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Sample records for aging worker initiative

  1. 75 FR 70949 - Proposed Information Collection for the Evaluation of the Aging Worker Initiative; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... Employment and Training Administration Proposed Information Collection for the Evaluation of the Aging Worker Initiative; Comment Request AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... burden conducts a preclearance consultation program to provide the general public and federal...

  2. [Old age workers].

    PubMed

    Izmerov, N F

    2012-01-01

    The author demonstrates that in conditions of demographic aging an important contribution in solving the task set in "Strategy 2020" on more efficient usage of working resources could be involvement of occupational potential of old age workers, e.g. through changeable working schedules, outwork and distance work. With that, employment level at old age should consider performance level, health state and psycho-physiologic potential of the certain age group.

  3. AGING FACILITY WORKER DOSE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    R.L. Thacker

    2005-03-24

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel working in the Aging Facility performing operations to transfer aging casks to the aging pads for thermal and logistical management, stage empty aging casks, and retrieve aging casks from the aging pads for further processing in other site facilities. Doses received by workers due to aging cask surveillance and maintenance operations are also included. The specific scope of work contained in this calculation covers both collective doses and individual worker group doses on an annual basis, and includes the contributions due to external and internal radiation from normal operation. There are no Category 1 event sequences associated with the Aging Facility (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167268], Section 7.2.1). The results of this calculation will be used to support the design of the Aging Facility and to provide occupational dose estimates for the License Application. The calculations contained in this document were developed by Environmental and Nuclear Engineering of the Design and Engineering Organization and are intended solely for the use of the Design and Engineering Organization in its work regarding facility operation. Yucca Mountain Project personnel from the Environmental and Nuclear Engineering should be consulted before use of the calculations for purposes other than those stated herein or use by individuals other than authorized personnel in Environmental and Nuclear Engineering.

  4. Older Workers' Perspectives on Training and Retention of Older Workers: South Australian Aged Care Workers Study. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, David; Marshallsay, Zariah

    2007-01-01

    Older workers' perspectives are examined in a national survey of the finance sector and case studies of aged care and construction workers. The majority of older workers intend to work beyond retirement age, to achieve a better lifestyle. With training, older workers could mentor younger workers. This support document includes a national survey of…

  5. Changes in the Age and Education Profile of Displaced Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Daniel; Zavodny, Madeline

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of Displaced Workers Surveys suggests that between 1983-97, the likelihood of job loss declined among most age groups but rose for middle-aged/older workers relative to younger workers. Changes in educational attainment and industry shifts were contributing factors. Probability of displacement increased significantly for service workers.…

  6. State Initiatives To Increase Compensation for Child Care Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twombly, Eric C.; Montilla, Maria D.; De Vita, Carol J.

    Noting that wages for child care workers are among the lowest in the U.S. labor force and that generally caregivers are offered few employee benefits, this paper summarizes proposals and programs in the 50 states and the District of Columbia to raise child care worker compensation. The paper classifies state-level initiatives into two categories:…

  7. Mature Age "White Collar" Workers' Training and Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dymock, Darryl; Billett, Stephen; Klieve, Helen; Johnson, Greer Cavallaro; Martin, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Global concerns about the growing impact of ageing populations on workplace productivity and on welfare budgets have led to a range of government-supported measures intended to retain and upskill older workers. Yet, a consistent theme in the research literature is that older workers are reluctant and harder to train than younger workers, and that,…

  8. Old Dogs, New Tricks: Training Mature-Aged Manufacturing Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Erica; Smith, Andrew; Smith, Chris Selby

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the employment and training of mature-aged workers, so that suggestions for improving training for mature-aged workers may be offered. Design/methodology/approach: Six expert interviews were carried out by telephone, and three case studies involving company site visits were completed. Each company case study…

  9. Commitment of Licensed Social Workers to Aging Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Kelsey; Bonifas, Robin; Gammonley, Denise

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to identify client, professional, and employment characteristics that enhance licensed social workers' commitment to aging practice. A series of binary logistic regressions were performed using data from 181 licensed, full-time social workers who reported aging as their primary specialty area as part of the 2004 NASW's national…

  10. Literacy in the World of the Aged Care Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Linda; Casarotto, Nadia

    Australia's Aged Care Act of 1997 mandates a number of key reforms aimed at ensuring consistency in the quality of care and well-being for all residents of aged care facilities. The law required residential aged care facilities to provide high-quality care within a framework of continuous improvement which requires aged care workers to perform the…

  11. Effects of Age Expectations on Oncology Social Workers' Clinical Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conlon, Annemarie; Choi, Namkee G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the influence of oncology social workers' expectations regarding aging (ERA) and ERA with cancer (ERAC) on their clinical judgment. Methods: Oncology social workers (N = 322) were randomly assigned to one of four vignettes describing a patient with lung cancer. The vignettes were identical except for the patent's age…

  12. Does Work Contribute to Successful Aging Outcomes in Older Workers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Martha J.; McCready, Jack W.

    2010-01-01

    Older workers are the fastest growing segment of the labor force, yet little is known about designing jobs for older workers that optimize their experiences relative to aging successfully. This study examined the contribution of workplace job design (opportunities for decision-making, skill variety, coworker support, supervisor support) to…

  13. Policy initiatives to promote healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Infeld, Donna Lind; Whitelaw, Nancy

    2002-08-01

    An overwhelming array of policies and programs can be used to help older people (and future older people) maintain healthy lifestyles. How can clinicians help ensure that their patients take advantage of these opportunities? How can these broad-scope policies, educational and information initiatives, and direct service programs be turned into tools to help older people maximize health and independence? First, physicians do not need to do it all themselves. They need to know where to send their patients. For example, case managers in local aging service organizations and social workers, nurses, and discharge planners in hospitals can help connect elderly patients to appropriate benefits and services. Physicians play a critical role in creating a bridge between patients and the array of programs and information that can help them change their individual patterns of behavior. A serious lack of integration exists between what is known about healthy behaviors and lifestyles and what is really happening and available to older people today. From the earlier articles in this issue we know that much can be done to prevent many types of age-related disease and disability. This article provides examples of mechanisms that can be used to broadly disseminate knowledge about effective behavior and treatment changes and create mechanisms to turn this knowledge into real and widespread client-level, practice-level, health system, and community-wide interventions. Second, physicians need to understand that they are not merely subject to these policies and initiatives. They can help formulate and shape them. This political involvement includes active participation in policy initiatives of professional associations, involvement in research and demonstration activities, keeping informed about policy proposals at the federal and state levels, and helping advance ideas for improving health behaviors by speaking up and working toward change. These changes go beyond health initiatives to

  14. Worker senescence and the sociobiology of aging in ants

    PubMed Central

    Giraldo, Ysabel Milton; Traniello, James F. A.

    2014-01-01

    Senescence, the decline in physiological and behavioral function with increasing age, has been the focus of significant theoretical and empirical research in a broad array of animal taxa. Preeminent among invertebrate social models of aging are ants, a diverse and ecologically dominant clade of eusocial insects characterized by reproductive and sterile phenotypes. In this review, we critically examine selection for worker lifespan in ants and discuss the relationship between functional senescence, longevity, task performance, and colony fitness. We did not find strong or consistent support for the hypothesis that demographic senescence in ants is programmed, or its corollary prediction that workers that do not experience extrinsic mortality die at an age approximating their lifespan in nature. We present seven hypotheses concerning how selection could favor extended worker lifespan through its positive relationship to colony size and predict that large colony size, under some conditions, should confer multiple and significant fitness advantages. Fitness benefits derived from long worker lifespan could be mediated by increased resource acquisition, efficient division of labor, accuracy of collective decision-making, enhanced allomaternal care and colony defense, lower infection risk, and decreased energetic costs of workforce maintenance. We suggest future avenues of research to examine the evolution of worker lifespan and its relationship to colony fitness, and conclude that an innovative fusion of sociobiology, senescence theory, and mechanistic studies of aging can improve our understanding of the adaptive nature of worker lifespan in ants. PMID:25530660

  15. Reproduction, social behavior, and aging trajectories in honeybee workers.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Luke; Kuster, Ryan; Rueppell, Olav

    2014-02-01

    While a negative correlation between reproduction and life span is commonly observed, specialized reproductive individuals outlive their non-reproductive nestmates in all eusocial species, including the honeybee, Apis mellifera (L). The consequences of reproduction for individual life expectancy can be studied directly by comparing reproductive and non-reproductive workers. We quantified the life span consequences of reproduction in honeybee workers by removal of the queen to trigger worker reproduction. Furthermore, we observed the social behavior of large cohorts of workers under experimental and control conditions to test for associations with individual life expectancy. Worker life expectancy was moderately increased by queen removal. Queenless colonies contained a few long-lived workers, and oviposition behavior was associated with a strong reduction in mortality risk, indicating that a reproductive role confers a significant survival advantage. This finding is further substantiated by an association between brood care behavior and worker longevity that depends on the social environment. In contrast, other in-hive activities, such as fanning, trophallaxis, and allogrooming did not consistently affect worker life expectancy. The influence of foraging varied among replicates. An earlier age of transitioning from in-hive tasks to outside foraging was always associated with shorter life spans, in accordance with previous studies. In sum, our studies quantify how individual mortality is affected by particular social roles and colony environments and demonstrate interactions between the two. The exceptional, positive association between reproduction and longevity in honeybees extends to within-caste plasticity, which may be exploited for mechanistic studies.

  16. Age and Workers' Perceptions of Workplace Safety: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyekye, Seth Ayim; Salminen, Simo

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the relationship between age and I) safety perception; ii) job satisfaction; iii) compliance with safety management policies; and (iv) accident frequency. Participants were Ghanaian industrial workers (N = 320) categorized into 4 age groups: 19-29 years; 30-39 years; 40-50 years; and 51 years and above. Workplace safety…

  17. Applicant Age as a Subjective Employability Factor: A Study of Workers over and under Age Fifty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forte, Catherine Sabin; Hansvick, Christine L.

    1999-01-01

    Three hundred employers in a suburban area of the Pacific Northwest were surveyed for their perceptions of older (ages 50 and over) and younger (aged 49 and under) workers on 12 attributes. In contrast to previous research, this study found more favorable ratings for older workers overall, including categories such as attendance and salary…

  18. Early Sex Work Initiation and Violence against Female Sex Workers in Mombasa, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Parcesepe, Angela M; L'Engle, Kelly L; Martin, Sandra L; Green, Sherri; Suchindran, Chirayath; Mwarogo, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Between 20 and 40 % of female sex workers (FSWs) began sex work before age 18. Little is known concerning whether early initiation of sex work impacts later experiences in adulthood, including violence victimization. This paper examines the relationship between early initiation of sex work and violence victimization during adulthood. The sample included 816 FSWs in Mombasa, Kenya, recruited from HIV prevention drop-in centers who were 18 years or older and moderate-risk drinkers. Early initiation was defined as beginning sex work at 17 or younger. Logistic regression modeled recent violence as a function of early initiation, adjusting for drop-in center, age, education, HIV status, supporting others, and childhood abuse. Twenty percent of the sample reported early initiation of sex work. Although both early initiators and other FSWs reported commonly experiencing recent violence, early initiators were significantly more likely to experience recent physical and sexual violence and verbal abuse from paying partners. Early initiation was not associated with physical or sexual violence from non-paying partners. Many FSWs begin sex work before age 18. Effective interventions focused on preventing this are needed. In addition, interventions are needed to prevent violence against all FSWs, in particular, those who initiated sex work during childhood or adolescence.

  19. [Ageing rate in workers of mechanic workshops of machinery construction industry in Armenia].

    PubMed

    Sarkisian, G T; Barkhudarov, M S; Kogan, V Iu

    2004-01-01

    Studies of biologic age formation and ageing rate in workers of mechanic workshops revealed that able-bodied population grew old demographically. That is proved by absent age group of 20-29 years and increased share of able-bodied workers older than 50. Young workers aged 30-39 appeared the most vulnerable for occupational hazards--they demonstrated increased ageing rate and maximal excess of biologic age over chronological age and due biologic age.

  20. Capabilities of Middle-aged And Older Workers: A Survey of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Elizabeth L.; Kerr, Elizabeth A.

    1976-01-01

    A review of literature including a summary of pertinent studies on middle-aged and older workers in five broad categories: physical capacity, learning ability, job performance, performance in training, and worker attitudes. (ABM)

  1. Formative Evaluation of the Targeted Initiative for Older Workers. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the findings and conclusions, and recommendations for the Formative Evaluation of the Targeted Initiative for Older Workers (TIOW). The TIOW was introduced in 2006 to help older workers in vulnerable communities who had lost their jobs to extend their labour market participation and reintegrate into employment. The TIOW is…

  2. Valuable human capital: the aging health care worker.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sandra K; Collins, Kevin S

    2006-01-01

    With the workforce growing older and the supply of younger workers diminishing, it is critical for health care managers to understand the factors necessary to capitalize on their vintage employees. Retaining this segment of the workforce has a multitude of benefits including the preservation of valuable intellectual capital, which is necessary to ensure that health care organizations maintain their competitive advantage in the consumer-driven market. Retaining the aging employee is possible if health care managers learn the motivators and training differences associated with this category of the workforce. These employees should be considered a valuable resource of human capital because without their extensive expertise, intense loyalty and work ethic, and superior customer service skills, health care organizations could suffer severe economic repercussions in the near future.

  3. Social regulation of ageing by young workers in the honey bee, Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Eyer, Michael; Dainat, Benjamin; Neumann, Peter; Dietemann, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Organisms' lifespans are modulated by both genetic and environmental factors. The lifespan of eusocial insects is determined by features of the division of labor, which itself is influenced by social regulatory mechanisms. In the honey bee, Apis mellifera, the presence of brood and of old workers carrying out foraging tasks are important social drivers of ageing, but the influence of young adult workers is unknown, as it has not been experimentally teased apart from that of brood. In this study, we test the role of young workers in the ageing of their nestmates. We measured the impact of different social contexts characterized by the absence of brood and/or young adults on the lifespan of worker nestmates in field colonies. To acquire insight into the physiological processes occurring under these contexts, we analyzed the expression of genes known to affect honey bee ageing. The data showed that young workers significantly reduced the lifespan of nestmate workers, similar to the effect of brood on its own. Differential expression of vitellogenin, major royal jelly protein-1, and methylase transferase, but not methyl farneosate epoxidase genes suggests that young workers and brood influence ageing of adult nestmate workers via different physiological pathways. We identify young workers as an essential part of the social regulation of ageing in honey bee colonies.

  4. Does age affect the relationship between control at work and sleep disturbance for shift workers?

    PubMed

    Loudoun, Rebecca Jane; Muurlink, Olav; Peetz, David; Murray, Georgina

    2014-12-01

    Among miners, shift work, aging and lack of control at work may be factors leading to increased sleep problems. Such risk factors may also operate in interaction, resulting in an even increased harm for sleep disruption. The present study aims at evaluating these relationships drawing on a sample of Australian mine and energy workers and their partners. The workers were mainly men. All performed shift work that included either nights (95%) or multiple shifts (92%), usually both (87%), while 36% were aged 50 years or above. The results show that low latitude over work activities is associated with higher sleep disturbances across the sample, though the effects are clearer amongst younger workers. By contrast, for younger workers, control over shift scheduling is not associated with sleep disturbances but for workers aged 50 or more, low control results in more sleep disturbance. Misalignment between shift workers and partner work schedules, and partner dissatisfaction with shift worker's employment and shift worker's work-life balance, are also associated with more sleep disturbances amongst shift workers.

  5. Young workers in the construction industry and initial OSH-training when entering work life.

    PubMed

    Holte, Kari Anne; Kjestveit, Kari

    2012-01-01

    Studies have found that young workers are at risk for injuries. The risk for accidents is high within construction, indicating that young workers may be especially vulnerable in this industry. In Norway, it is possible to enter the construction industry as a full time worker at the age of 18. The aim of this paper was to explore how young construction workers are received at their workplace with regards to OHS-training. The study was designed as a qualitative case study. Each case consisted of a young worker or apprentice (< 25 years), a colleague, the immediate superior, the OHS manager, and a safety representative in the company. The interviews were recorded and analyzed through content analysis. The results showed that there were differences between large and small companies, where large companies had more formalized routines and systems for receiving and training young workers. These routines were however more dependent on requirements set by legislators and contractors more than by company size, since the legislation has different requirements with impact on OHS.

  6. Aging Filipino Domestic Workers and the (In)Adequacy of Retirement Provisions in Canada.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Ilyan

    2017-03-01

    Although domestic work scholarship in Canada has focused primarily on the immigration/migration and labour experiences of domestic workers under the Foreign Domestic Movement and the Live-in-Caregiver Program, research is scarce on how these workers retire and consequently age in Canadian society. This article focuses on the aging experiences of retired Filipino domestic workers who, upon entering retirement, find themselves working in the secondary and/or underground economy while providing and receiving care from spouses, grandchildren, and local/transnational family members. Data were drawn from six qualitative, in-depth interviews with older Filipina domestic workers who discussed experiences of immigration, caring labour, retirement, and aging. Findings underscore (1) the poverty that older Filipino domestic workers encounter as they approach their retirement; (2) the necessity but insufficiency of the state's retirement provisions; (3) the need to find work in the unreported labour market; and (4) how caring labour is provided intergenerationally as a survival strategy.

  7. Gender, aging, and work: aging workers' strategies to confront the demands of production in maquiladora plants in nogales, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Adarga, Mireya Scarone; Becerril, Leonor Cedillo; Champion, Catalina Denman

    2010-01-01

    This work is part of a qualitative socio-cultural investigation with a group of men and women 40 years and older in the maquila export industry in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico. In 1994, as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement, maquila plants combined traditional intensive work methods with new "just in time" production norms that impacted work and health conditions, particularly in older, or aging, workers. The workers that were interviewed for this study show a reduction in their functional ability to work starting at 40 years of age. Work organization demands, general health conditions, and a decrease in physical abilities brings these 40-year-old workers to prematurely construct an image of themselves as aging workers and to develop coping strategies that vary by gender.

  8. Division of labour influences the rate of ageing in weaver ant workers.

    PubMed Central

    Chapuisat, Michel; Keller, Laurent

    2002-01-01

    The evolutionary theory of ageing predicts that the timing of senescence has been primarily shaped by the extrinsic mortality rate, which causes selection intensity to decline over time. One difficulty in testing the evolutionary theory of ageing is that extrinsic mortality risk is often confounded with body size and fecundity, which may also directly affect lifespan. Social insects with a pronounced division of labour between worker castes provide a unique opportunity to study the direct effect of extrinsic mortality on the evolution of ageing rates independently of body size, reproductive effort and genetic configuration. In the weaver ant, Oecophylla smaragdina, the major (large) workers perform the risky tasks outside the nest, while the minor (small) workers stay within the highly protected arboreal nest. Hence, this pronounced division of labour is associated with high differences in extrinsic mortality risks. The evolutionary theory of ageing predicts that the minor workers should have a longer intrinsic lifespan than the major workers. In line with this prediction, we found that in a protected environment the minor workers lived significantly longer than the major workers did. Hence, the ageing rate appears to have been moulded by variation in the extrinsic mortality rate independently of size, reproductive effort and genetic configuration. PMID:12028773

  9. Opportunities for woman-initiated HIV prevention methods among female sex workers in southern China.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Margaret R; Abbott, Maryann; Liao, Susu; Yu, Wang; He, Bin; Zhou, Yuejiang; Wei, Liu; Jiang, Jingmei

    2007-05-01

    Rapid changes in China over the past two decades have led to significant problems associated with population migration and changing social attitudes, including a growing sex industry and concurrent increases in STIs and HIV. This article reports results of an exploratory study of microbicide acceptability and readiness and current HIV prevention efforts among female sex workers in two rural and one urban town in Hainan and Guangxi Provinces in southern China. The study focused on these women's knowledge and cultural understandings of options for protecting themselves from exposure to STIs and HIV, and the potential viability and acceptability of woman-initiated prevention methods. We report on ethnographic elicitation interviews conducted with women working within informal sex-work establishments (hotels, massage and beauty parlors, roadside restaurants, boarding houses). We discuss implications of these findings for further promotion of woman-initiated prevention methods such as microbicides and female condoms among female sex workers in China.

  10. Opportunities for Woman-Initiated HIV Prevention Methods among Female Sex Workers in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, Margaret R.; Liao, Susu; Abbott, Maryann; He, Bin; Zhou, Yuejiang; Jiang, Jingmei; Wei, Liu; Yu, Wang

    2010-01-01

    Rapid changes in China over the past two decades have led to significant problems associated with population migration and changing social attitudes, including a growing sex industry and concurrent increases in STIs and HIV. This article reports results of an exploratory study of microbicide acceptability and readiness and current HIV prevention efforts among female sex workers in two rural and one urban town in Hainan and Guangxi Provinces in southern China. The study focused on these women’s knowledge and cultural understandings of options for protecting themselves from exposure to STIs and HIV, and the potential viability and acceptability of woman-initiated prevention methods. We report on ethnographic elicitation interviews conducted with women working within informal sex-work establishments (hotels, massage and beauty parlors, roadside restaurants, boarding houses). We discuss implications of these findings for further promotion of woman-initiated prevention methods such as microbicides and female condoms among female sex workers in China. PMID:17599276

  11. The free health care initiative: how has it affected health workers in Sierra Leone?

    PubMed Central

    Witter, Sophie; Wurie, Haja; Bertone, Maria Paola

    2016-01-01

    There is an acknowledged gap in the literature on the impact of fee exemption policies on health staff, and, conversely, the implications of staffing for fee exemption. This article draws from five research tools used to analyse changing health worker policies and incentives in post-war Sierra Leone to document the effects of the Free Health Care Initiative (FHCI) of 2010 on health workers. Data were collected through document review (57 documents fully reviewed, published and grey); key informant interviews (23 with government, donors, NGO staff and consultants); analysis of human resource data held by the MoHS; in-depth interviews with health workers (23 doctors, nurses, mid-wives and community health officers); and a health worker survey (312 participants, including all main cadres). The article traces the HR reforms which were triggered by the FHCI and evidence of their effects, which include substantial increases in number and pay (particularly for higher cadres), as well as a reported reduction in absenteeism and attrition, and an increase (at least for some areas, where data is available) in outputs per health worker. The findings highlight how a flagship policy, combined with high profile support and financial and technical resources, can galvanize systemic changes. In this regard, the story of Sierra Leone differs from many countries introducing fee exemptions, where fee exemption has been a stand-alone programme, unconnected to wider health system reforms. The challenge will be sustaining the momentum and the attention to delivering results as the FHCI ceases to be an initiative and becomes just ‘business as normal’. The health system in Sierra Leone was fragile and conflict-affected prior to the FHCI and still faces significant challenges, both in human resources for health and more widely, as vividly evidenced by the current Ebola crisis. PMID:25797469

  12. Caring from Afar: Asian H1B Migrant Workers and Aging Parents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeon-Shim; Chaudhuri, Anoshua; Yoo, Grace J

    2015-09-01

    With the growth in engineering/technology industries, the United States has seen an increase in the arrival of highly skilled temporary migrant workers on H1B visas from various Asian countries. Limited research exists on how these groups maintain family ties from afar including caring for aging parents. This study explores the experiences and challenges that Asian H1B workers face when providing care from a distance. A total of 21 Chinese/Taiwanese, Korean, and Indian H1B workers participated in in-depth qualitative interviews. Key findings indicate that despite distance, caring relationships still continue through regular communications, financial remittances, and return visits, at the same time creating emotional, psychological, and financial challenges for the workers. Findings highlight the need for further research in understanding how the decline of aging parent's health impacts the migrants' adjustment and health in the United States.

  13. Sexual Initiation and Complex Recent Polydrug Use Patterns Among Male Sex Workers in Vietnam: A Preliminary Epidemiological Trajectory.

    PubMed

    Yu, Gary; Goldsamt, Lloyd A; Clatts, Michael C; Giang, Lê Minh

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the age of onset of sexual and drug risk and their association with complex patterns of recent drug use among male sex workers (MSW) in a developing country, such as Vietnam. The aim of this study was to determine whether latent class analysis (LCA) would aid in the detection of current individual and polydrug use combinations to predict how different trajectories of sexual and drug initiation contribute to different patterns of current illicit drug use. Data were collected from a cross-sectional survey administered to young MSWs between 2010 and 2011 in Vietnam (N = 710). LCA clustered participants into recent drug use groups, incorporating both the specific types and overall count of different drugs used. Men reported drug use within a 1 month period from an 11-item drug use list. LCA identified three distinct drug use classes: (1) alcohol use, (2) alcohol and tobacco use, and (3) high polydrug use. The current drug use classes are associated with sex worker status, housing stability, income level, educational attainment, marital status, sexual identity, and sexual preferences. High levels of drug use are strongly associated with being a recent sex worker, not having recent stable housing, higher than median income, more than a high school education, less likely to be currently in school and more likely to have non-homosexual preferences and heterosexual partners. An event history analysis approach (time-event displays) examined the timing of the age of onset of drug and sexual risks. Early ages of drug and sexual initiation are seen for all three classes. High current drug users show earlier onset of these risks, which are significantly delayed for moderate and low current drug users. LCA incorporating an overall count of different drugs detected three distinct current drug use classes. The data illustrates that the complexity of drug factors that must be accounted for, both in advancing our epidemiological understanding of the complexity

  14. Age Differences among Female Sex Workers in the Philippines: Sexual Risk Negotiations and Perceived Manager Advice

    PubMed Central

    Urada, Lianne A.; Malow, Robert M.; Santos, Nina C.; Morisky, Donald E.

    2012-01-01

    Consistent condom use among high risk groups such as female sex workers (FSWs) remains low. Adolescent female sex workers are especially at higher risk for HIV/STI infections. However, few published studies have compared the sexual risk negotiations among adolescent, emerging adult, and older age groups or the extent a manager's advice about condom use is associated with an FSW's age. Of 1,388 female bar/spa workers surveyed in the southern Philippines, 791 FSW who traded sex in the past 6 months were included in multivariable logistic regression models. The oldest FSWs (aged 36–48) compared to adolescent FSWs (aged 14–17) were 3.3 times more likely to negotiate condoms when clients refused condom use. However, adolescent FSWs received more advice from their managers to convince clients to use condoms or else to refuse sex, compared to older FSWs. Both adolescent and the oldest FSWs had elevated sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and inconsistent condom use compared to other groups. Having a condom rule at the establishment was positively associated with condom negotiation. Factors such as age, the advice managers give to their workers, and the influence of a condom use rule at the establishment need to be considered when delivering HIV/STI prevention interventions. PMID:22848800

  15. PCBs Alter Dopamine Mediated Function in Aging Workers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    in Albany, NY and in New Haven, CT. We are proud of this progress since many of our subjects are elderly and must travel considerable distances to...Thyroid meds Age Gender Education IQ Body Mass Index Marital status Smoking Drinking Physical activity level Hours of sleep per night

  16. The Arkansas aging initiative: an innovative approach for addressing the health of older rural Arkansans.

    PubMed

    Beverly, Claudia J; McAtee, Robin E; Chernoff, Ronni; Davis, Gwynn V; Jones, Susan K; Lipschitz, David A

    2007-04-01

    The Donald W. Reynolds Institute on Aging at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences in Little Rock is addressing one of the most pressing policy issues facing the United States: how to care for the burgeoning number of older adults. In 2001, the Institute created the Arkansas Aging Initiative, which established seven satellite centers on aging across the state using $1.3 to $2 million dollars annually from the state's portion of the Master Tobacco Settlement. These centers on aging assist the state's population of older adults, many of whom reside in rural areas, live in poverty, and suffer from poor health. The centers provide multiple avenues of education for the community, health care providers, families, and caregivers. The Arkansas Aging Initiative, in partnership with local hospitals, also makes geriatric primary and specialty care more accessible through senior health clinics established across rural Arkansas. In 2005, older adults made more than 36,000 visits to these clinics. All sites have attracted at least one physician who holds a Certificate of Added Qualifications in geriatrics and one advanced practice nurse. Other team members include geriatric medical social workers, pharmacists, nutritionists, and neuropsychologists. This initiative also addresses other policy issues, including engaging communities in building partnerships and programs crucial to maximizing their limited resources and identifying opportunities to change reimbursement mechanisms for care provided to the growing number of older adults. We believe this type of program has the potential to create a novel paradigm for nationwide implementation.

  17. Knowledge of Normal and Pathological Memory Aging in College Students, Social Workers, and Health Care Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Katie E.; Allen, Priscilla D.; Jackson, Erin M.; Hawley, Karri S.; Brigman, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire (KMAQ) measures laypersons' knowledge of normal memory changes and pathological memory deficits in adulthood. In Experiment 1, undergraduate and graduate social work students and social work practitioners completed the KMAQ. Social workers and graduate students were more accurate on the pathological than…

  18. Aging affects initiation and continuation of T cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiu; Gross, Diara; Elbaum, Philip; Murasko, Donna M

    2007-04-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in immune responses, particularly within the T cell compartment. While the expansion of specific T cells in response to virus infections is consistently decreased in aged mice, the differences in T cell activation between young and aged mice as demonstrated in each round of proliferation remain poorly defined. In the present study, we utilized the T cell mitogen, ConA, to explore if fewer T cells of aged mice initiate proliferation upon mitogen stimulation or if similar numbers of T cells of aged mice begin proliferation but undergo fewer rounds of division. We also examined whether these age-associated changes in proliferation are reflected by differences in T cell activation by comparing activation markers (CD25, CD69, CD44, and CD62L) on T cells of young and aged mice at each round of proliferation. Not only was the kinetics of the expression of these markers greatly different between young and aged mice on the entire CD8 T cell population, but also at each round of proliferation. Our results demonstrate that a larger percentage of CD8 T cells of aged mice do not proliferate at all upon stimulation. Of the CD8 T cells of aged mice that do proliferate, a larger percentage start later and stop sooner. These results suggest that multiple levels of alteration may need to be considered when trying to maximize the immune response of aged individuals.

  19. Aging Workers and Trade-Related Injuries in the US Construction Industry

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sang D.

    2015-01-01

    The study was designed to identify any trends of injury type as it relates to the age and trade of construction workers. The participants for this study included any individual who, while working on a heavy and highway construction project in the Midwestern United States, sustained an injury during the specified time frame of when the data were collected. During this period, 143 injury reports were collected. The four trade/occupation groups with the highest injury rates were laborers, carpenters, iron workers, and operators. Data pertaining to injuries sustained by body part in each age group showed that younger workers generally suffered from finger/hand/wrist injuries due to cuts/lacerations and contusion, whereas older workers had increased sprains/strains injuries to the ankle/foot/toes, knees/lower legs, and multiple body parts caused by falls from a higher level or overexertion. Understanding these trade-related tasks can help present a more accurate depiction of the incident and identify trends and intervention methods to meet the needs of the aging workforce in the industry. PMID:26106517

  20. Initial aging phenomena in copper-chromium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzuki, H.; Motohiro, K.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of quenching and aging temperatures on the initial aging curves of Cu-Cr alloy were examined mainly by means of electrical resistivity measurements. Three Cu-Cr alloy specimens having 0.24, 0.74, and 1.0% Cr were solution-treated at 950-1050 C, quenched into ice-water, and subsequently aged at 300-500 C. The results were as follows: (1) At the very early stage of aging (within about 30 sec), an abrupt decrease of resistivity with lowering aging tempratures. (T sub A) and rising solution temperatures (T sub S) was observed at (T sub A) up to about 400 C. In contrast, a transient increase of resistivity with rising T sub A and lowering T sub S was observed at T sub A from about 450 to 500 C. These phenomena seem to be caused by a rapid formation of solute clusters and the reversion of clusters formed during quenching, which are enhanced by quenched-in vacancies, respectively. (2) The amount of precipitation increased at the latter stage of aging with rising T sub S and T sub A as generally expected, where T sub S was not so high as to form secondary defects. (3) As a result, the initial aging phenomena in Cr-Cr alloy were revealed to be complicated against expectations. This was considered to be due to the migration energy of vacancies so larger in Cu-base.

  1. ADL abilities and vocational competencies: Blue-collar workers aged 45 years and over.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, E

    1995-01-01

    A questionnaire composed of 55 items that addressed activities of daily living (ADL) abilities and 13 basic vocational competencies, such as memory and muscular power, was completed by 48 nondisabled male workers aged ≥45 years. The workers were all engaged in the manufacturing industry. All respondents found the following five tasks easy to do: wring a towel, put arms through sleeves, open and shut a door, turn a tap on and off, and open and shut a sliding door. Among basic vocational competencies, the highest performance, with but a small standard deviation, occurred with the muscular power competency; a low performance with a large standard deviation (P=0.05) occurred with concentration. No age difference was discerned in planning ability, cooperativeness, muscular power, staying power, manual adeptness, and sense of equilibrium, whereas in learning ability, agility, and concentration, people aged ≥65 years showed significantly lower performance (P=0.05). The characteristics of vocational competencies in manufacturing industry workers aged ≥45 years were fond to be linked to ADL abilities, and the effectiveness of the ADL abilities survey, prepared on an experimental basis, was confirmed for the evaluation of vocational competencies.

  2. Developing a training program on issues in aging for correctional workers.

    PubMed

    Cianciolo, Patricia K; Zupan, Linda L

    2004-01-01

    Older adults who are incarcerated and living in prisons represent an increasing, yet invisible, group among the aging population. Two factors in particular have contributed to this growth: the aging of the general population and the escalating number of prisoners serving long sentences. Working effectively with older inmates poses a challenge for correctional workers who are accustomed to dealing with a much younger clientele. In many states, correctional employees are required to obtain annual training, and educational institutions can play a major role in providing the expertise necessary in the development of quality training materials on issues related to aging. While continuing education programs to address the needs of workers in community-based and long-term care settings have grown rapidly, they have made negligible progress in more obscure settings such as prisons. This paper discusses the development of a 6-hour training program entitled "Issues in Aging for Correctional Workers." The training was developed through the interdisciplinary collaborative efforts of two faculty members who teach in the criminal justice and sociology/social work departments at a medium-sized liberal arts university in the upper Midwest.

  3. Age in Relation to Worker Compensation Costs in the Construction Industry

    PubMed Central

    Schwatka, Natalie V.; Butler, Lesley M.; Rosecrance, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Background A better understanding of how workers’ compensation (WC) costs are affected by an aging US workforce is needed, especially for physically demanding industries, such as construction. Methods The relationship between age and injury type on claim costs was evaluated using a database of 107,064 Colorado WC claims filed between 1998 and 2008 among construction workers. Results Mean WC costs increased with increasing age for total cost (P < 0.0001), medical costs (P < 0.0001), and indemnity costs (P < 0.0001). For each one-year increase in age, indemnity, and medical costs increased by 3.5% and 1.1%, respectively. For specific injury types, such as strains and contusions, the association between age and indemnity costs was higher among claimants aged ≥65 compared to claimants aged 18–24. Conclusions Our findings suggest that specific injury types may be partially responsible for the higher indemnity costs among older construction workers, compared with their younger coworkers. PMID:22782837

  4. Mediating Community Participation: Practice of Support Workers in Initiating, Facilitating or Disrupting Encounters between People with and without Intellectual Disability.

    PubMed

    Bigby, Christine; Wiesel, Ilan

    2015-07-01

    Promoting community participation for people with intellectual disability through encounter with strangers is an integral part of the mission of disability support workers. This paper offers detailed micro-level analysis of the practices of support workers when they accompany a person with intellectual disability outside their home and explores the subtle differences which make some staff practices more effective than others in promoting more convivial encounters with strangers. Based on 160 h of observations of twenty-six adults with intellectual disability in a variety of public places, and interviews and focus groups with their support workers, the paper points to some of the critical judgements support workers need to make when considering whether, when and how to initiate or intervene in such encounters.

  5. Mental health differences among retirees and workers: findings from the Normative Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Bossé, R; Aldwin, C M; Levenson, M R; Ekerdt, D J

    1987-12-01

    Researchers during the past decade have found little effect of retirement on physical health. However, retirement entails a number of losses, and its effect on mental health, as measured by the prevalence of psychological symptoms, is unclear. We examined psychological symptoms in a sample of 1,513 older men, participants in the Normative Aging Study, using the SCL-90-R (Derogatis, 1983). Analyses of variance indicated that retirees reported more psychological symptoms than did workers, even after controlling for physical health status. Exploratory analyses examining the circumstances of retirement found no effects for length of retirement or part-time employment, but did find effects for the timing of retirement. Both early and late retirees reported more psychological symptoms. Late workers (aged 66 and older) reported the fewest symptoms. Reasons for these findings are discussed.

  6. [Initial epidemiological data on the clinical effects in health workers employed in the manual lifting of patients in wards].

    PubMed

    Colombini, D; Riva, F; Luè, D; Nava, C; Petri, A; Basilico, S; Linzalata, M; Morselli, G; Cotroneo, L; Ricci, M G; Menoni, O; Battevi, N

    1999-01-01

    An investigation was carried out by teams from various centres coordinated by the EPM (Ergonomics of Posture and Movement) Research Unit on 54 different hospitals in various regions of northern and central Italy. The teams examined a total of 3341 health workers whose job involved manual handling of patients (553 male and 2788 females, 1568 working in hospitals and 1773 in geriatric residences). Numerous meetings were held to ensure that the methods of assessing the exposure indexes and spinal impairment were identical in the various teams. The final data were processed centrally at the EPM Research Unit. The sample analyzed may be considered as representative of the situation in hospitals in Italy, at least for northern and central Italy. The mean age was 36 years, mean length of service in the department 6 years and mean length of job duration not exceeding 10 years; staff turnover was high. Physical examination revealed that 8.4% of the workers had had at least one episode of acute low back pain in the previous 12 months: i.e., 4 times the values of the reference groups. Also in the case of clinical-functional spondyloarthropathies of the lumbosacral spine, in the females there was a significantly higher prevalence than in the reference groups. All disorders were more severe in sectors more at risk, i.e., old peoples homes, rehabilitation centres, orthopaedic and surgical departments, and in any case higher in old peoples homes and geriatric residences. The initial data concerning the ratio between presence of spinal disease and risk index were also positive.

  7. Resilience, work engagement and stress reactivity in a middle-aged manual worker population.

    PubMed

    Black, Julie K; Balanos, George M; Whittaker Previously Phillips, Anna C

    2017-02-24

    Work stress is a growing problem in Europe. Together, the negative physiological effect of stress on health, and increasing age increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease in those aged over 50years. Therefore, identifying older workers who may be at risk of work-related stress, and its physiological effects, is key to promoting their health and wellbeing in the workforce. The present study examined the relationship between perceived psychological resilience and work-related factors (work engagement and presenteeism) and the physiological response to acute psychological stress in older manual workers in the UK. Thirty-one participants, mean (SD) age 54.9 (3.78)years reported perceived levels of resilience, work engagement, and presenteeism using standardized questionnaires. Cardiovascular measurements (heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) and salivary cortisol were used to assess their physiological response to an acute psychological stress task. Resilience was not associated with work-related factors or reactivity. However, workers with higher work engagement showed lower SBP (p=0.02) and HR (p=0.001) reactivity than those with lower work engagement. Further, those with higher sickness presenteeism also had higher HR reactivity (p=0.03). This suggests a potential pathway by which higher work stress might contribute to the risk of future cardiovascular disease.

  8. Age-friendly community initiatives: conceptual issues and key questions.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Emily A; Oberlink, Mia; Scharlach, Andrew E; Neal, Margaret B; Stafford, Philip B

    2015-04-01

    Public policy and programs for older adults traditionally have focused on the delivery of benefits to targeted individuals. Over the past decade, age-friendly community initiatives (AFCIs) have developed as a paradigm shift in contrast to this predominant focus. AFCIs engage stakeholders from multiple sectors within a typically local geographic area to make social and/or physical environments more conducive to older adults' health, well-being, and ability to age in place and in the community. We describe three general categories of AFCIs, including community planning approaches, support-focused approaches, and cross-sector partnership approaches. Following from this conceptual overview, we posit four key policy-relevant questions with implications for the expansion of AFCIs, including what public policy supports are necessary for the implementation of AFCIs across diverse communities, how entities outside of aging can be engaged to collaborate, to what extent advocates for various models can work together, and how the outcomes of these initiatives can be rigorously evaluated. We conclude by discussing how AFCIs are germane to the primary issues highlighted by the 2015 White House Conference on Aging.

  9. Intimate-Partner and Client-Initiated Violence among Female Street-Based Sex Workers in China: Does a Support Network Help?

    PubMed Central

    Hail-Jares, Katie; Chang, Ruth C. F.; Choi, Sugy; Zheng, Huang; He, Na; Huang, Z. Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Background Globally, female street-based sex workers are vulnerable to gender-based violence. Previous research has shown having a peer social network can reduce sex workers’ risks of victimization. However, mechanisms of how social network impacts violence among female street-based sex workers are still far from clear. Methods Our study was based on data abstracted from a paper-and-pencil survey administered among 218 female street-based sex workers in Shanghai, China. We focused on self-reported client-initiated violence and intimate-partner violence in emotional, physical, and sexual forms. Social networks were characterized by the size and sources of financial and psychosocial support (e.g. family, friends, and peers). Multi-variable logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) of each type of violence exposure by social network structure after the adjustment of age, education, and years in Shanghai. Results The street-based female sex workers in our study were primarily rural-to-urban migrants (95.7%) with an average age of 41 years old. 24.3% and 62.8% of the sex workers reported intimate-partner violence and client-initiated violence respectively. Lack of financial support, as defined by having only one individual or none in her peer support system to help financially, was significantly associated with self-reported intimate-partner violence (AOR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.1–5.9). Respondents who reported client-initiated violence, by contrast, were more likely to report lacked psychosocial support from family (AOR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.0–4.6) and peers (AOR: 5.1, 95% CI: 2.2–11). Conclusion This study is one of the first to systematically analyze the associations between social network and gender-based violence among street-based female sex worker. We reported a high prevalence of both types of gender-based violence and their complex associations with family, friends, and peer support network. Policies with goals to reduce violence against

  10. Factors Influencing Childcare Workers' Promotion of Physical Activity in Children Aged 0-4 Years: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilke, Sarah; Opdenakker, Claudia; Kremers, Stef P. J; Gubbels, Jessica S

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the factors influencing childcare workers' promotion of physical activity (PA) among children aged 0-4?years, a particularly interesting context because of the increasing number of children attending childcare. Twenty Dutch childcare workers were interviewed. The interviews revealed some important barriers to the…

  11. Age-Differences in Work Motivation and Job Satisfaction. The Influence of Age on the Relationships between Work Characteristics and Workers' Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boumans, Nicolle P. G.; de Jong, Ad H. J.; Janssen, Sara M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of age on the relationship between work characteristics and workers' work motivation and job satisfaction. In total, 1036 workers of a Dutch division of a multinational organization participated. Data were collected by a digital questionnaire. Two interaction terms in the regression on work motivation were…

  12. Pursuing scale and quality in STI interventions with sex workers: initial results from Avahan India AIDS Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Steen, R; Mogasale, V; Wi, T; Singh, A K; Das, A; Daly, C; George, B; Neilsen, G; Loo, V; Dallabetta, G

    2006-01-01

    Background Migration, population mobility, and sex work continue to drive sexually transmitted epidemics in India. Yet interventions targeting high incidence networks are rarely implemented at sufficient scale to have impact. India AIDS Initiative (Avahan), funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, is scaling up interventions with sex workers (SWs) and other high risk populations in India's six highest HIV prevalence states. Methods Avahan resources are channelled through state level partners (SLPs) to local level non‐governmental organisations (NGOs) who organise outreach, community mobilisation, and dedicated clinics for SWs. These clinics provide services for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including Condom Promotion, syndromic case management, regular check‐ups, and treatment of asymptomatic infections. SWs take an active role in service delivery. STI capacity building support functions on three levels. A central capacity building team developed guidelines and standards, trains state level STI coordinators, monitors outcomes, and conducts operations research. Standards are documented in an Avahan‐wide manual. State level STI coordinators train NGO clinic staff and conduct supervision of clinics based on these standards and related quality monitoring tools. Clinic and outreach staff report on indicators that guide additional capacity building inputs. Results In 2 years, clinics with community outreach for SWs have been established in 274 settings covering 77 districts. Mapping and size estimation have identified 187 000 SWs. In a subset of four large states covered by six SLPs (183 000 estimated SWs, 65 districts), 128 326 (70%) of the SWs have been contacted through peer outreach and 74 265 (41%) have attended the clinic at least once. A total of 127 630 clinic visits have been reported, an increasing proportion for recommended routine check ups. Supervision and monitoring facilitate standardisation of services across sites

  13. Stabilising the aged care workforce: an analysis of worker retention and intention.

    PubMed

    Howe, Anna L; King, Debra S; Ellis, Julie M; Wells, Yvonne D; Wei, Zhang; Teshuva, Karen A

    2012-02-01

    Concerns about the capacity of the aged care industry to attract and retain a workforce with the skills required to deliver high quality care are widespread, but poor conceptualisation of the problem can result in strategies to address turnover being poorly targeted. A census of residential and community aged care services conducted by the National Institute of Labour Studies (NILS) in 2007 provided a comprehensive empirical account of the workforce, and estimated turnover on the basis of retention: that is, the proportion of the workforce who had been in their job for 1 year or less. This paper adds the dimension of intention: that is, workers' expectations as to whether in 1 year's time, they would still be working in the same aged care service. The dual driver model that takes both retention and intention into account was applied in further analysis of the 2007 NILS data. Investigation of relationships between workforce instability and 13 variables covering worker attributes, organisational attributes and structural attributes of the industry demonstrated the usefulness of the dual driver model for reconceptualising and analysing stability and, in turn, refining strategies to address turnover.

  14. Age-differences in work motivation and job satisfaction. The influence of age on the relationships between work characteristics and workers' outcomes.

    PubMed

    Boumans, Nicolle P G; de Jong, Ad H J; Janssen, Sara M

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of age on the relationship between work characteristics and workers' work motivation and job satisfaction. In total, 1036 workers of a Dutch division of a multinational organization participated. Data were collected by a digital questionnaire. Two interaction terms in the regression on work motivation were significant. The first interaction showed that the positive correlation between Motivating Potential Score (MPS) and motivation was much stronger for older than for younger employees. So, to remain motivated, older employees seem more in need of intrinsic challenging and fulfilling jobs. The second significant interaction indicated that the positive association between career opportunities and motivation was much stronger for younger employees than for older employees. This means that, especially, younger workers' motivation increases as they are offered more career opportunities. Careful career mentoring by the supervisor as part of an aging policy can contribute to the maintenance of workers of any age.

  15. Elbow joint disorders in relation to vibration exposure and age in stone quarry workers.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, H; Suzuki, H; Momoi, Y; Yamada, S

    1993-01-01

    Elbow joint disorders were studied in relation to vibration exposure and age in 74 male stone quarry workers who operated mainly chipping hammers and sometimes rock drills. They were examined for range of active motion in elbow extension and flexion, and by means of radiographs of the elbow joint. Effects of age and vibratory tool operation on the elbow joint were statistically estimated using multiple regression analysis. In the analysis of all subjects, including those aged over 60 years, age was significantly related to the range of motion in extension and to radiographic changes in both elbows, and the duration of vibratory tool operation was associated with the range of right elbow flexion. Among subjects under the age of 60 years, duration of vibratory tool operation showed a significant dose-effect relationship to the range of flexion and radiographic changes in the right elbow, but there was no significant relationship with age. The present results suggest that the operation of chipping hammers and rock drills contributes to elbow joint disorders or osteoarthrosis, even when the effect of age is taken into account. Besides vibration exposure, it may be necessary to consider various loads on the elbow joint such as firmly grasping and pressing the tool against stones with the arm bent at about 90 degrees, and carrying stones.

  16. Career Aspirations of Older Workers: An Australian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Hitendra; Kelly, Kathy; Tones, Megan

    2006-01-01

    Global challenges associated with the ageing workforce include lower levels of education and negative attitudes of older workers towards learning and covert age discrimination in the workplace. This report discusses initial findings from a survey of older workers employed in regional areas in Australia. The older workers surveyed were…

  17. Field study of age-differentiated strain for assembly line workers in the automotive industry.

    PubMed

    Börner, Kerstin; Scherf, Christian; Leitner-Mai, Bianca; Spanner-Ulmer, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    A field study in an automotive supply industry company was conducted to explore age-differentiated strain of assembly line workers. Subjective and objective data from 23 female workers aged between 27 and 57 years were collected at the workplace belt buckle assembly during morning shifts. Subjects with medication or chronic diseases affecting heart rate and breath rate were excluded. For subjective data generation different questionnaires were used. Before the Work Ability Index and the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire were completed by the subjects. Short questionnaires (strain-ratings, NASA-TLX) directly at begin and end of the work were used for obtaining shift-related data. During the whole shift (6 a.m. - 2.45 p.m.) bodily functions were logged with a wireless chest strap. In addition, the motion of the hand-arm-system was recorded for 30 times, 3 minutes each after a fixed time-schedule. First results show that younger subjects need significant less time for assembly (mean = 14.940 s) compared to older subjects (mean = 17.040 s; t(472.026) = -9.278 , p < 0.01).

  18. Virgin queen mandibular gland signals of Apis mellifera capensis change with age and affect honeybee worker responses.

    PubMed

    Wossler, Theresa C; Jones, Georgina E; Allsopp, Michael H; Hepburn, Randall

    2006-05-01

    The mandibular gland secretions of Apis mellifera capensis virgin queens were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Changes in the patterns of the mandibular gland volatiles of A. m. capensis virgin queens were followed from emergence until 14-d old. Ontogenetic changes in the mandibular gland secretions were largely quantitative in nature, delineating the age categories (global R = 0.612, P = 0.001), except for 7- and 14-d-old queens, which cannot be separated on their mandibular gland profiles (P = 0.2). (E)-9-Oxodec-2-enoic acid (9ODA) contributes most and most consistently to the dissimilarity between groups as well as the similarity within groups. Worker reactions to introduced virgin queens of various ages were recorded. Workers showed a significant increase in hostile reactions as queens aged (r = 0.615, N = 20, P < 0.05). Consequently, worker reactions and relative 9ODA production exhibit a positive queen age-dependent response.

  19. A Descriptive Analysis of Incidents Reported by Community Aged Care Workers.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Amina; Douglas, Heather E; Smith, Cheryl; Georgiou, Andrew; Osmond, Tracey; Armour, Pauline; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about the types of incidents that occur to aged care clients in the community. This limits the development of effective strategies to improve client safety. The objective of the study was to present a profile of incidents reported in Australian community aged care settings. All incident reports made by community care workers employed by one of the largest community aged care provider organizations in Australia during the period November 1, 2012, to August 8, 2013, were analyzed. A total of 356 reports were analyzed, corresponding to a 7.5% incidence rate per client year. Falls and medication incidents were the most prevalent incident types. Clients receiving high-level care and those who attended day therapy centers had the highest rate of incidents with 14% to 20% of these clients having a reported incident. The incident profile indicates that clients on higher levels of care had higher incident rates. Incident data represent an opportunity to improve client safety in community aged care.

  20. Project PLANTWORK: A Horticulture Employment Initiative for Workers with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for Therapy and Rehabilitation through Horticulture, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD.

    Intended for persons establishing job development programs for developmentally disabled individuals, this training manual details the structure and procedures of Project PLANTWORK, a 21-month demonstration program which placed approximately 70 workers with developmental disabilities into employment in horticulture industry firms or into…

  1. Does Raising the Early Retirement Age Increase Employment of Older Workers?

    PubMed

    Staubli, Stefan; Zweimüller, Josef

    2013-12-01

    Two pension reforms in Austria increased the early retirement age (ERA) from 60 to 62 for men and from 55 to 58.25 for women. We find that raising the ERA increased employment by 9.75 percentage points among affected men and by 11 percentage points among affected women. The reforms had large spillover effects on the unemployment insurance program but negligible effects on disability insurance claims. Specifically, unemployment increased by 12.5 percentage points among men and by 11.8 percentage points among women. The employment response was largest among high-wage and healthy workers, while low-wage and less healthy workers either continued to retire early via disability benefits or bridged the gap to the ERA via unemployment benefits. Taking spillover effects and additional tax revenues into account, we find that for a typical birth-year cohort a one year increase in the ERA resulted in a reduction of net government expenditures of 107 million euros for men and of 122 million euros for women.

  2. Early Aging in Chernobyl Clean-Up Workers: Long-Term Study

    PubMed Central

    Krasnov, V.; Kryukov, V.; Samedova, E.; Emelianova, I.; Ryzhova, I.

    2015-01-01

    This paper represents data of long-term open prospective study. 312 male clean-up workers, who participated in elimination of the Chernobyl disaster consequences in 1986-87, were observed and examined in Moscow Research Institute of Psychiatry. The average age of patients was 57,0 ± 6,8 years. All patients were diagnosed with psychoorganic syndrome, caused by combination of different factors, which led to early cerebrovascular pathology, which was confirmed by clinical, neuropsychological, and instrumental examination. Anamnesis and the level of social adaptation were also assayed. Clinical estimation was done with the use of specially developed Clinical Psychopathological Chart. All the symptoms were divided into 4 groups (asthenic, psychovegetative, dysthymic, and cognitive symptom-complexes). No pronounced signs of dementia were observed. The control group included 44 clean-up workers without mental disorders. Predomination of various exogenous factors before and after accident was noted. Therapy included different vasotropic remedies, as well as family therapy, art therapy, and cognitive training. The possibilities of the reverse development of symptoms were statistically proved. The results allow making a conclusion that these disorders could not be explained either by radiation effects or by PTSD but connected with cerebrovascular pathology. PMID:25692150

  3. Does Raising the Early Retirement Age Increase Employment of Older Workers?*

    PubMed Central

    Staubli, Stefan; Zweimüller, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Two pension reforms in Austria increased the early retirement age (ERA) from 60 to 62 for men and from 55 to 58.25 for women. We find that raising the ERA increased employment by 9.75 percentage points among affected men and by 11 percentage points among affected women. The reforms had large spillover effects on the unemployment insurance program but negligible effects on disability insurance claims. Specifically, unemployment increased by 12.5 percentage points among men and by 11.8 percentage points among women. The employment response was largest among high-wage and healthy workers, while low-wage and less healthy workers either continued to retire early via disability benefits or bridged the gap to the ERA via unemployment benefits. Taking spillover effects and additional tax revenues into account, we find that for a typical birth-year cohort a one year increase in the ERA resulted in a reduction of net government expenditures of 107 million euros for men and of 122 million euros for women. PMID:24319299

  4. Factors contributing to work related low back pain among personal care workers in old age.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Simon S

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to preliminary explore the work related and individual factors that contributed to the occurrence of low back pain (LBP) that affected work activities of Personal Care Workers (PCWs). A cross-sectional study was conducted to 36 PCWs in an old age home of Hong Kong. The study is divided into three parts: 1) a questionnaire to document the workload exposure factors and the musculoskeletal symptoms survey of the PCWs, 2) work posture evaluation; and 3) an evaluation of the physical fitness and lifting capacity of the PCWs. Univariate analyses were used to explore the risk factors associated with LBP that affected work activities. The results indicated that individual physical profile and lifting capacities did not contribute to occurrence of low back pain at work. For the work demand factors, the perceived physical demands in lifting and lowering heavy objects, awkward sustain neck and back postures, loading on the back, and perceived effort of cleaning task contributed to the occurrence of LBP. For the physical environment factors, thermal stress and improper ventilation were associated with the occurrence of LBP cases. For the individual factor, LBP cases were associated with workers' self perceived muscular effort, and perceived risk of mental illness in response to work requirements.

  5. Macro-level Age Norms for the Timing of Sexual Initiation and Adolescents’ Early Sexual Initiation in 17 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; de Looze, Margaretha; Ma, Ping; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Farhat, Tilda; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Ehlinger, Virginie; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Currie, Candace; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between country-level age norms for sexual initiation timing and early sexual initiation (ESI) among adolescent boys and girls. Methods Nationally-representative data from 17 countries that participated in the 2006/07 European Social Survey (ESS-3, n=33,092) and the 2005/06 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study (HBSC, n=27,702) were analyzed. Age norms were measured as the average country-level response to an item asking the age at which ESS respondents believed someone is too young to have sexual intercourse. HBSC respondents (aged 14-16) self-reported age at sexual initiation which we defined as early (<15 years) or not (≥15 years or no initiation). Control variables included age, family affluence, perceived socioeconomic status, family living arrangement, substance use, school attachment, and country-level legal age of consent. Multivariable three-level logistic models with random intercepts were run separately by sex. Results In multivariable analyses, higher overall age norms were associated with reduced likelihood of ESI among girls (AOR 0.60, 95% CI 0.45-0.79); associations with ESI were stronger for parent cohort (ages 31-65) norms (AOR 0.37, 95% CI 0.23-0.58) than for peer cohort (ages 15-20) norms (AOR 0.60, 95% CI 0.49-0.74). For boys, overall norms were also significantly negatively associated with ESI (AOR 0.68, 95% CI 0.46-0.99), as were parent cohort norms (AOR 0.66, 95% CI 0.45-0.96). Peer cohort norms were not significantly related to boys’ ESI. Conclusion Macro-level cultural norms may impact adolescents’ sexual initiation timing. Research exploring the sexual health outcomes of early initiators in countries with contrasting age norms is warranted. PMID:24508092

  6. Flight behaviour of honey bee (Apis mellifera) workers is altered by initial infections of the fungal parasite Nosema apis

    PubMed Central

    Dosselli, Ryan; Grassl, Julia; Carson, Andrew; Simmons, Leigh W.; Baer, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) host a wide range of parasites, some being known contributors towards dramatic colony losses as reported over recent years. To counter parasitic threats, honey bees possess effective immune systems. Because immune responses are predicted to cause substantial physiological costs for infected individuals, they are expected to trade off with other life history traits that ultimately affect the performance and fitness of the entire colony. Here, we tested whether the initial onset of an infection negatively impacts the flight behaviour of honey bee workers, which is an energetically demanding behaviour and a key component of foraging activities. To do this, we infected workers with the widespread fungal pathogen Nosema apis, which is recognised and killed by the honey bee immune system. We compared their survival and flight behaviour with non-infected individuals from the same cohort and colony using radio frequency identification tags (RFID). We found that over a time frame of four days post infection, Nosema did not increase mortality but workers quickly altered their flight behaviour and performed more flights of shorter duration. We conclude that parasitic infections influence foraging activities, which could reduce foraging ranges of colonies and impact their ability to provide pollination services. PMID:27827404

  7. Initial Results of an Evidence-Based Safe Patient Handling and Mobility Program to Decrease Hospital Worker Injuries.

    PubMed

    Przybysz, Linda; Levin, Pamela F

    2017-02-01

    The rate for musculoskeletal injuries among health care workers is one of the highest for all industrial sectors in the United States; these injuries often occur during manual handling (i.e., lifting, moving, transferring, and repositioning) of patients. The following article describes the process used to complete a comprehensive assessment, as well as the planning, implementation, and initial evaluation of a quality improvement program to reduce work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) among health care workers employed by a rural Midwest hospital. Key elements for WMSD injury reduction were identified and compared across literature sources, national standards, and current state and federal legislative requirements for hospitals. The program used a multi-factor design that included evidence-based interventions (i.e., those supported by emerging evidence) to create a comprehensive Safe Patient Handling and Mobility (SPHM) program intended to address the unique needs of the organization. Initial program results are reviewed as well as significant considerations and challenges for SPHM programs.

  8. Community health workers as drivers of a successful community-based disease management initiative.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Patricia J; Matiz, Luz Adriana; Findley, Sally; Lizardo, Maria; Evans, David; McCord, Mary

    2012-08-01

    In 2005, local leaders in New York City developed the Washington Heights/Inwood Network for Asthma Program to address the burden of asthma in their community. Bilingual community health workers based in community organizations and the local hospital provided culturally appropriate education and support to families who needed help managing asthma. Families participating in the yearlong care coordination program received comprehensive asthma education, home environmental assessments, trigger reduction strategies, and clinical and social referrals. Since 2006, 472 families have enrolled in the yearlong program. After 12 months, hospitalizations and emergency department visits decreased by more than 50%, and caregiver confidence in controlling the child's asthma increased to nearly 100%. Key to the program's success was the commitment and involvement of community partners from program inception to date.

  9. Training and Development for Transitional Employment in Mature-Aged Manual Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Hitendra; Kelly, Kathy; Tones, Megan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the current article was to explore perceptions of transitional employment and training and development amongst blue collar workers employed in technical, trade, operations or physical and labour-intensive occupations within the local government system. Methods: The responses of manual workers to two national surveys…

  10. Workforce and Economic Vitality Issue Paper. Aging Initiative: Project 2030.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Human Services, St. Paul.

    A public policy study in Minnesota, conducted as part of Project 2030, looked at the impacts of the aging of the baby boom generation on the work force and the economic vitality of the state by the year 2030. The study found the following general trends affecting the work force and economic vitality and noted the relation of each to the aging…

  11. Effects of age and Reproductive Status on Tergal Gland Secretions in Queenless Honey bee Workers, Apis mellifera scutellata and A. m. capensis.

    PubMed

    Okosun, Olabimpe O; Yusuf, Abdullahi A; Crewe, Robin M; Pirk, Christian W W

    2015-10-01

    Secretions from tergal glands are part of a queen's pheromonal control of worker reproduction in honey bees. However, in queenless honey bee colonies, workers compete to gain pheromonal, and hence reproductive dominance, over nestmates with ontogenetic changes in their glandular secretions that affect the behavioral or physiological responses of other individuals. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, we investigated for the first time the age-dependent changes in tergal gland secretions of queenless workers of the clonal lineage of Apis mellifera capensis and workers of A. m. scutellata. The reproductive status of honey bee workers was determined by recording the presence of spermathecae and the level of ovarian activation. The tergal gland chemicals identified in both A. m. scutellata workers and A. m. capensis clone workers were oleic acid, n-tricosene, n-pentacosene, and n-heptacosene, with three additional compounds, palmitic acid, n-heneicosene, and n-nonacosene, in A. m. capensis clones. We report ethyl esters as new compounds from honey bee worker tergal gland profiles; these compounds increased in amount with age. All A. m. capensis clone workers dissected had spermathecae and showed ovarian activation from day 4, while ovarian activation only started on day 7 for A. m. scutellata workers that had no spermathecae. Tergal gland secretions were present in higher quantities in bees with activated, rather than inactive ovaries. This suggests that tergal gland secretions from reproductive workers could act as releaser and primer pheromones in synergy with other glandular compounds to achieve pheromonal and reproductive dominance.

  12. Work time control and mental health of workers working long hours: the role of gender and age.

    PubMed

    Zołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota; Bedyńska, Sylwia; Warszewska-Makuch, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between work time control and mental health in workers working long hours. The study also attempted to show how that relationship depended on age and gender. Three hundred and six white-collar workers doing clerical work for over 8 h daily were diagnosed on work time control and mental health with the 28-item General Health Questionnaire. The results of an analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that participants working long hours but having high control over their work time had a significantly higher level of their mental health with regard to somatic complaints and anxiety and marginally higher with regard to social dysfunction than workers with low control over their work time. Male and female workers reported different problems with their mental health depending on what age (stage of life) they were at. It is hypothesized that the work-family conflict, inability to fulfil social commitments and poor working conditions can influence those effects.

  13. Soot aging from OH-initiated oxidation of toluene.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chong; Khalizov, Alexei F; Zhang, Renyi

    2012-09-04

    We have conducted laboratory experiments to investigate the impacts of secondary organic aerosol formation on soot properties from OH-initiated oxidation of toluene. Monodisperse soot particles are exposed to the oxidation products of the OH-toluene reaction in an environmental chamber, and variations in particle size, mass, organic mass faction, morphology, effective density, hygroscopicity, and optical properties are simultaneously determined by an integrated aerosol analytical system. The thickness of the organic coating, correlated to reaction time and initial reactant concentrations, is shown to largely govern the particle properties. With the development of organic coating, the soot core is changed from a highly fractal to compact form, evident from the measured effective density and dynamic shape factor. The organic coating increases the particle hygroscopicity, and further exposure of coated soot to elevated relative humidity results in a more spherical particle. The single scattering albedo and scattering and absorption cross sections are also enhanced with the organic coating. Our results suggest that the oxidation products of anthropogenic pollutants alter the composition and properties of soot particles and lead to increased particle density, hygroscopicity, and optical properties, considerably enhancing their impacts on air quality, climate forcing, and human health.

  14. Low back pain among personal care workers in an old age home: work-related and individual factors.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Simon S; Yuan, Jun

    2011-08-01

    This cross-sectional study explored the work-related and individual factors that contributed to the occurrence of low back pain and affected activities of 36 personal care workers at an old age home in Hong Kong. The study was divided into four parts: (1) a questionnaire documenting workload exposure factors; (2) a musculoskeletal symptoms survey documenting the prevalence of low back pain in this group of workers; (3) a worksite evaluation focusing on personal care workers' work postures and the work environment; and (4) an evaluation of physical fitness and lifting capacities of personal care workers. Univariate followed by multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify the risk factors associated with low back pain that affected work activities. The results revealed that low back pain was associated with the perceived physical demands of cleaning tasks (odds ratio [OR] = 7.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.35-39.35, p < .05), perceived demands of awkward sustained back (OR = 4.46, CI = 0.86-22.97, p = .074) and neck (OR = 0.18, CI = 0.04-0.81, p < .05) postures, and thermal stress at work (OR = 49.80, CI = 0.70-3541.79, p = .072). The results of the current study indicated that the work environment contributed to low back pain at work. Workers perceived that exertion in workplaces has a role in assessing workplace risk. To avoid progression of low back pain in the workplace, work adjustment or modification should be considered when workers report high levels of perceived exertion at work.

  15. Effect of age and social connection on perceived anxiety over radiation exposure among decontamination workers in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hidaka, Tomoo; Kakamu, Takeyasu; Hayakawa, Takehito; Kumagai, Tomohiro; Jinnouchi, Takanobu; Sato, Sei; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Nakano, Shinichi; Koyama, Kikuo; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To reveal the effect of age and other factors on perceived anxiety over radiation exposure among decontamination workers in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Methods: A survey questionnaire was sent to 1505 workers, with questions regarding age, presence of a written employment contract, previous residence, radiation passbook ownership, presence of close persons for consultation, knowledge of how to access public assistance, and a four-point scale of radiation-related anxiety (1= "Very much," 2= "Somewhat," 3= "A little bit," and 4= "None" ). The relationships between the degree of anxiety and variables were analyzed using the chi-square test and residual analysis. Results: In all, 512 participants responded to the questionnaire. The mean age of participants was 46.2 years (SD: 13.1, range: 18-77). Of them, 50, 233, 168, and 61 workers chose "Very much," "Somewhat," "A little bit," and "None," respectively, on the anxiety scale. Chi-square test showed that participants aged 61 years and over had higher degrees of anxiety (p<0.001). Ordinal logistic regression showed that the degree of anxiety increased if they did not have a written contract (p=0.042) or persons to consult (p=0.034) and if they routinely checked the dose rate (p=0.046). Conclusions: Decontamination workers who do not have a written contract or who are in socially isolated situations have greater anxiety over radiation exposure. Thus, it is important to both create supportive human relationships for consultation and enhance labor management in individual companies. PMID:27010088

  16. OH-initiated heterogeneous aging of highly oxidized organic aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, Sean H.; Nah, Theodora; Daumit, Kelly E.; Smith, Jared D.; Leone, Stephen R.; Kolb, Charles E.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Kroll, Jesse H.

    2011-12-05

    The oxidative evolution (“aging”) of organic species in the atmosphere is thought to have a major influence on the composition and properties of organic particulate matter, but remains poorly understood, particularly for the most oxidized fraction of the aerosol. Here we measure the kinetics and products of the heterogeneous oxidation of highly oxidized organic aerosol, with an aim of better constraining such atmospheric aging processes. Submicron particles composed of model oxidized organics—1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (C{sub 8}H{sub 10}O{sub 8}), citric acid (C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 7}), tartaric acid (C{sub 4}H{sub 6}O{sub 6}), and Suwannee River fulvic acid—were oxidized by gas-phase OH in a flow reactor, and the masses and elemental composition of the particles were monitored as a function of OH exposure. In contrast to our previous studies of less-oxidized model systems (squalane, erythritol, and levoglucosan), particle mass did not decrease significantly with heterogeneous oxidation. Carbon content of the aerosol always decreased somewhat, but this mass loss was approximately balanced by an increase in oxygen content. The estimated reactive uptake coefficients of the reactions range from 0.37 to 0.51 and indicate that such transformations occur at rates corresponding to 1-2 weeks in the atmosphere, suggesting their importance in the atmospheric lifecycle of organic particulate matter.

  17. Preferred 11 different job rotation types in automotive company and their effects on productivity, quality and musculoskeletal disorders: comparison between subjective and actual scores by workers' age.

    PubMed

    Jeon, In Sik; Jeong, Byung Yong; Jeong, Ji Hyun

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates workers' favoured rotation types by their age and compares means between subjective and actual scores on productivity, quality and musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). The subjects of research were 422 assembly line units in Hyundai Motor Company. The survey of 422 units focused on the workers' preference for 11 different rotation types and subjective scores for each type's perceived benefits, both by the workers' age. Then, actual scores on production-related indices were traced over a five-year period. The results suggest that different rotation types lead to different results in productivity, product quality and MSDs. Workers tend to perceive job rotation as a helpful method to enhance satisfaction, productivity and product quality more so than the actual production data suggests. Job rotation was especially effective in preventing MSDs for workers aged under 45, while its effects were not clear for the workers aged 45 years or older. Practitioner's Summary: This research presents appropriate rotation type for different age groups. Taking workers' age into account, administrators can use the paper's outcomes to select and implement the suitable rotation type to attain specific goals such as enhancing productivity, improving product quality or reducing MSDs.

  18. Fitness for the Aged, Disabled, and Industrial Worker. Proceedings of the Symposium of the International Council for Physical Fitness Research (Osaka, Japan, September 5-7, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneko, Masahiro, Ed.

    This comprehensive collection of current research on the health and fitness of the aged, the disabled, and the industrial worker examines the growing health problems in those populations. These problems are the result of the rising proportion of elderly and disabled citizens in Western countries and the increasing exposure of industrial workers to…

  19. Age of initial drug experimentation among white and non-white ethnics.

    PubMed

    Jackson, N; Carlisi, J; Greenway, C; Zalesnick, M

    1981-12-01

    Students in four cities completed a questionnaire regarding their ethnic background and drug use patterns. From this information, comparisons in age of initial drug experimentation among ethnic groups and races were made. The results indicated significant differences in actual age of experimentation among ethnic groups, as well as differences in other general pattern relating to age of first drug use. A comparison of Whites to non-Whites showed little difference in ages of initial drug experimentation. It was concluded that ethnicity, more so than mere race, was related to age of first use of drugs.

  20. Building Research Integrity and Capacity (BRIC): An Educational Initiative to Increase Research Literacy among Community Health Workers and Promotores

    PubMed Central

    Nebeker, Camille; López-Arenas, Araceli

    2016-01-01

    While citizen science is gaining attention of late, for those of us involved in community-based public health research, community/citizen involvement in research has steadily increased over the past 50 years. Community Health Workers (CHWs), also known as Promotores de Salud in the Latino community, are critical to reaching underserved populations, where health disparities are more prevalent. CHWs/Promotores provide health education and services and may also assist with the development and implementation of community- and clinic-based research studies. Recognizing that CHWs typically have no formal academic training in research design or methods, and considering that rigor in research is critical to obtaining meaningful results, we designed instruction to fill this gap. We call this educational initiative “Building Research Integrity and Capacity” or BRIC. The BRIC training consists of eight modules that can be administered as a self-paced training or incorporated into in-person, professional development geared to a specific health intervention study. While we initially designed this culturally-grounded, applied ethics training for Latino/Hispanic community research facilitators, BRIC training modules have been adapted for and tested with non-Latino novice research facilitators. This paper describes the BRIC core content and instructional design process. PMID:27047588

  1. Prevalence of Rape and Client-Initiated Gender-Based Violence Among Female Sex Workers: Kampala, Uganda, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, Mahesh; Serwadda, David; Muyonga, Michael; Shiraishi, Ray W.; Benech, Irene; Mital, Sasha; Bosa, Rose; Lubwama, George; Hladik, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    We utilized data from the 2012 Crane Survey in Kampala, Uganda to estimate prevalence of rape among female sex workers (FSWs) and to identify risk factors for and prevalence of client-initiated gender-based violence (GBV) among FSWs. Participants were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Analyses were weighted using RDSAT-generated individualized weights for each of the five dependent GBV outcomes. Analyses were conducted utilizing SAS 9.3. Among 1,467 FSWs who were interviewed, 82 % (95 % CI: 79–84) experienced client-initiated GBV and 49 % (95 % CI: 47–53) had been raped at least once in their lifetime. GBV risk increased with increasing frequency of client demands for unprotected sex, length of time engaged in sex work, and FSW alcohol consumption. Risk decreased when sex with clients occurred at the FSW’s or client’s house or a hotel compared to when sex occurred in open spaces. Our findings demonstrate a high prevalence of GBV among FSWs. This research reinforces the urgent need for GBV prevention and response strategies to be integrated into FSW programming and the continuing need for GBV research among key populations. PMID:25432876

  2. Radiation and mortality of workers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: positive associations for doses received at older ages.

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, D B; Wing, S

    1999-01-01

    We examined associations between low-level exposure to ionizing radiation and mortality among 14,095 workers hired at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory between 1943 and 1972. Workers at the facility were individually monitored for external exposure to ionizing radiation and have been followed through 1990 to ascertain cause of death information. Positive associations were observed between low-level exposure to external ionizing radiation and mortality. These associations were larger for doses received after 45 years of age, larger under longer lag assumptions, and primarily due to cancer causes of death. All cancer mortality was estimated to increase 4.98% [standard error (SE) = 1.5] per 10-mSv cumulative dose received after age 45 under a 10-year lag, and 7.31% (SE = 2.2) per 10-mSv cumulative dose received after age 45 under a 20-year lag. Associations between radiation dose and lung cancer were of similar magnitude to associations between radiation dose and all cancers except lung cancer. Nonmalignant respiratory disease exhibited a positive association with cumulative radiation dose received after age 45, whereas ischemic heart disease exhibited no association with radiation dose. These findings suggest increases in cancer mortality associated with low-level external exposure to ionizing radiation and potentially greater sensitivity to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation with older ages at exposure. Images Figure 1 PMID:10417363

  3. Radiation and mortality of workers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: positive associations for doses received at older ages.

    PubMed

    Richardson, D B; Wing, S

    1999-08-01

    We examined associations between low-level exposure to ionizing radiation and mortality among 14,095 workers hired at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory between 1943 and 1972. Workers at the facility were individually monitored for external exposure to ionizing radiation and have been followed through 1990 to ascertain cause of death information. Positive associations were observed between low-level exposure to external ionizing radiation and mortality. These associations were larger for doses received after 45 years of age, larger under longer lag assumptions, and primarily due to cancer causes of death. All cancer mortality was estimated to increase 4.98% [standard error (SE) = 1.5] per 10-mSv cumulative dose received after age 45 under a 10-year lag, and 7.31% (SE = 2.2) per 10-mSv cumulative dose received after age 45 under a 20-year lag. Associations between radiation dose and lung cancer were of similar magnitude to associations between radiation dose and all cancers except lung cancer. Nonmalignant respiratory disease exhibited a positive association with cumulative radiation dose received after age 45, whereas ischemic heart disease exhibited no association with radiation dose. These findings suggest increases in cancer mortality associated with low-level external exposure to ionizing radiation and potentially greater sensitivity to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation with older ages at exposure.

  4. [Cognitive capacity in advanced age: initial results of the Berlin Aging Study].

    PubMed

    Lindenberger, U; Baltes, P B

    1995-01-01

    This study reports data on intellectual functioning in old and very old age from the Berlin Aging Study (N = 516; age range = 70-103 years; mean age = 85 years). A psychometric battery of 14 tests was used to assess five cognitive abilities: reasoning, memory, and perceptual speed from the broad fluid-mechanical as well as knowledge and fluency from the broad crystallized-pragmatic domains. Cognitive abilities had a negative linear relationship with age, with more pronounced age-based reductions in fluid-mechanical than crystallized-pragmatic abilities. At the same time, ability intercorrelations formed a highly positive manifold, and did not follow the fluid-crystallized distinction. Interindividual variability was of about equal magnitude across the entire age range studied. There was, however, no evidence for substantial sex differences. As to origins of individual differences, indicators of sensory and sensorimotor functioning were more powerful predictors of intellectual functioning than cultural-biographical variables, and the two sets of predictors were, consistent with theoretical expectations, differentially related to measures of fluid-mechanical (perceptual speed) and crystallized pragmatic (knowledge) functioning. Results, in general indicative of sizeable and general losses with age, are consistent with the view that aging-induced biological influences are a prominent source of individual differences in intellectual functioning in old and very old age. Longitudinal follow-ups are underway to examine the role of cohort effects, selective mortality, and interindividual differences in change trajectories.

  5. New Wrinkle on Aging: Baby Steps to 2030. Aging Initiative Project 2030 Policy Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirtz, Ron

    This policy report is intended to be a vision, a design, for certain public systems that have significant involvement with an aging population. It focuses on the central question: What can be done to build community capacity for dealing with an aging society in Minnesota? The report focuses on these three topics: (1) life-cycle…

  6. Assessing Depression in Latency-Age Children: A Guide for School Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolley, Michael E.; Curtis, Hannah W.

    2007-01-01

    Schools are a primary setting for the provision of services to children with social, emotional, and behavioral problems. School social workers serve a vital role in identifying, assessing, serving, and referring students suffering from myriad mental health problems, including depression. Starting with a discussion of gathering valid assessment…

  7. Community health worker perspectives on a new primary health care initiative in the Eastern Cape of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Rabkin, Miriam; Macheka, Tonderayi; Mutiti, Anthony; Mwansa-Kambafwile, Judith; Dlamini, Thomas; El-Sadr, Wafaa M.

    2017-01-01

    Background In 2010, South Africa’s National Department of Health launched a national primary health care (PHC) initiative to strengthen health promotion, disease prevention, and early disease detection. The strategy, called Re-engineering Primary Health Care (rPHC), aims to provide a preventive and health-promoting community-based PHC model. A key component of rPHC is the use of community-based outreach teams staffed by generalist community health workers (CHWs). Methods We conducted focus group discussions and surveys on the knowledge and attitudes of 91 CHWs working on community-based rPHC teams in the King Sabata Dalindyebo (KSD) sub-district of Eastern Cape Province. Results The CHWs we studied enjoyed their work and found it meaningful, as they saw themselves as agents of change. They also perceived weaknesses in the implementation of outreach team oversight, and desired field-based training and more supervision in the community. Conclusions There is a need to provide CHWs with basic resources like equipment, supplies and transport to improve their acceptability and credibility to the communities they serve. PMID:28301609

  8. Mediating Community Participation: Practice of Support Workers in Initiating, Facilitating or Disrupting Encounters between People with and without Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigby, Christine; Wiesel, Ilan

    2015-01-01

    Promoting community participation for people with intellectual disability through encounter with strangers is an integral part of the mission of disability support workers. This paper offers detailed micro-level analysis of the practices of support workers when they accompany a person with intellectual disability outside their home and explores…

  9. Syphilis among middle-aged female sex workers in China: a three-site cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongjie; Dumenci, Levent; Morisky, Donald E; Xu, Yongfang; Li, Xiaojing; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study addresses the lack of empirical studies about the epidemic of syphilis among middle-aged female sex workers (FSWs). The objectives of this study were to investigate prevalence of syphilis, and its potential risk factors among middle-aged FSWs in China. Design A cross-sectional study with respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Setting A multisite study conducted at three Chinese cites (Nanning, Hefei, and Qingdao) with different levels of sexually transmitted diseases in 2014. Participants 1245 middle-aged female sex workers who were over 35 years old (about 400 per study site). Main outcome measures Unprotected commercial sex, and syphilis and HIV infection were biologically tested and measured. Results The RDS-adjusted prevalence of active syphilis was 17.3% in Hefei, 9.9% in Qingdao, and 5.4% in Nanning. The RDS-adjusted prevalence of prevalent syphilis was between 6.8% and 33.6% in the three cities. The proportion of unprotected sex in the past 48 h verified by the prostate-specific antigen test (PSA) was between 27.8% and 42.4%. Multiple log-binomial regression analyses indicate that middle-aged FSWs who had 5 or more clients in the past week prior to interviews and engaged in unprotected sex were more likely to be active syphilitic cases. Middle-aged FSWs who had rural residency were less likely to be active syphilitic cases. Conclusions In contrast with previous studies that reported low prevalence of syphilis and high prevalence of protected sex among FSWs in China, both the prevalence of syphilis and unprotected sex were high among middle-aged FSWs. Evidence-based intervention programmes should be developed and evaluated among this vulnerable population in China and other countries with similar settings. PMID:27165644

  10. Is Age Kinder to the Initially More Able?: Yes, and No

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gow, Alan J.; Johnson, Wendy; Mishra, Gita; Richards, Marcus; Kuh, Diana; Deary, Ian J.

    2012-01-01

    Although a number of analyses have addressed whether initial cognitive ability level is associated with age-related cognitive decline, results have been inconsistent. Latent growth curve modeling was applied to two aging cohorts, extending previous analyses with a further wave of data collection, or as a more appropriate analytical methodology…

  11. Ages at Initiation of Cigarette Smoking and Quit Attempts among Women: A Generation Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morabia, Alfredo; Costanza, Michael C.; Bernstein, Martine S.; Rielle, Jean-Charles

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether age at initiation of regular smoking and likelihood of quitting smoking through age 35 years would differ among younger and older women. Data from annual population-based surveys of residents of Geneva, Switzerland, indicated that young female smokers had a higher propensity to quit than older women. There were no differences…

  12. The Arkansas Aging Initiative: An Innovative Approach for Addressing the Health of Older Rural Arkansans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beverly, Claudia J.; McAtee, Robin E.; Chernoff, Ronni; Davis, Gwynn V.; Jones, Susan K.; Lipschitz, David A.

    2007-01-01

    The Donald W. Reynolds Institute on Aging at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences in Little Rock is addressing one of the most pressing policy issues facing the United States: how to care for the burgeoning number of older adults. In 2001, the Institute created the Arkansas Aging Initiative, which established seven satellite centers on…

  13. Linking the NIH strategic plan to the research agenda for social workers in health and aging.

    PubMed

    Raveis, Victoria H; Gardner, Daniel S; Berkman, Barbara; Harootyan, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Although social work has a long and distinctive tradition of practice-relevant research aimed at enhancing the health and well-being of older adults, the profession has been underrepresented among the ranks of academic researchers and the National Institutes of Health's (NIH) scientific endeavors. In this article, the inherent capacities of social workers to generate and disseminate empirical health-related knowledge are discussed and recent developments in social work's geriatric research infrastructure are described. Emerging domains for advancing the profession's contribution to practice-relevant geriatric research on the federal level are identified and the next steps toward advancing the field's research agenda are posed.

  14. Gender differences in age of smoking initiation and its association with health

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Azure B.; Tebes, Jacob K.; McKee, Sherry A.

    2016-01-01

    Background It is generally accepted that smoking starts in adolescence and earlier initiation is associated with more negative health outcomes. Some research suggests that women initiate smoking at later ages and have more negative health outcomes than men. The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in age of initiation and its association with health. Methods The sample included men (n=8,506) and women (n=8,479) with a history of smoking from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol Related Conditions. Logistic regression was used to examine gender differences in the effect of late smoking initiation on physical and mental health status after adjusting for covariates. Results At mostly all ages after 16, women exceeded men in rates of smoking initiation (59.8% vs. 50.3%, p<.001). Among late initiators (≥16), women were more likely than men to have hypertension (OR:1.24,CI:1.09-1.41), heart disease (OR:1.20,CI:1.00-1.45), major depressive disorder (OR:2.54,CI:2.22-2.92) and generalized anxiety disorder (OR:2.34,CI:1.84-2.99). Among early initiators (<16), women were more likely than men to have major depressive disorder (OR:2.42,CI:2.11-2.77) and generalized anxiety disorder (OR:2.01,CI:1.59-2.54) but there were no gender differences in the likelihood of having hypertension (OR:1.04,CI:0.89-1.22) and heart disease (OR:1.11,CI:0.90-1.36). Conclusions In late adolescence and adulthood, women exceed men in smoking initiation. Late initiation was associated with more significant physical health risks for women than men. Our findings raise questions about generally accepted notions on the age at which smoking initiation occurs and its association with health. PMID:27499723

  15. Age Group Differences in HIV Risk and Mental Health Problems among Female Sex Workers (FSWs) in Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shaobing; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Lin, Danhua; Zhang, Chen; Zhou, Yuejiao

    2014-01-01

    HIV risk and mental health problems are prevalent among female sex workers (FSWs) in China. The purpose of this research was to study age group differences in HIV risk and mental health problems in this population. In the current study we divided a sample of 1,022 FSWs into three age groups (≤20 years, 21– 34 years, and ≥35 years). Results showed that among the three groups (a) older FSWs (≥35 years) were likely to be socioeconomically disadvantaged (e.g., rural residency, little education, employment in low-paying venues, and low monthly income); (b) older FSWs reported the highest rates of inconsistent, ineffective condom use and STD history; (c) younger FSWs (≤20 years) reported the highest level of depression, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts, regular-partner violence, and substance use; (d) all health-related risks except casual-partner violence were more prevalent among older and younger FSWs than among FSW aged 21–34 years; (e) age had a significant effect on all health indicators except suicide attempts after controlling for several key demographic factors. These findings indicate the need for intervention efforts to address varying needs among FSWs in different age groups. Specific interventional efforts are needed to reduce older FSWs’ exposure to HIV risk; meanwhile, more attention should be given to improve FSWs’ mental health status, especially among younger FSWs. PMID:24410298

  16. Appreciating age diversity and German nurse well-being and commitment: co-worker trust as the mediator.

    PubMed

    Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Lei, Zhike; Kauffeld, Simone

    2012-06-01

    Nursing practice faces the challenges of succeeding with a great diversity of customers and managing a diverse workforce with a wide range of age differences. While age diversity can lead to increased creativity and a greater richness of values and skills, it can also lead to value clashes, disrespect of each other's viewpoints, and increased conflict. As a result, nurses frequently experience stress, work-life imbalance, and a withdrawal from commitment. We propose the injection of positive diversity mindsets (age diversity appreciation) as one remedy. Specifically, we suggest that age diversity appreciation is positively related to nurses' well-being (stress and work-life balance), and also positively related to their team commitment. We further hypothesize that nurses' trust in co-workers mediates the hypothesized relationships. Our survey data of 138 nurses in a large hospital in Germany supported our hypotheses. We discuss both theoretical and managerial implications of our findings in the context of age diversity and nursing work outcomes in hospitals.

  17. Using CD4 Percentage and Age to Optimize Pediatric Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Warshaw, Meredith G.; Miller, William C.; Castro, Hannah; Fiscus, Susan A.; Harper, Lynda M.; Harrison, Linda J.; Klein, Nigel J.; Lewis, Joanna; Melvin, Ann J.; Tudor-Williams, Gareth; McKinney, Ross E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Quantifying pediatric immunologic recovery by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation at different CD4 percentage (CD4%) and age thresholds may inform decisions about timing of treatment initiation. METHODS: HIV-1-infected, HAART-naive children in Europe and the Americas were followed from 2002 through 2009 in PENPACT-1. Data from 162 vertically infected children, with at least World Health Organization “mild” immunosuppression and CD4% <10th percentile, were analyzed for improvement to a normal CD4% (≥10th percentile) within 4 years after HAART initiation. Data from 209 vertically infected children, regardless of immune status, were analyzed for CD4% outcomes at 4 years and viral failure within 4 years. RESULTS: Seventy-two percent of baseline immunosuppressed children recovered to normal within 4 years. Compared with “severe” immunosuppression, more children with “mild” immunosuppression (difference 36%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 22% to 49%) or “advanced” immunosuppression (difference 20.8%, 95% CI: 5.8% to 35.9%) recovered a normal CD4%. For each 5-year increase in baseline age, the proportion of children achieving a normal CD4% declined by 19% (95% CI: 11% to 27%). Combining baseline CD4% and age effects resulted in >90% recovery when initiating HAART with “mild” immunosuppression at any age or “advanced” immunosuppression at age <3 years. Baseline CD4% effects became greater with increasing age (P = .02). At 4 years, most immunologic benefits were still significant but diminished. Viral failure was highest in infancy (56%) and adolescence (63%). CONCLUSIONS: Initiating HAART at higher CD4% and younger ages maximizes potential for immunologic recovery. Guidelines should weigh immunologic benefits against long-term risks. PMID:25266426

  18. Egocentric Network and Condom Use Among Mid-Age Female Sex Workers in China: A Multilevel Modeling Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The epidemics of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have spread among older adults in the world, including China. This study addresses the deficiency of studies about the multiple contextual influences on condom use among mid-age female sex workers (FSWs) over 35 years old. A combination of an egocentric network design and multilevel modeling was used to investigate factors of condom use over mid-age FSWs (egos) particular relationships with sexual partners (alters). Of the 1245 mid-age FSWs interviewed, 73% (907) reported having at least one sexual partner who would provide social support to egos. This generated a total of 1300 ego–alter sex ties in egos' support networks. Condoms were consistently used among one-third of sex ties. At the ego level, condoms were more likely to be used consistently if egos received a middle school education or above, had stronger perceived behavioral control for condom use, or consistently used condoms with other sex clients who were not in their support networks. At the alter level, condoms were not consistently used over spousal ties compared to other ties. Condoms were less likely to be used among alters whom ego trusted and provided emotional support. Cross-level factors (egos' attitudes toward condom use and emotional support from alters) documented a significant positive interaction on consistent condom use. Given the low frequency of condom use, future interventions should focus on mid-age FSWs and their partners within and beyond their support networks. PMID:27028182

  19. Egocentric Network and Condom Use Among Mid-Age Female Sex Workers in China: A Multilevel Modeling Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongjie

    2016-04-01

    The epidemics of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have spread among older adults in the world, including China. This study addresses the deficiency of studies about the multiple contextual influences on condom use among mid-age female sex workers (FSWs) over 35 years old. A combination of an egocentric network design and multilevel modeling was used to investigate factors of condom use over mid-age FSWs (egos) particular relationships with sexual partners (alters). Of the 1245 mid-age FSWs interviewed, 73% (907) reported having at least one sexual partner who would provide social support to egos. This generated a total of 1300 ego-alter sex ties in egos' support networks. Condoms were consistently used among one-third of sex ties. At the ego level, condoms were more likely to be used consistently if egos received a middle school education or above, had stronger perceived behavioral control for condom use, or consistently used condoms with other sex clients who were not in their support networks. At the alter level, condoms were not consistently used over spousal ties compared to other ties. Condoms were less likely to be used among alters whom ego trusted and provided emotional support. Cross-level factors (egos' attitudes toward condom use and emotional support from alters) documented a significant positive interaction on consistent condom use. Given the low frequency of condom use, future interventions should focus on mid-age FSWs and their partners within and beyond their support networks.

  20. 28 CFR 79.14 - Proof of initial exposure prior to age 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proof of initial exposure prior to age 21. 79.14 Section 79.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims Relating to Leukemia § 79.14 Proof...

  1. 28 CFR 79.14 - Proof of initial exposure prior to age 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proof of initial exposure prior to age 21. 79.14 Section 79.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims Relating to Leukemia § 79.14 Proof...

  2. 28 CFR 79.14 - Proof of initial exposure prior to age 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proof of initial exposure prior to age 21. 79.14 Section 79.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims Relating to Leukemia § 79.14 Proof...

  3. 28 CFR 79.14 - Proof of initial exposure prior to age 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proof of initial exposure prior to age 21. 79.14 Section 79.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims Relating to Leukemia § 79.14 Proof...

  4. 28 CFR 79.14 - Proof of initial exposure prior to age 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of initial exposure prior to age 21. 79.14 Section 79.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims Relating to Leukemia § 79.14 Proof...

  5. Apathy in aging: are lack of interest and lack of initiative dissociable?

    PubMed

    Esposito, Fabienne; Rochat, Lucien; Juillerat Van der Linden, Anne-Claude; Lekeu, Françoise; Charnallet, Annik; Van der Linden, Martial

    2014-01-01

    Apathy is common in aging and generally defined on the basis of three dimensions: lack of initiative, lack of interest and emotional blunting. Curiously, no study until now has examined the associations and dissociations between these dimensions in elderly people (with or without dementia). These questions were addressed in two studies. In the first study, we explored the distribution of scores and the relationships between the three dimensions of apathy in 56 patients with dementia, focusing mainly on lack of initiative and lack of interest. Apathy was hetero-evaluated with the Apathy Inventory (AI), a scale widely used to assess the apathy dimensions in aging. In the second study, given the AI's limitations, we investigated in more detail the relationship between lack of initiative and interest in 115 elderly people using a new questionnaire specifically designed to assess these two dimensions. Results showed that lack of initiative was closely related to lack of interest (Study 1). Although we used a more specific questionnaire, these facets of apathy did not constitute two separable dimensions, but reflected a common main factor of apathy in aging (Study 2). Thus, the distinction between lack of initiative and lack of interest seems questionable. Only a multifactorial approach that includes the various psychological factors involved in apathy would enable one to gain a better understanding of the different manifestations of apathy and to highlight possible dissociations between them.

  6. Nutrition initiatives in the context of population aging: where does the United States stand?

    PubMed

    Chalé, Angela; Unanski, Amanda G; Liang, Raymond Y

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the earliest segment of the baby boom generation turned 65 years of age. This event marks the beginning of a new phase of growth of the older adult population in the United States and is in line with what is referred to worldwide as "population aging." By 2030, older adults will comprise 20% of the U.S. population. With the impending increase in the older adult population, the United States is unprepared to handle the accompanying social and economic impact of growing rates of age-related diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. These diseases have nutritional determinants and, as such, they signify the need for effective preventive nutrition initiatives to address population aging in the United States. Comparatively, the European Union (EU) is projected to reach an older adult population of 24% by 2030. In this special article we evaluate nutrition initiatives for older adults in the United States and also examine nutrition initiatives in the European Union in search of an ideal model. However, we found that available data for EU initiatives targeted at population aging were limited. We conclude by offering the proposal of a physician-based model that establishes the primary care physician as the initiator of nutrition screening, education, referrals, and follow-up for the older adult population in the United States as a long-term goal. Apropos of the immediate future, we consider barriers that underscore the establishment of a physician-based model and suggest objectives that are attainable. Although the data are limited for the European Union, this model may serve to guide management of chronic diseases with a nutritional component in economies similar to the United States worldwide.

  7. Pulmonary cytology in chrysotile asbestos workers

    SciTech Connect

    Kobusch, A.B.; Simard, A.; Feldstein, M.; Vauclair, R.; Gibbs, G.W.; Bergeron, F.; Morissette, N.; Davis, R.

    1984-01-01

    The prevalence of atypical cytology has been determined in relation to age, smoking and asbestos exposure for male workers employed in 3 mines in the Province of Quebec. Overall participation was 71%. Out of 867 participating workers, 626 (72%) presented a deep cough specimen within normal limits, 74 (8.5%) a specimen with mild atypical metaplasia and 10 (1.2%) a specimen with moderate atypical metaplasia. Four lung carcinoma were identified. Five percent of the workers initially interviewed did not return their specimen and 12.7% had unsatisfactory test results. Proportions of cellular atypical increased with age and asbestos exposure. Using logistic regression analysis, estimated probabilities of abnormal cytology for workers aged 25 years when started mining increased with both years of asbestos exposure and exposure index measured in fibres per cubic centimeter.

  8. The Career Transition Process: A Qualitative Exploration of Korean Middle-Aged Workers in Postretirement Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Seon-Joo

    2014-01-01

    Today's society, shaped by demographic changes and a global economy, has created different employment trends and work lives that result in adults' engaging in postretirement second careers. This phenomenon is a common occurrence in rapidly aging societies like Korea. This qualitative study examined the postretirement career transition process of…

  9. Early sex work initiation and condom use among alcohol-using female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Parcesepe, Angela M; L’Engle, Kelly L; Martin, Sandra L; Green, Sherri; Suchindran, Chirayath; Mwarogo, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Early initiation of sex work is prevalent among female sex workers (FSWs) worldwide. The objectives of this study were to investigate if early initiation of sex work was associated with: (1) consistent condom use, (2) condom negotiation self-efficacy or (3) condom use norms among alcohol-using FSWs in Mombasa, Kenya. Methods In-person interviews were conducted with 816 FSWs in Mombasa, Kenya. Sample participants were: recruited from HIV prevention drop-in centres, 18 years or older and moderate risk drinkers. Early initiation was defined as first engaging in sex work at 17 years or younger. Logistic regression modelled outcomes as a function of early initiation, adjusting for drop-in centre, years in sex work, supporting others and HIV status. Results FSWs who initiated sex work early were significantly less likely to report consistent condom use with paying sex partners compared with those who initiated sex work in adulthood. There was no significant difference between groups in consistent condom use with non-paying sex partners. FSWs who initiated sex work early endorsed less condom negotiation self-efficacy with paying sex partners compared with FSWs who did not initiate sex work early. Conclusions Findings highlight a need for early intervention for at-risk youth and adolescent FSWs, particularly in relation to HIV sexual risk behaviours. Evidence-based interventions for adolescent FSWs or adult FSWs who began sex work in adolescence should be developed, implemented and evaluated. PMID:27217378

  10. Pubertal development among girls with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia initiated on treatment at different ages

    PubMed Central

    Kulshreshtha, Bindu; Eunice, Marumudi; Ammini, Ariachery C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) provide us an opportunity to study the clinical effects of androgen excess in humans. We studied the sequence of pubertal development in girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia initiated on treatment at different ages, to assess the effects of androgen exposure on the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian (HPO) axis. Materials and Methods: Girls more than 18 years of age, with CAH, on follow-up at this hospital were the subjects for this study. Details of history, physical findings, laboratory evaluation, and medication were noted from their case records and verified from the patients and their / parents, in addition to assessment of their present health status. Result: We studied 24 patients of classical CAH (SW-2, SV-22, average age – 24.5 ± 6.6 years). All had varying degrees of genital ambiguity (Prader stage 3 (n = 13), Prader stage 2 (n = 10), Prader stage 1 (n = 1). Among them were13 girls, who were started on steroids after eight years of age. Girls who received treatment from infancy and early childhood had normal pubertal development (mean age at menarche 11.4 ± 1.7 years). Hirsutism was not a problem among them. Untreated children had progressive clitoral enlargement throughout childhood, developed pubic hair at around three to six years of age, and facial hair between nine and eleven years. Plasma testosterone ranged from 3 to 6 ng / ml prior to treatment. Six of the 13 untreated CAH girls had subtle breast development starting at ages 11 – 16 years and three had spontaneous infrequent vaginal bleeding starting at ages 11 – 17. Steroid supplementation initiated pubertal changes in older girls in two-to-six months’ time. Conclusion: There was a delay in HPO axis maturation (as evidenced by delayed pubertal development) in the absence of treatment in girls with CAH. This could be corrected with steroid supplementation. PMID:22837923

  11. Shock Initiation of New and Aged PBX 9501 Measured with Embedded Electromagnetic Particle Velocity Gauges

    SciTech Connect

    L. G. Hill; R. L. Gustavsen; R. R. Alcon; S. A. Sheffield

    1999-09-01

    We have used an embedded electromagnetic particle velocity gauge technique to measure the shock initiation behavior in PBX 9501 explosive. Up to twelve separate particle velocity wave profile measurements have been made at different depths in a single experiment. These detail the growth from an input shock to a detonation. In addition, another gauge element called a ''shock tracker'' has been used to monitor the progress of the shock front as a function of time and position as it moves through the explosive sample. This provides data similar to that obtained in a traditional explosively driven wedge test and is used to determine the position and time that the wave attains detonation. Run distance-to-detonation vs. input pressure (Pop-plot) data and particle velocity wave profile data have been obtained on new PBX 9501 pressed to densities of 1.826, 1.830, and 1.837 g/cm{sup 3}. In addition, the same measurements were performed on aged material recovered from dismantled W76 and W78 weapons. The input pressure range covered was 3.0 to 5.2 GPa. All results to date show shock sensitivity to be a function only of the initial density and not of age. PBX 9501 shock initiates the same after 17 years in stockpile as it does on the day it is pressed. Particle velocity wave profiles show mixed heterogeneous initiation (growth in the front) and homogeneous initiation (growth behind the front).

  12. Organisational aspects and benchmarking of e-learning initiatives: a case study with South African community health workers.

    PubMed

    Reisach, Ulrike; Weilemann, Mitja

    2016-06-01

    South Africa desperately needs a comprehensive approach to fight HIV/AIDS. Education is crucial to reach this goal and Internet and e-learning could offer huge opportunities to broaden and deepen the knowledge basis. But due to the huge societal and digital divide between rich and poor areas, e-learning is difficult to realize in the townships. Community health workers often act as mediators and coaches for people seeking medical and personal help. They could give good advice regarding hygiene, nutrition, protection of family members in case of HIV/AIDS and finding legal ways to earn one's living if they were trained to do so. Therefore they need to have a broader general knowledge. Since learning opportunities in the townships are scarce, a system for e-learning has to be created in order to overcome the lack of experience with computers or the Internet and to enable them to implement a network of expertise. The article describes how the best international resources on basic medical knowledge, HIV/AIDS as well as on basic economic and entrepreneurial skills were benchmarked to be integrated into an e-learning system. After tests with community health workers, researchers developed recommendations on building a self-sustaining system for learning, including a network of expertise and best practice sharing. The article explains the opportunities and challenges for community health workers, which could provide information for other parts of the world with similar preconditions of rural poverty.

  13. Physical activity (PA) among middle-aged women: initial and current influences and patterns of participation.

    PubMed

    Codina, Nuria; Pestana, José V; Armadans, Immaculada

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the initial and current influences for doing physical activity (PA), current levels of PA participation, and future plans for it. Participants were 200 women aged 45 to 64 years old. Factor loadings of influences were explored using Principal Components Analysis. Pearson bivariate correlations, t-test, and ANOVA were used to show the differences among the influences, sociodemographic characteristics, and present/future PA participation. Personal fulfillment was the main initial influence, while health benefits/self-care, and outdoor/family activities were the most important current influences. The results highlight the factors that best explain present PA participation and also plans for activity in the future.

  14. [Food and nutrition safety of children under two years of age in families of landless rural workers].

    PubMed

    Lang, Regina Maria Ferreira; Almeida, Cláudia Choma Bettega; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo

    2011-07-01

    To date little is known of health, nutrition and food safety conditions of children living in rural camps and settlements. The present cross-sectional descriptive study seeks to present and discuss such conditions for children under two years of age in families of landless rural workers in the Central Western region of the State of Paraná. The study was conducted with a total of 337 children under two years of age in families living in two rural settlements and two rural camps. The main variables related with protein-energy malnutrition were assessed. Results indicated that the prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition was 4.7% in settlements and 10% in camps. Home location, home type and the possibility of producing food for private consumption were the distal variables that influenced most the nutritional status of the pediatric population analyzed. This study established that the search for nutritional and food safety must consider the right of accessing resources and proper means to produce safe and healthy foods in order to enable adequate feeding compatible with the habits and practices of the region.

  15. Evaluation of the Mental Healthiness Aging Initiative: community program to promote awareness about mental health and aging issues.

    PubMed

    Zanjani, Faika; Kruger, Tina; Murray, Deborah

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the Mental Healthiness Aging Initiative, designed to promote community awareness and knowledge about mental health and aging issues. This study occurred during 2007-2009 in 67 of 120 counties in Kentucky. A rural region (11 counties) received the intervention, consisting of focus groups, Extension Agent training, and television-based social marketing campaign. Partial-intervention counties (29 counties) received only the television-based social marketing campaign. The control counties (27 counties) received no intervention activities. Results indicated that the intervention counties agreed more with being able to assist elder adults with a potential mental illness. Also, the intervention counties understood the risk of consuming alcohol and medications better, but had a poorer recognition of drinking problems in elder adults. These findings need to be considered within study limitations, such as measurement error, degree of intervention exposure, and regional differences across intervention groups. The study demonstrates that community interventions on mental health awareness and knowledge are feasible within majority rural regions, with Extension Agents being gatekeepers, for promoting positive messages about mental health and aging issues.

  16. Vanishing honey bees: Is the dying of adult worker bees a consequence of short telomeres and premature aging?

    PubMed

    Stindl, Reinhard; Stindl, Wolfgang

    2010-10-01

    Einstein is often quoted to have said that without the bee, mankind would have but 4years to live. It is highly unlikely that he made this comment, which was even mentioned in a Lancet article on honey bees. However, the current vanishing of the bees can have serious consequences for human health, because 35% of the human diet is thought to benefit from pollination. Colony collapse disorder (CCD) in honey bees is characterized by the rapid decline of the adult bee population, leaving the brood and the queen poorly or completely unattended, with no dead bodies in or around the hive. A large study found no evidence that the presence or amount of any individual pesticide or infectious agent occurred more frequently or abundantly in CCD-affected colonies. The growing consensus is that honey bees are suffering from comprised immune systems, which allow various infectious pathogens to invade. The question remains, what causes immunosuppression in many colonies of Apis mellifera in North America and Europe? Telomeres are protective DNA structures located at eukaryotic chromosome tips that shorten in the somatic tissues of animals with age. Lifelong tissue regeneration takes place in Apis mellifera, and worker bees have been shown to senesce. In humans, a vast amount of literature has accumulated on exhausted telomere reserves causing impaired tissue regeneration and age-associated diseases, specifically cancer and immunosuppression. Therefore, we propose a new causative mechanism for the vanishing of the bees: critically short telomeres in long-lived winter bees. We term this the telomere premature aging syndrome.

  17. Longitudinal study of workers in an aluminum smelter

    SciTech Connect

    Chan-Yeung, M.; Enarson, D.A.; MacLean, L.; Irving, D.

    1989-05-01

    We conducted a 6-y follow-up study that included workers in an aluminum smelter in British Columbia. Of the original cohort, 951 workers left the industry and 985 workers participated in both studies. Comparison of those who left and those who remained showed that those who left were (1) older, (2) had a slightly higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, and (3) had lower lung function; this was especially true for workers who were 50 + y of age at the time the initial study was conducted. Analyses were conducted only on 586 male workers who did not change their job location or smoking habits between the initial and the follow-up study. Potroom workers in the ''high-exposure'' group had a significant reduction in the prevalence of cough, but experienced an increase in the prevalence of wheeze. There was no significant difference in the annual decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec and forced vital capacity between the potroom workers and controls. In general, older workers and smokers had a greater decline in lung function compared to younger workers and nonsmokers. Leukocyte count done during the initial study was found to be an independent predictor of longitudinal decline in lung function. The lack of exposure effect on longitudinal decline in lung function could be due to ''healthy worker'' effect and improvement in the working condition of the smelter.

  18. Effectiveness of daily living abilities (DLA) as a tool for evaluating vocational competencies: study of non-disabled workers aged 45 and over.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, E; Murakami, K

    1995-05-01

    A questionnaire survey was conducted on 28-55 items of daily living abilities (DLA) linked to 13 basic vocational competencies such as memory, learning, planning, judgement, muscular power and concentration covering a total of 505 non-disabled blue collar male workers aged 45 and over. Results of the survey were as follows, (1) The 457 subjects were grouped into five groups ranging from normal to unsound groups according to the degree of DLA; (2) The reduction of DLA has directionality to two factors, memory and muscular power; (3) DLA provide clues for aging; (4) Among basic vocational competencies, muscular power showed the highest performance with a small standard deviation, while concentration scored low points with a large standard deviation (p < .05); (5) No age difference was found in planning ability, coordination, muscular power, physical tolerance, manual dexterity, and sense of equilibrium, while subjects aged 65 or over showed significantly low figures for learning ability, agility and concentration (p < .05); Since the findings showed various characteristics of vocational competencies and the aging process precisely in blue collar workers aged 45 and over, we assumed that the DLA survey is one of the alternatives for evaluating workers vocational competencies.

  19. Role of OH-initiated oxidation of isoprene in aging of combustion soot.

    PubMed

    Khalizov, Alexei F; Lin, Yun; Qiu, Chong; Guo, Song; Collins, Don; Zhang, Renyi

    2013-03-05

    We have investigated the contribution of OH-initiated oxidation of isoprene to the atmospheric aging of combustion soot. The experiments were conducted in a fluoropolymer chamber on size-classified soot aerosols in the presence of isoprene, photolytically generated OH, and nitrogen oxides. The evolution in the mixing state of soot was monitored from simultaneous measurements of the particle size and mass, which were used to calculate the particle effective density, dynamic shape factor, mass fractal dimension, and coating thickness. When soot particles age, the increase in mass is accompanied by a decrease in particle mobility diameter and an increase in effective density. Coating material not only fills in void spaces, but also causes partial restructuring of fractal soot aggregates. For thinly coated aggregates, the single scattering albedo increases weakly because of the decreased light absorption and practically unchanged scattering. Upon humidification, coated particles absorb water, leading to an additional compaction. Aging transforms initially hydrophobic soot particles into efficient cloud condensation nuclei at a rate that increases in the presence of nitrogen oxides. Our results suggest that ubiquitous biogenic isoprene plays an important role in aging of anthropogenic soot, shortening its atmospheric lifetime and considerably altering its impacts on air quality and climate.

  20. Early sex work initiation independently elevates odds of HIV infection and police arrest among adult sex workers in a Canadian setting

    PubMed Central

    GOLDENBERG, Shira M.; CHETTIAR, Jill; SIMO, Annick; SILVERMAN, Jay G.; STRATHDEE, Steffanie A.; MONTANER, Julio; SHANNON, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore factors associated with early sex work initiation, and model the independent effect of early initiation on HIV infection and prostitution arrests among adult sex workers (SWs). Design Baseline data (2010–2011) were drawn from a cohort of SWs who exchanged sex for money within the last month and were recruited through time-location sampling in Vancouver, Canada. Analyses were restricted to adults ≥18 years old. Methods SWs completed a questionnaire and HIV/STI testing. Using multivariate logistic regression, we identified associations with early sex work initiation (<18 years old) and constructed confounder models examining the independent effect of early initiation on HIV and prostitution arrests among adult SWs. Results Of 508 SWs, 193 (38.0%) reported early sex work initiation, with 78.53% primarily street-involved SWs and 21.46% off-street SWs. HIV prevalence was 11.22%, which was 19.69% among early initiates. Early initiates were more likely to be Canadian-born (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 6.8, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.42–19.02), inject drugs (AOR: 1.6, 95%CI: 1.0–2.5), and to have worked for a manager (AOR: 2.22, 95%CI: 1.3–3.6) or been coerced into sex work (AOR: 2.3, 95%CI: 1.14–4.44). Early initiation retained an independent effect on increased risk of HIV infection (AOR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.3–3.2) and prostitution arrests (AOR: 2.0, 95%CI: 1.3–3.2). Conclusions Adolescent sex work initiation is concentrated among marginalized, drug and street-involved SWs. Early initiation holds an independent increased effect on HIV infection and criminalization of adult SWs. Findings suggest the need for evidence-based approaches to reduce harm among adult and youth SWs. PMID:23982660

  1. Pediatric Biopharmaceutical Classification System: Using Age-Appropriate Initial Gastric Volume.

    PubMed

    Shawahna, Ramzi

    2016-05-01

    Development of optimized pediatric formulations for oral administration can be challenging, time consuming, and financially intensive process. Since its inception, the biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS) has facilitated the development of oral drug formulations destined for adults. At least theoretically, the BCS principles are applied also to pediatrics. A comprehensive age-appropriate BCS has not been fully developed. The objective of this work was to provisionally classify oral drugs listed on the latest World Health Organization's Essential Medicines List for Children into an age-appropriate BCS. A total of 38 orally administered drugs were included in this classification. Dose numbers were calculated using age-appropriate initial gastric volume for neonates, 6-month-old infants, and children aging 1 year through adulthood. Using age-appropriate initial gastric volume and British National Formulary age-specific dosing recommendations in the calculation of dose numbers, the solubility classes shifted from low to high in pediatric subpopulations of 12 years and older for amoxicillin, 5 years, 12 years and older for cephalexin, 9 years and older for chloramphenicol, 3-4 years, 9-11 and 15 years and older for diazepam, 18 years and older (adult) for doxycycline and erythromycin, 8 years and older for phenobarbital, 10 years and older for prednisolone, and 15 years and older for trimethoprim. Pediatric biopharmaceutics are not fully understood where several knowledge gaps have been recently emphasized. The current biowaiver criteria are not suitable for safe application in all pediatric populations.

  2. Parental age and Neurofibromatosis Type 1: a report from the NF1 Patient Registry Initiative.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Zoellner, Nancy; Gutmann, David H; Johnson, Kimberly J

    2015-06-01

    One of the potential etiologies for non-familial Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is increasing parental age. We sought to evaluate recent evidence for parental age effects in NF1 in a large study. Individuals with NF1 and a comparison group from the U.S. general population born between 1994 and 2012 were ascertained from the NF1 Patient Registry Initiative (NPRI) and the National Center for Vital Statistics, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis was employed to identify differences between familial NF1, non-familial NF1, and U.S. population subjects in the mean parental ages at the time of the birth of offspring in each group. In addition, we also evaluated the effect of parental age on NF1 offspring with and without a pediatric brain tumor history. A total of 313 subjects from the NPRI (including 99 brain tumor cases) matched by birth year at a 1:3 ratio to U.S. general population births (n = 939) were included. Compared to the U.S. general population and familial NF1 cases, the mean paternal age for non-familial NF1 cases was 4.34 years (95% CI 3.23-5.46, p ≤ 0.0001) and 3.39 years (95% CI 1.57-5.20, p ≤ 0.0001) older, respectively, after adjusting for birth year. A similar pattern was observed for maternal age. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean maternal or paternal ages between NF1 offspring with and without a pediatric brain tumor. In conclusion, these data support a parental age effect for non-familial NF1 cases, but not for pediatric brain tumors in NF1.

  3. Coal workers' pneumoconiosis-related years of potential life lost before age 65 years - United States, 1968-2006.

    PubMed

    2009-12-25

    Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) is a preventable, slowly progressive parenchymal lung disease caused by inhalation and deposition of coal mine dust in the lungs. The incidence and rate of CWP progression is related to the amount of respirable coal dust to which miners were exposed during their working lifetime. Early pneumoconiosis can be asymptomatic, but advanced disease often leads to disability and premature death. To characterize the impact of premature mortality attributed to CWP in the United States, CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) analyzed annual underlying cause of death data from 1968-2006, the most recent years for which complete data were available. Years of potential life lost before age 65 years (YPLL), and mean YPLL were calculated using standard methodology. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicate that during 1968-2006, a total of 22,625 YPLL were attributed to CWP (mean per decedent: 5.7). Annual YPLL attributed to CWP decreased 91.2%, from an average of 1,484 YPLL per year during 1968-1972 to 154 per year during 2002-2006. However, annual YPLL from CWP have been increasing since 2002, from 135 in that year to 169 YPLL in 2006, suggesting a need for strengthening CWP prevention measures. CDC intends to maintain surveillance of CWP deaths to determine future trends and promote safer work environments.

  4. Decreasing initial telomere length in humans intergenerationally understates age-associated telomere shortening

    PubMed Central

    Holohan, Brody; De Meyer, Tim; Batten, Kimberly; Mangino, Massimo; Hunt, Steven C; Bekaert, Sofie; De Buyzere, Marc L; Rietzschel, Ernst R; Spector, Tim D; Wright, Woodring E; Shay, Jerry W

    2015-01-01

    Telomere length shortens with aging, and short telomeres have been linked to a wide variety of pathologies. Previous studies suggested a discrepancy in age-associated telomere shortening rate estimated by cross-sectional studies versus the rate measured in longitudinal studies, indicating a potential bias in cross-sectional estimates. Intergenerational changes in initial telomere length, such as that predicted by the previously described effect of a father’s age at birth of his offspring (FAB), could explain the discrepancy in shortening rate measurements. We evaluated whether changes occur in initial telomere length over multiple generations in three large datasets and identified paternal birth year (PBY) as a variable that reconciles the difference between longitudinal and cross-sectional measurements. We also clarify the association between FAB and offspring telomere length, demonstrating that this effect is substantially larger than reported in the past. These results indicate the presence of a downward secular trend in telomere length at birth over generational time with potential public health implications. PMID:25952108

  5. Decreasing initial telomere length in humans intergenerationally understates age-associated telomere shortening.

    PubMed

    Holohan, Brody; De Meyer, Tim; Batten, Kimberly; Mangino, Massimo; Hunt, Steven C; Bekaert, Sofie; De Buyzere, Marc L; Rietzschel, Ernst R; Spector, Tim D; Wright, Woodring E; Shay, Jerry W

    2015-08-01

    Telomere length shortens with aging, and short telomeres have been linked to a wide variety of pathologies. Previous studies suggested a discrepancy in age-associated telomere shortening rate estimated by cross-sectional studies versus the rate measured in longitudinal studies, indicating a potential bias in cross-sectional estimates. Intergenerational changes in initial telomere length, such as that predicted by the previously described effect of a father's age at birth of his offspring (FAB), could explain the discrepancy in shortening rate measurements. We evaluated whether changes occur in initial telomere length over multiple generations in three large datasets and identified paternal birth year (PBY) as a variable that reconciles the difference between longitudinal and cross-sectional measurements. We also clarify the association between FAB and offspring telomere length, demonstrating that this effect is substantially larger than reported in the past. These results indicate the presence of a downward secular trend in telomere length at birth over generational time with potential public health implications.

  6. Effects of Co-Worker and Supervisor Support on Job Stress and Presenteeism in an Aging Workforce: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tianan; Shen, Yu-Ming; Zhu, Mingjing; Liu, Yuanling; Deng, Jianwei; Chen, Qian; See, Lai-Chu

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of co-worker and supervisor support on job stress and presenteeism in an aging workforce. Structural equation modelling was used to evaluate data from the 2010 wave of the Health and Retirement Survey in the United States (n = 1649). The level of presenteeism was low and the level of job stress was moderate among aging US workers. SEM revealed that co-worker support and supervisor support were strongly correlated (β = 0.67; p < 0.001). Job stress had a significant direct positive effect on presenteeism (β = 0.30; p < 0.001). Co-worker support had a significant direct negative effect on job stress (β = −0.10; p < 0.001) and presenteeism (β = −0.11; p < 0.001). Supervisor support had a significant direct negative effect on job stress (β = −0.40; p < 0.001) but not presenteeism. The findings suggest that presenteeism is reduced by increased respect and concern for employee stress at the workplace, by necessary support at work from colleagues and employers, and by the presence of comfortable interpersonal relationships among colleagues and between employers and employees. PMID:26703705

  7. Molecular ageing: Free radical initiated epimerization of thymopentin – A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Sheykhkarimli, Dayag; Choo, Ken-Loon; Owen, Michael; Csizmadia, Imre G.; Fiser, Béla; Jójárt, Balázs; Viskolcz, Béla

    2014-05-28

    The epimerization of amino acid residues increases with age in living organisms. In the present study, the structural consequences and thermodynamic functions of the epimerization of thymopentin (TP-5), the active site of the thymic hormone thymopoietin, were studied using molecular dynamics and density functional theory methods. The results show that free radical-initiated D-amino acid formation is energetically favoured (−130 kJmol{sup −1}) for each residue and induces significant changes to the peptide structure. In comparison to the wild-type (each residue in the L-configuration), the radius of gyration of the D-Asp{sup 3} epimer of the peptide decreased by 0.5 Å, and disrupted the intramolecular hydrogen bonding of the native peptide. Beyond establishing important structural, energetic and thermodynamic benchmarks and reference data for the structure of TP-5, these results disseminate the understanding of molecular ageing, the epimerization of amino acid residues.

  8. Star Formation in NGC 6531-Evidence From the age Spread and Initial Mass Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Douglas

    1996-09-01

    The results of a photometric UBV study of the young open cluster NGC 6531 are presented. The cluster is found to have a mean reddening E(B-V)=0.28±0.04 (s.d.) and distance modulus (V0-Mv)=10.70±0.13 (s.e.), and 105±11 likely cluster members have been identified within the cluster coronal radius of 9 arcmin. A comparison of the high-luminosity end of the cluster color-magnitude diagram to the evolutionary models by Maeder & Meynet [A&AS, 76, 411(1988)] suggests a nuclear age of (8±2) Myr. The very clear gap in the distribution of stars with 0≤(B-V)0≤0.20, corresponding to the "burn-off" of 3He in stars contracting to the main sequence [Ulrich, ApJ, 168, 57 (1971)], implies a contraction age of (8±3) Myr. There would seem to be no evidence of a spread in the ages of cluster stars, as has been observed in several other young open clusters [Herbst & Miller, AJ, 87, 1478 (1982)]. The initial mass function (IMF) constructed from the cluster luminosity function and the mass-luminosity relation given by Scab (1986) shows good agreement with the field star IMF, and with the IMFS of a number of clusters of similar age and richness. The relative deficiency of low-mass stars seen by Herbst and Miller in NGC 3293 (a cluster of quite similar age and reddening) is not evident in NGC 6531.

  9. Age at Time of Initial Sexual Intercourse and Health of Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Lara, Lúcia A S; Abdo, Carmita H N

    2016-10-01

    Adolescence is characterized by marked changes in the body, psychology, and sexual behavior due to increasing production of hormones. In this review we aimed to assess the effect of age at the time of first sexual intercourse (sexarche) on the health of adolescent girls, and identify factors that might protect against early initiation of sexual relations in girls. The PubMed, Lilacs, and Google Scholar databases were searched for clinical trials, comparative studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, cohort studies, multicenter studies, observational studies, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews published up to December 2014 on this theme. The search terms were: "sexual debut," "coitarche," "sexarche," and "young people," "adolescent," "unplanned pregnancy," "adolescent contraception," and "STDs." Data were extracted from 28 studies and 41 references were used to introduce the theme and to support the discussion. Sexarche has been occurring in increasingly younger girls. A young age at sexarche can lead to subsequent risky sexual behavior. Girls who have sexarche when they are 14 years old or younger are less likely to use contraception on this occasion, take more time before they start using contraception in subsequent sexual relations, are more likely to have several sex partners, have a higher risk for depression, have lower self-esteem and more episodes of repentance, and have a higher risk for a sexually transmitted disease and cervical cancer. Girls with low educational, socioeconomic, and cultural status, little parental monitoring, parental separation, and absence of religiosity tend to experience sexarche at a younger age. Adolescent girls who postpone sexarche until they are 16 years old are physically and psychologically healthier than those who have sexarche at a younger age. This suggests that providing adolescent girls with appropriate education about sexual relations might reduce the negative effect of sexual relations at a young age.

  10. Factors predicting Behavior Management Problems during Initial Dental Examination in Children Aged 2 to 8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dipanshu; Anand, Ashish; Mittal, Vipula; Singh, Aparna; Aggarwal, Nidhi

    2017-01-01

    Aim The aim of the present study was to identify the various background variables and its influence on behavior management problems (BMP) in children. Materials and methods The study included 165 children aged 2 to 8 years. During the initial dental visit, an experienced operator obtained each child’s background variables from accompanying guardians using a standardized questionnaire. Children’s dental behavior was rated by Frankel behavior rating scale. The behavior was then analyzed in relation to the answers of the questionnaire, and a logistic regression model was used to determine the power of the variables, separately or combined, to predict BMP. Results The logistic regression analysis considering differences in background variables between children with negative or positive behavior. Four variables turned out to be as predictors: Age, the guardian’s expectation of the child’s behavior at the dental examination, the child’s anxiety when meeting unfamiliar people, and the presence and absence of toothache. Conclusion The present study concluded that by means of simple questionnaire BMP in children may be expected if one of these attributes is found. Clinical significance Information on the origin of dental fear and uncooperative behavior in a child patient prior to treatment process may help the pediatric dentist plan appropriate behavior management and treatment strategy. How to cite this article Sharma A, Kumar D, Anand A, Mittal V, Singh A, Aggarwal N. Factors predicting Behavior Management Problems during Initial Dental Examination in Children Aged 2 to 8 Years. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(1):5-9. PMID:28377646

  11. Voluntary Exercise Impairs Initial Delayed Spatial Alternation Performance in Estradiol Treated Ovariectomized Middle-Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Neese, Steven L.; Korol, Donna L.; Schantz, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    Estrogens differentially modulate behavior in the adult female rodent. Voluntary exercise can also impact behavior, often reversing age associated decrements in memory processes. Our research group has published a series of papers reporting a deficit in the acquisition of an operant working memory task, delayed spatial alternation (DSA), following 17β-estradiol treatment to middle-aged ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The current study examined if voluntary exercise could attenuate the 17β-estradiol induced deficits on DSA performance. OVX 12-month old Long- Evans rats were implanted with a Silastic capsule containing 17β-estradiol (10% in cholesterol: low physiological range) or with a blank capsule. A subset of the 17β-estradiol and OVX untreated rats were given free access to a running wheel in their home cage. All rats were tested for 40 sessions on the DSA task. Surprisingly, we found running wheel access to impair initial acquisition of the DSA task in 17β-estradiol treated rats, an effect not seen in OVX untreated rats given running wheel access. This deficit was driven by an increase in perseverative responding on a lever no longer associated with reinforcement. We also report for the first time a 17β-estradiol induced impairment on the DSA task following a long intertrial delay (18-sec), an effect revealed following more extended testing than in our previous studies (15 additional sessions). Overall, running wheel access increased initial error rate on the DSA task in 17β-estradiol treated middle-aged OVX rats, and failed to prevent the 17β-estradiol induced deficits in performance of the operant DSA task in later testing sessions. PMID:24013039

  12. How To Train Older Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    Because of the aging of the labor force and legislation designed to keep older workers on the job, employers will have to deal with increasing numbers of older workers. For this transition to be as smooth as possible, employers must first overcome age-related stereotypes that have taken hold since the 1930s. Dealing with older workers involves two…

  13. The effects of age and past and present behavioral specialization on behavior of workers of the red wood ant Formica polyctena Först. during nestmate reunion tests.

    PubMed

    Korczyńska, Julita; Szczuka, Anna; Symonowicz, Beata; Wnuk, Andrzej; Anna, Gonzalez Szwacka; Mazurkiewicz, Paweł Jarosław; Studnicki, Marcin; Godzińska, Ewa Joanna

    2014-09-01

    Social insect workers usually participate first in intranidal tasks and then switch to extranidal ones. However, foragers may switch again to intranidal brood care. This process is called the behavioral reversion. We applied dyadic nestmate reunion tests to explore behavioral differences between five groups of workers of the red wood ant Formica polyctena: callows (newly eclosed workers), nurses, reverted nurses (foragers that switched back to intranidal brood care in response to exposure to brood in absence of nurses), and two groups of foragers. Inter-group differences between the tested ants were related both to age and past and present behavioral specialization. Callows were the least active and their behavior was characterized by the lowest tempo. Nurses usually behaved in a way intermediate in respect to behavior of callows and the ants that had already passed the transition to extranidal tasks. The behavior of reverted nurses showed both similarities and differences with respect to behavior of foragers. Some traits of behavior of reverted nurses were similar as in the case of nurses, or intermediate in respect to both nurses and foragers. Behavioral reversion of workers of F. polyctena has thus other behavioral correlates besides the reappearance of intranidal brood care.

  14. Subduction Along the South Caribbean Deformed Belt: Age of Initiation and Backthrust Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, P.; Kroehler, M.; Escalona, A.; Magnani, B.; Christeson, G.

    2007-12-01

    The South Caribbean deformed belt (SCDB) represents a submarine prism formed at the interface between subducting oceanic material in the Colombian and Venezuelan basins and arc terranes along the northern edge of the South American continent. The SCDB and subducted Caribbean slab extends 1500 km from Panama to the Aves Ridge and is similar in scale to better studied magmatic subduction zones in the Lesser Antilles and Central America. The age of subduction of the Venezuelan basin at the SCDB has been examined by dating asymmetrical sediment wedges inferred to have formed above the bending and subducting slab of the Venezuelan basin. Ages are constrained by ties to DSDP wells drilled in the Venezuelan basin ~150 km north of the SCDB. Onlapping wedges are oldest in the western area near the Beata Ridge (middle Eocene), of intermediate age in the central area (early Miocene), and youngest in the east near the Aves Ridge (Mio- Pleistocene). Overlying younger wedges in all areas demonstrate that subduction continued following its initiation. Similar ages of deformed syn-thurst wedges are known from the now inactive continental foreland of northern South America in a belt from western Venezuela to Trinidad. Based on this correlation, we propose a simple back arc thrusting origin for the SCDB that is analogous to the eastern Sunda arc of Indonesia. The obliquity of convergence in the Caribbean case has produced a longlived, eastwardly-migrating backthrust that contrasts to more static backthrust in Sunda. The immediate onset of backthrusting following continental collision means that South America-Caribbean convergence was accommodated by newly organized and focussed subduction at the SCDB backthrust; the "collided" crust of intervening accreted arc terranes remains remarkably unaffected by regional shortening effects.

  15. Initial insights into the age and origin of the Kubuqi sand sea of northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoping; Forman, Steven; Hu, Fangen; Zhang, Deguo; Liu, Ziting; Li, Hongwei

    2016-04-01

    The Kubuqi Desert is the only active sand sea in the semiarid regions of northern China and occurs along the southern margin of the Yellow River. Little is known about the age and origin of this large (17,000 km2) sand sea with a present annual precipitation of 200-480 mm. Sand drift potentials indicated net capable winds for aeolian transport are from the northwest, though winds are stronger to north beyond the dune field than within the sand sea. Geomorphic and stratigraphic observations indicate that Holocene aeolian sand often drapes over bedrock and river terraces as a palimpsest landscape. Field investigations identified four stratigraphic sections with multiple aeolian sand units and palaeosols, with age control by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of quartz grains. Palaeosols are weakly developed, mostly accumulative A horizon with organic carbon content < 1% and reflect sand sheet deposition possibly in a steppe environment. Although sediments near river channels or former lakes might give old ages, the initial formation and age of the Kubuqi sand sea should be judged from the occurrence of the sandy palimpsest of the landscape that is OSL dated to the Holocene in general. The latest period of aeolian reactivation may be related to human activity associated with grazing and farming from lost cities in the Kubuqi Desert during the Han (206 B.C. - A.D. 220) and the Tang (A.D. 608 - 907) Dynasties. Also, variable discharge of the Yellow River with local diversions for irrigation and throughout the catchment resulted in possibly an increased supply of aeolian particles for dune field expansion in the past 2 ka.

  16. Effect of aging on the human initial interaural linear vestibulo-ocular reflex.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jun-Ru; Crane, Benjamin T; Wiest, Gerald; Demer, Joseph L

    2002-07-01

    To determine age-related changes, the initial linear vestibulo-ocular reflex (LVOR) of eight older subjects of mean age 65+/-7 years (mean +/- SD, range 56-75 years) was compared with that of nine younger subjects of mean age 24+/-5 years (range 18-31 years) in response to random transients of whole-body heave (interaural) translation at peak acceleration of 0.5 g delivered by a pneumatic actuator. Binocular eye rotations were measured with magnetic search coils, while linear head position and acceleration were measured with a potentiometer and piezoelectric accelerometer. Subjects viewed targets 200 cm, 50 cm, or 15 cm distant immediately before the unpredictable onset of randomly directed translation in darkness (LVOR) and in light (LVVOR). All subjects maintained ideal vergence of 1.5-2 degrees for the 200-cm target, 6-8 degrees for the 50-cm target, and 21-26 degrees for the 15-cm target, with actual vergences depending on individual interpupillary distances. Search coil recording of angular position of the upper teeth showed head rotation to be negligible (less than 0.5 degrees ) for the first 250 ms after onset of head translation, excluding a role for the angular VOR in the responses studied. The LVOR response to heave translation was an oppositely directed eye rotation occurring after a mean latency of 62+/-3 ms for older and 42+/-3 ms (mean +/- SD) for younger subjects ( P<0.0001). The peak of the latency distribution was 60-100 ms for older and 20-60 ms for younger subjects. During the early interval, 70-80 ms from head motion onset prior to a pursuit contribution or saccades, all subjects had significantly enhanced LVOR with decreasing target distance. In this interval, the LVOR position amplitude of younger subjects was 0.17+/-0.01 degrees, 0.40+/-0.01 degrees, 0.57+/-0.01 degrees (mean +/- SE), respectively, in descending order of target distance. Early sensitivities were significantly reduced for older subjects to 0.07+/-0.01 degrees, 0

  17. Predictors of Optimal Cognitive Aging in 80+ Women: The Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, Stephen R.; Hogan, Patricia E.; Driscoll, Ira; Tindle, Hilary A.; Smith, J. Carson; Kesler, Shelli R.; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Rossom, Rebecca C.; Ockene, Judith K.; Yaffe, Kristine; Manson, JoAnn E.; Resnick, Susan M.; Espeland, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Independent predictors of preserved cognitive functioning and factors associated with maintaining high preserved cognitive function in women ≥80 years remain elusive. Methods. Two thousand two hundred twenty-eight women with a mean age of 85 years who participated in the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study were classified as cognitively normal (n = 1,905, 85.5%), mild cognitive impairment (n = 88, 3.9%), dementia (n = 121, 5.4%) or other cognitive impairment (n = 114, n = 5.1%) by central adjudication. Global cognitive functioning was assessed using telephone interview for cognitive status-modified in those women who did not meet cognitive impairment criteria. Differences between women grouped by cognitive status with respect to each potential risk factor were assessed using chi-squared tests and t-tests. Backward stepwise logistic regression was used to select factors that were independently associated with cognitive status. Results. Factors associated with preserved cognitive functioning were younger age, higher education, and family incomes, being non-Hispanic white, better emotional wellbeing, fewer depressive symptoms, more insomnia complaints, being free of diabetes, and not carrying the apolipoprotein E-epsilon 4 allele. Cognitively normal women who demonstrated sustained high preserved cognition were younger, more educated, and endorsed better self-reported general health, emotional wellbeing, and higher physical functioning. Conclusions. Addressing sociodemographic disparities such as income inequality, and targeting interventions to improve depressive symptoms and vascular risk factors, including diabetes, may play an important role in preserving cognition among women who survive to 80 years of age. Person-centered approaches that combine interventions to improve physical, cognitive, and psychosocial functioning may promote maintenance of high preserved cognitive health in the oldest-old. PMID:26858326

  18. Leukemia in benzene workers.

    PubMed

    Rinsky, R A; Young, R J; Smith, A B

    1981-01-01

    To evaluate the possible association between occupational exposure to benzene and subsequent death from leukemia, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a retrospective cohort mortality study of workers who had been exposed to benzene in the manufacture of rubber hydrochloride at two locations in Ohio. Ascertainment of vital status was accomplished for 98% of the cohort. Among 748 workers who had at least one day of exposure to benzene between 1940 and 1950, seven deaths from leukemia occurred; from United States death rates standardized for sex, age, and calendar time period, only 1.25 leukemia deaths would have been expected (standardized mortality ratio = 560; p less than 0.001). Mean duration of exposure to benzene was brief, and 437 (58%) of the cohort were exposed for less than 1 year. Evaluation of leukemia mortality for those workers exposed five or more years showed an SMR of 2100. All leukemia deaths were myelocytic or monocytic in cell type. Four additional cases of leukemia have been reorganized in workers at the study locations, but occurred in persons not encompassed by the strict definition of the cohort. Reconstruction of past exposures to benzene at the two locations indicates that in some areas of the plant airborne benzene concentrations rose occasionally to several hundred parts per million (ppm), but that for the most part, employee eight-hour time-weighted averages (TWA) fell within the limits considered permissible at the time of exposure. These data corroborate an initial analysis of the same cohort by Infante et al, and indicate that benzene is a human carcinogen at a range of exposures not greatly above the current legal standard.

  19. Cognitive Training Sustainably Improves Executive Functioning in Middle-Aged Industry Workers Assessed by Task Switching: A Randomized Controlled ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Gajewski, Patrick D.; Freude, Gabriele; Falkenstein, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Recently, we reported results of a cross-sectional study investigating executive functions in dependence of aging and type of work. That study showed deficits in performance and electrophysiological activity in middle-aged workers with long-term repetitive and unchallenging work. Based on these findings, we conducted a longitudinal study that aimed at ameliorating these cognitive deficits by means of a trainer-guided cognitive training (CT) in 57 further middle-aged workers with repetitive type of work from the same factory. This study was designed as a randomized controlled trail with pre- (t1), post- (t2), and a 3-month follow-up (t3) measure. The waiting control group was trained between t2 and t3. The training lasted 3 months (20 sessions) and was evaluated with the same task switching paradigm used in the previous cross-sectional study. The CT improved performance in accuracy at the behavioral level and affected the electrophysiological correlates of retrieval of stimulus-response sets (P2), response selection (N2), and error detection (Ne), thus unveiling the neuronal background of the behavioral effects. The same training effects were observed in the waiting control group after CT at t3. Moreover, at t3, most of the behavioral and electrophysiological training-induced changes were found stable. Hence, CT appears to be an important intervention for compensating cognitive deficits in executive functions in middle-aged employees with cognitively unchallenging work. PMID:28275347

  20. Work-to-School Transitions in the Age of the Displaced Worker: A Psychology of Working Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hees, Charles K.; Rottinghaus, Patrick J.; Briddick, William C.; Conrath, Julia A.

    2012-01-01

    Frank Parsons (1909) founded the vocational guidance movement more than 100 years ago within the context of a shift from an agricultural to an industrial workplace. Today, globalization, workforce diversity, and the financial instability related to the Great Recession present numerous challenges to workers across the economic spectrum. In addition…

  1. Civil Rights Activists in the Information Age: The Development of Math Literacy Workers. CIRCLE Working Paper 50

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Roderick J.; Guessous, Omar

    2006-01-01

    Roderick Watts and Omar Guessous of Georgia State University conducted exploratory research to investigate the link between math and civic engagement. Their research is based on an evaluation of the Young People's Project (YPP), a national program that recruits, trains, and deploys high school and college Math Literacy Workers for mentoring middle…

  2. Past and future ice age initiation: the role of an intrinsic deep-ocean millennial oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. G.

    2014-05-01

    This paper offers three interdependent contributions to studies of climate variation: (1) the recognition and analysis of an intrinsic millennial oceanic oscillation that affects both Northern and Southern high latitude climates, (2) The recognition of an oceanographic switch to ice-free seas west of Greenland that explains the initiation of the Last Ice Age, and (3) an analysis of the effect of increasing salinity in the seas east of Greenland that suggests the possibility of the initiation of an ice age threshold climate in the near future. In the first contribution the millennial oscillation in the flow of the North Atlantic Drift reported by Bond et al. (1997) is proposed to be part of a 1500 yr intrinsic deep ocean oscillation. This oscillation involves the exchange of North Atlantic intermediate-level deep water (NADW) formed in the seas east of Greenland with Antarctic Bottom Water formed in a shallow-water zone at the edge of the Antarctic continent. The concept of NADW formation is already well known, with details of the sinking water flowing out of the Greenland Sea observed by Smethie et al. (2000) using chlorofluorocarbon tracers. The concept of Antarctic Bottom Water formation is also already well established. However, its modulation by the changing fraction of NADW in the Southern Ocean, which I infer from the analysis of Weyl (1968), has not been previously discussed. The modulated lower-salinity Antarctic Bottom Water that reaches the northern North Atlantic then provides negative feedback for the cyclic variation of NADW formation as proposed here. This causes the 1500 yr bipolar oscillation. The feedback suggests the possible sinusoidal character of the proposed oscillation model. The model is consistent with the cooling of the Little Ice Age (Lamb, 1972, 1995), and it also correctly predicts NASA's observation of today's record maximum area of winter sea ice on the Southern Ocean and the present observed record low rate of Antarctic Bottom Water

  3. Support workers as agents for health behavior change: An Australian study of the perceptions of clients with complex needs, support workers, and care coordinators.

    PubMed

    Lawn, Sharon; Westwood, Tania; Jordans, Sarah; O'Connor, Julianne

    2016-04-06

    An expanding aging population has placed increased demands on health care resources in many countries. Enhancing community aged care support workers' role to support greater client self-management and reablement is therefore timely. This article presents perceptions of the impact of an Australian practice change initiative designed to enhance knowledge, skills, and confidence of support workers to support behavior change in clients with complex health care needs. A comprehensive training program was delivered in 2013. Methods included thematic analysis of interviews with clients, focus groups with support workers and coordinators, and collection of case studies of client/support worker behavior change interactions. Client, support worker, and coordinator responses were highly positive, reporting improvement in the quality of interactions with clients, client health outcomes, care coordination, communication, and teamwork. Mental health literacy remained the biggest knowledge gap. This research showed that support workers are ideally placed to be more actively involved in motivating clients to achieve behavior change goals.

  4. The Adolescent Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Kathryn M., Ed.; And Others

    The Adolescent Worker Study was designed to provide an in-depth analysis of the job experiences and related life histories of out-of-school working youth. To do this, a team of investigators first identified work sites across a range of industrial sectors that were currently engaged in hiring young workers between the ages of 17 and 21. Then, the…

  5. Initiation age and incision rates of inner gorges: Do they record multiple glacial-interglacial cycles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delunel, Romain; Casagrande, Jan; Schlunegger, Fritz; Akçar, Naki; Kubik, Peter W.

    2015-04-01

    Inner gorges represent some of the most conspicuous landforms in the European Alps. They form narrow and deep active-channel incisions that link hanging tributaries with trunk valleys in glacially-conditioned environments. Despite abundant research carried out on these objects, both their origin and evolution have remained unclear. In particular, the age of initiation, the rate of incision, and the respective contribution of fluvial and subglacial processes in the evolution of inner gorges have still been a matter of scientific debate. Indeed, answering these questions has been complicated by the lack of appropriate quantitative methods and/or suitable sampling strategies for studying inner gorges. Here, we report 10Be concentrations measured in alluvial sediments that have been collected along the main stream of a ~20-km2-catchment in the Swiss foreland (Central European Alps). This catchment hosts a ca. 100-m-deep and 2-km-long inner gorge that has been cut mainly in glacial till. Catchment wide denudation rates inferred from 10Be analyses (n = 15) vary from ~120 to 650 mm/ka and show a general downstream increasing trend. Additional field observations and GIS analyses reveal that the denudation rates within the catchment increase from the headwaters, characterized by relict glacial/periglacial landscapes, to the downstream end of the basin where the inner gorge has been formed. Using a 10Be-based sediment budget approach and the delineation of topographic domains from a 2-m-resolution LIDAR, we provide an estimate of erosion rates within the gorge that are higher than 2.5 m/ka and can reach up to ~ 7 m/ka. Combining these estimated erosion rates with the reconstruction of eroded volumes within the gorge, we obtain a rough initiation age in the early Holocene, in general agreement with previous studies reporting a postglacial origin for the inner gorges. Our results therefore appear contradictory with recent findings arguing for a gradual formation of inner

  6. Age-dependent effects of initial exposure to nicotine on serotonin neurons.

    PubMed

    Bang, S J; Commons, K G

    2011-04-14

    Adolescence is a critical vulnerable period during which exposure to nicotine greatly enhances the possibility to develop drug addiction. Growing evidence suggests that serotonergic (5-HT) neurotransmission may contribute to the initiation and maintenance of addictive behavior. As the dorsal raphe (DR) and median raphe (MnR) nuclei are the primary 5-HT source to the forebrain, the current study tested the hypothesis that there are age-dependent effects of acute nicotine administration on activation of 5-HT neurons within these regions. Both adolescent (Postnatal day 30) and adult (Postnatal day 70) male Sprague-Dawley rats received subcutaneous injection of either saline or nicotine (0.2, 0.4, or 0.8 mg/kg). Subsequently, the number of 5-HT cells that were double-labeled for Fos and tryptophan hydroxylase was counted in seven subregions within the DR and the entire MnR. The results show that acute nicotine injection induces Fos expression in 5-HT neurons in a region-specific manner. In addition, adolescents show broader regional activations at either a lower (0.2 mg/kg) and a higher (0.8 mg/kg) dose of nicotine, displaying a unique U-shape response curve across doses. In contrast, 5-HT cells with activated Fos expression were restricted to fewer regions in adults, and the patterns of expression were more consistent across doses. The results reveal dose-dependent effects of nicotine during adolescence with apparent sensitization at different ends of the dosage spectrum examined compared to adults. These data indicate that initial exposure to nicotine may have unique effects in adolescence on the ascending 5-HT system, with the potential for consequences on the affective-motivational qualities of the drug and the subsequent propensity for repeated use.

  7. Role of initial state and final quench temperature on aging properties in phase-ordering kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corberi, Federico; Villavicencio-Sanchez, Rodrigo

    2016-05-01

    We study numerically the two-dimensional Ising model with nonconserved dynamics quenched from an initial equilibrium state at the temperature Ti≥Tc to a final temperature Tf below the critical one. By considering processes initiating both from a disordered state at infinite temperature Ti=∞ and from the critical configurations at Ti=Tc and spanning the range of final temperatures Tf∈[0 ,Tc[ we elucidate the role played by Ti and Tf on the aging properties and, in particular, on the behavior of the autocorrelation C and of the integrated response function χ . Our results show that for any choice of Tf, while the autocorrelation function exponent λC takes a markedly different value for Ti=∞ [λC(Ti=∞ ) ≃5 /4 ] or Ti=Tc [λC(Ti=Tc) ≃1 /8 ] the response function exponents are unchanged. Supported by the outcome of the analytical solution of the solvable spherical model we interpret this fact as due to the different contributions provided to autocorrelation and response by the large-scale properties of the system. As changing Tf is considered, although this is expected to play no role in the large-scale and long-time properties of the system, we show important effects on the quantitative behavior of χ . In particular, data for quenches to Tf=0 are consistent with a value of the response function exponent λχ=1/2 λC(Ti=∞ ) =5 /8 different from the one [λχ∈(0.5 -0.56 ) ] found in a wealth of previous numerical determinations in quenches to finite final temperatures. This is interpreted as due to important preasymptotic corrections associated to Tf>0 .

  8. Association between age at antiretroviral therapy initiation and 24-month immune response in HIV-infected children in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Desmonde, Sophie; Dicko, Fatoumata; Koueta, Fla; Eboua, Tanoh; Balestre, Eric; Amani-Bosse, Clarisse; Aka, Edmond A.; Lawson-Evi, Koko; Amorissani-Folquet, Madeleine; Kouakou, Kouadio; Koumakpai, Siriatou; Renner, Lorna; Sy, Haby Signaté; Valériane, Leroy

    2014-01-01

    Objective We describe the association between age at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and 24-month CD4+ cell response in West African HIV-infected children. Methods All HIV-infected children from the IeDEA paediatric West African cohort, initiating ART, with at least two CD4+ cell count measurements, including one at ART initiation (baseline) were included. CD4+ cell gain on ART was estimated using a multivariable linear mixed model adjusted for baseline variables: age, CD4+ cell count, sex, first-line ART regimen. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and a Cox proportional hazards regression model compared immune recovery for age within 24 months post-ART. Results Of the 4808 children initiated on ART, 3014 were enrol led at a median age of 5.6 years; 61.2% were immunodeficient. After 12 months, children at least 4 years at baseline had significantly lower CD4+ cell gains compared with children less than 2 years, the reference group (P < 0.001). However, by 24 months, we observed higher CD4+cell gain in children who initiated ART between 3 and 4 years compared with those less than 2 years (P < 0.001). The 24-month CD4+ cell gain was also strongest in immunodeficient children at baseline. Among these children, 75% reached immune recovery: 12-month rates were significantly highest in all those aged 2–5 years at ART initiation compared with those less than 2 years. Beyond 12 months on ART, immune recovery was significantly lower in children initiated more than 5 years (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.69, 95% confidence interval: 0.56–0.86). Conclusion These results suggest that both the initiation of ART at the earliest age less than 5 years and before any severe immunodeficiency is needed for improving 24-month immune recovery on ART. PMID:24804858

  9. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  10. Mortality among rubber workers: VII. Aerospace workers.

    PubMed

    Delzell, E; Monson, R R

    1984-01-01

    This study evaluated cause-specific mortality among 3,161 men who were employed in the aerospace division of a rubber manufacturing company. Compared to other production workers at the plant, aerospace workers in deicer and fuel cell manufacturing jobs experienced a 60% excess of deaths from lung cancer. Deicer and fuel cell workers who were under 65 years of age had lung cancer rates that were approximately twice those of other rubber workers of comparable age. Aerospace division employees also had elevated rates of bladder cancer, leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. However, detailed analyses suggested that, with the exception of lung cancer, these cancer excesses were not likely to be attributable to employment in the aerospace division.

  11. New Age of Fishes initiated by the Cretaceous−Paleogene mass extinction

    PubMed Central

    Sibert, Elizabeth C.; Norris, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    Ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) comprise nearly half of all modern vertebrate diversity, and are an ecologically and numerically dominant megafauna in most aquatic environments. Crown teleost fishes diversified relatively recently, during the Late Cretaceous and early Paleogene, although the exact timing and cause of their radiation and rise to ecological dominance is poorly constrained. Here we use microfossil teeth and shark dermal scales (ichthyoliths) preserved in deep-sea sediments to study the changes in the pelagic fish community in the latest Cretaceous and early Paleogene. We find that the Cretaceous−Paleogene (K/Pg) extinction event marked a profound change in the structure of ichthyolith communities around the globe: Whereas shark denticles outnumber ray-finned fish teeth in Cretaceous deep-sea sediments around the world, there is a dramatic increase in the proportion of ray-finned fish teeth to shark denticles in the Paleocene. There is also an increase in size and numerical abundance of ray-finned fish teeth at the boundary. These changes are sustained through at least the first 24 million years of the Cenozoic. This new fish community structure began at the K/Pg mass extinction, suggesting the extinction event played an important role in initiating the modern “age of fishes.” PMID:26124114

  12. New Age of Fishes initiated by the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibert, Elizabeth C.; Norris, Richard D.

    2015-07-01

    Ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) comprise nearly half of all modern vertebrate diversity, and are an ecologically and numerically dominant megafauna in most aquatic environments. Crown teleost fishes diversified relatively recently, during the Late Cretaceous and early Paleogene, although the exact timing and cause of their radiation and rise to ecological dominance is poorly constrained. Here we use microfossil teeth and shark dermal scales (ichthyoliths) preserved in deep-sea sediments to study the changes in the pelagic fish community in the latest Cretaceous and early Paleogene. We find that the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg) extinction event marked a profound change in the structure of ichthyolith communities around the globe: Whereas shark denticles outnumber ray-finned fish teeth in Cretaceous deep-sea sediments around the world, there is a dramatic increase in the proportion of ray-finned fish teeth to shark denticles in the Paleocene. There is also an increase in size and numerical abundance of ray-finned fish teeth at the boundary. These changes are sustained through at least the first 24 million years of the Cenozoic. This new fish community structure began at the K/Pg mass extinction, suggesting the extinction event played an important role in initiating the modern "age of fishes."

  13. New Age of Fishes initiated by the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction.

    PubMed

    Sibert, Elizabeth C; Norris, Richard D

    2015-07-14

    Ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) comprise nearly half of all modern vertebrate diversity, and are an ecologically and numerically dominant megafauna in most aquatic environments. Crown teleost fishes diversified relatively recently, during the Late Cretaceous and early Paleogene, although the exact timing and cause of their radiation and rise to ecological dominance is poorly constrained. Here we use microfossil teeth and shark dermal scales (ichthyoliths) preserved in deep-sea sediments to study the changes in the pelagic fish community in the latest Cretaceous and early Paleogene. We find that the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg) extinction event marked a profound change in the structure of ichthyolith communities around the globe: Whereas shark denticles outnumber ray-finned fish teeth in Cretaceous deep-sea sediments around the world, there is a dramatic increase in the proportion of ray-finned fish teeth to shark denticles in the Paleocene. There is also an increase in size and numerical abundance of ray-finned fish teeth at the boundary. These changes are sustained through at least the first 24 million years of the Cenozoic. This new fish community structure began at the K/Pg mass extinction, suggesting the extinction event played an important role in initiating the modern "age of fishes."

  14. The effect of health insurance on workers' compensation filing: Evidence from the affordable care act's age-based threshold for dependent coverage.

    PubMed

    Dillender, Marcus

    2015-09-01

    This paper identifies the effect of health insurance on workers' compensation (WC) filing for young adults by implementing a regression discontinuity design using WC medical claims data from Texas. The results suggest health insurance factors into the decision to have WC pay for discretionary care. The implied instrumental variables estimates suggest a ten-percentage-point decrease in health insurance coverage increases WC bills by 15.3 percent. Despite the large impact of health insurance on the number of WC bills, the additional cost to WC at age 26 appears to be small as most of the increase comes from small bills.

  15. Lung function in insulation workers.

    PubMed Central

    Clausen, J; Netterstrøm, B; Wolff, C

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of working with modern insulation materials (rock and glass wool), the members of the Copenhagen Union of Insulation Workers were invited to participate in a study based on a health examination that included lung function tests. Three hundred and forty men (74%) agreed to participate, and 166 bus drivers served as the control group. Age distribution, height, and smoking habits were similar in the two groups. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were used as tests for lung function. There were no differences in FVC between the study and control groups, but the insulation workers had significantly lower values of FEV1 (mean 2.51) compared with the controls (mean 3.4 1), independent of smoking habits. Six years before the present study, 114 of the insulation workers participated in a similar study, and eight years after the initial study, the lung function of 59 of the bus drivers was tested. The decline in FVC in insulation workers who smoked was significantly higher (7.7 cl/year) than in bus drivers who smoked (3.1 cl/year); the decline in FEV1 was significantly higher in insulation workers independent of smoking habits (17.0 cl/year v 2.9 cl/year). Self assessed former exposure to asbestos was not associated with lung function in insulation workers. The study concludes that working with modern insulation materials is associated with increased risk of developing obstructive lung disease. PMID:8457492

  16. Initiation of calorie restriction in middle-aged male rats attenuates aging-related motoric decline and bradykinesia without increased striatal dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Salvatore, Michael F.; Terrebonne, Jennifer; Fields, Victoria; Nodurft, Danielle; Runfalo, Cori; Latimer, Brian; Ingram, Donald K.

    2015-01-01

    Aging-related bradykinesia affects ~15% of those reaching age 65 and 50% of those reaching their 80s. Given this high risk and lack of pharmacological therapeutics, non-invasive lifestyle strategies should be identified to diminish its risk and identify the neurobiological targets to reduce aging-related bradykinesia. Early-life, long-term calorie restriction (CR) attenuates aging-related bradykinesia in rodents. Here, we addressed whether CR initiation at middle age could attenuate aging-related bradykinesia and motoric decline measured as rotarod performance. A 30% CR regimen was implemented for 6 months duration in 12-month old male Brown-Norway Fischer 344 F1 hybrid rats after establishing individual baseline locomotor activities. Locomotor capacity was assessed every 6 weeks thereafter. The ad libitum (AL) group exhibited predictably decreased locomotor activity, except movement speed, out to 18 months of age. In contrast, in the CR group, movement number and horizontal activity did not decrease during the 6-month trial and aging-related decline in rotarod performance was attenuated. The response to CR was influenced by baseline locomotor activity. The lower the locomotor activity level at baseline, the greater the response to CR. Rats in the lower 50th percentile surpassed their baseline level of activity, whereas rats in the top 50th percentile decreased at 6 weeks and then returned to baseline by 12 weeks of CR. We hypothesized that nigrostriatal dopamine tissue content would be greater in the CR group and observed a modest increase only in substantia nigra with no group differences in striatum, nucleus accumbens, or ventral tegmental area. These results indicate initiation of CR at middle age may reduce aging-related bradykinesia and, furthermore, subjects with below average locomotor activity may increase baseline activity. Sustaining nigral DA neurotransmission may be one component of preserving locomotor capabilities during aging. PMID:26610387

  17. From their own perspective - constraints in the Polio Eradication Initiative: perceptions of health workers and managers in a district of Pakistan's Punjab province

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The success of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative was remarkable, but four countries - Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Nigeria - never interrupted polio transmission. Pakistan reportedly achieved all milestones except interrupting virus transmission. This paper describes the perceptions of health workers and managers regarding constraints in the Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) to ultimately provide evidence for designing future interventions. Methods A qualitative cross-sectional study using focus group discussions and in-depth interviews was conducted in the Nankana Sahib District of Pakistan's Punjab province. Study subjects included staff at all levels in the PEI at district headquarters, in all 4 tehsils (sub-districts) and at 20 randomly selected primary health centers. In total, 4 FGD and 7 interview sessions were conducted and individual session summary notes were prepared and later synthesized, consolidated and subjected to conceptual analysis. Results The main constraints identified in the study were the poor condition of the cold chain in all aspects, poor skills and a lack of authority in resource allocation and human resource management, limited advocacy and communication resources, a lack of skills and training among staff at all levels in the PEI/EPI in almost all aspects of the program, a deficiency of public health professionals, poor health services structure, administrative issues (including ineffective means of performance evaluation, bureaucratic and political influences, problems in vaccination areas and field programs, no birth records at health facilities, and poor linkage between different preventive programs), unreliable reporting and poor monitoring and supervision systems, limited use of local data for interventions, and unclear roles and responsibilities after decentralization. Conclusion The study highlights various shortcomings and bottlenecks in the PEI, and the barriers identified should be considered in

  18. Brief Report: Pregnant by Age 15 Years and Substance Use Initiation among US Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B.; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2012-01-01

    We examined substance use onset and associations with pregnancy by age 15 years. Participants were girls ages 15 years or younger (weighted n = 8319) from the 1999-2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS). Multivariable logistic regression examined pregnancy as a function of substance use onset (i.e., age 10 years or younger, 11-12,…

  19. Visual dysfunction among former microelectronics assembly workers.

    PubMed

    Mergler, D; Huel, G; Bowler, R; Frenette, B; Cone, J

    1991-01-01

    Although known neurotoxins with potential ophthalmotoxic properties are commonly used in microelectronics assembly, there has been no systematic study of visual disturbances among past or present workers in this industry. The objective of the present study was to compare visual functions, using a matched-pair design, between former workers from a microelectronics plant and a local reference population. From an initial population of 180 former workers and 157 potential referents, 54 pairs were matched for age (+/- 3 y), education (+/- 2 y), sex, ethnic origin, and number of children. Near and far visual acuity, chromatic discrimination, and near contrast sensitivity were assessed monocularly. Paired comparisons (Signed-rank Wilcoxon test) revealed that the former microelectronics workers had significantly lower contrast sensitivity, particularly in the intermediate frequencies, independently of near visual acuity loss. There were no differences for far visual acuity in both eyes. Even though near visual acuity and color vision were compromised among the former workers, the differences were only significant for one eye, as was the prevalence of acquired dyschromatopsia (chi-square for matched pairs, p less than .001). These findings suggest a pattern of contrast sensitivity deficits consistent with impairment to foveal and/or neuro-optic pathways among these former microelectronics workers. Exposure to ophthalmotoxic chemicals is proposed as the most probable risk factor.

  20. Initiation of egg production by turkey breeder hens: sexual maturation and age at lighting.

    PubMed

    Siopes, T D

    2010-07-01

    Experiments were completed addressing photo-responsiveness in juvenile Large White turkey breeder hens, the age at sexual maturity, and the earliest age at photostimulation for egg production using conventional lighting management. In the first experiment, hens were photostimulated at 8 or 16 wk of age with a daily photoperiod of 16L:8D after receiving 8L:16D from hatch. Controls received 16L:8D continuously from hatch. In experiment 2, hens were given naturally declining long day lengths from hatch to 14 wk of age, a daily photoperiod of 8L:16D for the next 10 wk, and were then photostimulated at 24 wk of age with a daily photoperiod of 16L:8D. Data were collected by pen for the onset and rate of egg production, BW, and egg weight. The hens reached sexual maturity and laid eggs as early as 21 to 22 wk of age and the weight for the first 7 eggs was 56.1 g +/- 1.5. The hens were not photoresponsive to photoinduced egg production at 16 wk of age but were fully responsive by 24 wk of age as compared with controls. Photostimulation at 24 wk of age resulted in a slight delay in onset of lay (4 to 5 d) but otherwise typical egg production. These hens produced 113.3 eggs per hen to 54 wk of age as compared with 95.2 eggs for controls photostimulated at the more conventional 30 wk of age. Egg weight was 73.0 versus 80.0 g for the first 7 eggs laid for hens photostimulated at 24 wk of age versus 30 wk of age. At 36 wk of age, egg weights were similar (84.0 vs. 83.7 g). We may conclude that Large White turkey breeder hens can become sexually mature and lay eggs as early as about 22 wk of age. Appropriate pre-lay short day exposure is required to fully photosensitize juvenile hens for photoinduced egg production and this requires a development time beyond 16 wk of age. Photostimulation of fully photosensitive hens for a typical production period can occur as early as 24 wk of age. We demonstrated that the conventional age at lighting of 29 to 30 wk of age can be significantly

  1. DNA-damage response associated with occupational exposure, age and chronic inflammation in workers in the automotive industry.

    PubMed

    Savina, Natalya V; Smal, Marharyta P; Kuzhir, Tatyana D; Ershova-Pavlova, Alla A; Goncharova, Roza I

    2012-10-09

    The evaluation of genome integrity in populations occupationally exposed to combine industrial factors is of medical importance. In the present study, the DNA-damage response was estimated by means of the alkaline comet assay in a sizeable cohort of volunteers recruited among workers in the automotive industry. For this purpose, freshly collected lymphocytes were treated with hydrogen peroxide (100μM, 1min, 4°C) in vitro, and the levels of basal and H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage, and the kinetics and efficiency of DNA repair were measured during a 180-min interval after exposure. The parameters studied in the total cohort of workers were in a range of values prescribed for healthy adult residents of Belarus. Based on the 95th percentiles, individuals possessing enhanced cellular sensitivity to DNA damage were present in different groups, but the frequency was significantly higher among elderly persons and among individuals with chronic inflammatory diseases. The results indicate that the inter-individual variations in DNA-damage response should be taken into account to estimate adequately the environmental genotoxic effects and to identify individuals with an enhanced DNA-damage response due to the influence of some external factors or intrinsic properties of the organism. Underling mechanisms need to be further explored.

  2. GenPhilly: a strategy for improving the sustainability of aging in community initiatives.

    PubMed

    Clark, Kate

    2014-01-01

    GenPhilly is an innovative, replicable model that was developed in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to inspire and engage emerging leaders from a variety of disciplines to promote and sustain an aging-in-community agenda. Administrative support is provided by the Area Agency on Aging, Philadelphia Corporation for Aging, yet it was designed by its members to be peer-led. In this way, young professionals in their 20s and 30s can capitalize on popular culture to create unique professional development opportunities and get younger generations thinking about the type of city in which they themselves want to get older. The group has benefited the field of aging by building awareness of aging services in the wider community; facilitating cross-disciplinary learning and innovation around aging issues; stressing the competitive advantage for emerging leaders from all fields to know about aging issues; strengthening the aging network workforce; breaking down stereotypes about working with older adults; and introducing expertise from outside the aging network to benefit older adults. Encouraging the development of similar groups will not only benefit the field of aging, it will assist the next generation of leaders in many fields to plan better for their communities and for themselves.

  3. The relationship of age, body mass index and waist circumference with blood pressure in Bengalee Hindu male jute mill workers of Belur, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Bose, Kaushik; Ghosh, Arnab; Roy, Sabyasachi; Gangopadhyay, Somnath

    2005-06-01

    A cross-sectional study of 150 adult Bengalee Hindu male jute mill workers of Belur, a suburb of Kolkata, West Bengal, India, was undertaken to study the relationship of age, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean arterial (MAP) blood pressure. The mean age and the BMI of the subjects were 40.7 years (S.D. = 15.2) and 23.2 kg/m2 (S.D. = 3.2), respectively. The mean SBP, DBP and MAP were 124.7 mmHg (S.D. = 7.8), 81.5 mmHg (S.D. = 5.7) and 95.9 mmHg (S.D. = 6.1), respectively. Age had similar significant (p < 0.001) correlations with BMI and WC. Age and WC were significantly correlated (p < 0.001) with all the three blood pressure variables. In general, the correlations of BMI with SBP (r = 0.24, p < 0.01), DBP (r = 0.15, n.s.) and MAP (r = 0.19, p < 0.05) were weaker. Age controlled multiple regression analyses demonstrated that BMI did not have a significant effect of any blood pressure variable. However, WC had a significant impact (p < 0.0001) on SBP (t = 7.068), DBP (t = 5.190) and MAP (t = 6.387), even after adjusting for the effect of age. Moreover, even after age adjustment, percent variations in SBP (20.7%), DBP (12.5%) and MAP (17.2%) explained by WC were high. This significant impact (p < 0.0001) of WC on SBP (t = 9.426), DBP (t = 8.349) and MAP (t = 9.642) remained even after controlling for the combined effects of age and BMI.

  4. Using Ecological Frameworks to Advance a Field of Research, Practice, and Policy on Aging-in-Place Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Emily A.

    2012-01-01

    Initiatives to promote aging in place have emerged rapidly in the United States across various health care settings (e.g., acute care hospitals, skilled nursing facilities) and broader community settings (e.g., public social service agencies). Moreover, recent federal policies include a growing number of provisions for local efforts to promote…

  5. Young Women's Adolescent Experiences of Oral Sex: Relation of Age of Initiation to Sexual Motivation, Sexual Coercion, and Psychological Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fava, Nicole M.; Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.

    2012-01-01

    Research examining oral sex during adolescence tends to investigate only potential negative consequences without considering its place in sexual development or distinctions between cunnilingus and fellatio. Using retrospective reports from 418 undergraduate women, we examined the relations among young women's ages of initiation of both cunnilingus…

  6. Sex trafficking and initiation-related violence, alcohol use, and HIV risk among HIV-infected female sex workers in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Jay G; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M; Decker, Michele R; Coleman, Sharon; Bridden, Carly; Pardeshi, Manoj; Saggurti, Niranjan; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2011-12-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) are the group at greatest risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in India. Women and girls trafficked (ie, forced or coerced) into sex work are thought to be at even greater risk because of high exposure to violence and unprotected sex, particularly during the early months of sex work, that is, at initiation. Surveys were completed with HIV-infected FSWs (n = 211) recruited from an HIV-related service organization in Mumbai, India. Approximately 2 in 5 participants (41.7%) reported being forced or coerced into sex work. During the first month in sex work, such FSWs had higher odds of sexual violence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-6.1), ≥ 7 clients per day (AOR, 3.3; 1.8-6.1), no use of condoms (AOR, 3.8, 2.1-7.1), and frequent alcohol use (AOR, 1.9; 1.0-3.4) than HIV-infected FSWs not entering involuntarily. Those trafficked into sex work were also at higher odds for alcohol use at first sex work episode (AOR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-4.0). These results suggest that having been trafficked into sex work is prevalent among this population and that such FSWs may face high levels of sexual violence, alcohol use, and exposure to HIV infection in the first month of sex work. Findings call into question harm reduction approaches to HIV prevention that rely primarily on FSW autonomy.

  7. Older Workers' Perspectives on Training and Retention of Older Workers: South Australian Construction Industry Study. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, David; Marshallsay, Zariah

    2007-01-01

    Older workers' perspectives are examined in a national survey of the finance sector and case studies of aged care and construction workers. The majority of older workers intend to work beyond retirement age, to achieve a better lifestyle. With training, older workers could mentor younger workers. This support document includes a national survey of…

  8. An Orientation for Mexican-American Community Workers in the Field of Aging. [A Report on the] Institute on Aging (Topeka, Kansas, May 21, 22, 23, 1973).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Ascencion; Mendoza, John

    Forty trainees, consultants, and resource persons attended the 3-day Institute held in Topeka, Kansas. Among the Institute's objectives were to: provide a basic orientation to the roles and functions of the aging services, programs, and the field of gerontology; examine aging services and benefits, both legislative and programmatic relating to…

  9. Initial evidence linking synaptic superoxide production with poor short-term memory in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sameh S; Young, Jared W; Wallace, Chelsea K; Gresack, Jodi; Jeste, Dilip V; Geyer, Mark A; Dugan, Laura L; Risbrough, Victoria B

    2011-01-12

    Unregulated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a marker of cellular and organismal aging linked to cognitive decline in humans and rodents. The sources of elevated ROS contributing to cognitive decline are unknown. Because NADPH oxidase (Nox) inhibition may prevent memory decline with age, we hypothesized that Nox and not mitochondrial sources of synaptic ROS production are linked to individual variance in cognitive performance in aged mice. Young (8 months) and aged (26 months) mice were tested in the novel object recognition task (NORT). Mitochondrial and Nox ROS production was assayed in isolated synaptosomes using spin trapping electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Aged mice exhibited variance in NORT performance, with some performing similar to young mice while others exhibited poorer short-term memory. EPR studies indicated that Nox rather than mitochondria was the major ROS source at the synapse, and Nox-induced but not mitochondrial-induced ROS levels correlated with NORT performance in aged mice. Our findings support the hypothesis that variance in Nox-specific synaptic ROS production may predict short-term memory deficits with age.

  10. Migrant Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social and Labour Bulletin, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a new German law to encourage foreign workers to return to their home countries, employment exchanges for young foreigners in Germany, and a training program for migrant workers in India. (SK)

  11. Short Telomeres in Key Tissues Initiate Local and Systemic Aging in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Madalena C.; Ferreira, Tânia; Carvalho, Tânia; Ferreira, Miguel Godinho

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres shorten with each cell division and telomere dysfunction is a recognized hallmark of aging. Tissue proliferation is expected to dictate the rate at which telomeres shorten. We set out to test whether proliferative tissues age faster than non-proliferative due to telomere shortening during zebrafish aging. We performed a prospective study linking telomere length to tissue pathology and disease. Contrary to expectations, we show that telomeres shorten to critical lengths only in specific tissues and independently of their proliferation rate. Short telomeres accumulate in the gut but not in other highly proliferative tissues such as the blood and gonads. Notably, the muscle, a low proliferative tissue, accumulates short telomeres and DNA damage at the same rate as the gut. Together, our work shows that telomere shortening and DNA damage in key tissues triggers not only local dysfunction but also anticipates the onset of age-associated diseases in other tissues, including cancer. PMID:26789415

  12. The impact of age on oncogenic potential: tumor-initiating cells and the brain microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Elizabeth A; Horner, Philip J; Rostomily, Robert C

    2013-10-01

    Paradoxically, aging leads to both decreased regenerative capacity in the brain and an increased risk of tumorigenesis, particularly the most common adult-onset brain tumor, glioma. A shared factor contributing to both phenomena is thought to be age-related alterations in neural progenitor cells (NPCs), which function normally to produce new neurons and glia, but are also considered likely cells of origin for malignant glioma. Upon oncogenic transformation, cells acquire characteristics known as the hallmarks of cancer, including unlimited replication, altered responses to growth and anti-growth factors, increased capacity for angiogenesis, potential for invasion, genetic instability, apoptotic evasion, escape from immune surveillance, and an adaptive metabolic phenotype. The precise molecular pathogenesis and temporal acquisition of these malignant characteristics is largely a mystery. Recent studies characterizing NPCs during normal aging, however, have begun to elucidate mechanisms underlying the age-associated increase in their malignant potential. Aging cells are dependent upon multiple compensatory pathways to maintain cell cycle control, normal niche interactions, genetic stability, programmed cell death, and oxidative metabolism. A few multi-functional proteins act as 'critical nodes' in the coordination of these various cellular activities, although both intracellular signaling and elements within the brain environment are critical to maintaining a balance between senescence and tumorigenesis. Here, we provide an overview of recent progress in our understanding of how mechanisms underlying cellular aging inform on glioma pathogenesis and malignancy.

  13. Sex-specific interaction effects of age, occupational status, and workplace stress on psychiatric symptoms and allostatic load among healthy Montreal workers.

    PubMed

    Juster, Robert-Paul; Moskowitz, D S; Lavoie, Joel; D'Antono, Bianca

    2013-11-01

    Socio-demographics and workplace stress may affect men and women differently. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess sex-specific interactions among age, occupational status, and workplace Demand-Control-Support (D-C-S) factors in relation to psychiatric symptoms and allostatic load levels representing multi-systemic "wear and tear". It was hypothesized that beyond main effects, D-C-S factors would be moderated by occupational status and age in sex-specific directions predictive of subjective psychiatric symptoms and objective physiological dysregulations. Participants included healthy male (n = 81) and female (n = 118) Montreal workers aged 20 to 64 years (Men: M = 39.4 years, SD = 11.3; Women: M = 42.8 years, SD = 11.38). The Job Content Questionnaire was administered to assess workplace D-C-S factors that included psychological demands, decisional latitude, and social support. Occupational status was coded using the Nam--Powers--Boyd system derived from the Canadian census. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed using the Beck Anxiety Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory II. Sex-specific allostatic load indices were calculated based on fifteen biomarkers. Regression analyses revealed that higher social support was associated with less depressive symptoms in middle aged (p = 0.033) and older men (p = 0.027). Higher occupational status was associated with higher allostatic load levels for men (p = 0.035), while the reverse occurred for women (p = 0.048). Women with lower occupational status but with higher decision latitude had lower allostatic load levels, as did middle-aged (p = 0.031) and older women (p = 0.003) with higher psychological demands. In summary, age and occupational status moderated workplace stress in sex-specific ways that have occupational health implications.

  14. Incidence of renal stones among cadmium exposed battery workers.

    PubMed Central

    Järup, L; Elinder, C G

    1993-01-01

    The health effects of occupational exposure to cadmium were studied in a group of 902 workers employed for at least one year in a Swedish battery factory between 1931 and 1982. Data on air cadmium concentrations for different periods were combined with company employment records to obtain individual cumulative exposure estimates. A questionnaire including questions on the occurrence of kidney stones was sent to all 601 living workers and to the next of kin of 267 of the deceased workers. The response rate was 88%. 73 workers reported renal calculi that appeared after initial employment. A dose-response relation was found between cumulative exposure to cadmium and age standardised cumulative incidence. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were then computed for three exposure categories (< 250, 250- < 5000, and 5000 micrograms/m3 x years) standardised for calendar time, age, and smoking with the low exposure group as reference level. The IRRs were 1.0, 1.6 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.7-3.4], and 3.0 (95% CI 1.3-6.8) respectively. beta 2 Microglobulin measurements were available for 33 workers who formed stones; 13 of these workers had tubular proteinuria (beta 2 microglobulin > or = 34 micrograms/mmole creatinine)--that is, a prevalence of 39%. There was also an indication of a steeper dose-response relation among workers with tubular proteinuria. PMID:8343420

  15. Influence of age and geographical origin in the prevalence of high risk human papillomavirus in migrant female sex workers in Spain

    PubMed Central

    del Amo, J; Gonzalez, C; Losana, J; Clavo, P; Munoz, L; Ballesteros, J; Garcia-Saiz, A; Belza, M; Ortiz, M; Menendez, B; del Romero, J; Bolumar, F

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and risk factors of high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in migrant female sex workers (FSW) according to age and geographical origin. Methods: Cross sectional study of migrant FSW attending a sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic in Madrid during 2002. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, reproductive and sexual health, smoking, time in commercial sex work, history of STIs, HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, syphilis, and genitourinary infections was collected. High risk HPV Infection was determined through the Digene HPV Test, Hybrid Capture II. Data were analysed through multiple logistic regression. Results: 734 women were studied. Overall HPV prevalence was 39%; 61% in eastern Europeans, 42% in Ecuadorians, 39% in Colombians, 29% in sub-Saharan Africans, and 24% in Caribbeans (p = 0.057). HPV prevalence showed a decreasing trend by age; 49% under 20 years, 35% in 21–25 years,14% over 36 years% (p<0.005). In multivariate analyses, area of origin (p = 0.07), hormonal contraception in women not using condoms (OR 19.45 95% CI: 2.45 to 154.27), smoking, age, and an interaction between these last two variables (p = 0.039) had statistically significant associations with HPV prevalence. STI prevalence was 11% and was not related to age or geographical origin. Conclusions: High risk HPV prevalence in migrant FSW is elevated and related to age, area of origin, and use of oral contraceptives in women not using condoms. These data support the role of acquired immunity in the epidemiology of HPV infection and identifies migrant FSW as a priority group for sexual health promotion. PMID:15681729

  16. Age of Parental Concern, Diagnosis, and Service Initiation among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zablotsky, Benjamin; Colpe, Lisa J.; Pringle, Beverly A.; Kogan, Michael D.; Rice, Catherine; Blumberg, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) require substantial support to address the core symptoms of ASD and co-occurring behavioral/developmental conditions. This study explores the early diagnostic experiences of school-aged children with ASD using survey data from a large probability-based national sample. Multivariate linear regressions…

  17. TOWARD PRECISE AGES FOR SINGLE STARS IN THE FIELD. GYROCHRONOLOGY CONSTRAINTS AT SEVERAL Gyr USING WIDE BINARIES. I. AGES FOR INITIAL SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Chaname, Julio; Ramirez, Ivan

    2012-02-10

    We present a program designed to obtain age-rotation measurements of solar-type dwarfs to be used in the calibration of gyrochronology relations at ages of several Gyr. This is a region of parameter space crucial for the large-scale study of the Milky Way, and where the only constraint available today is that provided by the Sun. Our program takes advantage of a set of wide binaries selected so that one component is an evolved star and the other is a main-sequence star of FGK type. In this way, we obtain the age of the system from the evolved star, while the rotational properties of the main-sequence component provide the information relevant for gyrochronology regarding the spin-down of solar-type stars. By mining currently available catalogs of wide binaries, we assemble a sample of 37 pairs well positioned for our purposes: 19 with turnoff or subgiant primaries and 18 with white dwarf components. Using high-resolution optical spectroscopy, we measure precise stellar parameters for a subset of 15 of the pairs with turnoff/subgiant components and use these to derive isochronal ages for the corresponding systems. Ages for 16 of the 18 pairs with white dwarf components are taken from the literature. The ages of this initial sample of 31 wide binaries range from 1 to 9 Gyr, with precisions better than {approx}20% for almost half of these systems. When combined with measurements of the rotation period of their main-sequence components, these wide binary systems would potentially provide a similar number of points useful for the calibration of gyrochronology relations at very old ages.

  18. Supporting residents’ expression of sexuality: the initial construction of a sexuality assessment tool for residential aged care facilities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexuality is a key component of quality of life and well-being and a need to express one’s sexuality continues into old age. Staff and families in residential aged care facilities often find expressions of sexuality by residents, particularly those living with dementia, challenging and facilities often struggle to address individuals’ needs in this area. This paper describes the development of an assessment tool which enables residential aged care facilities to identify how supportive their organisation is of all residents’ expression of their sexuality, and thereby improve where required. Methods Multi-phase design using qualitative methods and a Delphi technique. Tool items were derived from the literature and verified by qualitative interviews with aged care facility staff, residents and families. The final item pool was confirmed via a reactive Delphi process. Results A final item pool of sixty-nine items grouped into seven key areas allows facilities to score their compliance with the areas identified as being supportive of older people’s expression of their sexuality in a residential aged care environment. Conclusions The sexuality assessment tool (SexAT) guides practice to support the normalization of sexuality in aged care homes and assists facilities to identify where enhancements to the environment, policies, procedures and practices, information and education/training are required. The tool also enables facilities to monitor initiatives in these areas over time. PMID:24980463

  19. Aging has small effects on initial ischemic acute kidney injury development despite changing intrarenal immunologic micromilieu in mice.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hye Ryoun; Park, Ji Hyeon; Kwon, Ghee Young; Park, Jae Berm; Lee, Jung Eun; Kim, Dae Joong; Kim, Yoon-Goo; Kim, Sung Joo; Oh, Ha Young; Huh, Wooseong

    2016-02-15

    Inflammatory process mediated by innate and adaptive immune systems is a major pathogenic mechanism of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). There are concerns that organ recipients may be at increased risk of developing IRI after receiving kidneys from elder donors. To reveal the effects of aging on the development of renal IRI, we compared the immunologic micromilieu of normal and postischemic kidneys from mice of three different ages (9 wk, 6 mo, and 12 mo). There was a higher number of total T cells, especially effector memory CD4/CD8 T cells, and regulatory T cells in the normal kidneys of old mice. On day 2 after IRI, the proportion of necrotic tubules and renal functional changes were comparable between groups although old mice had a higher proportion of damaged tubule compared with young mice. More T cells, but less B cells, trafficked into the postischemic kidneys of old mice. The infiltration of NK T cells was similar across the groups. Macrophages and neutrophils were comparable between groups in both normal kidneys and postischemic kidneys. The intrarenal expressions of TNF-α and VEGF were decreased in normal and postischemic kidneys of aged mice. These mixed effects of aging on lymphocytes and cytokines/chemokines were not different between the two groups of old mice. Our study demonstrates that aging alters the intrarenal micromilieu but has small effects on the development of initial renal injury after IRI. Further study investigating aging-dependent differences in the repair process of renal IRI may be required.

  20. Bevacizumab injection in patients with age-related macular degeneration associated with poor initial visual acuity.

    PubMed

    El Matri, Leila; Bouraoui, Rym; Chebil, Ahmed; Kort, Fedra; Bouladi, Mejda; Limaiem, Rym; Landoulsi, Hana

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate functional and anatomic effects of intravitreal bevacizumab in patients with neovascular AMD and initial low visual acuity. Methods. Retrospective case series of 38 eyes with neovascular AMD and initial visual acuity of 20/200 or less, treated with intravitreal bevacizumab injection. Results. Mean followup was 14.1 months ±  7.1 (range: 5 to 24 months). Mean logMAR vision at baseline was 1.38 logMAR ±  0.33, at 6 months was 1.14 logMAR ±  0.37 (P = 0.001) and at 12 months was 1.22 logMar ±  0.33 (P = 0.004). Mean baseline central retinal thickness was 431 μm ±  159.7 at 6 months was 293.43 μm  ±  122.79 (P = 10(-4)) and at 12 months was 293.1 μm  ±  130 (P = 0.004). Visual acuity improved in both patients with or without prior PDT treatment. Conclusions. Intravitreal bevacizumab injection may increase the chance of visual acuity gain in neovascular AMD even in cases with initial low visual acuity.

  1. Strength of initially virgin martensites at - 196 °C after aging and tempering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldis, George T.; Cohen, Morris

    1983-06-01

    The compressive strength at -196°C of martensites in Fe-0.26 pct C-24 pct Ni, Fe-0.4 pct C-21 pct Ni, and Fe-0.4 pct C-18 pct Ni-3 pct Mo alloys, all with subzero M temperatures, has been determined in the virgin condition and after one hour at temperatures from -80 to +400 °C. The effects of ausforming (20 pct reduction in area of the austenite by swaging at room temperature prior to the martensitic transformation) were also investigated. For the unausformed martensites, aging at temperatures up to 0 °C results in relatively small increases in strength. Above 0 °C, the age hardening increment increases rapidly, reaching a maximum at 100 °C. Above 100 °C, the strength decreases continuously with increasing tempering temperature except for the molybdenum-containing alloy, which exhibits secondary hardening on tempering at 400 °C. For the ausformed martensites, the response to aging at subzero temperatures is greater than for unausformed material. Strength again passes through a maximum on aging at 100 °C. However, on tempering just above 100 °C, the ausformed materials show a slower rate of softening than the unausformed martensites. The strengthening produced by the ausforming treatment is largest for the Fe-0.4 pct C-18 pct Ni-3 pct Mo alloy, but there is no evidence of carbide precipitation in the deformed austenite to a°Count for this effect of molybdenum.

  2. Older Workers in the European Community, Japan, and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Elizabeth; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "Older Workers in the European Community: Pervasive Discrimination, Little Awareness" (Drury); "Aging Workers in Japan: From Reverence to Redundance" (Takada); and "Canada's Labor Market: Older Workers Need Not Apply" (David). (JOW)

  3. Anemia and its determinants among women of reproductive age of a slum in Kolkata: A focus group discussion among health workers in a slum of Kolkata

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Aparajita; Sarkar, Kaushik; Chowdhury, Ranadip; Ray, Arindam; Shahbabu, Bhaskar

    2016-01-01

    Context: Anemia is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among women of reproductive age. Progress toward reducing the burden of anemia has been little despite efforts through decades. Aims: We conducted this study to unearth the microlevel determinants of anemia among women of reproductive age. Settings and Design: This qualitative study was conducted in Urban Health Centre (UHC), Chetla. Subjects and Methods: A focus group discussion was held among all the eight health staffs, who were involved in reproductive and child health-related service delivery under UHC, Chetla. Analysis Used: A thematic analysis of the transcript was performed. Results: We found that socioeconomic factors like poverty and social neglect, diet and nutrition related factors, lack of personal hygiene, and worm infestation contributed to the burden of anemia, and this was reinforced by factors related to service delivery, such as lack of supply of drugs and supplements, and inadequate training of health workers as well as poor media accountability. Conclusions: Because of easy reversibility and implementation, health service delivery-related issues should be addressed closely through monitoring and evaluation and appropriate and timely action should be taken to improve the effectiveness of the services. PMID:27843827

  4. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by immunological and genetic methods in female sex workers and the local female population of reproductive age in Mymensingh, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Syada Monira; Hossain, Md Akram; Paul, Shyamal Kumar; Mahmud, Md Chand; Ahmed, Salma; Mahmud, Nasir Uddin; Khan, Emily Rahman; Sakib, Md Annaz Mus; Ghosh, Souvik; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the accurate prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Mymensingh, a local area in central-northern Bangladesh, 40 female sex workers (FSW) and 110 sexually active women (SAW, non-FSW) of reproductive age from a local community with clinical symptoms were examined by an immunochromatography test (ICT) and plasmid-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) during a 1-year period from July 2011 to June 2012 using the endocervical swab as a specimen. By ICT and/or PCR, the C. trachomatis detection rate was 58% and 27% in FSW and SAW, respectively, showing a significant difference (P < 0.01). Two C. trachomatis strains from FSW were determined to be serovar D by ompA-based PCR and sequencing analysis. The highest prevalence was found among women aged 15 to 35 years. A lower socioeconomic status was considered to be an important risk factor for C. trachomatis infection in FSW but not in SAW. This is the first study to determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis infections in FSW and SAW in the same local area in Bangladesh.

  5. Does Witnessing Animal Cruelty and Being Abused During Childhood Predict the Initial Age and Recurrence of Committing Childhood Animal Cruelty?

    PubMed

    Browne, John A; Hensley, Christopher; McGuffee, Karen M

    2016-05-10

    The goal of the current study was to examine the association between demographic characteristics and childhood experiences on the respondents' age of committing childhood animal cruelty and its recurrency. Using data collected from 257 male inmates at a Southern medium-security state prison, the current study seeks to replicate a study by Hensley, Tallichet, and Dutkiewicz. Results revealed that those respondents who were physically abused as children reported engaging in recurrent animal cruelty. The younger the age of respondent for first witnessing animal cruelty, the sooner his initiation to hurting and killing animals occurred. In addition, those who reported witnessing a parent commit acts of animal abuse reported that they committed animal abuse themselves at an older age, while those who witnessed a brother/sister commit animal abuse reported engaging in it at an earlier age. Therefore, physical abuse and witnessing primary socializers engage in animal abuse seem to be important in understanding the respondents' age of onset and repeated childhood animal cruelty.

  6. Mortality among rubber workers: V. processing workers.

    PubMed

    Delzell, E; Monson, R R

    1982-07-01

    Cause-specific mortality was evaluated among 2,666 men employed in the processing division of a rubber manufacturing plant. The division was divided into two sections: front processing (compounding, mixing and milling operations) and back processing (extrusion, calendering, cement mixing and rubberized fabrics operations). Mortality rates for all processing workers combined and for men in each section were compared with rates for U.S. White males or for workers employed in other divisions of the same plant. Compared with either referent group, men in the processing division had increased mortality from leukemia, emphysema, and cancers of the stomach, large intestine, and biliary passages and liver. An excess number of deaths from stomach and larger intestine cancer was found predominantly among men in the front processing section (33 observed vs. 17.7 expected deaths, based on rates in nonprocessing workers). Increased mortality from leukemia (14 observed vs. 7.3 expected) and from emphysema (22 observed vs. 11.0 expected) was present among men employed in the back processing section. Examination of mortality from these causes according to age and the year starting work, duration of employment, and years since starting work in the relevant sections of the processing division suggested that observed excesses of stomach cancer, large intestine cancer, leukemia, and emphysema among processing workers are related to occupational exposures. These results are consistent with the findings of studies of other groups of rubber workers.

  7. An integrated approach towards identifying age-related mechanisms of slip initiated falls

    PubMed Central

    Lockhart, Thurmon E.

    2008-01-01

    The causes of slip and fall accidents, both in terms of extrinsic and intrinsic factors and their associations are not yet fully understood. Successful intervention solutions for reducing slip and fall accidents require a more complete understanding of the mechanisms involved. Before effective fall prevention strategies can be put into practice, it is central to examine the chain of events in an accident, comprising the exposure to hazards, initiation of events and the final outcome leading to injury and disability. These events can be effectively identified and analyzed by applying epidemiological, psychophysical, biomechanical and tribological research principles and methodologies. In this manuscript, various methods available to examine fall accidents and their underlying mechanisms are presented to provide a comprehensive array of information to help pinpoint the needs and requirements of new interventions aimed at reducing the risk of falls among the growing elderly population. PMID:17768070

  8. Contingent workers.

    PubMed

    Guerrina, Ryan T; Burns, Candace M; Conlon, Helen

    2011-03-01

    Contingent workers compose a large portion of the U.S. work force. Contingent workers include temporary employees, contracted employees, day laborers, and freelancers. The skill level and educational requirements for their jobs vary from basic to highly advanced. Construction, housekeeping, engineering, and nursing have such positions. U.S. contingent workers are more likely to engage in occupations associated with increased risk of injury, and a variety of factors increase their risk of work injuries, particularly those leading to death. This article focuses on select occupational health and safety issues affecting contingent workers and their implications for occupational health nurses.

  9. Influence of age, mating status, sex, quantity of food, and long-term food deprivation on red flour beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) flight initiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of age, sex, presence or absence of food, mating status, quantity of food, and food deprivation on rate of and time of flight initiation of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), were determined. Flight initiation declined with increasing age in both presence and absence of food...

  10. Geology, Geochronology, and EarthScope: The EarthScope AGeS Program and a new idea for a 4D Earth Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flowers, R. M.; Arrowsmith, R.; Metcalf, J. R.; Rittenour, T. M.; Schoene, B.; Hole, J. A.; Pavlis, T. L.; Wagner, L. S.; Whitmeyer, S. J.; Williams, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    The EarthScope AGeS (Awards for Geochronology Student Research) program is a multi-year educational initiative aimed at enhancing interdisciplinary, innovative, and high-impact science by promoting training and new interactions between students, scientists, and geochronology labs at different institutions. The program offers support of up to $10,000 for graduate students to collect and interpret geochronology data that contribute to EarthScope science targets through visits to participating geochronology labs (www.earthscope.org/geochronology). The program was launched by a 2-day short course held before the 2014 National GSA meeting in Vancouver, at which 16 geochronology experts introduced 43 participants to the basic theory and applications of geochronology methods. By the first proposal submission deadline in spring 2015, 33 labs representing a broad range of techniques had joined the program by submitting lab plans that were posted on the EarthScope website. The lab plans provide information about preparation, realistic time frames for visits, and analytical costs. In the first year of the program, students submitted 47 proposals from 32 different institutions. Proposals were ranked by an independent panel, 10 were funded, and research associated with these projects is currently underway. The next proposal deadline will be held in spring 2016. The 4D-Earth initiative is an idea for a natural successor to the EarthScope program aimed at expanding the primarily 3D geophysical focus that captured a snapshot of present day North America into the 4th dimension of time (hence the connection to the prototypical AGeS program), and illuminating the crustal component that was below the resolution of much of the USArray image. Like EarthScope, the notion is that this initiative would integrate new infrastructure and usher in a new way of doing science. The overarching scientific motivation is to develop a Community Geologic Model for the 4-D Evolution of the North

  11. Why Japanese workers remain in the labor force so long: lessons for the United States?

    PubMed

    Williamson, John B; Higo, Masa

    2009-12-01

    As part of the search for ways to increase labor force participation rates among older workers in the United States, it makes sense to take a close look at evidence from Japan, one of the few industrial countries with a substantially higher labor force participation rate among older workers, particularly men, than the United States. Based mainly on prior studies and original interview data, we first discuss five potential factors which help explain why Japanese workers remain in the labor force as long as they do: (1) perceived economic necessity; (2) the large fraction of workers who are self-employed; (3) a culture that puts a high value on remaining in the labor force throughout the life course; (4) the long healthy life expectancy; and (5) the government's role in facilitating the labor force participation of older workers. We suggest that the Japanese national cultural value on remaining economically productive well into old age clearly underlies the development of the government's legislative initiatives aiming to extend the working lives of older workers. We then outline three policy suggestions for those seeking to increase labor force participation rates among older U.S. workers: (1) increase the financial incentive to workers who remain in the labor force; (2) improve public programs designed to foster efforts by older workers to become self-employed; and (3) increase the extent of government efforts to link older workers to prospective employers.

  12. Influence of steroid-hormone-receptor-protein complexes on initiation of ribonucleic acid synthesis in liver nuclei isolated from rats of various ages.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, J K; Bolla, R

    1981-01-01

    The effect of age on the induction of the initiation of RNA synthesis was investigated in liver nuclei isolated from adrenalectomized rats of various ages after binding of a dexamethasone-receptor-protein complex. Binding of this complex to nuclear chromatin resulted in increased initiation of nuclear RNA synthesis at all ages; however, an age-associated decline in the extent of this induction was observed. This suggests an age-related decrease of total rat liver nuclear RNA synthesis with a decreased response to glucocorticoid hormones. PMID:6171268

  13. Technology Everywhere: A Campus Agenda for Educating and Managing Workers in the Digital Age. EDUCAUSE Leadership Strategies. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Brian L., Ed.; Rudy, Julia A., Ed.; Wallace, William H., Jr, Ed.

    This book addresses the dual role played by colleges and universities that must recruit, hire, and train knowledge worker professionals and education information technology (IT) learners to manage the flow of information. Part 1, The Context, contains these chapters: (1) The Supply of IT Workers in the United States (William Aspray and Peter A.…

  14. Correcting for initial Th in speleothems to obtain the age of calcite nucleation after a growth hiatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, D. A.; Nita, D. C.; Moseley, G. E.; Hoffmann, D. L.; Standish, C. D.; Smart, P. L.; Edwards, R.

    2013-12-01

    In addition to the many U-Th dated speleothem records (δ18O δ13C, trace elements) of past environmental change based on continuous phases of calcite growth, discontinuous records also provide important constraints for a wide range of past states of the Earth system, including sea levels, permafrost extent, regional aridity and local cave flooding. Chronological information about human activity or faunal evolution can also be obtained where calcite can be seen to overlie cave art or mammalian bones, for example. Among the important considerations when determining the U-Th age of calcite that nucleates on an exposed surface are (1) initial 230Th/232Th, which can be elevated and variable in some settings, and (2) growth rate and sub-sample density, where extrapolation is required. By way of example, we present sea level data based on U-Th ages of vadose speleothems (i.e. formed above the water table and distinct from 'phreatic' examples) from caves of the circum-Caribbean , where calcite growth was interrupted by rising sea levels and then reinitiated after regression. These estimates demand large corrections and derived sea level constraints are compared with alternative data from coral reef terraces, phreatic overgrowths on speleothems or indirect, proxy evidence from oxygen isotopes to constrain rates of ice volume growth. Flowstones from the Bahamas provide useful sea level constraints because they present the longest and most continuous records in such settings (a function of preservation potential in addition to hydrological routing) and also earliest growth post-emergence after sea level fall. We revisit estimates for sea level regression at the end of MIS 5 at ~ 80 ka (Richards et al, 1994; Lundberg and Ford, 1994) and make corrections for non-Bulk Earth initial Th contamination (230Th/232Th activity ratio > 10), based on isochron analysis of alternative stalagmites from the same settings and recent high resolution analysis. We also present new U-Th ages for

  15. NURSERY WORKER, TEACHERS COPY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FITTS, JAMES; JOHNSON, JOHNNY

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO ASSIST IN THE PREPARATION OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE EDUCATION STUDENTS OVER 16 YEARS OF AGE AS NURSERY WORKERS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A COMMITTEE OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS WITH ASSISTANCE FROM SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS. UNITS ARE (1) INTRODUCTION TO HORTICULTURE, (2) CONSTRUCTING, MAINTAINING,…

  16. Georgia's "Older Worker Specialists."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ard, John V.; Barbour, Charles

    1979-01-01

    Describes the Referral/Employment Network for Elderly Workers (RENEW) in Georgia funded by the Department of Labor under Title IX of the Older Americans Act. The program recruits and trains older people (over age 55) to help other seniors find jobs. (MF)

  17. Neurodevelopment and brain growth in classic Menkes disease is influenced by age and symptomatology at initiation of copper treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kaler, Stephen G.

    2014-01-01

    Menkes disease is an X-linked recessive disorder of brain copper metabolism caused by mutations in an essential mammalian copper transport gene, ATP7A. Untreated affected individuals suffer failure to thrive and neurodevelopmental delays that usually commence at 6 to 8 weeks of age. Death by age three years is typical. While provision of working copies of ATP7A to the brain by viral vectors is a promising strategy under development, the only treatment currently available is subcutaneous copper injections. These can normalize circulating blood levels and may replete brain copper depending on the molecular context, e.g., the severity of ATP7A mutation, and presence of mosaicism. In this paper, we summarize somatic growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes for 60 subjects enrolled in a recently concluded phase I/II clinical trial of copper histidine for Menkes disease (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00001262). Primary outcomes indicate highly statistically significant improvements in gross motor, fine motor/adaptive, personal-social, and language neurodevelopment in the cohort of subjects who received early treatment prior to onset of symptoms (n=35). Correlating with these findings, quantitative parameters of somatic growth indicated statistically significant greater growth in head circumference for the initially asymptomatic group, whereas weight and height/length at age three years (or at time of death) did not differ significantly. Mortality at age 3 was higher (50%) in subjects older and symptomatic when treatment commenced compared to the asymptomatic group (28.6%). We conclude that early copper histidine for Menkes disease is safe and efficacious, with treatment outcomes influenced by the timing of intervention, and ATP7A mutation. PMID:25281031

  18. Neurodevelopment and brain growth in classic Menkes disease is influenced by age and symptomatology at initiation of copper treatment.

    PubMed

    Kaler, Stephen G

    2014-10-01

    Menkes disease is an X-linked recessive disorder of brain copper metabolism caused by mutations in an essential mammalian copper transport gene, ATP7A. Untreated affected individuals suffer failure to thrive and neurodevelopmental delays that usually commence at 6-8 weeks of age. Death by age three years is typical. While provision of working copies of ATP7A to the brain by viral vectors is a promising strategy under development, the only treatment currently available is subcutaneous copper injections. These can normalize circulating blood levels and may replete brain copper depending on the molecular context, e.g., the severity of ATP7A mutation and potential presence of mosaicism. In this paper, we summarize somatic growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes for 60 subjects enrolled in a recently concluded phase I/II clinical trial of copper histidine for Menkes disease (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00001262). Primary outcomes indicate highly statistically significant improvements in gross motor, fine motor/adaptive, personal-social, and language neurodevelopment in the cohort of subjects who received early treatment prior to onset of symptoms (n=35). Correlating with these findings, quantitative parameters of somatic growth indicated statistically significant greater growth in head circumference for the initially asymptomatic group, whereas weight and height/length at age three years (or at time of death) did not differ significantly. Mortality at age 3 was higher (50%) in subjects older and symptomatic when treatment commenced compared to the asymptomatic group (28.6%). We conclude that early copper histidine for Menkes disease is safe and efficacious, with treatment outcomes influenced by the timing of intervention, and ATP7A mutation.

  19. [Cholangiocarcinoma among printing workers].

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Shinji

    2014-02-01

    By June 2013, seventeen workers had suffered from intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma) in an offset proof-printing company in Osaka and nine of the workers had died. Ages at diagnosis were 25 to 45 years old. Known risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma were not found in the patients. All of the patients were exposed to 1,2-dichloropropane at high level for long-term and were diagnosed with cholangiocarcinoma 7 to 20 years after the first exposure. Twelve of the patients were also exposed to dichloromethane. The Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare recognized the cancer to be an occupational disease.

  20. Effect of culture age, protectants, and initial cell concentration on viability of freeze-dried cells of Metschnikowia pulcherrima.

    PubMed

    Spadaro, Davide; Ciavorella, Annalisa Alessandra; Lopez-Reyes, Jorge Giovanny; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2010-10-01

    The effect of freeze-drying using different lyoprotectants at different concentrations on the viability and biocontrol efficacy of Metschnikowia pulcherrima was evaluated. The effects of initial yeast cell concentration and culture age on viability were also considered. Yeast cells grown for 36 h were more resistant to freeze-drying than were 48 h cells. An initial concentration of 10⁸ cells·mL⁻¹ favoured the highest survival after freeze-drying. When maltose (25%, m/v) was used as protectant, a high cell viability was obtained (64.2%). Cells maintained a high viability after 6 months of storage at 4 °C. The biocontrol efficacy of freeze-dried cells was similar to the activity of fresh cells on 'Gala' apples and was slightly lower on 'Golden Delicious' apples. After optimizing freeze-drying conditions, the viability of M. pulcherrima cells was similar to that obtained in other studies. The results constitute a first step towards the commercial development of M. pulcherrima as a biocontrol agent.

  1. Rheumatism in Foundry Workers

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, J. S.; Molyneux, M. K.; Dingwall-Fordyce, Ianthe

    1966-01-01

    In order to investigate loss of work from rheumatic diseases in the metal trades, employees in 10 foundries were questioned. Of 325 foundry workers aged 35 to 74 years, who had worked for at least 10 years on the foundry floor, 299 were examined clinically and radiologically for evidence of rheumatic disease. Radiographs of the hands, knees, and dorsal and lumbar spine were taken as a routine, and the pelvis was included in those aged 45 and over. A comparison was made with a control series of radiographs, from men, matched for age, in a random population sample examined earlier in the town of Leigh. Rheumatic complaints in general were less frequent in the foundry workers than in the random sample, and the foundry workers less often gave a history of prolonged incapacity (three months or more) due to this cause. Radiological evidence of disc degeneration in the lumbar spine, however, was more frequent in the foundry workers than in the controls and was of greater severity. Further, the foundry workers more commonly had symptoms and signs of lumbar disc prolapse. On the other hand, the controls had more osteo-arthrosis of the hips and knees and lost more work from pain at these sites. This was associated with a difference of body habitus, obesity being less frequent in the foundry workers. Foundry workers directly exposed to hot conditions did not have less back or leg pain than those not so exposed despite a greater prevalence of disc degeneration. Measurements of air temperature, humidity, and radiant heat were made in a foundry while pouring was in progress. The air temperature rose from 18°C. to 26°C. and the humidity ranged from 70% to 54%. The mean intensity of radiation incident on the clothed surface of a foundry worker was 0·12 watt/cm.2. This was compared with conditions during therapeutic exposure to radiant heat. The radiant heat under conditions of `heat therapy' varied between 0·16 and 0·37 watt/cm.2. The possible influence of radiant heat on the

  2. Lesbian Identities: An Examination of Sexual Behavior and Sex Role Attribution as Related to Age of Initial Same-Sex Sexual Encounter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vance, Brenda K.; Green, Vicki

    1984-01-01

    Interviewed and administered questionnaires to 43 lesbians to investigate differences among them, including the age of initial lesbian sexual experience. Comparison of earliest and latest age groups showed both groups saw themselves as being high in stereotypic feminine traits, and as having fairly active heterosexual histories. (BH)

  3. Pollution Prevention through Peer Education: A Community Health Worker and Small and Home-Based Business Initiative on the Arizona-Sonora Border.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Denise Moreno; Ramírez-Andreotta, Mónica D; Vea, Lourdes; Estrella-Sánchez, Rocío; Wolf, Ann Marie A; Kilungo, Aminata; Spitz, Anna H; Betterton, Eric A

    2015-09-09

    Government-led pollution prevention programs tend to focus on large businesses due to their potential to pollute larger quantities, therefore leaving a gap in programs targeting small and home-based businesses. In light of this gap, we set out to determine if a voluntary, peer education approach led by female, Hispanic community health workers (promotoras) can influence small and home-based businesses to implement pollution prevention strategies on-site. This paper describes a partnership between promotoras from a non-profit organization and researchers from a university working together to reach these businesses in a predominately Hispanic area of Tucson, Arizona. From 2008 to 2011, the promotora-led pollution prevention program reached a total of 640 small and home-based businesses. Program activities include technical trainings for promotoras and businesses, generation of culturally and language appropriate educational materials, and face-to-face peer education via multiple on-site visits. To determine the overall effectiveness of the program, surveys were used to measure best practices implemented on-site, perceptions towards pollution prevention, and overall satisfaction with the industry-specific trainings. This paper demonstrates that promotoras can promote the implementation of pollution prevention best practices by Hispanic small and home-based businesses considered "hard-to-reach" by government-led programs.

  4. Pollution Prevention through Peer Education: A Community Health Worker and Small and Home-Based Business Initiative on the Arizona-Sonora Border

    PubMed Central

    Moreno Ramírez, Denise; Ramírez-Andreotta, Mónica D.; Vea, Lourdes; Estrella-Sánchez, Rocío; Wolf, Ann Marie A.; Kilungo, Aminata; Spitz, Anna H.; Betterton, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Government-led pollution prevention programs tend to focus on large businesses due to their potential to pollute larger quantities, therefore leaving a gap in programs targeting small and home-based businesses. In light of this gap, we set out to determine if a voluntary, peer education approach led by female, Hispanic community health workers (promotoras) can influence small and home-based businesses to implement pollution prevention strategies on-site. This paper describes a partnership between promotoras from a non-profit organization and researchers from a university working together to reach these businesses in a predominately Hispanic area of Tucson, Arizona. From 2008 to 2011, the promotora-led pollution prevention program reached a total of 640 small and home-based businesses. Program activities include technical trainings for promotoras and businesses, generation of culturally and language appropriate educational materials, and face-to-face peer education via multiple on-site visits. To determine the overall effectiveness of the program, surveys were used to measure best practices implemented on-site, perceptions towards pollution prevention, and overall satisfaction with the industry-specific trainings. This paper demonstrates that promotoras can promote the implementation of pollution prevention best practices by Hispanic small and home-based businesses considered “hard-to-reach” by government-led programs. PMID:26371028

  5. Younger age at initiation of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination series is associated with higher rates of on-time completion.

    PubMed

    St Sauver, Jennifer L; Rutten, Lila J Finney; Ebbert, Jon O; Jacobson, Debra J; McGree, Michaela E; Jacobson, Robert M

    2016-08-01

    Vaccination rates for human papillomavirus (HPV) have remained disappointingly low. It is critical to identify methods to increase on-time vaccine series completion rates (before 13 or 15years). To determine whether younger age (9 to 10years of age) at HPV vaccine series initiation was associated with improved on-time completion rates compared to initiation at 11 to 12years, we examined the prevalence of on-time HPV vaccine series completion rates from August 2006 through December 2012 in a large, population-based cohort of children and adolescents (aged 9.5 to 27years) residing in Olmsted County, MN on December 31, 2012 (n=36,223). We compared age at vaccine initiation between individuals who successfully completed both 2 and 3 doses of the vaccination series on-time (before age 13.5 or 15.0years) using multivariate logistic regression. On-time completion of both 2 and 3 doses of the vaccine series by age 13.5 or 15.0years was significantly associated with initiation at 9 to 10years as compared to 11 to 12years after adjusting for sex, race, insurance status, frequent health care visits, and year of first vaccination (all p<.01). Interventions focused on beginning the vaccination series at 9 to 10years of age may result in higher rates of timely series completion.

  6. Cause and Consequence: Mitochondrial Dysfunction Initiates and Propagates Neuronal Dysfunction, Neuronal Death and Behavioral Abnormalities in Age Associated Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Gary E.; Starkov, Anatoly; Blass, John P.; Ratan, Rajiv R.; Beal, M. Flint

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Age-related neurodegenerative diseases are associated with mild impairment of oxidative metabolism and accumulation of abnormal proteins. Within the cell, the mitochondria appears to be a dominant site for initiation and propagation of disease processes. Shifts in metabolism in response to mild metabolic perturbations may decrease the threshold for irreversible injury in response to ordinarily sub lethal metabolic insults. Mild impairment of metabolism accrue from and lead to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). Increased ROS change cell signaling via post transcriptional and transcriptional changes. The cause and consequences of mild impairment of mitochondrial metabolism is one focus of this review. Many experiments in tissues from humans support the notion that oxidative modification of the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) compromises neuronal energy metabolism and enhance ROS production in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). These data suggest that cognitive decline in AD derives from the selective tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle abnormalities. By contrast in Huntington’s Disease (HD), a movement disorder with cognitive features distinct form AD, complex II + III abnormalities may dominate. These distinct mitochondrial abnormalities culminate in oxidative stress, energy dysfunction, and aberrant homeostasis of cytosolic calcium. Cytosolic calcium, elevations even only transiently, leads to hyperactivity of a number of enzymes. One calcium activated enzyme with demonstrated pathophysiological import in HD and AD is transglutaminase (TGase). TGase is a cross linking enzymes that can modulate transcrption, inactivate metabolic enzymes, and cause aggregation of critical proteins. Recent data indicate that TGase can silence expression of genes involved in compensating for metabolic stress. Altogether, our results suggest that increasing KGDHC via inhibition of TGase or via a host of other strategies to be described would be effective therapeutic

  7. The role of social networks and media receptivity in predicting age of smoking initiation: a proportional hazards model of risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Unger, J B; Chen, X

    1999-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of adolescent smoking demonstrates the need to identify factors associated with early smoking initiation. Previous studies have shown that smoking by social network members and receptivity to pro-tobacco marketing are associated with smoking among adolescents. It is not clear, however, whether these variables also are associated with the age of smoking initiation. Using data from 10,030 California adolescents, this study identified significant correlates of age of smoking initiation using bivariate methods and a multivariate proportional hazards model. Age of smoking initiation was earlier among those adolescents whose friends, siblings, or parents were smokers, and among those adolescents who had a favorite tobacco advertisement, had received tobacco promotional items, or would be willing to use tobacco promotional items. Results suggest that the smoking behavior of social network members and pro-tobacco media influences are important determinants of age of smoking initiation. Because early smoking initiation is associated with higher levels of addiction in adulthood, tobacco control programs should attempt to counter these influences.

  8. Study of Morbidity Pattern Among Salt Workers in Marakkanam, Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Zile; Bazroy, Joy; Purty, Anil jacob; Natesan, Murugan; Chavada, Vijay kantilal

    2015-01-01

    Background Salt workers are exposed to occupational hazards like contact with salt crystals and brine, physical stress, sunlight and glare due to sunlight reflected by salt crystals. Very few studies have documented the morbidity among the salt workers. Aim To assess the morbidity pattern among salt workers in Marakkanam, Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods A community based cross-sectional study was undertaken in 4 randomly selected salt worker villages. Three hundred thirty one salt workers were reached by a house-to-house survey during April 2010 to March 2011. Demographic data was collected; clinical examination was conducted using a predesigned and pretested questionnaire. A pilot study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of morbidity before initiating the study. The data was analyzed using SPSS Version 11.5. Chi-square test and odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to determine the association of morbidity levels with various factors. Results Of the 331 salt workers in the study, 58% were females, mean age was 41.9 ± 10.8 y. Eighty seven percent salt workers had some or other morbidity. The observed morbidities include clinical pallor (44.4%), ocular morbidities including cataract, pterygium, conjunctivitis, pingecula and corneal ulcer (42%), caries teeth (41.7%), hypertension (23.3%), underweight (19.3%), goiter (19%), obesity (14.8%) and dermal conditions including dermatitis, thickening of palm and sole, tinea unguum, follicultitis (9.1%). The presence of morbidity did not show any significant association with increase in age, gender, duration of employment or the type of salt work involved with. However, the lower the education level, the higher is the morbidity level among salt workers (OR = 5.23, 95% CI= 2.07 to 13.21) Conclusion Morbidity among salt workers is high. Intervention programs are needed to alleviate the health problems in the salt workers. PMID:26023571

  9. Graduates' Perspectives on a National Specialized Program in Social Work and Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Emily A.; Shpiegel, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing the growing need for social workers with specialized training in aging, the Hartford Partnership Program for Aging Education (HPPAE) has developed as a nationwide initiative to enhance aging education for master's-level social work students. This study presents a content analysis of answers to 2 open-ended questions in a national…

  10. Pension Plans. Many Workers Don't Know When They Can Retire. Briefing Report to the Chairman, Select Committee on Aging, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    A study assessed the level of workers' knowledge of their pension plan's provisions related to early and normal retirement. The data used were from the 1983 Survey of Consumer Finances. The survey, which was based on a nationwide sample of more than 3,800 households and more than 1,000 public and private pension plans that covered them, asked the…

  11. New Business Perspectives on the Older Worker. Hearing before the Select Committee on Aging, House of Representatives, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

    This document contains testimony from a congressional hearing to explore the latest developments in corporate policies affecting older workers. Testimony includes statements and prepared statements from individuals representing United States corporations, such as Mutual of Omaha Companies; The Aerospace Corporation; ACS America, Inc.; Grumman…

  12. Effects of Age and Initial Risk Perception on Balloon Analog Risk Task: The Mediating Role of Processing Speed and Need for Cognitive Closure

    PubMed Central

    Koscielniak, Maciej; Rydzewska, Klara; Sedek, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    According to the dual-process theoretical perspective adopted in the presented research, the efficiency of deliberative processes in decision making declines with age, but experiential processes are relatively well-preserved. The age-related differences in deliberative and experiential processes in risky decision-making were examined in this research by applying the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART). We analyzed the influence of age on risk acceptance and decision-making performance in two age groups of female participants (younger adults, n = 81; older adults, n = 76), with additional experimental manipulation of initial risk perception. We predicted and confirmed that aging significantly worsens performance on the behavioral BART measures due to age-related decline in deliberative processes. Older participants were found to exhibit significantly higher risk aversion and lower BART performance, and the effect of age was mediated by cognitive (processing speed) and motivational (need for cognitive closure) mechanisms. Moreover, older adults adapt to the initial failure (vs. success) similarly, as younger adults due to preserved efficiency of experiential processes. These results suggest future directions for minimizing negative effects of aging in risky decision-making and indicate compensatory processes, which are preserved during aging. PMID:27199877

  13. Changing Aging Competency Following a GeroRich Intervention Initiative: Implications for Bachelor's and Master's Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Theresa A.; Nelson-Becker, Holly; Chapin, Rosemary K.; Landry, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    This article reports an evaluation of a GeroRich effort to increase age-specific content throughout bachelor and master-level social work curricula. A total of 426 students (128 BSWs and 298 MSWs) completed pre and posttests in 2004-2005, self-rating their aging competency using the Social Work with Aging Skill Competency Scale II (New York…

  14. Bird fanciers lung in mushroom workers.

    PubMed

    Hayes, J; Barrett, M

    2015-04-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis has been described in mushrooms workers caused by exposure to mushroom or fungal spores in the compost used to grow mushrooms. We describe two mushroom workers who developed hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to exposure to avian proteins found in poultry manure which was used in producing mushroom compost. Both workers were employed in the compost production area. Both presented with typical features of HP. Both workers had negative serological and precipitin studies to Apergillus fumigatus, Saccarhopolyspora rectivirgula and thermophilic actinomycetes but had positive responses to poultry antibodies. Neither was exposed to mushroom spores. Both workers required initial therapy with corticosteroids. Relocation with avoidance of further exposure resulted in complete cure in one worker and change in work practice with the use of personal protections equipment resulted in the second workerclinical stabilisation. These are the first reported cases of bird fanciers lung in mushroom workers.

  15. Provider-Initiated HIV Testing for Migrants in Spain: A Qualitative Study with Health Care Workers and Foreign-Born Sexual Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Navaza, Barbara; Abarca, Bruno; Bisoffi, Federico; Pool, Robert; Roura, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Provider-initiated HIV testing (PITC) is increasingly adopted in Europe. The success of the approach at identifying new HIV cases relies on its effectiveness at testing individuals most at risk. However, its suitability to reach populations facing overlapping vulnerabilities is under researched. This qualitative study examined HIV testing experiences and perceptions amongst Latin-American migrant men who have sex with men and transgender females in Spain, as well as health professionals’ experiences offering HIV tests to migrants in Barcelona and Madrid. Methods We conducted 32 in-depth interviews and 8 discussion groups with 38 Latin-American migrants and 21 health professionals. We imported verbatim transcripts and detailed field work notes into the qualitative software package Nvivo-10 and applied to all data a coding framework to examine systematically different HIV testing dimensions and modalities. The dimensions analysed were based on the World Health Organization “5 Cs” principles: Consent, Counselling, Connection to treatment, Correctness of results and Confidentiality. Results Health professionals reported that PITC was conceptually acceptable for them, although their perceived inability to adequately communicate HIV+ results and resulting bottle necks in the flow of care were recurrent concerns. Endorsement and adherence to the principles underpinning the rights-based response to HIV varied widely across health settings. The offer of an HIV test during routine consultations was generally appreciated by users as a way of avoiding the embarrassment of asking for it. Several participants deemed compulsory testing as acceptable on public health grounds. In spite of—and sometimes because of—partial endorsement of rights-based approaches, PITC was acceptable in a population with high levels of internalised stigma. Conclusion PITC is a promising approach to reach sexual minority migrants who hold high levels of internalised stigma but

  16. The Association between Self-Reported Mother-Child Attachment and Social Initiative and Withdrawal in Chinese School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Bin-Bin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relations between mother-child attachment and social initiative and withdrawal in Chinese urban children. Participants were 487 school-aged children (247 boys, 240 girls) in Shanghai, the People's Republic of China. Data on mother-child attachment styles were collected from children's self-reports.…

  17. 28 CFR 79.24 - Proof of initial or first exposure after age 20 for claims under § 79.22(b)(1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of initial or first exposure after age 20 for claims under § 79.22(b)(1). 79.24 Section 79.24 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims Relating to Certain Specified...

  18. Evaluation of new and established age-related macular degeneration susceptibility genes in the Women's Health Initiative Sight Exam (WHI-SE) Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To assess whether established and newly reported genetic variants, independent of known lifestyle factors, are associated with the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) among women participating in the Women's Health Initiative Sight Exam (WHI-SE) Genetic Ancillary Study. This is a multice...

  19. Redetermination of the Sm-Nd Age and Initial (Epsilon)Nd of Lunar Troctolite 76535: Implications for Lunar Crustal Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, Laurence E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, Y. D.

    2012-01-01

    Lunar troctolite 76535 is an old lunar rock predating the era of the lunar cataclysmic bombardment, but its radiometrially determined ages have been discordant [1-3]. The most recent multi-chronometer study [4] gave preferred ages of 4226+/-35 Ma and 4236+/-15 Ma from a Pb-207/Pb-206 isochron and an U-Pb upper concordia intercept, resp. We derive an age of 4323+/-64 Ma from Sm-Nd data reported by [4] for the bulk rock and three mineral separates. They derived an age of approx.4.38 Ga from combined Rb-Sr data [3,4] by omitting data for olivine separates. Ar-39-Ar-40 ages of approx.4.2 Ga are summarized by [5]. New Sm-147-Nd-143 data presented here give an age of 4335+/-71 Ma in agreement with the Sm-Nd age from [4], whereas Sm-146-Nd-142 data give a model age T(sub LEW) = 4439+/-22 Ma. Further, initial (Epsilon)Nd-143 for 76535 conforms to the Nd-143 evolution expected in an urKREEP [6] reservoir, consistent with inheritance of urKREEP Sm-Nd systematics via assimilation. We show that urKREEP Sm-Nd systematics require the lunar initial (Epsilon)Nd-143 to exceed the Chondritic Uniform Reservoir (CHUR) value [7], but are consistent with evolution from initial (Epsilon)Nd-143 like that of the HED meteorite parent body as defined by a 4557+/-20 Ma internal isochron for the cumulate eucrites Y-980433 and Y- 980318 [8].

  20. Test of a Potential Causal Influence of Earlier Age of Gambling Initiation on Gambling Involvement and Disorder: A Multi-level Discordant Twin Design

    PubMed Central

    Slutske, Wendy S.; Deutsch, Arielle R.; Richmond-Rakerd, Leah S.; Chernyavskiy, Pavel; Statham, Dixie J.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2014-01-01

    The premise that an association between an earlier age of gambling initiation and the later development of disordered gambling is causal has not yet been empirically examined. The current study used a multi-level discordant twin design to examine the nature of this association. Participants were 3,546 same-sex twins (mean age = 37.7 years) from the Australian Twin Registry who completed a telephone interview that included an extensive assessment of gambling and related behaviors. Multilevel models were employed to estimate individual (within-twin-pair comparison) and family-level (between-twin-pair comparison) effects, as well as the cross-level interaction between these effects. Family-level effects (genetic or environmental factors shared by family members) of age of gambling initiation robustly predicted later adult gambling frequency and disorder; the evidence for individual-level effects (unique factors not shared by family members, including a potentially causal effect of earlier age of gambling onset) was less robust. The results of this study suggest that the relation between earlier age of gambling initiation and later gambling involvement and disorder is primarily non-causal; efforts to delay the onset of gambling among young people may not necessarily reduce the number who later go on to develop gambling-related problems. PMID:24635489

  1. Developing a Competency Framework for the Initial Training of Educational Psychologists Working with Young People Aged 16-25

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Cathy; Dunsmuir, Sandra; Lang, Jane; Wright, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The Children and Families Act (2014) extends statutory protections for young people with special educational needs and disabilities until age 25. Consequently the core curriculum for trainee educational psychologists (TEPs) needs to be developed beyond the current focus of work with early years and school-age children. In order to define requisite…

  2. National Survey To Validate General Growth Outcomes for Children between Birth and Age Eight: Initial Results. Technical Report #3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Scott; McEvoy, Mary; Carta, Judith J.; Greenwood, Charles R.; Kaminski, Ruth; Good, Roland H., III; Shinn, Mark

    This monograph reports on a national mail survey to validate a set of general growth outcomes for children, including those with disabilities, between birth and age 8. The survey was part of a 5-year project to create a comprehensive measurement system to track the developmental progress of individual children with disabilities in this age range…

  3. Differences in initial stroke severity between Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites vary by age: the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Jeffrey J.; Baek, Jonggyu; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Lisabeth, Lynda D.; Smith, Melinda A.; Morgenstern, Lewis B.; Zahuranec, Darin B.

    2014-01-01

    Background A wide variety of racial and ethnic disparities in stroke epidemiology and treatment have been reported. Race-ethnic differences in initial stroke severity may be one important determinant of differences in outcome after stroke. The overall goal of this study was to move beyond ethnic comparisons in the mean or median severity, and instead investigate ethnic differences in the entire distribution of initial stroke severity. Additionally, we investigated whether age modifies the relationship between ethnicity and initial stroke severity as this may be an important determinant of racial differences in outcome after stroke. Methods Ischemic stroke cases were identified from the population-based Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was determined from the medical record or abstracted from the chart. Ethnicity was reported as Mexican American (MA) or non-Hispanic white (NHW). Quantile regression was used to model the distribution of NIHSS score by age category (45–59, 60–74, 75+) to test whether ethnic differences exist over different quantiles of NIHSS (5 percentile increments). Crude models examined the interaction between age category and ethnicity; models were then adjusted for history of stroke/transient ischemic attack, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, and diabetes. Results were adjusted for multiple comparisons. Results There were 4,366 ischemic strokes, with median age 72 years (IQR: 61–81), 55% MA and median NIHSS of 4 (IQR: 2–8). MAs were younger, more likely to have a history of hypertension and diabetes, but less likely to have atrial fibrillation compared to NHWs. In the crude model, the ethnicity-age interaction was not statistically significant. After adjustment, the ethnicity-age interaction became significant at the 85th and 95th percentiles of NIHSS distribution. MAs in the younger age category (45–59) were significantly less

  4. Is Age Kinder to the Initially More Able? Differential Ageing of Verbal Ability in the Healthy Old People in Edinburgh Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian; MacLennan, William J.; Starr, John M.

    1998-01-01

    Results from a study of 387 healthy old people studied at baseline and four years later in Edinburgh (Scotland) suggest that, those with higher baseline ability, in higher social-class groups, with more education, and those who are younger are relatively protected from a decline in verbal intelligence, measured by an adult reading test, with age.…

  5. Missed opportunities of inclusion in a cohort of HIV-infected children to initiate antiretroviral treatment before the age of two in West Africa, 2011 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Dahourou, Désiré L; Amorissani-Folquet, Madeleine; Coulibaly, Malik; Avit-Edi, Divine; Meda, Nicolas; Timite-Konan, Marguerite; Arendt, Vic; Ye, Diarra; Amani-Bosse, Clarisse; Salamon, Roger; Lepage, Philippe; Leroy, Valériane

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The World Health Organization (WHO) 2010 guidelines recommended to treat all HIV-infected children less than two years of age. We described the inclusion process and its correlates of HIV-infected children initiated on early antiretroviral therapy (EART) at less than two years of age in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, and Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Methods All children with HIV-1 infection confirmed with a DNA PCR test of a blood sample, aged less than two years, living at a distance less than two hours from the centres and whose parents (or mother if she was the only legal guardian or the legal caregiver if parents were not alive) agreed to participate in the MONOD ANRS 12206 project were included in a cohort to receive EART based on lopinavir/r. We used logistic regression to identify correlates of inclusion. Results Among the 217 children screened and referred to the MONOD centres, 161 (74%) were included and initiated on EART. The main reasons of non-inclusion were fear of father's refusal (48%), mortality (24%), false-positive HIV infection test (16%) and other ineligibility reasons (12%). Having previously disclosed the child's and mother's HIV status to the father (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 3.20; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.55 to 6.69) and being older than 12 months (aOR: 2.05; 95% CI: 1.02 to 4.12) were correlates of EART initiation. At EART initiation, the median age was 13.5 months, 70% had reached WHO Stage 3/4 and 57% had a severe immune deficiency. Conclusions Fear of stigmatization by the father and early competing mortality were the major reasons for missed opportunities of EART initiation. There is an urgent need to involve fathers in the care of their HIV-exposed children and to promote early infant diagnosis to improve their future access to EART and survival. PMID:27015798

  6. Medical Surveillance for Former Workers

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Takaro Jordan Firestone

    2009-05-29

    . After excluding current workers, construction workers, and deceased workers, the total estimated number of former workers eligible for screening was 72,611. By September, 2006, 53,010 workers had been contacted, 20,298 responded, 2,835 were eligible and authorized, and 2,773 workers were ultimately screened. The cohort was 80% male, 85% white, and had a mean age of 63 years (range 24-96 years) at the time of first exam. Participants completed an occupational health history survey prior to the medical exam. Former Hanford workers were considered eligible for an exam if they reported exposure to asbestos, beryllium, or noise, or if a review of their Hanford work history indicated possible or probable exposure to one of these three hazards. We also invited any former Hanford worker who requested an exam to participate, regardless of documentation of exposure. The screening exam included a problem-focused physical exam, along with screening tests for one or more of three specific medical conditions: asbestosis (chest X-ray and spirometry), berylliosis (chest X-ray, spirometry, and beryllium-induced lymphocyte proliferation test), and NIHL (audiometry). We assisted ill workers in filing appropriate workers’ compensation claims, and facilitated appropriate follow-up medical care. This program has made an important contribution to the health of former DOE contractor workers at the Hanford defense nuclear site.

  7. TRAINING METHODS FOR OLDER WORKERS. EMPLOYMENT OF OLDER WORKERS, 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BELBIN, R.M.

    A SURVEY WAS PRESENTED OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE ON AGE CHANGES IN HUMAN CAPACITIES, ESPECIALLY IN LEARNING ABILITY AND ADAPTABILITY, AND DESCRIBED VARIOUS METHODS USED TO TRAIN WORKERS OVER 40. THE ROLE OF MEMORY, MOTIVATION, RIGIDITY, AND INTELLIGENCE IN DETERMINING THE LEARNING EFFICIENCY OF MATURE ADULTS WAS ASSESSED, ALSO DIFFICULTIES CAUSED BY…

  8. Early Substance Use Initiation and Suicide Ideation and Attempts among School-Aged Adolescents in Four Pacific Island Countries in Oceania

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the correlations between early initiation (<12 years) of smoking cigarettes, alcohol use, and drug use (cannabis) with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in school-aged adolescents in four Pacific Island countries in Oceania. The sample included 6540 adolescents (≤13 to ≥16 years old) from Kiribati, Samoa, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the association between pre-adolescent substance use initiation and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Results indicate a prevalence of 25.8% suicidal ideation in the past 12 months (ranging from 17.2% in Vanuatu to 34.7% in Kiribati) and 34.9% suicide attempts in the past 12 months (ranging from 23.5% in Vanuatu to 62.0% in Samoa). The prevalence of early cigarette smoking initiation was 15.7%, early alcohol initiation 13.8%, and early drug use initiation was 12.9%. Students who reported pre-adolescent substance use initiation, compared with non-substance users, were more likely reporting suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. The concurrent initiation of cigarette smoking, alcohol, and drug use should be targeted in early prevention programmes in order to prevent possible subsequent suicidal behaviours. PMID:26437423

  9. Costs of Care of HIV-Infected Children Initiating Lopinavir/Ritonavir-Based Antiretroviral Therapy before the Age of Two in Cote d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Desmonde, Sophie; Avit, Divine; Petit, Junie; Amorissani Folquet, Madeleine; Eboua, Francois Tanoh; Amani Bosse, Clarisse; Dainguy, Evelyne; Mea, Véronique; Timite-Konan, Marguerite; Ngbeché, Sylvie; Ciaranello, Andrea; Leroy, Valeriane

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To access the costs of care for Ivoirian children before and after initiating LPV/r-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) before the age of two. Methods We assessed the direct costs of care for all HIV-infected children over the first 12 months on LPV/r-based ART initiated <2 years of age in Abidjan. We recorded all drug prescriptions, ART and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis delivery, medical analyses/examinations and hospital admissions. We compared these costs to those accrued in the month prior to ART initiation. Costs and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated per child-month, according to severe morbidity. Results Of the 114 children screened, 99 initiated LPV/r-based ART at a median age of 13.5 months (IQR: 6.8–18.6); 45% had reached World Health Organization stage 3 or 4. During the first 12 months on ART, 5% died and 3% were lost to follow-up. In the month before ART initiation, the mean cost of care per child-month reached $123.39 (95%CI:$121.02-$125.74). After ART initiation, it was $42.53 (95%CI:$42.15-$42.91); 50% were ART costs. The remaining costs were non-antiretroviral drugs (18%) and medical analyses/examinations (14%). Mean costs were significantly higher within the first three months on ART ($48.76, 95%CI:$47.95–$49.56) and in children experiencing severe morbidity ($49.76, 95%CI:$48.61–50.90). Conclusion ART reduces the overall monthly cost of care of HIV-infected children < 2 years. Because children were treated at an advanced HIV disease stage, the additional costs of treating severe morbidity on ART remain substantial. Strategies for treating HIV-infected children as early as possible must remain a priority in Côte d’Ivoire. PMID:27935971

  10. The battle over workers' compensation.

    PubMed

    Ellenberger, J N

    2000-01-01

    Faced with lower profits and rapidly increasing premium costs in the 1980s, insurers and employer organizations cleverly parlayed the public perception of worker fraud and abuse in the workers' compensation system (that they helped to create) into massive legislative changes. Over the last decade, state legislators and governors, Republican and Democrat alike, have jumped on this bandwagon, one that workers and their allies have dubbed the workers' compensation "deform" movement. Alleging a "game plan" and a calculated campaign on the part of insurers and employers, the author looks at the major components of changes that were made, examines the elements of workers' compensation over which employers and insurers have gained control, and discusses Newt Gingrich's efforts to capitalize on employer and insurer fervor over the system. This campaign whistled through the country until it goaded the labor movement, injured workers, the trial bar, and others in Ohio in 1997 to organize themselves to stand up to employers by defeating the deform law through a ballot initiative. The article details that battle and suggests that similar voices can be achieved through a return to grassroots organizing and mobilization.

  11. Education and Today's Older Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Donald N.

    New perspectives need to be gained on the roles of older adults and older workers in the new millenium. Because today's adult is healthier, policies concerning social security, retirement, and work need to be changed. There is a need for acceptance of various types of aging. Rather than mandating specific retirement, the individual should have…

  12. Age and Employee Green Behaviors: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wiernik, Brenton M.; Dilchert, Stephan; Ones, Deniz S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent economic and societal developments have led to an increasing emphasis on organizational environmental performance. At the same time, demographic trends are resulting in increasingly aging labor forces in many industrialized nations. Commonly held stereotypes suggest that older workers are less likely to be environmentally responsible than younger workers. To evaluate the degree to which such age differences are present, we meta-analyzed 132 independent correlations and 336 d-values based on 4676 professional workers from 22 samples in 11 countries. Contrary to popular stereotypes, age showed small positive relationships with pro-environmental behaviors, suggesting that older adults engaged in these workplace behaviors slightly more frequently. Relationships with age appeared to be linear for overall, Conserving, Avoiding Harm, and Taking Initiative pro-environmental behaviors, but non-linear trends were observed for Transforming and Influencing Others behaviors. PMID:26973550

  13. Age Moderates the Association of Aerobic Exercise with Initial Learning of an Online Task Requiring Cognitive Control.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Patrick J; Tomporowski, Phillip D; Dishman, Rodney K

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether people differed in change in performance across the first five blocks of an online flanker task and whether those trajectories of change were associated with self-reported aerobic or resistance exercise frequency according to age. A total of 8752 men and women aged 13-89 completed a lifestyle survey and five 45-s games (each game was a block of ~46 trials) of an online flanker task. Accuracy of the congruent and incongruent flanker stimuli was analyzed using latent class and growth curve modeling adjusting for time between blocks, whether the blocks occurred on the same or different days, education, smoking, sleep, caffeinated coffee and tea use, and Lumosity training status ("free play" or part of a "daily brain workout"). Aerobic and resistance exercise were unrelated to first block accuracies. For the more cognitively demanding incongruent flanker stimuli, aerobic activity was positively related to the linear increase in accuracy [B=0.577%, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.112 to 1.25 per day above the weekly mean of 2.8 days] and inversely related to the quadratic deceleration of accuracy gains (B=-0.619% CI, -1.117 to -0.121 per day). An interaction of aerobic activity with age indicated that active participants younger than age 45 had a larger linear increase and a smaller quadratic deceleration compared to other participants. Age moderates the association between self-reported aerobic, but not self-reported resistance, exercise and changes in cognitive control that occur with practice during incongruent presentations across five blocks of a 45-s online, flanker task.

  14. Underemployment and the Older Worker: How Big a Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crown, William H.; Leavitt, Thomas D.

    A study examined the nature and the relative incidence of different forms of underemployment and how and under what conditions underemployment of older workers differed from that of younger workers. Data from May 1979, May 1988, and April 1993 Current Population Surveys (CPSs) for workers aged 50-64 were used. Two categories of underemployed…

  15. Counseling Workers over 40: GULHEMP, a New Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meredith, Jack

    This series of presentations describe a method of job counseling and placement for the middle-aged which combines pre-employment physical worker analysis with job analysis for effective matching of job requirements with worker capacities. The matching process involves these steps: (1) job analysis by an industrial engineer; (2) worker examination…

  16. Taguchi Optimization on the Initial Thickness and Pre-aging of Nano-/Ultrafine-Grained Al-0.2 wt.%Sc Alloy Produced by ARB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousefieh, Mohammad; Tamizifar, Morteza; Boutorabi, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Borhani, Ehsan

    2016-10-01

    In this study, Taguchi design method with L9 orthogonal array has been used to optimize the initial thickness and pre-aging parameters (temperature and time) for the mechanical properties of Al-0.2 wt.% Sc alloy heavily deformed by accumulative roll bonding (ARB) up to ten cycles. Analysis of variance was performed on the measured data and signal-to-noise ratios. It was found that the pre-aging temperature has the most significant parameter affecting the mechanical properties by percentage contribution of 64.51%. Pre-aging time (19.29%) has the next most significant effect, while initial thickness (5.31%) has statistically less significant effect. In order to confirm experimental conclusions, verification experiments were carried out at optimum working conditions. Under these conditions, the yield strength was 6.51 times higher and toughness was 6.86% lower compared with the starting Al-Sc material. Moreover, mean grain size was decreased to 220 nm by setting the control parameters, which was the lowest value obtained in this study. It was concluded that the Taguchi method was found to be a promising technique to obtain the optimum conditions for such studies. Consequently, by controlling the parameter levels, the high-strength and high-toughness Al-Sc samples were fabricated through pre-aging and subsequent ARB process.

  17. Debatable aspects of initial human colonization of Siberia and age of the Karama site in the Altai Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zykin, V. S.; Zykina, V. S.; Smolyaninova, L. G.

    2016-05-01

    Debatable aspects of age, stratigraphic position, and natural conditions of the oldest stratified Early Paleolithic Karama site in the Altai Mountains are critically revised. The extensive geological, stratigraphic, and paleontological data allow the sufficiently well-substantiated assumption that accumulation of the Karama Formation and existence of the Early Paleolithic Karama site correspond to a long period of climate warming in the Early Pleistocene correlated with the Tiglian of northwestern Europe lasting from 2.23 to 1.59 Ma. The age model proposed for the formation of the Quaternary sequence in the Anui River valley, which includes the artifact-containing deposits of the Karama site, seems to be the most probable one proceeding from interpretation of available data on the geological structure, stratigraphy, paleomagnetism, and paleontological and lithological properties of Upper Cenozoic sequences observable both in the Anui River valley and in Siberian areas adjacent to the Altai mountainous region.

  18. [Occupational hypoacusis in transport workers].

    PubMed

    Pankova, V B

    2008-01-01

    The article concerns prevalence and causes of occupational neurosensory hypoacusis (ONH) in transport workers exposed to intensive industrial noise. Most often ONH is diagnosed in civil aviation air crews and railway locomotive crews aged 45-50 years with service history 15 years and longer. Because ONH morbidity has a trend to rise, it is necessary to update medical criteria of professional fitness and rules of medical examination of transport workers, especially those engaged in safety control. International classifications and scientific approaches may be considered. Innovations in noise reduction, modern hearing protection measures, early diagnosis and rehabilitation must be promoted.

  19. Community Health Worker Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perales, Aurora Rodriguez

    An experienced community health worker describes her experiences in the field as a basis for recommended guidelines for the role, philosophy, aims, and goals of community health workers. The role of the community health worker as a member of the health care team is explored, and the problem of recognition for community health workers is considered…

  20. The Insight for Initiation and Maintenance of Areca nut chewing Habit and its Effects on Oral Health Status among School Age Population in Western Rajasthan, India

    PubMed Central

    Singhvi, Abhishek; Bagul, Neeta; Bhatia, Sanya; Singh, Gurdeep; Gupta, Rajkumari

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Areca nut is highly carcinogenic according to International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Its usage is continuously increasing in children and adolescents in India. Aim The aim of the study was to understand the reasons for the development of the areca nut chewing habit at early age. Materials and Methods A total of 2846 subjects were surveyed from rural government schools between ages of 4 to18 years in Western Rajasthan, India. A structured questionnaire was designed to record the factors associated with initiation and continuation of areca nut chewing habits. A systemic oral examination was done to access current oral health status in these users. Students were divided into two groups viz. Group 1 and 2, comprising of students from 4 to 10 years and 11 to18 years respectively. Results Total 34.5% children in Group 1 and 72.8% in Group 2, were indulged with the habit of chewing areca nut. Study revealed that social environment and secondarily stimulating effect of areca nut have association with initiation and maintenance of habits. A total of 55 subjects were diagnosed at various clinical stages of Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF). Conclusion Areca nut cessation programs should be initiated on the primary education level for the prevention of this habit in Western Rajasthan, India. PMID:28050496

  1. A Discrete-Time Analysis of the Effects of More Prolonged Exposure to Neighborhood Poverty on the Risk of Smoking Initiation by Age 25

    PubMed Central

    Kravitz-Wirtz, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that individuals who initiate smoking at younger ages are at increased risk for future tobacco dependence and continued use as well as for numerous smoking-attributable health problems. Identifying individual, household, and to a far lesser extent, contextual factors that predict early cigarette use has garnered considerable attention over the last several decades. However, the majority of scholarship in this area has been cross-sectional or conducted over relatively short windows of observation. Few studies have investigated the effects of more prolonged exposure to smoking-related risk factors, particularly neighborhood characteristics, from childhood through early adulthood. Using the 1970-2011 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics merged with census data on respondents’ neighborhoods, this study estimates a series of race-specific discrete-time marginal structural logit models for the risk of smoking initiation as a function of neighborhood poverty, as well as individual and household characteristics, from ages four through 25. Neighborhood selection bias is addressed using inverse-probability-of-treatment weights. Results indicate that more prolonged exposure to high (>20%) as opposed to low (<10%) poverty neighborhoods is associated with an increased risk of smoking onset by age 25, although consistent with prior literature, this effect is only evident among white and not nonwhite youth and young adults. PMID:26685707

  2. Internal Rb-Sr Age and Initial Sr-87/Sr-86 of a Silicate Inclusion from the Campo Del Cielo Iron Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Y.; Nyquist, L.; Wiesmann, H.; Shih, C.; Schwandt, C.; Takeda, H.

    2003-01-01

    The largest group of iron meteorites, IAB, is distinguished by the presence of diverse silicate inclusions. In principle, Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd radiometric dating of these silicate inclusions by internal isochron techniques can determine both the times of melting and parent/daughter ratios in the precursor materials via initial Sr-87/Sr-86 and Nd-143/Nd-144 ratios. The Sr-87/Sr-86 and Nd-143/Nd-144 ratios could distinguish chondritic precursors from already differentiated silicates. We reported Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd internal ischron ages of 4.52+/-0.03 Ga and 4.50+/-0.04 Ga, respectively, for plagioclase-diopside-rich material in the Caddo County IAB iron meteorite. These results are essentially identical to literature values of its Ar-Ar age of 4.520+/-0.005 Ga and its Sm-Nd age of 4.53+/-0.02 Ga. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the formation and evolution of silicate inclusions in IAB iron meteorites by determination of their initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios combined with higher-resolution chronology and mineralogical and geochemical studies.

  3. Initial excavation and dating of Ngalue Cave: a Middle Stone Age site along the Niassa Rift, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Mercader, Julio; Asmerom, Yemane; Bennett, Tim; Raja, Mussa; Skinner, Anne

    2009-07-01

    Direct evidence for a systematic occupation of the African tropics during the early late Pleistocene is lacking. Here, we report a record of human occupation between 105-42ka, based on results from a radiometrically-dated cave section from the Mozambican segment of the Niassa (Malawi/Nyasa) Rift called Ngalue. The sedimentary sequence from bottom to top has five units. We concentrate on the so-called "Middle Beds," which contain a Middle Stone Age industry characterized by the use of the discoidal reduction technique. A significant typological feature is the presence of formal types such as points, scrapers, awls, and microliths. Special objects consist of grinders/core-axes covered by ochre. Ngalue is one of the few directly-dated Pleistocene sites located along the biogeographical corridor for modern human dispersals that links east, central, and southern Africa, and, with further study, may shed new light on hominin cave habitats during the late Pleistocene.

  4. The Age of Initiation of Drug Use and Sexual Behavior May Influence Subsequent HIV Risk Behavior: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Potrepka, Jessica; Copenhaver, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Researchers examining injection drug users (IDUs) in drug treatment have been trying for decades to determine the optimal way to intervene to prevent the transmission and spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in this population. Although efficacious HIV risk reduction interventions are widely available, questions remain about what specific factors are most related to HIV risk behavior and defined as unprotected sexual activity and/or high risk drug use. This review involved an evaluation of the research literature in order to better understand the association between drug use and sexual behavior debut on HIV risk behavior. Findings suggest that drug use debut and sexual behavior debut may be related to subsequent HIV risk behavior. Evidence to date implies that intervening at an earlier age to assist youth to avoid or delay these high risk behaviors may be an additional means of reducing subsequent HIV risk. PMID:24381791

  5. The Age of Initiation of Drug Use and Sexual Behavior May Influence Subsequent HIV Risk Behavior: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Patrick; Shrestha, Roman; Potrepka, Jessica; Copenhaver, Michael

    2013-12-07

    Researchers examining injection drug users (IDUs) in drug treatment have been trying for decades to determine the optimal way to intervene to prevent the transmission and spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in this population. Although efficacious HIV risk reduction interventions are widely available, questions remain about what specific factors are most related to HIV risk behavior and defined as unprotected sexual activity and/or high risk drug use. This review involved an evaluation of the research literature in order to better understand the association between drug use and sexual behavior debut on HIV risk behavior. Findings suggest that drug use debut and sexual behavior debut may be related to subsequent HIV risk behavior. Evidence to date implies that intervening at an earlier age to assist youth to avoid or delay these high risk behaviors may be an additional means of reducing subsequent HIV risk.

  6. Initial precipitation and hardening mechanism during non-isothermal aging in an Al–Mg–Si–Cu 6005A alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Wenchao; Ji, Shouxun; Huang, Lanping; Sheng, Xiaofei; Li, Zhou; Wang, Mingpu

    2014-08-15

    The characterization of precipitation and hardening mechanism during non-isothermal aging had been investigated using high resolution transmission electron microscopy for an Al–Mg–Si–Cu 6005A alloy. It was proposed that the needle-shaped β″ precipitates with a three-dimension coherency strain-field and an increased number density in the Al matrix provided the maximum strengthening effect for the Al–Mg–Si–Cu 6005A alloy. Simultaneously, it was also found that the formation and evolution of clusters in the early precipitation were associated with the vacancy binding energy, during which Si atoms played an important role in controlling the numbers density of Mg/Si co-clusters, and the excess Si atoms provided the increased number of nucleation sites for the subsequent precipitates to strengthen and improve the precipitation rate. Finally, based on the experimental observation and theoretical analysis, the precipitation sequence during the early precipitation in the Al–Mg–Si–Cu 6005A alloy was proposed as: supersaturated solid solution → Si-vacancy pairs, Mg-vacancy pairs and Mg clusters → Si clusters, and dissolution of Mg clusters → Mg atoms diffusion into the existing Si clusters → Mg/Si co-clusters → GP zone. - Highlights: • β″ precipitates provide the maximum strengthening effect for the 6005A alloy. • Si atoms play an important role in controlling the numbers of Mg/Si co-clusters. • The early aging sequence is deduced based on the solute-vacancy binding energy.

  7. Comparison of knee gait kinematics of workers exposed to knee straining posture to those of non-knee straining workers.

    PubMed

    Gaudreault, Nathaly; Hagemeister, Nicola; Poitras, Stéphane; de Guise, Jacques A

    2013-06-01

    Workers exposed to knee straining postures, such as kneeling and squatting, may present modifications in knee gait kinematics that can make them vulnerable to osteoarthritis. In this study, knee kinematics of workers exposed to occupational knee straining postures (KS workers) were compared to those of non-knee straining (non-KS) workers. Eighteen KS workers and 20 non-KS workers participated in the study. Three-dimensional gait kinematic data were recorded at the knee using an electromagnetic motion tracking system. The following parameters were extracted from flexion/extension, adduction/abduction and internal/external rotation angle data and used for group comparisons: knee angle at initial foot contact, peak angles, minimal angles and angle range during the entire gait cycle. Group comparisons were performed with Student t-tests. In the sagittal plane, KS workers had a greater knee flexion angle at initial foot contact, a lower peak knee flexion angle during the swing phase and a lower angle range than non-KS workers (p<0.05). In the frontal plane, all parameters indicated that KS workers had their knees more adducted than non-KS workers. External/internal rotation range was greater for KS workers. This study provides new knowledge on work related to KS postures and knee kinematics. The results support the concept that KS workers might exhibit knee kinematics that are different from those of non-KS workers.

  8. OH-initiated heterogeneous oxidation of cholestane: a model system for understanding the photochemical aging of cyclic alkane aerosols.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haofei; Ruehl, Christopher R; Chan, Arthur W H; Nah, Theodora; Worton, David R; Isaacman, Gabriel; Goldstein, Allen H; Wilson, Kevin R

    2013-11-27

    Aerosols containing aliphatic hydrocarbons play a substantial role in the urban atmosphere. Cyclic alkanes constitute a large fraction of aliphatic hydrocarbon emissions originating from incomplete combustion of diesel fuel and motor oil. In the present study, cholestane (C27H48) is used as a model system to examine the OH-initiated heterogeneous oxidation pathways of cyclic alkanes in a photochemical flow tube reactor. Oxidation products are collected on filters and analyzed by a novel soft ionization two-dimensional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry technique. The analysis reveals that the first-generation functionalization products (cholestanones, cholestanals, and cholestanols) are the dominant reaction products that account for up to 70% by mass of the total speciated compounds. The ratio of first-generation carbonyls to alcohols is near unity at every oxidation level. Among the cholestanones/cholestanals, 55% are found to have the carbonyl group on the rings of the androstane skeleton, while 74% of cholestanols have the hydroxyl group on the rings. Particle-phase oxidation products with carbon numbers less than 27 (i.e., "fragmentation products") and higher-generation functionalization products are much less abundant. Carbon bond cleavage was found to occur only on the side chain. Tertiary-carbon alkoxy radicals are suggested to play an important role in governing both the distribution of functionalization products (via alkoxy radical isomerization and reaction with oxygen) and the fragmentation products (via alkoxy radical decomposition). These results provide new insights into the oxidation mechanism of cyclic alkanes.

  9. Population age and initial density in a patchy environment affect the occurrence of abrupt transitions in a birth-and-death model of Taylor's law

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, Jiang; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Zhang, B.; Cohen, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Taylor's power law describes an empirical relationship between the mean and variance of population densities in field data, in which the variance varies as a power, b, of the mean. Most studies report values of b varying between 1 and 2. However, Cohen (2014a) showed recently that smooth changes in environmental conditions in a model can lead to an abrupt, infinite change in b. To understand what factors can influence the occurrence of an abrupt change in b, we used both mathematical analysis and Monte Carlo samples from a model in which populations of the same species settled on patches, and each population followed independently a stochastic linear birth-and-death process. We investigated how the power relationship responds to a smooth change of population growth rate, under different sampling strategies, initial population density, and population age. We showed analytically that, if the initial populations differ only in density, and samples are taken from all patches after the same time period following a major invasion event, Taylor's law holds with exponent b=1, regardless of the population growth rate. If samples are taken at different times from patches that have the same initial population densities, we calculate an abrupt shift of b, as predicted by Cohen (2014a). The loss of linearity between log variance and log mean is a leading indicator of the abrupt shift. If both initial population densities and population ages vary among patches, estimates of b lie between 1 and 2, as in most empirical studies. But the value of b declines to ~1 as the system approaches a critical point. Our results can inform empirical studies that might be designed to demonstrate an abrupt shift in Taylor's law.

  10. New insights into the initiation and venting of the Bronze-Age eruption of Santorini (Greece), from component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druitt, T. H.

    2014-02-01

    The late-seventeenth century BC Minoan eruption of Santorini discharged 30-60 km3 of magma, and caldera collapse deepened and widened the existing 22 ka caldera. A study of juvenile, cognate, and accidental components in the eruption products provides new constraints on vent development during the five eruptive phases, and on the processes that initiated the eruption. The eruption began with subplinian (phase 0) and plinian (phase 1) phases from a vent on a NE-SW fault line that bisects the volcanic field. During phase 1, the magma fragmentation level dropped from the surface to the level of subvolcanic basement and magmatic intrusions. The fragmentation level shallowed again, and the vent migrated northwards (during phase 2) into the flooded 22 ka caldera. The eruption then became strongly phreatomagmatic and discharged low-temperature ignimbrite containing abundant fragments of post-22 ka, pre-Minoan intracaldera lavas (phase 3). Phase 4 discharged hot, fluidized pyroclastic flows from subaerial vents and constructed three main ignimbrite fans (northwestern, eastern, and southern) around the volcano. The first phase-4 flows were discharged from a vent, or vents, in the northern half of the volcanic field, and laid down lithic-block-rich ignimbrite and lag breccias across much of the NW fan. About a tenth of the lithic debris in these flows was subvolcanic basement. New subaerial vents then opened up, probably across much of the volcanic field, and finer-grained ignimbrite was discharged to form the E and S fans. If major caldera collapse took place during the eruption, it probably occurred during phase 4. Three juvenile components were discharged during the eruption—a volumetrically dominant rhyodacitic pumice and two andesitic components: microphenocryst-rich andesitic pumices and quenched andesitic enclaves. The microphenocryst-rich pumices form a textural, mineralogical, chemical, and thermal continuum with co-erupted hornblende diorite nodules, and together

  11. Administration's Plan to Eliminate Older Workers Jobs Program. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Retirement Income and Employment of the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session (Washington, DC, February 25, 1982; Boston, MA, February 19, 1982; Astoria, NY, February 22, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

    The Subcommittee on Aging of the House of Representatives was provided with information on the administration's plan to eliminate the older workers jobs program authorized by Title V, Older Americans Act. Testimony for each hearing begins with opening statements by members of the subcommittee. Statements follow from approximately 40 witnesses and…

  12. The Older Worker's Stake in Workers' Compensation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Monroe

    1975-01-01

    State Workers' Compensation programs can add another barrier for older workers to surmount at the hiring gate. State programs do not furnish adequate or equitable protection, and the National Commission on State Workmen's Compensation Laws has made recommendations to improve coverage; new standards must be met by July, 1975. (Author)

  13. To play or to pray?-The influences of initial exposure age and environment on perception of Mandarin speakers of English on devoiced liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sally; Fon, Janice

    2005-09-01

    The devoicing rule of liquids after voiceless aspirated stops presents difficulty for L2 English learners. This study investigates Mandarin speakers' perception of the rule with regards to initial exposure age and environment. Three initial exposure ages were included in this study: kindergarten, elementary, and junior high school. Except for the last group, each group was further divided into two exposure environments: Taiwan and the U.S. As a result, five groups of people were included in total, resulting in 25 subjects. Stimuli were pseudo-words in an SLV structure, recorded by one native English speaker and one non-native English speaker. Half of the stimuli began with a voiceless stop, and the other half began with a voiced stop. The native speakers pronounced the voiceless liquids accordingly while the non-native speaker only had voiced liquids. Preliminary results showed that, in general, L2 learners took longer time in perceiving devoiced liquids. Listeners who had earlier exposure were more likely to respond faster to native speech while late learners responded better to non-native speech.

  14. Worker-to-Worker Violence in Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Hamblin, Lydia E.; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Ager, Joel; Upfal, Mark; Luborsky, Mark; Russell, Jim; Arnetz, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Worker-to-worker (Type III) violence is prevalent in health care settings and has potential adverse consequences for employees and organizations. Little research has examined perpetrator characteristics of this type of violence. The current study is a descriptive examination of the common demographic and work-related characteristics of perpetrators of Type III workplace violence among hospital workers. Analysis was based on documented incidents of Type III violence reported within a large hospital system from 2010 to 2012. Nurses were involved as either the perpetrator or target in the five most common perpetrator–target dyads. Incidence rate ratios revealed that patient care associates and nurses were significantly more likely to be perpetrators than other job titles. By examining characteristics of perpetrators and common worker dyads involved in Type III workplace violence, hospital stakeholders and unit supervisors have a starting point to develop strategies for reducing conflict between workers. PMID:26450899

  15. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000130.htm Coal worker's pneumoconiosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis is a lung disease that results ...

  16. Mortality among aircraft manufacturing workers

    PubMed Central

    Boice, J. D.; Marano, D. E.; Fryzek, J. P.; Sadler, C. J.; McLaughlin, J. K.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the risk of cancer and other diseases among workers engaged in aircraft manufacturing and potentially exposed to compounds containing chromate, trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), and mixed solvents. METHODS: A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted of workers employed for at least 1 year at a large aircraft manufacturing facility in California on or after 1 January 1960. The mortality experience of these workers was determined by examination of national, state, and company records to the end of 1996. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were evaluated comparing the observed numbers of deaths among workers with those expected in the general population adjusting for age, sex, race, and calendar year. The SMRs for 40 cause of death categories were computed for the total cohort and for subgroups defined by sex, race, position in the factory, work duration, year of first employment, latency, and broad occupational groups. Factory job titles were classified as to likely use of chemicals, and internal Poisson regression analyses were used to compute mortality risk ratios for categories of years of exposure to chromate, TCE, PCE, and mixed solvents, with unexposed factory workers serving as referents. RESULTS: The study cohort comprised 77,965 workers who accrued nearly 1.9 million person-years of follow up (mean 24.2 years). Mortality follow up, estimated as 99% complete, showed that 20,236 workers had died by 31 December 1996, with cause of death obtained for 98%. Workers experienced low overall mortality (all causes of death SMR 0.83) and low cancer mortality (SMR 0.90). No significant increases in risk were found for any of the 40 specific cause of death categories, whereas for several causes the numbers of deaths were significantly below expectation. Analyses by occupational group and specific job titles showed no remarkable mortality patterns. Factory workers estimated to have been routinely exposed to chromate were

  17. Vitamin D status, dependence on age, and seasonal variations in the concentration of vitamin D in Croatian postmenopausal women initially screened for osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Laktasic-Zerjavic, Nadica; Korsic, Mirko; Crncevic-Orlic, Zeljka; Kovac, Zdenko; Polasek, Ozren; Soldo-Juresa, Dragica

    2010-08-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism, increased bone turnover, and bone loss, leading to increased risk for osteoporotic fractures. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of inadequate (insufficient or deficient) serum vitamin D levels in Croatian postmenopausal women initially screened for osteoporosis. Assessment of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was performed in 120 Croatian postmenopausal women aged > or =50 years. Three cut-off levels of vitamin D inadequacy were investigated: <75, <50, and <30 nmol/L. Among the included patients, only 14.2% of women complied with diagnostic criteria for osteoporosis. A total of nine (7.5%) had vitamin D levels greater than 75 nmol/L, suggesting that 92.5% of postmenopausal women had inadequate vitamin D status. The prevalence of two different cut-off point groups was 63.3% (<50 nmol/L) and 14.2% (<30 nmol/L). Mean (+/-SD) serum level of 25(OH)D was 46.94 (16.77) nmol/L. Vitamin D was exhibiting declining values with increasing age (r = -0.28; P = 0.002). The prevalence of vitamin D levels below 30 nmol/L was high in patient aged > or =65 years (23.8%). The highest mean level of vitamin D was detected in summer, with significant differences from spring and winter (P = 0.015 and P = 0.022, respectively). The results of this study indicate a high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in Croatian postmenopausal women initially screened for osteoporosis. High prevalence coupled with the rising recognition of potential clinical significance of the vitamin D inadequacy makes this highly interesting intervention target, suggesting that the attempts to increase the awareness on this issue are needed.

  18. The Initial Months of Antiretroviral Therapy and Its Influence on AGEs, HMGB1, and sRAGE Levels in Asymptomatic HIV-Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Caleffi, Juliana Trindade; Gatto, Mariana; de Camargo, Caio Cavassan; Mendes, Monica Bannwart; Golim, Marjorie de Assis; Biasin, Mara; de Souza, Lenice do Rosário

    2016-01-01

    The development of the typical comorbidities of aging which currently affects people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) can be partially ascribed to the persistent immune activation and chronic inflammation characterizing these individuals. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect exerted by combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) administration on plasma levels of HMGB1 (high mobility group box protein-1), AGEs (advanced glycation end products), their soluble receptor sRAGE, cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP), and some metabolic markers in asymptomatic PLWHA. Analyses were performed longitudinally in 30 PLWHA, before and about 6–12 months after cART initiation. We observed that lower levels of AGEs in post-cART group were accompanied by an increase of CRP and triglyceride levels already in the early months of therapy. Because of the current ever-earlier recommendations to start cART and its prolonged use, these and other markers should be investigated in order to monitor and postpone the appearance of non-AIDS comorbidities in PLWHA. PMID:28042203

  19. Multiple Metazoan Life-span Interventions Exhibit a Sex-specific Strehler-Mildvan Inverse Relationship Between Initial Mortality Rate and Age-dependent Mortality Rate Acceleration.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Landis, Gary N; Tower, John

    2017-01-01

    The Gompertz equation describes survival in terms of initial mortality rate (parameter a), indicative of health, and age-dependent acceleration in mortality rate (parameter b), indicative of aging. Gompertz parameters were analyzed for several published studies. In Drosophila females, mating increases egg production and decreases median life span, consistent with a trade-off between reproduction and longevity. Mating increased parameter a, causing decreased median life span, whereas time parameter b was decreased. The inverse correlation between parameters indicates the Strehler-Mildvan (S-M) relationship, where loss of low-vitality individuals yields a cohort with slower age-dependent mortality acceleration. The steroid hormone antagonist mifepristone/RU486 reversed these effects. Mating and mifepristone showed robust S-M relationships across genotypes, and dietary restriction showed robust S-M relationship across diets. Because nutrient optima differed between females and males, the same manipulation caused opposite effects on mortality rates in females versus males across a range of nutrient concentrations. Similarly, p53 mutation in Drosophila and mTOR mutation in mice caused increased median life span associated with opposite direction changes in mortality rate parameters in females versus males. The data demonstrate that dietary and genetic interventions have sex-specific and sometimes sexually opposite effects on mortality rates consistent with sexual antagonistic pleiotropy.

  20. Paleocene-Eocene foreland basin evolution in the Himalaya of southern Tibet and Nepal: Implications for the age of initial India-Asia collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCelles, P. G.; Kapp, P.; Gehrels, G. E.; Ding, L.

    2014-05-01

    Siliciclastic sedimentary rocks derived from the southern Lhasa terrane, sitting depositionally upon rocks of the northern Indian passive continental margin, provide an estimate of the age of initial contact between the continental parts of the Indian and Asian plates. We report sedimentological, sedimentary petrological, and geochronological data from Upper Cretaceous-Paleocene strata in the Sangdanlin section, located along the southern flank of the Indus-Yarlung suture zone in southern Tibet. This is probably the most proximal, and therefore the oldest, record of the India-Asia collision. These strata were deposited by high-density turbidity currents (or concentrated density flows) and suspension settling of pelagic biogenic debris in a deep-marine setting. An abrupt change from quartz-arenitic to feldspatholithic sandstone compositions marks the transition from Indian to Asian sediment provenance. The abrupt compositional change is accompanied by changes in U-Pb ages of detrital zircons diagnostic of a sediment provenance reversal, from Indian to Asian sources. The timing of the transition is bracketed between ~60 Ma and 58.5 ± 0.6 Ma by detrital zircon U-Pb ages and zircon U-Pb ages from a tuffaceous bed in the upper part of the section. In the context of a palinspastically restored regional paleogeographic framework, data from the Sangdanlin section combined with previously published data from the northern Tethyan Himalaya and the frontal Nepalese Lesser Himalaya and Subhimalaya suggest that a flexural wave migrated ~1300 km southward across what is now the Himalayan thrust belt from Paleocene time to the present.

  1. ADVANCED WORKER PROTECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Judson Hedgehock

    2001-03-16

    From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify

  2. [Evaluation of silicosis in ceramic workers].

    PubMed

    Sakar, Ayşin; Kaya, Ece; Celik, Pinar; Gencer, Nurhan; Temel, Orhan; Yaman, Nesrin; Sepit, Levent; Yildirim, Cetin Aydin; Dağyildizi, Lale; Coşkun, Evşen; Dinç, Gönül; Yorgancioğlu, Arzu; Cimrin, Arif Hikmet

    2005-01-01

    This study is aimed to evaluate the incidence of silicosis and the relation of it with personal and work-related factors among workers exposed to silica in ceramic factory. Workers were evaluated by respiratory symptoms, physical examination, pulmonary function and radiological findings. Occupational and Enviromental Pulmonary Disease Evaluation Questionnaire of the Turkish Thoracic Society Enviromental and Occupational Pulmonary Diseases Working Group was used. 365 of 626 workers had exposure to silica and the rest 261 were concerned as control group. There was no difference between mean age, duration of work and smoking pack year among the groups (p> 0.05). Cough and sputum rates were higher in silicosis group FEV1 and FVC values were lower in silica group but this was not statistically significant. When the two subgroups of silica group (the workers in high dust concentration and the ones in low concentration) were compared, the high concentrated group had significantly more sputum but the other symptoms and pulmonary functional parameters were not different significantly. 24 workers had parenchymal densities adjusted with pneumoconiosis. The workers with the pneumoconistic finding, had a higher mean age and longer duration of work. As a conclusion, ceramic industry has risk for silicosis. And the risk increase by time and age.

  3. A long term study of pulmonary function among US refractory ceramic fibre workers

    PubMed Central

    LeMasters, Grace K; Hilbert, Timothy J; Levin, Linda S; Rice, Carol H; Borton, Eric K; Lockey, James E

    2010-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional studies have shown declines in lung function among refractory ceramic fibre (RCF) workers with increasing fibre exposure. This study followed current and former workers (n=1396) for up to 17 years and collected 5243 pulmonary function tests. Methods Cumulative fibre exposure and production years were categorised into exposure levels at five manufacturing locations. Conventional longitudinal models did not adequately partition age-related changes from other time-dependent variables. Therefore, a restricted cubic spline model was developed to account for the non-linear decline with age. Results Cumulative fibre >60 fibre-months/cc showed a significant loss in lung function at the first test. When results were examined longitudinally, cumulative exposure was confounded with age as workers with the highest cumulative exposure were generally older. A longitudinal model adjusted by age groups was implemented to control for this confounding. No consistent longitudinal loss in lung function was observed with RCF exposure. Smoking, initial weight and weight increase were significant factors. Conclusion No consistent decline was observed longitudinally with exposure to RCF, although cross-sectional and longitudinal findings were discordant. Confounding and accelerated lung function declines with ageing and the correlation of multiple time-dependent variables should be considered in order to minimise error and maximise precision. An innovative statistical methodology for these types of data is described. PMID:20798015

  4. Molecular Markers of Lung Cancer in MAYAK Workers

    SciTech Connect

    Steven A. Belinsky, PhD

    2007-02-15

    from workers and controls to identify genes targeted for inactivation by plutonium in this other common histologic form of lung cancer. We will examine methylation of the p16, O{sup 6}-methylguanine-DNA methyl-transferase (MGMT), and death associated protein kinase genes ([DAP-K], evaluated previously in adenocarcinomas) as well as the new genes being assessed in the adenocarcinomas. The second hypothesis will be tested in a cross-sectional study of cancer-free workers exposed to plutonium and an unexposed population. A cohort of 700 cancer-free workers and 700 unexposed persons is being assembled, exposures are being defined, and induced sputum collected at initial entry into the study and approximately 1-year later. Exposed and unexposed persons will be matched by 5-year age intervals and smoking status (current and former). The frequency for methylation of four genes that show the greatest difference in prevalence in tumors from workers and controls will be determined in exfoliated cells within sputum. These studies will extend those in primary tumors to determine whether difference in prevalence for individual or multiple genes are detected in sputum samples from high-risk subjects exposed to plutonium. Follow-up of this cohort offers the opportunity to validate these endpoints and future biomarkers as true markers for lung cancer risk.

  5. Stress and work ability in oil industry workers.

    PubMed

    Bresić, Jozo; Knezević, Bojana; Milosević, Milan; Tomljanović, Tomislav; Golubić, Rajna; Golubović, Rajna; Mustajbegović, Jadranka

    2007-12-01

    This cross-sectional study conducted between March and June 2006 examined stress at work and work ability of 180 people with different workplaces within an oil company. Office, laboratory, and oil-field workers were invited to complete the "Occupational Stress Assessment Questionnaire--the Oil Industry Version and Work Ability Index (WAI) Questionnaire". The overall response rate was 69.4%, and the final sample size was 125 workers who completed the questionnaires (57 office, 41 laboratory, 27 oil-field workers). Office, laboratory, and oil-field workers differed significantly with respect to age (P<0.001). The oldest were oil-field workers and the youngest were office workers. The average WAI score for office workers was 44.9, for laboratory workers 43.2 and for field workers 39.7, indicating satisfying work ability. After adjusting for age, the difference in WAI score between the groups of workers was still significant (P<0.001). Over 75% of all workers believed their job was stressful, but the perception of specific stressors depended on the workplace.

  6. Timing of magmatism following initial convergence at a passive margin, southwestern U.S. Cordillera, and ages of lower crustal magma sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barth, A.P.; Wooden, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    Initiation of the Cordilleran magmatic arc in the southwestern United States is marked by intrusion of granitic plutons, predominantly composed of alkali-calcic Fe- and Sr-enriched quartz monzodiorite and monzonite, that intruded Paleoproterozoic basement and its Paleozoic cratonal-miogeoclinal cover. Three intrusive suites, recognized on the basis of differences in high field strength element and large ion lithophile element abundances, contain texturally complex but chronologically distinctive zircons. These zircons record heterogeneous but geochemically discrete mafic crustal magma sources, discrete Permo-Triassic intrusion ages, and a prolonged postemplacement thermal history within the long-lived Cordilleran arc, leading to episodic loss of radiogenic Pb. Distinctive lower crustal magma sources reflect lateral heterogeneity within the composite lithosphere of the Proterozoic craton. Limited interaction between derived magmas and middle and upper crustal rocks probably reflects the relatively cool thermal structure of the nascent Cordilleran continental margin magmatic arc. ?? 2006 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of health services among vineyard and winery workers in the North Willamette Valley, Oregon.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Cevallos, Daniel F; Garside, Leda I; Vazquez, Leticia; Polanco, Kristty

    2012-02-01

    Although agricultural work is considered one of the most dangerous and physically demanding jobs, the majority of farmworkers remain vulnerable to disease and injury, while use of health services is limited. The present study analyzes the use of health care services among vineyard and winery workers in the North Willamette Valley, Oregon. Data from 513 foreign-born workers collected during the summer of 2009 by ¡Salud! Services, was used to test the influence of relevant predisposing and enabling factors of the Behavioral Model of Health Care Utilization among Vulnerable Populations. The majority of participants were males (87%) with an average age of 33 years. Over half of the workers were either married or living with a partner (54%) and had children living with them (58%). Very few spoke English (5%) and only a third had more than 6 years of formal education. Two-thirds of workers (65%) had a full time job and shared housing (67%). Only one of every five workers (19%) had health insurance. Multivariate analyses show that use of health services in the past 2 years is more likely among females, those who have children, have more than 6 years of education, work full time, are insured, and are currently attending school. This study provides further insight for health care provision initiatives to reduce the many barriers faced by farmworkers and their families.

  8. SCC INITIATION AND GROWTH RATE STUDIES ON TITANIUM GRADE 7 AND BASE METAL, WELDED, AND AGED ALLOY 22 IN CONCENTRATED GROUNDWATER

    SciTech Connect

    J.H. Payer

    2005-08-01

    The stress corrosion crack initiation and growth rate response was evaluated on as-received, as-welded, cold worked and aged Alloy 22 (UNS N06022) and titanium Grades 7 (UNS R52400), 28 (UNS R55323) and 29 (UNS R56404) at 105-165 C in various aerated, concentrated groundwater environments. Time-to-failure experiments on actively-loaded tensile specimens at 105 C evaluated the effects of applied stress, welding, surface finish, shot peening, cold work, crevicing, and aging treatments in Alloy 22 (UNS N06022), and found these materials to be highly resistant to SCC (none observed). Long-term U-bend data at 165 C corroborated these findings. Titanium Grade 7 and stainless steels were also included in the 105 C test matrix. Long term crack growth rate data showed stable crack growth in titanium Grade 7. Recent creep tests in air confirm literature data that these alloys are quite susceptible to creep failure, even below the yield stress, and it is unclear whether cracking in SCC tests is only accelerated by the creep response, or whether creep is responsible for cracking. Alloy 22 exhibited stable growth rates under ''gentle'' cyclic loading, but was prone to crack arrest at fully static loading. No effect of Pb additions was observed.

  9. Perceived Stress among Malaysian Railway Workers

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Elkalmi, Ramadan; Alshakka, Mohammed; Ghanem, Nizar

    2016-01-01

    Background Stress is a common work-related problem worldwide. Railway workers are predominantly stressed due to their rigid protocols and limited rest opportunities. This study aimed to determine the level of, and factors associated with, stress among railway workers in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among all 729 railway workers employed at Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad (KTMB) in eight states in Malaysia via a postal survey. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of socio-demographic characteristics and the validated Malay version of Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS-10). Response rate was 70.4% (513/729). Results Mean (SD) age of workers was 41.4 (10.7), with the majority aged 30 years or older (79.3%). Mean (SD) perceived stress was 18.8 (4.3). In multiple linear regression analysis, the significant predictors of high stress were high school versus tertiary education (β = 0.10, 95% CI 0.11, 1.73, P = 0.027) and being a white collar worker versus blue collar (β = 0.113, 95% CI 0.10, 1.74, P = 0.010). Conclusions Education level and type of work were significantly associated with perceived stress among railway workers in this study. PMID:27904423

  10. Working with Homeless School-Aged Children: Barriers to School Social Work Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groton, Danielle; Teasley, Martell L.; Canfield, James P.

    2013-01-01

    With the needs and challenges of adolescent homelessness on the rise, the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (MVA) was crafted as a public policy initiative aimed at facilitating access to schools for this population. While school social workers are the designated personnel for practice with homeless school-aged children, we know little about…

  11. Recruitment for Occupational Research: Using Injured Workers as the Point of Entry into Workplaces

    PubMed Central

    Koehoorn, Mieke; Trask, Catherine M.; Teschke, Kay

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility, costs and sample representativeness of a recruitment method that used workers with back injuries as the point of entry into diverse working environments. Methods Workers' compensation claims were used to randomly sample workers from five heavy industries and to recruit their employers for ergonomic assessments of the injured worker and up to 2 co-workers. Results The final study sample included 54 workers from the workers’ compensation registry and 72 co-workers. This sample of 126 workers was based on an initial random sample of 822 workers with a compensation claim, or a ratio of 1 recruited worker to approximately 7 sampled workers. The average recruitment cost was CND$262/injured worker and CND$240/participating worksite including co-workers. The sample was representative of the heavy industry workforce, and was successful in recruiting the self-employed (8.2%), workers from small employers (<20 workers, 38.7%), and workers from diverse working environments (49 worksites, 29 worksite types, and 51 occupations). Conclusions The recruitment rate was low but the cost per participant reasonable and the sample representative of workers in small worksites. Small worksites represent a significant portion of the workforce but are typically underrepresented in occupational research despite having distinct working conditions, exposures and health risks worthy of investigation. PMID:23826387

  12. Cardiovascular Fitness Levels among American Workers

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, John E.; Clark, John D.; LeBlanc, William G.; Fleming, Lora E.; Cabán-Martinez, Alberto J.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Tannenbaum, Stacey L.; Ocasio, Manuel A.; Davila, Evelyn P.; Kachan, Diana; McCollister, Kathryn; Dietz, Noella; Bandiera, Frank C.; Clarke, Tainya C.; Lee, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore cardiovascular fitness in 40 occupations using a nationally-representative 3 sample of the U.S. population. Methods Respondents aged 18–49 (n=3,354) from the 1999–2004 NHANES were evaluated for 5 cardiovascular fitness and classified into low, moderate, and high levels. Comparisons were 6 made among occupations. Results Of all U.S. workers, 16% had low, 36% moderate, and 48% high cardiovascular 8 fitness. Administrators, Health occupations, Wait staff, Personal services, and Agricultural 9 occupations had a lesser percentage of workers with low cardiovascular fitness compared to all 10 others. Sales workers, Administrative support, and Food preparers had a higher percentage of 11 workers with low cardiovascular fitness compared to all others. Conclusions Cardiovascular fitness varies significantly across occupations, and those with limited physical activity have higher percentages of low cardiovascular fitness. Workplace strategies are needed to promote cardiovascular fitness among high-risk occupations. PMID:21915067

  13. Physiology of reproductive worker honey bees (Apis mellifera): insights for the development of the worker caste.

    PubMed

    Peso, Marianne; Even, Naïla; Søvik, Eirik; Naeger, Nicholas L; Robinson, Gene E; Barron, Andrew B

    2016-02-01

    Reproductive and behavioural specialisations characterise advanced social insect societies. Typically, the honey bee (Apis mellifera) shows a pronounced reproductive division of labour between worker and queen castes, and a clear division of colony roles among workers. In a queenless condition, however, both of these aspects of social organisation break down. Queenless workers reproduce, forage and maintain their colony operating in a manner similar to communal bees, rather than as an advanced eusocial group. This plasticity in social organisation provides a natural experiment for exploring physiological mechanisms of division of labour. We measured brain biogenic amine (BA) levels and abdominal fat body vitellogenin gene expression levels of workers in queenright and queenless colonies. Age, ovary activation and social environment influenced brain BA levels in honey bees. BA levels were most influenced by ovary activation state in queenless bees. Vitellogenin expression levels were higher in queenless workers than queenright workers, but in both colony environments vitellogenin expression was lower in foragers than non-foragers. We propose this plasticity in the interacting signalling systems that influence both reproductive and behavioural development allows queenless workers to deviate significantly from the typical worker bee reaction norm and develop as reproductively active behavioural generalists.

  14. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration.

  15. Contrast-sensitivity loss in a group of former microelectronics workers with normal visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Frenette, B; Mergler, D; Bowler, R

    1991-07-01

    The measurement of contrast sensitivity at varying grating frequencies is used increasingly to study visual and neural disorders. It provides more information than conventional acuity measures. Refractive errors initially affect high spatial frequencies, whereas lower spatial frequencies are affected only when these errors are pronounced. Neurophysiological alterations are reflected by depressed sensitivity to coarse gratings. Visual dysfunction has been associated with workplace exposures to a wide range of organic solvents. In microelectronics assembly where large quantities of organic solvents are used in many aspects of the work processes, visual deficits have been observed. The objective of the present study was to compare contrast sensitivity among former microelectronics assembly workers, with normal far and near visual acuity, and a reference group from the same region, with similar acuity. No significant differences were observed between scores at the two ends of the contrast sensitivity curves; however, at the intermediate spatial frequencies, the former microelectronics workers' scores were significantly lower (Student's t-test; p less than 0.05). For the microelectronics workers, no relation was observed between age and contrast sensitivity at any spatial frequency, whereas for the reference group, contrast sensitivity scores were progressively lower with age at spatial frequencies greater than or equal to 6.0 cpd (r2 = 0.15 at 6 cpd to r2 = 0.45 at 18.0 cpd), suggesting that for the former there is some form of interference with the expected contrast sensitivity loss with age. Lower contrast sensitivity scores in intermediate spatial frequencies, observed among the former microelectronics workers, possibly reflect neural alterations, which may have resulted from exposure to neurotoxic substances. These findings suggest the need for further studies on visual functions in microelectronics workers.

  16. Age influences initial dose and compliance to imatinib in chronic myeloid leukemia elderly patients but concomitant comorbidities appear to influence overall and event-free survival.

    PubMed

    Breccia, Massimo; Luciano, Luigiana; Latagliata, Roberto; Castagnetti, Fausto; Ferrero, Dario; Cavazzini, Francesco; Trawinska, Malgorzata Monica; Annunziata, Mario; Stagno, Fabio; Tiribelli, Mario; Binotto, Gianni; Crisà, Elena; Musto, Pellegrino; Gozzini, Antonella; Cavalli, Laura; Montefusco, Enrico; Iurlo, Alessandra; Russo, Sabina; Cedrone, Michele; Rossi, Antonella Russo; Pregno, Patrizia; Endri, Mauro; Spadea, Antonio; Molica, Matteo; Giglio, Gianfranco; Celesti, Francesca; Sorà, Federica; Storti, Sergio; D'Addosio, Ada; Cambrin, Giovanna Rege; Isidori, Alessandro; Sica, Simona; Abruzzese, Elisabetta; Speccha, Giorgina; Rosti, Gianantonio; Alimena, Giuliana

    2014-10-01

    We applied Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) stratification on a large cohort of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) very elderly patients (>75 years) treated with imatinib, in order to observe the impact of concomitant diseases on both compliance and outcome. One hundred and eighty-one patients were recruited by 21 Italian centers. There were 95 males and 86 females, median age 78.6 years (range 75-93.6). According to Sokal score, 106 patients were classified as intermediate risk and 55 as high risk (not available in 20 patients). According to CCI stratification, 71 patients had score 0 and 110 a score ≥ 1. Imatinib standard dose was reduced at start of therapy (200-300 mg/day) in 68 patients independently from the evaluation of baseline comorbidities, but based only on physician judgement: 43.6% of these patients had score 0 compared to 34% of patients who had score ≥ 1. Significant differences were found in terms of subsequent dose reduction (39% of patients with score 0 compared to 53% of patients with score ≥ 1) and in terms of drug discontinuation due to toxicity (35% of patients with score 0 vs 65% of patients with score ≥ 1). We did not find significant differences as regards occurrence of hematologic side effects, probably as a consequence of the initial dose reduction: 39% of patients with score 0 experienced grade 3/4 hematologic toxicity (most commonly anemia) compared to 42% of patients with score ≥ 1. Independently from the initial dose, comorbidities again did not have an impact on development of grade 3/4 non-hematologic side effects (most commonly skin rash, muscle cramps and fluid retention): 62% of patients with score 0 compared to 52.5% of patients with score ≥ 1. Notwithstanding the reduced dose and the weight of comorbidities we did not find significant differences but only a trend in terms of efficacy: 66% of patients with score 0 achieved a CCyR compared to 54% of patients with score ≥ 1. Comorbidities appeared to have an impact on

  17. Factors affecting individual injury experience among petroleum drilling workers.

    PubMed

    Mueller, B A; Mohr, D L; Rice, J C; Clemmer, D I

    1987-02-01

    To identify factors affecting the number of injuries experienced by petroleum drilling workers, we carried out a 44-month incidence density study on a cohort employed in January 1979 on mobile drilling units in the Gulf of Mexico. To control for job-related hazards, we computed a standardized ratio of observed to expected injuries for each worker based on his job history. The effect of personal and work history factors was then examined using analysis of variance. Age, rate of job changes, and rate of rig transfers had independent effects on injury rates. Length of service had little effect when age was controlled. The findings suggest that younger workers under stress such as job change may be more susceptible to injury than older workers, regardless of job. If so, targeted changes in procedures and environment which protect workers of all ages are important alternatives to reliance on supervision and experience in injury reduction.

  18. Barriers to Training for Older Workers and Possible Policy Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooden, Mark; VandenHeuvel, Adriana; Cully, Mark; Curtain, Richard

    This report covers a study of barriers for older workers in obtaining and benefitting from training and innovative policies to remove them. After an introduction, Chapter 2 reviews literature on incidence and determinants of older workers' participation in training; barriers to training; and employer and government initiatives to enhance older…

  19. Supporting Child Welfare Supervisors to Improve Worker Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsman, Miriam

    2007-01-01

    Recent child welfare research has identified supervisors as key to retaining qualified and committed workers. This paper describes implementation of a federally funded child welfare training initiative designed to improve worker retention largely through developing, implementing, and evaluating a statewide supervisor training program in a…

  20. Psychiatric Disorders Prior to Dating Initiation and Physical Dating Violence Before Age 21: Findings from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R)

    PubMed Central

    McCauley, Heather L.; Breslau, Joshua A.; Saito, Naomi; Miller, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Poor mental health is associated with teen dating violence (TDV), but whether there are specific types of psychiatric disorders that could be targeted with intervention to reduce TDV remains unknown. Methods Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the associations of psychiatric disorders that emerged prior to dating initiation with subsequent physical dating violence in a nationally representative sample from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, adjusting statistically for adverse childhood experiences. Results In adjusted models, internalizing disorders (AOR 1.14, 95% CI 1.04, 1.25; no sex differences noted) and externalizing disorders (males: AOR 1.28, 95% CI 1.10, 1.49; females: AOR 1.85, 95% CI 1.55, 2.21) were associated with subsequent involvement in any physical dating violence victimization or perpetration before the age of 21. Those at greatest risk included girls with ADHD and substance use, in particular. Conclusions The range of psychiatric disorders associated with of TDV is broader than has generally been recognized for both boys and girls. Clinical and public health prevention programs should incorporate strategies for addressing multiple pathways through which poor mental health may put adolescents at risk for TDV. PMID:25773524

  1. Feasibility of CT-based intraoperative 3D stereotactic image-guided navigation in the upper cervical spine of children 10 years of age or younger: initial experience.

    PubMed

    Kovanda, Timothy J; Ansari, Shaheryar F; Qaiser, Rabia; Fulkerson, Daniel H

    2015-07-24

    OBJECT Rigid screw fixation may be technically difficult in the upper cervical spine of young children. Intraoperative stereotactic navigation may potentially assist a surgeon in precise placement of screws in anatomically challenging locations. Navigation may also assist in defining abnormal anatomy. The object of this study was to evaluate the authors' initial experience with the feasibility and accuracy of this technique, both for resection and for screw placement in the upper cervical spine in younger children. METHODS Eight consecutive pediatric patients 10 years of age or younger underwent upper cervical spine surgery aided by image-guided navigation. The demographic, surgical, and clinical data were recorded. Screw position was evaluated with either an intraoperative or immediately postoperative CT scan. RESULTS One patient underwent navigation purely for guidance of bony resection. A total of 14 navigated screws were placed in the other 7 patients, including 5 C-2 pedicle screws. All 14 screws were properly positioned, defined as the screw completely contained within the cortical bone in the expected trajectory. There were no immediate complications associated with navigation. CONCLUSIONS Image-guided navigation is feasible within the pediatric cervical spine and may be a useful surgical tool for placing screws in a patient with small, often difficult bony anatomy. The authors describe their experience with their first 8 pediatric patients who underwent navigation in cervical spine surgery. The authors highlight differences in technique compared with similar navigation in adults.

  2. Special Issue: Rural Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodson, Elizabeth; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The issue discusses the role of the International Labour Office in the field of workers' education for rural workers and their organizations. Articles discuss labor conditions, child labor in agriculture, gender and equality training, trade unions, fair trade, and changing patterns of food production. Appendixes include information about…

  3. Migrant Farm Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesinger, Doris P.; Pfeffer, Max J.

    This paper documents migrant farm workers as being among the most persistently underprivileged groups in American society. Migrant farm workers typically receive low wages from irregular employment and live in poverty with access to only substandard housing and inadequate health care. The lack of economic improvement stems from a number of…

  4. Workers Kaleidoscope: 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, Washington, DC.

    This manual was prepared to provide union leaders, organizers, and local officers with information about the experiences of Asian-American, Black, Hispanic-American, female, and part-time workers. The Asian-American workers section includes information on Chinese, Japanese, Filipinos, Koreans, Asian-Indians, Southeast Asians, and Pacific Islanders…

  5. Workers' Education in Palestine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elayassa, Wajih

    2013-01-01

    Due to the political context and the restrictions placed on general freedoms and trade union activities, workers' education in Palestine remained informal and largely reliant on oral memory until the early 1990s. For decades, it was an integral part of political education. Workers' education only became a stand-alone field after the establishment…

  6. 20 CFR 404.1016 - Foreign agricultural workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 404.1016 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1016 Foreign agricultural workers. Farm work done by foreign workers...

  7. Mexican Workers and U.S. Agriculture: The Revolving Door.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Philip

    2002-01-01

    Discusses agriculture and farming factors affecting immigration and integration policies. Examines seasonality, wages, and guest workers; the Immigration Reform and Control Act; and the search for seasonal workers. Data suggest that first generation immigrants age out of seasonal farm work with few skills to enable them to climb any job ladder,…

  8. Why Don't Workers Want To Be Promoted?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Deborah K.

    This study has tried to provide answers for why 45% of American workers do not want to be promoted in the next 20 years. It was hypothesized that six determinants such as health, low income and job dissatisfaction are responsible for not wanting job promotion. Sex, age and race were hypothesized as determinants of worker's promotional…

  9. Burnout in Hospital Social Workers Who Work with AIDS Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oktay, Julianne S.

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 128 hospital social workers who worked with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients. Found that hospital AIDS social workers had slightly higher rates of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization on Maslach Burnout Inventory but also felt substantially higher level of personal accomplishment. Age, autonomy, and belonging to…

  10. Agricultural Worker Protection Standard (WPS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Agricultural Worker Protection Standard (WPS) is aimed at reducing the risk of pesticide poisoning and injury among agricultural workers and pesticide handlers. It places specific requirements on employers of such workers.

  11. Effect of Age at Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation on Catch-Up Growth within the First 24 Months among HIV-Infected Children in the IeDEA West African Pediatric Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Jesson, Julie; Koumakpaï, Sikiratou; Diagne, Ndeye R.; Amorissani-Folquet, Madeleine; Kouéta, Fla; Aka, Addi; Lawson-Evi, Koko; Dicko, Fatoumata; Kouakou, Kouadio; Pety, Touré; Renner, Lorna; Eboua, Tanoh; Coffie, Patrick A.; Desmonde, Sophie; Leroy, Valériane

    2015-01-01

    Background We described malnutrition and the effect of age at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation on catch-up growth over 24 months among HIV-infected children enrolled in the IeDEA West African paediatric cohort (pWADA). Methods Malnutrition was defined at ART initiation (baseline) by a Z-score <-2 SD, according to three anthropometric indicators: Weight-for-age (WAZ) for underweight, Height-for-age (HAZ) for stunting, and Weight-for-Height/BMI-for-age (WHZ/BAZ) for wasting. Kaplan-Meier estimates for catch-up growth (Z-score ≥-2 SD) on ART, adjusted for gender, immunodeficiency and malnutrition at ART initiation, ART regimen, time period and country, were compared by age at ART initiation. Cox proportional hazards regression models determined predictors of catch-up growth on ART over 24 months. Results Between 2001 and 2012, 2004 HIV-infected children < 10 years of age were included. At ART initiation, 51% were underweight, 48% were stunted and 33% were wasted. The 24-month adjusted estimates for catch-up growth were 69% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 57;80), 61% (95%CI: 47;70), and 90% (95%CI: 76;95) for WAZ, HAZ, and WHZ/BAZ, respectively. Adjusted catch-up growth was more likely for children <5 years of age at ART initiation compared to children ≥5 years for WAZ, HAZ (P<0.001), and for WHZ/BAZ (P = 0.026). Conclusions Malnutrition among these children is an additional burden that has to be urgently managed. Despite a significant growth improvement after 24 months on ART, especially in children <5 years, a substantial proportion of children still never achieved catch-up growth. Nutritional care should be part of the global healthcare of HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:25955835

  12. On the line: worker democracy and the struggle over occupational health and safety.

    PubMed

    Granzow, Kara; Theberge, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    In this article we present a qualitative analysis of worker involvement in a participatory project to improve occupational health and safety at a Canadian manufacturing site. Based on interviews with workers in the plant, we consider the manner and degree to which workers experienced meaningful participation in the intervention process and some of the main barriers to worker participation. Findings emphasize the importance of the social and political context in conditioning the dynamics of joint management labor ventures specifically in relation to health initiatives. Interviews revealed few instances in which workers felt included in the participatory initiative; most often they felt marginalized. In the absence of structural change in the plant, workers described the health initiative as seriously limited in its ability to render meaningful worker participation. These results extend beyond this analysis of a participatory workplace health initiative, offering insights into the dynamics of institutional participatory process, and into participatory research practice generally.

  13. Are healthcare workers immune to rubella?

    PubMed

    Borràs, Eva; Campins, Magda; Esteve, María; Urbiztondo, Luis; Broner, Sonia; Bayas, José María; Costa, Josep; Domínguez, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare workers (HCW) have high exposure to infectious diseases, some of which, such as rubella, are vaccine-preventable. The aim of this study was to determine the immunity of HCW against rubella. We performed a seroprevalence study using a self-administered survey and obtained blood samples to determine rubella Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels in HCW during preventive examinations by five Primary Care Basic Prevention Units and six tertiary hospitals in Catalonia. Informed consent was obtained. IgG was determined using an antibody capture microparticle direct chemiluminometric technique. The odss ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Logistic regression was made to calculate adjusted OR. Of 642 HCW who participated (29.9% physician, 38.8% nurses, 13.3% other health workers and 18% non-health workers), 46.6% were primary care workers and 53.4% hospital workers. Of total, 97.2% had rubella antibodies. HCW aged 30-44 years had a higher prevalence of antibodies (98.4%) compared with HCW aged<30 years (adjusted OR 3.92; 95% CI 1.04-14.85). The prevalence was higher in nurses than in other HCW (adjusted OR: 5.57, 95% CI 1.21-25.59). Antibody prevalence did not differ between females and males (97.4% vs. 97.1%, P 0.89), type of center (97.7% vs. 96.8%, P 0.51) or according to history of vaccination (97.3% vs. 96.8%, P 0.82). Seroprevalence of rubella antibodies is high in HCW, but workers aged<30 years have a higher susceptibility (5.5%). Vaccination should be reinforced in HCW in this age group, due to the risk of nosocomial transmission and congenital rubella.

  14. Workers' Institutes: Envisioned Community, Living Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernández-Soria, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the Workers' Institutes (WI), one of the most important educational initiatives undertaken by the Spanish Republic during the Civil War (1936-1939). After framing their creation within the context of European trends in higher education for the working classes and within the Spanish socio-political context, this article…

  15. Mortality among female manual workers.

    PubMed Central

    Gunnarsdóttir, H; Rafnsson, V

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to determine whether female manual workers have higher mortality than other women. DESIGN--This was a retrospective cohort study in which mortality was compared with that of the general female population. Main outcome measures were standardised mortality ratio (SMR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). SETTING--Reykjavík region. PARTICIPANTS--Participants were 18,878 women, the cumulated members of a pension fund for manual workers between 1970 and 1986. MAIN RESULTS--A healthy worker effect was observed in the total cohort. The study was then restricted to those who had contributed to the pension fund any time after reaching 20 years of age, and a 10 year latency period was instituted. When analysing subcohorts by duration of employment the standardised mortality ratios for all causes of death and all cancers increased with longer employment time up to 10 years. However, the ratios were low in the group with over 10 years of employment. Those who began contributing to the fund in 1977 or later had higher mortality than those who began earlier. There was an excess of lung and bladder cancer in the total cohort and in all the subcohorts except in the group with over 10 years' employment. Mortality from accidents and suicides was in excess in all the groups. CONCLUSIONS--Mortality is high among some groups of female manual workers. A deficit was found among those with the longest employment. Differences in mortality have widened in recent years. An excess of suicides shows that women in this group have, for some reason, less will to live than other women. PMID:1494075

  16. Respiratory disability in ex-cotton workers.

    PubMed Central

    Elwood, P C; Sweetnam, P M; Bevan, C; Saunders, M J

    1986-01-01

    A high proportion of textile workers handling cotton and flax complain of respiratory symptoms and show a loss in lung function. These effects are reversible in the early stages but the degree to which they lead to permanent respiratory disability is unknown. Two surveys were therefore conducted in which respiratory function and symptoms were compared in ex-textile workers and in control subjects who had never been exposed to textile dusts. One survey was of ex-flax workers in Northern Ireland. The present survey was of ex-cotton workers in Lancashire. A survey of random population samples in Oldham and Bolton, in both of which cotton had formerly been the most important source of employment, was conducted. After allowing for age, height, and smoking, lung function was about 2-8% lower in the ex-textile workers than in controls who had never been exposed to any dust. Ex-textile workers were slightly shorter than the controls, suggestive of past social and nutritional deprivation which may have contributed to the decrement in lung function. There was evidence of a small but increasing decrement in lung function with an increase in a "dust exposure" score. For men, about 15 years of heavy dust exposure was associated with a loss in FEV1 equivalent to that shown by light or ex-smokers. For women, 15 years of heavy dust exposure appeared to be associated with a decrement in FEV1 about half that of light smoking. PMID:3756107

  17. Fatal falls among Hispanic construction workers.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiuwen Sue; Fujimoto, Alissa; Ringen, Knut; Men, Yurong

    2009-09-01

    This study evaluated occupational deaths resulting from fall injuries among Hispanic construction workers using data from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and the Current Population Survey. The demographics and characteristics of fatal falls among Hispanic workers were examined and compared with that of their white, non-Hispanic counterparts. The results show that fatal injuries among Hispanic construction workers were more likely to be caused by a fall than their white, non-Hispanic counterparts (OR=1.48, 95% CI: 1.05-2.10) after controlling for possible confounders. The rate of fatal falls for foreign-born Hispanic construction workers was 5.5 per 100,000 FTE, which is significantly higher than 4.1 per 100,000 FTE for Hispanic workers who were born in the U.S. (OR=1.36, 95% CI: 1.08-1.67). The disparities in fatal injuries from falls were found in age groups, job tenure, occupations, and types of construction projects. This study also found that about every two of three fatal falls in construction occurred in establishments with 10 or fewer employees. More prevention, intervention, and training measures must be applied to Hispanic workers, especially those who are new immigrants. OSHA enforcements should target small construction establishments in order to lower overall fatality rates, costs, and unnecessary losses of life.

  18. Neuropsychological impairment among former microelectronics workers.

    PubMed

    Bowler, R M; Mergler, D; Huel, G; Harrison, R; Cone, J

    1991-01-01

    Although chemicals posing potential neurotoxic hazards are commonly used in the microelectronics industry, there has been no systematic study of possible chronic nervous system effects in microelectronics workers. The objective of the present study was to assess neuropsychological functions of a group of former microelectronics plant assembly workers and a group of referents, using a matched pair design. During employment, the former microelectronics workers had been exposed to multiple organic solvents, including trichloroethylene, xylene, chlorofluorocarbons and trichloroethane. Referents were recruited from the same geographic region. From a pool of 180 former workers and 157 referents, 67 pairs were matched on the basis of age, sex, ethnicity, educational level, sex and number of children. Comparison of results on the subtests of the California Neuropsychological Screening Battery-Revised (CNS-R) revealed significantly lower performance by the former microelectronics workers on tests of attention/concentration, verbal ability, memory functions, visuospatial functions, visuomotor speed, cognitive flexibility, psychomotor speed, and reaction time (t-test for pairs or Wilcoxon Signed Rank p less than 0.05). No significant differences were observed for performance on tests assessing mental status, visual recall, tactile function and learning. This overall pattern of impairment is consistent with organic solvent-related chronic toxic encephalopathy, and possible early stages of dementia. These findings underline the need for more studies among workers currently or previously employed in microelectronics industries.

  19. Permanent Disability Benefits in Workers' Compensation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Monroe; Burton, John F., Jr.

    This document, current through 1986, contains four parts. Part I presents a conceptual framework used to view disability among the working age population; the rudiments and objectives of workers' compensation programs; and an explanation of the criteria of adequacy, equity, and efficiency as used in the report. Part II presents a study of 10…

  20. Older Workers and VET. At a Glance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawe, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Australia, in common with many industrialised countries, must adjust in the coming years to an ageing population. The labour force participation rate is projected to fall and there will be a record number of older people who have retired from work. Thus, there will be fewer workers as a share of the population to generate the income needed to…

  1. Progressive lung disease in a malt-worker.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, M E; Friend, J A

    1981-01-01

    We described a malt-worker whose initial symptoms suggested extrinsic allergic alveolitis. The ensuing cavitating lung disease, Aspergillus fumigatus infection with mycetomata, vigorous immune response, and granulomatous liver disease are unusual features. Images PMID:7031969

  2. Age and geochemical characteristics of Paleogene basalts drilled from western Taiwan: Records of initial rifting at the southeastern Eurasian continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Chung, S.; Lo, Y.; Lo, C.; Yang, H.; Shinjo, R.; Lee, T.; Wu, J.; Huang, S.

    2013-12-01

    The southeastern Eurasian continental margin has been characterized by formation of rift basins associated with intraplate basaltic volcanism since early Cenozoic time. In contrast to Paleogene volcanic rocks that occur sporadically in the basins, Neogene basalts are more widespread on land as lava flows and pyroclastics in the Taiwan Strait (Penghu Islands) and northwestern Taiwan. To better understand the tectonomagmatic evolution, in particular the initial rifting record, this study reports new age, major- and trace-elemental, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data of volcanic rocks drilled from several locations in the Taiwan Strait and western Taiwan. 40Ar/39Ar dating results show two main episodes of volcanic activities: ~56-38 Ma (Eocene) and ~11-8 Ma (late Miocene). The volcanic rocks are composed dominantly of basalts and basaltic andesites, and subordinately of dacites and rhyolites of Eocene age. The two episodes of basaltic volcanism have distinct geochemical characteristics. Comparatively, the Eocene basalts are more depleted in basaltic components such as Ca, Fe and Ti, but have higher Al content. They are also more enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth elements (LREE), and show depletions in high field strength elements (HFSE). Sr-Nd-Pb isotope compositions of the late Miocene basalts are relatively more uniform and unradiogenic (ɛNd = +6.0 to +3.8), similar to those of Miocene basalts from NW Taiwan and Penghu Islands, and broadly coeval OIB-type basalts from the South China Sea. However, the Eocene basalts have a wider range in isotope ratios (e.g., ɛNd(T) = +5.6 to -3.2) pointing towards an enriched mantle source. The overall geochemical characteristics suggest two distinct mantle sources: (1) a more refractory mantle source metasomatized by subduction-related processes to generate the Eocene basalts and (2) a fertile but isotopically depleted mantle source for the late Miocene basalts. These two source components are proposed

  3. Age and geochemical characteristics of Paleogene basalts drilled from western Taiwan: Records of initial rifting at the southeastern Eurasian continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kuo-Lung; Chung, Sun-Lin; Lo, Yi-Ming; Lo, Ching-Hua; Yang, Huai-Jen; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Lee, Tung-Yi; Wu, Jong-Chang; Huang, Shiuh-Tsann

    2012-12-01

    The southeastern Eurasian continental margin has been characterized by formation of rift basins associated with intraplate basaltic volcanism since early Cenozoic time. In contrast to Paleogene volcanic rocks that occur sporadically in the basins, Neogene basalts are more widespread on land as lava flows and pyroclastics in the Taiwan Strait (Penghu Islands) and northwestern Taiwan. To better understand the tectonomagmatic evolution, in particular the initial rifting record, this study reports new age, major- and trace-elemental, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data of volcanic rocks drilled from several locations in the Taiwan Strait and western Taiwan. 40Ar/39Ar dating results show two main episodes of volcanic activities: ~ 56-38 Ma (Eocene) and ~ 11-8 Ma (late Miocene). The volcanic rocks are composed dominantly of basalts and basaltic andesites, and subordinately of dacites and rhyolites of Eocene age. The two episodes of basaltic volcanism have distinct geochemical characteristics. Comparatively, the Eocene basalts are more depleted in basaltic components such as Ca, Fe and Ti, but have higher Al content. They are also more enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth elements (LREE), and show depletions in high field strength elements (HFSE). Sr-Nd-Pb isotope compositions of the late Miocene basalts are relatively more uniform and unradiogenic (ɛNd = + 6.0 to + 3.8), similar to those of Miocene basalts from NW Taiwan and Penghu Islands, and broadly coeval OIB-type basalts from the South China Sea. However, the Eocene basalts have a wider range in isotope ratios (e.g., ɛNd(T) = + 5.6 to -3.2) pointing towards an enriched mantle source. The overall geochemical characteristics suggest two distinct mantle sources: (1) a more refractory mantle source metasomatized by subduction-related processes to generate the Eocene basalts and (2) a fertile but isotopically depleted mantle source for the late Miocene basalts. These two source components are

  4. HIV/AIDS and Croatian migrant workers.

    PubMed

    Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Brouillard, Pamela; Nikolić, Nebojga; Greiner, Nina

    2006-12-01

    Due to their geographical mobility and long periods of separation from intimate partners, migrant workers are at increased risk for a variety of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS. This study sought to investigate patterns in HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitudes and sexual behaviour in migrant workers in Croatia. In 2003, 566 male migrant workers were recruited during regular required medical examinations and surveyed at seven locations throughout the country. Each participant was asked to complete a self-administered KABP (sexual knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices) questionnaire. The average age of respondents was 38.2 years and the majority worked as seafarers (77.3%) and construction workers (20.5%). Only 18.5% of respondents were able to correctly answer all 13 questions assessing knowledge of HIV/AIDS. Seafarers reported higher levels of knowledge than did construction workers. The average respondent reported having had two sexual partners in the last 12 months, with slightly over half of the respondents (55.3%) reporting condom use at their last intercourse with a casual partner. One fifth of the respondents (20.3%) who reported having had intercourse with a sex worker during the last year reported not using condoms at last intercourse. The number of sexual partners was correlated with age, marital status, faith in God, and personal HIV risk assessment. Attitudes toward condom use, co-workers' HIV/AIDS concerns and the duration of migrant status (within the last two years) were shown to be significant correlates of condom use at last intercourse with a casual partner. The effect of HIV/AIDS related knowledge on analyzed behaviors did not reach statistical significance. Inadequate patterns of migrant workers' condom use, gaps in knowledge about HIV transmission and modes of protection, as well as widespread ignorance regarding available anonymous HIV testing found by this study suggest a critical need for expert intervention to

  5. [Indian workers in Oman].

    PubMed

    Longuenesse, E

    1985-01-01

    Until recently Oman was a country of emigration, but by 1980 an estimated 200,000 foreign workers were in the country due to the petroleum boom. Almost 1/3 of the estimated 300,000 Indian workers in the Gulf states were in Oman, a country whose colonial heritage was closely tied to that of India and many of whose inhabitants still speak Urdu. The number of work permits granted to Indians working in the private sector in Oman increased from 47,928 in 1976 to 80,787 in 1980. An estimated 110,000 Indians were working in Oman in 1982, the great majority in the construction and public works sector. A few hundred Indian women were employed by the government of Oman, as domestics, or in other capacities. No accurate data is available on the qualifications of Indian workers in Oman, but a 1979 survey suggested a relatively low illiteracy rate among them. 60-75% of Indians in Oman are from the state of Kerala, followed by workers from the Punjab and the southern states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh and Bombay. Indian workers are recruited by specialized agencies or by friends or relatives already employed in Oman. Employers in Oman prefer to recruit through agencies because the preselection process minimizes hiring of workers unqualified for their posts. Officially, expenses of transportation, visas, and other needs are shared by the worker and the employer, but the demand for jobs is so strong that the workers are obliged to pay commissions which amount to considerable sums for stable and well paying jobs. Wages in Oman are however 2 to 5 times the level in India. Numerous abuses have been reported in recruitment practices and in failure of employers in Oman to pay the promised wages, but Indian workers have little recourse. At the same level of qualifications, Indians are paid less then non-Omani Arabs, who in turn receive less than Oman nationals. Indians who remain in Oman long enough nevertheless are able to support families at home and to accumulate considerable

  6. Health care workers.

    PubMed

    Udasin, I G

    2000-12-01

    More people are employed in the health care sector than in any other industry in the United States. Health care workers are exposed to a wide variety of hazards, including biological, chemical, physical and psychological stressors. Concerns about exposure to contagious diseases such as HIV, Hepatitis B and C, and tuberculosis have influenced the career choices of many health professionals. Physical hazards, especially ergonomic ones, account for the majority of the disability faced by health care workers. Chemical exposure and psychosocial stresses are also present in health care institutions. The exposure encountered in health care facilities is potentially dangerous to health care workers as well as to their family members and unborn children.

  7. Lead toxicity in battery workers.

    PubMed

    Qasim, Saeeda Fouzia; Baloch, Malka

    2014-11-01

    Lead poisoning is a medical condition caused by increased levels of lead in the body. Routes of exposure include contaminated air, water, soil, food and consumer products. Occupational exposure is the main cause of lead poisoning in the adults. Two cases of occupational lead poisoning in adult battery workers are hereby presented. Both male patients had initial non-specific symptoms of intermittent abdominal pain, fatigue and headache for 6 - 8 years. Later on, they developed psychosis, slurred speech, tremors of hands and initially underwent treatment for Parkinsonism and Wilson's disease because of clinical misdiagnosis. They were diagnosed with lead poisoning later and were treated successfully with lead chelator (CaNa2 EDTA).

  8. Telecommuting: The Wired Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilles, Jack M.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the use of home computers and how they allow the worker to work at home rather than commuting. Discusses the growing trend of telecommuting, cost of operation, how it will affect company structure, and productivity. (CT)

  9. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.

  10. Sex worker health: San Francisco style

    PubMed Central

    Cohan, D; Lutnick, A; Davidson, P; Cloniger, C; Herlyn, A; Breyer, J; Cobaugh, C; Wilson, D; Klausner, J

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To describe the characteristics of sex workers accessing care at a peer based clinic in San Francisco and to evaluate predictors of sexually transmitted infections (STI). Methods We conducted an observational study of sex workers at St James Infirmary. Individuals underwent an initial questionnaire, and we offered screening for STI at each clinic visit. We performed univariate, bivariate, and multivariable analyses to assess for predictors of STI in this population. Results We saw 783 sex workers identifying as female (53.6%), male (23.9%), male to female transgender (16.1%), and other (6.5%). 70% had never disclosed their sex work to a medical provider. Participants represented a wide range of ethnicities, educational backgrounds, and types of sex work. The most common substance used was tobacco (45.8%). Nearly 40% reported current illicit drug use. Over half reported domestic violence, and 36.0% reported sex work related violence. Those screened had gonorrhoea (12.4%), chlamydia (6.8%), syphilis (1.8%), or herpes simplex virus 2 (34.3%). Predictors of STI included African‐American race (odds ratio (OR) 3.3), male gender (OR 1.9), and sex work related violence (OR 1.9). In contrast, participants who had only ever engaged in collective sex work were less likely to have an STI (OR 0.4). Conclusions The majority of sex workers have never discussed their work with a medical provider. Domestic violence is extremely prevalent as is work related violence. Working with other sex workers appears to be protective of STIs. STI prevention interventions should target African‐American and male sex workers. Addressing violence in the workplace and encouraging sex workers to work collectively may be effective prevention strategies. PMID:16854996

  11. Lung function in Pakistani wood workers.

    PubMed

    Meo, Sultan A

    2006-06-01

    The lung function impairment is the most common respiratory problem in industrial plants and their vicinity. Therefore, the purpose was to study the affects of wood dust and its duration of exposure on lung function. This was a matched cross-sectional study of Spirometry in 46 non-smoking wood workers with age range 20 - 60 years, who worked without the benefit of wood dust control ventilation or respiratory protective devices. Pulmonary function test was performed by using an electronic Spirometer. Significant reduction was observed in the mean values of Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1), and Maximum Voluntary Ventilation (MVV) in wood workers relative to their matched controls. This impairment was increased with the duration of exposure to wood industries. It is concluded that lung function in wood workers is impaired and stratification of results shows a dose-response effect of years of wood dust exposure on lung function.

  12. An Initial Analysis of Concrete Operations Task Performances and Memory Variables for Children Aged 5 to 13 Years. Technical Report No. 371.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Frank H.; And Others

    This report is the initial overall summary of a comprehensive analysis of children's logical concept attainments and memoric abilities and deals exclusively with the initial and second year's assessment data. The focal point for this normative investigation is the concrete operations period spanning the years of middle childhood. The measurement…

  13. Respiratory function and immunological status in paper-recycling workers.

    PubMed

    Zuskin, E; Mustajbegovic, J; Schachter, E N; Kanceljak, B; Kern, J; Macan, J; Ebling, Z

    1998-11-01

    The respiratory function and immunological status of workers employed in the paper recycling industry were studied. The mean age of the 101 studied workers was 41 years, and the mean duration of their exposure was 17 years. A group of 87 unexposed workers of similar age, duration of employment, and smoking history was studied for the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms. Lung function in the paper workers was measured by recording maximum expiratory flow volume (MEFV) curves and recording forced vital capacity (FVC), 1-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1), and maximum expiratory flow rates at 50% and the last 25% of the FVC (FEF50, FEF25). Immunological studies were performed in all 101 paper workers and in 37 control workers (volunteers). These included skin-prick tests with paper-dust extracts and other nonoccupational allergens, as well as the measurement of total serum immunoglobulin E. Significantly higher prevalences of all chronic respiratory symptoms were found in paper compared with control workers (P < 0.01). The highest prevalences were found for chronic cough (36.6%), chronic phlegm (34.7%), chronic bronchitis (33.7%), sinusitis (31.7%), and dyspnea (18.8%). Occupational asthma was diagnosed in four (4.0%) of the paper workers. A logistic regression analysis performed on chronic respiratory symptoms of paper workers indicated significant effects of smoking and exposure, with the smoking effect being the most important. Multivariate analysis of lung-function parameters indicate significant effects of exposure. For paper workers, the measured FEF50 and FEF25 were significantly decreased, compared with predicted values, suggesting obstructive changes located primarily in smaller airways. Among 101 tested paper workers, 16 (15.8%) had positive skin-prick tests to at least one of the paper extracts; none of the control workers reacted to these extracts. Increased serum IgE levels were found in 21% of the paper workers and in 5% of control workers (P

  14. Neurologic abnormalities in workers of a 1-bromopropane factory.

    PubMed

    Ichihara, Gaku; Li, Weihua; Shibata, Eiji; Ding, Xuncheng; Wang, Hailan; Liang, Yideng; Peng, Simeng; Itohara, Seiichiro; Kamijima, Michihiro; Fan, Qiyuan; Zhang, Yunhui; Zhong, Enhong; Wu, Xiaoyun; Valentine, William M; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro

    2004-09-01

    We reported recently that 1-bromopropane (1-BP; n-propylbromide, CAS Registry no. 106-94-5), an alternative to ozone-depleting solvents, is neurotoxic and exhibits reproductive toxicity in rats. The four most recent case reports suggested possible neurotoxicity of 1-BP in workers. The aim of the present study was to establish the neurologic effects of 1-BP in workers and examine the relationship with exposure levels. We surveyed 27 female workers in a 1-BP production factory and compared 23 of them with 23 age-matched workers in a beer factory as controls. The workers were interviewed and examined by neurologic, electrophysiologic, hematologic, biochemical, neurobehavioral, and postural sway tests. 1-BP exposure levels were estimated with passive samplers. Tests with a tuning fork showed diminished vibration sensation of the foot in 15 workers exposed to 1-BP but in none of the controls. 1-BP factory workers showed significantly longer distal latency in the tibial nerve than did the controls but no significant changes in motor nerve conduction velocity. Workers also displayed lower values in sensory nerve conduction velocity in the sural nerve, backward recalled digits, Benton visual memory test scores, pursuit aiming test scores, and five items of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) test (tension, depression, anxiety, fatigue, and confusion) compared with controls matched for age and education. Workers hired after May 1999, who were exposed to 1-BP only (workers hired before 1999 could have also been exposed to 2-BP), showed similar changes in vibration sense, distal latency, Benton test scores, and depression and fatigue in the POMS test. Time-weighted average exposure levels in the workers were 0.34-49.19 ppm. Exposure to 1-BP could adversely affect peripheral nerves or/and the central nervous system.

  15. The Effect of Communication Apprehension on Service Worker Job Success and What Management Can Do To Help.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, David W.; Jandt, Fred E.

    To investigate the effect of communication apprehension on service worker job success, a study surveyed 536 service workers in five states during the summer of 1987. The survey sample consisted of individuals from a broad range of age groups with 35% aged 19-21, 24% aged 22-25, 19% between 26 and 35, and 20% over 35 years of age. The questionnaire…

  16. Factors associated with pathways toward concurrent sex work and injection drug use among female sex workers who inject drugs in Northern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Meghan D.; Lemus, Hector; Wagner, Karla D.; Martinez, Gustavo; Lozada, Remedios; Gómez, Rangel María Gudelia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Aims To identify factors associated with time to initiation of (1) sex work prior to injecting drugs, (2) injection drug use, and (3) concurrent sex work and injection drug use (i.e., initiated at the same age) among female sex workers who currently inject drugs (FSW-IDU). Design Parametric survival analysis of baseline data for time to initiation event. Setting Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez situated on the Mexico-U.S. border. Participants 575 FSW-IDUs aged ≥18. Measurements Interview-administered surveys assessing context of sex work and injection drug use initiation. Findings Nearly half (n=256) initiated sex work prior to beginning to inject, a third (n=163) initiated injection first, and a quarter (n=136) initiated both sex work and injection drug use concurrently. Low education and living in Ciudad Juarez accelerated time to sex work initiation. Being from a southern Mexican state and initiating drug use with inhalants delayed the time to first injection drug use. Having an intimate partner encourage entry into sex work and first injecting drugs to deal with depression accelerated time to initiating sex work and injection concurrently. Early physical abuse accelerated time to initiating sex work and injection, and substantially accelerated time to initiation of both behaviors concurrently. Conclusions Among female sex workers who currently inject drugs in two Mexican-US border cities, nearly half appear to initiate sex work prior to beginning to inject, nearly one third initiate injection drug use before beginning sex work, and one quarter initiate both behaviors concurrently. Predictors of these three trajectories differ, and this provides possible modifiable targets for prevention. PMID:22775475

  17. Healthcare use for communicable diseases among migrant workers in comparison with Thai workers

    PubMed Central

    RAKPRASIT, Jutarat; NAKAMURA, Keiko; SEINO, Kaoruko; MORITA, Ayako

    2016-01-01

    This study examines healthcare use in 2011 for communicable diseases among migrant workers compared with Thai workers in Thailand. The relative risks (RRs) of 14 communicable diseases (803,817 cases between ages 18 and 59) were calculated using the National Epidemiological Surveillance System, a nationwide hospital database. Regarding the migrant workers, 71.0% were Burmese and 17.3% were Cambodians. Significantly high comparative RRs for migrant workers were found for tuberculosis (TB) (male, RR=1.41; female, RR=2.33), sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (male, RR=2.39; female, RR=1.64), and malaria (male, RR=8.31; female, RR=11.45). Significantly low comparative RRs for migrant workers were found for diarrhea (male, RR=0.39; female, RR=0.28), food poisoning (male, RR=0.33; female, RR=0.24), dengue (male, RR=0.82; female, RR=0.68), and others. By occupation, RRs for TB and STIs were high among laborers but low among farmers. RRs for malaria among farmers (male, RR=18.26, female, RR=25.49) was higher than among laborers (male, RR=10.04; female, RR=13.93). The study indicated a higher risk of TB, STIs, and malaria for migrant workers, but a lower risk of diarrhea, food poisoning, dengue, and others. Although general health support program for migrants have promoted maternal and child health, prevention of communicable diseases should be further strengthened to meet the needs of migrants. PMID:27568679

  18. Healthcare use for communicable diseases among migrant workers in comparison with Thai workers.

    PubMed

    Rakprasit, Jutarat; Nakamura, Keiko; Seino, Kaoruko; Morita, Ayako

    2017-02-07

    This study examines healthcare use in 2011 for communicable diseases among migrant workers compared with Thai workers in Thailand. The relative risks (RRs) of 14 communicable diseases (803,817 cases between ages 18 and 59) were calculated using the National Epidemiological Surveillance System, a nationwide hospital database. Regarding the migrant workers, 71.0% were Burmese and 17.3% were Cambodians. Significantly high comparative RRs for migrant workers were found for tuberculosis (TB) (male, RR=1.41; female, RR=2.33), sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (male, RR=2.39; female, RR=1.64), and malaria (male, RR=8.31; female, RR=11.45). Significantly low comparative RRs for migrant workers were found for diarrhea (male, RR=0.39; female, RR=0.28), food poisoning (male, RR=0.33; female, RR=0.24), dengue (male, RR=0.82; female, RR=0.68), and others. By occupation, RRs for TB and STIs were high among laborers but low among farmers. RRs for malaria among farmers (male, RR=18.26, female, RR=25.49) was higher than among laborers (male, RR=10.04; female, RR=13.93). The study indicated a higher risk of TB, STIs, and malaria for migrant workers, but a lower risk of diarrhea, food poisoning, dengue, and others. Although general health support program for migrants have promoted maternal and child health, prevention of communicable diseases should be further strengthened to meet the needs of migrants.

  19. [Worker's Health Surveillance

    PubMed

    Machado

    1997-01-01

    This paper is part of a broader discussion on the need for more in-depth study of workers' health surveillance practices, which are most often developed empirically, without well-defined theoretical or technical foundations. The paper presents a concept of surveillance in workers' health as a fulcrum for actions in the relationship between the work process and health. It emphasizes the exposure-based perspective involved in the epidemiological approach. Risk situations and effects are placed in spatial and technological context. The model provides an interdisciplinary approach with a technological, social, and epidemiological basis in a three-dimensional structure. A matrix for planning actions in workers' health surveillance is also presented, focusing on the connections between effects, risks, territory, and activities.

  20. Shift workers have similar leisure-time physical activity levels as day workers but are more sedentary at work.

    PubMed

    Hulsegge, Gerben; Gupta, Nidhi; Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Proper, Karin I; van der Beek, Allard J

    2017-03-01

    Objective Physical inactivity has been hypothesized as an underlying factor for the association between shift work and adverse health outcomes. We compared leisure-time and occupational physical activity and sedentary behavior between day, night, and non-night shift workers. Methods We identified 612 day workers, 139 night shift workers and 61 non-night shift workers aged 18-65 years (54% men) in two Danish studies: the New method for Objective Measurements of physical Activity in Daily living (NOMAD) and the Danish Physical ACTivity cohort with Objective measurements (DPhacto) between 2011-2013. Sedentary behavior, light, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were measured using an accelerometer. Physical activity was expressed as percentage of leisure and work time spent in each activity. Linear regression analyses were used to test differences in physical activity and sedentary behavior between day, night, and non-night shift workers. Results No differences in leisure-time sedentary behavior and physical activity were observed between day and shift workers (P>0.05). Non-night shift workers spent 7.2% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.3-12.1) more time in occupational sedentary behavior than day workers and 5.9% (95% CI -10.1- -1.7) and 1.9% (95% CI -3.7- -0.2) less time in occupational light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, respectively. Compared to day workers, night shift workers spent 4.3% (95% CI 2.4-6.1) more time at work in uninterrupted sedentary periods of ≥30 minutes. Conclusions Shift workers had similar leisure-time physical activity patterns as day workers, but were more sedentary at work. Future research should elucidate whether occupational physical inactivity and sedentary behavior contributes to shift work-related adverse health effects.

  1. 20 Facts on Women Workers. Facts on Working Women No. 90-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This information sheet presents 20 facts on women workers in 1989: (1) 56 million women 16 years of age and over are working or looking for work; (2) 69 percent of all women 18 to 64 years of age are in the civilian labor force; (3) most women workers are employed full time; (4) the average women worker spends 29.3 years of her life in the labor…

  2. Elevated blood lead levels in children of construction workers.

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, E A; Piacitelli, G M; Gerwel, B; Schnorr, T M; Mueller, C A; Gittleman, J; Matte, T D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether children of lead-exposed construction workers had higher blood lead levels than neighborhood control children. METHODS: Twenty-nine construction workers were identified from the New Jersey Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance (ABLES) registry. Eighteen control families were referred by workers. Venous blood samples were collected from 50 children (31 exposed, 19 control subjects) under age 6. RESULTS: Twenty-six percent of workers children had blood lead levels at or over the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention action level of 0.48 mumol/L (10 micrograms/dL), compared with 5% of control children (unadjusted odds ratio = 6.1; 95% confidence interval = 0.9, 147.2). CONCLUSIONS: Children of construction workers may be at risk for excessive lead exposure. Health care providers should assess parental occupation as a possible pathway for lead exposure of young children. PMID:9279275

  3. Age differences in the prevalence and comorbidity of DSM-IV major depressive episodes: Results from the WHO World Mental Health Survey Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Birnbaum, Howard; Shahly, Victoria; Bromet, Evelyn; Hwang, Irving; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Sampson, Nancy; Andrade, Laura Helena; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Demyttenaere, Koen; Haro, Josep Maria; Karam, Aimee N.; Kostyuchenko, Stanislav; Kovess, Viviane; Lara, Carmen; Levinson, Daphna; Matschinger, Herbert; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Browne, Mark Oakley; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sagar, Rajesh; Stein, Dan J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although depression appears to decrease in late life, this could be due to misattribution of depressive symptoms to physical disorders that increase in late life. Methods We investigated this issue by studying age differences in comorbidity of DSM-IV major depressive episodes (MDE) with chronic physical conditions in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys, a series of community epidemiological surveys carried out in 10 developed countries (n = 51,771) and 8 developing countries (n = 37,265). MDE and other mental disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Organic exclusion rules were not used to avoid inappropriate exclusion of cases with physical comorbidity. Physical conditions were assessed with a standard chronic conditions checklist. Results Twelve-month DSM-IV/CIDI MDE was significantly less prevalent among respondents ages 65+ than younger respondents in developed but not developing countries. Prevalence of comorbid mental disorders generally either decreased or remained stable with age, while comorbidity of MDE with mental disorders generally increased with age. Prevalence of physical conditions, in comparison, generally increased with age, while comorbidity of MDE with physical conditions generally decreased with age. Depression treatment was lowest among the elderly in developed and developing countries. Conclusions The weakening associations between MDE and physical conditions with increasing age argue against the suggestion that the low estimated prevalence of MDE among the elderly is due to increased confounding with physical disorders. Future study is needed to investigate processes that might lead to a decreasing impact of physical illness on depression among the elderly. PMID:20037917

  4. Survival of asbestos insulation workers with mesothelioma.

    PubMed Central

    Ribak, J; Selikoff, I J

    1992-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a lethal disease. It is rare in the general population; however, workers exposed to asbestos suffer significant burdens of the neoplasm. The survival time of 457 consecutive fatal cases of pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma that occurred among 17,800 asbestos insulation workers observed prospectively from 1 January 1967 to 1 January 1987 was studied. Mean survival time from initial presentation of the disease to death was 11.4 months for the pleural mesothelioma patients compared with 7.4 months for the peritoneal group. This difference was statistically significant. Mean survival time from diagnosis to death was shorter for both groups of patients: 8.4 months for pleural mesothelioma v 5.8 months for the peritoneal cases. In conclusion, survival time in mesothelioma patients is short; most die within a year from the onset of the initial symptoms. No effective therapy is yet available. PMID:1419863

  5. Mimicry of queen Dufour's gland secretions by workers of Apis mellifera scutellata and A. m. capensis.

    PubMed

    Sole, Catherine L; Kryger, Per; Hefetz, Abraham; Katzav-Gozansky, Tamar; Crewe, Robin M

    2002-12-01

    The development of the Dufour's gland of workers of the two honey bee races Apis mellifera scutellata and A. m. capensis was measured. The Dufour's glands of A. m. capensis workers were longer and increased in length more rapidly than the glands of workers of A. m. scutellata at comparable ages. Analysis of the Dufour's gland secretions of workers and queens of both races revealed that there were caste and racial differences. Secretions of queenright A. m. scutellata workers were dominated by a series of long-chain hydrocarbons. In contrast the secretions of the A. m. capensis workers both under queenright and queenless conditions were a mixture of hydrocarbons and wax-type esters, as were those of queens. Multivariate analysis of the secretion profiles indicated that laying workers of both races mimic queens. The secretions of the A. m. capensis laying workers mimicked queen secretions most closely, enabling them to act as successful social parasites.

  6. Mimicry of queen Dufour's gland secretions by workers of Apis mellifera scutellata and A. m. capensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sole, Catherine; Kryger, Per; Hefetz, Abraham; Katzav-Gozansky, Tamar; Crewe, Robin

    2002-10-01

    The development of the Dufour's gland of workers of the two honey bee races Apis mellifera scutellata and A. m. capensis was measured. The Dufour's glands of A. m. capensis workers were longer and increased in length more rapidly than the glands of workers of A. m. scutellata at comparable ages. Analysis of the Dufour's gland secretions of workers and queens of both races revealed that there were caste and racial differences. Secretions of queenright A. m. scutellata workers were dominated by a series of long-chain hydrocarbons. In contrast the secretions of the A. m. capensis workers both under queenright and queenless conditions were a mixture of hydrocarbons and wax-type esters, as were those of queens. Multivariate analysis of the secretion profiles indicated that laying workers of both races mimic queens. The secretions of the A. m. capensis laying workers mimicked queen secretions most closely, enabling them to act as successful social parasites.

  7. Cerebral Tumour in a Lead Worker

    PubMed Central

    Portal, R. W.

    1961-01-01

    A case is reported in which a frontal astrocytoma occurring in a lead worker was initially misdiagnosed as lead encephalopathy. The evidence in favour of lead poisoning as a secondary diagnosis is discussed and details given of the urinary lead excretion in response to intravenous EDTA. It was concluded that though excess lead absorption had occurred, the history and findings were not such as to have made a diagnosis of lead encephalopathy tenable. PMID:13737259

  8. Disaster Rescue and Response Workers

    MedlinePlus

    ... being distant, judgmental, or over-controlling What severe stress symptoms can result for disaster workers? Most disaster ... life) Who is at greatest risk for severe stress symptoms? Rescue workers who directly experience or witness ...

  9. Visual evoked potentials in rubber factory workers.

    PubMed

    Tandon, O P; Kumar, V

    1997-01-01

    Pattern reversal visual evoked potentials (pVEP) were studied in 39 male rubber factory workers in the age range of 18-55 years and 20 control subjects (aged 18-46 years) not exposed to the rubber factory environment. Results revealed that 20 (51%) rubber factory workers had abnormal latencies of wave P1 (dominant component of pVEP) as per accepted criteria of 99% tolerance limit set for the control group (i.e. any value above mean +3 SD of control was considered abnormal). The section-wise per cent distribution of abnormalities was vulcanization (83%), tubing (75%), calendering (60%), loading (38%) and mixing (14%). This study provides electrophysiological evidence that rubber factory environments affect the conduction processes in optical pathways from their origin in the retina to striate cortex. However, this study has its limitations in not identifying the specific chemical(s) causing these changes in VEP.

  10. Manual material handling assessment among workers of Iranian casting workshops.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Heidar; Motamedzade, Majid; Faghih, Mohammad Amin; Bayat, Hadi; Mohraz, Majid Habibi; Musavi, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Manual material handling (MMH) tasks can be found in most workplaces and they may constitute a risk factor for work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of WMSDs and to compare MMH loads with the acceptable weight and force limits among Iranian casting workers. Data were collected from 50 workers of casting workshops who performed MMH tasks. The Nordic musculoskeletal disorders questionnaire and the Snook tables were used as tools for data collection. Hand/wrist symptoms were the most prevalent problems among the workers (84%). The results of the Snook tables showed that the loads in lifting (84%), lowering (86%), carrying (66%), pushing with initial (43%) and sustained force (59%), and pulling tasks with initial (48%) and sustained force (93%) exceeded recommended limits. WMSDs occurred in high rates among the workers and, thus, ergonomics interventions should focus on decreasing WMSDs and redesigning MMH tasks.

  11. Women Workers' History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huck, Gary; Gilmore, Peter

    This document consists of one page chapters each documenting women's roles in changing the conditions for U.S. workers during and after the industrial revolution. Each chapter is a series of period style drawings with captions detailing the story of that particular incident and cartoon balloons offering humorous comments from the participants. The…

  12. Curbing Workers' Comp Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeb, William S.

    1998-01-01

    An actuarial study revealed that Pasadena Schools had an unfunded worker's compensation liability of over $10 million and 400 open claims. Advised to implement strong cost-containment measures (an early return-to-work program) and equally strong accountability measures (strict performance guides and safe work practices), the district achieved…

  13. Worker-Directed Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Stacey

    2001-01-01

    Describes the training at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, the foremost nuclear energy and environmental laboratory in the United States. Suggests that the key to assurance is getting workers, most of whom are unionized, involved in their own safety training. (JOW)

  14. Dislocated Worker Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1988

    Due to the severe economic decline in the automobile manufacturing industry in southeastern Michigan, a Dislocated Workers Program has been developed through the partnership of the Flint Area Chamber of Commerce, three community colleges, the National Center for Research in Vocational Education, the Michigan State Department of Education, the…

  15. Doctoring the Knowledge Worker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Mark

    2004-01-01

    In this paper I examine the impact of the new 'knowledge economy' on contemporary doctoral education. I argue that the knowledge economy promotes a view of knowledge and knowledge workers that fundamentally challenges the idea of a university as a community of autonomous scholars transmitting and adding to society's 'stock of knowledge'. The paper…

  16. Educating the Knowledge Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leddick, Susan; Gharajedaghi, Jamshid

    2001-01-01

    In the new economy, knowledge (not labor, raw material, or capital) is the key resource to be converted to goods and services. Public schools will have to educate three tiers of knowledge workers (doers, problem solvers, and designers) using differentiated assessment, curricula, and instruction. Organizational action, not mantras, is needed. (MLH)

  17. Young Worker Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Len

    1976-01-01

    Young people who leave school must have access to education to help them in their working life and in their life in the community. Young worker education is the link between school and the life-long process of education. (ABM)

  18. Food Service Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Ellen; And Others

    This curriculum guide provides instructional materials designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs such as dietetic aide or food service worker in a health care facility. It serves as the basic core of the occupationally sequenced Dietetic Support Personnel Training Program. Five sections and 13 instructional units are included. Each unit of…

  19. The Tree Worker's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithyman, S. J.

    This manual is designed to prepare students for entry-level positions as tree care professionals. Addressed in the individual chapters of the guide are the following topics: the tree service industry; clothing, eqiupment, and tools; tree workers; basic tree anatomy; techniques of pruning; procedures for climbing and working in the tree; aerial…

  20. Proactive Personality and Training Motivation among Older Workers: A Mediational Model of Goal Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setti, Ilaria; Dordoni, Paola; Piccoli, Beatrice; Bellotto, Massimo; Argentero, Piergiorgio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims at examining the relationship between proactive personality and training motivation among older workers (aged over 55 years) in a context characterized by the growing ageing of the global population. First, the authors hypothesized that proactive personality predicts the motivation to learn among older workers and that…

  1. Cumulative exposure to dust and gases as determinants of lung function decline in tunnel construction workers

    PubMed Central

    Bakke, B; Ulvestad, B; Stewart, P; Eduard, W

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To study the relation between lung function decrease and cumulative exposure to dust and gases in tunnel construction workers. Methods: A total of 651 male construction workers (drill and blast workers, tunnel concrete workers, shotcreting operators, and tunnel boring machine workers) were followed up by spirometric measurements in 1989–2002 for an average of six years. Outdoor concrete workers, foremen, and engineers served as a low exposed referent population. Results: The between worker component of variability was considerably reduced within the job groups compared to the whole population, suggesting that the workers within job groups had similar exposure levels. The annual decrease in FEV1 in low-exposed non-smoking workers was 21 ml and 24 ml in low-exposed ever smokers. The annual decrease in FEV1 in tunnel construction workers was 20–31 ml higher than the low exposed workers depending on job group for both non-smokers and ever smokers. After adjustment for age and observation time, cumulative exposure to nitrogen dioxide showed the strongest association with a decrease in FEV1 in both non-smokers, and ever smokers. Conclusion: Cumulative exposure to nitrogen dioxide appeared to be a major risk factor for lung function decreases in these tunnel construction workers, although other agents may have contributed to the observed effect. Contact with blasting fumes should be avoided, diesel exhaust emissions should be reduced, and respiratory devices should be used to protect workers against dust and nitrogen dioxide exposure. PMID:14985522

  2. Growing your own: community health workers and jobs to careers.

    PubMed

    Farrar, Brandy; Morgan, Jennifer Craft; Chuang, Emmeline; Konrad, Thomas R

    2011-01-01

    This article evaluates the implementation and impact of 5 workforce development programs aimed at achieving skills upgrades, educational advancement, and career development for community health workers (CHWs). Quantitative and qualitative case study data from the national evaluation of the Jobs to Careers: Transforming the Front Lines of Health Care initiative demonstrate that investing in CHWs can achieve measurable worker (eg, raises) and programmatic (eg, more skilled workers) outcomes. To achieve these outcomes, targeted changes were made to the structure, culture, and work processes of employing organizations. These findings have implications for other health care employers interested in developing their CHW workforce.

  3. The Employer's Voice: Frontline Workers and Workforce Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobs for the Future, Boston, MA.

    Seventeen small and mid-sized employers from Annie E. Casey Foundation Jobs Initiative sites addressed the challenges of recruiting, retaining, and promoting frontline workers. Employers shared collaboration experiences with Jobs Initiatives sites to develop effective, efficient strategies to prepare and support low-income residents. Firms relied…

  4. Electrical fatalities among U.S. construction workers.

    PubMed

    Ore, T; Casini, V

    1996-06-01

    Over 2000 electrocution deaths were identified among U.S. construction workers from 1980 to 1991, with the highest mean annual crude mortality rate (2.5 per 100,000 people), and second highest mean age-adjusted rate (2.7 per 100,000 people) of all industries. Although the crude fatality rates showed a downward trend, construction workers are still about four times more likely to be electrocuted at work than are workers in all industries combined. Nearly 40% of the 5083 fatal electrocutions in all industries combined occurred in construction, and 80% were associated with industrial wiring, appliances, and transmission lines. Electrocutions ranked as the second leading cause of death among construction workers, accounting for an average of 15% of traumatic deaths in the industry from 1980 to 1991. The study indicates that the workers most at risk of electrical injury are male, young, nonwhite, and electricians, structural metal workers, and laborers. The most likely time of injury is 11 a.m. to 3 p.m. from June to August. Focusing prevention on these populations and characteristics through better methods of worker and supervisor electrical safety training, use of adequate protective clothing, and compliance with established procedures could minimize the average annual loss of 168 U.S. construction workers.

  5. "Superheroes Social Skills": An Initial Study Examining an Evidence-Based Program for Elementary-Aged Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders in a School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Heidi Marie

    2012-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effectiveness of a multimedia social skills program, Superheroes Social Skills for Children with Autism, in increasing the social engagement skills of 4 elementary-aged students with an autism spectrum disorder. This program incorporates several evidence-based practices into one comprehensive curriculum, namely…

  6. Chief Student Affairs Officers' Interpretation and Implementation of the Minimum Legal Drinking Age and the Amethyst Initiative: A Discursive Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Rebecca Jane

    2012-01-01

    High-risk drinking is an endemic health and safety issue for college campuses in the United States (U.S.). While public health officials have recommended various models for campus alcohol prevention efforts, in 2008 a group of college presidents recommended a controversial strategy: reconsidering the U.S. minimum legal drinking age (MLDA). The…

  7. The influence of ageing and exercise on tendon growth and degeneration--hypotheses for the initiation and prevention of strain-induced tendinopathies.

    PubMed

    Smith, R K W; Birch, H L; Goodman, S; Heinegård, D; Goodship, A E

    2002-12-01

    Strain-induced tendinopathy is a common injury in both human and equine athletes, with increasing incidence associated with greater involvement in sport and an increasingly aged population. This paper reviews our studies on the abundant non-collagenous protein, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), in equine tendons. Its variation between tendon type and site, age and exercise has provided an insight into how age and exercise influence tendon growth and maturation. Tendons can be broadly divided into two types, reflecting their different matrix composition and function: the energy-storing tendons used for weight-bearing and locomotion, which suffer a high incidence of strain-induced tendinopathy, and positional tendons involved in limb placement or manipulative skills. It would appear that while energy-storing tendon can respond to the mechanical forces applied to it during growth, there is no evidence that it can do so after skeletal maturity. Instead, cumulative fatigue damage causes degeneration at the molecular level, potentially weakening it and increasing the risk of clinical injury. Appropriate exercise regimes early in life may help to improve the quality of growing tendon, thereby reducing the incidence of injury during ageing or subsequent athletic career.

  8. Workers' Compensation and Teacher Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, Michael K.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the Workers' Compensation system and teacher stress to determine if a burned-out teacher should be eligible for Workers' Compensation benefits. Concludes that although most states do not allow Workers' Compensation benefits to burned-out teachers, compensation should be granted because the injuries are real and work-related. (Contains 48…

  9. The Future of Older Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Harold L., Ed.

    This book contains seven chapters on work and older workers based on an international symposium held at the University of South Florida in 1989. Chapter titles and authors are as follows: (1) "The Corporate Sector's Stake in Older Workers" (Daniel Knowles); (2) "A Seller's Market for Older Workers" (Audrey Freedman); (3) "Retirees' Reentry into…

  10. Office Workers Stress Survey Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Occupational Safety and Health Project, Durham.

    A survey of office workers employed by North Carolina telephone companies was conducted to determine the extent and types of health problems experienced by office workers who use video display terminals (VDTs). Data were gathered by questionnaires mailed to 2,478 office workers, with 966 responses. Questions concerning a wide range of health…

  11. Retired and former asbestos workers in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier-Massey, G.; Wong, G.; Hall, T.C.

    1984-01-01

    In 1979, a pilot survey defined respiratory status and unmet health care needs of retired and former male asbestos workers in Hawaii. Of 1,401 identified subjects, 741 were contacted and 411 were interviewed. Forty-five subjects were between 39 and 54 years of age; 208, between 55 and 64; and 158, age 65 or more. They represented the main ethnic groups--Caucasian, Chinese, Filipino, Hawaiian and part-Hawaiian, and Japanese--on Oahu. Most subjects had had significant exposure to asbestos in a shipyard, and 83% were current nonsmokers (160 had never smoked, and 111 were ex-smokers for ten years or more). Taking age and ethnicity into account, our group had more chronic respiratory and gastrointestinal problems than the comparable male population of Oahu in 1979, but fewer such problems than active shipyard workers elsewhere. These problems related primarily to current smoking status and secondarily to the length of asbestos exposure. Health care was available, but former workers used it less than retirees, despite having more symptoms. Very few abnormalities were reported by the subjects on their chest X-rays, pulmonary function tests, and sputum cytology performed elsewhere. These findings are compared to those of other shipyards, and support the hypothesis that the biological effects of asbestos exposure are generally mild in Hawaii.

  12. Effective Strategies for Educating Older Workers at Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, Phyllis A.

    2014-01-01

    Workers are remaining in the labor force at older ages; and, despite their desire to work, those without jobs face unprecedented durations of unemployment. Many of the unemployed lack current skills for jobs in demand and need to either upgrade their skills or be trained for a new occupation to become re-employed. An aging workforce combined with…

  13. Working Life Changes and Training of Older Workers. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikkanen, Tarja; Lahn, Leif Christian; Withnall, Alexandra; Ward, Peter; Lyng, Kolbein

    WORKTOW was a multidisciplinary action research project carried out in 27 small and medium-sized enterprises in the United Kingdom, Finland, and Norway. The main focus was on the learning of workers aged 45 and older. In-depth case studies were conducted in all three countries involving a range of learning interventions. Results showed age was not…

  14. Impact of Loading Phase, Initial Response and CFH Genotype on the Long-Term Outcome of Treatment for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Fleischhauer, Johannes; Kurz-Levin, Malaika M.; Sutter, Florian K. P.; Berger, Wolfgang; Barthelmes, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Objective Factors influencing the outcome of anti-VEGF treatment in neovascular AMD are still investigated. We analyzed the impact of a loading phase, the significance of an initial response for the long-term and the effect of the CFH polymorphism (p.His402Tyr) on treatment outcome. Methods Patients treated with ranibizumab for neovascular AMD were analyzed over a period of 24 months by assessing effects of loading phase, initial response and genotype of CFH rs1061170 (c.1204C>T, p.His402Tyr). Results 204 eyes were included. A change of +5.0 [−1;+11] letters and +1.5 [−5.5;+9.5] was observed with a median of 4 [3]; [7] and 10 [7]; [14] ranibizumab injections during 12 and 24 months, respectively. Loading phase was no significant predictor for treatment as VA outcome in eyes with and without loading phase was similar (p = 0.846 and p = 0.729) at 12 and 24 months. In contrast, initial response was a significant predictor for improving vision of 5 or more letters at 12 (p = 0.001; OR = 6.75) and 24 months (p = 0.01; OR = 4.66). Furthermore, the CT genotype at CFH rs1061170 was identified as a significant predictor for a favorable VA outcome at 12 and 24 months (OR = 6.75, p = 0.001 and OR = 4.66, p = 0.01). Conclusions Our data suggest that clinical decisions regarding treatment may be guided by observing patients’ initial response as well as their genotype of SNP rs1061170, while the criterion of loading phase may not bear the customary value. PMID:22848690

  15. Estimated Potassium Content in Hanford Workers

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, Timothy P.; Rivard, James; Garcia, Silvia

    2004-10-15

    Potassium content in male and female workers at the Department of Energy Hanford Site was estimated based on measurements made in 2002 of 40K activity in the body. A coaxial germanium detection system was used for the measurements. The activity in female workers ranged from 2.1 to 4.1 kBq with an average of 3.1 ± 0.02 kBq. Total body potassium (TBK) content in female workers averaged 96 ± 0.3 g. The activity in male workers ranged from 2.8 to 6.6 kBq with an average of 4.3 ± 0.01 kBq and the average TBK was 136 ± 0.3 g. The average potassium concentration decreased with age in both males and females. The average potassium content and potassium concentrations for both males and females were less than the corresponding reference values. Potassium concentrations were inversely correlated with body-build index, body-mass index, and body weight for both males and females.

  16. Work-related symptoms among furniture factory workers in Lublin region (eastern Poland).

    PubMed

    Milanowski, Janusz; Góra, Anna; Skorska, Czesława; Krysińska-Traczyk, Ewa; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Sitkowska, Jolanta; Cholewa, Grazyna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2002-01-01

    48 woodworkers employed in the furniture factory were examined. The control group consisted of 41 office workers with no exposure to organic dust. The examination included: interview on work-related symptoms, physical examination, and lung function test performed before and after the working-day. 38 out of 48 (79.2%) woodworkers reported work-related symptoms. The most common complaint was dry cough reported by 25 workers (52.1%), followed by general malaise -- reported by 17 (35.45%), conjunctivitis -- by 16 (33.3%), rhinitis - by 16 (33.3%), and skin symptoms by 16 (33.3%). Other symptoms such as headache, shortness of breath and chest pain occurred less frequently. Subjects working in initial processing and board processing departments had a higher prevalence of cough compared to workers employed in the varnishing department (p < 0.01). The prevalence of skin symptoms was significantly higher in board processing and varnishing departments compared to initial processing department (p < 0.05). Occupational asthma and allergic alveolitis were recorded in 3 out of 48 (6.2%) and 2 out of 48 (4.2%) workers, respectively. Baseline FVC and FEV(1) values were lower in woodworkers compared to controls (p < 0.01). The increased lung function parameters (FVC, FEV(1)) were observed in woodworkers who smoked compared to non-smokers. The difference was not statistically significant. There was a significant over-shift decrease of all measured spirometric values: FVC, FEV(1)), FEV(1)) /VC, PEF among woodworkers (p < 0.001). There was a significant pre-shift, post-shift decline in FVC, FEV(1)), FVC/FEV(1)), and PEF among workers under 30 years of age (p < 0.001). The same tendency was seen for FVC and FEV(1)) in subjects over 30. The percentage changes in FVC and FEV(1)) were greater in the group of younger workers (15.1% and 17.6%) respectively, than in the group of older subject (6.2%, 7.1%). The difference was not statistically significant.

  17. Credential Attainment by Older Workers: The Role of Community Colleges and the Dislocated Worker Program in Successful Employment Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, Phyllis Ann

    2013-01-01

    Workers are remaining in the labor force at older ages and despite their desire to work, those without jobs face unprecedented durations of unemployment. Many of the unemployed lack current skills for jobs in demand and need to either upgrade their skills or be trained for a new occupation to become reemployed. An aging workforce combined with…

  18. Nothing but Net: American Workers and the Information Economy. Work Trends: Americans' Attitudes about Work, Employers and Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutgers, The State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ. John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development.

    A study explored the implications of the information economy of the late 1990s for American workers, focusing on workers' experience with computers in the workplace, workers' perceptions about their future in the information economy, and the role of government in the information age. Research data were gathered through a survey of 1,005 adults…

  19. Progress in Initiator Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Hrousis, C A; Christensen, J S

    2009-05-04

    There is great interest in applying magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation techniques to the designs of electrical high explosive (HE) initiators, for the purpose of better understanding a design's sensitivities, optimizing its performance, and/or predicting its useful lifetime. Two MHD-capable LLNL codes, CALE and ALE3D, are being used to simulate the process of ohmic heating, vaporization, and plasma formation in the bridge of an initiator, be it an exploding bridgewire (EBW), exploding bridgefoil (EBF) or slapper type initiator. The initiation of the HE is simulated using Tarver Ignition & Growth reactive flow models. 1-D, 2-D and 3-D models have been constructed and studied. The models provide some intuitive explanation of the initiation process and are useful for evaluating the potential impact of identified aging mechanisms (such as the growth of intermetallic compounds or powder sintering). The end product of this work is a simulation capability for evaluating margin in proposed, modified or aged initiation system designs.

  20. Implications for an Aging Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahan, Shari; Sturz, Dominick

    2006-01-01

    America's workforce is aging, with over 20% of the workforce expected to be aged 55 and over by the year 2015, an increase of nearly 50% through 2014. As people age, their resistance to harmful exposures is reduced. Injury data suggest that although elderly workers are less likely to be hurt seriously enough to lose worktime, they often take twice…

  1. Administration on Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Federal Initiatives Career Opportunities Contact Us Administration on Aging (AoA) The Administration on Aging (AOA) is the ... themselves. Back to top Older Americans Act and Aging Network To meet the diverse needs of the ...

  2. Exposure scenarios for workers.

    PubMed

    Marquart, Hans; Northage, Christine; Money, Chris

    2007-12-01

    The new European chemicals legislation REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of Chemicals) requires the development of Exposure Scenarios describing the conditions and risk management measures needed for the safe use of chemicals. Such Exposure Scenarios should integrate considerations of both human health and the environment. Specific aspects are relevant for worker exposure. Gathering information on the uses of the chemical is an important step in developing an Exposure Scenario. In-house information at manufacturers is an important source. Downstream users can contribute information through direct contact or through their associations. Relatively simple approaches (Tier 1 tools, such as the ECETOC Targeted Risk Assessment and the model EASE) can be used to develop broad Exposure Scenarios that cover many use situations. These approaches rely on the categorisation of just a few determinants, including only a small number of risk management measures. Such approaches have a limited discriminatory power and are rather conservative. When the hazard of the substance or the complexity of the exposure situation require a more in-depth approach, further development of the Exposure Scenarios with Tier 2 approaches is needed. Measured data sets of worker exposure are very valuable in a Tier 2 approach. Some downstream user associations have attempted to build Exposure Scenarios based on measured data sets. Generic Tier 2 tools for developing Exposure Scenarios do not exist yet. To enable efficient development of the worker exposure part of Exposure Scenarios a further development of Tier 1 and Tier 2 tools is needed. Special attention should be given to user friendliness and to the validity (boundaries) of the approaches. The development of standard worker exposure descriptions or full Exposure Scenarios by downstream user branches in cooperation with manufacturers and importers is recommended.

  3. Intrinsic worker mortality depends on behavioral caste and the queens' presence in a social insect.

    PubMed

    Kohlmeier, Philip; Negroni, Matteo Antoine; Kever, Marion; Emmling, Stefanie; Stypa, Heike; Feldmeyer, Barbara; Foitzik, Susanne

    2017-04-01

    According to the classic life history theory, selection for longevity depends on age-dependant extrinsic mortality and fecundity. In social insects, the common life history trade-off between fecundity and longevity appears to be reversed, as the most fecund individual, the queen, often exceeds workers in lifespan several fold. But does fecundity directly affect intrinsic mortality also in social insect workers? And what is the effect of task on worker mortality? Here, we studied how social environment and behavioral caste affect intrinsic mortality of ant workers. We compared worker survival between queenless and queenright Temnothorax longispinosus nests and demonstrate that workers survive longer under the queens' absence. Temnothorax ant workers fight over reproduction when the queen is absent and dominant workers lay eggs. Worker fertility might therefore increase lifespan, possibly due to a positive physiological link between fecundity and longevity, or better care for fertile workers. In social insects, division of labor among workers is age-dependant with young workers caring for the brood and old ones going out to forage. We therefore expected nurses to survive longer than foragers, which is what we found. Surprisingly, inactive inside workers showed a lower survival than nurses but comparable to that of foragers. The reduced longevity of inactive workers could be due to them being older than the nurses, or due to a positive effect of activity on lifespan. Overall, our study points to behavioral caste-dependent intrinsic mortality rates and a positive association between fertility and longevity not only in queens but also in ant workers.

  4. Beryllium contamination inside vehicles of machine shop workers.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, W T; Henneberger, P K; Martyny, J; Ellis, K; Mroz, M M; Newman, L S

    1999-04-01

    Inhalation of beryllium particles causes a chronic, debilitating lung disease--chronic beryllium disease (CBD)--in immunologically sensitized workers. Evidence that very low concentrations of beryllium may initiate this chronic disease is provided by incidences of the illness in family members exposed to beryllium dust from workers' clothes and residents in neighborhoods surrounding beryllium refineries. This article describes the results of a cross-sectional survey to evaluate potential take-home beryllium exposures by measuring surface concentrations on the hands and in vehicles of workers at a precision machine shop where cases of CBD had recently been diagnosed. Many workers did not change out of their work clothes and shoes at the end of their shift, increasing the risk of taking beryllium home to their families. Wipe samples collected from workers' hands and vehicle surfaces were analyzed for beryllium content by inductively coupled argon plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The results ranged widely, from nondetectable to 40 micrograms/ft2 on workers' hands and up to 714 micrograms/ft2 inside their vehicles, demonstrating that many workers carried residual beryllium on their hands and contaminated the inside of their vehicles when leaving work. The highest beryllium concentrations inside the workers' vehicles were found on the drivers' floor (GM = 19 micrograms/ft2, GSD = 4.9), indicating that workers were carrying beryllium on their shoes into their vehicles. A safe level of beryllium contamination on surfaces is not known, but it is prudent to reduce the potential for workers to carry beryllium away from the work site.

  5. Diet quality and six-year risk of overweight and obesity among mid-age Australian women who were initially in the healthy weight range.

    PubMed

    Aljadani, Haya M; Patterson, Amanda J; Sibbritt, David; Collins, Clare E

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed The present study investigated the association between diet quality, measured using the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS), and 6-year risk of becoming overweight or obese in mid-age women from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health (ALSWH). Methods Women (n=1107) aged 47.6-55.8 years who were a healthy weight (body mass index (BMI) between ≤18.5 and <25.0kgm(-2)) at baseline and who reported valid total energy intakes were included in the study. BMI was calculated from self-reported data in 2001 and 2007. ARFS scores were calculated from data collected using the Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies Version 2. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between ARFS score as a continuous variable and risk of becoming overweight or obese. Results The 6-year incidence of overweight and obesity was 18.5% and 1.1%, respectively. The mean (± s.d.) ARFS (maximum possible 74) among those who remained within the healthy weight range and those who became overweight or obese at follow-up was 35.3±8.1 and 34.3±8.8, respectively. There was no relationship between baseline ARFS and risk of becoming overweight or obese over 6 years. Women who were smokers were more likely to become overweight or obese (odds ratio 1.5; 95% confidence interval 1.11-2.09; P=0.008). Conclusions Poor diet quality was common among mid-age women of a healthy weight in the ALSWH. Higher diet quality was not associated with the risk of overweight or obesity after 6 years, yet smoking status was. So what? Better diet quality alone will not achieve maintenance of a healthy weight, but should be encouraged to improve other health outcomes.

  6. Effects of individually motivating smoking cessation in male blue collar workers

    SciTech Connect

    Kilburn, K.H.; Warshaw, R.H. )

    1990-11-01

    Adverse demonstrable health effects linked to the individual's smoking were shown to 2,689 American workers to motivate cessation during routine examinations to detect asbestosis. This intervention was evaluated six to 25 months later by a mailed questionnaire and by telephone to non-responders. Results were compared to yearly quit rates of 2.5 percent to 5 percent for 736 workers who were ex-smokers at the initial examination. Of the 504 men who responded by mail, 29.8 percent had quit smoking, 35.9 percent had cut down from a mean of 28 to 13 cigarettes per day, and 34.3 percent were smoking as before. Subsequent follow-up at one year showed that 25.6 percent remained quit, and that 23 percent of those who cut down had quit, for an overall quit rate of 34 percent. Of 101 non-responders contacted by telephone, 17 percent had quit and 53 percent had reduced smoking. In both samples, those who quit were more likely to have had lower alveolar carbon monoxide (COa) levels, to be older, and to have had asbestosis. Responders by mail were the same age as non-responders but had smoked longer, had higher prevalences of asbestosis, emphysema, chronic bronchitis and higher COa. Demonstration of the adverse personal effects of smoking appear to have contributed to the quit rates or reduced smoking rates in 65 percent of the responding workers.

  7. Rifampin-containing chemotherapy for pulmonary tuberculosis associated with coal workers' pneumoconiosis

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, F.L. Jr.

    1982-06-01

    The outcomes of 20 anthracite miners with coal workers' pneumoconiosis and culture-proved pulmonary tuberculosis treated with rifampin-containing chemotherapeutic regimens were determined by a retrospective review. Their mean age was 65 yr, and the duration of underground dust exposure averaged 27 yr. Nine miners had simple pneumoconiosis, 11 had progressive massive fibrosis, and 13 had cavitary disease; 3 also had extrapulmonary disease. All patients were given rifampin (mean, 12 months in survivors) plus one or more other effective agents; the mean duration of treatment with 2 or more drugs was 17 months. Follow-up averaged 46 months in those surviving more than 1 yr. Sputum cultures became negative and remained so within 3 months in 17 patients and within 5 months in the remainder. Eighteen patients survived more than 1 yr after completing chemotherapy. No clinical, radiologic, or bacteriologic relapses were observed during follow-up, but 5 patients died of nontuberculous causes. These results are superior to those reported previously in patients with coal workers' pneumoconiosis treated for pulmonary tuberculosis with regimens not containing rifampin. They suggest that treatment of tuberculosis in coal workers, even in the presence of progressive massive fibrosis and cavitary disease, can yield results as favorable as in nonpneumoconiotic patients provided the initial treatment regimen includes rifampin plus one or more other effective agents.

  8. Why do they leave? Factors associated with job termination among personal assistant workers in home care.

    PubMed

    Butler, Sandra S; Simpson, Nan; Brennan, Mark; Turner, Winston

    2010-11-01

    Recruiting and retaining an adequate number of personal support workers in home care is both challenging and essential to allowing elders to age in place. A mixed-method, longitudinal study examined turnover in a sample of 261 personal support workers in Maine; 70 workers (26.8%) left their employment in the first year of the study. Logistic regression analysis indicated that younger age and lack of health insurance were significant predictors of turnover. Analysis of telephone interviews revealed three overarching themes related to termination: job not worthwhile, personal reasons, and burnout. Implications of study findings for gerontological social workers are outlined.

  9. Mini-percutaneous Nephrolithotomy Under Total Ultrasonography in Patients Aged Less Than 3 Years: A Single-center Initial Experience from China

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Bo; Zhang, Xin; Hu, Wei-Guo; Chen, Song; Li, Yu-Hong; Tang, Yu-Zhe; Liu, Yu-Bao; Li, Jian-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Background: Urolithiasis in pediatric population is a serious problem with the incidence increased these years. In the management of larger stones (diameters >2 cm), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is considered to be the gold standard. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of mini-PCNL under total ultrasonography in patients aged <3 years. Methods: We reviewed 68 patients (80 renal units) aged <3 years between August 2006 and December 2014 in Peking University People's Hospital and Beijing Tsinghua Changung Hospital, including 36 renal units with a single stone, 6 with staghorn stones, 14 with upper ureteral stones, and 24 with multiple stones. The mean age of the patients was 24.2 months (range 6–36 months), and the mean maximum stone diameter was 19.2 mm (range 10–35 mm). The puncture site selection and tract dilation were guided by Doppler ultrasonography solely. All procedures were performed using 12–16 Fr tracts. Stones were fragmented using pneumatic lithotripsy and a holmium laser with an 8/9.8 Fr rigid ureteroscope. Results: Fifty-six patients with unilateral stones underwent a single session procedure, and 12 patients with bilateral stones underwent two procedures. The mean time to establish access was 2.8 min (range 1.8–5.0 min), the mean operative time was 36.5 min (range 20–88 min), the mean decrease in hemoglobin concentration was 8.9 g/L (2–15 g/L), and the stone-free rate (SFR) at hospital discharge was 94.0%. The mean postoperative hospital stay was 7.1 days (range 3–13 days). Postprocedure complications included fever (>38.5°C) in five patients and reactive pleural effusion in one patient. Blood loss requiring transfusion, sepsis, adjacent organ injury, and kidney loss were not observed. Conclusions: This study indicated that ultrasound-guided mini-PCNL is feasible and safe in patients aged <3 years, without major complications or radiation exposure. PMID:26063360

  10. The Employability of Older Workers as Teleworkers: An Appraisal of Issues and an Empirical Study.

    PubMed

    Sharit, Joseph; Czaja, Sara J; Hernandez, Mario A; Nair, Sankaran N

    2009-01-01

    The aging of the population and, concomitantly, of the workforce has a number of important implications for governments, businesses, and workers. In this article, we examine the prospects for the employability of older workers as home-based teleworkers. This alternative work could accommodate many of the needs and preferences of older workers and at the same time benefit organizations. However, before telework can be considered a viable work option for many older workers there are a number of issues to consider, including the ability of older workers to adapt to the technological demands that are typically associated with telework jobs and managerial attitudes about older workers and about telework. Through an integrated examination of these and other issues, our goal is to provide a comprehensive understanding of the challenges associated with employing older workers as teleworkers. We also present findings from a questionnaire study that assessed managers' perceptions of worker attributes desirable for telework and how older workers compare to younger workers on these attributes. The sample included 314 managers with varying degrees of managerial experience from a large variety of companies in the United States. The results presented a mixed picture with respect to the employability of older workers as teleworkers, and strongly suggested that less experienced managers would be more resistant to hiring older people as teleworkers. We conclude with a number of recommendations for improving the prospects for employment of older workers for this type of work arrangement.

  11. The Employability of Older Workers as Teleworkers: An Appraisal of Issues and an Empirical Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharit, Joseph; Czaja, Sara J.; Hernandez, Mario A.; Nair, Sankaran N.

    2009-01-01

    The aging of the population and, concomitantly, of the workforce has a number of important implications for governments, businesses, and workers. In this article, we examine the prospects for the employability of older workers as home-based teleworkers. This alternative work could accommodate many of the needs and preferences of older workers and at the same time benefit organizations. However, before telework can be considered a viable work option for many older workers there are a number of issues to consider, including the ability of older workers to adapt to the technological demands that are typically associated with telework jobs and managerial attitudes about older workers and about telework. Through an integrated examination of these and other issues, our goal is to provide a comprehensive understanding of the challenges associated with employing older workers as teleworkers. We also present findings from a questionnaire study that assessed managers’ perceptions of worker attributes desirable for telework and how older workers compare to younger workers on these attributes. The sample included 314 managers with varying degrees of managerial experience from a large variety of companies in the United States. The results presented a mixed picture with respect to the employability of older workers as teleworkers, and strongly suggested that less experienced managers would be more resistant to hiring older people as teleworkers. We conclude with a number of recommendations for improving the prospects for employment of older workers for this type of work arrangement. PMID:20090856

  12. New constraints on the age and depositional rates of initial flysch sedimentation in the Stanley Group, Ouachita Mountains, Oklahoma and Arkansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaulis, B. J.; Lapen, T. J.; Casey, J. F.; Reid, D.

    2011-12-01

    The transition from a 'starved basin' to classic orogenic flysch deposition of Paleozoic strata in the Ouachita Mountains of Oklahoma and Arkansas and the absolute timing of mountain building events associated with the Ouachita Orogeny have long been unresolved problems in the region. The Mississippian Stanley Group is an important sedimentary unit within the Paleozoic strata because, unlike the other Paleozoic units in the Ouachita Mountains, the Stanley Group contains several dateable tuffaceous units. LA-ICPMS analyses of zircons from 5 tuffaceous units show progressively younger weighted average ages: Beaver's Bend Tuff (328.3±2.9 Ma), Hatton Tuff (327.5±3.8 Ma), lower Mud Creek Tuff (321.9±2.0 Ma), upper Mud Creek Tuff (326±3.2Ma) and Chickasaw Creek Tuff (320.6±2.7Ma). The exception is the upper Mud Creek Tuff (326 Ma), which has a more significant detrital component when compared to the other tuffaceous units. The ages of the Beaver's Bend, Hatton, lower and upper Mud Creek tuffs agree with previously reported biostratigraphic data found in the lower 500m of the Stanley Group (Ethington, 1989), which suggest an early Mississippian age for its lower boundary. The top 250 meters contain the Chickasaw Creek tuff (320.6±2.7 Ma) which indicates a late Mississippian age for the top of the Stanley Group. The transition from a 'starved basin' is marked by a sudden increase in clastic detritus entering the Ouachita Trough. A regional hiatus (Noble, 1993) is known to exist at the boundary between the base of the Stanley Group and the upper Devonian Arkansas Novaculite. The tuff ages, coupled with the biostratigraphic data, indicate that sedimentation rates were low (<20m/Ma) through the deposition of the Beaver's Bend tuff (328.3±2.9 Ma), after which sedimentation rates increased to >2500m/Ma by the time the Chickasaw Creek tuff (320.6±2.7Ma) was deposited. The sedimentation rates remain high (~900m/Ma) through the deposition of the stratigraphically higher

  13. Identifying and Assisting the Gifted Child: [Six Guides for the] Clinical Social Worker; School Counselor; School Social Worker; Nurse; Physician; [and] Psychologist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Board of Education, Lansing.

    These six guides on identifying and assisting the gifted school-age child are specifically addressed to either clinical social workers, school social workers, school counselors, nurses, physicians, and psychologists. Each leaflet examines the role of the target professional in providing assistance to gifted children. For example, the social…

  14. [A study on stressful life events of workers in Japan].

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Y; Uehata, T; Sekiya, E; Abe, M; Ishihara, S; Oikawa, S; Chida, T; Yamazaki, Y; Sugisawa, A; Sakano, J

    1994-06-01

    The experience rates of eighteen life events of Japanese workers were surveyed and the strength of each of the events was evaluated by a self-reported questionnaire. The fifteen professions surveyed included construction, transport, mailing, chemical production, banking, newspaper, TV services, commercial publishing, advertising, teaching and civil service. The number of workers who answered was 18,657 males and 4,443 females, aged 20 to 59 years. The male workers were divided and analysed in six job groups: clerical workers (n = 5,866), professionals (n = 3,696), blue collar day workers (n = 1,623), blue collar night or shift workers (n = 3,191), drivers (n = 1,663) and construction workers (n = 2,466). They were divided into groups and compared according to job, sex and five different age groups. The highest experience rate in each of the life events such as family trouble for both sexes, death of a family member, financial trouble and anxiety, death of a close friend, dissatisfactory transport to workplace or job, respectively. Comparing the experience rates between males and females we found no significant difference for five items. However, other items had higher experience rates for males than for females with the exception of family trouble. In regard to the age characteristics of each of the life events, as the age increased the experience rates of health-related life events such as the death of a spouse, child, family member or close friend and one's own illness or injury became higher. In contrast, the experience rates of items such as moving to a worse residence and failure in a school or training program became lower as the age increased for both sexes. Among job groups, construction workers had the highest experience rates of most life events except for the item of dissatisfactory transport to the workplace or job. Among other job groups, drivers had higher experience rates in the following four items: re-employment, death of spouse, divorce and

  15. Prevalence of and interventions for sarcopenia in ageing adults: a systematic review. Report of the International Sarcopenia Initiative (EWGSOP and IWGS)

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso J.; Landi, Francesco; Schneider, Stéphane M.; Zúñiga, Clemente; Arai, Hidenori; Boirie, Yves; Chen, Liang-Kung; Fielding, Roger A.; Martin, Finbarr C.; Michel, Jean-Pierre; Sieber, Cornel; Stout, Jeffrey R.; Studenski, Stephanie A.; Vellas, Bruno; Woo, Jean; Zamboni, Mauro; Cederholm, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    Objective: to examine the clinical evidence reporting the prevalence of sarcopenia and the effect of nutrition and exercise interventions from studies using the consensus definition of sarcopenia proposed by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP). Methods: PubMed and Dialog databases were searched (January 2000–October 2013) using pre-defined search terms. Prevalence studies and intervention studies investigating muscle mass plus strength or function outcome measures using the EWGSOP definition of sarcopenia, in well-defined populations of adults aged ≥50 years were selected. Results: prevalence of sarcopenia was, with regional and age-related variations, 1–29% in community-dwelling populations, 14–33% in long-term care populations and 10% in the only acute hospital-care population examined. Moderate quality evidence suggests that exercise interventions improve muscle strength and physical performance. The results of nutrition interventions are equivocal due to the low number of studies and heterogeneous study design. Essential amino acid (EAA) supplements, including ∼2.5 g of leucine, and β-hydroxy β-methylbutyric acid (HMB) supplements, show some effects in improving muscle mass and function parameters. Protein supplements have not shown consistent benefits on muscle mass and function. Conclusion: prevalence of sarcopenia is substantial in most geriatric settings. Well-designed, standardised studies evaluating exercise or nutrition interventions are needed before treatment guidelines can be developed. Physicians should screen for sarcopenia in both community and geriatric settings, with diagnosis based on muscle mass and function. Supervised resistance exercise is recommended for individuals with sarcopenia. EAA (with leucine) and HMB may improve muscle outcomes. PMID:25241753

  16. Sex worker activism, feminist discourse and HIV in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Habiba

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between sex worker activism and HIV-related discourse in Bangladesh, relating recent developments in activism to the influence of feminist thought. Following their eviction in 1991 from brothels from red light areas, Bangladeshi sex workers started a social movement, at just about the same time that programmes started to work with sex workers to reduce the transmission of HIV. This paper argues that both sex worker activism and HIV-prevention initiatives find impetus in feminist pro-sex-work perspectives, which place emphasis on individual and collective agency. However, by participating in these programmes, sex workers failed to contest the imagery of themselves as 'vectors' of HIV. In this way, they were unwittingly complicit in reproducing their identity as 'polluting others'. Moreover, by focusing on individual behaviour and the agency of sex workers, HIV programmes ignored the fact that the 'choices' made by sex workers are influenced by a wide range of structural and discursive factors, including gender norms and notions of bodily purity, which in turn have implications for the construction of HIV-related risk.

  17. Sex worker activism, feminist discourse and HIV in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Habiba

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between sex worker activism and HIV-related discourse in Bangladesh, relating recent developments in activism to the influence of feminist thought. Following their eviction in 1991 from brothels from red light areas, Bangladeshi sex workers started a social movement, at just about the same time that programmes started to work with sex workers to reduce the transmission of HIV. This paper argues that both sex worker activism and HIV-prevention initiatives find impetus in feminist pro-sex-work perspectives, which place emphasis on individual and collective agency. However, by participating in these programmes, sex workers failed to contest the imagery of themselves as ‘vectors’ of HIV. In this way, they were unwittingly complicit in reproducing their identity as ‘polluting others’. Moreover, by focusing on individual behaviour and the agency of sex workers, HIV programmes ignored the fact that the ‘choices’ made by sex workers are influenced by a wide range of structural and discursive factors, including gender norms and notions of bodily purity, which in turn have implications for the construction of HIV-related risk. PMID:25588539

  18. High Prevalence of Respiratory and Dermal Symptoms Among Ethiopian Flower Farm Workers.

    PubMed

    Hanssen, Vegard Mjelde; Nigatu, Amare Workiye; Zeleke, Zeyede Kebede; Moen, Bente Elisabeth; Bråtveit, Magne

    2015-01-01

    The flower industry is among the most important export industries in Ethiopia, employing more than 50,000 workers. The working conditions and health status among workers in Ethiopian flower industry are not documented. A questionnaire-based interview was conducted among 213 flower industry workers from 3 flower farms and 60 control workers from supermarkets from February to March 2012. A walk-through survey was also performed on the 3 flower farms. Interviewed flower farm workers have high prevalences of respiratory and dermal symptoms, which are rarely reported among controls. Female workers inside the greenhouses on the 3 flower farms have significantly more respiratory and dermal symptoms than workers outside the greenhouse, also when adjusting for age and education. Limited access to personal protection equipment (PPE) and unsafe pesticide routines are documented. This study indicates that working in these flower greenhouses might be associated with adverse health effects.

  19. Reports of work related musculoskeletal injury among home care service workers compared with nursery school workers and the general population of employed women in Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Y; Lagerström, M; Hagberg, M; Lindén, A; Malker, B

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To describe the nationwide occurrence of work related musculoskeletal injuries among all home care service workers in Sweden, and to identify relative risks and risk factors of the injuries. METHODS--The study was based on work related injuries reported to the Swedish occupational injury information system in 1990-1. The work related musculoskeletal injuries were divided into overexertion accidents and musculoskeletal diseases. The incidence of the injuries in female home care service workers was compared with those in nursery school workers and all other employed women in Sweden. RESULTS--In home care service workers, the annual incidence of injury from overexertion accidents and musculoskeletal diseases were 19.2 and 15.1 per 1000 workers, respectively, which was higher than those in nursery school workers and all employed women in Sweden. For five injury locations including the back, all the age standardised relative risks (SRR) of overexertion accidents exceeded 4.0, and most of those for musculoskeletal diseases were 1.5 or more in home care service workers compared with all other employed women in Sweden. Total duration of sick leave due to overexertion accidents was 7.7 times, and musculoskeletal diseases 3.5 times, longer than in nursery school workers. National loss due to sick leave resulting from only musculoskeletal injuries in home care service workers was about 8.2% of the total work related sick leave in all employed women in Sweden, although the number of home care service workers represented only some 5% of this population. Lifting other people was most frequently reported as the main risk cause of overexertion accidents in both kinds of workers. CONCLUSIONS--The results support the hypothesis that home care service workers have higher annual injury incidence of musculoskeletal injuries than nursery school workers due to physically stressful tasks that are far less common in nursery school workers. PMID:7489060

  20. Are emotional intelligent workers also more empathic?

    PubMed

    Martos, Maria Pilar Berrios; Lopez-Zafra, Esther; Pulido-Martos, Manuel; Augusto, José María

    2013-10-01

    This paper analyzes whether emotional intelligence and self-monitoring are related to empathy among a sample of workers in both the public and private employment sectors. Two hundred and forty-two employees (42.5% men and 57.5% women) with a mean age of 35.21 years (SD = 10.07, range 18-61) completed a questionnaire that measured the variables of interest. The results showed that emotion regulation, a dimension of emotional intelligence, accounts for most of the variance of empathy, followed by the ability to understand emotions and the management of others' emotions. Furthermore, gender did not yield any moderator effect on the relations among emotional intelligence, self-monitoring and empathy. We conclude that the intrapersonal aspects of emotional intelligence, in particular, emotion regulation, help explain the empathy of workers. The implications of these findings are discussed herein.

  1. Relationship between psychological distress and resilience in rescue workers

    PubMed Central

    Yasien, Saba; Nasir, Jamal Abdul; Shaheen, Tayabba

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the relationship between psychological distress and resilience in rescue workers. Following hypothesis was formulated; there would be negative correlation between psychological distress and resilience in rescue workers. Method: A correlational study was conducted from June-August 2015 in Rahim Yar Khan, Punjab, Pakistan. The sample of the present study consisted of 100 rescue workers. The age of the participants ranged from 23 to 40 year old with the mean age of 27.4±3.9 years. Demographic information form, Kessler psychological distress scale and adult resilience measure were administered on the participants to assess the level of psychological distress and resilience. Results: Pearson product moment coefficient of correlation was applied to analyze the relationship of psychological distress and resilience. Analysis of the result indicated that there is negative relationship between psychological distress and resilience (r= -0.203, p<0.01) in rescue workers. Further, contextual factors (r= -0.292, p<0.05) and its subcomponents including spiritual beliefs (r= -0.239, p<0.05) and cultural resources (r= -0.287, p<0.01) were also found to be inversely correlated with psychological distress. Conclusion: The research evidenced that rescue workers were experiencing psychological distress Resilience factors should be considered while designing trainings to preserve mental health and to enhance the psychological well-being of rescue workers. PMID:27381539

  2. Workers' compensation law: an overview.

    PubMed

    Yorker, B

    1994-09-01

    1. The workers' compensation system provides benefits to workers who are injured or made ill in the course of employment or their dependents regardless of fault. 2. The current workers' compensation laws benefit both the employer and the employee; however, workers' compensation is an exclusive remedy which bars recovery through a negligence lawsuit. 3. Workers' compensation regulations interact with other federal statutes such as the Americans With Disabilities Act and the Family Medical Leave Act. 4. Workers' compensation covers occupational injuries and occupational diseases, which may include cumulative trauma and mental stress claims. Nurses may be instrumental in evaluating and planning for an injured employee's return to work and occasionally in detecting fraudulent claims.

  3. CETA and the Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schram, Sanford F.; Osten, David F.

    1978-01-01

    To assess the impact of the 1973 Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) on older worker's problems, article examines CETA's history, options, and authority. Finds major systemic factors that encourage local prime sponsors to understate aging populations' needs. Concludes there is a need for substantial CETA changes to effectively serve…

  4. "Cloud" health-care workers.

    PubMed Central

    Sherertz, R. J.; Bassetti, S.; Bassetti-Wyss, B.

    2001-01-01

    Certain bacteria dispersed by health-care workers can cause hospital infections. Asymptomatic health-care workers colonized rectally, vaginally, or on the skin with group A streptococci have caused outbreaks of surgical site infection by airborne dispersal. Outbreaks have been associated with skin colonization or viral upper respiratory tract infection in a phenomenon of airborne dispersal of Staphylococcus aureus called the "cloud" phenomenon. This review summarizes the data supporting the existence of cloud health-care workers. PMID:11294715

  5. Radiological worker training

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This Handbook describes an implementation process for core training as recommended in Implementation Guide G441.12, Radiation Safety Training, and as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Standard (RCS). The Handbook is meant to assist those individuals within the Department of Energy, Managing and Operating contractors, and Managing and Integrating contractors identified as having responsibility for implementing core training recommended by the RCS. This training is intended for radiological workers to assist in meeting their job-specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835. While this Handbook addresses many requirements of 10 CFR 835 Subpart J, it must be supplemented with facility-specific information to achieve full compliance.

  6. Metal-material workers and lung cancer in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, T

    1976-01-01

    The distribution by occupation of 39,255 lung cancer deaths in eight years, from 1960 to 1967, was analyzed. An age-standardized comparison of actual deaths and expected deaths revealed that cancer of the lung had tendency to occur with a significantly higher frequency in (1) metal material workers (Obs., 232; Exp., 176.5), and (2) workers in mining and quarrying occupations (Obs., 151; Exp., 127.9). By similar analysis, farmers, miners, and metal-material workers were noted as high-risk occupations for stomach cancer and clerical workers, and farmers were noted as such for leukemia. The value of occupational cancer in monitoring by such a simple analysis was stressed (see Figure 1).

  7. The effects of a supervised toothbrushing programme on the caries increment of primary school children, initially aged 5-6 years.

    PubMed

    Jackson, R J; Newman, H N; Smart, G J; Stokes, E; Hogan, J I; Brown, C; Seres, J

    2005-01-01

    Children in the London Boroughs of Kensington, Chelsea and Westminster have one of the highest levels of caries in England and Wales. In 1997/98, the mean dmft for 5-year-old children was 2.83 with only 45.9% of the children being caries free. The aim of this study was to determine whether teacher-supervised toothbrushing, once a day, at school, during term time, with commercial toothpaste containing 1,450 ppm fluoride, could reduce dental caries in primary school children when compared with children from the same community who did not receive this intervention. A total of 517 children (mean age 5.63 years) were recruited for the study. Class teachers were trained individually by the same dental hygienist in an appropriate toothbrushing technique for young children. Children in the intervention group brushed once a day at school. All examinations were by visual assessment only. All teeth present were assessed using the BASCD criteria. For children in the intervention group, the overall caries increment (2.60) was significantly less (10.9%; p < 0.001) than for children in the non-intervention group (2.92). Among different tooth surfaces, the difference in caries increment between the intervention group (0.78) and the non-intervention group (1.03) was greatest for the proximal surfaces (21.4%; p < 0.01). In conclusion, this study suggests that a programme of daily teacher-supervised toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste can be effectively targeted into socially deprived communities and a significant reduction in dental caries can thereby be achieved especially among caries-susceptible children.

  8. Dermatological and respiratory problems in migrant construction workers of Udupi, Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Mayuri; Kamath, Ramachandra; Tiwari, Rajnarayan R.; Nair, Narayana Pillai Sreekumaran

    2015-01-01

    Background: India being a developing country has tremendous demand of physical infrastructure and construction work as a result there is a raising demand of construction workers. Workers in construction industry are mainly migratory and employed on contract or subcontract basis. These workers face temporary relationship between employer and employee, uncertainty in working hours, contracting and subcontracting system, lack of basic continuous employment, lack basic amenities, and inadequacy in welfare schemes. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of respiratory and dermatological symptoms among migratory construction workers. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Manipal, Karnataka, among 340 male migratory construction workers. A standard modified questionnaire was used as a tool by the interviewer and the physical examination of the workers was done by a physician. The statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15.0. Result: Eighty percent of the workers belong to the age group of 18–30 years. The mean age of the workers was 26 ± 8.2 years. Most (43.8%) of the workers are from West Bengal followed by those from Bihar and Jharkhand. The rates of prevalence of respiratory and dermatological symptoms were 33.2% and 36.2%, respectively. Conclusion: The migrant construction workers suffer from a high proportion of respiratory and dermatological problems. PMID:26957808

  9. Evaluation of respiratory system in textile-dyeing workers

    PubMed Central

    Salmani Nodoushan, Mojahede; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Loukzadeh, Ziba; Rahimian, Masoud; Ghove Nodoushan, Mohamad ali; Jafari Nodoushan, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite the presence of many textile and dyeing plants in Iran, we couldn’t find similar studies in this country. Forthermore, considering progress in the dyeing process and engineering controls, assessment of respiratory system is important for these workers. The present study was performed to evaluate the respiratory system in dyeing workers. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 101 dyeing workers (all dyeing workers in yazd) and 90 workers without respiratory exposures (control group), were evaluated. A questionnaire was filled for each participant included Venables questionnaire and some other questions about age, work experience, personal or familial history of asthma or atopy, acute and chronic respiratory symptoms; Then spirometry was performed before and after the shift work Results: The frequency of acute and chronic respiratory symptoms was significantly higher among dyeing workers than controls. According to the Venables questionnaire, 11.9% of the dyeing workers suffered from asthma. Means of FVC and FEV1 of pre-shift spirometry were lower than control (p< 0.001). Across-shift spirometry showed significant reduction of FVC (p< 0.001), FEV1 (p< 0.001), FEF25-75% (p= 0.05) and FEF25% (p= 0.007) in dyeing workers compared to the control group. Conclusion: Evaluation of dyeing workers’ respiratory system in this study showed that despite development in dyeing processes and engineering controls, workers in this job show more prevalent acute and chronic symptoms, and across-shift changes in spirometric parameters were significantly higher in this work group than the control group. Therefore it is necessary to pay attention to the control of respiratory exposures in this job. PMID:25664289

  10. A Comparison of Workers Employed in Hazardous Jobs in Terms of Job Satisfaction, Perceived Job Risk and Stress: Turkish Jean Sandblasting Workers, Dock Workers, Factory Workers and Miners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Ayda Buyuksahin; Sunal, Onur; Yasin, Fatma

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare job satisfaction, perception of job risk, stress symptoms and vulnerability to stress of miners, dock workers, jean sandblasting workers and factory workers. A job satisfaction scale and stress audit scale were applied to 220 workers. Results revealed that dock and jean sandblasting workers perceived their…

  11. Do hornets have zombie workers?

    PubMed

    Foster, K R; Ratnieks, F L; Raybould, A F

    2000-06-01

    Colonies of the European hornet, Vespa crabro, are typically founded by a single queen mated to a single male. From the resulting colony relatedness pattern we predicted strong worker-queen conflict over male production where both the workers and the queen attempt to produce the colony's males. To test for this conflict, male production was studied in 15 hornet nests using a combination of DNA microsatellite analysis (282 males), worker ovary dissections (500 workers from eight nests) and 50 h of observation (four nests). In contrast to our prediction, the data show that hornet males are queens' sons, that workers never attempt to lay eggs, rarely have activated ovaries, and that there is no direct aggression between the queen and the workers. This contrasts with other data for vespine wasps, which support relatedness predictions. Dolichovespula arenaria has the same kin structure as V. crabro and workers produce males in many colonies. The similarity between these two species makes it difficult to explain why workers do not reproduce in V. crabro. Self-restraint is expected if worker reproduction significantly reduces colony productivity but there is no obvious reason why this should be important to V. crabro but not to D. arenaria. Alternatively, queen control may be important. The absence of expressed queen-worker conflict rules out physical control. Indirect pheromonal control is a possibility and is supported by the occurrence of royal courts and queen pheromone in Vespa but not Dolichovespula. Pheromonal queen control is considered evolutionarily unstable, but could result from a queen-worker arms race over reproductive control in which the queen is ahead. The genetic data also revealed diploid males in one colony, the first example in the vespine wasps, and two colonies with double matrilines, suggesting that occasional usurpation by spring queens occurs.

  12. Portrayals of Pro-Beijing Workers' Night Schools in Hong Kong from 1946 to Post-1997

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Chui Shan

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the transformation of pro-Beijing labour education in the socio-political context of Hong Kong. It explores the reasons that Hong Kong pro-Beijing educators initiated Workers' Night Schools for adults; the organisation of schools in many locales and the transformation of labour education that workers received in these…

  13. 75 FR 15741 - Sheet Metal Workers Internationl Association, Local 292: Troy, MI; Notice of Termination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Sheet Metal Workers Internationl Association, Local 292: Troy, MI... investigation was initiated in response to a petition filed on July 13, 2009 on behalf of workers of Steel...

  14. Influenza vaccine and healthcare workers.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Díaz, Fatima Del Carmen; Jiménez-Corona, Maria Eugenia; Ponce-de-León-Rosales, Samuel

    2011-11-01

    We undertook this study to review attitudes, beliefs and practices of healthcare workers (HCW) toward pandemic influenza A vaccine (H1N1) 2009 reported in the literature. Relevant papers published from 2009-2011 reporting attitudes, beliefs and practices of HCW towards pandemic influenza vaccine were identified. Variables such as age, gender, profession, work place area, and previous vaccination uptake were analyzed. In this study, 30 articles regarding attitudes and beliefs toward pandemic influenza vaccination, vaccine uptake and intention to accept vaccine were analyzed. Most studies were cross-sectional in design. Vaccination intention and uptake varies among different countries, 13.5-89.0% and 7.5-63.0%, respectively. Most common reasons for rejection were fear of adverse events, doubt regarding efficacy, not feeling as belonging to a high-risk group and believing that influenza is not a serious illness. Physicians show more favorable attitudes compared to nurses. The main predictor of vaccine uptake was having received previous influenza vaccination. Pandemic influenza uptake was low in most countries. The main reason among HCW for rejection was concern regarding side effects. It is necessary to establish educational programs to provided reliable information and raise awareness of HCW about vaccine use so that they can act as vaccine promoters among the general population.

  15. 29 CFR 502.42 - Procedures for initiating and undertaking review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER... of Administrative Law Judge's Decision § 502.42 Procedures for initiating and undertaking review....

  16. 29 CFR 502.42 - Procedures for initiating and undertaking review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER... of Administrative Law Judge's Decision § 502.42 Procedures for initiating and undertaking review....

  17. 29 CFR 502.42 - Procedures for initiating and undertaking review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER... of Administrative Law Judge's Decision § 502.42 Procedures for initiating and undertaking review....

  18. 29 CFR 502.42 - Procedures for initiating and undertaking review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER... of Administrative Law Judge's Decision § 502.42 Procedures for initiating and undertaking review....

  19. 29 CFR 502.42 - Procedures for initiating and undertaking review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER... of Administrative Law Judge's Decision § 502.42 Procedures for initiating and undertaking review....

  20. Retraining Displaced Workers. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaLonde, Robert; Sullivan, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Robert LaLonde of the University of Chicago and Daniel Sullivan of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago suggest that retraining through our nation's community colleges is a way to reduce the skills gaps of at least some of these displaced workers and increase their reemployment earnings. Although workers may still experience significant earnings…

  1. The Tree Worker's Manual. [Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilly, S. J.

    This manual acquaints readers with the general operations of the tree care industry. The manual covers subjects important to a tree worker and serves as a training aid for workers at the entry level as tree care professionals. Each chapter begins with a set of objectives and may include figures, tables, and photographs. Ten chapters are included:…

  2. How To Manage Older Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    Most older workers continue to work hard and perform well; those who do not often perceive that their opportunities for promotion and increased earnings are limited. Six principles of management particularly apply to older workers: (1) recognize that needs can be powerful motivators; (2) link need satisfaction to job performance; (3) set specific,…

  3. Active Ageing in a Greying Society: Training for All Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessel, Roger

    2008-01-01

    With the ageing of society, policy-makers are aware of the need to retain older workers in employment. Across Europe, lifelong learning is increasingly important. Adults who remain active longer need (re-)training to maintain their productivity. However, vocational training tends to decline with age. The article analyses European employment policy…

  4. Cytogenetic monitoring of coal workers and patients with coal workers' pneumoconiosis in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Ulker, O.C.; Ustundag, A.; Duydu, Y.; Yucesoy, B.; Karakaya, A.

    2008-04-15

    Occupational exposure to coal dust causes coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), which is a chronic inflammatory and fibrotic lung disease. Recently, chronic inflammation has been accepted as a crucial factor in the pathogenesis of neoplasia. The chronic inflammation provides dynamic setting for oxidative stress and formation of free radicals. Interaction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with DNA augments the likelihood of DNA structural and transcriptional errors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the genotoxic risk in pneumoconiotic patients and in those with occupational exposure to coal dust. Therefore, sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronucleus (MN) tests were performed in Turkish CWP patients, coal workers, and an unexposed control group. Both SCE and MN frequencies in CWP patients were found significantly higher than in coal worker and unexposed groups. There were no differences between SCE and MN frequencies of coal worker and unexposed groups. On the other hand, no correlation between SCE frequency, duration of exposure, and age was observed in all three groups. There was also no effect of smoking on the frequencies of SCE and MN in the groups. Based on these results, it might be suggested that development of CWP leads to a significant induction of cytogenetic damage in peripheral lymphocytes of CWP patients. This is the first report on CWP patients with elevated cytogenetic endpoints. Further, a larger follow-up study is warranted.

  5. Assessing the Factors Associated with Sexual Harassment among Young Female Migrant Workers in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puri, Mahesh; Cleland, John

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the extent of, and factors associated with, sexual harassment of young female migrant workers in the carpet and garment factories in Kathmandu Valley. Information is drawn from a survey of 550 female workers aged 14 to 19 and 12 in-depth case histories. Bivariate and multivariate techniques were applied to identify the…

  6. Earnings History of Social Workers: A Comparison to Other Professional Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozawa, Martha N.; Law, Simon Wai-on

    1993-01-01

    Used data from 1982 New Beneficiary Survey and from Social Security Administration to trace experience of social workers and members of four other professional groups who started to receive Old Age Insurance benefits or became Medicare-only beneficiaries in 1980-81. Found that earnings capacity of social workers consistently lagged far behind two…

  7. Validation of the Wood's Job Satisfaction Questionnaire among Taiwanese Nonprofit Sport Organization Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Mei-Yen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of Wood's Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (JSQ) among Taiwanese workers. The participants were 341 nonprofit sport organization workers (M[subscript age] = 35.89, SD = 9.23) who completed the job satisfaction questionnaire, turnover intention scale, and organizational commitment.…

  8. Declining Wages of Young Workers in Rural America. Staff Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, William P.; Pauti, Anne

    In the 1980s, the falling incomes and climbing poverty rates characterizing young workers in rural America were closely linked to rapidly changing national and international economic systems. Findings of a recent Senate Budget Committee study indicate that between 1979 and 1987 the share of young workers (ages 16-34) with low-wage jobs increased…

  9. Correlates of Mental Well-Being among Turkish Health Care Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ersanli, Ercümend; Korkut, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of present study was to investigate whether the mental well-being of health care workers associated with gender, age and marital status. Data were collected from 115 health care workers (doctors, physiotherapist, nurses, etc.) from a Turkish Medical Research and Application Center. They completed a demographic information form and the…

  10. Older Persons' Perceptions of the Frequency and Meaning of Elderspeak from Family, Friends, and Service Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Brian P.; St. Pierre, Edouard S.

    2004-01-01

    Older persons (N = 159) were surveyed for their impressions of and experiences with elderspeak from friends, same-age family members, younger family members, familiar service workers, and unfamiliar service workers. Two dimensions, "warmth" and "superiority," emerged in the judgments of elderspeak from all five speaker types. Respondents perceived…

  11. Burnout in Social Workers Treating Children as Related to Demographic Characteristics, Work Environment, and Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamama, Liat

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sense of burnout among 126 social workers who directly treat children and adolescents within the human service professions. Burnout was investigated in relation to social workers' demographic characteristics (age, family status, education, and seniority at work), extrinsic and intrinsic work conditions, and social support by…

  12. Skill Improvement Training among Currently Employed Workers. Indicator of the Month.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

    Between 1991 and 1995, the percentage of employed workers participating in skill improvement training (SIT) for their current job increased from 30 to 32%. Participation in SIT increased for full- and part-time workers alike. In 1995, participation for a current job was highest among females and individuals in the 35-54 age group. Participation…

  13. Factors Related to Predicting Grade Point Averages of Dislocated Workers at a Rural Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, James Brent

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine relationships which existed between selected demographics and college grade point averages "GPAs" for dislocated workers and non dislocated workers enrolled in career-technical courses at a rural community college. The variables included in the study are age, gender, and marital status. The study…

  14. Contact dermatitis in Alstroemeria workers.

    PubMed

    van der Mei, I A; de Boer, E M; Bruynzeel, D P

    1998-09-01

    Hand dermatitis is common in workers in the horticultural industry. This study determined the prevalence of hand dermatitis in workers of Alstroemeria cultivation, investigated how many workers had been sensitized by tulipalin A (the allergen in Alstroemeria) and took stock of a wide range of determinants of hand dermatitis. The 12-month period prevalence of major hand dermatitis amounted to 29.5% whereas 7.4% had minor dermatitis. Of these workers, 52.1% were sensitized for tulipalin A. Several personal and work-related determinants played a role in the multifactorial aetiology of hand dermatitis. Factors which showed a significant relationship with major hand dermatitis were: female sex, atopic dermatitis, chapped hands and the frequency of washing hands. It may be concluded that the Alstroemeria workers are a population at risk of developing contact dermatitis and it might be useful to carry out an educational campaign to lower the high prevalence.

  15. [Rural workers' health in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Moreira, Jessica Pronestino de Lima; Oliveira, Bruno Luciano Carneiro Alves de; Muzi, Camila Drumond; Cunha, Carlos Leonardo Figueiredo; Brito, Alexandre dos Santos; Luiz, Ronir Raggio

    2015-08-01

    Workers' health is a central theme in public health surveys, but the specificity of work activities should be considered. This study aimed to analyze the health of rural workers in Brazil that perform both agricultural and non-agricultural work, based on self-rated health and self-reported diseases. The Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (PNAD 2008) was used, incorporating information from the complex sampling plan. Agricultural workers 18 years or older were selected, stratified according to those with and without non-agricultural work. Logistic regression was performed for self-rated health, and odds ratios were calculated for self-reported diseases. Exclusive agricultural work decreased the odds of reporting good health and increased the odds of reporting back pain, high blood pressure, and arthritis/rheumatism. Exclusive agricultural workers reported more diseases and worse living conditions. Self-rated health was generally better in workers with non-agricultural occupations.

  16. [Some economic and demographic norms of workers from three settled municipalities].

    PubMed

    Barrientos, G E; Pastor, M E

    1991-09-01

    Preliminary data on household structures of proletarian and semiproletarian workers in 3 municipios of the state of Puebla, Mexico, are presented. This work is part of a larger study of the 5 municipios with the highest proportion of industrial workers in the state of Puebla. Among the 3 municipios in the present study, Puebla contained 48.4% of the state's industrial workers, Tehuacan 6.9%, and Cholula 3.9%. A structured questionnaire was used during interviews with 27 male and 25 female factory workers in Puebla, 24 male and 15 female workers in Cholula, and 25 male and 20 female factory workers in Tehuacan. 16% of households of industrial workers in Puebla and Cholula supplemented their wage income with agricultural work, compared to 27% in Tehuacan. 10 of the workers, all women, were under 20 years old. 73% of women workers were under 30 years old, compared to 34% of the male workers. Women workers virtually disappeared after 40 years. Less educated women tend to enter the labor force at early ages and use their incomes to aid the parental budget. The tendency is reinforced by the preference of factories for a very young female labor force that also stops working a young age due to marriage. Women supported households alone in 8 cases and with the aid of other women in 4 cases. 52 households depended on the income of 1 man and another 17 on the income of more than 1 man. 48 of the women but only 7 of the men belonged to households in which both men and women were economically active. Households supported by just 1 man tended to be quite large. The data suggest a postponement of the age at 1st pregnancy among female workers.

  17. Association between Voluntary/Involuntary Job Loss and the Development of Stroke or Cardiovascular Disease: A Prospective Study of Middle-Aged to Older Workers in a Rapidly Developing Asian Country

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Mo-Yeol; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this research was to investigate the association between job loss and the development of stroke or cardiovascular disease among middle-aged to older individuals in Korea. We also examined how this relationship was modified by gender and the nature of the job loss. Methods This study used samples from the first- to fourth-wave datasets from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA), which were collected in 2006, 2008, 2010, and 2012. The study collected data from a total of 10,254 subjects aged ≥45 years at baseline. After applying exclusion criteria, the final sample size for analysis consisted of 4,000 individuals. Information about employment status, development of stroke or cardiovascular disease, and covariates (age, income level, and behavioral factors) was obtained. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association between voluntary/involuntary job loss and the development of stroke or cardiovascular disease. We performed these analyses separately according to disease, gender, and the nature of the job loss. Results Involuntary job loss significantly increased the risk of stroke or cardiovascular disease among males (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 3.560, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.055–6.168). Voluntary retirement also increased the risk of cardiovascular disease or stroke among males (adjusted HR = 2.879, 95% CI = 1.533–5.409). Job loss was more closely associated with stroke than with cardiovascular disease (stroke, adjusted HR = 6.208, 95% CI = 2.417–15.943; cardiovascular disease, adjusted HR = 2.768, 95% CI = 1.402–5.465). Conclusion Our findings suggest that both voluntary retirement and involuntary job loss increase the risk for stroke or cardiovascular disease in middle-aged to older individuals, especially males. PMID:25409032

  18. HIV risk perceptions, knowledge and behaviours among female sex workers in two cities in Turkmenistan.

    PubMed

    Chariyeva, Z; Colaco, R; Maman, S

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes HIV risk behaviour patterns among street- and bar-based female sex workers in the Turkmenistan cities of Ashgabat and Mary. Street-based sex workers had little to no knowledge of HIV and primarily used condoms when condom use was initiated by clients. Bar-based sex workers had HIV knowledge and reported regularly using condoms mainly with first-time clients. While sex workers perceived themselves to be at low risk for acquiring HIV, they were aware of other sexually transmitted infections (STI) and expressed a strong desire for free STI testing and treatment services.

  19. Social Workers in Home Care: The Israeli Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayalon, Liat; Baum, Nehami

    2010-01-01

    In Israel, the government partially supports personal home care services (grooming, feeding, assistance with transfers) as a means to maintain frail individuals in their home environment for as long as possible. Social workers capture a prominent position in these arrangements as initiators and supervisors of personal home care services. This…

  20. HANFORD CHEMICAL VAPORS WORKER CONCERNS & EXPOSURE EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    ANDERSON, T.J.

    2006-12-20

    Chemical vapor emissions from underground hazardous waste storage tanks on the Hanford site in eastern Washington State are a potential concern because workers enter the tank farms on a regular basis for waste retrievals, equipment maintenance, and surveillance. Tank farm contractors are in the process of retrieving all remaining waste from aging single-shell tanks, some of which date to World War II, and transferring it to newer double-shell tanks. During the waste retrieval process, tank farm workers are potentially exposed to fugitive chemical vapors that can escape from tank headspaces and other emission points. The tanks are known to hold more than 1,500 different species of chemicals, in addition to radionuclides. Exposure assessments have fully characterized the hazards from chemical vapors in half of the tank farms. Extensive sampling and analysis has been done to characterize the chemical properties of hazardous waste and to evaluate potential health hazards of vapors at the ground surface, where workers perform maintenance and waste transfer activities. Worker concerns. risk communication, and exposure assessment are discussed, including evaluation of the potential hazards of complex mixtures of chemical vapors. Concentrations of vapors above occupational exposure limits-(OEL) were detected only at exhaust stacks and passive breather filter outlets. Beyond five feet from the sources, vapors disperse rapidly. No vapors have been measured above 50% of their OELs more than five feet from the source. Vapor controls are focused on limited hazard zones around sources. Further evaluations of vapors include analysis of routes of exposure and thorough analysis of nuisance odors.

  1. Do Social Workers Make Better Child Welfare Workers than Non-Social Workers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Robin E.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To empirically examine whether the educational background of child welfare workers in Florida impacts on performance evaluations of their work. Method: A proportionate, stratified random sample of supervisor and peer evaluations of child protective investigators and child protective service workers is conducted. ANOVA procedures are…

  2. Industrial Characteristics and Employment of Older Manufacturing Workers in the Early-Twentieth-Century United States

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chulhee

    2015-01-01

    This study explores how industry-specific technological, organizational, and managerial features affected the employment of old male manufacturing workers in the early twentieth-century United States. Industrial characteristics favorably related to the employment of old industrial workers include high labor productivity, less capital- and material-intensive production, short workdays, low intensity of work, high job flexibility, and formalized employment relationship. Results show that aged industrial workers were heavily concentrated in “unfavorable” industries, suggesting that the contemporary argument of “industrial scrap heap” was applicable for most of the manufacturing workers in the early twentieth century United States. PMID:26989273

  3. School Nurses: A Resource for Young Worker Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Doloris N.; Tierney, Jeanette; Lins, Meredith; Hanrahan, Lawrence

    2004-01-01

    On average, 67 youths under age 18 die at work in the United States each year, and many more suffer work-related injuries. In 1998, an estimated 77,000 young workers suffered work injuries that required treatment in hospital emergency rooms. It is estimated that only one third of work-related injuries are seen in emergency departments; therefore,…

  4. Stress and musculoskeletal discomfort among hydrocarbon industry workers in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Avila-Chaurand, R; Prado-León, L R; González-Muñoz, E L

    2012-01-01

    This study of 114 workers in the hydrocarbon industry was conducted to identify the relationship between stress and musculoskeletal discomfort, and to view the roles played by such factors as age, schooling, obesity, workplace and job seniority. All factors except seniority were found to affect the presence of musculoskeletal discomfort in some area of the body.

  5. ILO Meeting Supported Older Workers, Improved Standards Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Accolla, Peter

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the resolutions and recommendations issuing from the 1980 conference of the International Labour Organisation. New standards were proposed in the areas of age and employment discrimination, workplace safety and health, collective bargaining, and safeguards for workers with family responsibilities. (SK)

  6. Respiratory Health in Waste Collection and Disposal Workers

    PubMed Central

    Vimercati, Luigi; Baldassarre, Antonio; Gatti, Maria Franca; De Maria, Luigi; Caputi, Antonio; Dirodi, Angelica A.; Cuccaro, Francesco; Bellino, Raffaello Maria

    2016-01-01

    Waste management, namely, collection, transport, sorting and processing, and disposal, is an issue of social concern owing to its environmental impact and effects on public health. In fact, waste management activities are carried out according to procedures that can have various negative effects on the environment and, potentially, on human health. The aim of our study was to assess the potential effects on respiratory health of this exposure in workers in the waste management and disposal field, as compared with a group of workers with no occupational exposure to outdoor pollutants. The sample consisted of a total of 124 subjects, 63 waste collectors, and 61 office clerks. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects before inclusion in the study. The entire study population underwent pulmonary function assessments with spirometry and completed two validated questionnaires for the diagnosis of rhinitis and chronic bronchitis. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA 13. Spirometry showed a statistically significant reduction in the mean Tiffenau Index values in the exposed workers, as compared with the controls, after adjusting for the confounding factors of age, BMI, and smoking habit. Similarly, the mean FEV1 values were lower in the exposed workers than in the controls, this difference being again statistically significant. The FVC differences measured in the two groups were not found to be statistically significant. We ran a cross-sectional study to investigate the respiratory health of a group of workers in the solid waste collection and disposal field as compared with a group of office workers. In agreement with most of the data in the literature, our findings support the existence of a prevalence of respiratory deficits in waste disposal workers. Our data suggest the importance of adopting preventive measures, such as wearing specific individual protection devices, to protect this particular category of workers from adverse effects on respiratory

  7. Attitudes and perceptions of workers to sexual harassment.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Hardman, Lisa

    2005-12-01

    The authors investigated how individual factors (age, gender, gender role, past experiences of sexual harassment) and organizational factors (gender ratio, sexual harassment policies, the role of employers) related to workers' attitudes toward and perceptions of sexual harassment. In Study 1, participants were 176 workers from a large, white-collar organization. In Study 2, participants were 75 workers from a smaller, blue-collar organization. Individuals from Study 2 experienced more sexual harassment, were more tolerant of sexual harassment, and perceived less behavior as sexual harassment than did individuals from Study 1. For both samples, organizational and individual factors predicted workers' attitudes toward and experiences of sexual harassment. Individual factors-such as age, gender, gender role, past experiences of sexual harassment, and perceptions of management's tolerance of sexual harassment-predicted attitudes toward sexual harassment. Workers' attitudes, the behavioral context, and the gender of the victim and perpetrator predicted perceptions of sexual harassment. The authors discussed the broader implications of these findings and suggested recommendations for future research.

  8. Experience and limited lighting may affect sleepiness of tunnel workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Working on shifts, especially on a night shift, influences the endogenous sleep regulation system leading to diminished sleep time and increased somnolence. We attempted to evaluate the impact of shifts on sleepiness and correlate the sleepiness score to the experience in a shift schedule. Materials and methods This cross-sectional study consists of 42 male and 2 female workers involved in a tunnel construction. They underwent spirometry, pulse oximetry and were asked to complete the Epworth Sleepiness Scale questionnaire. Results Statistical analysis revealed that workers of lower Epworth had a mean age of 43.6 years, compared to the mean age of 36.4 years of workers with higher Epworth. Furthermore, workers of lower Epworth were characterized by a mean number of shift years equal to 14.8, while those of higher Epworth possessed a mean number of shift years equal to 8. The shift schedule did not reveal any statistically significant correlation. Conclusions Workers employed for a longer time had diminished sleepiness. However, there is no relationship between night shifts and sleepiness, possibly because of exposure to artificial lighting in the construction site. PMID:24993796

  9. Aging Water Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is part of EPA’s larger effort called the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative. The SI initiative brings together drinking water and wastewater utility managers; trade associations; local watershed protection organ...

  10. Gonadotropic effects of dopamine in isolated workers of the primitively eusocial wasp, Polistes chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Ken; Yamasaki, Kazuhisa; Tsuchida, Koji; Nagao, Takashi

    2009-05-01

    In social insects, biogenic amines are thought to play regulatory roles in the transition between reproductive states in females. To determine the effect of dopamine on the reproductive development of workers in primitively eusocial societies, isolated workers of the paper wasp Polistes chinensis were supplied with oral dopamine. Ovarian development was accelerated in dopamine-fed workers as compared to control workers of the same age fed only sucrose solution. Oral dopamine increased brain levels of dopamine and its metabolite ( N-acetyldopamine). Brain levels of tyramine or octopamine were also increased by dopamine application in one of two colonies; levels of the tyramine metabolite N-acetyltyramine were unchanged. These results indicate that dopamine plays a gonadotropic role in isolated workers in the primitively eusocial wasp, similar to the gonadotropic role previously reported for juvenile hormone. This is the first study to report effects of dopamine on ovarian development in workers of the paper wasp.

  11. On the Season, a Report of a Public Health Project Conducted Among Negro Migrant Agricultural Workers in Palm Beach County, Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browning, Robert H.; Northcutt, Travis J., Jr.

    A 5-year project to develop public health services for migrant workers was initiated in Florida in 1956. The project staff consisted of 8 public health personnel: 2 public health nurses, a public health educator, a public health nutritionist, a medical social worker, a part-time sanitarian, a liaison worker, and a secretary. Two practicing…

  12. Epidemiologic study of occupational injuries among foreign and native workers in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, T N; Liou, S H; Hsu, C C; Chao, S L; Liou, S F; Ko, K N; Yeh, W Y; Chang, P Y

    1997-05-01

    This study was designed to compare the risk of occupational injuries in foreign workers compared to native workers in Taiwan. The cohort of foreign workers under study was constructed by records of legally registered workers migrated from foreign countries to Taiwan from July 1, 1991 to December 31, 1993. The native Taiwanese workers for comparison were labor-insured workers working in the same industries as foreign workers in 1992. The number of occupational injuries in the first year of employment were obtained by matching the cohort of foreign workers with the labor insurance payment records by name, birth date and passport number. The 1-year incidence rate of occupational injuries in the first year of employment was calculated and a standardized morbidity ratio (SMR) was used for comparison with adjustment for age distribution and to accommodate the small sample size of foreign workers. The risk to occupational injuries among total (SMR = 0.86) and male (SMR = 0.58) foreign workers was not higher; indeed, it was even lower, than that among native workers in Taiwan. However, the risk to female migrant workers, especially in the construction industry, was significantly higher than that of female Taiwanese workers (SMR = 1.60). Stratified by industry, the incidence was high in the fabricated metal products manufacturing industry and in machinery and equipment manufacturing industry for male foreign workers, while a high incidence for the female foreign workers occurred in construction industry and rubber products manufacturing industry. The risk of occupational injuries was greater for foreign workers who had been in Taiwan for only a short time. Most of the injuries occurred within the first 6 months of employment. Eighty-four out of the 394 occupational injuries among foreign workers resulted in disabilities. None of the accidents was fatal, but most of the disabilities were severe. The most common disabling injuries were cut or crushed fingers. The finding of a

  13. Taking Initiative in the Age of Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Josh; Morgan, Melanie; Ortiz, Anna Victoria; Anderson, Lindsey B.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment is an increasingly important part of communication pedagogy, not just for periodic accreditation reviews but for ongoing justifications for resources and course design. This project relates the story of how another college at our university prompted us to prove that our Science Writing and Presentation course really delivered what it…

  14. Ageing doctors.

    PubMed

    Lillis, Steven; Milligan, Eleanor

    2017-03-01

    Doctors are neither more nor less susceptible than the general population to the effects of ageing. The relevance of deterioration with age depends on the nature of the work undertaken. Reduced muscle strength and visual and auditory deterioration can compromise clinical ability. Accumulation of chronic disease further reduces capacity. Cognitive decline is of particular importance, as good medical care requires considerable cognitive function. Patient safety is paramount, yet older doctors are an important part of the medical workforce and their value should be recognised. Changes in patient case mix, work place support systems and individual adjustments can assist safe practice. Deterioration in health should be acknowledged and requires proactive management. Current methods of ensuring competence are inadequate for supporting ageing doctors. A new initiative is recommended comprising collaboration between regulators, colleges and employing institutions to support the ageing doctor in providing safe and effective practice.

  15. Ports Initiative

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of the ports initiative is to assist EPA and other participants to formulate strategies for moving forward on actions addressing the transportation, air quality and climate issues raised in the National Conversations.

  16. [Occupational risk factors and reproductive health of female workers engaged into kraft pulping].

    PubMed

    Meshchakova, N M

    2005-01-01

    Female workers of child-bearing age appeared to have significant frequency of reproductive disorders, high degree of their connection with the occupation. The authors justified a concept of reproductivity disorders formation.

  17. Pre-event Smallpox Vaccination for Healthcare Workers Revisited – the Need for a Carefully Screened Multidisciplinary Cadre

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, JD D.

    2007-03-01

    Abstract As healthcare institutions are a focus of smallpox transmission early in an epidemic, several mathematical models support pre-event smallpox vaccination of healthcare workers (HCWs). The deciding factor for HCW voluntary vaccination is the risk of disease exposure versus the risk of vaccine adverse events. In a United States military population, with careful screening to exclude atopic dermatitis/eczema and immunosuppression, over 1 million vaccinia vaccinations were delivered with 1 fatality attributed to vaccination. Among 37,901 U.S. civilian volunteer healthcare workers vaccinated, 100 serious adverse events were reported including 10 ischemic cardiac episodes and six myocardial infarctions – 2 were fatal. This older population had a higher rate of adverse events due to age related coronary artery disease. T-cell mediated inflammatory processes, induced by live vaccinia vaccination, may have a role in the observed acute coronary artery events. With exclusion of individuals at risk for coronary artery disease, atopic dermatitis/eczema, and immunosuppression, HCWs can be smallpox vaccinated with minimal risk. A smallpox pre-vaccinated multidisciplinary cadre (physician, nurse, infection control practitioner, technician) will supply leadership to deal with fear and uncertainty while limiting spread and initial mortality of smallpox. Stochastic – from the Greek meaning “skillful in aiming” – is currently interpreted as arising from chance and involving probability. This issue’s article “Containing a large bioterrorist smallpox attack: a computer simulation approach” by Longini et al. is a discrete time, stochastic computer simulation model that offers additional planning guidance for a smallpox (variola virus) outbreak (1). Although interpretation of the model’s information may differ, Longini’s article concludes “Given that surveillance and containment measures are in place, preemptive vaccination of hospital workers would further

  18. Lower Acetylcholinesterase Activity among Children Living with Flower Plantation Workers

    PubMed Central

    Suarez-Lopez, Jose R.; Jacobs, David R.; Himes, John H.; Alexander, Bruce H.; Lazovich, DeAnn; Gunnar, Megan

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Children of workers exposed to pesticides are at risk of secondary pesticide exposure. We evaluated the potential for lower acetylcholinesterase activity in children cohabiting with fresh-cut flower plantation workers, which would be expected from organophosphate and carbamate insecticide exposure. Parental home surveys were performed and acetylcholinesterase activity was measured in 277 children aged 4–9 years in the study of Secondary Exposure to Pesticides among Infants, Children and Adolescents (ESPINA). Participants lived in a rural county in Ecuador with substantial flower plantation activity. RESULTS Mean acetylcholinesterase activity was 3.14 U/ml, standard deviation (SD): 0.49. It was lower by 0.09 U/ml (95% confidence interval (CI) −0.19, −0.001) in children of flower workers (57% of participants) than non-flower workers’ children, after adjustment for gender, age, height-for-age, hemoglobin concentration, income, pesticide use within household lot, pesticide use by contiguous neighbors, examination date and residence distance to nearest flower plantation. Using a 4 level polychotomous acetylcholinesterase activity dependent variable, flower worker cohabitation (vs. not) had odds ratio 3.39 (95% CI 1.19, 9.64) for being <15th percentile compared to the highest tertile. Children cohabitating for ≥5 years (vs. never) had OR of 4.11 (95% CI: 1.17, 14.38) of AChE activity within <15th percentile compared to the highest tertile. CONCLUSIONS Cohabitation with a flower worker was related to lower acetylcholinesterase activity in children. This supports the hypothesis that the amount of take-home pesticides from flower workers suffices to decrease acetylcholinesterase activity, with lower activity associated with longer exposure. PMID:22405996

  19. Asbestos disease in family contacts of shipyard workers

    SciTech Connect

    Kilburn, K.H.; Lilis, R.; Anderson, H.A.; Boylen, C.T.; Einstein, H.E.; Johnson, S.J.; Warshaw, R.

    1985-06-01

    Radiologic signs of pulmonary asbestos disease were found in 11.3 per cent of 274 wives of shipyard workers who were 20 or more years from initial hiring-on in shipyards in Los Angeles County. Asbestosis was also found in 7.6 per cent of 79 sons and 2.1 per cent of 140 daughters of these workers. The wives, sons, and daughters were without occupational exposure. Comparable radiographic signs were not found in comparison groups. It is probable that asbestos exposure in the household places these family members at risk for mesothelioma and lung cancer.

  20. Luminescence Chronology for the Formation of Glacial Lake Calgary, Southern Alberta, Canada: Age Constraints for the Initiation of the Late Pleistocene Retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet from its Western Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munyikwa, K.; Rittenour, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Glacial Lake Calgary in southern Alberta, Canada, was a Late Pleistocene proglacial lake that formed along the southwest margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS), dammed by the retreating ice sheet margin. Attempts to constrain the age of the lake using radiocarbon methods have been hampered by the lack of datable organic material. In an effort to apply an alternative chronometer, this study uses two optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating approaches to date fine grained sand and silt that were deposited in the lake during its existence. OSL dating determines the depositional ages of sediments by measuring the energy from ionizing radiation that is stored in mineral grains such as quartz and feldspar. Dividing the stored energy, also referred to as the paleodose, by the rate at which the dose accumulated, allows an age to be ascertained. In one method applied in this study, the paleodose stored in the feldspar component of the sediment is determined using normalized infrared stimulated luminescence signals acquired using a portable OSL reader. In the second method, blue optically stimulated luminescence signals obtained from quartz separates from the sediment by employing a regular OSL reader and standard protocols are used to determine the paleodose. After correcting the feldspar data for anomalous fading, the age results from the two dating approaches are compared. The ages signify a time period by which the LIS had retreated from the study area and, hence, serve as constraints for the initiation of the retreat of the ice sheet from its western limit. Advantages and limitations of the dating methods are briefly discussed. Constraining the chronology of the retreat of the LIS from western Canada allows for a better understanding of the driving forces behind ice sheet retreat. Secondly, assigning a temporal scale to the postglacial evolution of the environment of the region permits a better insight into the dynamics of the physical and biological

  1. Normative data on the diurnal pattern of the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale ratings and its relation to age, sex, work, stress, sleep quality and sickness absence/illness in a large sample of daytime workers.

    PubMed

    Åkerstedt, Torbjorn; Hallvig, David; Kecklund, Göran

    2017-03-29

    Self-rated sleepiness responds to sleep loss, time of day and work schedules. There is, however, a lack of a normative reference showing the diurnal pattern during a normal working day, compared with a day off, as well as differences depending on stress, sleep quality, sex, age and being sick listed. The present study sought to provide such data for the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale. Participants were 431 individuals working in medium-sized public service units. Sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, scale 1-9) was rated at six times a day for a working week and 2 days off (>90.000 ratings). The results show a clear circadian pattern, with high values during the morning (4.5 at 07:00 hours) and evening (6.0 at 22:00 hours), and with low values (3-4) during the 10:00-16:00 hours span. Women had significantly higher (0.5 units) Karolinska Sleepiness Scale values than men, as did younger individuals (0.3 units), those with stress (1.3 units above the low-stress group) and those with poor sleep quality (1.0 units above those with qood sleep quality). Days off showed reduced sleepiness (0.7 units), while being sick listed was associated with an increased sleepiness (0.8 units). Multiple regression analysis of mean sleepiness during the working week yielded mean daytime stress, mean sleep quality, age, and sex as predictors (not sleep duration). Improved sleep quality accounted for the reduced sleepiness during days off, but reduced stress was a second factor. Similar results were obtained in a longitudinal mixed-model regression analysis across the 7 days of the week. The percentage of ratings at Karolinska Sleepiness Scale risk levels (8 + 9) was 6.6%, but most of these were obtained at 22:00 hours. It was concluded that sleepiness ratings are strongly associated with time of day, sleep quality, stress, work day/day off, being ill, age, and sex.

  2. INITIAL VALIDATION OF THE ASSESSMENT OF PARENTING TOOL: A TASK- AND DOMAIN-LEVEL MEASURE OF PARENTING SELF-EFFICACY FOR PARENTS OF INFANTS FROM BIRTH TO 24 MONTHS OF AGE.

    PubMed

    Moran, Tracy E; Polanin, Joshua R; Evenson, Amber L; Troutman, Beth R; Franklin, Christina L

    2016-05-01

    Parenting self-efficacy (PSE) includes parents' self-perceptions regarding their capabilities in performing the numerous and changing tasks associated with parenting a specific child (i.e., domain-specific PSE) as well as their self-perceptions in the parenting role overall (i.e., domain-general PSE). Prior literature has demonstrated PSE's relations with numerous constructs significant to mental health and the parent-infant relationship. Prior measures of PSE have been limited by focusing on only domain-specific or domain-general PSE, ignoring the importance of infant development to PSE, and other psychometric limitations. This article presents sound psychometric data for a new measure of PSE, the Assessment of Parenting Tool (APT). The APT includes task-level items on the Domain-Specific subscale (APT-DS) for each age-referenced version of the measure as well as a domain-general subscale that taps overall PSE within the first 24 months' postpartum. Initial construct validity of the measure is established, particularly for parents of infants aged 3 months and older. A stable, three-factor structure for the domain-general subscale includes "coping with being a parent," "attuned parenting," and "self-perceived model parenting." Future directions for the APT, including a revised checklist format for the domain-specific subscale, are included.

  3. National Association of Social Workers

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2016 Urgent Attention Clinical Social Workers: Medicare PQRS Negative Payment Adjustment December 2016 Preparing a Professional Will ... Issue Fall 2016 PQRS Ends December 31, 2016 Negative PQRS Payment Adjustment for 2017 (10/14/2016) ...

  4. Contingent Faculty as Nonideal Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna; Bernstein-Sierra, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explores how contingent faculty address the issue of work and family and demonstrates the importance of understanding the diversity of contingent faculty experiences and of underemployment rather than notions of the ideal worker to explain their work lives.

  5. Pesticide Worker Safety Cooperative Agreements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The worker safety program cooperative agreements fund projects to educate pesticide applicators, handlers, and farmworkers on working safely with, and around, pesticides. Read about pesticide related grant opportunities and reports from previous grants.

  6. Workers' Control in Three Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Edward

    1976-01-01

    Describes a video tape which examines the kinds of worker participation in management schemes that exist in the United States, Sweden, and Yugoslavia. Can be ordered from: Edward Hayes, Department of Government, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701. (Author/DB)

  7. Dermatoses among floral shop workers.

    PubMed

    Thiboutot, D M; Hamory, B H; Marks, J G

    1990-01-01

    Concern about the increasing incidence of hand dermatitis in floral shop workers in the United States and its possible association to the plant Alstroemeria, a flower that has become popular since its introduction in 1981, prompted investigation of the prevalence and cause of hand dermatitis in a sample of floral workers. Fifty-seven floral workers were surveyed, and 15 (26%) reported hand dermatitis within the previous 12 months. Sixteen floral workers (eight with dermatitis) volunteered to be patch tested to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group Standard and Perfume Trays, a series of eight pesticides and 20 plant allergens. Of four of seven floral designers and arrangers who reported hand dermatitis, three reacted positively to patch tests to tuliposide A, the allergen in Alstroemeria. Patch test readings for all other plant extracts were negative. A positive reading for a test to one pesticide, difolatan (Captafol), was noted, the relevance of which is unknown.

  8. Competencies for Information Systems Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Donna R.; O'Neil, Sharon Lund

    1990-01-01

    Through survey research using the DACUM approach and the Delphi technique, 8 broad skill categories and 278 competencies were determined to have some degree of importance for information systems workers. (Author)

  9. Accommodation of workers with chronic neurologic disorders.

    PubMed

    Bleecker, Margit L; Barnes, Sheryl K

    2015-01-01

    The ability to work is important to those with chronic neurologic disorders (CND) and to the aging workforce. Many signs and symptoms are similar in those with CND and normal aging, but may interfere with the ability to work if not appropriately accommodated. This requires the healthcare provider to recognize the specific features of the CND that interferes with work and how it can be accommodated. Review of the American with Disabilities Act and the subsequent amendment informs the healthcare provider as to what is covered under the law and how the disability can be accommodated. Overall employers want to retain qualified employees and therefore accommodating workers is beneficial to both the employee with CND and the employer.

  10. Early initiation of breast-feeding in Ghana: barriers and facilitators.

    PubMed

    Tawiah-Agyemang, C; Kirkwood, B R; Edmond, K; Bazzano, A; Hill, Z

    2008-12-01

    To explore why women in Ghana initiate breast-feeding early or late, who gives advice about initiation and what foods or fluids are given to babies when breast-feeding initiation is late. Qualitative data were collected through 52 semistructured interviews with recent mothers, 8 focus group discussions with women of child-bearing age and 13 semistructured interviews with health workers, policy makers and implementers. The major reasons for delaying initiation of breast-feeding were the perception of a lack of breast milk, performing postbirth activities such as bathing, perception that the mother and the baby need rest after birth and the baby not crying for milk. Facilitating factors for early initiation included delivery in a health facility, where the staff encouraged early breast-feeding, and the belief in some ethnic groups that putting the baby to the breast encourages the milk. Policy makers tended to focus on exclusive breast-feeding rather than early initiation. Most activities for the promotion of early initiation of breast-feeding were focused on health facilities with very few community activities. It is important to raise awareness about early initiation of breast-feeding in communities and in the policy arena. Interventions should focus on addressing barriers to early initiation and should include a community component.

  11. Cotton Dust Exposure and Respiratory Disorders among Textile Workers at a Textile Company in the Southern Part of Benin

    PubMed Central

    Hinson, Antoine Vikkey; Lokossou, Virgil K.; Schlünssen, Vivi; Agodokpessi, Gildas; Sigsgaard, Torben; Fayomi, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The textile industry sector occupies a prominent place in the economy of Benin. It exposes workers to several occupational risks, including exposure to cotton dust. To assess the effect of exposure to cotton dust on the health of workers, this study was initiated and conducted in a Beninese cotton industry company. The objective of the study was to evaluate the respiratory disorders among the textile workers exposed to cotton dust and the cross-sectional study involved 656 subjects exposed to cotton dust and 113 non-exposed subjects. The methods used are mainly based on a survey using a questionnaire of organic dust designed by the International Commission of Occupational Health (ICOH); and on the measures of lung function parameters (FEV1 and FVC). The main results of the different analyzes revealed that subjects exposed to cotton dust have more respiratory symptoms than unexposed subjects (36.9% vs. 21.2%). The prevalence of chronic cough, expectorations, dyspnoea, asthma and chronic bronchitis are 16.8%, 9.8%, 17.3%, 2.6%, and 5.9% respectively among the exposed versus 2.6%, 0.8%, 16.8%, 0% and 0.8% among the unexposed subjects. The prevalence of byssinosis is 44.01%.The prevalence of symptoms is dependent on the sector of activity and the age of the subject. These results should encourage medical interventions and technical prevention especially since the textile industry occupies an important place in the Benin’s economy. PMID:27618081

  12. Cotton Dust Exposure and Respiratory Disorders among Textile Workers at a Textile Company in the Southern Part of Benin.

    PubMed

    Hinson, Antoine Vikkey; Lokossou, Virgil K; Schlünssen, Vivi; Agodokpessi, Gildas; Sigsgaard, Torben; Fayomi, Benjamin

    2016-09-08

    The textile industry sector occupies a prominent place in the economy of Benin. It exposes workers to several occupational risks, including exposure to cotton dust. To assess the effect of exposure to cotton dust on the health of workers, this study was initiated and conducted in a Beninese cotton industry company. The objective of the study was to evaluate the respiratory disorders among the textile workers exposed to cotton dust and the cross-sectional study involved 656 subjects exposed to cotton dust and 113 non-exposed subjects. The methods used are mainly based on a survey using a questionnaire of organic dust designed by the International Commission of Occupational Health (ICOH); and on the measures of lung function parameters (FEV₁ and FVC). The main results of the different analyzes revealed that subjects exposed to cotton dust have more respiratory symptoms than unexposed subjects (36.9% vs. 21.2%). The prevalence of chronic cough, expectorations, dyspnoea, asthma and chronic bronchitis are 16.8%, 9.8%, 17.3%, 2.6%, and 5.9% respectively among the exposed versus 2.6%, 0.8%, 16.8%, 0% and 0.8% among the unexposed subjects. The prevalence of byssinosis is 44.01%.The prevalence of symptoms is dependent on the sector of activity and the age of the subject. These results should encourage medical interventions and technical prevention especially since the textile industry occupies an important place in the Benin's economy.

  13. Clandestine migrant workers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, T

    1992-01-01

    The author assesses the problem of illegal labor migration to Japan. "Labor policies, regulations, types of immigration violations, and the role of the recruitment industry are described. Most of the estimated 200,000 illegal workers are employed in small and medium sized enterprises, especially construction and manufacturing, which pay them wages well below the normal rate. A key issue is the infringement of human rights of these illegal workers, who lack the protection of labor laws and the social security system."

  14. Workers Search for Columbia's Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Members of a US Forest Service search team walk a grid during a Columbia recovery search near the Hemphill, Texas site. The group is accompanied by a space program worker able to identify potential hazards of Shuttle parts. Workers from every NASA Center and numerous federal, state, and local agencies searched for Columbia's debris in the recovery effort. For more information on STS-107, please see GRIN Columbia General Explanation

  15. Annual Initiative Review: Report of Health Care Delivery Initiative. California Community Colleges Economic Development Program Annual Initiative Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comins, James L.; Krozek, Charles

    This 1999-2000 report addresses the objectives and impact of California's Health Care Delivery Initiative (HCDI), which is comprised of a network of Regional Health Occupations Resource Centers (RHORCs) and their community college and health care industry partners. The HCDI identifies needed workers, develops/modifies community college curricula,…

  16. HIV and female sex workers.

    PubMed Central

    Estébanez, P.; Fitch, K.; Nájera, R.

    1993-01-01

    In this review of published findings on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and risk factors among female sex workers, we summarize the results of seroprevalence studies in different countries and discuss the different patterns of transmission among such workers in various geographical regions. The highest rates of HIV infection occur in sub-Saharan Africa, where the widespread existence of sexually transmitted diseases may play an important role in sustaining transmission. In Europe and North America injecting drug use continues to be the major factor associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, while in Latin America and parts of Asia there is a more mixed pattern of heterosexual and parenteral transmission from injecting drug use. Reviewed also are studies of the risk factors associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, such as drug use, sexual behaviour, the presence of sexually transmitted diseases, and condom use; in addition, we comment on some studies of the clients of sex workers. Finally, we propose directions that future research in this area might take and discuss various interventions that need to be undertaken to reduce HIV transmission among female sex workers. PMID:8324860

  17. HIV and female sex workers.

    PubMed

    Estébanez, P; Fitch, K; Nájera, R

    1993-01-01

    In this review of published findings on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and risk factors among female sex workers, we summarize the results of seroprevalence studies in different countries and discuss the different patterns of transmission among such workers in various geographical regions. The highest rates of HIV infection occur in sub-Saharan Africa, where the widespread existence of sexually transmitted diseases may play an important role in sustaining transmission. In Europe and North America injecting drug use continues to be the major factor associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, while in Latin America and parts of Asia there is a more mixed pattern of heterosexual and parenteral transmission from injecting drug use. Reviewed also are studies of the risk factors associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, such as drug use, sexual behaviour, the presence of sexually transmitted diseases, and condom use; in addition, we comment on some studies of the clients of sex workers. Finally, we propose directions that future research in this area might take and discuss various interventions that need to be undertaken to reduce HIV transmission among female sex workers.

  18. Epidemiologic Investigation of Immune-Mediated Polyradiculoneuropathy among Abattoir Workers Exposed to Porcine Brain

    PubMed Central

    Holzbauer, Stacy M.; DeVries, Aaron S.; Sejvar, James J.; Lees, Christine H.; Adjemian, Jennifer; McQuiston, Jennifer H.; Medus, Carlota; Lexau, Catherine A.; Harris, Julie R.; Recuenco, Sergio E.; Belay, Ermias D.; Howell, James F.; Buss, Bryan F.; Hornig, Mady; Gibbins, John D.; Brueck, Scott E.; Smith, Kirk E.; Danila, Richard N.; Lipkin, W. Ian; Lachance, Daniel H.; Dyck, P. James. B.; Lynfield, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Background In October 2007, a cluster of patients experiencing a novel polyradiculoneuropathy was identified at a pork abattoir (Plant A). Patients worked in the primary carcass processing area (warm room); the majority processed severed heads (head-table). An investigation was initiated to determine risk factors for illness. Methods and Results Symptoms of the reported patients were unlike previously described occupational associated illnesses. A case-control study was conducted at Plant A. A case was defined as evidence of symptoms of peripheral neuropathy and compatible electrodiagnostic testing in a pork abattoir worker. Two control groups were used - randomly selected non-ill warm-room workers (n = 49), and all non-ill head-table workers (n = 56). Consenting cases and controls were interviewed and blood and throat swabs were collected. The 26 largest U.S. pork abattoirs were surveyed to identify additional cases. Fifteen cases were identified at Plant A; illness onsets occurred during May 2004–November 2007. Median age was 32 years (range, 21–55 years). Cases were more likely than warm-room controls to have ever worked at the head-table (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 6.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6–26.7), removed brains or removed muscle from the backs of heads (AOR, 10.3; 95% CI, 1.5–68.5), and worked within 0–10 feet of the brain removal operation (AOR, 9.9; 95% CI, 1.2–80.0). Associations remained when comparing head-table cases and head-table controls. Workers removed brains by using compressed air that liquefied brain and generated aerosolized droplets, exposing themselves and nearby workers. Eight additional cases were identified in the only two other abattoirs using this technique. The three abattoirs that used this technique have stopped brain removal, and no new cases have been reported after 24 months of follow up. Cases compared to controls had higher median interferon-gamma (IFNγ) levels (21.7 pg/ml; vs 14.8 pg/ml, P<0

  19. HRM Practices for an Ageing Italian Workforce: The Role of Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazazzara, Alessandra; Bombelli, Maria Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore ageing trends and age stereotypes about older workers, focusing primarily on the Italian employment context. Design/methodology/approach: Beginning from a review of the literature on ageing, the paper: outlines ageing trends and discriminatory behaviours against older workers in Italy; identifies…

  20. Quality of Life Satisfaction among Workers and Non-Workers in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandelman, Nestor; Piani, Giorgina

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we use data from a population survey on quality of life dimensions conducted in Uruguay to analyze the self reported well-being among workers and non workers. Along with the literature, we find that the probability of being happy is greater for workers than non-workers. Specifically, we find evidence that workers tend to be more…

  1. Safeguarding health care workers.

    PubMed

    Benton, David; Williamson, Lindsey

    2014-12-01

    Editor's note: The International Council of Nurses (ICN) is a federation of more than 130 international nursing organizations. We invited the ICN to contribute a periodic column highlighting some of its initiatives to address global nursing issues. For more information, see the ICN Web site at www.icn.ch.

  2. [A follow-up study on pulmonary functions of workers exposed to various forms of dust. Observation on the workers of pneumoconiosis in Kitakyushu].

    PubMed

    Baba, Y; Iwao, S; Kodama, Y

    1983-09-01

    Serial spirograms of 121 dust workers whose chest X-rays were found to be "class 1" of the diagnostic criteria for pneumoconiosis were obtained during 1978-80. Yearly changes of pulmonary function variables (%VC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC%,V25/H, and V50/V25) by age, smoking habit, total years of exposure to dust, and work history were evaluated. The average age of the dust workers was 48.0 +/- 5.5 years, and the average years of exposure to dust was 21.6 +/- 6.8 years in 1978. Eighty-two dust workers smoked with the mean smoking history of 24.7 pack-years. No significant differences of spirograms were found between the smoking and non-smoking groups. Among the smokers, however, linear regression of FEV1/FVC% by age gradually decreased during 1978-80. All the pulmonary function variables showed no correlation with smoking history as well as total years of dust exposure. All the dust workers were classified into eight types of work by their histories; crushing and quarrying operators, brick mason, foundry and grinding operators, asbestos workers, underground miners, refractory material workers, pyrites roasters, and welders. The underground miners showed lower FEV1/FVC% and V25 than the average. However, the difference of such pulmonary function variables by eight types of work was not significant by analysis of variance. Since aging is the most dominant factor for pulmonary dysfunction, a longer observation on this group will be needed.

  3. Boredom on the Assembly Line: Age and Personality Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stagner, Ross

    1975-01-01

    Research shows wide differences in the way individuals react to paced, constrained jobs. Workers show increasing job satisfaction with age, but there are few older workers among assembly line operatives; perhaps they leave because of seniority, job change, or retirement. Aging, however, may make personalities more compatible with assembly line…

  4. Perceptions of Age and Creativity in the Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kara; Hui, Anna; Cheng, Sheung-Tak; Ng, Yu Leung

    2013-01-01

    As the workforce ages it becomes important to examine if there is misperception of creativity and age in work contexts. A laboratory experiment examined perceptions of the creativity of a team with both young and old workers and of a team composed entirely of young workers. Scripted videos portrayed such teams engaged in designing an outdoor…

  5. Comparison of subjective symptoms and cold prevention measures in winter between traffic control workers and construction workers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Ryoichi; Kurokawa, Junichi; Mirbod, Seyed Mohammad

    2009-07-01

    To help making comfortable workplaces and to prevent health disorders induced by the exposure to moderate cold in two different groups of out-door workers, we conducted a survey to compare subjective symptoms and cold prevention measures in winter between traffic control workers and construction workers. The subjects of this study were 98 male traffic control workers and 149 male workers engaged in building construction. Work loads of traffic control workers and construction workers were estimated at RMR1-2 and RMR2-4, respectively. All subjects were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire covering age, occupational career, working figure, present illness, past history of diseases, individual preventive measures to the cold, subjective symptoms in the winter (43 items) and subjective symptoms occurred during daytime working in the winter (6 items). In two parts of the construction workplaces (the place where a morning assembly was held and on the 7th floor of the construction site) dry bulb, wet bulb and globe temperatures were measured in January. Windchill Index (kcal/cm,(2) x h) was calculated by the measured dry bulb temperature and wind velocity. Mean values of dry bulb temperature between 9:00 and 16:30 in the place where a morning assembly was held for three days were between 4.8 +/- 1.2 degrees C at 9:00 am and 9.3 +/- 1.1 degrees C at noon. Mean values of Windchill Index in the place where a morning assembly was held were between 490.8+/-23.9 kcal/cm(2) x h at 9:30 am and 608.2+/-47.3 kcal/cm(2) x h at 2:30 pm. Occupational career, monthly working days, daily working hours, one way commuting hours, and daily smoking numbers of the traffic control workers were significantly shorter than the construction workers (p<0.01). There were no significant differences in the prevalence of chillness in the arms and legs between the traffic control workers (5.1%) and the construction workers (0.7%). Prevalence of wearing a warm underwear, body warmer, warm

  6. Worker exposure to vinyl chloride and poly(vinyl chloride).

    PubMed Central

    Jones, J H

    1981-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in early 1974 began industrial hygiene studies of vinyl chloride exposed workers. Three VC monomer plants, three VC polymerization plants, and seven PVC fabrication plants were surveyed. V polymerization plant workers and workers in one job category in VC monomer plants were exposed to average levels above 1 ppm. The highest average exposure was 22 ppm. NIOSH health hazard evaluation studies since these initial surveys have primarily shown nondetectable levels of vinyl chloride. A NIOSH control technology study in 1977 showed that exposure levels in VC polymerization plants had been drastically reduced but exposure levels above 1 ppm were still found in several cases. PMID:7333231

  7. Gallium-67 thoracic scan and pleural disease in asbestos workers

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, R.; Bisson, G.; Lamoureux, G.; Begin, R.

    1985-06-01

    The authors have recently reported that /sup 67/Ga scanning in asbestos workers can document excessive uptake of the marker among workers without sufficient criteria for asbestosis, but in their initial report they could not exclude definitely that /sup 67/Ga uptake could be related to pleural disease. To further test this hypothesis, they analyzed the /sup 67/Ga thoracic scan in relation to profusion scores of pleural disease on chest roentgenogram and CT scan of the thorax in 171 asbestos workers. They found no significant correlation between the /sup 67/Ga lung uptake and the radiographic scores of pleural disease. They concluded that pleural plaques are not an active site of /sup 67/Ga accumulation and do not contribute significantly to the thoracic uptake of the marker.

  8. [Termination without cause of a worker with bipolar disorder].

    PubMed

    Vicente-Herrero, María Teófila; Ruiz-Flores, Miguel; Torres, J Ignacio; Capdevila, Luisa; Ramírez, María Victoria; Terradillos, María Jesús; López-González, Ángel Arturo

    2013-01-01

    We describe the case of a worker with bipolar disorder who was terminated for incompetence, following a determination of being unfit for duty based on a periodic medical examination. The judge reversed the dismissal on the basis of failing to comply with the provisions of Article 52 a) of the Spanish Workers' Law. Social and labor integration of people with bipolar disorder presents challenges due both to the clinical characteristics of the disease and its chronic course, and the limitations associated with continued treatment. These situations can benefit from an evaluation of fitness for duty by an occupational physician and the implementation of preventive measures by the company, as it is necessary to exhaust all options before considering an extreme decision such as work unfitness and subsequent termination. The initial objective should be the social and labor integration of the affected worker, while minimizing risk to self and others.

  9. Workplace Education Initiative: Year Two Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperazi, Laura; Astrein, Bruce

    Site visits to 17 workplace education projects funded in the second year of the Massachusetts Workplace Education Initiative are reported for year 1 and year 2 projects. The year one projects are as follows: EASCO Handtool Company (Springfield), T.J. Maxx Distribution Center (Worcester), laundry workers (Boston/Lynn), AT&T (Lawrence), and…

  10. Older Workers: Research Readings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Tabatha, Ed.; Beddie, Francesca, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    One of the challenges facing Australia is the ageing of the population. Of major concern, especially to government, is that the dependency ratio--a measure of the burden that economically active persons carry by supporting dependent persons--will increase significantly unless older people keep working or immigration is used to change the…

  11. [Problems in Providing Care to Young Workers with Mental Health Disturbance - A Survey Using of the Cases of Workers Who Had Taken Sick Leave Due to Mental Health Disturbance].

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Kazunori; Eguchi, Masafumi; Osaki, Yohei; Nakao, Tomo; Nakamoto, Kengo; Hiro, Hisanori

    2016-06-01

    In this study we discuss the measures of providing care to young workers with mental health disturbance by analyzing the cases of workers who had taken sick leave due to mental health disturbance. We analyzed 36 cases, collected from 11 occupational physicians, of workers who had taken sick leave due to mental health disturbance, and discuss measures for providing care to such young workers. We organized and classified data containing the details of the care provided to the workers and analyzed the main aspects and problems in providing it. We compared two age groups of workers: a below age 30 group, and an age 30 and above group. We observed that occupational nurses were more frequently the primary persons who dealt with workplace consultations in the below age 30 group (before sick leave: 38.9%; during sick leave: 38.9%) compared to the age 30 and above group (before sick leave: 16.7%, during sick leave: 11.1%). Most of the case providers expressed the opinion that a support system is necessary to help the workers return to work and it is an important factor in providing care to workers who have taken sick leave due to mental health disturbance. Coordination with the families of the workers was also important in the below age 30 group. It might be difficult to assign young workers to suitable workplaces or duties because of their inadequate job skills, lack of sufficient experience, and influence of personal factors on mental health. Our results suggest that it is important to provide appropriate care for young workers with mental health disturbance, such as support by occupational nurses, and to strengthen the collaboration between their families and the workplace staff.

  12. Youth Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment and Training Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Office of Youth Programs.

    Summarizing the first eight months of the planning, design, and implementation of the new federal youth programs created by the Youth Employment and Demonstration Projects Act of 1977 (YEDPA) and the efforts for expansion and enrichment of the Job Corps, this report explains the charters of the two projects and their initial successes in and…

  13. [Market and ageing].

    PubMed

    Joël, M-E

    2005-06-01

    Ageing can be defined as growth of the proportion of elderly people in the population, but also as a group of transformations in life cycles: older age at time of first job, marriage, birth of first child, early retirement, longer life expectancy, active retirement, greater number of dependent persons. The economic impact of the ageing population has been extensively studied from the perspective of the social security fund. In France and in most developed countries, population ageing has considerably destabilized social accounting creating a gap between a system thought out after WWII and the present social environment. The current response of social security system to elderly person's needs is considered inadequate. There are however other consequences of ageing. It is important to measure the upheaval caused by longer life expectancy and changing life stages on all markets. Three kinds of markets are involved in different ways: job market, services market for the elderly and all goods market for seniors and golden aged. Many studies have focused on the links between economic production and physiological ageing. The traditional organisation of working conditions stresses working intensity over experience, young workers'capabilities over than those of older workers. The link between age and the job market can also be analyzed by considering supply and demand for employment for workers over 50. Another question is the workforce shortage forecasted in some sectors (health and social sectors in particular) and the role of immigration. Growth in the supply of long-term care will require restructuring of the sector's logistics and financing. Certain trends are appearing: government authorities are reducing their supply of services, private production is increasing, public financing is being maintained, and individual contributions are growing while the role of insurance has remained stagnant. A qualitative analysis of the markets also shows heterogeneous workers

  14. Assessment of renal function in workers previously exposed to cadmium.

    PubMed Central

    Elinder, C G; Edling, C; Lindberg, E; Kågedal, B; Vesterberg, O

    1985-01-01

    Cadmium induced renal effects were examined in 60 workers (58 men, 2 women) previously exposed to cadmium. Tubular damage in the form of beta 2-microglobulinuria was found in 40%, and urinary albumin and orosomucoid increased significantly with increasing urinary cadmium and increasing relative clearance of beta 2-microglobulin. It is suggested that increased albumin excretion is secondary to the tubular damage. In no case was typical glomerular proteinuria found that could be related to cadmium. Histories of renal stones were more common among the workers with high urinary cadmium concentrations. The glomerular filtration rate was measured in 17 of the workers who had pronounced tubular dysfunction. The average glomerular filtration rate for these men was less than the age adjusted predicted value (mean = 84%). Furthermore, there was a significant (p less than 0.05) correlation (r = -0.47) between tubular reabsorption loss and a decreased glomerular filtration rate. PMID:3904816

  15. Job Satisfaction Among Gerontological Social Workers in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Simons, Kelsey; An, Sofiya

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about job satisfaction among Canada's social work workforce in aging, although social workers remain a key component of interdisciplinary care in health and social service settings. This study begins to address this gap in knowledge by examining individual, interpersonal, and job-design factors influencing the job satisfaction of gerontological social workers in Ontario. Data were collected via two online surveys with a sample drawn from the Ontario Association of Social Workers' membership list (N = 104). A multiple regression model explained 37% of the variance in job satisfaction, F = 5.47[10, 93], p < .001). Three independent variables were significant (positive affect, β = .21; promotional chances, β = .21; and client acuity, β = -.18). The results suggest the importance of promoting strategies for enhancing job satisfaction, advancing promotional opportunities for social work clinicians, and providing educational and clinical supports to clinicians.

  16. Cost of lost work and bed days for us workers in private industry--national health interview survey, 2003.

    PubMed

    Yassin, Abdiaziz S

    2007-07-01

    Data from the 2003 National Health Interview Survey (n = 12,943) of US workers aged 18 to 64 years were used to estimate the annual cost of lost work (ACLW) and lost productivity (ACLP) due to bed days. The average lost workdays (LWDs) was estimated to be 8.39 for US workers compared with 5.62 bed days (BDs). The prevalence of high LWDs (>or=30 days) was 2.9% for US workers compared with 1.3% for BDs (>or=30 days). Regression analyses showed that female workers had higher adjusted mean LWDs and BDs than did male workers. Workers in the mining industry had the highest mean of 26.71 LWDs compared with 5.58 LWDs for workers in the wholesale industry. The total ACLW and ACLP was estimated to be $62.8 billion ($US 2003; 95% CI = $57.53-$67.52 billion).

  17. Temporal epidemiology of microfilaraemia among migrant workers entering Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Saeed; Mohammad, Hameed GHH; Michael, Edwin

    2008-01-01

    Background There is paucity of published data on the microfilarial infection among migrants from endemic countries entering Kuwait. The primary objectives of this study were to use routine health surveillance data to i) to estimate the prevalence of microfilarial infection in migrant workers to Kuwait and ii) to determine the occurrence of any time trends in the proportions of microfilaria positives among these workers over the recent past. Methods Monthly aggregates of microfilaria thick slide test results obtained from routine health examinations of migrant workers conducted at the Ports and Border Health Division of Ministry of Health, Kuwait between January 1, 1992 and December 31, 2006, were available for trend analysis of these time series data. Results During the study period, the prevalence (per 100,000) of microfilaraemia positive migrant workers was 48 (1169/2449360). A third-order polynomial regression model of monthly proportions of microfilaraemic workers revealed a significant initial increase (βˆ1 = 2.976 (± 0.157); P < 0.001), followed by a significant declining trend (βˆ2 = -0.0358 (± 0.002); P < 0.001) and a slight but significant upward trend (βˆ3 = 0.0001 (± < 0.001); P < 0.001) towards the end of study period. Conclusion This study showed a recent steady but apparently asymptotic decline in the prevalence of microfilarial infection in migrant workers from filarial endemic countries to Kuwait. This may reflect either changes in the socio-economic backgrounds of recent migrants or the effects of recently initiated mass drug administration programs carried out in the endemic countries of origin. PMID:18710477

  18. Health Profile of Construction Workers in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Yi, Wen; Chan, Albert

    2016-12-13

    Construction is a manual, heavy, and complex sector concerning the most fatal accidents and high incidence of occupational illnesses and injuries resulting in days away from work. In Hong Kong, "Pilot Medical Examination Scheme for Construction Workers" was launched in 2014 to detect the health problems of their construction workforce. All registered workers under the Construction Workers Registration Board are eligible to join the scheme. The purpose of this paper is to assess the physical condition, physiological status, and musculoskeletal disorders of 942 construction workers in Hong Kong. This study adopted a two-phase design, which includes a basic medical examination to measure the workers' physiological parameters, such as blood pressure, resting heart rate, glucose, cholesterol, uric acid, liver function test, and renal function test; as well as a face-to-face interview following the medical examination to collect their demographic information and pain experience. Individual characteristics, including gender, age, obesity, alcohol drinking habit, and sleeping habit influenced the health condition of construction workers. Among the participants, 36.1% and 6.5% of them were overweight and obese, respectively. In addition, 43.0%, 38.4%, 16.2%, and 13.9% of the participants exceeded the thresholds of cholesterol, blood pressure, urea nitrogen, and uric urea, correspondingly. Moreover, 41.0% of the participants suffered musculoskeletal pain, where the most frequent painful parts occur in the lower back, shoulder, knees, leg, and neck. Through these findings, a series of important issues that need to be addressed is pointed out in terms of maintaining the physical well-being and reducing musculoskeletal disorders of construction workers. The finding may have implications for formulating proper intervention strategies for the sustainable development of Hong Kong's construction industry.

  19. Byssinosis among jute mill workers.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Bhaskar P; Saiyed, Habibullah N; Mukherjee, Ashit K

    2003-07-01

    Although byssinosis in jute mill workers remains controversial, studies in a few jute mills in West-Bengal, India, revealed typical byssinotic syndrome associated with acute changes in FEV1 on the first working day after rest. The present study on 148 jute mill workers is reported to confirm the occurrence of byssinosis in jute mill workers. Work related respiratory symptoms; acute and chronic pulmonary function changes among exposed workers were studied on the basis of standard questionnaire and spirometric method along with dust level, particle mass size distributions and gram-negative bacterial endotoxins. The pulmonary function test (PFT) changes were defined as per the recommendation of World Health Organization and of Bouhys et al. Total dust in jute mill air were monitored by high volume sampling, technique (Staplex, USA), Andersen cascade impactor was used for particle size distribution and personal exposure level was determined by personal sampler (Casella, London). Endotoxin in airborne jute dust was analysed by Lymulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) "Gel Clot" technique. Batching is the dustiest process in the mill. Size distribution showed that about 70-80% dust in diameter of < 10 microm, 40-50%, < 5 microm and 10-20%, < 2 microm. Mean endotoxin levels found in hatching, spinning and weaving, and beaming were 2.319 microg/m3, 0.956 microg/ m3, 0.041 microg/m3 respectively and are comparable to the values obtained up to date in Indian cotton mills. Respiratory morbidity study reported typical byssinotic symptoms along with acute post shift FEV1 changes (31.8%) and chronic changes in FEV1 (43.2%) among exposed workers. The group with higher exposure showed significantly lower FVC, FEV1, PEFR and FEF25-75% values. The study confirmed the findings of the earlier studies and clearly indicated that the Indian jute mill workers are also suffering from byssinosis as observed in cotton, flask and hemp workers.

  20. Ionizing radiation risks to satellite power systems (SPS) workers

    SciTech Connect

    Lyman, J.T.; Ainsworth, E.J.; Alpen, E.L.; Bond, V.; Curtis, S.B.; Fry, R.J.M.; Jackson, K.L.; Nachtwey, S.; Sondhaus, C.; Tobias, C.A.; Fabrikant, J.I.

    1980-11-01

    The radiation risks to the health of workers who will construct and maintain solar power satellites in the space environment were examined. For ionizing radiation, the major concern will be late or delayed health effects, particularly the increased risk of radiation-induced cancer. The estimated lifetime risk for cancer is 0.8 to 5.0 excess deaths per 10,000 workers per rad of exposure. Thus, for example, in 10,000 workers who completed ten missions with an exposure of 40 rem per mission, 320 to 2000 additional deaths in excess of the 1640 deaths from normally occurring cancer, would be expected. These estimates would indicate a 20 to 120% increase in cancer deaths in the worker-population. The wide range in these estimates stems from the choice of the risk-projection model and the dose-response relationsip. The choice between a linear and a linear-quadratic dose-response model may alter the risk estimate by a factor of about two. The method of analysis (e.g., relative vs absolute risk model) can alter the risk estimate by an additional factor of three. Choosing different age and sex distributions can further change the estimate by another factor of up to three. The potential genetic consequences could be of significance, but at the present time, sufficient information on the age and sex distribution of the worker population is lacking for precise estimation of risk. The potential teratogenic consequences resulting from radiation are considered significant. Radiation exposure of a pregnant worker could result in developmental abnormalities.

  1. Associations between poor living conditions and multi-morbidity among Syrian migrant agricultural workers in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Mikati, Diana; Hojeij, Safa; El Asmar, Khalil; Chaaya, Monique; Zurayk, Rami

    2016-01-01

    Background: Syrian migrant farmworkers are among the most marginalized populations in Lebanon, living in poverty, lacking basic legal protections and frequent targets of discrimination. These realities produce living conditions that undermine their basic health and wellbeing. This study explores associations between household living conditions and acute and chronic health problems among Syrian migrant agricultural workers in the Bekaa region of Lebanon. Methods: A survey was carried out in summer of 2011 with a sample of 290 migrant agriculture workers and members of their household living in a migrant farmworker camp. The survey assessed participants living conditions, assets and health conditions. Regression analyses were carried out to examine associations between multi-morbidity and quality of household and neighborhood living conditions. Results: The mean age for the population was 20 years. Forty-seven percent of participants reported health problems. Almost 20% reported either one acute or chronic illness, 15% reported two health problems and 13% reported three or more. The analysis showed a significant positive association between multi-morbidity and poor housing and infrastructure conditions among study participants. Conclusion: The situation for migrant communities in Lebanon has likely further deteriorated since the study was conducted, as hundreds of thousands of new migrants have entered Lebanon since the outbreak of the Syrian armed conflict in 2011. These findings should inspire multi-faceted community development initiatives that provide basic minimums of neighborhood infrastructure and housing quality for Syrian migrant informal settlements across Lebanon, safeguarding the health and wellbeing of community residents. PMID:27402635

  2. Abortion services for sex workers in Uganda: successful strategies in an urban clinic.

    PubMed

    Marlow, Heather M; Shellenberg, Kristen; Yegon, Erick

    2014-01-01

    Sex workers' need for safe abortion services in Uganda is greater than that of the population of women of reproductive age because of their number of sexual contacts, the inconsistent use of contraception and their increased risk of forced sex, rape or other forms of physical and sexual violence. We sought to understand sex workers' experiences with induced abortion services or post-abortion care (PAC) at an urban clinic in Uganda. We conducted nine in-depth interviews with sex workers. All in-depth interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, computer recorded and coded for analysis. We identified several important programmatic considerations for safe abortion services for sex workers. Most important is creating community-level interventions in which women can speak openly about abortion, creating a support network among sex workers, training peer educators, and making available a community outreach educator and community outreach workshops on abortion. At the health facility, it is important for service providers to treat sex workers with care and respect, allow sex workers to be accompanied to the health facility and guarantee confidentiality. These programmatic elements help sex workers to access safe abortion services and should be tried with all women of reproductive age to improve women's access to safe abortion in Uganda.

  3. Sexual health and use of condoms among local and international sex workers in Sydney.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, C C; Berry, G; Rohrsheim, R; Donovan, B

    1996-02-01

    This study analyzes data on all female sex workers who attended the Sydney Sexual Health Center for a first visit for a sexually transmitted disease (STD) screening during June 1, 1991, and May 31, 1993. International sex workers were identified as women who do not speak English at home and were born outside Australia. Diseases were confirmed clinically, by specimen or culture or by antibody or serological tests. Results apply to 91 local and 123 international prostitutes. 47% of international prostitutes and 34% of local prostitutes were aged 21-25 years. Most international sex workers spoke Thai or a Chinese dialect. 10% of local prostitutes were born in Asia. 90% of international prostitutes were born in Thailand, Malaysia, or China. Local prostitutes were better educated. 7% of the local prostitutes and none of the international sex workers had a history of injectable drug use. Local prostitutes tended to use condoms for birth control, and international prostitutes tended to use oral contraceptives. One international prostitute tested HIV positive. 1 in 7 international prostitutes had gonorrhea and the same proportion had chlamydia. Viral STDs (chronic hepatitis B, HIV infection, and genital warts) were more prevalent, but uncommon among international prostitutes. More international prostitutes had multiple STDs. 79 international sex workers and only 9 local sex workers had an STD. 47% of international sex workers and only 10% of local sex workers had worked overseas as a prostitute in the preceding 12 months. Over half of local sex workers and only 8% of international sex workers consistently used condoms. Failure to use condoms was associated with being an international sex worker. Inconsistent use of condoms among local prostitutes was related to increased age.

  4. Higher expression of somatic repair genes in long-lived ant queens than workers

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Eric R.; Privman, Eyal; Keller, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Understanding why organisms senesce is a fundamental question in biology. One common explanation is that senescence results from an increase in macromolecular damage with age. The tremendous variation in lifespan between genetically identical queen and worker ants, ranging over an order of magnitude, provides a unique system to study how investment into processes of somatic maintenance and macromolecular repair influence lifespan. Here we use RNAseq to compare patterns of expression of genes involved in DNA and protein repair of age-matched queens and workers. There was no difference between queens and workers in 1-day-old individuals, but the level of expression of these genes increased with age and this up-regulation was greater in queens than in workers, resulting in significantly queen-biased expression in 2-month-old individuals in both legs and brains. Overall, these differences are consistent with the hypothesis that higher longevity is associated with increased investment into somatic repair. PMID:27617474

  5. Dynamic Changes in DNA Damage and Repair Biomarkers with Employment Length among Nickel Smelting Workers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shan; Bai, Ya Na; Pu, Hong Quan; He, Jie; Zheng, Tong Zhang; Li, Hai Yan; Dai, Min; Cheng, Ning

    2015-09-01

    Our study explored the dynamic changes in and the relationship between the DNA damage marker 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and the DNA repair marker 8-hydroxyguanine DNA glycosidase 1 (hOGG1) according to the length of occupational employment in nickel smelting workers. One hundred forty nickel-exposed smelting workers and 140 age-matched unexposed office workers were selected from the Jinchang cohort. The 8-OHdG levels in smelting workers was significantly higher than in office workers (Z=-8.688, P<0.05) and the 8-OHdG levels among nickel smelting workers in the 10-14 y employment length category was significantly higher than among all peers. The hOGG1 levels among smelting workers were significantly lower than those of non-exposed workers (Z=-8.948, P<0.05). There were significant differences between employment length and hOGG1 levels, with subjects employed in nickel smelting for 10-14 y showing the highest levels of hOGG1. Correlation analysis showed positive correlations between 8-OHdG and hOGG1 levels (r=0.413; P<0.01). DNA damage was increased with employment length among nickel smelting workers and was related to the inhibition of hOGG1 repair capacity.

  6. A training intervention on child feeding among primary healthcare workers in Ibadan Municipality

    PubMed Central

    Olaolorun, Funmilola M.; Adeniyi, Joshua D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Health workers at the primary level are well positioned to provide health information and counselling on child feeding to mothers on antenatal visits. The study was designed to evaluate the effect of training on the knowledge, attitudes and provision of infant and young child feeding (IYCF) information and counselling among primary healthcare (PHC) workers. Methods A two-stage cluster sample was used to select health workers for training on IYCF in Ibadan, Nigeria. Baseline, immediate and 4-week post-training surveys were conducted to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices of health workers regarding IYCF. Paired t-tests were used to measure differences (p < 0.05) before and after the training. Results A total of 124 health workers were trained on current global IYCF recommendations. Participants included community health extension workers (59.7%), nurses (27.4%), community health officers (11.3%), and pharmacy technicians (1.6%). Mean age was 41.8 ± 8.2 years and 95.2% were women. Knowledge of health workers regarding IYCF, particularly complementary feeding, was low at baseline but improved significantly following the training intervention. Attitudes and practices regarding provision of IYCF were suboptimal among health workers at the PHC facilities, but this improved with training. Conclusion Health workers at the PHC level need regular retraining exercises to ensure effective counselling on IYCF. PMID:27796119

  7. Assessment of health effects in workers at gasoline station.

    PubMed

    Pranjić, Nurka; Mujagić, Hamza; Nurkić, Mahmud; Karamehić, Jasenko; Pavlović, Slobodan

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study was to made assessment of health effects in 37 workers exposed to gasoline, and its constituents at gasoline stations between 1985 and 1996. Thirty-seven persons who had been exposed to gasoline for more than five years were examined. The evaluation included a medical / occupational history, haematological and biochemical examination, a physical exam, standardized psychological tests, and ultrasound examination of kidneys and liver. The groups were identical in other common parameters including age, gender (all men), and level of education (P<0. 05). The data were compared to two control groups: 61 healthy non-exposed controls and 25 workers at gasoline stations exposed to organic lead for only nine months. Peripheral smear revealed basophilic stippling and reticulocytosis. We found in chronic exposed gasoline workers haematological disorders: mild leukocytosis (7 of 37), lymphocytosis (20 of 37), mild lymhocytopenia (3 of 37), and decrease of red blood cells count (11 of 37). Results indicated that they have suffered from liver disorders: lipoid degeneration of liver (14 of 37), chronic functional damages of liver (3 of 37), cirrhosis (1 of 37). Ultrasound examination indicated chronic kidney damages (8 of 37). These results significantly differed from those of controls (P< 0.05). In 13 out of 37 workers at gasoline stations exposed to gasoline for more than 5 years the symptom of depression and decreased reaction time and motor abilities were identified. The summary of diseases of workers exposed to organic lead and gasoline are discussed.

  8. [Arterial hypertension and alcoholism among workers in an oil refinery].

    PubMed

    Lima, C T; Carvalho, F M; Quadros, C de A; Gonçalves, H R; Silva Júnior, J A; Peres, M F; Bonfim, M S

    1999-09-01

    The role of alcohol ingestion in the incidence of arterial hypertension has not been completely established. In addition, there are few studies addressing this point in relation to populations of workers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between alcoholism and arterial hypertension among workers in an oil refinery in Mataripe, Bahia, Brazil, from 1986 to 1993. We designed a retrospective cohort study with a 7-year follow-up in a stratified systematic sample of 335 workers from the refinery. Arterial hypertension was diagnosed based on blood pressure measurements done during routine medical examinations. At the beginning of follow-up, three groups were defined using the CAGE test of alcohol dependency: nondrinkers (n = 121), CAGE-negative workers (n = 116), and CAGE-positive workers (n = 98). In comparison with the CAGE-negative group, the CAGE-positive group had both greater relative risk and greater attributable risk for developing arterial hypertension (RR = 2.58; AR = 24.95 per 1,000 person-years). The CAGE-positive group also had greater risks compared to nondrinkers (RR = 2.06; AR = 20.97 per 1,000 person-years). The attributable fractions for the same two comparisons of groups were 61% and 51%, respectively. Rate standardization by age or smoking habit did not substantially change the results. Alcoholism is an important risk factor for arterial hypertension.

  9. General Satisfaction Among Healthcare Workers: Differences Between Employees in Medical and Mental Health Sector

    PubMed Central

    Papathanasiou, Ioanna V.; Kleisiaris, Christos F.; Tsaras, Konstantinos; Fradelos, Evangelos C.; Kourkouta, Lambrini

    2015-01-01

    Background: General satisfaction is a personal experience and sources of satisfaction or dissatisfaction vary between professional groups. General satisfaction is usually related with work settings, work performance and mental health status. Aim: The purpose of this research study was to investigate the level of general satisfaction of health care workers and to examine whether there were any differences among employees of medical and mental health sector. Methods: The sample consisted of employees from the medical and mental health sector, who were all randomly selected. A two-part questionnaire was used to collect data. The first section involved demographic information and the second part was a General Satisfaction Questionnaire (GSQ). The statistical analysis of data was performed using the software package 19.0 for Windows. Descriptive statistics were initially generated for sample characteristics. All data exhibited normal distributions and thus the parametric t-test was used to compare mean scores between the two health sectors. P values < 0.05 were defined as reflecting the acceptable level of statistical significance. Results: 457 healthcare workers completed the questionnaire. The mean age of the sample was 41.8 ± 7.9 years. The Cronbach alpha coefficient for GSQ was 0.79. The total mean score of general satisfaction for the employees in medical sector was 4.5 (5=very satisfied) and for the employees in mental health sector is 4.8. T-test showed that these results are statistical different (t=4.55, p<0.01) and therefore the two groups of healthcare workers feel different general satisfaction. Conclusions: Mental health employees appear to experience higher levels of general satisfaction and mainly they experience higher satisfaction from family roles, life and sexual life, emotional state and relations with patients. PMID:26543410

  10. Contingent workers: Workers' compensation data analysis strategies and limitations.

    PubMed

    Foley, Michael; Ruser, John; Shor, Glenn; Shuford, Harry; Sygnatur, Eric

    2014-07-01

    The growth of the contingent workforce presents many challenges in the occupational safety and health arena. State and federal laws impose obligations and rights on employees and employers, but contingent work raises issues regarding responsibilities to maintain a safe workplace and difficulties in collecting and reporting data on injuries and illnesses. Contingent work may involve uncertainty about the length of employment, control over the labor process, degree of regulatory, or statutory protections, and access to benefits under workers' compensation. The paper highlights differences in regulatory protections and benefits among various types of contingent workers and how these different arrangements affect safety incentives. It discusses challenges caused by contingent work for accurate data reporting in existing injury and illness surveillance and benefit programs, differences between categories of contingent work in their coverage in various data sources, and opportunities for overcoming obstacles to effectively using workers' compensation data.

  11. Health Status of Children of Migrant Farm Workers: Farm Worker Family Health Program, Moultrie, Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Aryeh D.; Wold, Judith Lupo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the health status of migrant farmworkers’ children served by the Farm Worker Family Health Program (FWFHP) in Moultrie, Georgia. Methods. We analyzed data from children aged 0 to 16 years examined through the FWFHP from 2003 to 2011 (n across years = 179–415). We compared their prevalence of overweight, obesity, elevated blood pressure, anemia, and stunting with that of children in the United States and Mexico. Results. Across study years, prevalence of overweight, obesity, elevated blood pressure, anemia, and stunting ranged from 13.5% to 21.8%, 24.0% to 37.4%, 4.1% to 20.2%, 10.1% to 23.9%, and 1% to 6.4%, respectively. Children in the FWFHP had a higher prevalence of obesity than children in all comparison groups, and FWFHP children aged 6 to 12 years had a higher prevalence of elevated blood pressure than all comparison groups. Older FWFHP children had a higher prevalence of anemia than US children and Mexican children. Children in FWFHP had a higher prevalence of stunting than US and Mexican American children. Conclusions. We observed an elevated prevalence of obesity, anemia among older age groups, and stunting in this sample of children of migrant workers. PMID:24328649

  12. Longitudinal respiratory survey of shipyard workers: effects of trade and atopic status.

    PubMed Central

    Chinn, D J; Stevenson, I C; Cotes, J E

    1990-01-01

    A respiratory sample survey of 609 shipyard workers was conducted in 1979: the men were reassessed an average of 7.2 years later. The 53 deaths between the surveys were related to age, level of lung function and smoking but not to trade as a welder or caulker/burner. Of the survivors, 488 (88%) were seen, including 425 men who had retired or been made redundant. Redundancy was related to age, smoking, and respiratory symptoms; the average reduction in duration of employment per symptom was 0.44 years. Changes in respiratory symptoms included onset of chronic bronchitis and wheeze on most days (numbers respectively 77 and 109) and increased breathlessness on exertion (n = 89); significant related factors included smoking, previous metal fume fever or pneumonia, and, for breathlessness, trade as a welder or caulker/burner. Electrocardiographic evidence for myocardial ischaemia was also associated with increased breathlessness. The annual declines in FEV1 and other spirometric indices were related to age, to being a smoker at the time of the initial survey, and to trade as a welder or caulker/burner compared with trades that did not involve welding or burning. There was significant interaction between these effects. In a subsample of 124 redundant workers there was also significant interaction between the effects of fumes and atopy (skin test positive to common antigens) or a raised serum IgE concentration. It was concluded that welding fumes interacted with smoking and an atopic constitution to cause respiratory impairment. The results related mainly to exposures in the past and were not necessarily relevant for present day conditions in the industry. PMID:2310720

  13. Findings from the Horizontes Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Education project: the impact of indigenous outreach workers as change agents for injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Birkel, R C; Golaszewski, T; Koman, J J; Singh, B K; Catan, V; Souply, K

    1993-01-01

    A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) intervention using indigenous outreach workers was implemented with Hispanic injection drug users (IDUs) and their sexual partners in three locations: Laredo, Texas; San Diego, California; and San Juan, Puerto Rico. A total of 2,169 subjects were contacted, given health education, HIV antibody testing, and follow-up counseling. This article reports on the 1,616 IDUs (75%) who completed the initial and follow-up interviews. The results indicated significant increases in health knowledge on AIDS, decreases in needle risk drug taking behaviors, some decreases in sex risk behaviors, and more realistic perceptions of personal AIDS risk. Using multivariate analyses, gender (male) and increasing age (older than age 25 years) were the strongest predictors of behavior change. Surprisingly, the identification of a positive HIV serostatus was not a significant predictor of behavior change. Although intended as a comparison study between contrasting levels of intervention, logistical and administrative problems undermined the use of a true quasi-experimental design. Nonetheless, the results from this research suggest that the use of indigenous outreach workers is an effective means of combatting the spread of HIV in this difficult to reach population. Some programmatic recommendations are provided for future efforts of this kind, particularly in relation to role conflicts experienced by outreach workers.

  14. SCB initiator

    DOEpatents

    Bickes Jr., Robert W.; Renlund, Anita M.; Stanton, Philip L.

    1994-11-01

    A detonator for high explosives initiated by mechanical impact includes a cylindrical barrel, a layer of flyer material mechanically covering the barrel at one end, and a semiconductor bridge ignitor including a pair of electrically conductive pads connected by a semiconductor bridge. The bridge is in operational contact with the layer, whereby ignition of said bridge forces a portion of the layer through the barrel to detonate the explosive. Input means are provided for igniting the semiconductor bridge ignitor.

  15. SCB initiator

    SciTech Connect

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W.; Renlund, Anita M.; Stanton, Philip L.

    1994-01-01

    A detonator for high explosives initiated by mechanical impact includes a cylindrical barrel, a layer of flyer material mechanically covering the barrel at one end, and a semiconductor bridge ignitor including a pair of electrically conductive pads connected by a semiconductor bridge. The bridge is in operational contact with the layer, whereby ignition of said bridge forces a portion of the layer through the barrel to detonate the explosive. Input means are provided for igniting the semiconductor bridge ignitor.

  16. Precise Re-Os age and low initial 187Os/188Os for latest Permian black shales from the mid-Norwegian shelf herald the Permo-Triassic extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, S.; Stein, H. J.; Hannah, J. L.; Bingen, B.; Xu, G.; Yang, G.; Zimmerman, A.; Weiss, H. M.

    2009-12-01

    The Permo-Triassic boundary records a profound chemical transition and the largest mass extinction in Earth history. Understanding the causal events requires detailed examination of bio/chemo stratigraphic changes precisely pinned in absolute time. Here we report Re-Os isotopic results for well-defined black shale horizons within the Upper Permian marine succession from the Mid-Norwegian shelf: (1) a high-precision Re-Os depositional age and (2) a record of the changes in the Os isotopic composition of seawater at the onset of the Permo-Triassic extinction. Drill core penetrating a Permian-Triassic turbidite succession on the Trøndelag platform, offshore mid-Norway, provided nine organic rich (~3.5% TOC) shale samples over a ca. 30 cm interval. The Re-Os isochron age associated with these samples is extremely precise (< 1 m.y. uncertainty) at 253 Ma with an MSWD near unity. These data place a precise time pin in the studied section and the presumably correlative onshore exposures of the Ravnefjeld formation in East Greenland, indicating deposition of these shales immediately before the catastrophic changes at the Permo-Triassic boundary. Accompanying the isochron regression is a well-determined initial 187Os/188Os ratio of ca. 0.5, notably lower than seawater in the Lower Triassic (Xu et al. 2009). This Os isotopic composition for latest Permian seawater suggests an increase in mantle (or meteoric) material and/or a markedly reduced supply of eroded continental material heralding the up-coming extinction event. These Permian black shales are considered as alternative or complementary source rocks for some of the oil resources in the Norwegian Sea. Our work confirms geographically extensive Upper Permian black shale across the shelves of East Greenland and Norway, implying a major anoxia at the northern margin of Pangea shortly before the Permo-Triassic mass extinction. Xu et al. (2009) GCA, v. 73, no. 13. p. A1463

  17. Patterns of sexually transmitted diseases in female sex workers in Surabaya, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Joesoef, M R; Linnan, M; Barakbah, Y; Idajadi, A; Kambodji, A; Schulz, K

    1997-09-01

    Sex workers and their clients as core groups of high frequency transmitters play a dominant role in the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). In Surabaya, Indonesia, little is known about the prevalence of STDs in various sex establishments. We conducted an STD prevalence survey of 1873 female sex workers in Surabaya, Indonesia. We did not find any sex workers with HIV infection. Prevalence rates of other STDs (chlamydia, gonorrhoea, serological test for syphilis positive, and/or trichomoniasis) in female sex workers were 48% in brothels (n = 696), 42% on the streets (n = 192), 16% in massage parlours (n = 344), 25% in barber shops (n = 150), 17% at call-girl houses (n = 73), and 10% in nightclubs (n = 418). Sex workers from the brothels had the highest prevalence rates of gonorrhoea (24%) and trichomoniasis (8%), while sex workers from the streets and the barber shop had the highest rates of serological test for syphilis (STS) positive (30%) and chlamydia (18%). STD rates decreased with an increase in age (except for STS positive), an increase in education, a decrease in the number of sex partners, and condom use in the previous week. Condom use in the previous week was universally low among sex workers, especially among sex workers from the brothels (14%). Sex workers from the brothels had STD rates about 4 times higher than sex workers from the nightclubs (adjusted odds ratio of 4.4). Although the HIV seroprevalence rate is currently low, widespread prostitution and high rates of STDs in sex workers warrant programmes to avert a potential explosion of HIV transmission. Because sex workers from the brothels in Surabaya have high rates of STDs and low use of condoms but good cooperation with local authorities, STD preventive measures should focus on this group.

  18. Physical Assaults Among Education Workers

    PubMed Central

    Tiesman, Hope M.; Hendricks, Scott; Konda, Srinivas; Hartley, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Enumerate and describe physical assaults occurring to Pennsylvania education workers. Methods A cross-sectional survey was mailed to a random sample of 6450 workers, stratified on gender, occupation, and region. Logistic regression was used to examine risk factors for physical assault. Results During the 2009–2010 school year, 309 of 2514 workers were assaulted 597 times. Special education teachers, urban workers, and those in their first 3 years of employment were at an increased risk. Most assaults did not lead to medical care or time away from work; however, those assaulted were significantly more likely to find work stressful, have low job satisfaction, and consider leaving the education field (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.5 [95% CI = 1.5 to 4.1]; AOR = 2.4 [95% CI = 1.5 to 3.9]; AOR = 10.7 [95% CI = 4.1 to 28.1]). Conclusions Although education workers experienced few serious physical assaults, the impact of this violence was considerable. PMID:24854254

  19. Contact dermatoses in metal workers.

    PubMed

    Papa, G; Romano, A; Quaratino, D; Di Fonso, M; Viola, M; Sernia, S; Boccia, I; Di Gioacchino, M; Venuti, A; Calvieri, S

    2000-01-01

    We studied 150 metal workers occupationally exposed to metals and metalworking fluids (MWFs) to determine the prevalence and nature of contact dermatitis. 150 office workers were used as non-exposed control group. Questionnaires were administered to evaluate occupational and non-occupational exposure. All subjects underwent a dermatological examination and patch-testing with standard allergen series and MWFs used in the plant. Twenty-eight metal workers (18.6%) presented minor skin disorders involving the hands (vs. only 2% of the controls), ten (6.6%) had major disorders (similar to the figure for the control group - 5.4%), and 112 (74.8%) had no lesions, as opposed to 92.6% of the control group. Positive patch tests were found in ten metal workers: eight had major skin disorders (six to nickel, cobalt and chromium, one to nickel and cobalt, one to nickel) and the remaining two were asymptomatic (one positive for nickel and chromium, one for nickel). Among the controls there were three cases of positivity, all among asymptomatic subjects. Patch tests with MWFs were negative. The prevalence of dermatoses among the metal workers was significantly higher than that of controls (p<0.01), and all cases of allergy in this group were provoked by metals themselves.

  20. Human resource policies and older workers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Clark, R L; Ogawa, N

    1996-10-01

    Substantial changes in human resource policies are occurring in Japanese firms in response to the rapid aging of the population. Employers are reconsidering the concept of lifetime employment, seniority-based wages, retirement policies, and employment opportunities for older workers. In response to government pressure, mandatory retirement ages are being raised. These trends are examined using a variety of sources of information concerning employment practices in Japan. The analysis indicates that important changes in human resource management practices are underway and further changes are anticipated as the labor force continues to age.