) and at preschool age (3-5y). The relational risk factor was considered in an additional four papers. Very-preterm, very-low-birthweight, and moderately-preterm children, in both age groups, show more behaviour problems than term-born comparison children even after perinatal and social risk factors and cognitive performance have been controlled for. Poor social/interactive skills, poor behavioural and emotional self-regulation, emotional difficulties, and reduced attention are the most common behaviour problems. Behaviour problems in infancy are predictive of later behaviour problems and they should be included in follow-up programmes.

  17. Water Desalination with Wires.

    PubMed

    Porada, S; Sales, B B; Hamelers, H V M; Biesheuvel, P M

    2012-06-21

    We show the significant potential of water desalination using a novel capacitive wire-based technology in which anode/cathode wire pairs are constructed from coating a thin porous carbon electrode layer on top of electrically conducting rods (or wires). By alternately dipping an array of electrode pairs in freshwater with and in brine without an applied cell voltage, we create an ion adsorption/desorption cycle. We show experimentally how in six subsequent cycles we can reduce the salinity of 20 mM feed (brackish) water by a factor of 3, while application of a cation exchange membrane on the cathode wires makes the desalination factor increase to 4. Theoretical modeling rationalizes the experimental findings, and predicts that system performance can be significantly enhanced by material modifications. To treat large volumes of water, multiple stacks of wire pairs can be used simultaneously in a "merry-go-round" operational mode.

  18. International space station wire program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd

    1995-01-01

    Hardware provider wire systems and current wire insulation issues for the International Space Station (ISS) program are discussed in this viewgraph presentation. Wire insulation issues include silicone wire contamination, Tefzel cold temperature flexibility, and Russian polyimide wire insulation. ISS is a complex program with hardware developed and managed by many countries and hundreds of contractors. Most of the obvious wire insulation issues are known by contractors and have been precluded by proper selection.

  19. Nature of Motor Imitation Problems in School-Aged Boys with Autism: A Motor or a Cognitive Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanvuchelen, Marleen; Roeyers, Herbert; De Weerdt, Willy

    2007-01-01

    This case-control study explores the underlying mechanisms of imitation problems in boys with autism by manipulating imitation task variables and by correlating imitation performance with competence on general motor tests (Movement Assessment Battery for Children and Peabody Developmental Motor Scales). Fifty-five boys participated in this study:…

  20. The Origins of Mental Toughness – Prosocial Behavior and Low Internalizing and Externalizing Problems at Age 5 Predict Higher Mental Toughness Scores at Age 14

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Hatzinger, Martin; Gerber, Markus; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J.; Perren, Sonja; von Klitzing, Kay; von Wyl, Agnes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background: The concept of mental toughness (MT) has gained increasing importance among groups other than elite athletes by virtue of its psychological importance and explanatory power for a broad range of health-related behaviors. However, no study has focused so far on the psychological origins of MT. Therefore, the aims of the present study were: to explore, to what extent the psychological profiles of preschoolers aged five were associated with both (1) MT scores and (2) sleep disturbances at age 14, and 3) to explore possible gender differences. Method: Nine years after their first assessment at age five (preschoolers), a total of 77 adolescents (mean age: 14.35 years; SD = 1.22; 42% females) took part in this follow-up study. At baseline, both parents and teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), covering internalizing and externalizing problems, hyperactivity, negative peer relationships, and prosocial behavior. At follow-up, participants completed a booklet of questionnaires covering socio-demographic data, MT, and sleep disturbances. Results: Higher prosocial behavior, lower negative peer relationships, and lower internalizing and externalizing problems at age five, as rated by parents and teachers, were associated with self-reported higher MT and lower sleep disturbances at age 14. At age 14, and relative to males, females had lower MT scores and reported more sleep disturbances. Conclusion: The pattern of results suggests that MT traits during adolescence may have their origins in the pre-school years. PMID:27605919

  1. The Origins of Mental Toughness – Prosocial Behavior and Low Internalizing and Externalizing Problems at Age 5 Predict Higher Mental Toughness Scores at Age 14

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Hatzinger, Martin; Gerber, Markus; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J.; Perren, Sonja; von Klitzing, Kay; von Wyl, Agnes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background: The concept of mental toughness (MT) has gained increasing importance among groups other than elite athletes by virtue of its psychological importance and explanatory power for a broad range of health-related behaviors. However, no study has focused so far on the psychological origins of MT. Therefore, the aims of the present study were: to explore, to what extent the psychological profiles of preschoolers aged five were associated with both (1) MT scores and (2) sleep disturbances at age 14, and 3) to explore possible gender differences. Method: Nine years after their first assessment at age five (preschoolers), a total of 77 adolescents (mean age: 14.35 years; SD = 1.22; 42% females) took part in this follow-up study. At baseline, both parents and teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), covering internalizing and externalizing problems, hyperactivity, negative peer relationships, and prosocial behavior. At follow-up, participants completed a booklet of questionnaires covering socio-demographic data, MT, and sleep disturbances. Results: Higher prosocial behavior, lower negative peer relationships, and lower internalizing and externalizing problems at age five, as rated by parents and teachers, were associated with self-reported higher MT and lower sleep disturbances at age 14. At age 14, and relative to males, females had lower MT scores and reported more sleep disturbances. Conclusion: The pattern of results suggests that MT traits during adolescence may have their origins in the pre-school years.

  2. Wire tension versus wire frequency: an experimental Ilizarov frame study.

    PubMed

    La Russa, Valentina; Skallerud, Bjørn; Klaksvik, Jomar; Foss, Olav A

    2010-08-26

    Stability of an Ilizarov frame highly depends on maintenance of adequate tension in the wires. Wire tension should be measured accurately in experimental laboratory studies when new types of wire fixators are tested. In this study, 20 wires were tested using two different wire fixators. The wires were sequentially tensioned from 0 to 1275 N in 50 N intervals. For each tension value, corresponding vibration frequency was recorded. We then described the relationship between wire tension and wire vibration frequency in an empirical equation (R(2)=99.8). Wire vibration frequency can also be described theoretically by the Euler-Bernoulli equation for a thin beam. Theoretical frequencies were calculated and compared with corresponding experimental frequencies. A close agreement was found (95% limits of agreement, +/-3.2 Hz). This empirical equation represents a simple tool, applicable when investigating the effect of new wire fixators, pre-tensioning and frame constructions on wire tension. PMID:20472242

  3. Age and Gender Differences in the Well-Being of Midlife and Aging Parents with Children with Mental Health or Developmental Problems: Report of a National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Jung-Hwa; Hong, Jinkuk; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the Study of Midlife in the United States (MIDUS), this article examines: (1) the effect of having children with developmental or mental health problems on parents mental and physical health, (2) the extent to which this effect varies by parental age and gender, and (3) the effects of disability-related factors on the well-being of…

  4. Detectors Ensure Function, Safety of Aircraft Wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    Pedro Medelius waited patiently in his lab at Kennedy Space Center. He had just received word that a colleague was bringing over a cable from a Space Shuttle solid rocket booster to test Medelius new invention. Medelius was calm until his colleague arrived, with about 30 other people. "Talk about testing under pressure," says Medelius. "There were people there from the Navy, the Air Force, and the Federal Aviation Administration." After the group s arrival, Medelius took a deep breath and connected his Standing Wave Reflectometer (SWR) to the cable. He wiggled the cable around, and the display showed a fault (a short or open circuit in wire) about an inch and a half inside the connector on the cable. His colleague questioned the results, because he had already checked that area on the cable. Medelius used the SWR to check again but got the same result. "That is when we took the cable apart and looked inside," Medelius says. "Lo and behold, that was exactly where the fault was." The impetus for Medelius new wire inspection technology came about in 1999 when one of the space shuttles lost power due to a fault somewhere in its more than 200 miles of electrical wiring. "The backup circuit was activated and prevented a major dysfunction, but nevertheless, there was a problem with the wiring," Medelius describes. Even though technicians used a device called a multimeter to measure the electrical current to find which wire had a fault, it could not pinpoint exactly where on the wire the fault was located. For that, technicians had to visually inspect the wire. "Sometimes they would have to remove the whole wire assembly and visually inspect every single wire. It was a very tedious operation because the wires are behind cabinets. They go all over the place in the shuttle," says Medelius. "NASA needed an instrument capable of telling them exactly where the faults were occurring." To meet NASA s needs for a highly precise device to inspect electrical power bundles, wires

  5. Wire scanner software and firmware issues

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, John Doug

    2008-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center facility presently has 110 slow wire scanning profile measurement instruments located along its various beam lines. These wire scanners were developed and have been operating for at least 30 years. While the wire scanners solved many problems to operate and have served the facility well they have increasingly suffered from several problems or limitations, such as maintenance and reliability problems, antiquated components, slow data acquisition, and etc. In order to refurbish these devices, these wire scanners will be replaced with newer versions. The replacement will consist of a completely new beam line actuator, new cables, new electronics and brand new software and firmware. This note describes the functions and modes of operation that LabVIEW VI software on the real time controller and FPGA LabVIEW firmware will be required. It will be especially interesting to understand the overall architecture of these LabVIEW VIs. While this note will endeavor to describe all of the requirements and issues for the wire scanners, undoubtedly, there will be missing details that will be added as time progresses.

  6. Premelting of thin wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gülseren, O.; Ercolessi, F.; Tosatti, E.

    1995-03-01

    We have investigated the melting behavior of thin lead wires using molecular dynamics. We find that-in analogy with cluster melting-the melting temperature Tm(R) of a wire with radius R is lower than that of a bulk solid Tbm by Tm(R)=Tbm-c/R. Surface melting effects, with formation of a thin skin of highly diffusive atoms at the wire surface, are observed. The diffusivity is lower over (111)-oriented faces, and higher at (110) and (100) rounded areas. The possible relevance to recent results on nonrupturing thin necks between a scanning tunnel microscope tip and a warm surface is addressed.

  7. Needleless electrospinning with twisted wire spinneret

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holopainen, Jani; Penttinen, Toni; Santala, Eero; Ritala, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    A needleless electrospinning setup named ‘Needleless Twisted Wire Electrospinning’ was developed. The polymer solution is electrospun from the surface of a twisted wire set to a high voltage and collected on a cylindrical collector around the wire. Multiple Taylor cones are simultaneously self-formed on the downward flowing solution. The system is robust and simple with no moving parts aside from the syringe pump used to transport the solution to the top of the wire. The structure and process parameters of the setup and the results on the preparation of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), hydroxyapatite (HA) and bioglass fibers with the setup are presented. PVP fiber sheets with areas of 40 × 120 cm2 and masses up to 1.15 g were prepared. High production rates of 5.23 g h-1 and 1.40 g h-1 were achieved for PVP and HA respectively. The major limiting factor of the setup is drying of the polymer solution on the wire during the electrospinning process which will eventually force to interrupt the process for cleaning of the wire. Possible solutions to this problem and other ways to develop the setup are discussed. The presented system provides a simple way to increase the production rate and area of fiber sheet as compared with the conventional needle electrospinning.

  8. Needleless electrospinning with twisted wire spinneret.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Jani; Penttinen, Toni; Santala, Eero; Ritala, Mikko

    2015-01-16

    A needleless electrospinning setup named 'Needleless Twisted Wire Electrospinning' was developed. The polymer solution is electrospun from the surface of a twisted wire set to a high voltage and collected on a cylindrical collector around the wire. Multiple Taylor cones are simultaneously self-formed on the downward flowing solution. The system is robust and simple with no moving parts aside from the syringe pump used to transport the solution to the top of the wire. The structure and process parameters of the setup and the results on the preparation of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), hydroxyapatite (HA) and bioglass fibers with the setup are presented. PVP fiber sheets with areas of 40 × 120 cm(2) and masses up to 1.15 g were prepared. High production rates of 5.23 g h(-1) and 1.40 g h(-1) were achieved for PVP and HA respectively. The major limiting factor of the setup is drying of the polymer solution on the wire during the electrospinning process which will eventually force to interrupt the process for cleaning of the wire. Possible solutions to this problem and other ways to develop the setup are discussed. The presented system provides a simple way to increase the production rate and area of fiber sheet as compared with the conventional needle electrospinning.

  9. Everyday challenges in context: the influence of contextual factors on everyday problem solving among young, middle-aged, and older adults.

    PubMed

    Artistico, Daniele; Orom, Heather; Cervone, Daniel; Krauss, Stephen; Houston, Eric

    2010-04-01

    The authors examined the experimental effects of social context on everyday problem-solving performance by older, middle-aged, and younger adults. Participants were presented with six everyday problems constructed by framing two behavioral challenges in social contexts representative of the lives of older, middle-aged, and younger adults. As predicted, participants performed best when problems were situated in contexts representative of their own age group. Older adults also outperformed the other age groups on problems set in older adult contexts, suggesting that when problems are set in ecologically relevant contexts, one may not observe previously reported age-related declines in performance.

  10. Adaptive Elements of Aging: Self-Image Discrepancy, Perfectionism, and Eating Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landa, Carrie E.; Bybee, Jane A.

    2007-01-01

    Age-related changes in personality variables that may contribute to the reduction of symptoms of eating disorders with adult development were examined. Undergraduate sorority women (n = 52; mean age = 19.85 years) were compared with alumnae of the same sorority (n = 34; mean age = 33.74 years). Eating pathology was correlated with greater…

  11. Preparing Teachers, Students and Citizens To Deal Constructively with the Problems and Potentialities of Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althoff, Sally A.

    This monograph offers information, suggestions, and proposals to teachers, students, and citizens to increase their understanding of the aging process in both its physical and psychosociological aspects. Part I, What Is Aging? examines various aspects of aging, some of its major characteristics, and what it is like to grow old in the U.S. today.…

  12. Ensuring Wire Alignment for the New COMPASS Drift Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cromis, Megan; Compass Dc5 Team

    2014-09-01

    COMPASS is a fixed-target experiment at CERN investigating the internal structure of the proton. Polarized Drell-Yan measurements at COMPASS will explore how the quark orbital angular momentum contributes to the spin of the proton. To enable this measurement, several straw tube chambers need to be replaced due to long term wear. One of the replacement chambers, drift chamber DC5, is being built at Old Dominion University based on a prototype from UIUC and existing COMPASS drift chambers. DC5 consists of 4 wire planes with 513 wires (256 [20 μm] sense wires and 257 [100 μm] field wires alternating) and 4 wire planes at a 10 degree offset with 641 wires each. Each of these 4616 wires need to be aligned within either 100 μm (sense wire) or 200 μm (field wire) of the center of the solder pad to ensure the accuracy of the drift chamber. Problems that arose during stringing include initial alignment of the wire and efficient soldering techniques. Also, because the field wires charged at -1750 volts will be 4 mm from the sense wires, there should be no gaps or points in the solder to prevent arcing. This poster will discuss the alignment techniques, soldering methods, testing, and repair process for the wires. COMPASS is a fixed-target experiment at CERN investigating the internal structure of the proton. Polarized Drell-Yan measurements at COMPASS will explore how the quark orbital angular momentum contributes to the spin of the proton. To enable this measurement, several straw tube chambers need to be replaced due to long term wear. One of the replacement chambers, drift chamber DC5, is being built at Old Dominion University based on a prototype from UIUC and existing COMPASS drift chambers. DC5 consists of 4 wire planes with 513 wires (256 [20 μm] sense wires and 257 [100 μm] field wires alternating) and 4 wire planes at a 10 degree offset with 641 wires each. Each of these 4616 wires need to be aligned within either 100 μm (sense wire) or 200 μm (field wire

  13. Pre-Adoption Adversity, Maternal Stress, and Behavior Problems at School-Age in International Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon-Oosterwaal, Noemi; Cossette, Louise; Smolla, Nicole; Pomerleau, Andree; Malcuit, Gerard; Chicoine, Jean-Francois; Belhumeur, Celine; Jeliu, Gloria; Begin, Jean; Seguin, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Internationally adopted children present more behavior problems than non-adopted children and are overrepresented in mental health services. These problems are related to children's pre-adoption environment, but adoptive families' functioning and characteristics may also affect the development of behavior problems in adopted children. The aim of…

  14. [Light pollution, desynchronosis and aging: the state of problem and solutions].

    PubMed

    Vinogradova, I A; Iliukha, V A; Khizhkin, E A; Uzenbaeva, L B; Il'ina, T N; Bukalev, A V; Goranskiĭ, A I; Matveeva, Iu P; Iunash, V D; Lotosh, T A

    2014-01-01

    The effect of different light conditions (constant illumination, light deprivation, the standard regime of lighting and natural for Northwest Russia lighting in different seasons of the annual cycle) on indicators of biological age and homeostasis, the development of age-related pathology, oncogenesis and longevity of rats was investigated. Exposure to constant light on the studied parameters was evaluated at different ages--antenatal, early and late postnatal period. The data about influences of substances and hormones of pineal gland on biomarkers of aging, homeostasis, spontaneous oncogenesis and longevity in experimental animals was obtained. It has been established that the light pollution and disturbance of photoperiod lead to desynchronosys and as a result to premature aging of the organism and age associated diseases. Ways of preventing accelerated aging were outlined.

  15. [Light pollution, desynchronosis and aging: the state of problem and solutions].

    PubMed

    Vinogradova, I A; Iliukha, V A; Khizhkin, E A; Uzenbaeva, L B; Il'ina, T N; Bukalev, A V; Goranskiĭ, A I; Matveeva, Iu P; Iunash, V D; Lotosh, T A

    2014-01-01

    The effect of different light conditions (constant illumination, light deprivation, the standard regime of lighting and natural for Northwest Russia lighting in different seasons of the annual cycle) on indicators of biological age and homeostasis, the development of age-related pathology, oncogenesis and longevity of rats was investigated. Exposure to constant light on the studied parameters was evaluated at different ages--antenatal, early and late postnatal period. The data about influences of substances and hormones of pineal gland on biomarkers of aging, homeostasis, spontaneous oncogenesis and longevity in experimental animals was obtained. It has been established that the light pollution and disturbance of photoperiod lead to desynchronosys and as a result to premature aging of the organism and age associated diseases. Ways of preventing accelerated aging were outlined. PMID:25306657

  16. Splicing Wires Permanently With Explosives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Kushnick, Anne C.

    1990-01-01

    Explosive joining process developed to splice wires by enclosing and metallurgically bonding wires within copper sheets. Joints exhibit many desirable characteristics, 100-percent conductivity and strength, no heat-induced annealing, no susceptibility to corrosion in contacts between dissimilar metals, and stability at high temperature. Used to join wires to terminals, as well as to splice wires. Applicable to telecommunications industry, in which millions of small wires spliced annually.

  17. Body of Knowledge (BOK) for Copper Wire Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutkowski, E.; Sampson, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Copper wire bonds have replaced gold wire bonds in the majority of commercial semiconductor devices for the latest technology nodes. Although economics has been the driving mechanism to lower semiconductor packaging costs for a savings of about 20% by replacing gold wire bonds with copper, copper also has materials property advantages over gold. When compared to gold, copper has approximately: 25% lower electrical resistivity, 30% higher thermal conductivity, 75% higher tensile strength and 45% higher modulus of elasticity. Copper wire bonds on aluminum bond pads are also more mechanically robust over time and elevated temperature due to the slower intermetallic formation rate - approximately 1/100th that of the gold to aluminum intermetallic formation rate. However, there are significant tradeoffs with copper wire bonding - copper has twice the hardness of gold which results in a narrower bonding manufacturing process window and requires that the semiconductor companies design more mechanically rigid bonding pads to prevent cratering to both the bond pad and underlying chip structure. Furthermore, copper is significantly more prone to corrosion issues. The semiconductor packaging industry has responded to this corrosion concern by creating a palladium coated copper bonding wire, which is more corrosion resistant than pure copper bonding wire. Also, the selection of the device molding compound is critical because use of environmentally friendly green compounds can result in internal CTE (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion) mismatches with the copper wire bonds that can eventually lead to device failures during thermal cycling. Despite the difficult problems associated with the changeover to copper bonding wire, there are billions of copper wire bonded devices delivered annually to customers. It is noteworthy that Texas Instruments announced in October of 2014 that they are shipping microcircuits containing copper wire bonds for safety critical automotive applications

  18. Community "San Gregorio." A Christian Educative Response to the Problem of Drug Abuse in Youth Aged 12-18 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamus, Jose Antonio Lopez; Sarmiento, Albeiro Saldana

    This pamphlet describes the "San Gregorio" pilot program in Latin America, the first of its type on the continent as a program specifically for adolescent drug addicts. The Christian educative program is designed for males 12-18 years of age, who are addicted to psycho-active substances and evidence serious behavioral problems. It is also aimed at…

  19. Gender Differences in the Relationship between Attention Problems and Expressive Language and Emerging Academic Skills in Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zevenbergen, Andrea A.; Ryan, Meghan M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between attention problems and expressive language and academic readiness skills in preschool-aged children from middle-class families. Forty-three children (44% female) were assessed individually for expressive language skills and knowledge of basic academic concepts (e.g. colours, letters and numbers). The…

  20. Social and Ethical Dimension of the Natural Sciences, Complex Problems of the Age, Interdisciplinarity, and the Contribution of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Develaki, Maria

    2008-01-01

    In view of the complex problems of this age, the question of the socio-ethical dimension of science acquires particular importance. We approach this matter from a philosophical and sociological standpoint, looking at such focal concerns as the motivation, purposes and methods of scientific activity, the ambivalence of scientific research and the…

  1. Anxiety as a Predictor of Age at First Use of Substances and Progression to Substance Use Problems among Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmorstein, Naomi R.; White, Helene Raskin; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations of generalized and social anxiety with (1) age at first use of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana and (2) interval from first use to first problem use of each substance. Participants were 503 males who comprised the youngest cohort (first assessed in the first grade) of the Pittsburgh Youth Study, a longitudinal…

  2. Age Related Differences of Executive Functioning Problems in Everyday Life of Children and Adolescents in the Autism Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Bergh, Sanne F. W. M.; Scheeren, Anke M.; Begeer, Sander; Koot, Hans M.; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies investigated executive functioning (EF) problems in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) using laboratory EF tasks. As laboratory task performances often differ from real life observations, the current study focused on EF in everyday life of 118 children and adolescents with ASD (6-18 years). We investigated age-related and…

  3. Severe Feeding Problems Secondary to Anatomical Disorders: Effectiveness of Behavioural Treatment in Three School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Moor, Jan; Didden, Robert; Tolboom, Jules

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, behavioural treatment is described of three school-aged children with severe feeding problems caused by (surgically corrected) anatomical disorders of the digestive system. Two children showed food refusal and were tube-fed whereas the third child showed extreme food selectivity. During treatment, shaping, (non)verbal…

  4. Risk Factors for Learning-Related Behavior Problems at 24 Months of Age: Population-Based Estimates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Maczuga, Steven

    2009-01-01

    We used a large sample of singleton children to estimate the effects of socioeconomic status (SES), race/ethnicity, gender, additional socio-demographics, gestational and birth factors, and parenting on children's risk for learning-related behavior problems at 24 months of age. We investigated to what extent these factors increased a child's risk…

  5. Neuroculture, active ageing and the 'older brain': problems, promises and prospects.

    PubMed

    Williams, Simon J; Higgs, Paul; Katz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the characteristics of a newly emergent 'neuroculture' and its relationship to cultures of ageing; in particular, the social meanings associated with 'active ageing' and 'cognitive health' and the discourses and sciences around memory and the 'ageing brain'. The argument proposes a critical perspective on this relationship by looking at the shifting boundaries between standards of normality and abnormality, values of health and illness, practices of therapy and enhancement, and the lines demarcating Third Age (healthy, active and agentic) and Fourth Age (dependency, loss and decline) periods of ageing. Conclusions offer further reflections on the complex questions that arise regarding expectations, hopes and ethics in relation to the promises and perils of a neurocultural future.

  6. Excessive crying at 3 months of age and behavioural problems at 4 years age: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Iná S; Matijasevich, Alicia; Capilheira, Marcelo F; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Fernando C

    2015-01-01

    Background Excessive crying in early infancy has been associated with behavioural problems among preschool children from high income countries but studies in low income and middle income countries are scarce. Methods The 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort is a population-based study planned to enrol all live births occurring in Pelotas that year and comprises 4231 children who so far have been followed up at 3, 12, 24, 48 and 72 months of age. Several familial, maternal and child characteristics were gathered in every follow-up. At the 3-month follow-up, infants whose mothers perceived them as crying more than others of the same age were classified as ‘crying babies’. Child behavioural problems were assessed through the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) applied to the mother at the 48-month follow-up. Crude and adjusted ORs with 95% CIs were calculated by logistic regression. Results Prevalence of excessive crying at 3 months was 11.9% (10.9% to 13.0%). Among children with excessive crying at 3 months the proportion in the clinical range for CBCL total, internalising and externalising problems at 4 years of age was 31.2%, 12.9% and 37.5%, respectively, against 20.6%, 6.8% and 29.6%, respectively, among non-crying babies. After controlling for confounders crying babies presented increased risk of being in clinical range of CBCL total (OR=1.34; 1.03 to 1.74), internalising (OR=1.55; 1.09 to 2.21) and externalising problems (OR=1.29; 1.01 to 1.64) than infants without excessive crying. Conclusions Excessive crying in early infancy may represent one important risk factor for developing behavioural problems in later phases of early childhood. PMID:25700531

  7. Inter-individual and age differences in exploration, neophobia and problem-solving ability in a Neotropical raptor (Milvago chimango).

    PubMed

    Biondi, Laura Marina; Bó, María Susana; Vassallo, Aldo Iván

    2010-09-01

    Animal innovations have far-reaching ecological and evolutionary consequences. The occurrence and persistence of an innovation require several processes, including exploration, social and asocial learning, and low neophobia. In addition, the identity of the innovator may determine how these new behaviours are socially transmitted. Taking into account inter-individual and age differences, we investigated three correlates of animal innovation: object exploration, neophobia level and novel problem-solving ability in an opportunistic generalist raptor, the Chimango Caracara (Milvago chimango). Eighteen individuals (7 adults and 11 juveniles) were caught during the non-breeding period and housed in individual cages in outdoor aviaries. Each bird was given three tests: exploration, neophobia and problem-solving. Individuals differed in their response to novel situations both within and between age groups. Most of the juveniles were more explorative and had a lower neophobic response to a strange object than adult birds, but both age groups were able to solve a novel problem when given a food reward. In juveniles, neophobia level and problem-solving performance were inversely related; however, we found no relationship between these behaviours in adults. Exploration did not correlate with neophobia or problem-solving ability for either age group. This research is one of the few studies exploring the inter-individual and age differences in behavioural innovation and their correlates in a bird of prey. The explorative tendency, low neophobia and ability to innovate showed by M. chimango may be advantageous for this generalist and opportunistic raptor and might be some of the factors underlying its ecological success.

  8. ESTEC wiring test programme materials related properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judd, M. D.

    1994-01-01

    Electrical wires are considered as EEE parts and are covered within the ESA SCC specification series (ESA SCC 3901/XXX). This specification defines the principal properties of the wires including insulation/lay-up and electrical properties. Some additional space related materials requirements are also included, requirements such as outgassing and silver plating thickness. If a project has additional materials requirements over and above those covered by the relevant SCC specification, then additional testing is required. This is especially true for crewed spacecraft. The following topics are discussed in this context: additional requirements for manned spacecraft; flammability; arc tracking; thermal decomposition; microbial surface growth; and ageing.

  9. The Age-Length-Onset Problem in Research on Second Language Acquisition among Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Gillian

    2006-01-01

    Studies investigating the possible effects of age at immigration (a proxy for age at onset of second language learning) on second language acquisition among immigrants often explicitly take the effect of length of residence in the destination country (a measure of exposure to opportunities to learn the second language) into account. A third…

  10. Risk Factors for Learning-Related Behavior Problems at 24 Months of Age: Population-Based Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We used a large sample of singleton children to estimate the effects of socioeconomic status (SES), race/ethnicity, gender, additional socio-demographics, gestational and birth factors, and parenting on children's risk for learning-related behavior problems at 24 months of age. We investigated to what extent these factors increased a child's risk of displaying inattention, a lack of task persistence, disinterest, non-cooperation, or frustration as he or she completed a series of cognitive and physical tasks with a non-caregiver. Results indicated that boys are about twice as likely as girls to display learning-related behavior problems. Children from lower SES households are about twice as likely as those from high SES households to display such behavior problems, which is largely attributable to the effects of having a mother with a low educational level. Statistically controlling for these factors, we found consistently significant patterns of elevated learning-related behavior problems for some Asian and Native American children. Results for African-American children were mixed. Hispanic children did not have elevated risks of problem behaviors. Only small portions of these effects are explained by variation in the children's gestational or birth characteristics. A significant portion, but still less than half of the socio-demographic effects are attributable to measured features of the children's parenting. This study helps provide population-based estimates of children's risk for learning-related behavior problems while at an age when early interventions are most effective. PMID:19057886

  11. Behavior Problems at 5 Years of Age and Maternal Mental Health in Autism and Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard P.; Emerson, Eric; Berridge, Damon M.; Lancaster, Gillian A.

    2011-01-01

    We examined child behavior problems and maternal mental health in a British population-representative sample of 5 year-old children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), controlling for the presence of an intellectual disability (ID). Behavior problems were significantly higher in children with ASD with/out ID compared to typically developing…

  12. Anxiety, Fears, Phobias, and Related Problems: Intervention and Resources for School Aged Youth. An Introductory Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.

    This introductory packet provides an introduction to anxiety problems, framing the discussion within the classification scheme developed by the American Pediatric Association. The variations in degree of problem are discussed with respect to interventions that range from environmental accommodations to behavioral strategies to medication. The…

  13. Affect and Mood Problems Related to School Aged Youth. An Introductory Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.

    This introductory packet provides an introduction to affect and mood problems, framing the discussion within the classification scheme developed by the American Pediatric Association. Included is information on the symptoms and severity of a variety of affect and mood problems, as well as information on interventions ranging from environmental…

  14. Sleep Problems, Sleepiness and Daytime Behavior in Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodlin-Jones, Beth; Tang, Karen; Liu, Jingyi; Anders, Thomas F.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sleep problems are a common complaint of parents of preschool children. Children with neurodevelopmental disorders have even more disrupted sleep than typically developing children. Although disrupted nighttime sleep has been reported to affect daytime behavior, the pathway from sleep disruption to sleep problems, to impairments in…

  15. Positive Emotion, Negative Emotion, and Emotion Control in the Externalizing Problems of School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Geunyoung; Walden, Tedra; Harris, Vicki; Karrass, Jan; Catron, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the role of emotion and emotion control in children's externalizing problems. Third- to sixth-grade children were administered a self-report measure of positive emotion, negative emotion, and emotion control. Peer- and teacher-reported adjustment problems were assessed. Structural equations modeling revealed that…

  16. Evolutionary theory of ageing and the problem of correlated Gompertz parameters.

    PubMed

    Burger, Oskar; Missov, Trifon I

    2016-11-01

    The Gompertz mortality model is often used to evaluate evolutionary theories of ageing, such as the Medawar-Williams' hypothesis that high extrinsic mortality leads to faster ageing. However, fits of the Gompertz mortality model to data often find the opposite result that mortality is negatively correlated with the rate of ageing. This negative correlation has been independently discovered in several taxa and is known in actuarial studies of ageing as the Strehler-Mildvan correlation. We examine the role of mortality selection in determining late-life variation in susceptibility to death, which has been suggested to be the cause of this negative correlation. We demonstrate that fixed-frailty models that account for heterogeneity in frailty do not remove the correlation and that the correlation is an inherent statistical property of the Gompertz distribution. Linking actuarial and biological rates of ageing will continue to be a pressing challenge, but the Strehler-Mildvan correlation itself should not be used to diagnose any biological, physiological, or evolutionary process. These findings resolve some key tensions between theory and data that affect evolutionary and biological studies of ageing and mortality. Tests of evolutionary theories of ageing should include direct measures of physiological performance or condition.

  17. Radiation from mixed multi-planar wire arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Esaulov, A. A.; Weller, M. E.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Shrestha, I.; Keim, S. F.; Stafford, A.; Chuvatin, A. S.; Coverdale, C. A.; Apruzese, J. P.; Ouart, N. D.; Giuliani, J. L.

    2014-03-15

    The study of radiation from different wire materials in wire array Z-pinch plasma is a very challenging topic because it is almost impossible to separate different plasmas at the stagnation. A new approach is suggested based on planar wire array (PWA) loads to assess this problem. Multi-planar wire arrays are implemented that consist of few planes, each with the same number of wires and masses but from different wire materials, arranged in parallel rows. In particular, the experimental results obtained with triple PWAs (TPWAs) on the UNR Zebra generator are analyzed with Wire Ablation Dynamics Model, non-local thermodynamic equilibrium kinetic model, and 2D radiation magneto-hydrodynamic to illustrate this new approach. In TPWAs, two wire planes were from mid-atomic-number wire material and another plane was from alloyed Al, placed either in the middle or at the edge of the TPWA. Spatial and temporal properties of K-shell Al and L-shell Cu radiations were analyzed and compared from these two configurations of TPWAs. Advantages of the new approach are demonstrated and future work is discussed.

  18. Electrical properties analysis of wire mesh for mesh reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tuanjie; Su, Jinguo

    2011-07-01

    The knitted wire mesh is often used as a reflecting surface of large deployable antennas. Different weaves have different electrical properties and it is very important and necessary to research the method of analyzing the electrical properties of wire mesh. This paper has developed an effective method to address the problem. First, a periodic unit of wire model in actual complex mesh structure is converted into an equivalent strip model according to the correlation between strip width and wire diameter. The equivalent regular wire-grid unit of the strip model is derived from the equivalences between the wire-grid unit and the strip model in near and far fields. Then the regular wire-grid units are arranged to form an equivalent mesh surface with the corresponding weave pattern, so the electrical properties of the mesh surface are equivalent to those of the actual mesh structure. Through analyzing electrical properties of the mesh surface including amplitude difference, phase difference and reflecting loss, we can find out the electrical properties of the actual knitted wire mesh. The single satin mesh and a two-bar tricot mesh are used as examples to illustrate the method of electrical properties analysis of wire mesh.

  19. Liquid ``Wires" for Microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellis, Nathan; Mazzeo, Aaron; Mazzeo, Brian

    2009-10-01

    We demonstrate liquid ``wires'' in a simple solution measurement device. This device highlights the possibility of fabricating liquid circuits. These ``wires'' were formed by filling micro-milled PMMA channels with 5M NaCl solution. Wires were connected to these salt solution channels; the impedance of a test channel filled with solution was measured by an HP 4294A Impedance Analyzer. Deionized water, 2-propanol, and 5M NaCl were measured. Numerical simulations were performed on the channel cross-section to determine the predicted impedance of the device. The simulated results were compared to the experimental data. Graphs of simulations and experiments are presented for the frequency range 1 KHz to 110 MHz. The data show electrode polarization at the electrode-electrolyte interface, as well as parasitic capacitance inherent in the experimental arrangement.

  20. Wire brush fastening device

    DOEpatents

    Meigs, R.A.

    1995-09-19

    A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus. 13 figs.

  1. Wire brush fastening device

    DOEpatents

    Meigs, Richard A.

    1995-01-01

    A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus.

  2. Topics in space gerontology: Effects of altered gravity and the problem of biological age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Economos, A. C.

    1982-01-01

    The use of altered gravity experimentation as a gerontological research tool is examined and a rationale for a systems approach to the adaptation to spaceflight is presented. The dependence of adaptation capacity on biological age is also discussed.

  3. Flying wires at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Gannon, J.; Crawford, C.; Finley, D.; Flora, R.; Groves, T.; MacPherson, M.

    1989-03-01

    Transverse beam profile measurement systems called ''Flying Wires'' have been installed and made operational in the Fermilab Main Ring and Tevatron accelerators. These devices are used routinely to measure the emittance of both protons and antiprotons throughout the fill process, and for emittance growth measurements during stores. In the Tevatron, the individual transverse profiles of six proton and six antiproton bunches are obtained simultaneously, with a single pass of the wire through the beam. Essential features of the hardware, software, and system operation are explained in the rest of the paper. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Graphic and algebraic solutions of the discordant lead-uranium age problem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stieff, L.R.; Stern, T.W.

    1961-01-01

    Uranium-bearing minerals that give lead-uranium and lead-lead ages that are essentially in agreement, i.e. concordant, generally are considered to have had a relatively simple geologic history and to have been unaltered since their deposition. The concordant ages obtained on such materials are, therefore, assumed to approach closely the actual age of the minerals. Many uranium-bearing samples, particularly uranium ores, give the following discordant age sequences; Pb206 U238 < Pb207 U235 ??? Pb207 Pb206 or, less frequently, Pb207 Pb206 ??? Pb207 U235 < Pb206 U238. These discordant age sequences have been attributed most often to uncertainties in the common lead correction, selective loss of radio-active daughter products, loss or gain of lead or uranium, or contamination by an older generation of radiogenic lead. The evaluation of discordant lead isotope age data may be separated into two operations. The first operation, with which this paper is concerned, is mechanical in nature and involves the calculation of the different possible concordant ages corresponding to the various processes assumed to have produced the discordant ages. The second operation is more difficult to define and requires, in part, some personal judgement. It includes a synthesis of the possible concordant age solutions with other independent geologic and isotopic evidence. The concordant age ultimately chosen as most acceptable should be consistent not only with the known events in the geologic history of the area, the age relations of the enclosing rocks, and the mineralogic and paragenetic evidence, but also with other independent age measurements and the isotopic data obtained on the lead in related or associated non-radioactive minerals. The calculation of the possible concordant ages from discordant age data has been greatly simplified by Wetherill's graphical method of plotting the mole ratios of radiogenic Pb206 U238 ( N206 N238) vs. radiogenic Pb207 U235 ( N207 N235) after correcting

  5. A case of an adoptive girl with precocious puberty: the problem of age estimation.

    PubMed

    De Donno, Antonio; Roca, Roberta; Introna, Francesco; Santoro, Valeria

    2013-09-10

    Age estimation is one of the main tasks of forensic anthropology and odontology, both on the dead and the living. In living subjects, age estimation may be used to establish an individual's status as a minor in cases involving adoption, criminal responsibility, child pornography, and those seeking asylum, especially where adequate identification documents are lacking. The authors report a case about age assessment of a girl born in Mbujimayi (Democratic Republic of Congo) and later adopted in Italy. The birth certificate issued after finding the child in a state of abandonment (in December 2007), bore date of 12.12.2004, but this was in contrast with the year of birth - 2003 - stated on the certification available to the center that had provided accommodation to the girl in Africa. Her adoptive parents reported that the child had been diagnosed with precocious puberty and was thus under treatment. She weighed 32.5 kg and was 132.5 cm tall. Body mass index (BMI) corresponded to the range between 9.5 and 14 years of age. The assessment of maturity indicators (sexual characteristics) placed the child at the lower limits of Stage II of Tanner's classification (sparse growth of long, slightly darkened, downy straight pubic hair; elevation of the breast and nipple as a small mound with increased diameter of the areolae). The skeletal age was determined by taking X-rays of the hand and wrist using Fels, TW2 and Greulich and Pyle methods. Dental growth was assessed through orthopantomogram using Demirjian's technique. The methods applied were adjusted considering the studies on African population found in the literature, and a skeletal and dental age of 10 years was established. Afterwards, the wrist X-rays performed at the Children's Hospital of Bari, 7 months before our investigation, revealed a skeletal age of 7 years. This evidence showed that, despite the treatment the child had promptly initiated, early puberty had influenced the skeletal growth with an acceleration

  6. Uranium-series coral ages from the US Atlantic Coastal Plain-the "80 ka problem" revisited

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wehmiller, J. F.; Simmons, K.R.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Martin-McNaughton, J.; York, L.L.; Krantz, D.E.; Shen, C.-C.

    2004-01-01

    Uranium series coral ages for emergent units from the passive continental margin US Atlantic Coastal Plain (ACP) suggest sea level above present levels at the end of marine oxygen isotope stage (MIS) 5, contradicting age-elevation relations based on marine isotopic or coral reef models of ice equivalent sea level. We have reexamined this problem by obtaining high precision 230Th/238U and 231Pa/235U thermal ionization mass spectrometric ages for recently collected and carefully cleaned ACP corals, many in situ. We recognize samples that show no evidence for diagenesis on the basis of uranium isotopic composition and age concordance. Combining new and earlier data, among those ages close to or within the age range of MIS 5, over 85% cluster between 65 and 85 ka BP. Of the corals that we have analyzed, those that show the least evidence for diagenesis on the basis of uranium isotopic composition and age concordance have ages between 80 and 85 ka BP, consistent with a MIS 5a correlation. The units from which these samples have been collected are all emergent and have elevations within ???3-5m of those few units where early stage 5 (???125,000 ka BP) coral ages have been obtained. The ACP appears to record an unusual history of relative sea level throughout MIS 5, a history that is also apparent in the dated coral record for Bermuda. We speculate that this history is related to the regional (near-to intermediate-field) effects of ancestral Laurentide Ice sheets on last interglacial shorelines of the western North Atlantic. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. All rights reserved.

  7. Wiring for space applications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammoud, Ahmad

    1994-01-01

    The insulation testing and analysis consists of: identifying and prioritizing NASA wiring requirements; selecting candidate wiring constructions; developing test matrix and formulating test program; managing, coordinating, and conducting tests; and analyzing and documenting data, establishing guidelines and recommendations.

  8. One hundred angstrom niobium wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, H. E.; Rose, R. M.; Wulff, J.

    1968-01-01

    Composite of fine niobium wires in copper is used to study the size and proximity effects of a superconductor in a normal matrix. The niobium rod was drawn to a 100 angstrom diameter wire on a copper tubing.

  9. Is Low Fertility Really a Problem? Population Aging, Dependency, and Consumption*

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Longer lives and fertility far below the replacement level of 2.1 births per woman are leading to rapid population aging in many countries. Many observers are concerned that aging will adversely affect public finances and standards of living. Analysis of newly available National Transfer Accounts data for 40 countries shows that fertility well above replacement would typically be most beneficial for government budgets. However, fertility near replacement would be most beneficial for standards of living when the analysis includes the effects of age structure on families as well as governments. And fertility below replacement would maximize per capita consumption when the cost of providing capital for a growing labor force is taken into account. While low fertility will indeed challenge government programs and very low fertility undermines living standards, we find that moderately low fertility and population decline favor the broader material standard of living PMID:25301626

  10. Age determination of fish from scales; method and application to fish cultural problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hile, Ralph

    1936-01-01

    THE SCIENCE of "scale reading", or determination of the age of fish from the examination of their scales, is less than 40 years old. Yet today the publications on the subject are to be numbered by the hundreds, and there is scarcely any phase of fish and fishery work that has not been benefited by this powerful tool for investigation. Fish culture is no exception to this rule. It is because of the increasing interest of fish culturists in scale reading and their numerous requests for information on the subject, that I have been asked to prepare a brief discussion of the method of age determination in fishes.

  11. Active learning for solving the incomplete data problem in facial age classification by the furthest nearest-neighbor criterion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Gang; Sung, Eric; Yau, Wei-Yun

    2011-07-01

    Facial age classification is an approach to classify face images into one of several predefined age groups. One of the difficulties in applying learning techniques to the age classification problem is the large amount of labeled training data required. Acquiring such training data is very costly in terms of age progress, privacy, human time, and effort. Although unlabeled face images can be obtained easily, it would be expensive to manually label them on a large scale and getting the ground truth. The frugal selection of the unlabeled data for labeling to quickly reach high classification performance with minimal labeling efforts is a challenging problem. In this paper, we present an active learning approach based on an online incremental bilateral two-dimension linear discriminant analysis (IB2DLDA) which initially learns from a small pool of labeled data and then iteratively selects the most informative samples from the unlabeled set to increasingly improve the classifier. Specifically, we propose a novel data selection criterion called the furthest nearest-neighbor (FNN) that generalizes the margin-based uncertainty to the multiclass case and which is easy to compute, so that the proposed active learning algorithm can handle a large number of classes and large data sizes efficiently. Empirical experiments on FG-NET and Morph databases together with a large unlabeled data set for age categorization problems show that the proposed approach can achieve results comparable or even outperform a conventionally trained active classifier that requires much more labeling effort. Our IB2DLDA-FNN algorithm can achieve similar results much faster than random selection and with fewer samples for age categorization. It also can achieve comparable results with active SVM but is much faster than active SVM in terms of training because kernel methods are not needed. The results on the face recognition database and palmprint/palm vein database showed that our approach can handle

  12. Preventing Serious Conduct Problems in School-Age Youths: The Fast Track Program

    PubMed Central

    Slough, Nancy M.; McMahon, Robert J.; Bierman, Karen L.; Coie, John D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Foster, E. Michael; Greenberg, Mark T.; Lochman, John E.; McMahon, Robert J.; Pinderhughes, Ellen E.

    2009-01-01

    Children with early-starting conduct Problems have a very poor prognosis and exact a high cost to society. The Fast Track project is a multisite, collaborative research project investigating the efficacy of a comprehensive, long-term, multicomponent intervention designed to prevent the development of serious conduct problems in high-risk children. In this article, we (a) provide an overview of the development model that serves as the conceptual foundation for the Fast Track intervention and describe its integration into the intervention model; (b) outline the research design and intervention model, with an emphasis on the elementary school phase of the intervention; and (c) summarize findings to dale concerning intervention outcomes. We then provide a case illustration, and conclude with a discussion of guidelines for practitioners who work with children with conduct problems. PMID:19890487

  13. Wired To Flex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Discusses wire and cable management solutions school construction committees can use that do not limit flexibility. Topics cover such areas as using perimeter raceways in classrooms, incorporating a flexible communications cabling infrastructure in to the initial design, and answering the question of how to meet future requirements and…

  14. Basic Wiring. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

    This guide is designed to assist teachers conducting a foundation course to prepare students for additional courses of training for entry-level employment in either the residential or commercial and industrial wiring trades. Included in the guide are 17 instructional units and the following sections of information for teachers: guidelines in using…

  15. A World without Wires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panettieri, Joseph C.

    2006-01-01

    The wireless bandwagon is rolling across Mississippi, picking up a fresh load of converts and turning calamity into opportunity. Traditional wired school networks, many of which unraveled during Hurricane Katrina, are giving way to advanced wireless mesh networks that frequently include voice-over-IP (VoIP) capabilities. Vendor funding is helping…

  16. Residential Wiring. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mark; And Others

    This guide is designed to assist teachers conducting a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in the residential wiring trade. Included in the guide are six instructional units and the following sections of information for teachers: guidelines in using the unit components; academic and workplace skills classifications and…

  17. NewsWire, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrom, Elizabeth, Ed.; Bingham, Margaret, Ed.; Bowman, Gloria, Ed.; Shoemaker, Dan, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document presents the 3 2002 issues of the newsletter "NewsWire," (volume 5). Issue Number One focuses on collaborative Web projects. This issue begins with descriptions of four individual projects: "iEARN"; "Operation RubyThroat"; "Follow the Polar Huskies!"; and "Log in Your Animal Roadkill!" Features that follow include: "Bringing the…

  18. Wire EDM for Refractory Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zellars, G. R.; Harris, F. E.; Lowell, C. E.; Pollman, W. M.; Rys, V. J.; Wills, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce fabrication time and costs, Wire Electrical Discharge Machine (Wire EDM) method was investigated as tool for fabricating matched blade roots and disk slots. Eight high-strength nickel-base superalloys were used. Computer-controlled Wire EDM technique provided high quality surfaces with excellent dimensional tolerances. Wire EDM method offers potential for substantial reductions in fabrication costs for "hard to machine" alloys and electrically conductive materials in specific high-precision applications.

  19. Wisdom-Related Knowledge: Age/Cohort Differences in Response to Life-Planning Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jacqui; Baltes, Paul B.

    1990-01-01

    Verbal think-aloud protocols were collected from 60 subjects in 3 age groups ranging from 25 through 81 years. Only 5 percent of the responses were considered wise when rated on the criteria of rich factual and procedural knowledge, lifespan contextualism, relativism, and the recognition and management of uncertainty. Wise responses were equally…

  20. Sleep, Neurobehavioral Functioning, and Behavior Problems in School-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadeh, Avi; Gruber, Reut; Raviv Amiram

    2002-01-01

    Examined associations between sleep and neurobehavioral functioning (NBF) in second-, fourth-, and sixth-graders. Found significant correlations between sleep- quality measures and NBF measures, particularly for the younger age group. Children with fragmented sleep were characterized by lower performance on NBF measures, particularly those…

  1. Delayed Adulthood, Delayed Desistance? Trends in the Age Distribution of Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayford, Sarah R.; Furstenberg, Frank F., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    As the transition to adulthood becomes more protracted and less orderly, fewer young people occupy adult roles and experience the social control associated with these roles. One might therefore expect behaviors associated with the teenage years to spill over into older age groups, reflecting postponed entrance into full social adulthood. We test…

  2. 1997 wire development workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This conference is divided into the following sections: (1) First Generation Wires I; (2) First Generation Wires II; (3) Coated conductors I; and (4) Coated conductors II. Applications of the superconducting wires include fault current limiters, superconducting motors, transformers, and power transmission lines.

  3. An investigation into the problems of the ages of marriage and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Duan, W; Yang, Y

    1984-01-01

    Using results of a 6 month 1981 extensive social survey in urban districts of Beijing Municipality this paper shows that there is not only a tendency for young people to shift their actual marriage age to an earlier time but also, their earlier marriage does not necessarily result in earlier reproduction. The key to the success of this work of separating marriage and giving birth after a proper interval lies in propaganda and education. Based on their answers to the question "what do you think is the ideal age for marriage," most young males preferred to get married at 24, 25, and 26 years, with 25 as the peak of desired marriage age. Young females mostly choose to get married at 22 through 26; the desire to get married after 26 declines sharply. The ideal marriage ages indicated by the unmarried youth, though earlier than the actual marriage ages of the married young people, are later than what the married ones desire. The overwhelming majority of people become pregnant and give birth promptly after marriage. More than 70% of the married young couples investigated became pregnant and gave birth within 1 year of their marriage; those who believed it "ideal" to get pregnant and give birth within 1 year of the marriage only account for 25% of those surveyed. 1 of the main factors for both husbands and wives to delay giving births is their need to save some money to avoid economic hardship cause by immediate births after marriage. Overall, there exists a marked difference between the actual times of the 1st births of married young people and their ideal times of 1st births.

  4. Prevalence of oral health problems in U.S. adults, NHANES 1999-2004: exploring differences by age, education, and race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Ki; Baker, Lindsey A; Seirawan, Hazem; Crimmins, Eileen M

    2012-01-01

    Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 1999-2004, the authors examined age patterns in oral health indicators by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status related to edentulism, presence of root caries, and periodontal disease. Our analysis included subjects who were non-Hispanic White, Mexican American, and African American over the age of 20, and who participated in the NHANES oral health examination. African Americans experienced more oral health problems at younger ages; as age increased, so did racial disparities in oral health problems. Lower educational attainment was strongly associated with more oral health problems at all ages. These results may indicate a faster progression of oral health problems with age among African Americans, thus suggesting that the "earlier aging" of members of racial/ethnic minorities which has been reported in prior research may also be found in oral health.

  5. Prevalence of oral health problems in U.S. adults, NHANES 1999-2004: exploring differences by age, education, and race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Ki; Baker, Lindsey A; Seirawan, Hazem; Crimmins, Eileen M

    2012-01-01

    Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 1999-2004, the authors examined age patterns in oral health indicators by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status related to edentulism, presence of root caries, and periodontal disease. Our analysis included subjects who were non-Hispanic White, Mexican American, and African American over the age of 20, and who participated in the NHANES oral health examination. African Americans experienced more oral health problems at younger ages; as age increased, so did racial disparities in oral health problems. Lower educational attainment was strongly associated with more oral health problems at all ages. These results may indicate a faster progression of oral health problems with age among African Americans, thus suggesting that the "earlier aging" of members of racial/ethnic minorities which has been reported in prior research may also be found in oral health. PMID:23095066

  6. Behavioral and Emotional Problems among Turkish Children at Ages 2 to 3 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erol, Nese; Simsek, Zeynep; Oner, Ozgur; Munir, Kerim

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Within the framework of the Mental Health Surveys of Turkey, the authors investigated the distribution and prevalence of parent-reported behavioral and emotional problems in a nationally representative sample of 2- to 3-year-old children. Method: A cross-sectional population-based survey from October 1996 through March 1997 using a…

  7. Affective Factors and the Problem of Age in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumann, John H.

    1975-01-01

    Based on a synopsis of research studies, the relationship of second language learning to affective factors, such as language shock, attitude motivation, ego permeability, etc., is examined. Also, it is suggested that affective variables may be more important than maturation in the problems of adults in learning a second language. (MS)

  8. Age Difference and Face-Saving in an Inter-Generational Problem-Based Learning Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    This study used grounded theory methodology to investigate whether learning in a problem-based learning (PBL) group was influenced by student demographic diversity. Data comprised observations, in the form of video footage, of one first-year PBL group carried out over the period of an academic year, along with student interviews. Using the…

  9. Revisiting Data Related to the Age of Onset and Developmental Course of Female Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Lauretta M.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    Children who exhibit persistently elevated levels of conduct problems (CP) from early childhood, so-called early-starters, are known to be at increased risk for continued CP throughout middle childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Theoretical and empirical work has focused on this subgroup of children characterized by similar risk factors, an…

  10. The Genetic Etiology of Inhibitory Control and Behavior Problems at 24 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Jeffrey R.; Saudino, Kimberly J.; Asherson, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Background: To investigate links between inhibitory control (IC) and behavior problems in early childhood, as well as genetic and environmental covariances between these two constructs. Methods: Parent and laboratory ratings of IC and parent ratings of externalizing and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder behaviors were administered at 24…

  11. Living with Radiation. The Problems of the Nuclear Age for the Layman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannigan, Francis L.

    The text takes a practical approach to the understanding of industrial radiation hazards. It is intended for the layman who requires a basic understanding of the relationship of radiation problems to his own field. Discussion includes such topics as: uses which benefit mankind; radiation energy versus fission energy; effects of excessive radiation…

  12. A Modern Analog to the Depositional Age Problem: Zircon and Apatite Fission Track and U-Pb Age Distributions by LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donelick, H. M.; Donelick, M. B.; Donelick, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    Sand from three river systems in North Idaho (Snake River near Lewiston, Clearwater River near Lewiston and the Salmon River near White Bird) and two regional ash fall events (Mt. Mazama and Mt. St. Helens) were collected for zircon U-Pb detrital age analysis. Up to 120 grains of zircon per sample were ablated using a Resonetics M-50 193 nm ArF Excimer laser ablation (LA) system and the Pb, Th, and U isotopic signals were quantified using an Agilent 7700x quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Isotopic signals for major, minor, and trace elements, including all REEs, were also monitored. The youngest zircon U-Pb ages from the river samples were approximately 44 Ma; Cenozoic Idaho Batholith and Precambrian Belt Supergroup ages were well represented. Significant common Pb contamination of the Clearwater River sample (e.g., placer native Cu was observed in the sample) precluded detailed analysis of the zircon U-Pb ages but no interpretable ages <44 Ma were observed. Interestingly, not one of the river samples yielded zircon U-Pb ages near 0 Ma, despite all three catchment areas having received significant ash from Mt. St. Helens in 1980, and Mount Mazama 7,700 years ago, and no doubt other events during the Quaternary. Work currently in progress seeks to address bias against near 0 Ma ages in the catchment areas due to: a) small, local ash fall grain sizes and b) overwhelming number of older grains relative to the ash fall grains. Data from Mt. St. Helens ash from several localities near the mountain (Toutle River and Maple Flats, WA) and several far from the mountain (Spokane, WA; Princeton, ID; Kalispell, MT) and Mt. Mazama ash fall deposits near Lewiston, ID and Spokane, WA will be presented to address these possibilities. Additionally, fission track and U-Pb ages from apatites collected from these river and ash fall samples will also be shown to help constrain the problem.

  13. Deformation Analysis of Surface Crack in Rolling and Wire Drawing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, Tetsuo; Yoshida, Kazunari

    The surface flaw of a drawn wire has a significant influence on the quality of a product. High-surface-quality drawn wires and rods have been required for the manufacture of automobiles and machines. Wire breaks due to large surface defects are common problems in wire drawing. The authors carried out rolling and multi-pass drawing of a stainless-steel wire with an artificial scratch, and investigated the growth and disappearance of a scratch from both sides by experiments and Finite Element Analysis (FEA). When the scratch angle is small, the scratch side surfaces are pushed toward each other and the scratch becomes an overlap defect. In contrast, when the scratch angle is large, the bottom of the scratch rises, and the scratch is recovered satisfactorily. Furthermore, the scratch shape and the drawing conditions were varied, and the deformation state of a scratch was clarified.

  14. [Search problems of human radiation protection in the world of genetics of aging].

    PubMed

    Koterov, A N

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the urgency for protection from negative effects of radiation in the range of low and medium dose where classic radioprotectors are ineffective is increased. In this respect it seems promising to study the molecular pathways that increase, on the one hand, the stability of the genome against radiation damage (inducers of carcinogenesis), and, on the other hand, elevate the radiation sensitivity of cell populations in order to eliminate potentially carcinogenic cells. This approach requires modification of cascade mechanisms of signal transduction to apoptosis and responses to DNA damage. Research plan is similar to the Genetics of Aging, where a number of hypotheses about the mechanism of aging have been proposed, including a decrease in the stability of the genome to external influences. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference "The genetics of aging and longevity" (Moscow, April 2012) demonstrated, however, that patterns of aging mechanisms identified in model animals (nematodes, drosophila and mice) are far from the possibility of their practical application. Discovered genes that may be responsible for life expectancy (stress-inducible protein and other components of the signal transduction cascade, as well as suppressors and inducers) rarely find significance in the study of the genomes of centenarian cohorts. This may be due to the difficulty in transferring molecular genetic patterns from model objects to large mammals, including humans, with respect to systems of signal transduction. This point must be taken into account during the search for a new generation of radioprotective agents that promote anti-carcinogenic potential of human cells exposed to radiation at low and moderate doses. It may be necessary to search for such tools in large laboratory animals and in human tissue cultures obtained through genetic engineering or cloning. PMID:25434169

  15. [Search problems of human radiation protection in the world of genetics of aging].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the urgency for protection from negative effects of radiation in the range of low and medium dose where classic radioprotectors are ineffective is increased. In this respect it seems promising to study the molecular pathways that increase, on the one hand, the stability of the genome against radiation damage (inducers of carcinogenesis), and, on the other hand, elevate the radiation sensitivity of cell populations in order to eliminate potentially carcinogenic cells. This approach requires modification of cascade mechanisms of signal transduction to apoptosis and responses to DNA damage. Research plan is similar to the Genetics of Aging, where a number of hypotheses about the mechanism of aging have been proposed, including a decrease in the stability of the genome to external influences. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference "The genetics of aging and longevity" (Moscow, April 2012) demonstrated, however, that patterns of aging mechanisms identified in model animals (nematodes, drosophila and mice) are far from the possibility of their practical application. Discovered genes that may be responsible for life expectancy (stress-inducible protein and other components of the signal transduction cascade, as well as suppressors and inducers) rarely find significance in the study of the genomes of centenarian cohorts. This may be due to the difficulty in transferring molecular genetic patterns from model objects to large mammals, including humans, with respect to systems of signal transduction. This point must be taken into account during the search for a new generation of radioprotective agents that promote anti-carcinogenic potential of human cells exposed to radiation at low and moderate doses. It may be necessary to search for such tools in large laboratory animals and in human tissue cultures obtained through genetic engineering or cloning. PMID:25507767

  16. [Search problems of human radiation protection in the world of genetics of aging].

    PubMed

    Koterov, A N

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the urgency for protection from negative effects of radiation in the range of low and medium dose where classic radioprotectors are ineffective is increased. In this respect it seems promising to study the molecular pathways that increase, on the one hand, the stability of the genome against radiation damage (inducers of carcinogenesis), and, on the other hand, elevate the radiation sensitivity of cell populations in order to eliminate potentially carcinogenic cells. This approach requires modification of cascade mechanisms of signal transduction to apoptosis and responses to DNA damage. Research plan is similar to the Genetics of Aging, where a number of hypotheses about the mechanism of aging have been proposed, including a decrease in the stability of the genome to external influences. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference "The genetics of aging and longevity" (Moscow, April 2012) demonstrated, however, that patterns of aging mechanisms identified in model animals (nematodes, drosophila and mice) are far from the possibility of their practical application. Discovered genes that may be responsible for life expectancy (stress-inducible protein and other components of the signal transduction cascade, as well as suppressors and inducers) rarely find significance in the study of the genomes of centenarian cohorts. This may be due to the difficulty in transferring molecular genetic patterns from model objects to large mammals, including humans, with respect to systems of signal transduction. This point must be taken into account during the search for a new generation of radioprotective agents that promote anti-carcinogenic potential of human cells exposed to radiation at low and moderate doses. It may be necessary to search for such tools in large laboratory animals and in human tissue cultures obtained through genetic engineering or cloning.

  17. [Age-related differences in hematopoietic progenitor cells and the problems of carcinogenesis].

    PubMed

    Brilliant, M D; Vorob'ev, A I

    1990-01-01

    In the past years the authors advanced a hypothesis of the "age-associated layers" of parent hemopoietic cells. The hypothesis was based first of all on the differences in the patterns of leukemias and noncancerous diseases (of the hemopoietic tissues) in children and adults. The nature of the changing age-associated characteristics of parent cells remained obscure. Analysis of leukemias and epithelial tumors of radiation nature, formed in the victims to nuclear bomb explosion in Japan in 1945, analysis of leukemias occurring in persons with genetic diseases characterized by the known chromosomal aberrations (Down's syndrome, Louis-Bar syndrome, etc.), studies into the inherited forms of leukemias (chronic lympholeukemia, subleukemic myelosis, etc.--all these conditions are marked by the unstable genetic apparatus and high mutability) allowed the authors to make a conclusion about a kit of active differentiation genes which are replaced in health with age. Cancerous transformation may take place just at the level of those genes in parent cells with an unstable genome, since there appear specific mutation (in contrast to nonspecific ones characterizing the unstable genome) and a cancerous clone.

  18. A review of wiring system safety in space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stavnes, Mark W.; Hammoud, Ahmad N.

    1993-01-01

    Wiring system failures have resulted from arc propagation in the wiring harnesses of current aerospace vehicles. These failures occur when the insulation becomes conductive upon the initiation of an arc. In some cases, the conductive path of the carbon arc track displays a high enough resistance such that the current is limited, and therefore may be difficult to detect using conventional circuit protection. Often, such wiring failures are not simply the result of insulation failure, but are due to a combination of wiring system factors. Inadequate circuit protection, unforgiving system designs, and careless maintenance procedures can contribute to a wiring system failure. This paper approaches the problem with respect to the overall wiring system, in order to determine what steps can be taken to improve the reliability, maintainability, and safety of space power systems. Power system technologies, system designs, and maintenance procedures which have led to past wiring system failures will be discussed. New technologies, design processes, and management techniques which may lead to improved wiring system safety will be introduced.

  19. Population based, controlled study of behavioural problems and psychiatric disorders in low birthweight children at 11 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Elgen, I; Sommerfelt, K; Markestad, T

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the risk of long term behavioural problems and psychiatric disorders associated with being born with low birth weight. Design/study groups: A population based, controlled follow up study at 11 years of age of 130 low birthweight (LBW) children weighing less than 2000 g at birth who were without major handicaps, and a random sample of 131 normal birthweight (NBW) children born at term weighing over 3000 g. Main outcome measures: Validated questionnaires addressing behaviour completed by mothers and teachers and child evaluation by child psychiatrist using a semistructured interview. Results: Behavioural problems, as defined by abnormal scores on more than four of 32 measures, were found in 40% of LBW children compared with 7% of NBW children (odds ratio (OR) 8.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3 to 25, p = 0001). A psychiatric disorder was diagnosed in 27% of the LBW children compared with 9% of the NBW children (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.5 to 6.5, p = 0.001). The LBW children were more often inattentive, had social problems, and low self esteem. None of the pre-, neo-, or peri-natal variables in the LBW group were statistically significant predictors of behavioural outcomes or the presence of psychiatric disorders. Behavioural problems and psychiatric disorders were as common in those with birth weight less than 1500 g as those with birth weight 1500–2000 g. Conclusion: An increased risk of behavioural problems and psychiatric disorders persists in LBW adolescents. PMID:12193521

  20. Human aneuploidy: mechanisms and new insights into an age-old problem

    PubMed Central

    Nagaoka, So I.; Hassold, Terry J.; Hunt, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Trisomic and monosomic (aneuploid) embryos account for at least 10% of human pregnancies and, for women nearing the end of their reproductive lifespan, the incidence may exceed 50%. The errors that lead to aneuploidy almost always occur in the oocyte but, despite intensive investigation, the underlying molecular basis has remained elusive. Recent studies of humans and model organisms have shed new light on the complexity of meiotic defects, providing evidence that the age-related increase in errors in the human female is not attributable to a single factor but to an interplay between unique features of oogenesis and a host of endogenous and exogenous factors. PMID:22705668

  1. Dental Arch Wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Straightening teeth is an arduous process requiring months, often years, of applying corrective pressure by means of arch wires-better known as brace-which may have to be changed several times in the course of treatment. A new method has been developed by Dr. George Andreasen, orthodontist and dental scientist at the University of Iowa. The key is a new type of arch wire material, called Nitinol, with exceptional elasticity which helps reduce the required number of brace changes. An alloy of nickel and titanium, Nitinol was originally developed for aerospace applications by the Naval Ordnance Laboratory, now the Naval Surface Weapons Laboratory, White Oaks, Maryland. NASA subsequently conducted additional research on the properties of Nitinol and on procedures for processing the metal.

  2. From wires to cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Mustafa A.; Baumann, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    We provide a statistical framework for characterizing stochastic particle production in the early universe via a precise correspondence to current conduction in wires with impurities. Our approach is particularly useful when the microphysics is uncertain and the dynamics are complex, but only coarse-grained information is of interest. We study scenarios with multiple interacting fields and derive the evolution of the particle occupation numbers from a Fokker-Planck equation. At late times, the typical occupation numbers grow exponentially which is the analog of Anderson localization for disordered wires. Some statistical features of the occupation numbers show hints of universality in the limit of a large number of interactions and/or a large number of fields. For test cases, excellent agreement is found between our analytic results and numerical simulations.

  3. Wire insulation defect detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greulich, Owen R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Wiring defects are located by detecting a reflected signal that is developed when an arc occurs through the defect to a nearby ground. The time between the generation of the signal and the return of the reflected signal provides an indication of the distance of the arc (and therefore the defect) from the signal source. To ensure arcing, a signal is repeated at gradually increasing voltages while the wire being tested and a nearby ground are immersed in a conductive medium. In order to ensure that the arcing occurs at an identifiable time, the signal whose reflection is to be detected is always made to reach the highest potential yet seen by the system.

  4. Plated wire memory subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, L.; Tweed, H.

    1972-01-01

    The work performed entailed the design, development, construction and testing of a 4000 word by 18 bit random access, NDRO plated wire memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft imput/output unit and central processing unit. The primary design parameters, in order of importance, were high reliability, low power, volume and weight. A single memory unit, referred to as a qualification model, was delivered.

  5. Superconducting magnet wire

    DOEpatents

    Schuller, Ivan K.; Ketterson, John B.; Banerjee, Indrajit

    1986-01-01

    A superconducting tape or wire with an improved critical field is formed of alternating layers of a niobium-containing superconductor such as Nb, NbTi, Nb.sub.3 Sn or Nb.sub.3 Ge with a thickness in the range of about 0.5-1.5 times its coherence length, supported and separated by layers of copper with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170-600 .ANG..

  6. Wiring for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, J. L., Jr.; Dickman, J. E.; Bercaw, R. W.; Myers, I. T.; Hammoud, A. N.; Stavnes, M.; Evans, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors summarize the current state of knowledge of arc propagation in aerospace power wiring and efforts by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) towards the understanding of the arc tracking phenomena in space environments. Recommendations will be made for additional testing. A database of the performance of commonly used insulating materials will be developed to support the design of advanced high power missions, such as Space Station Freedom and Lunar/Mars Exploration.

  7. The flying hot wire and related instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, D.; Cantnell, B.; Wadcock, A.

    1978-01-01

    A flying hot-wire technique is proposed for studies of separated turbulent flow in wind tunnels. The technique avoids the problem of signal rectification in regions of high turbulence level by moving the probe rapidly through the flow on the end of a rotating arm. New problems which arise include control of effects of torque variation on rotor speed, avoidance of interference from the wake of the moving arms, and synchronization of data acquisition with rotation. Solutions for these problems are described. The self-calibrating feature of the technique is illustrated by a sample X-array calibration.

  8. Flexural magneto-elastic vibrations of thin metal wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukyanov, A.; Molokov, S.

    2004-03-01

    Flexural vibrations of thin metal wires owing to a high, pulsed electric current have been investigated. The current is sufficiently low to inhibit melting but sufficiently high to induce stresses, leading to the wire fragmentation. The problem is treated numerically on the basis of the theory of three-dimensional linear elasticity. The model has been verified on the well-known exact, eigenmode solution for the flexural vibrations of an infinite wire. The agreement is excellent. Further, the model has been used to study vibrations owing to two sources. The first one is perturbations of wires owing to the Lorentz force leading to a kink-type instability similar to that in plasmas. As the main cause of the wire fragmentation has been previously found to be the thermal expansion of material owing to Joule heating, this problem mainly serves to compare results between the three-dimensional and the one-dimensional, thin-rod models. Comparison of the growth rate of the instability obtained by the two models has shown an excellent agreement. The second source of vibrations is the magnetic fields induced in the external electric circuit. The results show that depending on the shape of the circuit, the induced stresses may exceed 20 MPa for the aluminium wires used in the low-current experiments. Although the external fields are not the main source of the wire fragmentation, these values alone may cause the fracture process at elevated temperatures.

  9. Aircraft wire system laboratory development : phase I progress report.

    SciTech Connect

    Dinallo, Michael Anthony; Lopez, Christopher D.

    2003-08-01

    An aircraft wire systems laboratory has been developed to support technical maturation of diagnostic technologies being used in the aviation community for detection of faulty attributes of wiring systems. The design and development rationale of the laboratory is based in part on documented findings published by the aviation community. The main resource at the laboratory is a test bed enclosure that is populated with aged and newly assembled wire harnesses that have known defects. This report provides the test bed design and harness selection rationale, harness assembly and defect fabrication procedures, and descriptions of the laboratory for usage by the aviation community.

  10. Magnetoconductance of quantum wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Gerson J.; Sammarco, Filipe; Egues, Carlos

    2010-03-01

    At low temperatures the conductance of a quantum wires exhibit characteristic plate-aus due to the quantization of the transverse modes [1]. In the presence of high in-plane magnetic fields these spin-split transverse modes cross. Recently, these crossings were observed experimentally [2] via measurements of the differential conductance as a function of the gate voltage and the in-plane magnetic-field. These show structures described as either anti-crossings or magnetic phase transitions. Motivated by our previous works on magnetotransport in 2DEGs via the Spin Density Functional Theory (SDFT) [3], here we propose a similar model to investigate the magnetoconductance of quantum wires. We use (i) the SDFT via the Kohn-Sham self-consistent scheme within the local spin density approximation to obtain the electronic structure and (ii) the Landauer-Buettiker formalism to calculate the conductance of a quantum wire. Our results show qualitative agreement with the data of Ref. [2]. [1] B. J. van Wees et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 848 (1988). [2] A. C. Graham et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 226804 (2008). [3] H. J. P. Freire, and J. C. Egues, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 026801 (2007); G. J. Ferreira, and J. Carlos Egues, J. Supercond. Nov. Mag., in press; G. J. Ferreira, H. J. P. Freire, J. Carlos Egues, submitted.

  11. Trajectories of Pure and Co-Occurring Internalizing and Externalizing Problems from Age 2 to Age 12: Findings from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanti, Kostas A.; Henrich, Christopher C.

    2010-01-01

    How and why do internalizing and externalizing problems, psychopathological problems from different diagnostic classes representing separate forms of psychopathology, co-occur in children? We investigated the development of pure and co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems from ages 2 to 12 with the use of latent class growth…

  12. Birthweight-Discordance and Differences in Early Parenting Relate to Monozygotic Twin Differences in Behaviour Problems and Academic Achievement at Age 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asbury, Kathryn; Dunn, Judith F.; Plomin, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal monozygotic (MZ) twin differences study explored associations between birthweight and early family environment and teacher-rated behaviour problems and academic achievement at age 7. MZ differences in anxiety, hyperactivity, conduct problems, peer problems and academic achievement correlated significantly with MZ differences in…

  13. Using auditory pre-information to solve the cocktail-party problem: electrophysiological evidence for age-specific differences

    PubMed Central

    Getzmann, Stephan; Lewald, Jörg; Falkenstein, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Speech understanding in complex and dynamic listening environments requires (a) auditory scene analysis, namely auditory object formation and segregation, and (b) allocation of the attentional focus to the talker of interest. There is evidence that pre-information is actively used to facilitate these two aspects of the so-called “cocktail-party” problem. Here, a simulated multi-talker scenario was combined with electroencephalography to study scene analysis and allocation of attention in young and middle-aged adults. Sequences of short words (combinations of brief company names and stock-price values) from four talkers at different locations were simultaneously presented, and the detection of target names and the discrimination between critical target values were assessed. Immediately prior to speech sequences, auditory pre-information was provided via cues that either prepared auditory scene analysis or attentional focusing, or non-specific pre-information was given. While performance was generally better in younger than older participants, both age groups benefited from auditory pre-information. The analysis of the cue-related event-related potentials revealed age-specific differences in the use of pre-cues: Younger adults showed a pronounced N2 component, suggesting early inhibition of concurrent speech stimuli; older adults exhibited a stronger late P3 component, suggesting increased resource allocation to process the pre-information. In sum, the results argue for an age-specific utilization of auditory pre-information to improve listening in complex dynamic auditory environments. PMID:25540608

  14. The Importance of Sleep: Attentional Problems in School-Aged Children With Down Syndrome and Williams Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Anna; Hill, Catherine M; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Dimitriou, Dagmara

    2015-01-01

    In typically developing (TD) children, sleep problems have been associated with day-time attentional difficulties. Children with developmental disabilities often suffer with sleep and attention problems, yet their relationship is poorly understood. The present study investigated this association in school-aged children with Down syndrome (DS) and Williams syndrome (WS). Actigraphy and pulse oximetry assessed sleep and sleep-disordered breathing respectively, and attention was tested using a novel visual Continuous Performance Task (CPT).Attentional deficits were evident in both disorder groups. In the TD group, higher scores on the CPT were related to better sleep quality, higher oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2), and fewer desaturation events. Sleep quality, duration, and SpO2 variables were not related to CPT performance for children with DS and WS.

  15. Long-term health investment when people underestimate their adaptation to old age-related health problems.

    PubMed

    Jokung, Octave; Macé, Serge

    2013-12-01

    This paper explores in a two-period model the economic implications of people's tendency to underestimate their ability to adapt to age-related health problems. We model this misperception by assuming that the individual underestimates his future subjective health. Under standard assumptions, we show that, when people allocate their resources during their youth between present consumption, savings, and health investment, they invest more in health as long as the magnitude of the cross-marginal utility of health and consumption is not too negative.

  16. Dual wire welding torch and method

    SciTech Connect

    Diez, Fernando Martinez; Stump, Kevin S.; Ludewig, Howard W.; Kilty, Alan L.; Robinson, Matthew M.; Egland, Keith M.

    2009-04-28

    A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

  17. Manually Operated Welding Wire Feeder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybicki, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A manual welding wire feeder apparatus comprising a bendable elongate metal frame with a feed roller mounted at the center thereof for rotation about an axis transverse to the longitudinal axis of the frame. The frame ends are turned up as tabs and each provided with openings in alignment with each other and the mid-width center of the roller surface. The tab openings are sized to accommodate welding wire and each extends to a side edge of the tab, both opening on the same side of the frame, whereby welding wire can be side-loaded onto the frame. On the side of the frame, opposite the roller a lock ring handle is attached tangentially and is rotatable about the attachment point and an axis perpendicular to the frame. The device is grasped in the hand normally used to hold the wire. A finger is placed through the loop ring and the frame positioned across the palm and lower fingers. The thumb is positioned atop the wire so it can be moved from the back of the frame across the roller, and towards the front. In doing so, the wire is advanced at a steady rate in axial alignment with the tab openings and roller. To accommodate different wire diameters the frame is bendable about its center in the plane of the frame axis and wire so as to keep the wire in sufficient tension against the roller and to keep the wire fixed when the frame is tilted and thumb pressure released.

  18. Problem of mortality in women of reproductive age in rural area of Haryana.

    PubMed

    Lal, S; Satpathy, S; Khanna, P; Vashisht, B M; Punia, M S; Kumar, S

    1995-01-01

    To learn the extent of mortality among women of reproductive age, data was analyzed on causes of death, as reported by anganwadi workers and heads of households, for all maternal deaths in 1992 in Haryana, India. The community was comprised of 300,907 persons and 58,961 women (19.6%) of reproductive age. 9894 live births were recorded, which is higher than the national average. 219 women died in 1992 from maternal and nonmaternal causes (3.7 per 1000 women). In the study blocks (Rohtak, Chiri, and Kathure) the range of mortality was from 3.4 to 4.1 per 1000. 78.5% (172 deaths) were considered nonmaternal deaths. Mortality was 20.9% among mothers 15-20 years old, 25.6% among mothers 20-25 years old, and 18.6% among mothers 25-30 years old. 65.1% of women died at home. 58.1% sought medical care prior to death. 1.2% of deaths were certified. 36.7% of deaths were to literate women, and the remaining 63.3% were illiterate. Causes of nonmaternal death included accidents, respiratory disorders, poisoning, and digestive disorders. Slightly over 20% of accidental deaths were due to burns and suicide. 21.46% (47 deaths) were maternal deaths (475 per 100,000 live births). Maternal mortality ranged from 46 to 488 in the 3 blocks. Rohtak had the highest maternal mortality. Maternal mortality was highest among women 30-44 years old (996 per 100,000), followed by women 15-20 years old (575 per 100,000). 21.3% died during labor and delivery, and 68% died during the postpartum period. 57.4% died at home, and 25.5% died at the Medical College Hospital. 61.7% used prenatal services. 36.2% did not seek medical care prior to their death. 55.3% of deliveries were by trained birth attendants. 25.5% died with their first births. 51.0% of women with a birth interval under 3 years died. Maternal mortality was distributed by cause as follows: postpartum hemorrhage (17.0%), puerperal sepsis (17.0%), anemia (12.8%), preeclampsia and eclampsia (14.9%), obstructed labor (6.4%), hemorrhage

  19. Reduced quality and accelerated follicle loss with female reproductive aging - does decline in theca dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) underlie the problem?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Infertility, spontaneous abortion and conception of trisomic offspring increase exponentially with age in mammals but in women there is an apparent acceleration in the rate from about age 37. The problems mostly commonly occur when the ovarian pool of follicles is depleted to a critical level with age but are also found in low follicular reserve of other etiologies. Since recent clinical studies have indicated that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation may reverse the problem of oocyte quality, this review of the literature was undertaken in an attempt to find an explanation of why this is effective? In affected ovaries, oxygenation of follicular fluid is low, ultrastructural disturbances especially of mitochondria, occur in granulosa cells and oocytes, and considerable disturbances of meiosis occur. There is, however, no evidence to date that primordial follicles are compromised. In females with normal fertility, pre-antral ovarian theca cells respond to stimulation by inhibin B to provide androgen-based support for the developing follicle. With depletion of follicle numbers, inhibin B is reduced with consequent reduction in theca DHEA. Theca cells are the sole ovarian site of synthesis of DHEA, which is both a precursor of androstenedione and an essential ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), the key promoter of genes affecting fatty acid metabolism and fat transport and genes critical to mitochondrial function. As well as inducing a plethora of deleterious changes in follicular cytoplasmic structure and function, the omega 9 palmitate/oleate ratio is increased by lowered activity of PPARα. This provides conditions for increased ceramide synthesis and follicular loss through ceramide-induced apoptosis is accelerated. In humans critical theca DHEA synthesis occurs at about 70 days prior to ovulation thus effective supplementation needs to be undertaken about four months prior to intended conception; timing which is also

  20. An old problem in a new age: Revisiting the clinical dilemma of misattributed paternity.

    PubMed

    Hercher, Laura; Jamal, Leila

    2016-03-01

    Clinical genetics has wrestled with the problem of misattributed paternity for decades. While there are no clear directives on policy, surveys suggest that genetics professionals are inclined to avoid disclosure when possible. Changes associated with the increased use of genomic testing will alter the context and may limit the benefits of non-disclosure. Multi-site testing will preclude the uncertainty often associated with single-gene testing. Increased use of genetic testing in clinical and non-clinical settings will create new opportunities for the subsequent unmasking of misattributed relationships, as will the presence of test results in the electronic medical record. Family health history information will become more valuable as it is used more often and to better effect in risk assessment, diagnosis, treatment and reproductive decision-making. These changes associated with genomic testing increase the risks and decrease the benefits associated with the nondisclosure of misattributed paternity. For ethical and practical reasons, genetics professionals, and those who advise them, should consider a greater emphasis on the value of carefully planned disclosure. PMID:27047759

  1. An old problem in a new age: Revisiting the clinical dilemma of misattributed paternity☆

    PubMed Central

    Hercher, Laura; Jamal, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Clinical genetics has wrestled with the problem of misattributed paternity for decades. While there are no clear directives on policy, surveys suggest that genetics professionals are inclined to avoid disclosure when possible. Changes associated with the increased use of genomic testing will alter the context and may limit the benefits of non-disclosure. Multi-site testing will preclude the uncertainty often associated with single-gene testing. Increased use of genetic testing in clinical and non-clinical settings will create new opportunities for the subsequent unmasking of misattributed relationships, as will the presence of test results in the electronic medical record. Family health history information will become more valuable as it is used more often and to better effect in risk assessment, diagnosis, treatment and reproductive decision-making. These changes associated with genomic testing increase the risks and decrease the benefits associated with the nondisclosure of misattributed paternity. For ethical and practical reasons, genetics professionals, and those who advise them, should consider a greater emphasis on the value of carefully planned disclosure. PMID:27047759

  2. Metering Wheel-Wire Track Wire Boom Deployment Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granoff, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA MMS Spin Plane Double Probe (SDP) Deployer utilizes a helical path, rotating Metering Wheel and a spring loaded Wire "Holding" Track to pay out a "fixed end" 57 meter x 1.5 mm diameter Wire Boom stored between concentric storage cylinders. Unlike rotating spool type storage devices, the storage cylinders remain stationary, and the boom wire is uncoiled along the length of the cylinder via the rotation of the Metering Wheel. This uncoiling action avoids the need for slip-ring contacts since the ends of the wire can remain stationary. Conventional fixed electrical connectors (Micro-D type) are used to terminate to operational electronics.

  3. Neuropsychological and educational problems at school age associated with neonatal encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Marlow, N; Rose, A; Rands, C; Draper, E

    2005-01-01

    Background: Adverse cognitive and educational outcomes are often ascribed to perinatal hypoxia without good evidence. Objective: To investigate neurocognitive and behavioural outcomes after neonatal encephalopathy. Methods: Sixty five children with neonatal encephalopathy, identified using the Trent Neonatal Survey database for 1992–1994, were followed up at the age of 7 years. They were examined at school, with a classmate for those in mainstream school, by a paediatrician and a psychologist. Neonatal encephalopathy was graded as moderate or severe using published definitions. Findings: Fifteen children had major disability, all with cerebral palsy; eight were in special school with severe cognitive impairment (IQ<55). Disability was present in 6% of the moderate and 42% of the severe encephalopathy group. Of the 50 children without motor disability, cognitive scores were lowest in the severe group (mean IQ difference from peers –11.3 points (95% confidence interval (CI) –19.0 to –3.6) and with similar scores for the moderate group compared with classmates (mean difference –1.7 points (95% CI –7.3 to +3.9). Neuropsychological testing showed similar findings in all domains. In particular, memory and attention/executive functions were impaired in the severe group. Despite relatively small differences in performance of the moderate group, special educational needs were identified more often in both encephalopathy groups, associated with lower achievement on national curriculum attainment targets. Interpretation: After neonatal encephalopathy, subtle cognitive impairments are found in the absence of neuromotor impairment. Subtle impairments are found more commonly after a more severe clinical course. Studies of brain protection strategies require long term follow up to study effects on cognitive outcome. PMID:16113154

  4. Bisphenol A Exposure and Behavioral Problems among Inner City Children at 7-9 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Roen, Emily L.; Wang, Ya; Calafat, Antonia M.; Wang, Shuang; Margolis, Amy; Herbstman, Julie; Hoepner, Lori A.; Rauh, Virginia; Perera, Frederica P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous endocrine disrupting compound. Several experimental and epidemiological studies suggest that gestational BPA exposure can lead to neurodevelopmental and behavioral problems in early-life, but results have been inconsistent. We previously reported that prenatal BPA exposure may affect child behavior and differently among boys and girls at ages 3-5 years. Objectives We investigated the association of prenatal and early childhood BPA exposure with behavioral outcomes in 7-9 year old minority children and hypothesized that we would observe the same sex-specific pattern observed at earlier ages. Methods African-American and Dominican women enrolled in an inner-city prospective cohort study and their children were followed from mother’s pregnancy through children’s age 7-9 years. Women during the third trimester of pregnancy and children at ages 3 and 5 years provided spot urine samples. BPA exposure was categorized by tertiles of BPA urinary concentrations. The Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL) was administered at ages 7 and 9 to assess multiple child behavior domains. Associations between behavior and prenatal (maternal) BPA concentrations and behavior and postnatal (child) BPA concentration were assessed via Poisson regression in models stratified by sex. These models accounted for potential confounders including prenatal or postnatal urinary BPA concentrations, child age at CBCL assessment, ethnicity, gestational age, maternal intelligence, maternal education and demoralization, quality of child’s home environment, prenatal environmental tobacco smoke exposure, and prenatal mono-n-butyl phthalate concentration. Results The direction of the associations differed between boys and girls. Among boys (n=115), high prenatal BPA concentration (upper tertile vs. lower two tertiles) was associated with increased internalizing (β=0.41, p<0.0001) and externalizing composite scores (β=0.40, p<0.0001) and with their

  5. Plated wire memory subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, K. H.

    1974-01-01

    The design, construction, and test history of a 4096 word by 18 bit random access NDRO Plated Wire Memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft input/output and central processing unit is reported. A technical and functional description is given along with diagrams illustrating layout and systems operation. Test data is shown on the procedures and results of system level and memory stack testing, and hybrid circuit screening. A comparison of the most significant physical and performance characteristics of the memory unit versus the specified requirements is also included.

  6. Corporal punishment and children's externalizing problems: a cross-sectional study of Tanzanian primary school aged children.

    PubMed

    Hecker, Tobias; Hermenau, Katharin; Isele, Dorothea; Elbert, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The adverse effect of harsh corporal punishment on mental health and psychosocial functioning in children has been repeatedly suggested by studies in industrialized countries. Nevertheless, corporal punishment has remained common practice not only in many homes, but is also regularly practiced in schools, particularly in low-income countries, as a measure to maintain discipline. Proponents of corporal punishment have argued that the differences in culture and industrial development might also be reflected in a positive relationship between the use of corporal punishment and improving behavioral problems in low-income nations. In the present study we assessed the occurrence of corporal punishment at home and in school in Tanzanian primary school students. We also examined the association between corporal punishment and externalizing problems. The 409 children (52% boys) from grade 2 to 7 had a mean age of 10.49 (SD=1.89) years. Nearly all children had experienced corporal punishment at some point during their lifetime both in family and school contexts. Half of the respondents reported having experienced corporal punishment within the last year from a family member. A multiple sequential regression analysis revealed that corporal punishment by parents or by caregivers was positively related to children's externalizing problems. The present study provides evidence that Tanzanian children of primary school age are frequently exposed to extreme levels of corporal punishment, with detrimental consequences for externalizing behavior. Our findings emphasize the need to inform parents, teachers and governmental organizations, especially in low-income countries, about the adverse consequences of using corporal punishment be it at home or at school.

  7. Texture development in Galfenol wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boesenberg, A. J.; Restorff, J. B.; Wun-Fogle, M.; Sailsbury, H.; Summers, E.

    2013-05-01

    Galfenol (Fe-Ga alloy) wire fabrication provides a low cost alternative to directional solidification methods. This work evaluates the compositional dependence of the wire drawing suitability of Fe-Ga and characterizes the microstructural and magnetic properties of these wires. Wire has been produced with Ga contents between 10 at. % and 17 at. % to allow determination of the ductile to brittle transition (DTBT) in wire manufacture. Published results on chill cast bend specimens indicated that a DTBT occurs at roughly 15 at. % Ga. This DTBT was observed under tensile loading with a corresponding change in fracture behavior from transverse fracture to intergranular fracture. For improved magnetostrictive performance, higher Ga contents are desired, closer to the 17 at. % Ga evaluated in this work. Electron backscattered diffraction B-H loop and resonance measurements as a function of magnetic field (to determine modulus and coupling factor) are presented for as-drawn, furnace, and direct current (DC) annealed wire. Galfenol wire produced via traditional drawing methods is found to have a strong <110> (α) texture parallel to the drawing direction. As-drawn wire was observed to have a lower magnetic permeability and larger hysteresis than DC annealed wire. This is attributed to the presence of a large volume of crystalline defects; such as vacancies and dislocations.

  8. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury....

  9. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury....

  10. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY... of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from...

  11. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury....

  12. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury....

  13. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY... of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from...

  14. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury....

  15. A tool for measuring the bending length in thin wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzini, M.; Cagnoli, G.; Cesarini, E.; Losurdo, G.; Martelli, F.; Piergiovanni, F.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.

    2013-03-01

    Great effort is currently being put into the development and construction of the second generation, advanced gravitational wave detectors, Advanced Virgo and Advanced LIGO. The development of new low thermal noise suspensions of mirrors, based on the experience gained in the previous experiments, is part of this task. Quasi-monolithic suspensions with fused silica wires avoid the problem of rubbing friction introduced by steel cradle arrangements by directly welding the wires to silica blocks bonded to the mirror. Moreover, the mechanical loss level introduced by silica (ϕfs ˜ 10-7 in thin fused silica wires) is by far less than the one associated with steel. The low frequency dynamical behaviour of the suspension can be computed and optimized, provided that the wire bending shape under pendulum motion is known. Due to the production process, fused silica wires are thicker near the two ends (necks), so that analytical bending computations are very complicated. We developed a tool to directly measure the low frequency bending parameters of fused silica wires, and we tested it on the wires produced for the Virgo+ monolithic suspensions. The working principle and a set of test measurements are presented and explained.

  16. Problem gambling and the circumstances facing older people : a study of gaming machine players aged 60+ in licensed clubs.

    PubMed

    Southwell, Jenni; Boreham, Paul; Laffan, Warren

    2008-06-01

    Local gambling venues are an important contemporary context for older people's gambling in many parts of the world typically being more accessible to this segment of the population than traditional, centralised gambling venues, such as casinos. This study, undertaken in South East Queensland, analyses older people's electronic gaming machine (EGM) behaviour and motivations, specifically in the context of licensed social and recreational clubs-a popular local gambling venue in many parts of Australia. The study gathered data via a postal survey of 80 managers of licensed clubs, interviews with Gambling Help services and a survey of 414 people aged 60+ who regularly play EGMs, self-administered on site at local clubs. The analysis undertaken suggests that certain age-related circumstances of older people-such as being without a partner, having a disability that impacts on everyday activities, having a low annual income, and no longer participating in the workforce-are associated with higher overall levels of motivation for playing EGMs and greater reliance on EGMs to meet social, recreational and mental health needs. Over a quarter of the older people surveyed (27%) reported drawing on their savings to fund their EGM gambling. Certain categories of older people, including those who were without a partner and those with a disability, were more likely to report drawing on their savings to fund EGM play and betting more than they could afford to lose, pointing to age-related vulnerabilities older people may experience to the negative impacts of gambling given the greater likelihood of their dependency on smaller, fixed incomes. The explanatory contribution of a range of demographic and motivational variables on problem/moderate risk gambling status was computed via a logistic regression model. Younger age (60-69), male gender, single marital status and being motivated to play EGMs to experience excitement and to win money all emerged as significant predictors in the

  17. Soft magnetic wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, M.

    2001-06-01

    An overview of the present state of the art on the preparation techniques, outstanding magnetic properties and applications of soft magnetic micro and nanowires is presented. Rapid solidification techniques (in-rotating-water quenching and drawing methods) to fabricate amorphous microwires with diameter in the range from 100 down to 1 μm are first described. Electrodeposition is also employed to prepare composite microtubes (magnetic coatings) and to fill porous membranes (diameter of the order of 0.1 μm). Magnetic behaviours of interest are related to the different hysteresis loops of samples: square-shaped loops typical of bistable behaviour, and nearly non-hysteretic loop with well-defined transverse anisotropy field. The role played by magnetic dipolar interactions in the magnetic behaviour of arrays of micro and nanowires is described. A particular analysis is done on the giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect in the radio and microwave frequency ranges exhibited by ultrasoft microwires. Finally, a few examples of applications are introduced for magnetostrictive and non-magnetostrictive wires, they are: “magnetoelastic pens”, micromotors; DC current-sensors based on GMI, and sharpened amorphous wire tips in spin polarised scanning tunneling microscopy.

  18. Improved superconducting magnet wire

    DOEpatents

    Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1983-08-16

    This invention is directed to a superconducting tape or wire composed of alternating layers of copper and a niobium-containing superconductor such as niobium of NbTi, Nb/sub 3/Sn or Nb/sub 3/Ge. In general, each layer of the niobium-containing superconductor has a thickness in the range of about 0.05 to 1.5 times its coherence length (which for Nb/sub 3/Si is 41 A) with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170 to 600 A. With the use of very thin layers of the niobium composition having a thickness within the desired range, the critical field (H/sub c/) may be increased by factors of 2 to 4. Also, the thin layers of the superconductor permit the resulting tape or wire to exhibit suitable ductility for winding on a magnet core. These compositions are also characterized by relatively high values of critical temperature and therefore will exhibit a combination of useful properties as superconductors.

  19. The large area crop inventory experiment: An experiment to demonstrate how space-age technology can contribute to solving critical problems here on earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The large area crop inventory experiment is being developed to predict crop production through satellite photographs. This experiment demonstrates how space age technology can contribute to solving practical problems of agriculture management.

  20. Interaction-induced backscattering in short quantum wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, M.-T.; Micklitz, T.; Levchenko, A.; Matveev, K. A.

    2014-10-01

    We study interaction-induced backscattering in clean quantum wires with adiabatic contacts exposed to a voltage bias. Particle backscattering relaxes such systems to a fully equilibrated steady state only on length scales exponentially large in the ratio of bandwidth of excitations and temperature. Here we focus on shorter wires in which full equilibration is not accomplished. Signatures of relaxation then are due to backscattering of hole excitations close to the band bottom which perform a diffusive motion in momentum space while scattering from excitations at the Fermi level. This is reminiscent to the first passage problem of a Brownian particle and, regardless of the interaction strength, can be described by an inhomogeneous Fokker-Planck equation. From general solutions of the latter we calculate the hole backscattering rate for different wire lengths and discuss the resulting length dependence of interaction-induced correction to the conductance of a clean single channel quantum wire.

  1. Bound States of a Ferromagnetic Wire in a Superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sau, Jay D.; Brydon, P. M. R.

    2015-09-01

    We consider the problem of bound states in strongly anisotropic ferromagnetic impurities in a superconductor, motivated by recent experiments that claim to observe Majorana modes at the ends of ferromagnetic wires on a superconducting substrate [S. Nadj-Perge et al., Science 346, 602 (2014)]. Generalizing the successful theory of bound states of spherically symmetric impurities, we consider a wirelike potential using both analytical and numerical approaches. We find that away from the ends of the wire the bound states form bands with pronounced van Hove singularities, giving rise to subgap peaks in the local density of states. For sufficiently strong magnetization of the wire, we show that this process generically produces a sharp peak at zero energy in the local density of states near the ends of the wire. This zero-energy peak has qualitative similarities to the claimed signature of a Majorana mode observed in the aforementioned experiment.

  2. Bound States of a Ferromagnetic Wire in a Superconductor.

    PubMed

    Sau, Jay D; Brydon, P M R

    2015-09-18

    We consider the problem of bound states in strongly anisotropic ferromagnetic impurities in a superconductor, motivated by recent experiments that claim to observe Majorana modes at the ends of ferromagnetic wires on a superconducting substrate [S. Nadj-Perge et al., Science 346, 602 (2014)]. Generalizing the successful theory of bound states of spherically symmetric impurities, we consider a wirelike potential using both analytical and numerical approaches. We find that away from the ends of the wire the bound states form bands with pronounced van Hove singularities, giving rise to subgap peaks in the local density of states. For sufficiently strong magnetization of the wire, we show that this process generically produces a sharp peak at zero energy in the local density of states near the ends of the wire. This zero-energy peak has qualitative similarities to the claimed signature of a Majorana mode observed in the aforementioned experiment.

  3. Preschool to School in Autism: Neuropsychiatric Problems 8 Years After Diagnosis at 3 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Barnevik Olsson, M; Lundström, S; Westerlund, J; Giacobini, M B; Gillberg, C; Fernell, E

    2016-08-01

    The study presents neuropsychiatric profiles of children aged 11 with autism spectrum disorder, assessed before 4.5 years, and after interventions. The original group comprised a community sample of 208 children with ASD. Parents of 128 participated-34 with average intellectual function, 36 with borderline intellectual function and 58 with intellectual disability. They were interviewed using the Autism-Tics, AD/HD and other Comorbidities interview. Criteria for a clinical/subclinical proxy of ASD were met by 71, 89 and 95 %, respectively. Criteria for at least one of ASD, AD/HD, Learning disorder or Developmental Coordination Disorder were met by 82, 94 and 97 %. More than 90 % of children with a preschool diagnosis of ASD have remaining neuropsychiatric problems at 11, despite early intervention. PMID:27230761

  4. Most Wired 2006: measuring value.

    PubMed

    Solovy, Alden

    2006-07-01

    As the Most Wired hospitals incorporate information technology into their strategic plans, they combine a"balanced scorecard"approach with classic business analytics to measure how well IT delivers on their goals. To find out which organizations made this year's 100 Most Wired list, as well as those named in other survey categories, go to the foldout section.

  5. Aircraft wiring program status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Rex

    1995-01-01

    In this Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) Aircraft Division status report, the general and wire and cable component activities, the systems engineering activities, the aircraft wiring lead maintenance activities, the NAVAIR/NASA interface activities, and the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission recommendations are presented.

  6. Most Wired 2006: measuring value.

    PubMed

    Solovy, Alden

    2006-07-01

    As the Most Wired hospitals incorporate information technology into their strategic plans, they combine a"balanced scorecard"approach with classic business analytics to measure how well IT delivers on their goals. To find out which organizations made this year's 100 Most Wired list, as well as those named in other survey categories, go to the foldout section. PMID:16915970

  7. Wire and Packing Tape Sandwiches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinowitz, Sandy

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how students can combine craft wire with clear packing tape to create a two-dimensional design that can be bent and twisted to create a three-dimensional form. Students sandwich wire designs between two layers of tape. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  8. The calibration and operation of a constant-temperature crossed-wire probe in supersonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernando, E. M.; Donovan, J. F.; Smits, A. J.

    1987-01-01

    The calibration and operation of a constant-temperature crossed-wire probe in supersonic flow is considered. Crossed-wire probes offer considerable advantages over single, inclined wires: the kinematic shear stress can be derived from a single point measurement; the rms quantities can be derived from the same measurement, and the instantaneous quantities can be obtained as a continuous function of time. However, using a crossed-wire probe in supersonic flow is subject to the following practical difficulties: the problem of flow interference, where the shock waves from one wire and its supports interfere with the flow over the other wire; the necessity for high frequency response to resolve the spectral content, and the sensitivity of the results to small changes in the calibration constants. In the present contribution, each of these problems is addressed. Practical solutions are suggested, and some encouraging results are presented.

  9. Wire metamaterials: physics and applications.

    PubMed

    Simovski, Constantin R; Belov, Pavel A; Atrashchenko, Alexander V; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2012-08-16

    The physics and applications of a broad class of artificial electromagnetic materials composed of lattices of aligned metal rods embedded in a dielectric matrix are reviewed. Such structures are here termed wire metamaterials. They appear in various settings and can operate from microwaves to THz and optical frequencies. An important group of these metamaterials is a wire medium possessing extreme optical anisotropy. The study of wire metamaterials has a long history, however, most of their important and useful properties have been revealed and understood only recently, especially in the THz and optical frequency ranges where the wire media correspond to the lattices of microwires and nanowires, respectively. Another group of wire metamaterials are arrays and lattices of nanorods of noble metals whose unusual properties are driven by plasmonic resonances.

  10. Welding wire pressure sensor assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Timothy B. (Inventor); Milly, Peter F., Sr. (Inventor); White, J. Kevin (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device which is used to monitor the position of a filler wire relative to a base material being welded as the filler wire is added to a welding pool. The device is applicable to automated welding systems wherein nonconsumable electrode arc welding processes are utilized in conjunction with a filler wire which is added to a weld pool created by the electrode arc. The invention senses pressure deviations from a predetermined pressure between the filler wire and the base material, and provides electrical signals responsive to the deviations for actuating control mechanisms in an automatic welding apparatus so as to minimize the pressure deviation and to prevent disengagement of the contact between the filler wire and the base material.

  11. Tungsten wire for incandescent lamps

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, J.L.; Briant, C.L. )

    1990-09-01

    Tungsten wire for incandescent lamp filaments must operate at high temperatures and for long times. To meet these requirements, the grain morphology of the wire must be controlled to reduce the propensity for grain boundary sliding. The morphology is a function of the distribution of very small pockets of potassium in the wire and the mechanical processing from ingot to wire. The behavior of the filament is directly related to the grain morphology. This paper describes the mechanism by which the potassium is incorporated into and distributed in the ingot. The elongation and spheroidization of the bubbles during hot rolling and swaging is also examined and related to the grain morphology of wire. Some indications of the relationship between grain morphology and filament behavior are also given.

  12. Do Type of Childcare and Age of Entry Predict Behavior Problems during Early Childhood? Results from a Large Norwegian Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekhal, Ratib

    2012-01-01

    Associations between type and age of entry into Norwegian universally-accessible childcare and children's behavior problems at age 3 years were examined in this study. Data from 73,068 children in the large population-based, prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) were used, and included information about childcare arrangements,…

  13. Progress toward a tungsten alloy wire/high temperature alloy composite turbine blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritzert, F. J.; Dreshfield, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    A tungsten alloy wire reinforced high temperature alloy composite is being developed for potential application as a hollow turbine blade for advanced rocket engine turbopumps. The W-24Re-HfC alloy wire used for these composite blades provides an excellent balance of strength and wire ductility. Preliminary fabrication, specimen design, and characterization studies were conducted by using commercially available W218 tungsten wire in place of the W-24Re-Hfc wire. Subsequently, two-ply, 50 vol pct composite panels using the W-24Re-HfC wire were fabricated. Tensile tests and metallographic studies were performed to determine the material viability. Tensile strengths of a Waspaloy matrix composite at 870 C were 90 pct of the value expected from rule-of-mixtures calculations. During processing of this Waspaloy matrix composite, a brittle phase was formed at the wire/matrix interface. Circumferential wire cracks were found in this phase. Wire coating and process evaluation efforts were performed in an attempt to solve the reaction problem. Although problems were encountered in this study, wire reinforced high temperature alloy composites continue to show promise for turbopump turbine blade material improvement.

  14. Social and ethical dimension of the natural sciences, complex problems of the age, interdisciplinarity, and the contribution of education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Develaki, Maria

    2008-09-01

    In view of the complex problems of this age, the question of the socio-ethical dimension of science acquires particular importance. We approach this matter from a philosophical and sociological standpoint, looking at such focal concerns as the motivation, purposes and methods of scientific activity, the ambivalence of scientific research and the concomitant risks, and the conflict between research freedom and external socio-political intervention. We then point out the impediments to the effectiveness of cross-disciplinary or broader meetings for addressing these complex problems and managing the associated risks, given the difficulty in communication between experts in different fields and non-experts, difficulties that education is challenged to help resolve. We find that the social necessity of informed decision-making on the basis of cross-disciplinary collaboration is reflected in the newer curricula, such as that of Greece, in aims like the acquisition of cross-subject knowledge and skills, and the ability to make decisions on controversial issues involving value conflicts. The interest and the reflections of the science education community in these matters increase its—traditionally limited—contribution to the theoretical debate on education and, by extension, the value of science education in the education system.

  15. Comparisons of Behavioral and Emotional Problems among Children of Jamaica and the United States: Teacher Reports for Ages 6-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Michael Canute; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Behavior problems reported by teachers for 359 Jamaican and 665 U.S. children ages 6 to 11 were compared. In conjunction with previous research, results suggest that Jamaican children find school exceptionally stressful, although overall findings demonstrate the considerable similarity of teacher-reported problems across cultures. (SLD)

  16. Preschool-Age Male Psychiatric Patients with Specific Developmental Disorders and Those Without: Do They Differ in Behavior Problems and Treatment Outcome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achtergarde, Sandra; Becke, Johanna; Beyer, Thomas; Postert, Christian; Romer, Georg; Müller, Jörg Michael

    2014-01-01

    Specific developmental disorders of speech, language, and motor function in children are associated with a wide range of mental health problems. We examined whether preschool-age psychiatric patients with specific developmental disorders and those without differed in the severity of emotional and behavior problems. In addition, we examined whether…

  17. Nano-storage wires.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Jun; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Daesan; Park, Juhun; Hong, Seunghun

    2013-08-27

    We report the development of "nano-storage wires" (NSWs), which can store chemical species and release them at a desired moment via external electrical stimuli. Here, using the electrodeposition process through an anodized aluminum oxide template, we fabricated multisegmented nanowires composed of a polypyrrole segment containing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules, a ferromagnetic nickel segment, and a conductive gold segment. Upon the application of a negative bias voltage, the NSWs released ATP molecules for the control of motor protein activities. Furthermore, NSWs can be printed onto various substrates including flexible or three-dimensional structured substrates by direct writing or magnetic manipulation strategies to build versatile chemical storage devices. Since our strategy provides a means to store and release chemical species in a controlled manner, it should open up various applications such as drug delivery systems and biochips for the controlled release of chemicals.

  18. Sintered wire cathode

    DOEpatents

    Falce, Louis R.; Ives, R. Lawrence

    2009-06-09

    A porous cathode structure is fabricated from a plurality of wires which are placed in proximity to each other in elevated temperature and pressure for a sintering time. The sintering process produces the porous cathode structure which may be divided into a plurality of individual porous cathodes, one of which may be placed into a dispenser cathode support which includes a cavity for containing a work function reduction material such as BaO, CaO, and Al.sub.2O.sub.3. The work function reduction material migrates through the pores of the porous cathode from a work replenishment surface adjacent to the cavity of the dispenser cathode support to an emitting cathode surface, thereby providing a dispenser cathode which has a uniform work function and therefore a uniform electron emission.

  19. Elevated blood levels of inflammation-related proteins are associated with an attention problem at age 24 months in extremely preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    O’Shea, T. Michael; Joseph, Robert M.; Kuban, Karl C.K.; Allred, Elizabeth N.; Ware, Janice; Coster, Taryn; Fichorova, Raina N.; Dammann, Olaf; Leviton, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Background Extremely preterm birth is associated with subsequent behavioral problems. We hypothesized that perinatal systemic inflammation, a risk factor for cerebral white matter injury and cognitive impairment, is associated with behavior problems observed at 2 years. Methods In a cohort of 600 children born before 28 weeks gestation, we measured 25 inflammation-related proteins in blood collected on postnatal days 1, 7, and 14, and identified behavior problems using parent responses to the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5–5 (CBCL/1.5-5) at two years of age. A persistent or recurrent protein elevation was defined as a concentration in the highest quartile (for gestational age and postnatal age) on at least two days approximately one week apart. Behavior problems were defined by CBCL/1.5-5 subscale scores at or above the 93rd percentile. Results A single-day elevation of ICAM-3 was associated with an increased risk of an attention problem, as were persistent or recurrent elevations of MPO, IL-6, TNF-RI, IL-8, ICAM-3, VEGF-R1, and VEGF-R2. These associations persisted among infants without white matter injury and cognitive impairment. Conclusion Among children born extremely prematurely, recurrent or persistent elevations of inflammation-related proteins in blood during in the first two postnatal weeks are associated with an attention problem at age 2 years. PMID:24614800

  20. Electromagnetic Nondestructive Evaluation of Wire Insulation and Models of Insulation Material Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowler, Nicola; Kessler, Michael R.; Li, Li; Hondred, Peter R.; Chen, Tianming

    2012-01-01

    Polymers have been widely used as wiring electrical insulation materials in space/air-craft. The dielectric properties of insulation polymers can change over time, however, due to various aging processes such as exposure to heat, humidity and mechanical stress. Therefore, the study of polymers used in electrical insulation of wiring is important to the aerospace industry due to potential loss of life and aircraft in the event of an electrical fire caused by breakdown of wiring insulation. Part of this research is focused on studying the mechanisms of various environmental aging process of the polymers used in electrical wiring insulation and the ways in which their dielectric properties change as the material is subject to the aging processes. The other part of the project is to determine the feasibility of a new capacitive nondestructive testing method to indicate degradation in the wiring insulation, by measuring its permittivity.

  1. Radiation and scattering by thin-wire structures in the complex frequency domain. [electromagnetic theory for thin-wire antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    Piecewise-sinusoidal expansion functions and Galerkin's method are employed to formulate a solution for an arbitrary thin-wire configuration in a homogeneous conducting medium. The analysis is performed in the real or complex frequency domain. In antenna problems, the solution determines the current distribution, impedance, radiation efficiency, gain and far-field patterns. In scattering problems, the solution determines the absorption cross section, scattering cross section and the polarization scattering matrix. The electromagnetic theory is presented for thin wires and the forward-scattering theorem is developed for an arbitrary target in a homogeneous conducting medium.

  2. Dendritic and Axonal Wiring Optimization of Cortical GABAergic Interneurons.

    PubMed

    Anton-Sanchez, Laura; Bielza, Concha; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; DeFelipe, Javier; Larrañaga, Pedro

    2016-10-01

    The way in which a neuronal tree expands plays an important role in its functional and computational characteristics. We aimed to study the existence of an optimal neuronal design for different types of cortical GABAergic neurons. To do this, we hypothesized that both the axonal and dendritic trees of individual neurons optimize brain connectivity in terms of wiring length. We took the branching points of real three-dimensional neuronal reconstructions of the axonal and dendritic trees of different types of cortical interneurons and searched for the minimal wiring arborization structure that respects the branching points. We compared the minimal wiring arborization with real axonal and dendritic trees. We tested this optimization problem using a new approach based on graph theory and evolutionary computation techniques. We concluded that neuronal wiring is near-optimal in most of the tested neurons, although the wiring length of dendritic trees is generally nearer to the optimum. Therefore, wiring economy is related to the way in which neuronal arborizations grow irrespective of the marked differences in the morphology of the examined interneurons.

  3. Dendritic and Axonal Wiring Optimization of Cortical GABAergic Interneurons.

    PubMed

    Anton-Sanchez, Laura; Bielza, Concha; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; DeFelipe, Javier; Larrañaga, Pedro

    2016-10-01

    The way in which a neuronal tree expands plays an important role in its functional and computational characteristics. We aimed to study the existence of an optimal neuronal design for different types of cortical GABAergic neurons. To do this, we hypothesized that both the axonal and dendritic trees of individual neurons optimize brain connectivity in terms of wiring length. We took the branching points of real three-dimensional neuronal reconstructions of the axonal and dendritic trees of different types of cortical interneurons and searched for the minimal wiring arborization structure that respects the branching points. We compared the minimal wiring arborization with real axonal and dendritic trees. We tested this optimization problem using a new approach based on graph theory and evolutionary computation techniques. We concluded that neuronal wiring is near-optimal in most of the tested neurons, although the wiring length of dendritic trees is generally nearer to the optimum. Therefore, wiring economy is related to the way in which neuronal arborizations grow irrespective of the marked differences in the morphology of the examined interneurons. PMID:27345531

  4. New Materials for the Repair of Polyimide Electrical Wire Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Two viable polyimide backbone materials have been identified that will allow the repair of polyimide electrical wire insulation found on the Space Shuttle and other aging aircraft. This identification is the outcome of ongoing efforts to assess the viability of using such polyimides and polyimide precursors (polyamic acids [PAAs]) as repair materials for aging polyimide electrical wire insulation. These repair materials were selected because they match the chemical makeup of the underlying wire insulation as closely as possible. This similarity allows for maximum compatibility, coupled with the outstanding physical properties of polyimides. The two polyimide backbone materials allow the polymer to be extremely flexible and to melt at low temperatures. A polymer chain end capping group that allows the polymer to crosslink into a nonflowable repair upon curing at around 200 C was also identified.

  5. Relative Age Effects Are a Developmental Problem in Tennis: But Not Necessarily when You're Left-Handed!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loffing, Florian; Schorer, Jorg; Cobley, Steve P.

    2010-01-01

    Relative Age Effects (RAEs), describing attainment inequalities as a result of interactions between biological age and age-grouping procedures, have been demonstrated across many sports contexts. This study examined whether an additional individual characteristic (i.e., handedness) mediated RAEs in tennis. Relative age and handedness distributions…

  6. Demonstrating Forces between Parallel Wires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Blane

    2000-01-01

    Describes a physics demonstration that dramatically illustrates the mutual repulsion (attraction) between parallel conductors using insulated copper wire, wooden dowels, a high direct current power supply, electrical tape, and an overhead projector. (WRM)

  7. Wire Jewelry/Black History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Robert A.; Robinson, Charles C.

    1984-01-01

    Described is a project which made the study of Black history more real to fifth graders by having them make wire jewelry, smaller versions of the ornate filigreed ironwork produced by slave blacksmiths. (RM)

  8. Spring control of wire harness loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curcio, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    Negator spring control guides wire harness between movable and fixed structure. It prevents electrical wire harness loop from jamming or being severed as wire moves in response to changes in position of aircraft rudder. Spring-loaded coiled cable controls wire loop regardless of rudder movement.

  9. Method of manufacturing superconductor wire

    SciTech Connect

    Motowidlo, Leszek

    2014-09-16

    A method for forming Nb.sub.3Sn superconducting wire is provided. The method employs a powder-in-tube process using a high-tin intermetallic compound, such as MnSn.sub.2, for producing the Nb.sub.3Sn. The use of a high-tin intermetallic compound enables the process to perform hot extrusion without melting the high-tin intermetallic compound. Alternatively, the method may entail drawing the wire without hot extrusion.

  10. Smart Wire Grid: Resisting Expectations

    ScienceCinema

    Ramsay, Stewart; Lowe, DeJim

    2016-07-12

    Smart Wire Grid's DSR technology (Discrete Series Reactor) can be quickly deployed on electrical transmission lines to create intelligent mesh networks capable of quickly rerouting electricity to get power where and when it's needed the most. With their recent ARPA-E funding, Smart Wire Grid has been able to move from prototype and field testing to building out a US manufacturing operation in just under a year.

  11. Smart Wire Grid: Resisting Expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsay, Stewart; Lowe, DeJim

    2014-03-03

    Smart Wire Grid's DSR technology (Discrete Series Reactor) can be quickly deployed on electrical transmission lines to create intelligent mesh networks capable of quickly rerouting electricity to get power where and when it's needed the most. With their recent ARPA-E funding, Smart Wire Grid has been able to move from prototype and field testing to building out a US manufacturing operation in just under a year.

  12. 1 mil gold bond wire study.

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, Johnathon; McLean, Michael B.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2013-05-01

    In microcircuit fabrication, the diameter and length of a bond wire have been shown to both affect the current versus fusing time ratio of a bond wire as well as the gap length of the fused wire. This study investigated the impact of current level on the time-to-open and gap length of 1 mil by 60 mil gold bond wires. During the experiments, constant current was provided for a control set of bond wires for 250ms, 410ms and until the wire fused; non-destructively pull-tested wires for 250ms; and notched wires. The key findings were that as the current increases, the gap length increases and 73% of the bond wires will fuse at 1.8A, and 100% of the wires fuse at 1.9A within 60ms. Due to the limited scope of experiments and limited data analyzed, further investigation is encouraged to confirm these observations.

  13. HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  14. Experimental Results for Space-Wire-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkes, Steve; Gibson, David; Ferrer, Albert

    2015-09-01

    SpaceWire-D is a deterministic extension to SpaceWire that uses time-division multiplexing to schedule traffic within time-slots. It allows a single SpaceWire network to be used for both time-critical avionics control applications and asynchronous payload data-handling simultaneously using existing SpaceWire technology. In this paper we describe the services of SpaceWire-D and present experimental results for each service.

  15. Fabrication of Pd-Cr wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diamond, Sidney; Leach, Dennen M.

    1989-01-01

    Fabrication of Pd-13 percent Cr alloy wires is described. Melting, casting, swaging and annealing processes are discussed. Drawing to reach two diameters (0.003 inch and 0.00176 inch) of wire is described. Representative micrographs of the Pd-Cr alloy at selected stages during wire fabrication are included. The resistance of the wire was somewhat lower, by about 15 to 20 percent, than comparable wire of other alloys used for strain gages.

  16. Connecting to Thermocouples with Fewer Lead Wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsby, Jon C.

    2003-01-01

    A simple technique has been devised to reduce the number of lead wires needed to connect an array of thermocouples to the instruments (e.g., voltmeters) used to read their output voltages. Because thermocouple wires are usually made of expensive metal alloys, reducing the number of lead wires can effect a considerable reduction in the cost of such an array. Reducing the number of wires also reduces the number of terminals and the amount of space needed to accommodate the wires.

  17. Paths from mother-child and father-child relationships to externalizing behavior problems in children differing in electrodermal reactivity: a longitudinal study from infancy to age 10.

    PubMed

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Brock, Rebecca L; Chen, Kuan-Hua; Aksan, Nazan; Anderson, Steven W

    2015-05-01

    Electrodermal hyporeactivity (or low skin conductance level, SCL) has been long established as a correlate of and diathesis for antisocial behavior, aggression, disregard for rules of conduct and feelings of others, and generally, externalizing behavior problems in children and adults. Much less is known, however, about how individual differences in children's SCL and qualities of their early experiences in relationships with parents interact to produce antisocial outcomes. In a community sample of 102 families (51 girls), we examined children's SCL, assessed in standard laboratory tasks at age 8 (N = 81), as a moderator of the links between parent-child socialization history and children's externalizing behavior problems at ages 8 and 10, reported by mothers and fathers in well-established instruments and by children in clinical interviews. Mother- and father-child socialization history was assessed in frequent, intensive observations. Parent-child mutually responsive orientation (MRO) was observed from infancy to age 10, parental power assertion was observed from 15 months to age 6 ½, and children reported their attachment security in interviews at age 8 and 10. For children with lower SCL, variations in mothers' power assertion and father-child MRO were associated with parent-rated externalizing problems. The former interaction was consistent with diathesis-stress, and the latter with differential susceptibility. For children with higher SCL, there were no links between socialization history and externalizing problems. PMID:25218772

  18. Paths from Mother-Child and Father-Child Relationships to Externalizing Behavior Problems in Children Differing in Electrodermal Reactivity: a Longitudinal Study from Infancy to Age 10

    PubMed Central

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Brock, Rebecca L.; Chen, Kuan-Hua; Aksan, Nazan; Anderson, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Electrodermal hyporeactivity (or low skin conductance level, SCL) has been long established as a correlate of and diathesis for antisocial behavior, aggression, disregard for rules of conduct and feelings of others, and generally, externalizing behavior problems in children and adults. Much less is known, however, about how individual differences in children’s SCL and qualities of their early experiences in relationships with parents interact to produce antisocial outcomes. In a community sample of 102 families (51 girls), we examined children’s SCL, assessed in standard laboratory tasks at age 8 (N=81), as a moderator of the links between parent–child socialization history and children’s externalizing behavior problems at ages 8 and 10, reported by mothers and fathers in well-established instruments and by children in clinical interviews. Mother- and father-child socialization history was assessed in frequent, intensive observations. Parent–child mutually responsive orientation (MRO) was observed from infancy to age 10, parental power assertion was observed from 15 months to age 6 ½, and children reported their attachment security in interviews at age 8 and 10. For children with lower SCL, variations in mothers’ power assertion and father-child MRO were associated with parent-rated externalizing problems. The former interaction was consistent with diathesis-stress, and the latter with differential susceptibility. For children with higher SCL, there were no links between socialization history and externalizing problems. PMID:25218772

  19. Paths from mother-child and father-child relationships to externalizing behavior problems in children differing in electrodermal reactivity: a longitudinal study from infancy to age 10.

    PubMed

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Brock, Rebecca L; Chen, Kuan-Hua; Aksan, Nazan; Anderson, Steven W

    2015-05-01

    Electrodermal hyporeactivity (or low skin conductance level, SCL) has been long established as a correlate of and diathesis for antisocial behavior, aggression, disregard for rules of conduct and feelings of others, and generally, externalizing behavior problems in children and adults. Much less is known, however, about how individual differences in children's SCL and qualities of their early experiences in relationships with parents interact to produce antisocial outcomes. In a community sample of 102 families (51 girls), we examined children's SCL, assessed in standard laboratory tasks at age 8 (N = 81), as a moderator of the links between parent-child socialization history and children's externalizing behavior problems at ages 8 and 10, reported by mothers and fathers in well-established instruments and by children in clinical interviews. Mother- and father-child socialization history was assessed in frequent, intensive observations. Parent-child mutually responsive orientation (MRO) was observed from infancy to age 10, parental power assertion was observed from 15 months to age 6 ½, and children reported their attachment security in interviews at age 8 and 10. For children with lower SCL, variations in mothers' power assertion and father-child MRO were associated with parent-rated externalizing problems. The former interaction was consistent with diathesis-stress, and the latter with differential susceptibility. For children with higher SCL, there were no links between socialization history and externalizing problems.

  20. Vulnerability to health problems in female informal caregivers of persons with HIV/AIDS and age-related dementias.

    PubMed

    Flaskerud, J H; Lee, P

    2001-01-01

    The health of informal caregivers is often studied from the perspective of caregivers' and care receivers' personal and interpersonal characteristics. This study offers an alternative explanation based on a vulnerable populations framework and considers the role of resource availability to the health status of informal caregivers (n=76). Caregivers in a convenience sample were females of diverse ethnicity and socioeconomic status, and care recipients were diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) or age-related dementias (ARD). Personal interviews using structured instruments were conducted with caregivers who were attending outpatient clinics at a public hospital and a VA hospital. Instruments included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-Scale (CES-D), the Global Health Assessment (GHA), the Activities of Daily Living Scale (ADL), the Memory and Behavior Problems Checklist (MBPC) and items from the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) measuring anger, anxiety and loneliness. Caregivers were experiencing both physical and mental health problems. Regression analyses were used to examine the relationships among resources available to caregivers, conditions that put caregivers at risk for poorer health, and health status itself. Analyses were conducted for each group of caregivers separately (HIV and ARD) and for the total group, using depressive symptoms and perception of physical health as dependent variables. In caregivers of people with HIV/AIDS (PWHIV), caregiver distress over care recipient symptoms, anxiety and education were related to depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms, anger and functional status of the PWHIV were related to caregivers' perception of poorer physical health. In caregivers of people with ARD, there were no significant predictors for depressive symptoms or perception of physical health. In the total group of caregivers, lower income and more anger were related to depressive symptom

  1. Behavioral and emotional problems among children aged 6-14 years on highly active antiretroviral therapy in Addis Ababa: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, Amare Worku; Berhane Tsehay, Yemane; Girma Belaineh, Belaineh; Alemu, Yonas Baheretibeb

    2012-01-01

    Children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at particular risk for psychological disturbance. Little is known about the mental health status of children on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). A hospital-based cross-sectional study of 318 children aged 6-14 on HAART in Addis Ababa was conducted. Behavioral and emotional problem was assessed using the child behavior check list (CBCL/6-18). Logistic regression analysis was done to select the best subset of predictor variables and determine their association with behavioral and emotional problems. Of the 318 caregivers of children aged 6-14 on HAART, 39.3% of the children had behavioral and emotional problems. Low family monthly income (AOR, 3.44, 95% CI, 1.89-6.25), older age (AOR, 2.27, 95% CI, 1.34-3.83), and parental loss (AOR, 1.89, 95% CI, 1.10-3.25) were found to be determinants of behavioral and emotional problems in the multivariate logistic regression. There is high prevalence of behavioral and emotional problems in children on HAART in Addis Ababa. More support is needed to children from families of low income and those who lost their parents. Further research should be carried out to enhance better understanding and appropriate response to behavioral and emotional problems.

  2. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Change Contrast print sign up Share Healthy Aging This category offers tips on how to stay ... with Smell Problems with Taste Skin Care and Aging Sleep and Aging Taking Medicines Talking with Your ...

  3. Plasma arc torch with coaxial wire feed

    DOEpatents

    Hooper, Frederick M

    2002-01-01

    A plasma arc welding apparatus having a coaxial wire feed. The apparatus includes a plasma arc welding torch, a wire guide disposed coaxially inside of the plasma arc welding torch, and a hollow non-consumable electrode. The coaxial wire guide feeds non-electrified filler wire through the tip of the hollow non-consumable electrode during plasma arc welding. Non-electrified filler wires as small as 0.010 inches can be used. This invention allows precision control of the positioning and feeding of the filler wire during plasma arc welding. Since the non-electrified filler wire is fed coaxially through the center of the plasma arc torch's electrode and nozzle, the wire is automatically aimed at the optimum point in the weld zone. Therefore, there is no need for additional equipment to position and feed the filler wire from the side before or during welding.

  4. Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Jon D.

    2014-08-01

    The recovery of 252Cf from palladium-252Cf cermet wires was investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing it into the cermet wire production operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center. The dissolution of Pd wire in 8 M HNO3 and trace amounts of HCl was studied at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These studies showed that it took days to dissolve the wire at ambient temperature and only 2 hours at 60°C. Adjusting the ratio of the volume of solvent to the mass of the wire segment showed little change in the kinetics of dissolution, which ranged from 0.176 mL/mg down to 0.019 mL/mg. A successful chromatographic separation of 153Gd, a surrogate for 252Cf, from Pd was demonstrated using AG 50x8 cation exchange resin with a bed volume of 0.5 mL and an internal diameter of 0.8 cm.

  5. Type of Violence, Age, and Gender Differences in the Effects of Family Violence on Children's Behavior Problems: A Mega-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Kathleen J.; Baradaran, Laila P.; Abbott, Craig B.; Lamb, Michael E.; Guterman, Eva

    2006-01-01

    A mega-analytic study was designed to exploit the power of a large data set combining raw data from multiple studies (n=1870) to examine the effects of type of family violence, age, and gender on children's behavior problems assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Our findings confirmed that children who experienced multiple forms of…

  6. Overt and Covert Verbal Problem-Solving Strategies: Developmental Trends in Use, Awareness, and Relations with Task Performance in Children Aged 5 to 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsler, Adam; Naglieri, Jack

    2003-01-01

    This study explored 5- to 17-year-olds' use, self report, and awareness of verbal problem-solving strategies and strategy effectiveness. Findings indicated that children's verbal strategies moved from overt, to partially covert, to fully covert forms with age. Self-reports of strategy use were accurate yet incomplete. Strategy awareness was low…

  7. The Prevalence of Mental Health Problems in Children 1 1/2 Years of Age--The Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Houmann, Tine; Christiansen, Eva; Landorph, Susanne; Jorgensen, Torben; Olsen, E. M.; Heering, K.; Kaas-Nielsen, S.; Samberg, V.; Lichtenberg, A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The Copenhagen Child Cohort, CCC 2000, was established to investigate developmental psychopathology prospectively from birth in a general population. Methods: A random sample of 211 children from the CCC 2000 was investigated when the children were 1 1/2 years of age. The prevalence and associates of mental health problems and…

  8. FireWire: Hot New Multimedia Interface or Flash in the Pan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learn, Larry L., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Examines potential solutions to the problem of personal computer cabling and configuration and serial port performance, namely "FireWire" (P1394) and "Universal Serial Bus" (USB). Discusses interface design, technical capabilities, user friendliness, compatibility, costs, and future perspectives. (AEF)

  9. A Novel Two-Wire Fast Readout Approach for Suppressing Cable Crosstalk in a Tactile Resistive Sensor Array.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianfeng; Wang, Yu; Li, Jianqing; Song, Aiguo

    2016-01-01

    For suppressing the crosstalk problem due to wire resistances and contacted resistances of the long flexible cables in tactile sensing systems, we present a novel two-wire fast readout approach for the two-dimensional resistive sensor array in shared row-column fashion. In the approach, two wires are used for every driving electrode and every sampling electrode in the resistive sensor array. The approach with a high readout rate, though it requires a large number of wires and many sampling channels, solves the cable crosstalk problem. We also verified the approach's performance with Multisim simulations and actual experiments.

  10. A Novel Two-Wire Fast Readout Approach for Suppressing Cable Crosstalk in a Tactile Resistive Sensor Array

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianfeng; Wang, Yu; Li, Jianqing; Song, Aiguo

    2016-01-01

    For suppressing the crosstalk problem due to wire resistances and contacted resistances of the long flexible cables in tactile sensing systems, we present a novel two-wire fast readout approach for the two-dimensional resistive sensor array in shared row-column fashion. In the approach, two wires are used for every driving electrode and every sampling electrode in the resistive sensor array. The approach with a high readout rate, though it requires a large number of wires and many sampling channels, solves the cable crosstalk problem. We also verified the approach’s performance with Multisim simulations and actual experiments. PMID:27213373

  11. 3D guide wire tracking for navigation in endovascular interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baert, Shirley A.; van Walsum, Theo; Niessen, Wiro J.

    2004-05-01

    A method is presented to track the guide wire during endovascular interventions and to visualize it in 3D, together with the vasculature of the patient. The guide wire is represented by a 3D spline whose position is optimized using internal and external forces. For the external forces, the 3D spline is projected onto the biplane projection images that are routinely acquired. Feature images are constructed based on the enhancement of line-like structures in the projection images. A threshold is applied to this image such that if the probability of a pixel to be part of the guide wire is sufficiently high this feature image is used, whereas outside this region a distance transform is computed to improve the capture range of the method. In preliminary experiments, it is shown that some of the problems of the 2D tracking which where presented in previous work can successfully be circumvented using the 3D tracking method.

  12. Increasing phenotypic and genetic variations in hyperactivity/inattention problems from age 3 to 13 years: a cross-sectional twin study.

    PubMed

    Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-12-01

    A twin design was used to examine the developmental nature of genetic, environmental, and phenotypic variations in hyperactivity and inattention problems (HIP). Mothers of 662 complete pairs of twins (273 monozygotic [MZ] pairs and 389 dizygotic [DZ] pairs) aged from 3 to 13 years (mean [SD] age = 8.3 [2.9] years) responded to the items of the HIP scale of the Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire via a telephone interview. Maximum likelihood MZ and DZ twin correlations in the total sample were 0.47 (95% CI: 0.37-0.55) and -0.01 (95% CI: -0.11-0.09). A standard univariate model incorporating age as a modifier was applied to the raw data. Results of model-fitting analyses showed that the phenotypic variation of HIP monotonically increased from age 3 to age 12 and that this increase was completely due to an increase in genetic variance, suggesting that it is genes that expand individual difference in ADHD symptoms with age during childhood. Child-specific environmental variance was constant during this age period. In terms of relative influences, total genetic factors increased from 33% (95% CI: 27-44%) at age 3 to 51% (95% CI: 28-71%) at age 13 and this increase was accompanied by a decrease in relative influences of child-specific environmental factors from 67% (95% CI: 56-73%) at age 3 to 49% (95% CI: 29-72%) at age 13. These estimates of genetic influences were somewhat lower than those found in most twin studies of ADHD symptoms. However, the increasing trend of genetic influences with age during childhood was consistent with the results of a recent meta-analysis of ADHD symptoms.

  13. Designing potentials by sculpturing wires

    SciTech Connect

    Della Pietra, Leonardo; Aigner, Simon; Groth, Soenke; Hagen, Christoph von; Schmiedmayer, Joerg; Bar-Joseph, Israel; Lezec, Henri J.

    2007-06-15

    Magnetic trapping potentials for atoms on atom chips are determined by the current flow in the chip wires. By modifying the shape of the conductor we can realize specialized current flow patterns and therefore microdesign the trapping potentials. We have demonstrated this by nano-machining an atom chip using the focused ion beam technique. We built a trap, a barrier, and using a Bose-Einstein Condensate as a probe we showed that by polishing the conductor edge the potential roughness on the selected wire can be reduced. Furthermore, we give different other designs and discuss the creation of a one-dimensional magnetic lattice on an atom chip.

  14. Role of Family Resources and Paternal History of Substance Use Problems in Psychosocial Adjustment among School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the role of family resources (parenting style and family cohesion) and paternal history of substance abuse on the psychosocial adjustment of their school-aged children. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 (72 of fathers with history of substance use disorder, 76 children of fathers with no substance use…

  15. Developments in Aging: 1984. Volume 1. A Report of the Special Committee on Aging. United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session. Pursuant to S. Res. 354, March 2, 1984, Resolution Authorizing a Study of the Problems of the Aged and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Special Committee on Aging.

    This is a 1984 annual Senate report on aging which examines the health, income, employment, housing, and assistance problems of older people. In a preface, Senators Heinz and Glenn note the following significant events of l984: (1) Congress reauthorized the Older Americans Act; (2) a strong economy with low inflation helped Social Security and…

  16. Overt and covert verbal problem-solving strategies: developmental trends in use, awareness, and relations with task performance in children aged 5 to 17.

    PubMed

    Winsler, Adam; Naglieri, Jack

    2003-01-01

    Age-related changes in children's use, self report, and awareness of verbal problem-solving strategies (private speech) and strategy effectiveness were explored with a large (N = 2,156) cross-sectional sample of children aged 5 to 17. Children's verbal strategies moved from overt, to partially covert, to fully covert forms with age. Self-reports of verbal strategy use were accurate yet incomplete. Awareness of children's use of verbal strategies was low and increased with age. Although verbal strategies were associated with competence among the youngest children, self-talk was unrelated to task performance for older children, suggesting considerable persistence over time of a relatively ineffective strategy. Awareness was not a prerequisite for children's verbal strategy use but was positively associated with strategy effectiveness among those who talked.

  17. Effects of Age, Gender, and Retirement on Perceived Sleep Problems: Results from the VISAT Combined Longitudinal and Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Marquiáe, Jean-Claude; Folkard, Simon; Ansiau, David; Tucker, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the effects of age, gender, and retirement on the subjective frequency of various sleep problems in individuals on a normal work schedule. Design: Data were taken from the VISAT study (Aging, Health, – Work), which allowed both cross-sectional and longitudinal aspects of age-related changes to be examined. Setting: Various sorts of companies in southern France. Participants: The cohorts comprised 623 male and female, employed and retired, wage earners who were 32, 42, 52, and 62 years old at the time of the first measurement (t1, 1996), and who were seen again 5 (t2) and 10 (t3) years later. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Subjective ratings of the frequency of sleep problems and hypnotic usage were recorded on all 3 occasions, as was the employment status of the individuals. After controlling for age and gender, an effect of decade was observed for difficulty falling asleep and difficulty maintaining sleep, indicating that the frequency of these sleep problems was rated higher in 2006 than in 1996 by people of the same age at both measurement occasions. The perceived frequency of difficulty maintaining sleep, difficulty getting back to sleep, and premature awakening was found to increase up to the mid-50s but to then remain relatively constant, or even in the case of premature awakening to reduce, up to the age of 72. There was also a significant improvement in premature awakening among those individuals who changed from being active to being retired during the study period (n = 111). In contrast, the rated frequency of difficulty falling asleep and hypnotic usage increased fairly linearly over the entire age range. Conclusions: Sleep complaints were reported early in the workers’ lives, and were more frequent with age, but some of them improved after retirement, especially the complaint of premature awakening. Citation: Marquiáe JC; Folkard S; Ansiau D; Tucker P. Effects of age, gender, and retirement on

  18. 30 CFR 57.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Underground § 57.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage transmission lines shall meet the... “Safety Rules for the Installation and Maintenance of Electric Supply and Communication Lines”...

  19. Wire Capture Programs for Macintosh and IBM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Gale

    1989-01-01

    Discusses wire capture programs (computer programs which gather and process wire services such as the Associated Press or United Press) for computer labs in journalism departments. Describes details of such programs for Macintosh, IBM, and IBM clones. (SR)

  20. 49 CFR 393.28 - Wiring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Electrical wiring shall be installed and maintained to conform to SAE J1292—Automobile, Truck, Truck-Tractor, Trailer, and Motor Coach Wiring, October 1981, except the jumper cable plug and receptacle need...

  1. 49 CFR 393.28 - Wiring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Electrical wiring shall be installed and maintained to conform to SAE J1292—Automobile, Truck, Truck-Tractor, Trailer, and Motor Coach Wiring, October 1981, except the jumper cable plug and receptacle need...

  2. 49 CFR 393.28 - Wiring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Electrical wiring shall be installed and maintained to conform to SAE J1292—Automobile, Truck, Truck-Tractor, Trailer, and Motor Coach Wiring, October 1981, except the jumper cable plug and receptacle need...

  3. 49 CFR 393.28 - Wiring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Electrical wiring shall be installed and maintained to conform to SAE J1292—Automobile, Truck, Truck-Tractor, Trailer, and Motor Coach Wiring, October 1981, except the jumper cable plug and receptacle need...

  4. Put Your Cable Wiring to the Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, C. William

    2001-01-01

    Discusses why schools and universities should use testing procedures in any wire bid specification for cable wiring and also know how experienced the installers are in testing and installing structured cabling systems. Key cabling terms are included. (GR)

  5. Electrical wire insulation and electromagnetic coil

    DOEpatents

    Bich, George J.; Gupta, Tapan K.

    1984-01-01

    An electromagnetic coil for high temperature and high radiation application in which glass is used to insulate the electrical wire. A process for applying the insulation to the wire is disclosed which results in improved insulation properties.

  6. New insulation constructions for aerospace wiring applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slenski, George

    1994-01-01

    Outlined in this presentation is the background to insulation constructions for aerospace wiring applications, the Air Force wiring policy, the purpose and contract requirements of new insulation constructions, the test plan, and the test results.

  7. Technique for stripping Teflon insulated wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babb, B. D.

    1967-01-01

    Cryogenic stripping of Teflon insulated wire leaves no residue and produces no physical damage. After the wire is immersed in liquid nitrogen, bent slightly, and returned to room temperature, the Teflon is removed by fingernails or flat-nosed pliers.

  8. Parental problem-solving abilities and the association of sickle cell disease complications with health-related quality of life for school-age children.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Lamia P; Daniel, Lauren C; Smith, Kelsey; Renée Robinson, M; Patterson, Chavis A

    2014-03-01

    Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at risk for poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The current analysis sought to explore parent problem-solving abilities/skills as a moderator between SCD complications and HRQOL to evaluate applicability to pediatric SCD. At baseline, 83 children ages 6-12 years and their primary caregiver completed measures of child HRQOL. Primary caregivers also completed a measure of social problem-solving. A SCD complications score was computed from medical record review. Parent problem-solving abilities significantly moderated the association of SCD complications with child self-report psychosocial HRQOL (p = .006). SCD complications had a direct effect on parent proxy physical and psychosocial child HRQOL. Enhancing parent problem-solving abilities may be one approach to improve HRQOL for children with high SCD complications; however, modification of parent perceptions of HRQOL may require direct intervention to improve knowledge and skills involved in disease management.

  9. Packing of elastic wires in flexible shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, R.; Wittel, F. K.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2015-11-01

    The packing problem of long thin filaments that are injected into confined spaces is of fundamental interest for physicists and biologists alike. How linear threads pack and coil is well known only for the ideal case of rigid containers, though. Here, we force long elastic rods into flexible spatial confinement borne by an elastic shell to examine under which conditions recently acquired knowledge on wire packing in rigid spheres breaks down. We find that unlike in rigid cavities, friction plays a key role by giving rise to the emergence of two distinct packing patterns. At low friction, the wire densely coils into an ordered toroidal bundle with semi-ellipsoidal cross-section, while at high friction, it packs into a highly disordered, hierarchic structure. These two morphologies are shown to be separated by a continuous phase transition. Our findings demonstrate the dramatic impact of friction and confinement elasticity on filamentous packing and might drive future research on such systems in physics, biology and even medical technology toward including these mutually interacting effects.

  10. Regeneration: New Neurons Wire Up.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Pamela A

    2016-09-12

    Functional repair of damage in the nervous system requires re-establishment of precise patterns of synaptic connectivity. A new study shows that after selective ablation, zebrafish retinal neurons regenerate and reconstruct some, although not all, of their stereotypic wiring. PMID:27623258

  11. Fabrication of tungsten wire needles

    SciTech Connect

    Roder, A.

    1983-02-01

    Fine point needles for field emissoin are conventionally produced by electrolytically or chemically etching tungsten wire. Points formed in this manner have a typical tip radius of about 0.5 microns and a cone angle of some 30 degrees. The construction of needle matrix detector chambers has created a need for tungsten needles whose specifications are: 20 mil tungsten wire, 1.5 inch total length, 3 mm-long taper (resulting in a cone angle of about 5 degrees), and 25 micron-radius point (similar to that found on sewing needles). In the process described here for producing such needles, tungsten wire, immersed in a NaOH solution and in the presence of an electrode, is connected first to an ac voltage and then to a dc supply, to form a taper and a point on the end of the wire immersed in the solution. The process parameters described here are for needles that will meet the above specifications. Possible variations will be discussed under each approprite heading.

  12. Ultrasonic Calibration Wire Test Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, S K; Fisher, K A; Werve, M; Chambers, D H

    2004-09-24

    We designed and built a phantom consisting of vertical wires maintained under tension to be used as an ultrasonic test, calibration, and reconstruction object for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory annular array scanner. We provide a description of the phantom, present example data sets, preliminary reconstructions, example metadata, and MATLAB codes to read the data.

  13. Troubleshooting plated-wire memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, C. M.; Bright, T. M.; Constable, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    Faults in plated wire memories are identified and located from outside of system by applying electrical impulses and analyzing their reflectance in technique of Time-Domain Reflectometry (TDR). Intermittent faults are easier to find because memory system is not disturbed by probing or disassembly.

  14. Flexible substrate for printed wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asakura, M.; Yabe, K.; Tanaka, H.; Soda, A.

    1982-01-01

    A very flexible substrate for printed wiring is disclosed which is composed of a blend of phenoxy resin-polyisocyanate-brominated epoxy resin in which the equivalent ration of the functional groups is hydroxyl grouped: isocyanate group: epoxy group = 1:0.2 to 2:0.5 to 3. The product has outstanding solder resistance and is applied to metal without using adhesives.

  15. Plated wire random access memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gouldin, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to construct 4096-work by 18-bit random access, NDRO-plated wire memory units. The memory units were subjected to comprehensive functional and environmental tests at the end-item level to verify comformance with the specified requirements. A technical description of the unit is given, along with acceptance test data sheets.

  16. NEMA wire and cable standards development programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) is the nation's largest trade association for manufacturers of electrical equipment. Its member companies produce components, end-use equipment and systems for the generation, transmission, distribution, control and use of electricity. The wire and cable division is presented in 6 sections: building wire and cable, fabricated conductors, flexible cords, high performance wire and cable, magnet wire, and power and control cable. Participating companies are listed.

  17. Novel Wiring Technologies for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Tracy L.; Parrish, Lewis M.

    2014-01-01

    Because wire failure in aerospace vehicles could be catastrophic, smart wiring capabilities have been critical for NASA. Through the years, researchers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have developed technologies, expertise, and research facilities to meet this need. In addition to aerospace applications, NASA has applied its knowledge of smart wiring, including self-healing materials, to serve the aviation industry. This webinar will discuss the development efforts of several wiring technologies at KSC and provide insight into both current and future research objectives.

  18. 49 CFR 236.838 - Wire, shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wire, shunt. 236.838 Section 236.838 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Wire, shunt. A wire forming part of a shunt circuit....

  19. Thermoelectric Mechanism and Interface Characteristics of Cyanide-Free Nanogold-Coated Silver Wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Yi-Wei; Hung, Fei-Yi; Lui, Truan-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Traditional bath-plated gold contains a cyanide complex, which is an environmental hazard. In response, our study used a green plating process to produce cyanide-free gold-coated silver (cyanide-free ACA) bonding wire that has been proven to be a feasible alternative to gold bonding wire in semiconductor packaging. In this work, ACA wire annealed at 550°C was found to have stable microstructure and superior mechanical properties. Intermetallic compounds Ag2Al and AuAl2 grew from Ag-Au balls and Al pads after aging at 175°C for 500 h. After current testing, ACA wire was found to have improved electrical properties due to equiaxed grain growth. The gold nanolayer on the Ag surface increased the oxidation resistance. These results provide insights regarding the reliability of ACA wire in advanced bonding processes.

  20. An Integral Method for Determining Induced Voltage in Time-Varying Wire Inductors

    SciTech Connect

    Fasenfest, B; White, D; Rockway, J

    2005-05-27

    This report documents the creation of software tools to model time-varying wire inductors. The class of inductors studied consists of arbitrary wire shapes in nonmagnetic material. When the wire structures are deformed, the inductance changes, and a voltage is induced. This voltage is of interest, for instance when the inductor is used to measure or sense a shockwave. An integral technique, which only requires integrating over the wire segments, is used to find the inductance at each time step, with backwards-difference approximations being used on successive time steps to determine the voltage. This method allows for arbitrary time-varying wire structures. It was tested for several canonical problems and used to model a double helix solenoid compressed by a shockwave.

  1. The formation of bronchocutaneous fistulae due to retained epicardial pacing wires: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Patris, Vasileios; Argiriou, Michalis; Salem, Agni-Leila; Giakoumidakis, Konstantinos; Baikoussis, Nikolaos G.; Charitos, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Temporary epicardial pacing wires during open-heart surgery are routinely used both for diagnostic and treatment purposes. In complicated cases where patients are unstable or the wires are difficult to remove, the pacing wires are cut at the skin level and allowed to retract by themselves. This procedure rarely causes complications. However, there have been cases reporting that retained pacing wires are linked to the formation of sterno-bronchial fistulae, which may present a while after the date of operation and are usually infected. This review aims to study the cases presenting sterno-bronchial fistulae due to retained epicardial pacing wires and to highlight the important factors associated with these. It is important to note these complications, as fistulae may cause a variety of problems to the patient if undiagnosed and left untreated. With the aid of scans such as fistulography, fistulae can be identified and treated and will improve the patients’ health dramatically. PMID:27716700

  2. Measurements and simulations of the ablation stage of wire arrays with different initial wire sizes

    SciTech Connect

    Sinars, D.B.; Cuneo, M.E.; Yu, E.P.; Jones, B.; Mehlhorn, T.A.; Porter, J.L.; Wenger, D.F.; Lebedev, S.V.; Cochrane, K.R.; MacFarlane, J.J.

    2006-04-15

    Comparisons of 20 mm diameter, 300-wire tungsten arrays with different initial wire sizes were made on the 20 MA Sandia Z facility. Radiographic measurements of each wire array, taken at the same point in the current during the wire ablation stage, show systematic differences. A detailed comparison of the radiography and self-emission data with simulations and analytic models suggests that a variation in the mass ablation rate with wire size may be responsible.

  3. Marijuana use and later problems: when frequency of recent use explains age of initiation effects (and when it does not).

    PubMed

    Ellickson, Phyllis L; D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Collins, Rebecca L; Klein, David J

    2005-01-01

    Tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana are among the most commonly used drugs during adolescence. Initiation of marijuana use typically peaks at age 15, with risk of initiation continuing throughout adolescence. The goal of the current study was to prospectively examine the influence of age of marijuana initiation on four outcomes: physical health, mental health, illicit drug use other than marijuana, and marijuana-use related consequences at age 18. We controlled for several important predictors of adolescent drug use and its associated consequences, including demographics, social bonding variables, personality variables, and recent use of marijuana. Baseline survey data were collected in 1984 at grade 7 and follow up surveys were conducted at grades 8, 9, 10, and 12 (N = 2079). This initiates-only sample was 47% female, 66% White, 11% African American, 13% Hispanic, 5% Asian, and 5% other race or ethnicity. Findings indicated that age of initiation predicted marijuana consequences and other illicit drug use after controlling for demographic, social, and behavioral factors. However, once frequency of recent marijuana use was included in the models, age of initiation was only associated with other illicit drug use. Both primary and secondary prevention are needed to curb marijuana use and its associated harms. PMID:15776981

  4. Age-related changes in the attentional control of visual cortex: A selective problem in the left visual hemifield

    PubMed Central

    Nagamatsu, Lindsay S.; Carolan, Patrick; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa Y.L.; Handy, Todd C.

    2012-01-01

    To what extent does our visual-spatial attention change with age? In this regard, it has been previously reported that relative to young controls, seniors show delays in attention-related sensory facilitation. Given this finding, our study was designed to examine two key questions regarding age-related changes in the effect of spatial attention on sensory-evoked responses in visual cortex –– are there visual field differences in the age-related impairments in sensory processing, and do these impairments co-occur with changes in the executive control signals associated with visual spatial orienting? Therefore, our study examined both attentional control and attentional facilitation in seniors (aged 66 to 74 years) and young adults (aged 18 to 25 years) using a canonical spatial orienting task. Participants responded to attended and unattended peripheral targets while we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) to both targets and attention-directing spatial cues. We found that not only were sensory-evoked responses delayed in seniors specifically for unattended events in the left visual field as measured via latency shifts in the lateral occipital P1 elicited by visual targets, but seniors also showed amplitude reductions in the anterior directing attentional negativity (ADAN) component elicited by cues directing attention to the left visual field. At the same time, seniors also had significantly higher error rates for targets presented in the left vs. right visual field. Taken together, our data thus converge on the conclusion that age-related changes in visual spatial attention involve both sensory-level and executive attentional control processes, and that these effects appear to be strongly associated with the left visual field. PMID:21356222

  5. The UThPb age of equilibrated L chondrites and a solution to the excess radiogenic Pb problem in chondrites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Unruh, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    U, Th, and Pb analyses of whole-rock and troilite separates from seven L chondrites suggest that the excess radiogenic Pb relative to U and the large variations in PbPb model ages commonly observed in chondritic meteorites are largely due to terrestrial Pb contamination induced prior to analyses. Using the Pb isotopic composition of troilite separates to calculate the isotopic composition of the Pb contaminants, the whole-rock data have been corrected for pre-analysis terrestrial Pb contamination. Two approaches have been used: (1) the chondrite-troilite apparent initial Pb isotopic compositions were used to approximate the mixture of indigenous intial Pb and terrestrial Pb in the whole-rock sample, and (2) a single-stage (concordant) model was applied using the assumption that the excess radiogenic Pb in these samples was terrestrial. Data for L5 and L6 chondrites yield a 4551 ?? 7 My age using the former correction and a 4550 ?? 5 My age using the latter one. Corrected data for one L4 chondrite, Tennasilm, yield a 4552 ?? 13 My age which is indistinguishable from that of the L5-L6 chondrites. However, the other L4 chondrite, Bjurbo??le, yields a 4590 ?? 6 My. ThUPb data suggest that this older age may be an artifact of the correction procedure, and that some of the discordancy of the Bjurbo??le data is the result of either a recent geologic disturbance to the UThPb system or to terrestrial U loss. Some aliquots of the L5L6 chondrites also show small amounts of discordancy (??? 10%) which are not easily attributable to terrestrial Pb contamination. The data from the L5-L6 chondrites and Tennasilm suggest that there are no more than ??? 15 MY differences in the ages of L24-L6 chondrites. ?? 1982.

  6. Emittance growth due to Tevatron flying wires

    SciTech Connect

    Syphers, M; Eddy, Nathan

    2004-06-01

    During Tevatron injection, Flying Wires have been used to measure the transverse beam size after each transfer from the Main Injector in order to deduce the transverse emittances of the proton and antiproton beams. This amounts to 36 + 9 = 45 flies of each of 3 wire systems, with an individual wire passing through each beam bunch twice during a single ''fly''. below they estimate the emittance growth induced by the interaction of the wires with the particles during these measurements. Changes of emittance from Flying Wire measurements conducted during three recent stores are compared with the estimations.

  7. Clinical Efficiency of Two Sequences of Orthodontic Wires to Correct Crowding of the Lower Anterior Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Maria de Castro Serafim, Cláudia; de Araújo Gurgel, Júlio; Mota Tiago, Carollyne; Rodolfo de Jesus Tavarez, Rudys; Matos Maia Filho, Etevaldo

    2015-01-01

    This study compared time to correction of mandibular anterior crowding using two arch wire sequences, one with conventional nickel-titanium (NiTi) arch wires and the other with conventional and NiTi heat-activated arch wires. Twenty-two boys and girls (mean age: 16.68 ± 2.66) with moderate crowding (3–6 mm) were assigned randomly to one of two groups and followed up for five months (six assessments) when arch wires were changed. Time to crowding correction was analyzed statistically using the Kaplan-Meier method. Data were collected during the five-month follow-up, and time to correction was compared between groups using the log rank test. At the end of follow-up, mandibular crowding was corrected in 100% of the cases in the group treated with the sequence that included NiTi heat-activated arch wires, whereas about 30% of those treated with NiTi arch wires were not completely corrected. There was a significant difference in time to complete treatment between groups (log rank = 5.996; p < 0.05). In the group treated with the sequence that included heat-activated wires, alignment and leveling of mandibular anterior teeth were completed earlier than in the group treated only with conventional NiTi arch wires. Clinical trial registration is found at RBR-7g5zng. PMID:26176018

  8. Investigation of elastic modes propagating in multi-wire helical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treyssède, Fabien; Laguerre, Laurent

    2010-05-01

    Elastic guided waves have some potential for non-destructive inspection of civil engineering multi-wire steel cables. However, wave propagation inside such structures is not yet fully understood. This paper investigates multi-wire helical waveguides with special attention to the common seven-wire strand configuration (one straight core surrounded by one layer of six helical wires). A helical coordinate system is first proposed. Though non-orthogonal, this system preserves translational invariance along the helix centreline to explicitly perform a spatial Fourier transform. Then, it is shown that for the analysis of multi-wire helical strands a twisting system—which is a special case of helical systems—is translationally invariant. A semi-analytical finite element method is developed reducing the problem on the cross-section only. A straightforward computation of energy velocity is proposed. Dispersion curves for a single straight wire and a helical wire are first computed to verify the adequacy of the twisting system. Finally the seven-wire strand is analysed using simplified contact conditions. Theoretical dispersion curves are compared to low-frequency magnetostrictive measurements. Good agreement is found for the first compressional-like mode and its associated veering central frequency ('notch frequency').

  9. New concept for the development of Bi-2212 wires for high-field applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leveratto, A.; Braccini, V.; Contarino, D.; Ferdeghini, C.; Malagoli, A.

    2016-04-01

    The first step towards high critical currents in Bi-2212 wires was recognizing that the supercurrent is blocked over long lengths by filament-diameter bubbles grown during the melt stage, which cause expansion of the wire diameter and dedensification of the superconducting filaments. While a succesful approach to reducing the problem of voids related to bubbles involved the application of a high overpressure during the heat treatment, we fabricated Bi-2212 wires by applying a new concept of suitably alternating groove-rolling and drawing techniques with the aim of densifying the phase during the working procedure prior to the heat treatment. We here for the first time were able to reach, in wires reacted with closed ends—i.e. with gas trapped in the wire as it happens in long length wires—the very same values of critical current shown in short wires reacted with open ends. This is the irrefutable evidence that, only by acting on the deformation technique, we were able to raise the critical current by properly densifying the superconducting powder inside the filaments already before the melt stage. Whole-conductor current densities in our long-length simulation wires already reach 400 A mm-2 at 4.2 K and 5 T, which can be still easily increased through architecture optimization. The actual breakthrough is that the densification is optimized without further complex treatments through a technique which can be straightforwardly applied to long length wires.

  10. SpaceWire Data Handling Demonstration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, S.; Parkes, S. M.; O'Gribin, N.

    2007-08-01

    The SpaceWire standard was published in 2003 with the aim of providing a standard for onboard communications, defining the physical and data link layers of an interconnection, in order to improve reusability, reliability and to reduce the cost of mission development. The many benefits which it provides mean that it has already been used in a number of missions, both in Europe and throughout the world. Recent work by the SpaceWire community has included the development of higher level protocols for SpaceWire, such as the Remote Memory Access Protocol (RMAP) which can be used for many purposes, including the configuration of SpaceWire devices. Although SpaceWire has become very popular, the various ways in which it can be used are still being discovered, as are the most efficient ways to use it. At the same time, some in the space industry are not even aware of SpaceWire's existence. This paper describes the SpaceWire Data Handling Demonstration System that has been developed by the University of Dundee. This system simulates an onboard data handling network based on SpaceWire. It uses RMAP for all communication, and so demonstrates how SpaceWire and standardised higher level protocols can be used onboard a spacecraft. The system is not only a good advert for those who are unfamiliar with the benefits of SpaceWire, it is also a useful tool for those using SpaceWire to test ideas.

  11. Preschool to School in Autism: Neuropsychiatric Problems 8 Years after Diagnosis at 3 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnevik Olsson, M.; Lundström, S.; Westerlund, J.; Giacobini, M. B.; Gillberg, C.; Fernell, E.

    2016-01-01

    The study presents neuropsychiatric profiles of children aged 11 with autism spectrum disorder, assessed before 4.5 years, and after interventions. The original group comprised a community sample of 208 children with ASD. Parents of 128 participated--34 with average intellectual function, 36 with borderline intellectual function and 58 with…

  12. Genetic and Environmental Mechanisms Underlying Stability and Change in Problem Behaviors at Ages 3, 7, 10, and 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartels, M.; van den Oord, E. J. C. G.; Hudziak, J. J,; Rietveld, M. J. H.; van Beijsterveldt, C. E. M.; Boomsma, D. I.

    2004-01-01

    Maternal ratings on internalizing (INT) and externalizing (EXT) behaviors were collected in a large, population-based longitudinal sample. The numbers of participating twin pairs at ages 3, 7, 10, and 12 were 5,602, 5,115, 2,956, and 1,481, respectively. Stability in both behaviors was accounted for by genetic and shared environmental influences.…

  13. Educating for the Knowledge Age: A Collective Case Study of Teachers' Beliefs in a Problem Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffus Doerr, Amy M.

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing trend in the business literature; education is not preparing students for the Knowledge Age. The literature further states the foundation of a successful Knowledge Economy and the production of its knowledge workers is education. Considering that the school system is a foundation for learning, it is a startling revelation that…

  14. Do Some School-Age Children Have No Language? Some Problems of Construct Validity in the Pre-LAS Espanol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacSwan, Jeff; Rolstad, Kellie; Glass, Gene V.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of a dataset of 38,887 Spanish-speaking children aged 4-6 who took the Pre-Language Assessment Scales Espanol indicates serious concerns with test validity. The "non-non" label--nonverbal in both Spanish and English--may be an artifact of poor assessment. Policies requiring routine oral native-language assessment of language-minority…

  15. Space or Physics? Children Use Physical Reasoning to Solve the Trap Problem from 2.5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seed, Amanda M.; Call, Josep

    2014-01-01

    By 3 years of age, children can solve tasks involving physical principles such as locating a ball that rolled down a ramp behind an occluder by the position of a partially visible solid wall (Berthier, DeBlois, Poirer, Novak, & Clifton, 2000; Hood, Carey, & Prasada, 2000). However, the extent to which children use physical information (the…

  16. Wire Crimp Connectors Verification using Ultrasonic Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Perey, Daniel F.; Yost, William T.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a new ultrasonic measurement technique to quantitatively assess wire crimp connections is discussed. The amplitude change of a compressional ultrasonic wave propagating through the junction of a crimp connector and wire is shown to correlate with the results of a destructive pull test, which previously has been used to assess crimp wire junction quality. Various crimp junction pathologies (missing wire strands, incorrect wire gauge, incomplete wire insertion in connector) are ultrasonically tested, and their results are correlated with pull tests. Results show that the ultrasonic measurement technique consistently (as evidenced with pull-testing data) predicts good crimps when ultrasonic transmission is above a certain threshold amplitude level. A physics-based model, solved by finite element analysis, describes the compressional ultrasonic wave propagation through the junction during the crimping process. This model is in agreement within 6% of the ultrasonic measurements. A prototype instrument for applying the technique while wire crimps are installed is also presented.

  17. Composite wire plasma formation and evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Spielman, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    The detailed understanding of the formation and evolution of plasma from rapidly heated metallic wires is a long-standing challenge in the field of plasma physics and in exploding wire engineering. This physical process is made even more complicated if the wire material is composed of a number of individual layers. The authors have successfully developed both optical and x-ray backlighting diagnostics. In particular, the x-ray backlighting technique has demonstrated the capability for quantitative determination of the plasma density over a wide range of densities. This diagnostic capability shows that the process of plasma formation is composed of two separate phases: first, current is passed through a cold wire and the wire is heated ohmically, and, second, the heated wire evolves gases that break down and forms a low-density plasma surrounding the wire.

  18. NASA wiring for space applications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman

    1995-01-01

    An overview of the NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program and its relationship to NASA's space technology enterprise is given in viewgraph format. The mission of the space technology enterprise is to pioneer, with industry, the development and use of space technology to secure national economic competitiveness, promote industrial growth, and to support space missions. The objectives of the NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program is to improve the safety, performance, and reliability of wiring systems for space applications and to develop improved wiring technologies for NASA flight programs and commercial applications. Wiring system failures in space and commercial applications have shown the need for arc track resistant wiring constructions. A matrix of tests performed versus wiring constructions is presented. Preliminary data indicate the performance of the Tensolite and Filotex hybrid constructions are the best of the various candidates.

  19. A Comparison of pical Root Resorption in Incisors after Fixed Orthodontic Treatment with Standard Edgewise and Straight Wire (MBT) Method

    PubMed Central

    Zahed Zahedani, SM; Oshagh, M; Momeni Danaei, Sh; Roeinpeikar, SMM

    2013-01-01

    Statement of Problem: One of the major outcomes of orthodontic treatment is the apical root resorption of teeth moved during the treatment. Identifying the possible risk factors, are necessary for every orthodontist. Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the rate of apical root resorption after fixed orthodontic treatment with standard edgewise and straight wire (MBT) method, and also to evaluate other factors effecting the rate of root resorption in orthodontic treatments. Materials and Method: In this study, parallel periapical radiographs of 127 patients imaging a total of 737 individual teeth, were collected. A total of 76 patients were treated by standard edgewise and 51 patients by straight wire method. The periapical radiographs were scanned and then the percentage of root resorption was calculated by Photoshop software. The data were analyzed by Paired-Samples t-test and the Generalized Linear Model adopting the SPSS 15.0. Results: In patients treated with straight wire method (MBT), mean root resorption was 18.26% compared to 14.82% in patients treated with standard edgewise technique (p< .05). Male patients had higher rate of root resorption,statistically significant (p< .05). Age at onset of treatment, duration of treatment, type of dental occlusion, premolar extractions and the use of intermaxillary elastics had no significant effect on the root resorption in this study. Conclusion: Having more root resorption in the straight wire method and less in the standard edgewise technique can be attributed to more root movement in pre-adjusted MBT technique due to the brackets employed in this method. PMID:24724131

  20. Birthweight-discordance and differences in early parenting relate to monozygotic twin differences in behaviour problems and academic achievement at age 7.

    PubMed

    Asbury, Kathryn; Dunn, Judith F; Plomin, Robert

    2006-03-01

    This longitudinal monozygotic (MZ) twin differences study explored associations between birthweight and early family environment and teacher-rated behaviour problems and academic achievement at age 7. MZ differences in anxiety, hyperactivity, conduct problems, peer problems and academic achievement correlated significantly with MZ differences in birthweight and early family environment, showing effect sizes of up to 2%. As predicted by earlier research, associations increased at the extremes of discordance, even in a longitudinal, cross-rater design, with effect sizes reaching as high as 12%. As with previous research some of these non-shared environmental (NSE) relationships appeared to operate partly as a function of SES, family chaos and maternal depression. Higher-risk families generally showed stronger negative associations.

  1. Mental health problems and resilience in international adoptees: Results from a population-based study of Norwegian adolescents aged 16-19 years.

    PubMed

    Askeland, Kristin Gärtner; Hysing, Mari; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Tell, Grethe S; Sivertsen, Børge

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate mental health and resilience in adolescents who have been internationally adopted and their non-adopted peers and examine the potential interaction between adoption status and resilience on mental health problems. Data from the population based youth@hordaland-survey, conducted in Hordaland County, Norway, in 2012 was used. In all, 10 257 adolescents aged 16-19 years provided self-reported data on several mental health instruments. Of these, 45 adolescents were identified as internationally adopted. Adoptees reported more symptoms of depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and perfectionism than non-adopted adolescents, but there were no differences regarding resilience. Adolescents with higher resilience scores reported fewer symptoms of mental health problems, however, no interaction effects were found for adoption status and total resilience score on measures of mental health problems. Our findings indicate that knowledge of resilience factors can form the basis for preventive interventions.

  2. Preschool-Age Problem Behavior and Teacher-Child Conflict in School: Direct and Moderation Effects by Preschool Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skalická, Vera; Belsky, Jay; Stenseng, Frode; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that the new open-group Norwegian day-care centers would more than traditionally organized centers negatively affect (a) current and (b) future teacher-child relationships, and (c) the developmental legacy of preschool problem behavior. The focus was on eight hundred and fifty 4-year-olds from 153 centers who were…

  3. Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Children with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder: Impact of Age and Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Ana; Soriano, Manuel; Fernandez, Inmaculada; Melia, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Comorbidity with other psychological problems (PP) complicates the course of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and makes treatment more difficult. The purpose of the present study was to (a) study the correspondence between the perceptions of parents and teachers about PP, (b) determine which PP predict the severity of the…

  4. The unique processing of rubber-insulated wires by radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishitani, Hayao; Saito, Eisuke; Sasaki, Yasushi

    Ethylene-propylene rubbers are able to be crosslinked (vulcanized) by high energy radiation. The radiation-induced crosslinking of ethylene-propylene copolymer or ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer depends upon the ethylene/propylene ratio, the molecular weight of the polymer, the unsaturating degree of terpolymer and kinds of tercomponents. The mechanical properties of the crosslinked rubber were affected mainly by the E/P ratio and the molecular weight, and improved by blending of low density polyethylene or ethylene-vinylacetate copolymer. Aging of the rubber, due to kinds and contents of tercomponents, was mostly determined by addition of antioxidants to the compound. We developed EP rubber compounds for wire insulation crosslinked by electron beam radiation and applied to the insulation cores of the ship's cables, in the place of the wire vulcanized conventionally by the pressurized steam in the continuous vulcanizer. The rubber compounds are consisted of ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer with high ethylene contents, ethylene-vinylacetate copolymer and antioxidants. The high-ethylene polymers are supplied in the shape of pellets, and antioxidants were added to the compounds by means of dry blending of concentrates in which antioxidants are mixed into pellets of ethylene copolymer. The EP rubbers were covered on the copper wire by the extruder, used to plastic material, and irradiated with the electron beam from an accelerator. These insulated cores manufactured on radiation processing had the excellent properties, particularly aging and electrical properties. Further, they are more simply colored. Therefore, they will be considered to be used to other applications. This method of manufacturing of the rubber-insulated wires made it possible to reduce both the material costs by simple compounding and the operating costs by radiation-induced crosslinking, to compare with the conventional compounding and vulcanizing process, in which the materials are

  5. Sintered wire cesium dispenser photocathode

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, Eric J; Ives, R. Lawrence; Falce, Louis R

    2014-03-04

    A photoelectric cathode has a work function lowering material such as cesium placed into an enclosure which couples a thermal energy from a heater to the work function lowering material. The enclosure directs the work function lowering material in vapor form through a low diffusion layer, through a free space layer, and through a uniform porosity layer, one side of which also forms a photoelectric cathode surface. The low diffusion layer may be formed from sintered powdered metal, such as tungsten, and the uniform porosity layer may be formed from wires which are sintered together to form pores between the wires which are continuous from the a back surface to a front surface which is also the photoelectric surface.

  6. The transmaxillary K-wire.

    PubMed Central

    Silverton, J. S.; Bostwick, J.; Jurkiewicz, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    The transmaxillary K-wire is a simple, fast, safe, and effective technique for the fixation of unstable tractured malar bones. Combined with other techniques such as interdental fixation it simplifies and provides the fixation of the Le Fort II fracture or osteotomy and certain osteotomies used for facial advancement. The technique of insertion is described and illustrated. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:666241

  7. Reduced-Wiring Tactile Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohm, Timothy R.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed tactile sensor on robot finger puts out multiplexed analog signals transmitted to control computer on fewer wires than needed to transmit equivalent digital signals. Analog output represents data on contact area of object being gripped, on position of object, and on direction and rate of slippage if any. Consists of chains of normally open switches and resistors on surface of finger. Each resistance double preceding resistance in each chain. Constant-current sources supply power to chains.

  8. Rate of acquisition, adult age, and basic cognitive abilities predict forgetting: new views on a classic problem.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Stuart W S; Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna; Derwinger, Anna; Bäckman, Lars

    2006-08-01

    Rate of forgetting is putatively invariant across individuals, sharing few associations with individual-differences variables known to influence encoding and retrieval. This classic topic in learning and memory was revisited using a novel statistical application, multilevel modeling, to examine whether (a) slopes of forgetting varied across individuals and (b) observed individual differences in forgetting shared systematic relations with adult age, learning speed, and cognitive ability. Participants (N = 136) received mnemonic training prior to memorizing 4-digit numbers to perfection, and retention was tested immediately after training and after 30 min, 24 hr, 7 weeks, and 8 months. Slower rate of learning to criterion, older age, and poorer cognitive performance predicted accelerated forgetting with associations most pronounced within 24 hr from baseline. Observed correlates of differential forgetting slopes are similar to those previously found to affect encoding, suggesting continuity rather than asymmetry of prediction for these memory processes.

  9. Beyond the wiring diagram: signalling through complex neuromodulator networks

    PubMed Central

    Brezina, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    During the computations performed by the nervous system, its ‘wiring diagram’—the map of its neurons and synaptic connections—is dynamically modified and supplemented by multiple actions of neuromodulators that can be so complex that they can be thought of as constituting a biochemical network that combines with the neuronal network to perform the computation. Thus, the neuronal wiring diagram alone is not sufficient to specify, and permit us to understand, the computation that underlies behaviour. Here I review how such modulatory networks operate, the problems that their existence poses for the experimental study and conceptual understanding of the computations performed by the nervous system, and how these problems may perhaps be solved and the computations understood by considering the structural and functional ‘logic’ of the modulatory networks. PMID:20603357

  10. Preschool-age problem behavior and teacher-child conflict in school: direct and moderation effects by preschool organization.

    PubMed

    Skalická, Věra; Belsky, Jay; Stenseng, Frode; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that the new open-group Norwegian day-care centers would more than traditionally organized centers negatively affect (a) current and (b) future teacher-child relationships, and (c) the developmental legacy of preschool problem behavior. The focus was on eight hundred and fifty 4-year-olds from 153 centers who were followed up in first grade. Results of this natural quasi-experiment revealed that children from open-group centers (a) experienced less teacher-child closeness in preschool and (b) more teacher-child conflict in first grade, and (c) that high levels of preschool problem behavior forecast especially high levels of future teacher-child conflict, but only for children from open-group centers. Results highlight the importance of spatial and social organization of day care and their translational implications.

  11. Magnetic characteristics and measurements of filamentary Nb-Ti wire for the Superconducting Super Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Goldfarb, R.B.; Spomer, R.L.

    1989-12-31

    In synchrotron accelerator applications, such as the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), superconducting magnets are cycled in magnetic field. Desirable properties of the magnets include field uniformity, field stability with time, small residual field, and fairly small energy losses upon cycling. This paper discusses potential sources of problems in achieving these goals, describes important magnetic characteristics to be considered, and reviews measurement techniques for magnetic evaluation of candidate SSC wires. Instrumentation that might be practical for use in a wire-fabrication environment is described. The authors report on magnetic measurements of prototype SSC wires and cables and speculate on causes for instability in multipole fields of dipole magnets constructed with such cables.

  12. Rational design of a DNA wire possessing an extremely high hole transport ability.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Akimitsu; Tanaka, Kazuo; Saito, Isao

    2003-04-30

    DNA is a promising conductive biopolymer. However, there are problems that need to be solved to realize real DNA wires. These include the low efficiency of hole transport and the serious oxidative damage that can occur during hole transport. We have demonstrated a protocol for the design of a DNA wire that can effectively mediate hole transport that is not adversely affected by oxidation during hole transport through the DNA duplex. We have synthesized a stable and effective DNA wire by incorporating a designer nucleobase, benzodeazaadenine derivatives, which have lower oxidation potentials and wider stacking areas but are not decomposed during hole transport.

  13. Articulated registration: elastic registration based on a wire-model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Fernandez, Miguel A.; Munyoz-Moreno, Emma; Martin-Fernandez, Marcos; Alberola-Lopez, Carlos

    2005-04-01

    In this paper we propose a new method of elastic registration of anatomical structures that bears an inner skeleton, such as the knee, hand or spine. Such a method has to deal with great degrees of variability, specially for the case of inter-subject registration; but even for the intra-subject case the degree of variability of images will be large since the structures we bear in mind are articulated. Rigid registration methods are clearly inappropriate for this problem, and well-known elastic methods do not usually incorporate the restriction of maintaining long skeletal structures straight. A new method is therefore needed to deal with such a situation; we call this new method "articulated registration". The inner bone skeleton is modeled with a wire model, where wires are drawn by connecting landmarks located in the main joints of the skeletal structure to be registered (long bones). The main feature of our registration method is that within the bone axis (specifically, where the wires are) an exact registration is guaranteed, while for the remaining image points an elastic registration is carried out based on a distance transform (with respect to the model wires); this causes the registration on long bones to be affine to all practical purposes, while the registration of soft tissue -- far from the bones -- is elastic. As a proof-of-concept of this method we describe the registration of hands on radiographs.

  14. Method and apparatus for laying wire arrays

    DOEpatents

    Horowitz, Seymour M.; Nesbitt, Dale D.

    1986-01-01

    Wire arrays (11) having a continuous wire (12) which is formed into a predetermined pattern and adhered to a backing material or substrate (13) are fabricated by applying adhesive material (16a, 16b) along opposite edge portions (17, 18) of the substrate, positioning a row of winding spools (21) along each of the edge portions and repeatedly extending the wire between and around successive spools at the opposite edge portions. The wound wire is then traveled along each spool toward the substrate and into contact with the adhesive. The spools are then removed and a coating of hardenable material (54) is applied to secure the wound wire to the substrate. Tension in the wire is relieved prior to contact of the wire with the adhesive and a small amount of slack is introduced into the wire before the final coating step. Mechanism (32) is provided for lifting the spools away from the substrate without disturbing the wound wire. The method and apparatus enable manufacture of precisely configured wire arrays without complex or costly equipment and do not require structural alterations in the substrate for the purpose of accommodating to fabrication equipment.

  15. Analysis of Conical Wire Array Z-Pinch Stability with a Center Wire

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, D.; Presura, R.; Wright, S.; Plechaty, C.; Neff, S.; Wanex, L.; Ampleford, D. J.

    2009-01-21

    Adding a center wire on the axis of a conical wire array produces conditions suitable for studying shear flow stabilization of the Z-pinch. The conical wire array produces and axial plasma flow while the center wire introduces a radial variation of the axial velocity. Experiments of this array configuration were preformed on the 1 MA Zebra Z-pinch generator and showed stabilization of the kink instability when a center wire was present. Comparison with equivalent cylindrical wire arrays indicates that the shear flow stabilization plays a role in the stabilization of the kink instability.

  16. Perinatal and sociodemographic factors at birth predicting conduct problems and violence to age 18 years: comparison of Brazilian and British birth cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Joseph; Maughan, Barbara; Menezes, Ana M B; Hickman, Matthew; MacLeod, John; Matijasevich, Alicia; Gonçalves, Helen; Anselmi, Luciana; Gallo, Erika A G; Barros, Fernando C

    2015-01-01

    Background Many low- and middle-income countries have high levels of violence. Research in high-income countries shows that risk factors in the perinatal period are significant precursors of conduct problems which can develop into violence. It is not known whether the same early influences are important in lower income settings with higher rates of violence. This study compared perinatal and sociodemographic risk factors between Brazil and Britain, and their role in explaining higher rates of conduct problems and violence in Brazil. Methods Prospective population-based birth cohort studies were conducted in Pelotas, Brazil (N = 3,618) and Avon, Britain (N = 4,103). Eleven perinatal and sociodemographic risk factors were measured in questionnaires completed by mothers during the perinatal period. Conduct problems were measured in questionnaires completed by mothers at age 11, and violence in self-report questionnaires completed by adolescents at age 18. Results Conduct problems were predicted by similar risk factors in Brazil and Britain. Female violence was predicted by several of the same risk factors in both countries. However, male violence in Brazil was associated with only one risk factor, and several risk factor associations were weaker in Brazil than in Britain for both females and males. Almost 20% of the higher risk for conduct problems in Brazil compared to Britain was explained by differential exposure to risk factors. The percentage of the cross-national difference in violence explained by early risk factors was 15% for females and 8% for males. Conclusions A nontrivial proportion of cross-national differences in antisocial behaviour are related to perinatal and sociodemographic conditions at the start of life. However, risk factor associations are weaker in Brazil than in Britain, and influences in other developmental periods are probably of particular importance for understanding male youth violence in Brazil. PMID:25471542

  17. Prospective, randomized, single blinded pilot study of a new FlatWire based sternal closure system

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Unstable steel wire cerclage following open heart surgery may result in increased pain, sternal cut-through, non-union, or dehiscence. These complications lead to longer hospital stays, increased cost, higher morbidity, and patient dissatisfaction. The Figure 8 FlatWire Sternal Closure System is a new construct which is a simple, intuitive, and inexpensive alternative for primary sternal repair following open heart surgery. Prior bench-top testing of FlatWire has demonstrated superior strength and stiffness compared to traditional steel wire. We present our initial experience in a prospective, randomized, single blinded pilot study utilizing this FDA approved system. Methods Sixty-three patients undergoing elective complete sternotomies at a single institution were randomly assigned to receive either the Figure 8 FlatWire or standard steel wire cerclage. All surgeries were performed by a single board certified cardiothoracic surgeon. Data collected included: Age, BMI, pump time, off pump to surgical stop time, length of hospital stay after surgery, cost from time of surgery to discharge, and pain on a visual analog pain scale on the day of discharge, day 30, and day 60. Results The groups were well matched. Patients receiving the Figure 8 FlatWire (33) had a reduction in length of stay compared to patients receiving steel wire circlage (30), but it was not statistically significant (6.8 vs. 7.8 days respectively, p < 0.093). Additionally those with the FlatWire reported significantly decreased pain at day of discharge (3.07 vs. 4.92 points on pain scale, p < 0.0066), with similar pain scores at 30 and 60 days. Off pump to surgery stop time was increased by 15.9 minutes in patients receiving the FlatWire vs. steel wires (55.7 vs. 71.6 minutes, p = 0.00025). Mean cost from surgery until discharge was $87,820.98 in the FlatWire group vs. $91,930.29 in the steel wire group (p < 0.3082). Conclusion Early clinical results suggest that

  18. The Long-Term Effectiveness of the Family Check-Up on School-Age Conduct Problems: Moderation by Neighborhood Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel S.; Sitnick, Stephanie L.; Brennan, Lauretta M.; Choe, Daniel E.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin N.; Gardner, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Several studies suggest that neighborhood deprivation is a unique risk factor in child and adolescent development of problem behavior. We sought to examine whether previously established intervention effects of the Family Check-Up (FCU) on child conduct problems at age 7.5 would persist through age 9.5, and whether neighborhood deprivation would moderate these effects. In addition, we examined whether improvements in parent-child interaction during early childhood associated with the FCU would be related to later reductions in child aggression among families living in the highest-risk neighborhoods. Using a multisite cohort of at-risk children identified on the basis of family, child, and socioeconomic risk and randomly assigned to the FCU, intervention effects were found to be moderated by neighborhood deprivation, such that they were only directly present for those living at moderate versus extreme levels of neighborhood deprivation. Additionally, improvements in child aggression were evident for children living in extreme neighborhood deprivation when parents improved the quality of their parent-child interaction during the toddler period (i.e., moderated mediation). Implications of the findings are discussed in relation to the possibilities and possible limitations in prevention of early problem behavior for those children living in extreme and moderate levels of poverty. PMID:26646197

  19. [On the problem of permissible levels of emergency and subsequent occupational radiation exposure for people of reproductive age].

    PubMed

    Ermalitskiĭ, A P; Liaginskaia, A M; Osipov, V A; Kuptsov, V V

    2013-01-01

    The results of studies of indices of reproductive function in 3 groups of males examined accordingly to an unified method: Group 1 - The staff of the Kalinin Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP) and the Smolensk Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP), who worked for liquidation of consequences of the accident (LCA) in 1986-87 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP), group 2 - the staff of the KNPP and the SNPP who did not work for LCA in ChNPP and the group 3 - the liquidators of the accident at ChNPP who were not included in the staff but are registered in the register of LPA participants in the Ryazan region are presented. The occurrence of congenital malformations (CM) and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) in infants, indices of unfavourable outcomes of pregnancy (UOP) in the families of males, describing the possible radiation-induced genetic effects in male germ cells was evaluated It was made a conclusion that the given in NRB-99/2009 constraints for emergency and subsequent occupational radiation exposures of males fail to provide protection from genetic effects in the offspring. The necessity to increase the duration of the protected reproductive period in males, on which there are extended restrictions for occupational and emergency radiation exposures from 30 years of age, as it is now accepted to the age of 35 years is demonstrated.

  20. A Vibrating Wire System For Quadrupole Fiducialization

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-13

    A vibrating wire system is being developed to fiducialize the quadrupoles between undulator segments in the LCLS. This note provides a detailed analysis of the system. The LCLS will have quadrupoles between the undulator segments to keep the electron beam focused. If the quadrupoles are not centered on the beam axis, the beam will receive transverse kicks, causing it to deviate from the undulator axis. Beam based alignment will be used to move the quadrupoles onto a straight line, but an initial, conventional alignment must place the quadrupole centers on a straight line to 100 {micro}m. In the fiducialization step of the initial alignment, the position of the center of the quadrupole is measured relative to tooling balls on the outside of the quadrupole. The alignment crews then use the tooling balls to place the magnet in the tunnel. The required error on the location of the quadrupole center relative to the tooling balls must be less than 25 {micro}m. In this note, we analyze a system under construction for the quadrupole fiducialization. The system uses the vibrating wire technique to position a wire onto the quadrupole magnetic axis. The wire position is then related to tooling balls using wire position detectors. The tooling balls on the wire position detectors are finally related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to perform the fiducialization. The total 25 {micro}m fiducialization error must be divided between these three steps. The wire must be positioned onto the quadrupole magnetic axis to within 10 {micro}m, the wire position must be measured relative to tooling balls on the wire position detectors to within 15 {micro}m, and tooling balls on the wire position detectors must be related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to within 10 {micro}m. The techniques used in these three steps will be discussed. The note begins by discussing various quadrupole fiducialization techniques used in the past and discusses why the vibrating wire technique is our method

  1. Predictors of externalizing behavior problems in early elementary-aged children: the role of family and home environments.

    PubMed

    Price, Joseph M; Chiapa, Amanda; Walsh, Natalia Escobar

    2013-01-01

    As children enter elementary school they display behavioral orientations that reveal potential developmental trajectories. Developmental transitions offer unique opportunities for examining developmental pathways and the factors that influence emerging pathways. The primary goal of this investigation was to examine characteristics of family and home contexts in predicting externalizing behavior problems among children transitioning into elementary school. Dimensions of the family and home environments of maltreated and nonmaltreated children (N = 177) were examined and used to predict externalizing behavior problems. Maltreatment was assessed using case file information, characteristics of the family and home environment were rated by interviewers, and externalizing behavior was assessed by mother's ratings on the Child Behavior Checklist. Relative to nonmaltreated children, the family environments of physically abused children were characterized by higher levels of negative social interactions. Also, in comparison to nonmaltreated children, the home environments of children who experienced neglect were characterized as less organized and clean. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that physical abuse was the strongest predictor of externalizing behavior. After controlling for the contribution of physical abuse, mother's negative behavior toward the focal child, aggression between siblings, and the lack of an organized and clean home were each predictive of externalizing behavior. PMID:23991617

  2. Tensile deformation of NiTi wires.

    PubMed

    Gall, Ken; Tyber, Jeff; Brice, Valerie; Frick, Carl P; Maier, Hans J; Morgan, Neil

    2005-12-15

    We examine the structure and properties of cold drawn Ti-50.1 at % Ni and Ti-50.9 at % Ni shape memory alloy wires. Wires with both compositions possess a strong <111> fiber texture in the wire drawing direction, a grain size on the order of micrometers, and a high dislocation density. The more Ni rich wires contain fine second phase precipitates, while the wires with lower Ni content are relatively free of precipitates. The wire stress-strain response depends strongly on composition through operant deformation mechanisms, and cannot be explained based solely on measured differences in the transformation temperatures. We provide fundamental connections between the material structure, deformation mechanisms, and resulting stress-strain responses. The results help clarify some inconsistencies and common misconceptions in the literature. Ramifications on materials selection and design for emerging biomedical applications of NiTi shape memory alloys are discussed.

  3. Wire codes, magnetic fields, and childhood cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kheifets, L.I.; Kavet, R.; Sussman, S.S.

    1997-05-01

    Childhood cancer has been modestly associated with wire codes, an exposure surrogate for power frequency magnetic fields, but less consistently with measured fields. The authors analyzed data on the population distribution of wire codes and their relationship with several measured magnetic field metrics. In a given geographic area, there is a marked trend for decreased prevalence from low to high wire code categories, but there are differences between areas. For average measured fields, there is a positive relationship between the mean of the distributions and wire codes but a large overlap among the categories. Better discrimination is obtained for the extremes of the measurement values when comparing the highest and the lowest wire code categories. Instability of measurements, intermittent fields, or other exposure conditions do not appear to provide a viable explanation for the differences between wire codes and magnetic fields with respect to the strength and consistency of their respective association with childhood cancer.

  4. Wire frame to MOVIE. BYU transfer program

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, D.; Byers, L.D.; Benner, M.S.

    1982-12-01

    At SNLA, the primary computer-aided drafting tool is the Applicon Graphics System (AGS). The data base for mechanical parts on the AGS is a wire frame model. This report summarizes a method of adding surface information to the wire frame and passing this information up stream to MOVIE.BYU which is on a VAX computer and is used to produce shaded graphics pictures of the AGS wire frame model on a RAMTEK 9400 display terminal.

  5. Wrapped Wire Detects Rupture Of Pressure Vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, James B.

    1990-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive technique helps protect against damage caused by continuing operation of equipment after rupture or burnout of pressure vessel. Wire wrapped over area on outside of vessel where breakthrough most likely. If wall breaks or burns, so does wire. Current passing through wire ceases, triggering cutoff mechanism stopping flow in vessel to prevent further damage. Applied in other situations in which pipes or vessels fail due to overpressure, overheating, or corrosion.

  6. Thin-wire scatterers in chiral media.

    PubMed

    Jaggard, D L; Liu, J C; Grot, A; Pelet, P

    1991-06-01

    The effect of the handedness of chiral materials on the differential scattering cross section of embedded conducting wires is examined. The bow-tie-shaped induced current distributions and the resulting forbidden zone of radiation are explained through fundamental physical principles. We find that thin-wire scatterers can be divided into subchiral, chiral, and superchiral classes according to the degree of chirality of the host material and the electromagnetic length of the wire.

  7. Development of the Axial Instability in Low Wire Number Wire Array Z-Pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, P. F.; Bell, K. S.; Blesener, I. C.; Chalenski, D. A.; Douglass, J. D.; Greenly, J. B.; Martin, M. R.; McBride, R. D.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Hammer, D. A.; Kusse, B. R.; Hall, G. N.

    2009-01-21

    We are investigating the development of the axial instability, a modulation of the size of the coronal plasma that develops around each wire in wire-array Z-pinches. The modulation is a result of nonuniform ablation of material from the relatively cold wire core. It has long been known that the wavelength of this modulation is constant late in time and, since it is unique to different materials, it has come to be known as the fundamental mode. In these experiments we imaged individual wires with laser shadowgraphy early in time primarily in low wire number, large wire diameter aluminum arrays for ease of viewing. We Observe the development of this modulation from the time of initiation of coronal plasma, obtaining its dominant wavelength and amplitude growth as a function of time. We also studied the instability on coiled wires, which modify the wire ablation mechanism and completely suppress the fundamental mode[Hall2008]. time is discussed.

  8. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING... Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.241 Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground...

  9. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING... Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.241 Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground...

  10. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING... Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.241 Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground...

  11. Crumpled states of a wire in a cubic cavity with periodic obstacles.

    PubMed

    Gomes, M A F; Pereira, C C S; Brito, V P

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we study experimentally the configurations of a plastic wire injected into a cubic cavity containing periodic obstacles placed along a fixed direction. The wire moves in a wormlike manner within the cavity until it becomes jammed in a crumpled state. The maximum packing fraction of the wire depends on the topology of the cavity, which in turn depends on the number of obstacles. The experimental results exhibit scaling laws and display similarities as well as differences with a recently reported two-dimensional version of this complex packing problem. We discuss in detail several aspects of this problem that seem as intricate as the problem of a self-avoiding random walk. Analogies between the experiment reported and some statistical aspects of the bond-percolation problem, as well as of the interacting electron gas at finite temperature, and other physical issues are also discussed. PMID:23767483

  12. Wired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Aaron R.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses technology's impact on scoreboard design: the development of the light-emitting diode (LED) display. How the LED system works is explained, as are the advantages and disadvantages of LED compared with incandescent lamp boards. Final comments address deciding on materials for scoreboard casings. (GR)

  13. Wired

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    Every American grade school and library ought to have free access to the Internet, and universities and institutions ought to have better access, according to the Clinton Administration.In an October 10 speech in Knoxville, Tennessee, President Clinton proposed that all of the nation's 100,000 public schools and 9,000 libraries receive a two-tiered E-rate (education rate) for access to Internet services. All schools and libraries should receive basic connections for free, as well as deep discounts on video conferencing and highspeed connections (with prices influenced by how much the school can afford to pay). The basic connections (and part of the cost of the more sophisticated connections) would be paid from a special federal fund that currently provides below-cost phone service to households in poor and rural areas. That fund is currently drawn from fees assessed on local and long-distance telephone providers; the Clinton Administration would have cable operators and cellular service providers contribute as well. Companies that provide Internet services would be paid at the best available commercial rate.

  14. A deployable .015 inch diameter wire antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dibiasi, L.

    1979-01-01

    This mechanism was developed to dispense a small diameter wire which serves as a receiving antenna for electric field measurements on an Earth orbiting satellite. The antenna is deployed radially from a spinning satellite. A brushless dc motor drives a storage spool to dispense the wire at a controlled rate. Centrifugal force, acting on a mass attached to the end of the wire, keeps the wire in the radial position. The mechanism design, testing, and performance characteristics are discussed. Finally, operational data of the mechanism while in orbit are presented.

  15. Ferromagnetic resonance in submicron amorphous wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, Luděk; Frait, Zdeněk; Ababei, Gabriel; Chayka, Oleksandr; Chiriac, Horia

    2012-03-01

    Ferromagnetic resonance in glass-coated amorphous wires with the diameter of metallic core varying from 25 μm to 133 nm is investigated. The microwave frequencies of 49.1 and 69.7 GHz are used and static magnetic field is applied either parallel or perpendicular to the long wire axis. In agreement with theoretical predictions the resonance curves of submicron wires substantially differ from the curves of the bulk wires. Depending on the symmetry and intensity of microwave electric and magnetic fields in the sample vicinity the circumferential and/or dipolar resonance modes can be excited. In bulk wires the resonance fields of the two modes coincide. In submicron wires, however, their resonance fields differ, indicating the metallic character of the circumferential mode and the insulator character of the dipolar mode. In wires with diameters 717 and 869 nm radial standing spin wave resonances are observed in parallel field configuration. The experimental results for the parallel field configuration can be well explained by the rigorous theoretical model. From the fit of experimental data the exchange stiffness constant A = 8.2 10-12 J/m and perpendicular surface anisotropy constant Ks = 6 × 10-4 J/m2 are obtained. The resonance curves measured in the transversal field configuration can be well explained in the frame of the skin effect and quasistatic approximations for the bulk and submicron wires, respectively. In submicron wires, however, an additional resonance of unknown origin is observed at higher magnetic fields.

  16. Development of parallel wire regenerator for cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Kwanwoo; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2006-04-01

    This paper describes development of a novel regenerator geometry for cryocoolers. Parallel wire type is a wire bundle stacked in parallel with the flow in the housing, which is similar to a conventional parallel plate or tube. Simple and unique fabrication procedure is developed and fully depicted in this paper. Hydrodynamic and thermal experiments are performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the parallel wire regenerator. First, pressure drop characteristic of the parallel wire regenerator is compared to that of the screen mesh regenerator. Experimental result shows that the steady flow friction factor of the parallel wire type is three to five times smaller than that of the screen mesh type. Second, thermal ineffectiveness is determined by measuring the instantaneous pressure, the flow rate and the gas temperature at the warm and cold ends of the regenerator. The measured ineffectiveness of the parallel wire regenerator is larger than that of the screen regenerator due to the excessive axial conduction loss. To alleviate the intrinsic axial conduction loss of the parallel wire regenerator, segmentation is introduced and the experimental results reveal the favorable effect of the segmentation. Entropy generation calculation is adopted to compare the total losses between the screen regenerator and the parallel wire regenerator for various operating ranges. Simulation results show that the parallel wire regenerator can be an attractive candidate to improve cryocooler performance especially for the case of smaller NTU and lower cold-end temperature.

  17. Discharge electrode wire assembly for electrostatic precipitator

    SciTech Connect

    Ivester, F. D.; Troulias, J. R.

    1985-03-05

    An electrostatic precipitator having a casing defining a precipitation chamber wherein a plurality of discharge electrode frames are disposed alternately between a plurality of collecting electrode plates. Each discharge electrode frame is comprised of a plurality of individual discharge electrode wires tautly strung across a support frame. Individual discharge electrode wires are maintained in a taut condition during operation by tensioning coil springs which interconnect neighboring discharge electrode wires to take-up any lengthening of the discharge electrode wires in a horizontal direction.

  18. Superconducting-wire fabrication. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Glad, W.E.; Chase, G.G.

    1990-05-01

    Experiments were done leading to the fabrication of high-temperature superconducting composite wire. Bulk superconductor was characterized by using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The chemical compatibility of superconducting materials with a number of metal sheathing candidates was tested, with silver offering the best compatibility. Wire was fabricated by drawing 0.250-inch-diameter silver tubing packed with superconducting powder. Single core wires were drawn to 0.037-inch diameter. The best critical current performance (660 A/cm2) for leaded bismuth 2-2-2-3 material was achieved by flattening single-core wire before heat treatment.

  19. Effect of an Axial Wire on Conical Wire Array Z-Pinch Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Presura, R.; Martinez, D.; Wright, S.; Plechaty, C.; Neff, S.; Wanex, L.; Ampleford, D. J.

    2009-01-21

    Adding a wire on the axis of wire arrays significantly affects the x-ray emission of the conical arrays, and much less that of the cylindrical ones. The radiation of the conical wire arrays increases with the thickness of the central wire, surpassing that of the equivalent cylindrical arrays. Significant energy is emitted early on, around the time of the conical shock formation, before the pinch stagnation.

  20. Kidney Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Kidney Problems Basic Facts & Information The kidneys are two ... the production of red blood cells. What are Kidney Diseases? For about one-third of older people, ...

  1. Processing a printed wiring board by single bath electrodeposition

    DOEpatents

    Meltzer, Michael P.; Steffani, Christopher P.; Gonfiotti, Ray A.

    2010-12-07

    A method of processing a printed wiring board. Initial processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board. Copper is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper. Nickel is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper and final processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board.

  2. Processing A Printed Wiring Board By Single Bath Electrodeposition

    DOEpatents

    Meltzer, Michael P.; Steffani, Christopher P.; Gonfiotti, Ray A.

    2003-04-15

    A method of processing a printed wiring board by single bath electrodeposition. Initial processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board. Copper is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper. Nickel is plated on the printed wiring board from the bath containing nickel and copper and final processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board.

  3. 47 CFR 76.804 - Disposition of home run wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disposition of home run wiring. 76.804 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Inside Wiring § 76.804 Disposition of home run wiring. (a) Building-by-building disposition of home run wiring. (1) Where an MVPD owns the home run wiring in an...

  4. 47 CFR 76.804 - Disposition of home run wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disposition of home run wiring. 76.804 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Inside Wiring § 76.804 Disposition of home run wiring. (a) Building-by-building disposition of home run wiring. (1) Where an MVPD owns the home run wiring in an...

  5. 47 CFR 76.804 - Disposition of home run wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of home run wiring. 76.804 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Inside Wiring § 76.804 Disposition of home run wiring. (a) Building-by-building disposition of home run wiring. (1) Where an MVPD owns the home run wiring in an...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.1413 - Wire rope-inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Apparent deficiencies in this category are: (A) Visible broken wires, as follows: (1) In running wire ropes: Six randomly distributed broken wires in one rope lay or three broken wires in one strand in one rope... around the rope. (2) In rotation resistant ropes: Two randomly distributed broken wires in six...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.1413 - Wire rope-inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Apparent deficiencies in this category are: (A) Visible broken wires, as follows: (1) In running wire ropes: Six randomly distributed broken wires in one rope lay or three broken wires in one strand in one rope... around the rope. (2) In rotation resistant ropes: Two randomly distributed broken wires in six...

  8. Drug-eluting Ti wires with titania nanotube arrays for bone fixation and reduced bone infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulati, Karan; Aw, Moom Sinn; Losic, Dusan

    2011-10-01

    Current bone fixation technology which uses stainless steel wires known as Kirschner wires for fracture fixing often causes infection and reduced skeletal load resulting in implant failure. Creating new wires with drug-eluting properties to locally deliver drugs is an appealing approach to address some of these problems. This study presents the use of titanium [Ti] wires with titania nanotube [TNT] arrays formed with a drug delivery capability to design alternative bone fixation tools for orthopaedic applications. A titania layer with an array of nanotube structures was synthesised on the surface of a Ti wire by electrochemical anodisation and loaded with antibiotic (gentamicin) used as a model of bone anti-bacterial drug. Successful fabrication of TNT structures with pore diameters of approximately 170 nm and length of 70 μm is demonstrated for the first time in the form of wires. The drug release characteristics of TNT-Ti wires were evaluated, showing a two-phase release, with a burst release (37%) and a slow release with zero-order kinetics over 11 days. These results confirmed our system's ability to be applied as a drug-eluting tool for orthopaedic applications. The established biocompatibility of TNT structures, closer modulus of elasticity to natural bones and possible inclusion of desired drugs, proteins or growth factors make this system a promising alternative to replace conventional bone implants to prevent bone infection and to be used for targeted treatment of bone cancer, osteomyelitis and other orthopaedic diseases.

  9. New concepts on MV distribution from insulated shield wires of HV lines

    SciTech Connect

    Iliceto, F. ); Cinieri, E. . Ist. di Fisica); Casely-Hayford, L. )

    1989-10-01

    The paper deals with the problem of the most cost effective power supply to the villages and communities of developing countries, located along the route of HV lines, up to 100 km distant from the HV/MV transformer stations. In the first part of the paper a novel solution is presented. This consists of: (i) insulation of the shield wire(s) of an HV line, and wire(s) energization at MV (10 to 34.5 kV) from the closest transformer station; (ii) supply of villages along the line route by means of standard MV/LV distribution transformers connected between the shield wire(s) and ground. Four different schemes are presented, two of them suitable for single-phase distribution, the others for 3-phase supply. The behaviour in steady-state and in transient conditions is analyzed. The second part of the paper reports the positive results of 33 months of operation of an experimental scheme tested in Ghana for supply of single-phase and 3-phase loads from the two insulated shield wires of a 161 kV line. Finally the paper describes the distribution schemes along 407 km of new 161 kV lines in Northern Ghana, where the novel solution is applied to supply power to both domestic and industrial loads in 12 small towns with a design aggregate load of 5000 kW.

  10. Aging and Aged in Organized Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Menachem

    1989-01-01

    Examines problems of the aged in organized crime, basing discussion on organized crime bosses over age 60 operating in Italy, the United States, and Israel. Looks at problems stemming from normative system in organized crime, role of the aged, intergenerational problems, fears of the aged, excuses and justifications, standards of life, and…

  11. Kirschner wire pin tract infection rates: a randomized controlled trial between percutaneous and buried wires.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, D G; Drew, S J; Eckersley, R

    2004-08-01

    This prospective, randomized trial compares the infection rates of Kirschner wires left percutaneously and those buried deep to the skin in a group of patients with isolated distal radial fractures. Percutaneous wires had a significantly greater infection rate than wires which were buried deep to the skin.

  12. Tuning a Tetrahertz Wire Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qin, Qi; Williams, Benjamin S.; Kumar, Sushil; Reno, John L.; Hu, Qing

    2009-01-01

    Tunable terahertz lasers are desirable in applications in sensing and spectroscopy because many biochemical species have strong spectral fingerprints at terahertz frequencies. Conventionally, the frequency of a laser is tuned in a similar manner to a stringed musical instrument, in which pitch is varied by changing the length of the string (the longitudinal component of the wave vector) and/ or its tension (the refractive index). However, such methods are difficult to implement in terahertz semiconductor lasers because of their poor outcoupling efficiencies. Here, we demonstrate a novel tuning mechanism based on a unique 'wire laser' device for which the transverse dimension w is much much less than lambda. Placing a movable object close to the wire laser manipulates a large fraction of the waveguided mode propagating outside the cavity, thereby tuning its resonant frequency. Continuous single-mode redshift and blueshift tuning is demonstrated for the same device by using either a dielectric or metallic movable object. In combination, this enables a frequency tuning of approximately equal to 137 GHz (3.6%) from a single laser device at approximately equal to 3.8 THz.

  13. Combined effects of different heat treatments and Cu element on transformation behavior of NiTi orthodontic wires.

    PubMed

    Seyyed Aghamiri, S M; Ahmadabadi, M Nili; Raygan, Sh

    2011-04-01

    The shape memory nickel-titanium alloy has been applied in many fields due to its unique thermal and mechanical performance. One of the successful applications of NiTi wires is in orthodontics because of its good characteristics such as low stiffness, high spring back, high stored energy, biocompatibility, superelasticity and shape memory effect. The mechanical properties of wires are paid special attention which results in achieving continuous optimal forces and eventually causing rapid tooth movement without any damage. The behavior of the alloy can be controlled by chemical composition and thermo-mechanical treatment during the manufacturing process. In this study two kinds of commercial superelastic NiTi archwires of 0.41 mm diameter were investigated: Copper NiTi and Highland Metal. The chemical analysis of both wires was estimated by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). It was showed that Copper NiTi wire contained copper and chromium. The two types of wires were exposed to different heat treatment conditions at 400 and 500 °C for 10 and 60 min to compare the behavior of the wires at aged and as-received conditions. Phase transformation temperatures clarified by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed B2 <--> R <--> B19 transformation in Highland Metal wire and B2 <--> B19(') transformation in Copper NiTi wire. Three point bending (TPB) tests in the certain designed fixture were performed at 37 °C to evaluate the mechanical behavior of the wires. The experimental results revealed the superelastic behavior of the Highland Metal wire after 60 min ageing at 400 and 500 °C and the plastic deformation of the Copper NiTi wire after annealing due to the effect of copper in the alloy composition. PMID:21316617

  14. Exact Electromagnetic Fields Produced by a Finite Wire with Constant Current

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, J. L.; Campos, I.; Aquino, N.

    2008-01-01

    We solve exactly the problem of calculating the electromagnetic fields produced by a finite wire with a constant current, by using two methods: retarded potentials and Jefimenko's formalism. One result in this particular case is that the usual Biot-Savart law of magnetostatics gives the correct magnetic field of the problem. We also show…

  15. Polymer Growth Rate in a Wire Chamber with Oxygen,Water, or Alcohol Gas Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Boyarski, Adam; /SLAC

    2008-07-02

    The rate of polymer growth on wires was measured in a wire chamber while the chamber was aged initially with helium-isobutane (80:20) gas, and then with either oxygen, water, or alcohol added to the gas. At the completion of the aging process for each gas mixture, the carbon content on the wires was measured in a SEM/EDX instrument. The same physical wires were used in all the gas mixtures, allowing measurement of polymer build up or polymer depletion by each gas additive. It is found that the rate of polymer growth is not changed by the presence of oxygen, water or alcohol. Conjecture that oxygen reduces breakdown by removing polymer deposits on field wires is negated by these measurements. Instead, it appears that the reduced breakdown is due to lower resistance in the polymer from oxygen ions being transported into the polymer. It is also observed that field wires bombarded by the electrons in the SEM and then placed back into the chamber show an abundance of single electrons being emitted, indicating that electron charge is stored in the polymer layer and that a high electric field is necessary to remove the charge.

  16. Efficient numerical simulation of electron states in quantum wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerkhoven, Thomas; Galick, Albert T.; Ravaioli, Umberto; Arends, John H.; Saad, Youcef

    1990-01-01

    A new algorithm is presented for the numerical simulation of electrons in a quantum wire as described by a two-dimensional eigenvalue problem for Schroedinger's equation coupled with Poisson's equation. Initially, the algorithm employs an underrelaxed fixed point iteration to generate an approximation which is reasonably close to the solution. Subsequently, this approximate solution is employed as an initial guess for a Jacobian-free implementation of an approximate Newton method. In this manner the nonlinearity in the model is dealt with effectively. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated in a set of numerical experiments which study the electron states on the cross section of a quantum wire structure based on III-V semiconductors at 4.2 and 77 K.

  17. Specification and testing for power by wire aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.; Kenney, Barbara H.

    1993-01-01

    A power by wire aircraft is one in which all active functions other than propulsion are implemented electrically. Other nomenclature are 'all electric airplane,' or 'more electric airplane.' What is involved is the task of developing and certifying electrical equipment to replace existing hydraulics and pneumatics. When such functions, however, are primary flight controls which are implemented electrically, new requirements are imposed that were not anticipated by existing power system designs. Standards of particular impact are the requirements of ultra-high reliability, high peak transient bi-directional power flow, and immunity to electromagnetic interference and lightning. Not only must the electromagnetic immunity of the total system be verifiable, but box level tests and meaningful system models must be established to allow system evaluation. This paper discusses some of the problems, the system modifications involved, and early results in establishing wiring harness and interface susceptibility requirements.

  18. Rhizosphere wettability decreases with root age: a problem or a strategy to increase water uptake of young roots?

    PubMed Central

    Carminati, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    As plant roots take up water and the soil dries, water depletion is expected to occur in the vicinity of roots, the so called rhizosphere. However, recent experiments showed that the rhizosphere of lupines was wetter than the bulk soil during the drying period. Surprisingly, the rhizosphere remained temporarily dry after irrigation. Such water dynamics in the rhizosphere can be explained by the drying/wetting dynamics of mucilage exuded by roots. The capacity of mucilage to hold large volumes of water at negative water potential may favor root water uptake. However, mucilage hydrophobicity after drying may temporarily limit the local water uptake after irrigation. The effects of such rhizosphere dynamics are not yet understood. In particular, it is not known how the rhizosphere dynamics vary along roots and as a function of soil water content. My hypothesis was that the rewetting rate of the rhizosphere is primarily function of root age. Neutron radiography was used to monitor how the rhizosphere water dynamics vary along the root systems of lupines during drying/wetting cycles of different duration. The radiographs showed a fast and almost immediate rewetting of the rhizosphere of the distal root segments, in contrast to a slow rewetting of the rhizosphere of the proximal segments. The rewetting rate of the rhizosphere was not function of the water content before irrigation, but it was function of time. It is concluded that rhizosphere hydrophobicity is not uniform along roots, but it covers only the older and proximal root segments, while the young root segments are hydraulically well-connected to the soil. I included these rhizosphere dynamics in a microscopic model of root water uptake. In the model, the relation between water content and water potential in the rhizosphere is not unique and it varies over time, and the rewetting rate of the rhizosphere decreases with time. The rhisosphere variability seems an optimal adaptation strategy to increase the water

  19. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Balance Problems Basic Facts & Information What are Balance Problems? Having good balance means being able to ... Only then can you “keep your balance.” Why Balance is Important Your feelings of dizziness may last ...

  20. Early identification of social-emotional problems: Applicability of the Infant-Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (ITSEA) at its lower age limit.

    PubMed

    Sanner, Nina; Smith, Lars; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Moe, Vibeke

    2016-02-01

    ITSEA is an often recommended tool for assessment of social-emotional problems and competence delays in children aged 12-36 months, but concerns have been raised about low variability and age-inappropriate questions for children as young as 12 months. This study explored ITSEA's (1) psychometric properties, (2) properties concerning the detection of clinically significant problems and competence delays and (3) discriminant validity at 12 months. A total of 102 children with high versus low risk scores on marker measures of developmental status and parenting stress obtained at 6 months, were selected from a longitudinal population-based study to participate in the present study. Risk status was operationalized as Bayley III Screening Test (Bayley, 2005a. Bayley scales of infant and toddler development: Screening test manual (3rd ed.). San Antonio, TX: Pearson) Composite Subscale scores and Parenting Stress Index total score (PSI, 3rd edition, Abidin, 1995. Parenting Stress Index. Professional manual. (3rd ed.). Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources). At 12 months, ITSEA was administered to parents as a structured interview to identify guidance needs and to collect qualitative information about the items, and the assessment of developmental level and parenting stress was repeated. All ITSEA domains and subscales were found to be relevant. However, nearly all respondents needed guidance. Moreover, there were substantial floor/ceiling effects on subscale level and one item had to be discarded. ITSEA was used in combination with the Bayley-III Screener and PSI to detect cases with clinically significant scores, with ITSEA making a unique contribution to case detection. Dysregulation problems were the most frequently detected, and the differences between high-risk and low-risk group children and gender differences indicated adequate discriminant validity. The results suggest that ITSEA may be meaningfully applied even among children as young as 12 months. PMID

  1. Space-time wiring specificity supports direction selectivity in the retina.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinseop S; Greene, Matthew J; Zlateski, Aleksandar; Lee, Kisuk; Richardson, Mark; Turaga, Srinivas C; Purcaro, Michael; Balkam, Matthew; Robinson, Amy; Behabadi, Bardia F; Campos, Michael; Denk, Winfried; Seung, H Sebastian

    2014-05-15

    How does the mammalian retina detect motion? This classic problem in visual neuroscience has remained unsolved for 50 years. In search of clues, here we reconstruct Off-type starburst amacrine cells (SACs) and bipolar cells (BCs) in serial electron microscopic images with help from EyeWire, an online community of 'citizen neuroscientists'. On the basis of quantitative analyses of contact area and branch depth in the retina, we find evidence that one BC type prefers to wire with a SAC dendrite near the SAC soma, whereas another BC type prefers to wire far from the soma. The near type is known to lag the far type in time of visual response. A mathematical model shows how such 'space-time wiring specificity' could endow SAC dendrites with receptive fields that are oriented in space-time and therefore respond selectively to stimuli that move in the outward direction from the soma.

  2. Generation of cumulative jets during underwater explosion of copper wires in the ``X-pinch'' configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafer, D.; Toker, G.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2013-11-01

    The results of experiments with underwater electrical explosion of 0.1 mm diameter copper wires in X-pinch configuration are presented. A pulsed generator producing a ˜30 kA-amplitude current with a ˜65 ns rise time was used for the explosion of the wires. Shadowgraph and shearing interferometry techniques were applied for optical diagnostics. Evidence of fast-moving copper jets, originating from the location of the intersection of the exploding wires, is reported. Simultaneous measurement of the expansion of the wires, shock waves, and copper jets showed that the dynamics of the jets strongly resemble the classic problem of a collision of two planes, producing two consecutive cumulative jets.

  3. Space-time wiring specificity supports direction selectivity in the retina

    PubMed Central

    Zlateski, Aleksandar; Lee, Kisuk; Richardson, Mark; Turaga, Srinivas C.; Purcaro, Michael; Balkam, Matthew; Robinson, Amy; Behabadi, Bardia F.; Campos, Michael; Denk, Winfried; Seung, H. Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    How does the mammalian retina detect motion? This classic problem in visual neuroscience has remained unsolved for 50 years. In search of clues, we reconstructed Off-type starburst amacrine cells (SACs) and bipolar cells (BCs) in serial electron microscopic images with help from EyeWire, an online community of “citizen neuroscientists.” Based on quantitative analyses of contact area and branch depth in the retina, we found evidence that one BC type prefers to wire with a SAC dendrite near the SAC soma, while another BC type prefers to wire far from the soma. The near type is known to lag the far type in time of visual response. A mathematical model shows how such “space-time wiring specificity” could endow SAC dendrites with receptive fields that are oriented in space-time and therefore respond selectively to stimuli that move in the outward direction from the soma. PMID:24805243

  4. Space-time wiring specificity supports direction selectivity in the retina.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinseop S; Greene, Matthew J; Zlateski, Aleksandar; Lee, Kisuk; Richardson, Mark; Turaga, Srinivas C; Purcaro, Michael; Balkam, Matthew; Robinson, Amy; Behabadi, Bardia F; Campos, Michael; Denk, Winfried; Seung, H Sebastian

    2014-05-15

    How does the mammalian retina detect motion? This classic problem in visual neuroscience has remained unsolved for 50 years. In search of clues, here we reconstruct Off-type starburst amacrine cells (SACs) and bipolar cells (BCs) in serial electron microscopic images with help from EyeWire, an online community of 'citizen neuroscientists'. On the basis of quantitative analyses of contact area and branch depth in the retina, we find evidence that one BC type prefers to wire with a SAC dendrite near the SAC soma, whereas another BC type prefers to wire far from the soma. The near type is known to lag the far type in time of visual response. A mathematical model shows how such 'space-time wiring specificity' could endow SAC dendrites with receptive fields that are oriented in space-time and therefore respond selectively to stimuli that move in the outward direction from the soma. PMID:24805243

  5. Improved Superconducting Wire for Wind Generators: Superconducting Wires for Direct-Drive Wind Generators

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: Brookhaven National Laboratory will develop a low-cost superconducting wire that could be used in high-power wind generators. Superconducting wire currently transports 600 times more electric current than a similarly sized copper wire, but is significantly more expensive. Brookhaven National Laboratory will develop a high-performance superconducting wire that can handle significantly more electrical current, and will demonstrate an advanced manufacturing process that has the potential to yield a several-fold reduction in wire costs while using a using negligible amount of rare earth material. This design has the potential to make a wind turbine generator lighter, more powerful, and more efficient, particularly for offshore applications.

  6. Twisted Pair Of Insulated Wires Senses Moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laue, Eric G.; Stephens, James B.

    1989-01-01

    Sensitivity of electronic moisture sensor to low levels of moisture increased by new electrode configuration. Moisture-sensing circuit described in "Low-Cost Humidity Sensor" (NPO-16544). New twisted pair of wires takes place of flat-plate capacitor in circuit. Configuration allows for thermal expansion and contraction of polymer while maintaining nearly constant area of contact between polymer and wires.

  7. Microfabricated wire arrays for Z-pinch.

    SciTech Connect

    Spahn, Olga Blum; Rowen, Adam M.; Cich, Michael Joseph; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Arrington, Christian L.; Nash, Thomas J.; Klem, John Frederick; Romero, Dustin Heinz

    2008-10-01

    Microfabrication methods have been applied to the fabrication of wire arrays suitable for use in Z. Self-curling GaAs/AlGaAs supports were fabricated as an initial route to make small wire arrays (4mm diameter). A strain relief structure that could be integrated with the wire was designed to allow displacements of the anode/cathode connections in Z. Electroplated gold wire arrays with integrated anode/cathode bus connections were found to be sufficiently robust to allow direct handling. Platinum and copper plating processes were also investigated. A process to fabricate wire arrays on any substrate with wire thickness up to 35 microns was developed. Methods to handle and mount these arrays were developed. Fabrication of wire arrays of 20mm diameter was demonstrated, and the path to 40mm array fabrication is clear. With some final investment to show array mounting into Z hardware, the entire process to produce a microfabricated wire array will have been demonstrated.

  8. 30 CFR 56.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Guy wires. 56.12047 Section 56.12047 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12047 Guy wires....

  9. 30 CFR 56.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Guy wires. 56.12047 Section 56.12047 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12047 Guy wires....

  10. 30 CFR 56.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guy wires. 56.12047 Section 56.12047 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12047 Guy wires....

  11. 30 CFR 56.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Guy wires. 56.12047 Section 56.12047 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12047 Guy wires....

  12. 30 CFR 56.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Guy wires. 56.12047 Section 56.12047 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12047 Guy wires....

  13. 29 CFR 1919.79 - Wire rope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wire rope. 1919.79 Section 1919.79 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.79 Wire rope. (a)...

  14. Welding torch and wire feed manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. T.

    1967-01-01

    Welding torch and wire feed manipulator increase capability for performing automatic welding operations. The manipulator rotates on its horizontal axis to avoid obstacles as they approach the torch. The initial individual attitudes of the torch and wire guide are set with respect to the general configuration of the part.

  15. Ultra-flexible biomedical electrodes and wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rositano, S. A.

    1970-01-01

    Soft, flexible electrode conforms to body contour during body motion. It is fabricated from an elastomer impregnated with a conductive powder which can be configured into any required shape, including a wire shape to connect the electrode directly to an electrical instrument or to a conventional metallic wire.

  16. Superconducting wire with improved strain characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Luhman, Thomas; Klamut, Carl J.; Suenaga, Masaki; Welch, David

    1982-01-01

    A superconducting wire comprising a superconducting filament and a beryllium strengthened bronze matrix in which the addition of beryllium to the matrix permits a low volume matrix to exhibit reduced elastic deformation after heat treating which increases the compression of the superconducting filament on cooling and thereby improves the strain characteristics of the wire.

  17. Superconducting wire with improved strain characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Luhman, Thomas; Klamut, Carl J.; Suenaga, Masaki; Welch, David

    1982-01-01

    A superconducting wire comprising a superconducting filament and a beryllium strengthened bronze matrix in which the addition of beryllium to the matrix permits a low volume matrix to exhibit reduced elastic deformation after heat treating which increases the compression of the superconducting filament on cooling and thereby improve the strain characteristics of the wire.

  18. Superconducting wire with improved strain characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Luhman, T.; Klamut, C.J.; Suenaga, M.; Welch, D.

    1979-12-19

    A superconducting wire comprising a superconducting filament and a beryllium strengthened bronze matrix in which the addition of beryllium to the matrix permits a low volume matrix to exhibit reduced elastic deformation after heat treating which increases the compression of the superconducting filament on cooling and thereby improve the strain characteristics of the wire.

  19. Flywheel system using wire-wound rotor

    DOEpatents

    Chiao, Edward Young; Bender, Donald Arthur; Means, Andrew E.; Snyder, Philip K.

    2016-06-07

    A flywheel is described having a rotor constructed of wire wound onto a central form. The wire is prestressed, thus mitigating stresses that occur during operation. In another aspect, the flywheel incorporates a low-loss motor using electrically non-conducting permanent magnets.

  20. LANSCE-R WIRE-SCANNER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Gruchalla, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    The National Instruments cRIO platform is used for the new LANSCE-R wire-scanner systems. All wire-scanner electronics are integrated into a single BiRa BiRIO 4U cRIO chassis specifically designed for the cRIO crate and all interface electronics. The BiRIO chassis, actuator and LabVIEW VIs provide a complete wire-scanner system integrated with EPICS. The new wire-scanner chassis includes an 8-slot cRIO crate with Virtex-5 LX 110 FPGA and Power-PC real-time controller, the LANL-developed cRIO 2-axis wire-sensor analog interface module (AFE), NI9222 cRIO 4-channel 16-bit digitizer, cRIO resolver demodulator, cRIO event receiver, front-panel touch panel display, motor driver, and all necessary software, interface wiring, connectors and ancillary components. This wirescanner system provides a complete, turn-key, 2-axis wire-scanner system including 2-channel low-noise sensewire interface with variable DC wire bias and wireintegrity monitor, 16-bit signal digitizers, actuator motor drive and control, actuator position sensing, limit-switch interfaces, event receiver, LabVIEW and EPICS interface, and both remote operation and full stand-alone operation using the touch panel.

  1. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire....

  2. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire....

  3. SpaceWire Architectures: Present and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakow, Glen Parker

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on current and future spacewire architectures is shown. The topics include: 1) Current Spacewire Architectures: Swift Data Flow; 2) Current SpaceWire Architectures : LRO Data Flow; 3) Current Spacewire Architectures: JWST Data Flow; 4) Current SpaceWire Architectures; 5) Traditional Systems; 6) Future Systems; 7) Advantages; and 8) System Engineer Toolkit.

  4. Lansce Wire Scanning Diagnostics Device Mechanical Design

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio; Batygin, Yuri K.; Gilpatrick, John D.; Gruchalla, Michael E.; Maestas, Alfred J.; Pillai, Chandra; Raybun, Joseph L.; Sattler, F. D.; Sedillo, James Daniel; Smith, Brian G.

    2011-01-01

    The Accelerator Operations & Technology Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory operates a linear particle accelerator which utilizes 110 wire scanning diagnostics devices to gain position and intensity information of the proton beam. In the upcoming LANSCE improvements, 51 of these wire scanners are to be replaced with a new design, up-to-date technology and off-the-shelf components. This document outlines the requirements for the mechanical design of the LANSCE wire scanner and presents the recently developed linac wire scanner prototype. Additionally, this document presents the design modifications that have been implemented into the fabrication and assembly of this first linac wire scanner prototype. Also, this document will present the design for the second, third, and fourth wire scanner prototypes being developed. Prototypes 2 and 3 belong to a different section of the particle accelerator and therefore have slightly different design specifications. Prototype 4 is a modification of a previously used wire scanner in our facility. Lastly, the paper concludes with a plan for future work on the wire scanner development.

  5. 47 CFR 76.804 - Disposition of home run wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... wiring. The incumbent provider that has elected to abandon its home run wiring may remove its amplifiers... amplifiers or other active devices used in the wiring if an equivalent replacement can easily be...

  6. 47 CFR 76.804 - Disposition of home run wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... wiring. The incumbent provider that has elected to abandon its home run wiring may remove its amplifiers... amplifiers or other active devices used in the wiring if an equivalent replacement can easily be...

  7. Wiring harnesses documented by punched-card technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, W. W.; Kloezeman, W. G.

    1970-01-01

    Cards representing a connector are punched, sorted, and then used to printout wiring documentation for that connector. When wiring changes are made, new cards are punched and the wiring documentation is reprinted to reflect the latest configuration.

  8. Long-Wearing Wire Guide For Welding Torch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutow, David A.; Burley, Richard K.; Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Fogel, Irving

    1992-01-01

    Insert for wire-guide tube on tungsten/inert-gas welding apparatus extends life of guide tube and increases accuracy of weld. Hardened insert resists wear by sliding tungsten wire. Chamfer guides wire into insert.

  9. Stiffness Corrections for the Vibration Frequency of a Stretched Wire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornung, H. G.; Durie, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the need of introducing corrections due to wire stiffness arising from end constraints and wire axis distribution curvature in the measurement of ac electrical frequency by exciting transverse standing waves in a stretched steel wire. (SL)

  10. Method of preparing composite superconducting wire

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, John D.; Gibson, Edwin D.; Finnemore, Douglas K.; Ostenson, Jerome E.; Schmidt, Frederick A.; Owen, Charles V.

    1985-08-06

    An improved method of preparing composite multifilament superconducting wire of Nb.sub.3 Sn in a copper matrix which eliminates the necessity of coating the drawn wire with tin. A generalized cylindrical billet of an alloy of copper containing at least 15 weight percent niobium, present in the copper as discrete, randomly distributed and oriented dendritic-shaped particles, is provided with at least one longitudinal opening which is filled with tin to form a composite drawing rod. The drawing rod is then drawn to form a ductile composite multifilament wire containing a filament of tin. The ductile wire containing the tin can then be wound into magnet coils or other devices before heating to diffuse the tin through the wire to react with the niobium forming Nb.sub.3 Sn. Also described is an improved method for making large billets of the copper-niobium alloy by consumable-arc casting.

  11. Improved method of preparing composite superconducting wire

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, J.D.; Gibson, E.D.; Finnemore, D.K.; Ostenson, J.E.; Schmidt, F.A.; Owen, C.V.

    1979-10-17

    An improved method of preparing composite multifilament superconducting wire of Nb/sub 3/Sn in a copper matrix eliminates the necessity of coating the drawn wire with tin. A generalized cylindrical billet of an alloy of copper containing at least 15 weight percent niobium, present in the copper as discrete, randomly distributed and oriented dendritic-shaped particles, is provided with at least one longitudinal opening which is filled with tin to form a composite drawing rod. The drawing rod is then drawn to form a ductile composite multifilament wire containing a filament of tin. The ductile wire containing the tin can then be wound into magnet coils or other devices before heating to diffuse the tin through the wire to react with the niobium forming Nb/sub 3/Sn. Also described is an improved method for making large billets of the copper-niobium alloy by consumable-arc casting.

  12. Wire and Cable Cold Bending Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    One of the factors in assessing the applicability of wire or cable on the lunar surface is its flexibility under extreme cold conditions. Existing wire specifications did not address their mechanical behavior under cold, cryogenic temperature conditions. Therefore tests were performed to provide this information. To assess this characteristic 35 different insulated wire and cable pieces were cold soaked in liquid nitrogen. The segments were then subjected to bending and the force was recorded. Any failure of the insulation or jacketing was also documented for each sample tested. The bending force tests were performed at room temperature to provide a comparison to the change in force needed to bend the samples due to the low temperature conditions. The results from the bending tests were plotted and showed how various types of insulated wire and cable responded to bending under cold conditions. These results were then used to estimate the torque needed to unroll the wire under these low temperature conditions.

  13. On Wires Holding a Handful of Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiu, Valeriu; Ibrahim, Walid; Makki, Rafic Z.

    When analyzing reliability, wires have in most cases been ignored, with gates (and devices) taking the lion’s share. With scaling, this “only computing fails” approach is not going to be accurate enough as communication (wires) will also start to err. Trying to do justice to wires, this paper details a statistical failure analysis of wires following on the few papers which have made wires’ reliability their concern. We will use a classical particle-like probabilistic approach to enhance on the accuracy of wires’ length-dependent probabilities of failure due to the discreetness of charge. Covering some of the intrinsic noises, such an approach leads to “lower bound”-like wire reliability estimates, as ignoring other intrinsic noises, as well as extrinsic noises, variations, and defects. These results should have implications for multi-/many-cores and networks-on-chip, as well as forward-looking investigations on emerging nano-architectures.

  14. Realization of a Strained Atomic Wire Superlattice.

    PubMed

    Song, Inkyung; Goh, Jung Suk; Lee, Sung-Hoon; Jung, Sung Won; Shin, Jin Sung; Yamane, Hiroyuki; Kosugi, Nobuhiro; Yeom, Han Woong

    2015-11-24

    A superlattice of strained Au-Si atomic wires is successfully fabricated on a Si surface. Au atoms are known to incorporate into the stepped Si(111) surface to form a Au-Si atomic wire array with both one-dimensional (1D) metallic and antiferromagnetic atomic chains. At a reduced density of Au, we find a regular array of Au-Si wires in alternation with pristine Si nanoterraces. Pristine Si nanoterraces impose a strain on the neighboring Au-Si wires, which modifies both the band structure of metallic chains and the magnetic property of spin chains. This is an ultimate 1D version of a strained-layer superlattice of semiconductors, defining a direction toward the fine engineering of self-assembled atomic-scale wires. PMID:26446292

  15. Strain tolerant microfilamentary superconducting wire

    DOEpatents

    Finnemore, Douglas K.; Miller, Theodore A.; Ostenson, Jerome E.; Schwartzkopf, Louis A.; Sanders, Steven C.

    1993-02-23

    A strain tolerant microfilamentary wire capable of carrying superconducting currents is provided comprising a plurality of discontinuous filaments formed from a high temperature superconducting material. The discontinuous filaments have a length at least several orders of magnitude greater than the filament diameter and are sufficiently strong while in an amorphous state to withstand compaction. A normal metal is interposed between and binds the discontinuous filaments to form a normal metal matrix capable of withstanding heat treatment for converting the filaments to a superconducting state. The geometry of the filaments within the normal metal matrix provides substantial filament-to-filament overlap, and the normal metal is sufficiently thin to allow supercurrent transfer between the overlapped discontinuous filaments but is also sufficiently thick to provide strain relief to the filaments.

  16. 49 CFR 236.76 - Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... with signal apparatus. 236.76 Section 236.76 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. Each wire shall be tagged or otherwise so... apparatus. Inspections and Tests; All Systems...

  17. 49 CFR 236.76 - Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... with signal apparatus. 236.76 Section 236.76 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. Each wire shall be tagged or otherwise so... apparatus. Inspections and Tests; All Systems...

  18. 47 CFR 32.2321 - Customer premises wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2321... 232, Station Connections, inside wiring subclass. (b) Embedded Customer Premises Wiring is...

  19. Optical link by using optical wiring method for reducing EMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, In-Kui; Kwon, Jong-Hwa; Choi, Sung-Woong; Bondarik, Alexander; Yun, Je-Hoon; Kim, Chang-Joo; Ahn, Seung-Beom; Jeong, Myung-Yung; Park, Hyo Hoon

    2008-12-01

    A practical optical link system was prepared with a transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) for reducing EMI (electromagnetic interference). The optical TRx module consisted of a metal optical bench, a module printed circuit board (PCB), a driver/receiver IC, a VCSEL/PD array, and an optical link block composed of plastic optical fiber (POF). For the optical interconnection between the light-sources and detectors, an optical wiring method has been proposed to enable easy assembly. The key benefit of fiber optic link is the absence of electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise creation and susceptibility. This paper provides a method for optical interconnection between an optical Tx and an optical Rx, comprising the following steps: (i) forming a light source device, an optical detection device, and an optical transmission unit on a substrate (metal optical bench (MOB)); (ii) preparing a flexible optical transmission-connection medium (optical wiring link) to optically connect the light source device formed on the substrate with the optical detection device; and (iii) directly connecting one end of the surface-finished optical transmission connection medium with the light source device and the other end with the optical detection device. Electronic interconnections have uniquely electronic problems such as EMI, shorting, and ground loops. Since these problems only arise during transduction (electronics-to-optics or opticsto- electronics), the purely optical part and optical link(interconnection) is free of these problems. 1 An optical link system constructed with TRx modules was fabricated and the optical characteristics about data links and EMI levels were measured. The results clearly demonstrate that the use of an optical wiring method can provide robust and cost-effective assembly for reducing EMI of inter-chip interconnect. We successfully achieved a 4.5 Gb/s data transmission rate without EMI problems.

  20. In Situ Electrochemical Deposition of Microscopic Wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, Minhee; Myung, Nosang; Vasquez, Richard

    2005-01-01

    A method of fabrication of wires having micron and submicron dimensions is built around electrochemical deposition of the wires in their final positions between electrodes in integrated circuits or other devices in which the wires are to be used. Heretofore, nanowires have been fabricated by a variety of techniques characterized by low degrees of controllability and low throughput rates, and it has been necessary to align and electrically connect the wires in their final positions by use of sophisticated equipment in expensive and tedious post-growth assembly processes. The present method is more economical, offers higher yields, enables control of wire widths, and eliminates the need for post-growth assembly. The wires fabricated by this method could be used as simple electrical conductors or as transducers in sensors. Depending upon electrodeposition conditions and the compositions of the electroplating solutions in specific applications, the wires could be made of metals, alloys, metal oxides, semiconductors, or electrically conductive polymers. In this method, one uses fabrication processes that are standard in the semiconductor industry. These include cleaning, dry etching, low-pressure chemical vapor deposition, lithography, dielectric deposition, electron-beam lithography, and metallization processes as well as the electrochemical deposition process used to form the wires. In a typical case of fabrication of a circuit that includes electrodes between which microscopic wires are to be formed on a silicon substrate, the fabrication processes follow a standard sequence until just before the fabrication of the microscopic wires. Then, by use of a thermal SiO-deposition technique, the electrodes and the substrate surface areas in the gaps between them are covered with SiO. Next, the SiO is electron-beam patterned, then reactive-ion etched to form channels having specified widths (typically about 1 m or less) that define the widths of the wires to be formed. Drops