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Sample records for agitated saline test

  1. A methodological approach for quantifying and characterizing the stability of agitated saline contrast: implications for quantifying intrapulmonary shunt.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Heather K; Boulet, Lindsey M; Dominelli, Paolo B; Foster, Glen E

    2016-08-01

    Agitated saline contrast echocardiography is often used to determine blood flow through intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses (Q̇IPAVA). We applied indicator dilution theory to time-acoustic intensity curves obtained from a bolus injection of hand-agitated saline contrast to acquire a quantitative index of contrast mass. Using this methodology and an in vitro model of the pulmonary circulation, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of transit time and gas composition [air vs. sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)] on contrast conservation between two detection sites separated by a convoluted network of vessels. We hypothesized that the contrast lost between the detection sites would increase with transit times and be reduced by using contrast bubbles composed of SF6 Changing the flow and/or reducing the volume of the circulatory network manipulated transit time. Contrast conservation was measured as the ratio of outflow and inflow contrast masses. For air, 53.2 ± 3.4% (SE) of contrast was conserved at a transit time of 9.25 ± 0.02 s but dropped to 16.0 ± 1.0% at a transit time of 10.17 ± 0.06 s. Compared with air, SF6 contrast conservation was significantly greater (P < 0.05) with 114.3 ± 2.9% and 73.7 ± 3.3% of contrast conserved at a transit time of 10.39 ± 0.02 s and 13.46 ± 0.04 s, respectively. In summary, time-acoustic intensity curves can quantify agitated saline contrast, but loss of contrast due to bubble dissolution makes measuring Q̇IPAVA across varying transit time difficult. Agitated saline composed of SF6 is stabilized and may be a suitable alternative for Q̇IPAVA measurement. PMID:27365283

  2. Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography with agitated saline injection to differentiate between atrial septal defects and echo drop-out artifacts.

    PubMed

    Alherbish, Aws; Shanks, Miriam; Choy, Jonathan

    2014-12-01

    The diagnosis of multiple atrial septal defects is less challenging with 3-D transesophageal echocardiography. However, the common occurrence of echo drop-out (acoustic shadow) artifacts with 3-D echocardiography can make the differentiation between a second defect and an artifact challenging. Agitated saline injection with direct visualization using 3-D echocardiography can help resolve this by allowing visualization of the bubbles crossing from true defects.

  3. Phase III (full scale) agitated mixing test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ruff, D.T.

    1994-10-17

    Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A (WRAP 2A) is the proposed second module of the WRAP facility. This facility will provide the required treatment for contact Handled (CH) Low Level (LL) Mixed Waste (MW) to allow its permanent disposal. Solidification of a portion of this waste using a cement based grout has been selected in order to reduce the toxicity and mobility of the waste in the disposal site. Mixing of the waste with the cement paste and material handling constraints/requirements associated with the mixed material is, therefore, a key process in the overall treatment strategy. This test plan addresses Phase 3, Full Scale Testing. The objectives of these tests are to determine if there are scale-up issues associated with the mixing results obtained in Phase 1 and 2 mixing tests, verify the workability of mixtures resulting from previous formulation development efforts (Waste Immobilization Development [WID]), and provide a baseline for WRAP 2A mixing equipment design. To this end, the following objectives are of particular interest: determine geometric influence of mixing blade at full scale (i.e., size, type, and location: height/offset); determine if similar results in terms of mixing effectiveness and product quality are achievable at this scale; determine if vibration is as effective at this larger scale in fluidizing the mixture and aiding in cleaning the vessel; determine if baffles or sweeping blades are needed to aid in mixing at the larger size and for cleaning the vessel; and determine quality of the poured monolithic product and investigate exotherm and filling influences at this larger size.

  4. Adding blood to agitated saline significantly improves detection of right-to-left shunt by contrast-transcranial color-coded duplex sonography.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Mauro; De Vito, Alessandro; Azzini, Cristiano; Tamborino, Carmine; Casetta, Ilaria

    2014-11-01

    Contrast-transcranial Doppler and contrast-transcranial color-coded duplex sonography (c-TCCD) have been reported to have high sensitivity in detecting patent foramen ovale as compared with transesophageal echocardiography. An international consensus meeting (Jauss and Zanette 2000) recommended that the contrast agent for right-to left-shunt (RLS) detection using contrast-transcranial Doppler be prepared by mixing 9 mL of isotonic saline solution and 1 mL of air. The aim of our study was to determine whether adding blood to the contrast agent results in improved detection of RLS. We enrolled all consecutive patients admitted to our neurosonology laboratory for RLS diagnosis. For each patient, we performed c-TCCD both at rest and during the Valsalva maneuver using two different contrast agents: ANSs (1 mL of air mixed with 9 mL of normal saline) and ANSHBs (1 mL of air mixed with 8 mL of normal saline and 1 mL of the patient's blood). To classify RLS, we used a four-level visual categorization: (i) no occurrence of micro-embolic signals; (ii) grade I, 1-10 signals; (iii) grade II, >10 signals but no curtain; grade III, curtain pattern. We included 80 patients, 33 men and 47 women. RLS was detected in 18.8% at rest and in 35% during the Valsalva maneuver using ANSs, and in 31.3% and in 46.3% using ANSHBs, respectively (p < 0.0001). There was a statistically significant increase in the number of micro-embolic signals with the use of ANSHBs. The use of blood mixed with saline solution and air as a c-TCCD contrast agent produced an increase in positive tests and a higher grade of RLS compared with normal saline and air alone, either with or without the Valsalva maneuver.

  5. A Controlled Agitation Process for Improving Quality of Canned Green Beans during Agitation Thermal Processing.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anika; Pratap Singh, Anubhav; Ramaswamy, Hosahalli S

    2016-06-01

    This work introduces the concept of a controlled agitation thermal process to reduce quality damage in liquid-particulate products during agitation thermal processing. Reciprocating agitation thermal processing (RA-TP) was used as the agitation thermal process. In order to reduce the impact of agitation, a new concept of "stopping agitations after sufficient development of cold-spot temperature" was proposed. Green beans were processed in No. 2 (307×409) cans filled with liquids of various consistency (0% to 2% CMC) at various frequencies (1 to 3 Hz) of RA-TP using a full-factorial design and heat penetration results were collected. Corresponding operator's process time to impart a 10-min process lethality (Fo ) and agitation time (AT) were calculated using heat penetration results. Accordingly, products were processed again by stopping agitations as per 3 agitation regimes, namely; full time agitation, equilibration time agitation, and partial time agitation. Processed products were photographed and tested for visual quality, color, texture, breakage of green beans, turbidity, and percentage of insoluble solids in can liquid. Results showed that stopping agitations after sufficient development of cold-spot temperatures is an effective way of reducing product damages caused by agitation (for example, breakage of beans and its leaching into liquid). Agitations till one-log temperature difference gave best color, texture and visual product quality for low-viscosity liquid-particulate mixture and extended agitations till equilibration time was best for high-viscosity products. Thus, it was shown that a controlled agitation thermal process is more effective in obtaining high product quality as compared to a regular agitation thermal process.

  6. A Controlled Agitation Process for Improving Quality of Canned Green Beans during Agitation Thermal Processing.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anika; Pratap Singh, Anubhav; Ramaswamy, Hosahalli S

    2016-06-01

    This work introduces the concept of a controlled agitation thermal process to reduce quality damage in liquid-particulate products during agitation thermal processing. Reciprocating agitation thermal processing (RA-TP) was used as the agitation thermal process. In order to reduce the impact of agitation, a new concept of "stopping agitations after sufficient development of cold-spot temperature" was proposed. Green beans were processed in No. 2 (307×409) cans filled with liquids of various consistency (0% to 2% CMC) at various frequencies (1 to 3 Hz) of RA-TP using a full-factorial design and heat penetration results were collected. Corresponding operator's process time to impart a 10-min process lethality (Fo ) and agitation time (AT) were calculated using heat penetration results. Accordingly, products were processed again by stopping agitations as per 3 agitation regimes, namely; full time agitation, equilibration time agitation, and partial time agitation. Processed products were photographed and tested for visual quality, color, texture, breakage of green beans, turbidity, and percentage of insoluble solids in can liquid. Results showed that stopping agitations after sufficient development of cold-spot temperatures is an effective way of reducing product damages caused by agitation (for example, breakage of beans and its leaching into liquid). Agitations till one-log temperature difference gave best color, texture and visual product quality for low-viscosity liquid-particulate mixture and extended agitations till equilibration time was best for high-viscosity products. Thus, it was shown that a controlled agitation thermal process is more effective in obtaining high product quality as compared to a regular agitation thermal process. PMID:27096606

  7. Agitations and Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shann, Steve

    2010-01-01

    As educators, we write about how we teach and how our students learn, but often there are some things missing from these accounts. These "somethings" are the animations and agitations that attend most deep learning. These are not easy to describe, particularly because they are often only visible in passing moments. I argue that story-telling is…

  8. [Sultopride and agitation].

    PubMed

    Blondel, F

    1982-12-01

    Sultopride, presented in this paper, was tried in five patients with psychomotor agitation and aggressiveness but with a variable underlying structure, from severe neurosis (borderline?) to chronic decompensated psychosis. These manifestations had failed to respond to the other neuroleptics used. Results with sultopride were excellent. This drug deserves a good position among sedative agents with no significant effect on vigilance used in aggressiveness.

  9. Agitation apparatus. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Beets, A.L.; Lewis, B.E. Jr.

    1982-03-12

    Agitation apparatus includes a tank with a cylindrical upper portion, a frustoconical intermediate portion, and a cylindrical lower portion, a lift tube extending from the upper portion of the tank to a point near an end cap attached to the lower portion of the tank, the lift tube being concentric with the lower portion of the tank to provide a flow passage there between, and a plurality of air supply conduits extending along the lift tube and spaced apart around its perimeter, these air supply conduits terminating adjacent the lower end of the lift tube. Air discharged from the lower ends of the air supply conduits causes liquid in the tank to flow upwardly through the lift tube and out of apertures in the upper portion thereof. Due to the unique properties of nuclear fuel dissolver solutions and the constraint placed on the amount of air that can be injected therein by conventional apparatus, there has been a need for a more effective means for agitating liquid in nuclear fuel digester tanks.

  10. Platelet preservation: agitation and containers.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Pieter F; de Korte, Dirk

    2011-06-01

    For platelets to maintain their in vitro quality and in vivo effectiveness, they need to be stored at room temperature with gentle agitation in gas-permeable containers. The mode of agitation affects the quality of the platelets, and a gentle method of agitation, either a circular or a flat bed movement, provides the best results. Tumblers or elliptical agitators induce platelet activation and subsequent damage. As long as the platelets remain in suspension, the agitation speed is not important. Agitation of the platelet concentrates ensures that the platelets are continuously oxygenated, that sufficient oxygen can enter the storage container and that excess carbon dioxide can be expelled. During transportation of platelet concentrates, nowadays over long distances where they are held without controlled agitation, platelets may tolerate a certain period without agitation. However, evidence is accumulating that during the time without agitation, local hypoxia surrounding the platelets may induce irreversible harm to the platelets. Over the decades, more gas-permeable plastics have been used to manufacture platelet containers. The use of different plastics and their influence on the platelet quality both in vitro and in vivo is discussed. The improved gas-permeability has allowed the extension of platelet storage from 3 days in the early 1980s, to currently at least 7 days. In the light of new developments, particularly the introduction of pathogen reduction techniques, the use of platelet additive solutions and the availability of improved automated separators, further (renewed) research in this area is warranted.

  11. Testing of a technique for remotely measuring water salinity in an estuarine environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomann, G. C.

    1975-01-01

    An aircraft experiment was flown on November 7, 1973 to test a technique for remote water salinity measurement. Apparent temperatures at 21 cm and 8-14 micron wavelengths were recorded on eight runs over a line along which the salinity varied from 5 to 30%. Boat measurements were used for calibration and accuracy calculations. Overall RMS accuracy over the complete range of salinities was 3.6%. Overall RMS accuracy for salinities greater than 10%, where the technique is more sensitive, was 2.6%. Much of this error is believed to be due to inability to exactly locate boat and aircraft positions. The standard deviation over the eight runs for salinities or = 10% is 1.4%; this error contains a component due to mislocation of the aircraft also. It is believed that operational use of the technique is possible with accuracies of 1-2%.

  12. Salinity tolerance of Daphnia magna and potential use for estuarine sediment toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Schuytema, G S; Nebeker, A V; Stutzman, T W

    1997-08-01

    Daphnia magna Straus, a common organism used for freshwater sediment toxicity tests, was evaluated to determine its tolerance to salinity and suitability for tests with estuarine water and sediments. Daphnids were exposed for 2 to 21 days to salinity in a variety of water-only tests, in tests with freshwater sediment overlain by salt water, and in tests with estuarine sediments overlain by freshwater. Daphnid age, test length, and temperature seemed to have little effect upon the range of LC50, NOAEL, and LOAEL values. LC50s for all tests ranged from 5.10 to 7.81 g/L, with a mean of 6.6 g/L salinity (measured conductivity 10.0 mS/cm) [corrected]. The mean NOAEL and LOAEL values based on production of young were 4.6 and 6.9 g/L salinity (measured conductivity 7.1 and 10.5 mS/cm) [corrected], respectively. The results indicate that D. magna will survive and reproduce well in water with salinities below 4 g/L and demonstrate the potential usefulness of this organism in monitoring sediment toxicity from both freshwater and estuarine wetland sites. PMID:9294248

  13. Mechanical Agitation For Aqueous Cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E.; Hosking, Timothy J.

    1995-01-01

    Cleaning basket placed in aqueous cleaning solution mechanically agitated by air spring. Compressed air at oscillating pressure supplied to air spring to produce repeated vertical motion of cleaning basket.

  14. Downhole gaseous liquid flow agitator

    SciTech Connect

    Kamilos, N.; Kennedy, D.D.; Lederhos, L.J. Jr.

    1989-03-14

    An apparatus is described for agitating and mixing of a gaseous phase and a liquid phase comprising: a first tube having non-blocking internal threads within the first tube to agitate a liquid phase adhering thereto with a gaseous phase passing therethrough, whereby a uniform gaseous phase and liquid phase mixture is formed; and a second tube connected to an end of the first tube having non-blocking internal threads of opposite handedness.

  15. In Vitro Assessment of Serum-Saline Ratios for Fluid Simulator Testing of Highly Modular Spinal Implants With Articulating Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Khandha, Ashutosh; Malcolmson, George; Timm, JP

    2008-01-01

    Background The increasing complexity of articulating spinal implants prohibits the use of serum-supplemented simulator fluid testing because multicomponent interfaces retain residual protein and preclude gravimetric measurement. Our original hypothesis was that simulator testing of a posterior dynamic stabilization implant that has metal-on-metal articulating bearings will not produce dramatically different wear debris when tested using pure saline versus testing in saline supplemented with 20% serum. Methods This hypothesis was tested using simulator testing of 12 dynamic stabilization spinal implants, 6 in 100% saline and 6 in 20%-serum saline. Gravimetric and particle analysis were performed after every million cycles up to 10 million cycles, with flexion of 11.3°/extension of 5.6° coupled with axial rotation of ± 4°. Results The mean gravimetric weight loss was approximately 200 mg over 10 million cycles for the implants tested in 100% saline, while the mean weight loss for those tested in 20%-serum saline was below the method detection limits (< 10 mg over 10 million cycles). For the 100%-saline and 20%-serum simulator fluids, the average particle size over the course of 0 to 10 million cycles remained relatively constant at 0.2 µm-dia (saline) and 3.2 µm-dia (20%-serum saline). Testing in 100% saline generated > 1000-fold more particles, compared to testing in 20% serum-supplemented saline. Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analyses of particles demonstrated that the 100% saline debris was composed of Co-Cr-P-O (Cr-Co metal oxides), and for the 20%-serum saline debris only bulk metal Co-Cr was detected. Conclusion Our initial hypothesis was not supported. There were significant differences in gravimetric wear, average size, and type of wear debris that were mechanistically attributable to the type of simulator fluid used. The over-protective effect of serum proteins appears to underscore the importance of using both saline and serum when establishing upper

  16. Effect of agitation of EDTA with 808-nm diode laser on dentin microhardness.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Hakan; Yeter, Kübra Y; Karatas, Ertugrul; Yilmaz, Cenk B; Ayranci, Leyla B; Ozsu, Damla

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of agitation of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) with diode laser at different agitation times on root dentin microhardness. Eighty-four specimens were divided randomly into seven groups, as follows: (1) distilled water, (2) 17% EDTA, (3) EDTA with 60 s ultrasonic agitation, (4) EDTA with 10 s laser agitation, (5) EDTA with 20 s laser agitation, (6) EDTA with 30 s laser agitation, and (7) EDTA with 40 s laser agitation. All of the specimens were irrigated with 5% NaOCl and distilled water except the distilled water group. Microhardness values were calculated before and after the procedures. Statistical analyses were performed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests. Statistically significant differences were determined between the distilled water and other groups. Also, statistically significant differences were observed between EDTA with 40 s laser agitation and EDTA, and EDTA with 10 and 20 s laser agitations. Ultrasonic agitation of EDTA affected microhardness of root dentin similar to EDTA (p > .05). All applications decreased the microhardness of root dentin when compared with distilled water. Agitation of EDTA with diode laser for 40 s caused more reduction in microhardness of root dentin when compared with EDTA.

  17. Effect of agitation of EDTA with 808-nm diode laser on dentin microhardness.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Hakan; Yeter, Kübra Y; Karatas, Ertugrul; Yilmaz, Cenk B; Ayranci, Leyla B; Ozsu, Damla

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of agitation of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) with diode laser at different agitation times on root dentin microhardness. Eighty-four specimens were divided randomly into seven groups, as follows: (1) distilled water, (2) 17% EDTA, (3) EDTA with 60 s ultrasonic agitation, (4) EDTA with 10 s laser agitation, (5) EDTA with 20 s laser agitation, (6) EDTA with 30 s laser agitation, and (7) EDTA with 40 s laser agitation. All of the specimens were irrigated with 5% NaOCl and distilled water except the distilled water group. Microhardness values were calculated before and after the procedures. Statistical analyses were performed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests. Statistically significant differences were determined between the distilled water and other groups. Also, statistically significant differences were observed between EDTA with 40 s laser agitation and EDTA, and EDTA with 10 and 20 s laser agitations. Ultrasonic agitation of EDTA affected microhardness of root dentin similar to EDTA (p > .05). All applications decreased the microhardness of root dentin when compared with distilled water. Agitation of EDTA with diode laser for 40 s caused more reduction in microhardness of root dentin when compared with EDTA. PMID:23793370

  18. 7 CFR 58.417 - Mechanical agitators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mechanical agitators. 58.417 Section 58.417 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....417 Mechanical agitators. The mechanical agitators shall be of sanitary construction. The...

  19. 7 CFR 58.417 - Mechanical agitators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mechanical agitators. 58.417 Section 58.417 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....417 Mechanical agitators. The mechanical agitators shall be of sanitary construction. The...

  20. 7 CFR 58.417 - Mechanical agitators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mechanical agitators. 58.417 Section 58.417 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....417 Mechanical agitators. The mechanical agitators shall be of sanitary construction. The...

  1. 7 CFR 58.417 - Mechanical agitators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mechanical agitators. 58.417 Section 58.417 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....417 Mechanical agitators. The mechanical agitators shall be of sanitary construction. The...

  2. 7 CFR 58.417 - Mechanical agitators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mechanical agitators. 58.417 Section 58.417 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....417 Mechanical agitators. The mechanical agitators shall be of sanitary construction. The...

  3. Agitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... or acute mental status change in the older patient. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 28. Prager LM, Ivkovic A. Emergency psychiatry. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum JF, Fava M, Wilens ...

  4. Application of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs to large agitators

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, W.E.; Anderson, T.D. ); Bethmann, H.K. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the basis for and implementation of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs for large tank-mounted agitators. This modification to the original design was intended to minimize maintenance personnel exposure to ionizing radiation and also provide for disassembly capability without damage to shafts or hubs. In addition to realizing these objectives, test confirmed that the modified couplings reduced agitator shaft end runouts approximately 65%, thereby reducing bearing loads and increasing service life, a significant enhancement for a nuclear facility. 5 refs.

  5. Application of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs to large agitators

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, W.E.; Anderson, T.D.; Bethmann, H.K.

    1991-12-31

    This paper describes the basis for and implementation of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs for large tank-mounted agitators. This modification to the original design was intended to minimize maintenance personnel exposure to ionizing radiation and also provide for disassembly capability without damage to shafts or hubs. In addition to realizing these objectives, test confirmed that the modified couplings reduced agitator shaft end runouts approximately 65%, thereby reducing bearing loads and increasing service life, a significant enhancement for a nuclear facility. 5 refs.

  6. Separation of Anopheles merus from freshwater Anopheles gambiae by salinity tolerance test and morphological characters.

    PubMed

    Mosha, F W; Mutero, C M

    1982-12-01

    The separation methods for Anopheles merus from freshwater A. gambiae s.l. involving the use of salinity tolerance test, sensilla coeloconica, palpal ratio and palpal bands were evaluated for a period of one year on a total of about 340 mosquitoes. The salinity tolerance test method was found to be quite simple and reliable but unsuitable in disease transmission studies due to an interval of 2-3 days between the collection and dissection periods and also due to the fact that only a fraction of the mosquito sample is generally identified by this method. Although significantly higher proportions of sensilla coeloconica and palpal ratio were observed in A. merus as compared to freshwater A. gambiae s.l. these characters were found quite unreliable due to their overlapping between two mosquito groups. Sensilla coeloconica and palpal ratio used separately could separate respective percentages of 11.4 and 11.8 A. merus from freshwater A. gambiae s.l., while in combination they separated up to 40.9%. Percentages 4-banded palp mosquitoes accounted for about 32% in A. merus and 19% in freshwater A. gambiae s.l. All these characters also displayed some seasonal variations in the two mosquito groups. PMID:6926942

  7. Nicotine withdrawal and agitation in ventilated critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is highly addictive, and nicotine abstinence is associated with withdrawal syndrome in hospitalized patients. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the impact of sudden nicotine abstinence on the development of agitation and delirium, and on morbidities and outcomes in critically ill patients who required respiratory support, either noninvasive ventilation or intubation, and mechanical ventilation. Methods We conducted a prospective, observational study in two intensive care units (ICUs). The 144 consecutive patients admitted to ICUs and requiring mechanical ventilation for >48 hours were included. Smoking status was assessed at ICU admission by using the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Agitation, with the Sedation-Agitation Scale (SAS), and delirium, with the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist (ICDSC), were tested twice daily during the ICU stay. Agitation and delirium were defined by SAS >4 and ICDSC >4, respectively. Nosocomial complications and outcomes were evaluated. Results Smokers (n = 44) were younger and more frequently male and were more likely to have a history of alcoholism and to have septic shock as the reason for ICU admission than were nonsmokers. The incidence of agitation, but not delirium, increased significantly in the smoker group (64% versus 32%; P = 0.0005). Nicotine abstinence was associated with higher incidences of self-removal of tubes and catheters, and with more interventions, including the need for supplemental sedatives, analgesics, neuroleptics, and physical restraints. Sedation-free days, ventilator-free days, length of stay, and mortality in ICUs did not differ between groups. Multivariate analysis identified active smoking (OR, 3.13; 95% CI, 1.45-6.74; P = 0.003) as an independent risk factor for agitation. Based on a subgroup of 56 patients, analysis of 28 pairs of patients (smokers and nonsmokers in a 1:1 ratio) matched for age, gender, and alcoholism status found similar results

  8. Combined use of heat and saline tracer to estimate aquifer properties in a forced gradient test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombani, N.; Giambastiani, B. M. S.; Mastrocicco, M.

    2015-06-01

    Usually electrolytic tracers are employed for subsurface characterization, but the interpretation of tracer test data collected by low cost techniques, such as electrical conductivity logging, can be biased by cation exchange reactions. To characterize the aquifer transport properties a saline and heat forced gradient test was employed. The field site, located near Ferrara (Northern Italy), is a well characterized site, which covers an area of 200 m2 and is equipped with a grid of 13 monitoring wells. A two-well (injection and pumping) system was employed to perform the forced gradient test and a straddle packer was installed in the injection well to avoid in-well artificial mixing. The contemporary continuous monitor of hydraulic head, electrical conductivity and temperature within the wells permitted to obtain a robust dataset, which was then used to accurately simulate injection conditions, to calibrate a 3D transient flow and transport model and to obtain aquifer properties at small scale. The transient groundwater flow and solute-heat transport model was built using SEAWAT. The result significance was further investigated by comparing the results with already published column experiments and a natural gradient tracer test performed in the same field. The test procedure shown here can provide a fast and low cost technique to characterize coarse grain aquifer properties, although some limitations can be highlighted, such as the small value of the dispersion coefficient compared to values obtained by natural gradient tracer test, or the fast depletion of heat signal due to high thermal diffusivity.

  9. Biological activity of insulin in GMO gels and the effect of agitation.

    PubMed

    Sadhale, Y; Shah, J C

    1999-11-25

    Glyceryl monooleate (GMO)-water cubic phase gel was previously shown to protect insulin from agitation induced aggregation. However, it is not known if insulin is biologically active in the gel and what effect agitation has on insulin in the gel. Therefore, the objective was to determine the stability of insulin in cubic phase gel in terms of its biological activity in a suitable animal model such as Sprague-Dawley rats. Effect of agitation on biological activity of insulin in cubic phase GMO gel was determined by subcutaneous injections of the agitated and non-agitated gels to two groups of previously fasted rats and measuring the effect on their blood glucose levels. Two groups of rats administered with agitated insulin solution and normal saline were used as controls. The biological activity of insulin was evaluated by comparing AAC (area above the blood glucose level-time curve, in %-h), C(max) (maximum % decrease in blood glucose levels) and t(max) (time required to attain C(max), in h) values for the four groups of rats. Since cubic phase gel is highly viscous, therapeutic equivalency of insulin in the lamellar phase gel, which converts in situ into cubic phase gel, was compared to insulin solution with normal saline as the control, using AAC, C(max) and t(max) of the blood glucose profile. Insulin was biologically active in both agitated and non-agitated gels; however, upon agitation, insulin in solution totally lost its hypoglycemic activity. Agitation of insulin in the cubic phase gel was seen to have very little deleterious effect on its biological activity. Insulin in the lamellar phase gel was not only biologically active but also therapeutically equivalent to insulin solution based on AAC (327.9+/-100.8 and 431.7+/-113.3), C(max) (57. 1+/-7.0 and 70.2+/-6.5) and t(max) (2.8+/-0.7 and 4.0+/-1.7) for the lamellar phase gel and insulin solution, respectively (no significant difference, P0.05). In summary, GMO cubic phase gel protected insulin from

  10. Testing the D / H ratio of alkenones and palmitic acid as salinity proxies in the Amazon Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häggi, C.; Chiessi, C. M.; Schefuß, E.

    2015-12-01

    The stable hydrogen isotope composition of lipid biomarkers, such as alkenones, is a promising new tool for the improvement of palaeosalinity reconstructions. Laboratory studies confirmed the correlation between lipid biomarker δD composition (δDLipid), water δD composition (δDH2O) and salinity; yet there is limited insight into the applicability of this proxy in oceanic environments. To fill this gap, we test the use of the δD composition of alkenones (δDC37) and palmitic acid (δDPA) as salinity proxies using samples of surface suspended material along the distinct salinity gradient induced by the Amazon Plume. Our results indicate a positive correlation between salinity and δDH2O, while the relationship between δDH2O and δDLipid is more complex: δDPAM correlates strongly with δDH2O (r2 = 0.81) and shows a salinity-dependent isotopic fractionation factor. δDC37 only correlates with δDH2O in a small number (n = 8) of samples with alkenone concentrations > 10 ng L-1, while there is no correlation if all samples are taken into account. These findings are mirrored by alkenone-based temperature reconstructions, which are inaccurate for samples with low alkenone concentrations. Deviations in δDC37 and temperature are likely to be caused by limited haptophyte algae growth due to low salinity and light limitation imposed by the Amazon Plume. Our study confirms the applicability of δDLipid as a salinity proxy in oceanic environments. But it raises a note of caution concerning regions where low alkenone production can be expected due to low salinity and light limitation, for instance, under strong riverine discharge.

  11. Anxiety and Agitation in Mechanically Ventilated Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Judith Ann; Dabbs, Annette Devito; Hoffman, Leslie; Milbrandt, Eric; Happ, Mary Beth

    2013-01-01

    During an ethnography conducted in an intensive care unit (ICU), we found that anxiety and agitation occurred frequently, and were important considerations in the care of 30 patients weaning from prolonged mechanical ventilation. We conducted a secondary analysis to (a) describe characteristics of anxiety and agitation experienced by mechanically ventilated patients; (b) explore how clinicians recognize and interpret anxiety and agitation and (c) describe strategies and interventions used to manage anxiety and agitation with mechanically ventilated patients. We constructed the Anxiety-Agitation in Mechanical Ventilation Model to illustrate the multidimensional features of symptom recognition and management. Patients’ ability to interact with the environment served as a basis for identification and management of anxiety or agitation. Clinicians’ attributions about anxiety or agitation and “knowing the patient” contributed to their assessment of patient responses. Clinicians chose strategies to overcome either the stimulus or patient’s appraisal of risk of the stimulus. This article contributes to the body of knowledge about symptom recognition and management in the ICU by providing a comprehensive model to guide future research and practice. PMID:21908706

  12. Managing agitated behaviour in older people.

    PubMed

    King, Camille

    2012-09-01

    Older people diagnosed with dementia can have complex needs, especially when they exhibit agitated behaviour. Patients with agitated behaviour challenge the delivery of health care. Often the behaviour is a symptom of unmet needs in this population (Dewing 2010). It is important for nurses to understand the underlying causes and apply evidence-based interventions in their nursing practice to promote health, safety and the highest quality of life possible. This article defines and classifies agitated behaviours, discusses implications for their management and then presents evidence-based interventions nurses can use. The interventions are categorised according to each of the five senses.

  13. Tests for injecting, storing, and recovering freshwater in a saline artesian aquifer, Lee County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    An investigation was made of the suitability of a saline, artesian limestone aquifer for the injection, storage, and recovery of freshwater from the Caloosahatchee River. The tests were conducted on a well tapping a leaky artesian system that has a transmissivity of 800 square feet per day, a storage of 1 x 10-4, and a leakance of 0.01 per day. The specific capacity of the injection well was increased through acidizing and was decreased as a result of well clogging during injection. Three injection tests were made wherein the amounts of freshwater injected, the storage duration, and the quality of water injected varied. Analysis of the test data showed that freshwater recoverability ranged from 9.7 to 38.7 percent of the total injected. Differences were attributed principally to differences in the quality of water injected and storage duration. Repeated injection-recovery cycles probably would result in greater recoverability. Head buildup, nearly 200 feet in one test, was a prime problem related chiefly to clogging from suspended material in the injected water and to bacterial growth at the wellbore-limestone interface. Regular backflushing was required. Total head buildup decreased as a result of acidizing the injection well. No coliforms or fecal streptococcus were noted in the recovered water. Growth of anaerobic bacteria occurred. Changes in the quality of the recovered water included decreases in concentration of dissolved organic carbon by as much as 15 mg/L (milligrams per liter), organic nitrogen by as much as 0.80 mg/L, and nitrate by as much as 0.50 mg/L. Increases were noted in ammonia by 0.40 mg/L, and iron by as much as 0.60 mg/L. These changes are consistent with the presence of an anaerobic bacterial ecosystem.

  14. [Sultopride in the treatment of agitation].

    PubMed

    Mohy, Y

    1983-04-28

    Sultopride was given to 5 patients with chronic psychosis and 5 with agitation or a psychiatric emergency. Initial dosages were from 3 to 6 vials/day in acute conditions and from 3 to 6 tablets/day in chronic diseases. Sultopride was effective in 70% of patients, with a 100% efficiency rate in acute conditions. Results on agitation were very satisfactory considering the severity of most of the conditions included in the study. On the whole, tolerance was very good.

  15. Monoamine oxidase and agitation in psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Nikolac Perkovic, Matea; Svob Strac, Dubravka; Nedic Erjavec, Gordana; Uzun, Suzana; Podobnik, Josip; Kozumplik, Oliver; Vlatkovic, Suzana; Pivac, Nela

    2016-08-01

    Subjects with schizophrenia or conduct disorder display a lifelong pattern of antisocial, aggressive and violent behavior and agitation. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is an enzyme involved in the degradation of various monoamine neurotransmitters and neuromodulators and therefore has a role in various psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders and pathological behaviors. Platelet MAO-B activity has been associated with psychopathy- and aggression-related personality traits, while variants of the MAOA and MAOB genes have been associated with diverse clinical phenotypes, including aggressiveness, antisocial problems and violent delinquency. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of platelet MAO-B activity, MAOB rs1799836 polymorphism and MAOA uVNTR polymorphism with severe agitation in 363 subjects with schizophrenia and conduct disorder. The results demonstrated significant association of severe agitation and smoking, but not diagnosis or age, with platelet MAO-B activity. Higher platelet MAO-B activity was found in subjects with severe agitation compared to non-agitated subjects. Platelet MAO-B activity was not associated with MAOB rs1799836 polymorphism. These results suggested the association between increased platelet MAO-B activity and severe agitation. No significant association was found between severe agitation and MAOA uVNTR or MAOB rs1799836 polymorphism, revealing that these individual polymorphisms in MAO genes are not related to severe agitation in subjects with schizophrenia and conduct disorder. As our study included 363 homogenous Caucasian male subjects, our data showing this negative genetic association will be a useful addition to future meta-analyses. PMID:26851573

  16. Aggregation and Particle Formation of Therapeutic Proteins in Contact With a Novel Fluoropolymer Surface Versus Siliconized Surfaces: Effects of Agitation in Vials and in Prefilled Syringes.

    PubMed

    Teska, Brandon M; Brake, Jeffrey M; Tronto, Gregory S; Carpenter, John F

    2016-07-01

    We examined the effects of an accelerated agitation protocol on 2 protein therapeutics, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and Avastin (bevacizumab), in contact with a novel fluoropolymer surface and more typical siliconized surfaces. The fluoropolymer surface provides "solid-phase" lubrication for the syringe plunger-obviating the need for silicone oil lubrication in prefilled syringes. We tested the 2 surfaces in a vial system and in prefilled glass syringes. We also examined the effects of 2 buffers, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and 0.2-M glycine, with and without the addition of polysorbate 20, on agitation-induced aggregation of IVIG. Aggregation was monitored by measuring subvisible particle formation and soluble protein loss. In both vials and syringes, protein particle formation was much lower during agitation with the fluoropolymer surface than with the siliconized surface. Also, particle formation was greater in PBS than in glycine buffer, an effect attributed to lower colloidal stability of IVIG in PBS. Polysorbate 20 in the formulation greatly inhibited protein particle formation. Overall, the fluoropolymer plunger surface in an unsiliconized glass barrel was demonstrated to be a viable solution for eliminating silicone oil droplets from prefilled syringe formulations and providing a consistent system for rationale formulation development and simplified particle analysis. PMID:27233685

  17. Testing for beneficial reversal of dominance during salinity shifts in the invasive copepod Eurytemora affinis, and implications for the maintenance of genetic variation.

    PubMed

    Posavi, Marijan; Gelembiuk, Gregory William; Larget, Bret; Lee, Carol Eunmi

    2014-11-01

    Maintenance of genetic variation at loci under selection has profound implications for adaptation under environmental change. In temporally and spatially varying habitats, non-neutral polymorphism could be maintained by heterozygote advantage across environments (marginal overdominance), which could be greatly increased by beneficial reversal of dominance across conditions. We tested for reversal of dominance and marginal overdominance in salinity tolerance in the saltwater-to-freshwater invading copepod Eurytemora affinis. We compared survival of F1 offspring generated by crossing saline and freshwater inbred lines (between-salinity F1 crosses) relative to within-salinity F1 crosses, across three salinities. We found evidence for both beneficial reversal of dominance and marginal overdominance in salinity tolerance. In support of reversal of dominance, survival of between-salinity F1 crosses was not different from that of freshwater F1 crosses under freshwater conditions and saltwater F1 crosses under saltwater conditions. In support of marginal overdominance, between-salinity F1 crosses exhibited significantly higher survival across salinities relative to both freshwater and saltwater F1 crosses. Our study provides a rare empirical example of complete beneficial reversal of dominance associated with environmental change. This mechanism might be crucial for maintaining genetic variation in salinity tolerance in E. affinis populations, allowing rapid adaptation to salinity changes during habitat invasions. PMID:25135455

  18. The agitative mixing and shearing of the CWM

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Rongzeng; Sun Zongyue; Huangfu Jinghua

    1998-12-31

    Agitation has different operating purposes for different steps during the CWM preparation process. At present, the theoretical research of the agitation is still immature, especially for the non-Newtonian fluid. Based on the findings of agitation in other industries, the CWM agitative process is discussed in the paper.

  19. Microbial ecology in anaerobic digestion at agitated and non-agitated conditions.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhuoli; Cabrol, Léa; Ruiz-Filippi, Gonzalo; Pullammanappallil, Pratap

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the distribution and dynamics of microbial community in anaerobic digestion at agitated and non-agitated condition, 454 pyrosequencing of 16s rRNA was conducted. It revealed the distinct community compositions between the two digesters and their progressive shifting over time. Methanogens and syntrophic bacteria were found much less abundant in the agitated digester, which was mainly attributed to the presence of bacterial genera Acetanaerobacterium and Ruminococcus with relatively high abundance. The characterization of the microbial community corroborated the digestion performance affected at the agitated condition, where lower methane yield and delayed methane production rate were observed. This was further verified by the accumulation of propionic acid in the agitated digester.

  20. Microbial Ecology in Anaerobic Digestion at Agitated and Non-Agitated Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Zhuoli; Cabrol, Léa; Ruiz-Filippi, Gonzalo; Pullammanappallil, Pratap

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the distribution and dynamics of microbial community in anaerobic digestion at agitated and non-agitated condition, 454 pyrosequencing of 16s rRNA was conducted. It revealed the distinct community compositions between the two digesters and their progressive shifting over time. Methanogens and syntrophic bacteria were found much less abundant in the agitated digester, which was mainly attributed to the presence of bacterial genera Acetanaerobacterium and Ruminococcus with relatively high abundance. The characterization of the microbial community corroborated the digestion performance affected at the agitated condition, where lower methane yield and delayed methane production rate were observed. This was further verified by the accumulation of propionic acid in the agitated digester. PMID:25313520

  1. Salinization and Saline Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vengosh, A.

    2003-12-01

    One of the most conspicuous phenomena of water-quality degradation, particularly in arid and semi-arid zones, is salinization of water and soil resources. Salinization is a long-term phenomenon, and during the last century many aquifers and river basins have become unsuitable for human consumption owing to high levels of salinity. Future exploitation of thousands of wells in the Middle East and in many other water-scarce regions in the world depends, to a large extent, on the degree and rate of salinization. Moreover, every year a large fraction of agricultural land is salinized and becomes unusable.Salinization is a global environmental phenomenon that affects many different aspects of our life (Williams, 2001a, b): changing the chemical composition of natural water resources (lakes, rivers, and groundwater), degrading the quality of water supply to the domestic and agriculture sectors, contribution to loss of biodiversity, taxonomic replacement by halotolerant species ( Williams, 2001a, b), loss of fertile soil, collapse of agricultural and fishery industries, changing of local climatic conditions, and creating severe health problems (e.g., the Aral Basin). The damage due to salinity in the Colorado River Basin alone, for example, ranges between 500 and 750 million per year and could exceed 1 billion per year if the salinity in the Imperial Dam increases from 700 mg L-1 to 900 mg L-1 (Bureau of Reclamation, 2003, USA). In Australia, accelerating soil salinization has become a massive environmental and economic disaster. Western Australia is "losing an area equal to one football oval an hour" due to spreading salinity ( Murphy, 1999). The annual cost for dryland salinity in Australia is estimated as AU700 million for lost land and AU$130 million for lost production ( Williams et al., 2002). In short, the salinization process has become pervasive.Salinity in water is usually defined by the chloride content (mg L-1) or total dissolved solids content (TDS, mg L-1or g

  2. Improved understanding and testing for salinity tolerance in cool-season turfgrasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water is a critical issue for sustainability of golf courses in urban areas. Rapid population growth and climate change have increased the necesssity for golf courses to be efficient users of water, and sometimes users of low quality, high salinity water. Our research has focused on determining wh...

  3. Coal storage hopper with vibrating screen agitator

    DOEpatents

    Daw, Charles S.; Lackey, Mack E.; Sy, Ronald L.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a vibrating screen agitator in a coal storage hopper for assuring the uniform feed of coal having sufficient moisture content to effect agglomeration and bridging thereof in the coal hopper from the latter onto a conveyor mechanism. The vibrating screen agitator is provided by a plurality of transversely oriented and vertically spaced apart screens in the storage hopper with a plurality of vertically oriented rods attached to the screens. The rods are vibrated to effect the vibration of the screens and the breaking up of agglomerates in the coal which might impede the uniform flow of the coal from the hopper onto a conveyer.

  4. Salinization and Saline Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vengosh, A.

    2003-12-01

    One of the most conspicuous phenomena of water-quality degradation, particularly in arid and semi-arid zones, is salinization of water and soil resources. Salinization is a long-term phenomenon, and during the last century many aquifers and river basins have become unsuitable for human consumption owing to high levels of salinity. Future exploitation of thousands of wells in the Middle East and in many other water-scarce regions in the world depends, to a large extent, on the degree and rate of salinization. Moreover, every year a large fraction of agricultural land is salinized and becomes unusable.Salinization is a global environmental phenomenon that affects many different aspects of our life (Williams, 2001a, b): changing the chemical composition of natural water resources (lakes, rivers, and groundwater), degrading the quality of water supply to the domestic and agriculture sectors, contribution to loss of biodiversity, taxonomic replacement by halotolerant species ( Williams, 2001a, b), loss of fertile soil, collapse of agricultural and fishery industries, changing of local climatic conditions, and creating severe health problems (e.g., the Aral Basin). The damage due to salinity in the Colorado River Basin alone, for example, ranges between 500 and 750 million per year and could exceed 1 billion per year if the salinity in the Imperial Dam increases from 700 mg L-1 to 900 mg L-1 (Bureau of Reclamation, 2003, USA). In Australia, accelerating soil salinization has become a massive environmental and economic disaster. Western Australia is "losing an area equal to one football oval an hour" due to spreading salinity ( Murphy, 1999). The annual cost for dryland salinity in Australia is estimated as AU700 million for lost land and AU$130 million for lost production ( Williams et al., 2002). In short, the salinization process has become pervasive.Salinity in water is usually defined by the chloride content (mg L-1) or total dissolved solids content (TDS, mg L-1or g

  5. Acute toxicity tests using rotifers. 4. Effects of cyst age, temperature, and salinity on the sensitivity of Brachionus calyciflorus

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, T.W.; Moffat, B.D.; Janssen, C.; Persoone, G. )

    1991-06-01

    Several aspects of the response to toxicants using a standardized toxicity test with the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus are described. Test animals are obtained by hatching cysts which produce animals of similar age and physiological condition. The acute toxicity of 28 compounds is described with 24-hr LC50's. The LC50's span five orders of magnitude, from silver at 0.008 mg.liter-1 to benzene at more than 1000 mg.liter-1. Control mortality in 84 tests averaged 2% with a standard deviation of 3%, indicating very consistent test sensitivity. Only once in 84 trials did a test fail because of excessive control mortality, yielding a failure rate of 1.2%. Cyst age from 0 to 18 months had no effect on the sensitivity of neonates to reference toxicants. Both high and low temperatures increased rotifer sensitivity to reference toxicants. Copper sensitivity was greater at 10, 25, and 30 degrees C compared with results at 20 degrees C. Likewise, sodium pentachlorophenol toxicity was greater at 10 and 30 degrees C compared with results at 20 degrees C. Survivorship curves at 25 degrees C of neonates under control conditions indicated that mortality begins at about 30 hr. This places a practical limit on toxicant exposure for the assay of 24 hr. B. calyciflorus cysts hatch at salinities up to 5 ppt and acute toxicity tests using pentachlorophenol at this salinity yielded LC50's about one-half those of standard freshwater. B. calyciflorus is preferred over Brachionus plicatilis for toxicity tests in salinities up to 5 ppt because it is consistently more sensitive.

  6. Flunitrazepam: psychomotor impairment, agitation and paradoxical reactions.

    PubMed

    Bramness, Jørgen G; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Mørland, Jørg

    2006-06-01

    Benzodiazepines are sedatives used for anxiolysis, hypnosis, muscle relaxation and the treatment of epilepsy. Paradoxical reactions including agitation, talkativeness, confusion, disinhibition, aggression, violent behavior and loss of impulse control may, however, occur in some subjects. It has been claimed that high doses of flunitrazepam may cause aggression on a more regular basis in all individuals. The present study makes use of a Norwegian forensic toxicological database containing analytical results from drivers suspected of driving under the influence and suspects of violent crime to analyze the relationship between behavior and blood flunitrazepam concentration. Four-hundred and fifteen cases of drivers suspected of driving under the influence and seven cases of suspects of violent crime were studied. These selected cases had flunitrazepam as the only drug in blood samples and had been evaluated by a clinical test for impairment (CTI) performed by a police physician at the time of blood sampling. The impaired drivers had higher blood flunitrazepam concentrations than the not impaired drivers. Multivariate analysis revealed that both blood flunitrazepam concentration and age of the suspected drivers had independent impact on impairment, indicating tolerance with age. Most of the effects measured were sedative effects of flunitrazepam and these effects were related to flunitrazepam level. Possible paradoxical reactions were observed in a subgroup of 23 individuals (6%), but these reactions did not relate to blood flunitrazepam concentration. The suspects of violent crime showed similar degree impairment and had not more paradoxical reactions than the suspected drugged drivers. The findings were in agreement with other research that claims paradoxical reactions should be viewed as a reaction in certain individuals, and does not support the notion that flunitrazepam in high concentration produces aggression in all individuals taking the drug.

  7. An Agitation Experiment with Multiple Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Jordan L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a multifaceted agitation and mixing experiment. The relatively inexpensive apparatus includes a variable-speed stirrer motor, two polycarbonate tanks, and an instrumented torque table. Students measure torque as a function of stirrer speed, and use conductive tracer data to estimate two parameters of a flow model. The effect…

  8. Solutions of test problems for disposal of CO2 in saline aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, Karsten; Garcia, Julio

    2003-03-05

    This report presents detailed results for three flow problems involving CO2 migration in saline aquifers, that had been posed as part of an international code intercomparison study. Selected data for PVT properties of aqueous mixtures involving CO2 are given, and the dynamics of immiscible displacement of an aqueous phase by supercritical CO2 is discussed. Simulations were conducted with a version of the TOUGH2 general purpose reservoir simulator that includes a special property package for supercritical CO2. The results can serve as benchmarks for debugging numerical simulation models.

  9. Do Past Experiences Predict Agitation in Nursing Home Residents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Marx, Marcia S.

    1989-01-01

    Examined relationships between agitated behavior and past personality in 408 nursing home residents. Agitated and nonaggressive behaviors were correlated with past stressful events, and physically aggressive behavior was correlated with the lack thereof; no relationships were found between agitated behavior and history of a mental disorder or past…

  10. Microleakage in Sub-Gingival Class II Preparations Restored Using Two Different Liners for Open Sandwich Technique Supplemented With or Without Ultrasonic Agitation: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Naveen; Shah, Nimisha Chinmay; Jais, Pratik Subash

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Probability of bond failure at sub-gingival cavosurface margin is high in class II cavity designs especially when margins are located in cementum or dentin. Previous researches have proved ultrasonics to be a beneficial tool in improving the marginal adaptation of the restorative material. Therefore, the effect of ultrasonic activation of the lining material at the gingival cavosurface margin was tested in the present research. Aim The study aimed to evaluate the cervical micro-leakage in class II preparations with gingival margin located below cemento enamel junction and restored using open sandwich technique using two different liners and supplemented with or without ultrasonic agitation. Materials and Methods Forty recently extracted human molars were collected, disinfected and stored in 0.9% saline solution. Standar dized class II cavities were prepared with gingival margin located 1mm below the cemento-enamel junction. Teeth were randomly divided into four groups (n=10) and restored using open sandwich technique as follows - Group A: Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement as liner and Beautifil II as coronal restoration; Group B: Same as group A supplemented with ultrasonic agitation; Group C: Beautifil Flow Plus as liner and Beautifil II as coronal restoration; Group D: Same as Group C supplemented with ultrasonic agitation. Prepared samples were subjected to thermo cycling, followed by immersing in 0.5% methylene blue dye solution. After 24 hours they were cleaned and sectioned in mesio-distal direction using diamond disc and evaluated for microleakage. Obtained scores were statistically analysed using one way ANOVA test and Post Hoc test. Results Group B showed least microleakage amongst all groups but the results were statistically insignificant (p value > 0.05). Conclusion Marginal adaptation of liner with ultrasonic activation was somewhat better however, the results were statistically insignificant. PMID:27135006

  11. Multicomponent leach tests in Standard Canadian Shield Saline Solution on glasses containing simulated nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Heimann, R.B.; Wood, D.D.; Hamon, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Leaching experiments on borosilicate glass frit and simulated nuclear waste glasses were performed as a preliminary to leaching experiments on glasses incorporating radioactive waste. The experimental design included (1) simulated waste glass, (2) ASTM Grade-2 titanium container material, (3) clay buffer material, (4) Standard Canadian Shield Saline Solution, and (5) granitic rock. Cumulative fractions of release for boron were determined, as well as the solution concentrations of silicon, iron, strontium and cesium. The leach rates for boron after 28 d were approximately 5 x 10/sup -6/ kg x m/sup -2/ x s/sup -1/ in Hastelloy vessels. There is an apparently strong relationship between the clay/groundwater ratio, the concentration of iron in the solution, and the concentrations of silicon, strontium, and cesium.

  12. Effects of Agitation and Storage Temperature on Measurements of Hydration Status

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Heather M; Eberman, Lindsey E; Yeargin, Susan W; Niemann, Andrew J; Mata, Heather L; Dziedzicki, David J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hypohydration can have significant implications on normal physiological functions of the body. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the impact of agitation, storage temperature, and storage time on urine osmolality compared to the criterion control. Patients and Methods: We used a descriptive diagnostic validity test design. To investigate agitation, we recruited 75 healthy individuals (males = 41, females = 34; mean age = 22 ± 5 years; mean self-reported height = 172 ± 23 cm and mass = 77 ± 17 kg) who provided one or more samples (total = 81). The independent variables were agitation (vortex, hand shaken, no agitation) and temperature (room temperature, freezer, and refrigerator) type. Participants completed informed consent, a health questionnaire and were asked to provide a urine sample, which was split and labeled according to agitation type or storage temperature. Urine osmolality was used to determine hydration status at two time points (within 2 hours [control], 48 hours). We used t-tests to determine the difference between each condition and the control and calculated percent error for each condition. Results: No significant differences for no agitation (t79 = -0.079, P = 0.937), hand shaken (t79 = 1.395, P = 0.167) or vortex mixed (t79 = -0.753, P = 0.453) were identified when compared to the criterion control. No significant differences for room temperature (t82 = -0.720, P = 0.474), refrigerator (t82 = -2.697, P = 0.008) or freezer (t82 = 2.576, P = 0.012) were identified when compared to the criterion control. Conclusions: Our findings suggest agitation of urine specimen is not necessary and samples do not require refrigeration or freezing if assessed within 48 hours. Analysis within two hours of collection is not necessary and samples can be stored for up to 48 hours without impacting the hydration status of the sample. PMID:26715967

  13. Corelation between Machines Assisted Endodontic Irrigant Agitation and Apical Extrusion of Debris and Irrigant: A Laboratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Jatin; Jha, Padmanabh

    2014-01-01

    Aims. To compare amount of root canal debris and irrigant extruded apically after irrigants agitation using closed and open chambers. Methods and Material. Sixty maxillary central incisors were selected, decoronated, and mounted in preweighed glass vials filled with distilled water. Biomechanical preparation was completed using ProTaper rotary files until number F4 and 1 mL of 3% NaOCl solution after each file use. Samples were randomly divided into closed or open chamber sets which were further subdivided into 6 groups, based on the agitation techniques: no agitation (control), canalBrush, lentulospiral, passive ultrasonic agitation (PUA), EndoActivator, and EndoVac. Canals were irrigated with 1 mL of 17% EDTA and agitated for 30 s and then flushed with 2 mL of distilled water. Apically extruded irrigant was measured and vials were kept in incubator for 5 days at 68°C for drying for weight calculation. Statistical Analysis. Analysis was done using Student's t-test, one-way ANOVA, and post-hoc. Results. All agitation techniques showed apical extrusion of the debris and irrigant. The closed chamber apparatus showed significantly less extrusion of debris and irrigant than open chamber (P < 0.05). Conclusions. EndoVac was found to be the safest agitation system among all test groups with regard to apical extrusion of debris and irrigant. PMID:25386593

  14. Prophylactic Use of Oral Acetaminophen or IV Dexamethasone and Combination of them on Prevention Emergence Agitation in Pediatric after Adenotonsillectomy

    PubMed Central

    Sajedi, Parvin; Baghery, Kivan; Hagibabie, Ezzat; Mehr, Asieh Maghami

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of acetaminophen plus dexamethasone on post-operative emergence agitation in pediatric adenotonsillectomy. Methods: A total of 128 patients were randomized and assigned among four groups as: Intravenous (IV) dexamethasone, oral acetaminophen, IV dexamethasone plus oral acetaminophen, placebo. Group 1 received 0.2 mg/kg dexamethasone plus 0.25 mg/kg strawberry syrup 2 h before surgery. Group 2 received 20 mg/kg oral acetaminophen (0.25 ml/kg) with 0.05 ml/kg IV normal saline. Group 3 received 20 mg/kg acetaminophen and 0.2 mg/kg dexamethasone intravenously. Group 4 received 0.25 ml/kg strawberry syrup and 0.05 ml/kg normal saline. Agitation was measured according to Richmond agitation sedation score in the post anesthetic care unit (PACU) after admission, 10, 20 and 30 min after extubation. Pain score was measured with FACE scale. Nurse satisfaction was measured with verbal analog scale. If agitation scale was 3 ≥ or pain scale was 4 ≥ meperidine was prescribed. If symptoms did not control wit in 15 min midazolam was prescribed. Patients were discharged from PACU according Modified Alderet Score. Data were analyzed with ANOVA, Chi-square, and Kruskal-Wallis among four groups. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 140 patients were recruited in the study, which 12 of them were excluded. Thus, 128 patients were randomized and assigned among four groups. The four treatment groups were generally matched at baseline data. Median of pain score in 0, 10, 20 and 30 min after extubation were different between each study group with the control group (<0.001, 0.003 respectively). Also median of agitation score in 0, 10, 20 and 30 min after extubation were different between each study group with the control group (<0.001). Incidence of pain and incidence of agitation after extubation were not statistically identical among groups (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002 respectively). Mean of

  15. LDA measurements and turbulence spectral analysis in an agitated vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kysela, Bohuš; Konfršt, Jiří; Chára, Zdeněk

    2013-04-01

    During the last years considerable improvement of the derivation of turbulence power spectrum from Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) has been achieved. The irregularly sampled LDA data is proposed to approximate by several methods e.g. Lomb-Scargle method, which estimates amplitude and phase of spectral lines from missing data, methods based on the reconstruction of the auto-correlation function (referred to as correlation slotting technique), methods based on the reconstruction of the time series using interpolation between the uneven sampling and subsequent resampling etc. These different methods were used on the LDA data measured in an agitated vessel and the results of the power spectrum calculations were compared. The measurements were performed in the mixing vessel with flat bottom. The vessel was equipped with four baffles and agitated with a six-blade pitched blade impeller. Three values of the impeller speed (Reynolds number) were tested. Long time series of the axial velocity component were measured in selected points. In each point the time series were analyzed and evaluated in a form of power spectrum.

  16. Identifying proper agitation interval to prevent floating layers formation of corn stover and improve biogas production in anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Tian, Libin; Zou, Dexun; Yuan, Hairong; Wang, Linfeng; Zhang, Xin; Li, Xiujin

    2015-06-01

    Floating tests were conducted in anaerobic digestion with different OLR of corn stover to investigate formation of floating layers and to find proper agitation interval for preventing floating layer formation. Floating layers were formed in the early stage of no-agitation period. The daily biogas production was decreased by 81.87-87.90% in digesters with no agitation and feeding compared with digesters having agitation. Reduction of biogas production was mainly attributed to poor contact of substrate-microorganisms. Agitation intervals of 10 h, 6 h, and 2 h were found to be proper for eliminating floating layer at OLR of 1.44, 1.78 and 2.11 g(TS) L(-1) d(-1), respectively. The proper agitation interval was further validated by anaerobic experiments. It showed that proper agitation interval could not only prevent floating layer formation and achieve high biogas production but also increase energy efficiency of anaerobic digestion. The finding is useful for operating anaerobic digester with corn stover in a cost-effective way.

  17. Spontaneous knotting of an agitated string.

    PubMed

    Raymer, Dorian M; Smith, Douglas E

    2007-10-16

    It is well known that a jostled string tends to become knotted; yet the factors governing the "spontaneous" formation of various knots are unclear. We performed experiments in which a string was tumbled inside a box and found that complex knots often form within seconds. We used mathematical knot theory to analyze the knots. Above a critical string length, the probability P of knotting at first increased sharply with length but then saturated below 100%. This behavior differs from that of mathematical self-avoiding random walks, where P has been proven to approach 100%. Finite agitation time and jamming of the string due to its stiffness result in lower probability, but P approaches 100% with long, flexible strings. We analyzed the knots by calculating their Jones polynomials via computer analysis of digital photos of the string. Remarkably, almost all were identified as prime knots: 120 different types, having minimum crossing numbers up to 11, were observed in 3,415 trials. All prime knots with up to seven crossings were observed. The relative probability of forming a knot decreased exponentially with minimum crossing number and Möbius energy, mathematical measures of knot complexity. Based on the observation that long, stiff strings tend to form a coiled structure when confined, we propose a simple model to describe the knot formation based on random "braid moves" of the string end. Our model can qualitatively account for the observed distribution of knots and dependence on agitation time and string length.

  18. [Increased risk of suicide in patients with agitated depression].

    PubMed

    Kenchadze, V G; Chkoniia, E D; Sikharulidze, G G

    2009-12-01

    In our study we aimed to verify the clinical features of agitated depression, which intensify suicidal trends leading to completed suicide. From 477 patients with agitated depression we selected 126, who presented high risk of suicide and studded them by using Mood Anxiety Inventory. On the bases of the structural-dynamic analyses we determine seven clinical variations of agitated-depression with prominent affective, cognitive, psychomotor, somato-algetic and behavioral symptoms. The most dangerous types with regards of suicidal behavior appeared to be senestopathic and algetic types and agitated depression with depersonalization and derealization. PMID:20090153

  19. Preliminary data from Arbuckle test wells, Miami, Douglas, Saline, and Labette counties, Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gogel, Tony

    1981-01-01

    Formation data from drill-stem tests are presented for use in calculating transmissivity, hydraulic conductivity, and hydraulic head. Complete analyses of water samples from wells at sites 2, 3, and 4, and a partial analysis at site 1, are presented to indicate water quality in the aquifers.

  20. Effect of the Bace Intervention on Agitation of People with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovach, Christine R.; Taneli, Yavuz; Dohearty, Paul; Schlidt, Andrea Matovina; Cashin, Susan; Silva-Smith, Amy L.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: This study tests the effectiveness of the theoretically driven BACE (i.e., Balancing Arousal Controls Excesses) intervention in decreasing agitation in residents of long-term care with moderate or severe dementia. Design and Methods: A pretest-posttest double-blinded experimental design with random assignment was used with a sample of 78…

  1. Dexmedetomidine Injection during Strabismus Surgery Reduces Emergence Agitation without Increasing the Oculocardiac Reflex in Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ah-Young; Baik, Ji-Seok; Kim, Jin Hee; Hwang, Jung- Won; Jeon, Young-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Objective Dexmedetomidine is known to reduce the incidence of emergence agitation, which is a common complication after inhalational anesthesia like sevoflurane or desflurane in children. However, the dose of dexmedetomidine used for this purpose is reported variously and the most effective dose is not known. In this study, we tried to find the most effective dose of dexmedetomidine to reduce the incidence of emergence agitation in children undergoing strabismus surgery without the complications like oculocardiac reflex (OCR) or postoperative vomiting. Methods We randomized 103 pediatric patients aged 2–6 years and undergoing elective strabismus surgery into four groups. Anesthesia was induced with sevoflurane and maintained with desflurane. At the start of induction, dexmedetomidine, delivered at 0.25, 0.5, or 1 μg/kg, or saline was infused intravenously in the D0.25, D0.5, D1 groups, respectively. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of emergence agitation and the secondary outcome measure was the incidence of intraoperative OCR, postoperative vomiting, and desaturation events. Results The incidence of emergence agitation was 60, 48, 44, and 21% (P = 0.005) and the incidence of intraoperative OCR was 36, 36, 36, and 37% (P = 0.988) in the control, D0.25, D0.5, and D1 groups, respectively. And, postoperative vomiting rate and desaturation events were low in the all groups. Conclusion Dexmedetomidine decreased the incidence of emergence agitation without increasing intraoperative oculocardiac reflex. Dexmedetomidine delivered at 1 μg/kg was more effective at reducing emergence agitation than lower doses in children undergoing strabismus surgery under desflurane anesthesia. Trial Registration Clinical Research Information Service KCT0000141 PMID:27617832

  2. Effect of Preferred Music on Agitation After Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Park, Soohyun; Williams, Reg Arthur; Lee, Donghyun

    2016-04-01

    Agitation is a common behavioral problem after traumatic brain injury (TBI), which threatens the safety of patients and caregivers and disrupts the rehabilitation process. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a preferred music intervention on the reduction of agitation in TBI patients and to compare the effects of preferred music with those of classical "relaxation" music. A single group, within-subjects, randomized crossover trial design was formed, consisting of 14 agitated patients with cognitive impairment after severe TBI. Patients listened to preferred music and classical "relaxation" music, with a wash-out period in between. Patients listening to the preferred music reported a significantly greater reduction in agitation compared with the effect seen during the classical "relaxation" music intervention (p = .046). These findings provide preliminary evidence that the preferred music intervention may be effective as an environmental therapeutic approach for reducing agitation after TBI.

  3. Escherichia coli O8-antigen enhances biofilm formation under agitated conditions.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Akash; Mallik, Dhriti; Pal, Shilpa; Mallick, Sathi; Sarkar, Sujoy; Chanda, Ajoy; Ghosh, Anindya S

    2015-08-01

    Bacterial surface components have a major role in the development of biofilms. In the present study, the effect of Escherichia coli O8-antigen on biofilms was investigated using two E. coli K-12 derived strains that differed only in the O8-antigen biosynthesis. In the presence of O8-antigen both bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation slightly decreased under static conditions whereas a substantial increase in adhesion and biofilm formation was observed under agitated conditions. It was noted that, irrespective of the O8-antigen status, the hydrophobic interactions played an important role in bacterial adhesion under both static and agitated conditions. However, under agitated conditions, the extent of bacterial adhesion in the O8-antigen bearing strain was predominantly determined by the electrostatic interactions. Results showed that the presence of O8-antigen decreases the surface hydrophobicity and surface charge. Moreover, O8-antigen facilitates adhesion on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces as revealed through tests with modified substrata. Our results indicate that O8-antigen, which appears dispensable for biofilm formation under static conditions, actually enhances E. coli biofilm formation under agitated conditions. PMID:26187746

  4. Heparinised saline or normal saline?

    PubMed

    Kannan, Anand

    2008-10-01

    Using heparinised saline as a flush to maintain the patency of arterial and central venous lines is a well-known practice. A literature search was undertaken but found no evidence to support the use of heparinised saline over normal saline. In addition, the use of heparinised saline may be associated with adverse effects. The literature search strategy utilised Ovid CINAHL and Medline databases, as well as hand-searching bibliographies of clinical and research articles from the University of Cambridge Medical Library. Keywords and phrases included 'heparin', 'normal saline', 'arterial', 'haemodynamic lines' and 'catheters'. All types of evidence from each of these resources were examined to identify major themes, areas of agreement and disagreement across clinical practice, changesin the concept over time and emerging trends. PMID:18983067

  5. The effect of mild agitation on in vitro erythroid development.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Daniela; Murphy, William G; Al-Rubeai, Mohamed

    2010-08-31

    The cultivation of erythroid cells at large scale would have to be performed in suitable bioreactors which would most likely employ some mode of agitation to ensure optimal mass and gas transfer and prevent culture inhomogeneity. The effect of low agitation at 15-20 rpm on ex vivo erythropoiesis of PB CD34+ derived cultures was investigated and found to have significant impact on erythroid development. Agitated cultures showed a reduced lag phase and increased cell expansion during the early stages of culture. Additionally, agitation accelerated erythroid differentiation as seen by the loss of early development markers, acquisition of late erythroid markers and premature cell cycle arrest, although not yielding higher fractions of terminally differentiated cells in comparison to stationary culture. However, agitation at 20 rpm led to significantly increased loss of cell viability after day 15 in culture, an effect that could be reduced by decreasing the agitation rate to 15 rpm. On the one hand these results imply that agitation may improve cell yields and reduce expensive cytokine-dependent early culture stages but on the other hand it might introduce the risk of increased cell death in large scale culture.

  6. Assessment of pain and agitation in critically ill infants.

    PubMed

    Ramelet, A S

    1999-09-01

    Critically ill infants are subjected to many painful experiences that, if inadequately treated, can have severe physiological and psychological consequences. Optimal management of pain relies on the adequacy of nurses' assessment; this, however, is complicated by another common condition, agitation. A multidimensional assessment is therefore necessary to adequately identify pain and agitation. The aim of this descriptive study was to identify the cues that nurses caring for critically ill infants use to assess pain and agitation. A questionnaire, developed from the literature, was distributed to all registered nurses (85) working in the neonatal and paediatric intensive care units of an Australian teaching hospital. Questionnaires were completed by 41 nurses (a 57 per cent response rate). Results revealed that, except for diagnosis, there were no significant differences between the cues participants used to assess pain and those to assess agitation. Nurses used numerous cues from various sources: most importantly, their own judgement (99 per cent); the parents' judgement (90 per cent); the infant's environment; documentation (78 per cent), and the infant's cues (70 per cent). These findings demonstrate the relevance of the nurse's role in assessment of pain and agitation in critically ill infants. Nurses used cues specific to the critically ill rather than the less sick infant. Results of this study also show the difficulty of differentiating between pain and agitation. Further research on ways of distinguishing between the construct of pain and agitation needs to be undertaken.

  7. Nanocellulose Composite Materials Synthesizes with Ultrasonic Agitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidd, Timothy; Folken, Andrew; Fritch, Byron; Bradley, Derek

    We have extended current techniques in forming nanocellulose composite solids, suspensions and aerogels to enhance the breakdown of cellulose into its molecular components. Using only mechanical processing which includes ball milling, using a simple mortar and pestle, and ultrasonic agitation, we are able to create very low concentration uniform nanocellulose suspensions in water, as well as incorporate other materials such as graphite, carbon nanotubes, and magnetic materials. Of interest is that no chemical processing is necessary, nor is the use of nanoparticles, necessary for composite formation. Using both graphite and carbon nanotubes, we are able to achieve conducting nanocellulose solids and aerogels. Standard magnetic powder can also be incorporated to create magnetic solids. The technique also allows for the creation of an extremely fine nanocellulose suspension in water. Using extremely low concentrations, less than 1% cellulose by mass, along with careful control over processing parameters, we are able to achieve highly dilute, yet homogenous nanocellulose suspensions. When air dried, these suspensions have similar hardness and strength properties to those created with more typical starting cellulose concentrations (2-10%). However, when freeze-dried, these dilute suspensions form aerogels with a new morphology with much higher surface area than those with higher starting concentrations. We are currently examining the effect of this higher surface area on the properties of nanocellulose aerogel composites and how it influences the impact of incorporating nanocellulose into other polymer materials.

  8. Agitated Honeybees Exhibit Pessimistic Cognitive Biases

    PubMed Central

    Bateson, Melissa; Desire, Suzanne; Gartside, Sarah E.; Wright, Geraldine A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Whether animals experience human-like emotions is controversial and of immense societal concern [1–3]. Because animals cannot provide subjective reports of how they feel, emotional state can only be inferred using physiological, cognitive, and behavioral measures [4–8]. In humans, negative feelings are reliably correlated with pessimistic cognitive biases, defined as the increased expectation of bad outcomes [9–11]. Recently, mammals [12–16] and birds [17–20] with poor welfare have also been found to display pessimistic-like decision making, but cognitive biases have not thus far been explored in invertebrates. Here, we ask whether honeybees display a pessimistic cognitive bias when they are subjected to an anxiety-like state induced by vigorous shaking designed to simulate a predatory attack. We show for the first time that agitated bees are more likely to classify ambiguous stimuli as predicting punishment. Shaken bees also have lower levels of hemolymph dopamine, octopamine, and serotonin. In demonstrating state-dependent modulation of categorization in bees, and thereby a cognitive component of emotion, we show that the bees' response to a negatively valenced event has more in common with that of vertebrates than previously thought. This finding reinforces the use of cognitive bias as a measure of negative emotional states across species and suggests that honeybees could be regarded as exhibiting emotions. Video Abstract PMID:21636277

  9. Effects of individualized music on confused and agitated elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Gerdner, L A; Swanson, E A

    1993-10-01

    The Progressively Lowered Stress Threshold Model in conjunction with an identified theoretical basis provides a framework for the use of individualized music in individuals with Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type (DAT). The effects of individualized music is explored in five elderly patients who are confused and agitated and residing in a long-term care facility. The Modified Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory is used to measure the outcome. The immediate and 1-hour residual effects suggest the potential of individualized music as an alternative approach to the management of agitation in confused elderly patients.

  10. Salinity Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Walter R.

    1987-01-01

    Discussed are the costs of deriving energy from the earth's natural reserves of salt. Argues that, as fossil fuel supplies become more depleted in the future, the environmental advantages of salinity power may prove to warrant its exploitation. (TW)

  11. Enhancing the adhesion strength of micro electroforming layer by ultrasonic agitation method and the application.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhong; Du, Liqun; Tao, Yousheng; Li, Qingfeng; Luo, Lei

    2016-11-01

    Micro electroforming is widely used for fabricating micro metal devices in Micro Electro Mechanism System (MEMS). However, there is the problem of poor adhesion strength between micro electroforming layer and substrate. This dramatically influences the dimensional accuracy of the device. To solve this problem, ultrasonic agitation method is applied during the micro electroforming process. To explore the effect of the ultrasonic agitation on the adhesion strength, micro electroforming experiments were carried out under different ultrasonic power (0W, 100W, 150W, 200W, 250W) and different ultrasonic frequencies (0kHz, 40kHz, 80kHz, 120kHz, 200kHz). The effects of the ultrasonic power and the ultrasonic frequency on the micro electroforming process were investigated by polarization method and alternating current (a.c.) impedance method. The adhesion strength between the electroforming layer and the substrate was measured by scratch test. The compressive stress of the electroforming layer was measured by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) method. The crystallite size of the electroforming layer was measured by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) method. The internal contact surface area of the electroforming layer was measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV) method. The experimental results indicate that the ultrasonic agitation can decrease the polarization overpotential and increase the charge transfer process. Generally, the internal contact surface area is increased and the compressive stress is reduced. And then the adhesion strength is enhanced. Due to the different depolarization effects of the ultrasonic power and the ultrasonic frequency, the effects on strengthening the adhesion strength are different. When the ultrasonic agitation is 200W and 40kHz, the effect on strengthening the adhesion strength is the best. In order to prove the effect which the ultrasonic agitation can improve the adhesion strength of the micro devices, micro pillar arrays were fabricated under

  12. Effect of placement agitation and placement time on the shear bond strength of 3 self-etching adhesives.

    PubMed

    Velasquez, Lina Maria; Sergent, Robert S; Burgess, John O; Mercante, D E

    2006-01-01

    This study measured the shear bond strength (SBS) of 3 self-etching bonding agents to enamel and dentin with and without agitation at 3 different application times. The null hypotheses tested were that agitation and application time have no effect on bond strength. Occlusal surfaces of 180 recently extracted caries-free human molars were wet ground with 600 grit wet-dry silica carbide abrasive paper to obtain a flat enamel surface. The teeth were divided into 18 groups of 10 teeth. Three self-etching bonding agents, Clearfil SE BOND (Kuraray America), Xeno III (Dentsply) and AdheSE (Ivoclar-Vivadent) were applied using application times of 10, 20 or 30 seconds with or without agitation, thinned with a gentle stream of air and cured for 10 seconds, according to manufacturers' directions. Z100 (3M ESPE) composite, A2 shade, was placed over the cured adhesive and cured for 40 seconds. The samples were stored in distilled water at room temperature until testing. The samples were tested in shear to failure with a 1-mm/minute crosshead speed. After enamel shear bond strength testing, the teeth were again ground with 400 and 600-grit wet-dry SiC paper to obtain a flat dentin surface. The protocol used for preparing the enamel bond test samples was repeated, and the teeth were stored until testing in distilled water at room temperature. The samples were again tested in shear at a 1-mm/minute crosshead speed. Values were converted to MPa and data analyzed for intergroup differences using ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests. Agitation did not improve enamel SBS for any of the materials tested, but there was a significant difference in enamel SBS among materials: Clearfil SE Bond shear bond strength was greater than Xeno III, which was greater than AdheSE. At 10 seconds application time on dentin, agitation improved the Clearfil SE Bond SBS and, at 20 seconds application time on dentin, agitation significantly improved SBS to dentin for all systems tested. Agitation had no affect

  13. 91. VIEW OF PORTLAND FILTER VACUUM RECEIVER FROM NORTHWEST. AGITATORS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    91. VIEW OF PORTLAND FILTER VACUUM RECEIVER FROM NORTHWEST. AGITATORS No. 4 AND No. 5 VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  14. Aeroelasticity-based fluid agitation for lab-on-chips.

    PubMed

    Xia, H M; Wang, Z P; Wang, W; Fan, W; Wijaya, A; Wang, Z F

    2013-04-21

    In this study, we report a robust agitation method for small-volume liquids. It utilizes an elastic diaphragm as the bottom of a liquid chamber, upon which an initial tension is also applied to enhance the aeroelasticity effects at small/micro scales. As a result, spontaneous vibration of the diaphragm can be induced by an external air flow, which further provides fluid agitations. The device structure is simple and can be easily fabricated at low cost. More importantly, the vibration amplitude is controllable and varies widely from several tens to several hundred micrometers depending on the applied air pressure. The resulting agitation is effective and applicable at high viscosities of up to 900 cSt. The influences of air pressure and liquid viscosity on the vibration frequency are discussed. Potential applications of this technique for solid particle agitation, focusing and fluid mixing are also demonstrated.

  15. 6. VIEW OF BRINING TANK Older, redwood model. Paddles agitated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF BRINING TANK Older, redwood model. Paddles agitated the skins while they soaked in brine. The skins were then hung to dry. - Sealing Plant, St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, Saint George, Aleutians West Census Area, AK

  16. Hydrodynamic effects on cell growth in agitated microcarrier bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, Robert S.; Papoutsakis, E. Terry

    1988-01-01

    The net growth rate of bovine embryonic kidney cells in microcarrier bioreactor is the result of a variable death rate imposed on a cell culture trying to grow at a constant intrinsic growth rate. The death rate is a function of the agitation conditions in the system, and increases at higher agitation because of increasingly energetic interactions of the cell covered microcarriers with turbulent eddies in the fluid. At very low agitation rates bead-bead bridging becomes important; the large clumps formed by bridging can interact with larger eddies than single beads, leading to a higher death rate at low agitation. The growth and death rate were correlated with a dimensionless eddy number which compares eddy forces to the buoyant force on the bead.

  17. Aeroelasticity-based fluid agitation for lab-on-chips.

    PubMed

    Xia, H M; Wang, Z P; Wang, W; Fan, W; Wijaya, A; Wang, Z F

    2013-04-21

    In this study, we report a robust agitation method for small-volume liquids. It utilizes an elastic diaphragm as the bottom of a liquid chamber, upon which an initial tension is also applied to enhance the aeroelasticity effects at small/micro scales. As a result, spontaneous vibration of the diaphragm can be induced by an external air flow, which further provides fluid agitations. The device structure is simple and can be easily fabricated at low cost. More importantly, the vibration amplitude is controllable and varies widely from several tens to several hundred micrometers depending on the applied air pressure. The resulting agitation is effective and applicable at high viscosities of up to 900 cSt. The influences of air pressure and liquid viscosity on the vibration frequency are discussed. Potential applications of this technique for solid particle agitation, focusing and fluid mixing are also demonstrated. PMID:23455690

  18. Improved heat treating through change in agitation and quenchant

    SciTech Connect

    Gritzmacher, W.R.; Walter, M.

    1996-12-31

    Recognized relationships of as-quenched hardness to quenchant agitation severity and quenchant type provide the heat treater with the ability to serve the customer. This paper provides examples of how the use of data bases helped the conversion from oil to polymer in a variable agitated impeller quench. Also discussed are the apparent improvements in quench capability and as quenched properties in the conversion to polymer.

  19. Period Tripling Causes Rotating Spirals in Agitated Wet Granular Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kai; Rehberg, Ingo

    2011-07-01

    Pattern formation of a thin layer of vertically agitated wet granular matter is investigated experimentally. Rotating spirals with three arms, which correspond to the kinks between regions with different colliding phases, are the dominating pattern. This preferred number of arms corresponds to period tripling of the agitated granular layer, unlike predominantly subharmonic Faraday crispations in dry granular matter. The chirality of the spatiotemporal pattern corresponds to the rotation direction of the spirals.

  20. Micro acoustic resonant chambers for heating/agitating/mixing (MARCHAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Noell, Aaron C.; Fisher, Anita M.; Takano, Nobuyuki; Grunthaner, Frank

    2016-04-01

    A variety of applications require the mixing and/or heating of a slurry made from a powder/fluid mixture. One of these applications, Sub Critical Water Extraction (SCWE), is a process where water and an environmental powder sample (sieved soil, drill cuttings, etc.) are heated in a sealed chamber to temperatures greater than 200 degrees Celsius by allowing the pressure to increase, but without reaching the critical point of water. At these temperatures, the ability of water to extract organics from solid particulate increases drastically. This paper describes the modeling and experimentation on the use of an acoustic resonant chamber which is part of an amino acid detection instrument called Astrobionibbler [Noell et al. 2014, 2015]. In this instrument we use acoustics to excite a fluid- solid fines mixture in different frequency/amplitude regimes to accomplish a variety of sample processing tasks. Driving the acoustic resonant chamber at lower frequencies can create circulation patterns in the fluid and mixes the liquid and fines, while driving the chamber at higher frequencies one can agitate the fluid and powder and create a suspension. If one then drives the chamber at high amplitude at resonance heating of the slurry occurs. In the mixing and agitating cell the particle levitation force depends on the relative densities and compressibility's of the particulate and fluid and on the kinetic and potential energy densities associated with the velocity and pressure fields [Glynne-Jones, Boltryk and Hill 2012] in the cell. When heating, the piezoelectric transducer and chamber is driven at high power in resonance where the solid/fines region is modelled as an acoustic transmission line with a large loss component. In this regime, heat is pumped into the solution/fines mixture and rapidly heats the sample. We have modeled the piezoelectric transducer/chamber/ sample using Mason's equivalent circuit. In order to assess the validity of the model we have built and

  1. Dependence of mycelial morphology on impeller type and agitation intensity.

    PubMed

    Jüsten, P; Paul, G C; Nienow, A W; Thomas, C R

    1996-12-20

    The influence of the agitation conditions on the morphology of Penicillium chrysogenum (freely dispersed and aggregated forms) was examined using radial (Rushton turbines and paddles), axial (pitched blades, propeller, and Prochem Maxflow T), and counterflow impellers (Intermig). Culture broth was taken from a continuous fermentation at steady state and was agitated for 30 min in an ungassed vessel of 1.4-L working volume. The power inputs per unit volume of liquid in the tank, P/V(L), ranged from 0.6 to 6 kW/m(3). Image analysis was used to measure mycelial morphology. To characterize the intensity of the damage caused by different impellers, the mean total hyphal length (freely dispersed form) and the mean projected area (all dispersed types, i.e., also including aggregates) were used. [In this study, breakage of aggregates was taken into account quantitatively for the first time.]At 1.4-L scale and a given P/V(L), changes in the morphology depended significantly on the impeller geometry. However, the morphological data (obtained with different geometries and various P/V(L)) could be correlated on the basis of equal tip speed and two other, less simple, mixing parameters. One is based on the specific energy dissipation rate in the impeller region, which is simply related to P/V(L) and particular impeller geometrical parameters. The other which is developed in this study is based on a combination of the specific energy dissipation rate in the impeller swept volume and the frequency of mycelial circulation through that volume. For convenience, the function arising from this concept is called the "energy dissipation/circulation" function.To test the broader validity of these correlations, scale-up experiments were carried out in mixing tanks of 1.4, 20, and 180 L using a Rushton turbine and broth from a fed-batch fermentation. The energy dissipation/circulation function was a reasonable correlating parameter for hyphal damage over this range of scales, whereas tip

  2. Effect of agitation regimen on the in vitro release of leuprolide from poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid microparticles.

    PubMed

    Schoubben, Aurélie; Blasi, Paolo; Deluca, Patrick P

    2012-03-01

    Because of the importance of in vitro release tests in establishing batch-to-batch reproducibility and in vitro-in vivo correlation, this study investigated the influence of agitation regimen on the in vitro release behavior of leuprolide from poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid microparticles. Leuprolide-loaded microspheres were prepared using Resomer(®) RG502H and RG503H as polymers. Leuprolide in vitro release was performed in phosphate buffer solution under continuous or once-a-week agitation. At predetermined intervals, leuprolide release, polymer mass loss, and degree of hydration were investigated. Leuprolide release and polymer mass loss were higher under continuous agitation with respect to that under intermittent agitation. Using a modified version of Koizumi equation, it was possible to fit leuprolide release profiles. Similarity factor comparison showed a high level of similarity between experimental and modeled data in the case of once-a-week agitation regimen. This work highlights the importance of the in vitro release conditions on peptide release behavior from polyester microparticles.

  3. Estimation of in situ groundwater chemistry using geochemical modeling: A test case for saline type groundwater in argillaceous rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yui, Mikazu; Arthur, Randolph C.

    Saline type groundwaters data in the Mobara area (a marine based argillaceous rock) located in the well-known “South Kanto gas field” in Japan were investigated by JNC as part of a natural analogue study. Most groundwaters in the field were extracted from deep gas wells ( e. g., 400-2000 m below the surface), and the all data reported previously were sampled at the wellhead, where physico-chemical parameters ( e. g., temperature, pH, Eh etc.) were also measured. In such cases, particular attention should be paid to whether the measured and/or analyzed results are consistent with the chemical and physical conditions in the in situ geological formation because air contamination, the temperature and pressure changes during sampling can affect the groundwater chemistry. The present study shows a test case to estimate the in situ groundwater chemistry in argillaceous rock of the Mobara area using geochemical model calculations. Results from thermodynamic interpretation of groundwater chemistry using the measured pH and Eh of groundwater sampled at wellhead ( e. g., pH = 7.86, Eh = -50 mV) indicate that the groundwaters are supersaturated with respect to calcite ( e. g., the saturation index; SI is 1.14). Calcite is known to equilibrate relatively quickly with aqueous solutions at low temperatures and this mineral is present in the Otadai formation, however. Therefore the values greater than 0 for SI of calcite may be due to errors in the pH measurement. Also the measured Eh is relatively oxidizing value which may be inconsistent with the in situ geochemical conditions ( e. g., pyrite and siderite coexist, CH 4(g) dominates in the groundwaters). Thus such Eh value may be disturbed by contact of the samples with atmospheric oxygen and other effects like degassing. Errors in the pH measurement might be caused by degassing during sampling of groundwaters. As a test case to estimate the groundwater considering such degassing effect, we first assume that the in situ

  4. Brucella abortus RB51 and hot saline extract from Brucella ovis as antigens in a complement fixation test used To detect sheep vaccinated with Brucella abortus RB51.

    PubMed

    Adone, R; Ciuchini, F

    2001-01-01

    The efficacy of Brucella abortus RB51 and hot saline extract (HSE) from Brucella ovis as antigens in complement fixation (CF) tests was comparatively evaluated in detecting immune responses of sheep vaccinated with B. abortus strain RB51. For this study, four 5-month-old sheep were vaccinated subcutaneously with 5 x 10(9) CFU of RB51, and two sheep received saline. Serum samples collected at different times after vaccination were tested for the presence of antibodies to RB51 by a CF test with RB51 as antigen, previously deprived of anticomplementary activity, and with HSE antigen, which already used as the official antigen to detect B. ovis-infected sheep. The results showed that vaccinated sheep developed antibodies which reacted weakly against HSE antigen and these antibodies were detectable for 30 days after vaccination. However, antibodies to RB51 could be detected for a longer period after vaccination by using homologous RB51 antigen in CF tests. In fact, high titers were still present at 110 days postvaccination with RB51 antigen. Sera from sheep naturally infected with B. ovis also reacted to RB51 but gave lower titers than those detected by HSE antigen. As expected, all sera from RB51-vaccinated sheep remained negative when tested with standard S-type Brucella standard antigens.

  5. Managing verbal agitation in people with dementia and delirium.

    PubMed

    Inkley, Francesca; Goldberg, Sarah

    2016-03-01

    Patients with dementia and delirium in acute hospitals can exhibit verbal agitation, but there is no research on rate of occurrence or how ward staff manage such behaviour. This service evaluation aimed to measure rate of occurrence of verbal agitation in confused older inpatients and understand the management strategies used by staff. An agitation inventory was completed daily by the nursing team for all verbally agitated patients on eight older person wards over two weeks. Six semi-structured interviews were conducted with staff and three hours of non-participant observations were undertaken. A mean 6% (13/223) of patients were verbally agitated each day. Management strategies included trial and error, distraction and engagement, reassurance, communication and familiarity. Staff did not adopt a systematic approach to care planning due to lack of training and support on the ward, as well as scarce resources in terms of staff, space and activities. Research is needed to develop and evaluate interventions that support staff to care for these patients.

  6. Tests of subsurface storage of freshwater at Hialeah, Dade County, Florida, and numerical simulation of the salinity of recovered water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merritt, Michael L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents and interprets data from three cycles of injection, storage, and recovery of freshwater in a brackish aquifer through wells drilled at the Hialeah Water Treatment Plant in northeastern Dade County, Florida. Also described is an application of solute-transport modeling techniques to depict the hypothetical movement of the freshwater mass and to simulate the increasing salinity of the recovered water during the withdrawal phases. This paper also reports results of use of the calibrated model to predict recovery efficiencies in hypothetical future operational schedules of injection and recovery.

  7. 1064-nm Nd:YAG and 980-nm Diode Laser EDTA Agitation on the Retention of an Epoxy-Based Sealer to Root Dentin.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Helena Suleiman de; Messias, Danielle Cristine Furtado; Rached-Júnior, Fuad Jacob; Oliveira, Ligia Teixeira de; Silva-Sousa, Yara Teresinha Correa; Raucci-Neto, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Root canal irrigants are used to minimize the negative effects of smear layer on endodontic sealer retention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of agitation of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) with ultrasonic, 1064-nm Nd:YAG and 980-nm diode laser on the retention of an epoxy-based sealer to the root canal walls. Forty single-rooted bovine teeth were instrumented with ProTaper rotary system and divided into four groups according to the final irrigation protocol (n = 10): (1) 17% EDTA (control); (2) 17% EDTA with 50-s ultrasonic agitation; (3) 17% EDTA with 50-s diode laser (2-W) agitation; and (4) 17% EDTA with 50-s Nd:YAG (1.5-W) laser agitation. After endodontic filling with gutta-percha F5 master cone and Sealer 26, the roots were sectioned at the cervical, middle, and apical root thirds to obtain 1.5-mm slices. Push-out tests were performed using a universal testing machine at a 1 mm/min crosshead speed. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α=0.05). Apical root thirds had significant higher retention values than cervical and middle thirds (p < 0.05). EDTA with 1064-nm Nd:YAG or 980-nm diode laser presented the highest retention values and was significantly different from EDTA with ultrasonic agitation and EDTA only (p < 0.05). Adhesive failures were predominant to EDTA only group. Mixed failures were predominant to all agitation groups. 1064-nm Nd:YAG and 980-nm diode laser EDTA agitation enhanced the retention of the epoxy-based sealer to the root canal walls compared with that due to EDTA only or EDTA with ultrasonic agitation. PMID:27652705

  8. 1064-nm Nd:YAG and 980-nm Diode Laser EDTA Agitation on the Retention of an Epoxy-Based Sealer to Root Dentin.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Helena Suleiman de; Messias, Danielle Cristine Furtado; Rached-Júnior, Fuad Jacob; Oliveira, Ligia Teixeira de; Silva-Sousa, Yara Teresinha Correa; Raucci-Neto, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Root canal irrigants are used to minimize the negative effects of smear layer on endodontic sealer retention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of agitation of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) with ultrasonic, 1064-nm Nd:YAG and 980-nm diode laser on the retention of an epoxy-based sealer to the root canal walls. Forty single-rooted bovine teeth were instrumented with ProTaper rotary system and divided into four groups according to the final irrigation protocol (n = 10): (1) 17% EDTA (control); (2) 17% EDTA with 50-s ultrasonic agitation; (3) 17% EDTA with 50-s diode laser (2-W) agitation; and (4) 17% EDTA with 50-s Nd:YAG (1.5-W) laser agitation. After endodontic filling with gutta-percha F5 master cone and Sealer 26, the roots were sectioned at the cervical, middle, and apical root thirds to obtain 1.5-mm slices. Push-out tests were performed using a universal testing machine at a 1 mm/min crosshead speed. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α=0.05). Apical root thirds had significant higher retention values than cervical and middle thirds (p < 0.05). EDTA with 1064-nm Nd:YAG or 980-nm diode laser presented the highest retention values and was significantly different from EDTA with ultrasonic agitation and EDTA only (p < 0.05). Adhesive failures were predominant to EDTA only group. Mixed failures were predominant to all agitation groups. 1064-nm Nd:YAG and 980-nm diode laser EDTA agitation enhanced the retention of the epoxy-based sealer to the root canal walls compared with that due to EDTA only or EDTA with ultrasonic agitation.

  9. Mass transfer from bubbles and drops in; mechanically agitated apparatuses

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, V.A.; Belevitskaya, M.A.

    1995-07-01

    Mass transfer from bubbles and drops moving in a turbulent flow is analyzed on the basis of relationships for the flow of a liquid and turbulence damping in the vicinity of the interface being distorted and information on the behavior of the dispersed-phase elements in mechanically agitated apparatuses. Several relations for calculating linear and volumetric mass-transfer coefficients for agitated liquid-gas and liquid-liquid systems are obtained. The calculated results are compared with the experimental data available in the literature.

  10. Coal storage hopper with vibrating-screen agitator

    DOEpatents

    Daw, C.S.; Lackey, M.E.; Sy, R.L.

    1982-04-27

    The present invention is directed to a vibrating screen agitator in a coal storage hopper for assuring the uniform feed of coal having sufficient moisture content to effect agglomeration and bridging thereof in the coal hopper from the latter onto a conveyer mechanism. The vibrating scrren agitator is provided by a plurality of transversely oriented and vertically spaced apart screens in the storage hopper with a plurality of vertically oriented rods attached to the screens. The rods are vibrated to effect the vibration of the screens and the breaking up of agglomerates in the coal which might impede the uniform flow of the coal from the hopper onto a conveyer.

  11. Saline Sinus Rinse Recipe

    MedlinePlus

    ... Saline Sinus Rinse Recipe Share | Saline Sinus Rinse Recipe Saline sinus rinses can bring relief to patients ... at a fraction of the cost. Saline Rinse Recipe Ingredients 1. Pickling or canning salt-containing no ...

  12. The Effects of Nutrient Concentration, Addition of Thickeners, and Agitation Speed on Liquid Fermentation of Steinernema feltiae.

    PubMed

    Leite, Luis G; Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Hazir, Selcuk; Jackson, Mark A

    2016-06-01

    Entomopathogenic nematode production in liquid fermentation still requires improvements to maximize efficiency, yield, and nematode quality. Therefore, this study was aimed at developing a more suitable liquid medium for mass production of Steinernema feltiae, by assessing the effects of nutrient concentration, thickeners (primarily agar), and agitation speed on infective juvenile (IJ) yield. Base medium (BM) contained yeast extract (2.3%), egg yolk (1.25%), NaCl (0.5%), and corn oil (4%). All media were inoculated with Xenorhabdus bovienii, and 2 d later, with 2-d-old S. feltiae juveniles. For the nutrient concentration experiment, we evaluated the base medium versus a modified base medium containing all the components, but with 3× concentrations of yeast extract (6.9%), egg yolk (3.75%), and corn oil (12%). The nematodes and bacteria were cultured in 150-ml Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50 ml of liquid medium at (25°C) and 180 rpm on a rotary shaker incubator. To assess the effect of thickeners, IJs were inoculated in BM with agar (0.2%), carrageen (0.2%), and carboxymethyl cellulose (0.2% and 0.5%). The addition of 3× more nutrients relative to the BM resulted in a significantly lower yield of nematodes. For agar and agitation speed experiments, five levels of agar in the BM (0%, 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, and 0.8% agar) and two agitation speeds (180 and 280 rpm) were evaluated for production. Increasing agitation speed from 180 to 280 rpm and higher levels of agar in the medium (> 0.2%) significantly increased the yield of bacteria. At the lower agitation speed, media amended with 0.4% and 0.6% agar produced higher nematode yields compared to media without agar. Media with 0.2% and 0.8% agar resulted in intermediate levels of nematode production. At the higher agitation speed, media supplemented with 0.8% agar resulted in the lowest yield of nematodes when compared to the other media tested. Results indicated that increasing nutrient concentration levels was

  13. The Effects of Nutrient Concentration, Addition of Thickeners, and Agitation Speed on Liquid Fermentation of Steinernema feltiae

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Luis G.; Shapiro-Ilan, David I.; Hazir, Selcuk; Jackson, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematode production in liquid fermentation still requires improvements to maximize efficiency, yield, and nematode quality. Therefore, this study was aimed at developing a more suitable liquid medium for mass production of Steinernema feltiae, by assessing the effects of nutrient concentration, thickeners (primarily agar), and agitation speed on infective juvenile (IJ) yield. Base medium (BM) contained yeast extract (2.3%), egg yolk (1.25%), NaCl (0.5%), and corn oil (4%). All media were inoculated with Xenorhabdus bovienii, and 2 d later, with 2-d-old S. feltiae juveniles. For the nutrient concentration experiment, we evaluated the base medium versus a modified base medium containing all the components, but with 3× concentrations of yeast extract (6.9%), egg yolk (3.75%), and corn oil (12%). The nematodes and bacteria were cultured in 150-ml Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50 ml of liquid medium at (25°C) and 180 rpm on a rotary shaker incubator. To assess the effect of thickeners, IJs were inoculated in BM with agar (0.2%), carrageen (0.2%), and carboxymethyl cellulose (0.2% and 0.5%). The addition of 3× more nutrients relative to the BM resulted in a significantly lower yield of nematodes. For agar and agitation speed experiments, five levels of agar in the BM (0%, 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, and 0.8% agar) and two agitation speeds (180 and 280 rpm) were evaluated for production. Increasing agitation speed from 180 to 280 rpm and higher levels of agar in the medium (> 0.2%) significantly increased the yield of bacteria. At the lower agitation speed, media amended with 0.4% and 0.6% agar produced higher nematode yields compared to media without agar. Media with 0.2% and 0.8% agar resulted in intermediate levels of nematode production. At the higher agitation speed, media supplemented with 0.8% agar resulted in the lowest yield of nematodes when compared to the other media tested. Results indicated that increasing nutrient concentration levels was

  14. Heat-transfer coefficients in agitated vessels. Sensible heat models

    SciTech Connect

    Kumpinsky, E.

    1995-12-01

    Transient models for sensible heat were developed to assess the thermal performance of agitated vessels with coils and jackets. Performance is quantified with the computation of heat-transfer coefficients by introducing vessel heating and cooling data into model equations. Of the two model categories studied, differential and macroscopic, the latter is preferred due to mathematical simplicity and lower sensitivity to experimental data variability.

  15. Mechanisms of cell damage in agitated microcarrier tissue culture reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, Robert S.; Papoutsakis, E. Terry

    1986-01-01

    Cells growing on microcarriers may be damaged by collisions of the microcarrier against another microcarrier or the reactor agitator. Bead-bead collisions are caused by small-scale turbulence, which can also cause high local shear stress on the cells. The cells are also exposed to 10-20 Hz cyclic shear stress by bead rotation.

  16. Management of agitation and aggression associated with Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Clive G; Gauthier, Serge; Cummings, Jeffrey L; Brodaty, Henry; Grossberg, George T; Robert, Philippe; Lyketsos, Constantine G

    2009-05-01

    Agitation and aggression are frequently occurring and distressing behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). These symptoms are disturbing for individuals with Alzheimer disease, commonly confer risk to the patient and others, and present a major management challenge for clinicians. The most widely prescribed pharmacological treatments for these symptoms-atypical antipsychotics-have a modest but significant beneficial effect in the short-term treatment (over 6-12 weeks) of aggression but limited benefits in longer term therapy. Benefits are less well established for other symptoms of agitation. In addition, concerns are growing over the potential for serious adverse outcomes with these treatments, including stroke and death. A detailed consideration of other pharmacological and nonpharmacological approaches to agitation and aggression in patients with Alzheimer disease is, therefore, imperative. This article reviews the increasing evidence in support of psychological interventions or alternative therapies (such as aromatherapy) as a first-line management strategy for agitation, as well as the potential pharmacological alternatives to atypical antipsychotics-preliminary evidence for memantine, carbamazepine, and citalopram is encouraging.

  17. Trichomonas vaginalis transcription-mediated amplification-based analyte-specific reagent and alternative target testing of primary clinical vaginal saline suspensions.

    PubMed

    Munson, Erik; Napierala, Maureen; Basile, Janice; Miller, Cheryl; Burtch, Jason; Hryciuk, Jeanne E; Schell, Ronald F

    2010-09-01

    Following wet mount analysis, 255 vaginal saline suspensions were aliquoted to lysis medium for transcription-mediated amplification (TMA)-based Trichomonas vaginalis analyte-specific reagent testing (ASR) (Gen-Probe, San Diego, CA). Specimens with visible T. vaginalis were then refrigerated, with additional aliquoting at later intervals. Twenty-four wet mount-positive specimens (9.4%) yielded a median luminescent value (x1000, relative light unit [RLU]) of 4736. In contrast, RLU ranged from 1 to 21 following ASR of 204 wet mount-negative specimens. Twenty-seven wet mount-negative specimens (10.5%) were positive by ASR and subsequently positive via T. vaginalis alternative target TMA (Gen-Probe). Discrepancies were additionally resolved by demonstration of T. vaginalis nucleic acid from a separate endocervical collection. T. vaginalis nucleic acid was detectable following prolonged storage, following minimal incubation in lysis medium, and from low-volume aliquots of sparsely populated specimens. T. vaginalis ASR adequately detects T. vaginalis from vaginal saline suspension aliquots, providing a simple specimen alternative for a highly sensitive laboratory diagnosis of trichomoniasis. PMID:20727473

  18. 40 CFR 63.169 - Standards: Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation systems; and pressure relief devices in liquid...: Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation systems; and pressure relief devices in liquid service. (a) Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid...

  19. 40 CFR 63.169 - Standards: Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation systems; and pressure relief devices in liquid...: Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation systems; and pressure relief devices in liquid service. (a) Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid...

  20. 40 CFR 63.169 - Standards: Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation systems; and pressure relief devices in liquid...: Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation systems; and pressure relief devices in liquid service. (a) Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid...

  1. 40 CFR 63.169 - Standards: Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation systems; and pressure relief devices in liquid...: Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation systems; and pressure relief devices in liquid service. (a) Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid...

  2. Syndrome of agitated delirium and visual impairment: a manifestation of medial temporo-occipital infarction.

    PubMed

    Medina, J L; Chokroverty, S; Rubino, F A

    1977-09-01

    Three patients presented with sudden visual impairment followed by agitated delirium one to three days later. Examination revealed marked agitation, dementia, and loss of vision. Computerised axial tomography demonstrated temporo-occipital infarctions. All recovered from the agitated state in four days to two months, but their visual impairment and dementia persisted one to four years later.

  3. [Pain, agitation and delirium in acute respiratory failure].

    PubMed

    Funk, G-C

    2016-02-01

    Avoiding pain, agitation and delirium as well as avoiding unnecessary deep sedation is a powerful yet challenging strategy in critical care medicine. A number of interactions between cerebral function and respiratory function should be regarded in patients with respiratory failure and mechanical ventilation. A cooperative sedation strategy (i.e. patient is awake and free of pain and delirium) is feasible in many patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. Especially patients with mild acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) seem to benefit from preserved spontaneous breathing. While completely disabling spontaneous ventilation with or without neuromuscular blockade is not a standard strategy in ARDS, it might be temporarily required in patients with severe ARDS, who have substantial dyssynchrony or persistent hypoxaemia. Since pain, agitation and delirium compromise respiratory function they should also be regarded during noninvasive ventilation and during ventilator weaning. Pharmacological sedation can have favourable effects in these situations, but should not be given routinely or uncritically. PMID:26817653

  4. [Ecophysiological adaptability of tropical water organisms to salinity changes].

    PubMed

    Chung, K S

    2001-03-01

    Physiological response of tropical organisms to salinity changes was studied for some marine, estuarine and freshwater fishes (Astyanax bimaculatus, Petenia karussii, Cyprinodon dearborni, and Oreochromis mossambicus), marine and freshwater crustaceans (Penaeus brasiliensis, Penaeus schmitti and Macrobrachium carcinus), and marine bivalves (Perna perna, Crassostrea rhizophorae, and Arca zebra) collected from Northeast Venezuela. They were acclimated for four weeks at various salinities, and (1) placed at high salinities to determine mean lethal salinity, (2) tested by increasing salinity 5@1000 per day to define upper lethal salinity tolerance limit, or (3) observed in a saline gradient tank to determine salinity preference. Acclimation level was the most significant factor. This phenomenon is important for tropical aquatic organisms in shallow waters, where they can adapt to high salinity during the dry season and cannot lose their acclimation level at low salinity during abrupt rain. For saline adaptation of tropical organisms, this behavior will contribute to their proliferation and distribution in fluctuating salinity environments.

  5. [Ecophysiological adaptability of tropical water organisms to salinity changes].

    PubMed

    Chung, K S

    2001-03-01

    Physiological response of tropical organisms to salinity changes was studied for some marine, estuarine and freshwater fishes (Astyanax bimaculatus, Petenia karussii, Cyprinodon dearborni, and Oreochromis mossambicus), marine and freshwater crustaceans (Penaeus brasiliensis, Penaeus schmitti and Macrobrachium carcinus), and marine bivalves (Perna perna, Crassostrea rhizophorae, and Arca zebra) collected from Northeast Venezuela. They were acclimated for four weeks at various salinities, and (1) placed at high salinities to determine mean lethal salinity, (2) tested by increasing salinity 5@1000 per day to define upper lethal salinity tolerance limit, or (3) observed in a saline gradient tank to determine salinity preference. Acclimation level was the most significant factor. This phenomenon is important for tropical aquatic organisms in shallow waters, where they can adapt to high salinity during the dry season and cannot lose their acclimation level at low salinity during abrupt rain. For saline adaptation of tropical organisms, this behavior will contribute to their proliferation and distribution in fluctuating salinity environments. PMID:11795174

  6. Predictions of long-term behavior of a large-volume pilot test for CO2 geological storage in a saline formation in the Central Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, Christine; Myer, Larry R.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2008-11-01

    The long-term behavior of a CO{sub 2} plume injected into a deep saline formation is investigated, focusing on mechanisms that lead to plume stabilization. Key measures are plume migration distance and the time evolution of CO{sub 2} phase-partitioning, which are examined by developing a numerical model of the subsurface at a proposed power plant with CO{sub 2} capture in the San Joaquin Valley, California, where a large-volume pilot test of CO{sub 2} injection will be conducted. The numerical model simulates a four-year CO{sub 2} injection period and the subsequent evolution of the CO{sub 2} plume until it stabilizes. Sensitivity studies are carried out to investigate the effect of poorly constrained model parameters permeability, permeability anisotropy, and residual gas saturation.

  7. Practically Saline.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Jonathan; O'Neal, Catherine; Jagneaux, Tonya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. In December 2014, the Food and Drug Administration issued a recall of all Wallcur simulation products due to reports of their use in clinical practice. We present a case of septic shock and multiorgan failure after the accidental intravenous infusion of a nonsterile Wallcur simulation product. Case. The patient presented with symptoms of rigors and dyspnea occurring immediately after infusion of Wallcur Practi-0.9% saline. Initial laboratory evidence was consistent with severe septic shock and multiorgan dysfunction. His initial lactic acid level was 9 mmol/L (reference range = 0.5-2.2), and he had evidence of acute kidney injury and markers of disseminated intravascular coagulation. All 4 blood culture bottles isolated multidrug-resistant Empedobacter brevis. The patient recovered from his illness and was discharged with ciprofloxacin therapy per susceptibilities. Discussion. This patient represents the first described case of severe septic shock associated with the infusion of a Wallcur simulation product. Intravenous inoculation of a nonsterile fluid is rare and exposes the patient to unusual environmental organisms, toxins, or unsafe fluid characteristics such as tonicity. During course of treatment, we identified the possible culprit to be a multidrug-resistant isolate of Empedobacter brevis. We also discuss the systemic failures that led to this outbreak. PMID:26668812

  8. Saline Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Figure 2

    These images of the Saline Valley area, California, were acquired March 30, 2000 and cover a full ASTER scene (60 by 60 km). Each image displays data from a different spectral region, and illustrates the complementary nature of surface compositional information available as a function of wavelength. This image displays visible and near infrared bands 3, 2, and 1 in red, green, and blue (RGB). Vegetation appears red, snow and dry salt lakes are white, and exposed rocks are brown, gray, yellow and blue. Rock colors mainly reflect the presence of iron minerals, and variations in albedo. Figure 1 displays short wavelength infrared bands 4, 6, and 8 as RGB. In this wavelength region, clay, carbonate, and sulfate minerals have diagnostic absorption features, resulting in distinct colors on the image. For example, limestones are yellow-green, and purple areas are kaolinite-rich. Figure 2 displays thermal infrared bands 13, 12 and 10 as RGB. In this wavelength region, variations in quartz content appear as more or less red; carbonate rocks are green, and mafic volcanic rocks are purple. The image is located at 36.8 degrees north latitude and 117.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  9. Agitated granular rod monolayers: Tetratic or uniaxial nematic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Thomas; de Las Heras, Daniel; Rehberg, Ingo; Huang, Kai

    The ordering of granular rod monolayers under vertical agitations against gravity is investigated experimentally and compared quantitatively with equilibrium Monte Carlo simulations and density functional theory. At sufficiently high number density, short rods form a tetratic state and long rods form a uniaxial nematic state. The ordering transitions are found to be independent of the agitation frequency and strength, suggesting that the detailed nature of energy injection into such a nonequilibrium system does not play a crucial role. Interestingly, the length-to-width ratio at which the order changes from tetratic to uniaxial is around 7 . 3 in both experiments and simulations. This quantitative agreement indicates that, despite of driven far from thermodynamic equilibrium, agitated granular systems may share similar features with corresponding equilibrium systems. Finally, we summarize the universal and non-universal aspects between nonequilibrium granular rod and equilibrium liquid crystal systems in a state diagram. Tm and KH acknowledge the support from the DFG through Grant No. HU1939/2-1.

  10. Importance of plasticity and local adaptation for coping with changing salinity in coastal areas: a test case with barnacles in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Salinity plays an important role in shaping coastal marine communities. Near-future climate predictions indicate that salinity will decrease in many shallow coastal areas due to increased precipitation; however, few studies have addressed this issue. The ability of ecosystems to cope with future changes will depend on species’ capacities to acclimatise or adapt to new environmental conditions. Here, we investigated the effects of a strong salinity gradient (the Baltic Sea system – Baltic, Kattegat, Skagerrak) on plasticity and adaptations in the euryhaline barnacle Balanus improvisus. We used a common-garden approach, where multiple batches of newly settled barnacles from each of three different geographical areas along the Skagerrak-Baltic salinity gradient were exposed to corresponding native salinities (6, 15 and 30 PSU), and phenotypic traits including mortality, growth, shell strength, condition index and reproductive maturity were recorded. Results We found that B. improvisus was highly euryhaline, but had highest growth and reproductive maturity at intermediate salinities. We also found that low salinity had negative effects on other fitness-related traits including initial growth and shell strength, although mortality was also lowest in low salinity. Overall, differences between populations in most measured traits were weak, indicating little local adaptation to salinity. Nonetheless, we observed some population-specific responses – notably that populations from high salinity grew stronger shells in their native salinity compared to the other populations, possibly indicating adaptation to differences in local predation pressure. Conclusions Our study shows that B. improvisus is an example of a true brackish-water species, and that plastic responses are more likely than evolutionary tracking in coping with future changes in coastal salinity. PMID:25038588

  11. Saline pulse test monitoring with the self-potential method to nonintrusively determine the velocity of the pore water in leaking areas of earth dams and embankments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikard, S. J.; Revil, A.; Jardani, A.; Woodruff, W. F.; Parekh, M.; Mooney, M.

    2012-04-01

    A method is proposed to localize preferential fluid flow pathways in porous media on the basis of time-lapse self-potential measurements associated with salt tracer injection upstream. This method is first tested using laboratory data. A network of nonpolarizing electrodes located is connected to a highly sensitive voltmeter used to record the resulting electrical field fluctuations occurring over time at the surface of the tank. The transport of the conductive salt plume through the permeable porous materials changes the localized streaming potential coupling coefficient associated with the advective drag of the excess charge of the pore water and is also responsible for a diffusion current associated with the salinity gradient. Monitoring of the electrical potential distribution at the ground surface can be used to localize the pulse of saline water over time and to determine its velocity. This method applies in real time and can be used to track highly localized flow pathways characterized by high permeability. Our sandbox experiment demonstrates the applicability of this new method under well-controlled conditions with a coarse-sand channel embedded between fine-sand banks. A finite element model allows us to reproduce the time-lapse electrical potential distribution over the channel, but some discrepancies were observed on the banks. Finally, we performed a numerical simulation for a synthetic case study inspired by a recently published field case study. A Markov chain Monte Carlo sampler is used to determine the permeability and the porosity of the preferential fluid flow pathway of this synthetic case study.

  12. Materials corrosion tests applicable to a cooling system using areated treated geothermal brine or the high saline waters associated with geothermal areas

    SciTech Connect

    Suciu, Dan F.; Wikoff, Penny M.

    1982-10-08

    The results of an investigation conducted to determine the corrosion characteristics of a number of alloys in a high saline environment are discussed. The ferritic stainless steels and several copper/nickel alloys exhibited good corrosion resistance in these high saline geothermal environments.

  13. Shared salinity tolerance invalidates a test for the malaria vector Anopheles farauti s.s. on Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Foley, D H; Bryan, J H

    2000-03-01

    Among the Punctulatus Group of Anopheles mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), first-instar larvae of the medically unimportant freshwater Anopheles farauti species No. 7 survives a seawater tolerance test (SST) that was previously thought to be diagnostic for the saltwater-tolerant malaria vector species, An. farauti Laveran s.s. Salt tolerance in these two closely related isomorphic species appears to be a shared derived character within the Farauti Complex. Failure to differentiate An. farauti s.s. from An. farauti No. 7 will overestimate potential malaria vector numbers and waste limited larval control resources. Use of the SST should therefore be discontinued on Guadalcanal and other techniques such as allozyme electrophoresis used instead. PMID:10759320

  14. Shared salinity tolerance invalidates a test for the malaria vector Anopheles farauti s.s. on Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands [corrected].

    PubMed

    Foley, D H; Bryan, J H

    2000-12-01

    Among the Punctulatus Group of Anopheles mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), first-instar larvae of the medically unimportant freshwater Anopheles farauti species No. 7 survives a seawater tolerance test (STT) that was previously thought to be diagnostic for the saltwater-tolerant malaria vector species, An. farauti Laveran s.s. Salt tolerance in these two closely related isomorphic species appears to be a shared derived character within the Farauti Complex. Failure to differentiate An. farauti s.s. from An. farauti No.7 will overestimate potential malaria vector numbers and waste limited larval control resources. Use of the STT should therefore be discontinued on Guadalcanal and other techniques such as allozyme electrophoresis used instead [corrected]. PMID:11129712

  15. Heat-transfer coefficients in agitated vessels. Latent heat models

    SciTech Connect

    Kumpinsky, E.

    1996-03-01

    Latent heat models were developed to calculate heat-transfer coefficients in agitated vessels for two cases: (1) heating with a condensable fluid flowing through coils and jackets; (2) vacuum reflux cooling with an overhead condenser. In either case the mathematical treatment, based on macroscopic balances, requires no iterative schemes. In addition to providing heat-transfer coefficients, the models predict flow rates of service fluid through the coils and jackets, estimate the percentage of heat transfer due to latent heat, and compute reflux rates.

  16. Decay of isotropic turbulence generated by a mechanically agitated grid.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ling, S. C.; Wan, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental study of weak isotropic turbulence, created by a mechanically agitated grid, has indicated that in the absence of large linear-momentum wakes the energy of turbulence relaxes very quickly into a stable self-preserving structure, which, depending on the initial Reynolds number of turbulence, decays at different constant inverse powers of time. Both the longitudinal correlation coefficients and the corresponding spectral distributions, except for the difference in the parametric constants, are of the same functional type as those found previously for a passive grid.

  17. Application of Clinical Practice Guidelines for Pain, Agitation, and Delirium.

    PubMed

    Krupp, Anna; Balas, Michele C

    2016-06-01

    Critically ill patients experience several severe, distressing, and often life-altering symptoms during their intensive care unit stay. A clinical practice guideline released by the American College of Critical Care Medicine provides a template for improving the care and outcomes of the critically ill through evidence-based pain, agitation, and delirium assessment, prevention, and management. Key strategies include the use of valid and reliable assessment tools, setting a desired sedation level target, a focus on light sedation, choosing appropriate sedative medications, the use of nonpharmacologic symptom management strategies, and engaging and empowering patients and their family to play an active role in their intensive care unit care.

  18. Progress in Treatment Development for Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Alzheimer’s Disease: Focus on Agitation and Aggression. A Report from the EU/US/CTAD Task Force

    PubMed Central

    Soto, M.; Abushakra, S.; Cummings, J.; Siffert, J.; Robert, P.; Vellas, B.; Lyketsos, C.G.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The management of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) such as agitation and aggression is a major priority in caring for people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Agitation and aggression (A/A) are among the most disruptive symptoms, and given their impact, they are increasingly an important target for development of effective treatments. Considerable progress has been made in the last years with a growing number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of drugs for NPS. The limited benefits reported in some RCTs may be accounted for by the absence of a biological link of the tested molecule to NPS and also by key methodological issues. In recent RCTs of A/A, a great heterogeneity design was found. Designing trials for dementia populations with NPS presents many challenges, including identification of appropriate participants for such trials, engagement and compliance of patients and caregivers in the trials and the choice of optimal outcome measures to demonstrate treatment effectiveness. The EU/US -CTAD Task Force, an international collaboration of investigators from academia, industry, non-profit foundations, and regulatory agencies met in Philadelphia on November 19, 2014 to address some of these challenges. Despite potential heterogeneity in clinical manifestations and neurobiology, agitation and aggression seems to be accepted as an entity for drug development. The field appears to be reaching a consensus in using both agitation and aggression (or other NPS)-specific quantitative measures plus a global rating of change for agitation outcomes based on clinician judgment as the main outcomes. PMID:26413494

  19. An application of numerical simulation of multiphase flow for the redesign of a mixer agitator in Pb refining process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donizak, J.; Jarosz, P.; Kraszewska, A.; Sarre, P.

    2014-08-01

    The paper presents numerical simulation of multiphase turbulent flow in a mixing crucible unit. Results of simulation were used for redesign of mixer agitator to achieve better performance of the Pb refining process. The simulation is based on Euler-Lagrange description of turbulent multiphase flow with the one way coupling, due to low concentration of solid state particles and significant differences in density of coexisting phases, base metal and particles. Dispersions of solid particles are traced using stochastic-deterministic approach. The developed construction of an agitator has been tested in the industrial Pb refining factory, giving very promising results in comparison with long term statistical data. Duration of unit operations of removal copper and tin was reduced of about 40% together with even better removal efficiency and less energy and reagents consumption.

  20. Sevoflurane-emergence agitation: Effect of supplementary low-dose oral ketamine premedication in preschool children undergoing dental surgery

    PubMed Central

    Khattab, Ahmed Metwally; El-Seify, Zeinab Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The use of sevoflurane in pediatric anesthesia, which could enable a more rapid emergence and recovery, is complicated by the frequent occurrence of post-anesthesia agitation. This study aims to test the efficacy of adding a low dose of ketamine orally, as a supplement to the midazolam-based oral premedication for reducing sevoflurane-related emergence agitation. Materials and Methods: Ninety-two preschool children, aged between two and six years, with an American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II, scheduled for elective dental filling and extractions under general anesthesia were included. The patients were allocated into two groups: Group M (46 patients) received oral midazolam 0.5 mg/kg, mixed with ibuprofen 10 mg/kg, while group KM (46 patients) received a similar premedication mixture, in addition to ketamine 2 mg/kg. The acceptance of the drug mixture, the onset of action, and the occurrence of vomiting were monitored over the next 30 minutes. Induction of anesthesia was carried out using sevoflurane 8 Vol% in 100% oxygen via face mask. Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane 1.5-2 Vol% in an oxygen-nitrous oxide mixture. After extubation, the standard scoring scale was used for assessing the quality of emergence. Agitation parameters were measured using a five-point scale. Agitated children were managed by giving intravenous increments of fentanyl 1 μg/ kg. The time of hospital discharge allowance was recorded. Results: Drug palatability, vomiting, and onset of action of premedication; showed no significant differences between both groups. Time of eye opening after discontinuation of sevoflurane showed no significant differences between both groups. Postoperative agitation score and rescue fentanyl consumption were higher in group M than in group KM on admission to the PACU (P < 0.01). The time of hospital discharge allowance in group M was longer than in group KM (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Adding a low dose of

  1. Effect of viscosity on the mixing efficiency in a self-agitation anaerobic baffled reactor.

    PubMed

    Qi, Wei-Kang; Guo, Yi-Ling; Xue, Mei; Du, Jing-Ru; Li, Weicheng; Li, Yu-You

    2015-05-01

    One special self-agitation reactor, which does not require a mechanical mixer or other equipment for mixing, has been introduced. Self-agitation is affected by variation in viscosity property. To obtain and research the effect of viscosity on mixing behavior in the self-agitation reactor, Fluent® was used to create numerical simulations and to visualize the fluid flow status. The results show that when the viscosity of the liquid is 1 mPa s, the entire self-agitation results in an almost completely mixed reactor. The substrate becomes difficult to agitate, and the diffusion of the substrate and the tracer become quite after every self-agitation, as the viscosity increases. Once the viscosity is higher than 25 mPa s, the substrate and tracer could not be mixed in the entire reactor, and the reactor is recognized as the combination of several completely mixed reactors between which little exchange of liquid occurs.

  2. Effect of viscosity on the mixing efficiency in a self-agitation anaerobic baffled reactor.

    PubMed

    Qi, Wei-Kang; Guo, Yi-Ling; Xue, Mei; Du, Jing-Ru; Li, Weicheng; Li, Yu-You

    2015-05-01

    One special self-agitation reactor, which does not require a mechanical mixer or other equipment for mixing, has been introduced. Self-agitation is affected by variation in viscosity property. To obtain and research the effect of viscosity on mixing behavior in the self-agitation reactor, Fluent® was used to create numerical simulations and to visualize the fluid flow status. The results show that when the viscosity of the liquid is 1 mPa s, the entire self-agitation results in an almost completely mixed reactor. The substrate becomes difficult to agitate, and the diffusion of the substrate and the tracer become quite after every self-agitation, as the viscosity increases. Once the viscosity is higher than 25 mPa s, the substrate and tracer could not be mixed in the entire reactor, and the reactor is recognized as the combination of several completely mixed reactors between which little exchange of liquid occurs. PMID:25502876

  3. Particulate contamination removal from wafers using plasmas and mechanical agitation

    DOEpatents

    Selwyn, G.S.

    1998-12-15

    Particulate contamination removal from wafers is disclosed using plasmas and mechanical agitation. The present invention includes the use of plasmas with mechanical agitation for removing particulate matter from the surface of a wafer. The apparatus hereof comprises a mechanical activator, at least one conducting contact pin for transferring the vibration from the activator to the wafer, clamp fingers that maintain the wafer`s position, and means for generating a plasma in the vicinity of the surface of the wafer, all parts of the cleaning apparatus except the mechanical activator and part of the contact pin being contained inside the processing chamber. By exposing a wafer to a plasma and providing motion thereto in a direction perpendicular to its surface, the bonding between the particulate matter and the surface may be overcome. Once free of the wafer surface, the particulates become charged by electrons from the plasma and are drawn into the plasma by attractive forces which keep them from redepositing. The introduction of a flowing gas through the plasma sweeps the particulates away from the wafer and out of the plasma. The entire surface is cleaned during one cleaning step. The use of an rf plasma to accomplish the particulate removal was found to remove more than 90% of the particulates. 4 figs.

  4. Particulate contamination removal from wafers using plasmas and mechanical agitation

    DOEpatents

    Selwyn, Gary S.

    1998-01-01

    Particulate contamination removal from wafers using plasmas and mechanical agitation. The present invention includes the use of plasmas with mechanical agitation for removing particulate matter from the surface of a wafer. The apparatus hereof comprises a mechanical activator, at least one conducting contact pin for transferring the vibration from the activator to the wafer, clamp fingers that maintain the wafer's position, and means for generating a plasma in the vicinity of the surface of the wafer, all parts of the cleaning apparatus except the mechanical activator and part of the contact pin being contained inside the processing chamber. By exposing a wafer to a plasma and providing motion thereto in a direction perpendicular to its surface, the bonding between the particulate matter and the surface may be overcome. Once free of the wafer surface, the particulates become charged by electrons from the plasma and are drawn into the plasma by attractive forces which keep them from redepositing. The introduction of a flowing gas through the plasma sweeps the particulates away from the wafer and out of the plasma. The entire surface is cleaned during one cleaning step. The use of an rf plasma to accomplish the particulate removal was found to remove more than 90% of the particulates.

  5. Salinity gradient power: utilizing vapor pressure differences.

    PubMed

    Olsson, M; Wick, G L; Isaacs, J D

    1979-10-26

    By utilizing the vapor pressure difference between high-salinity and lowsalinity wvater, one can obtain power from the gradients of salinity. This scheme eliminates the major problems associated with conversion methods in which membranes are used. The method we tested gave higher conversion efficiencies than membrane methods. Furthermore, hardware and techniques being developed for ocean thermal energy conversion may be applied to this approach to salinity gradient energy conversion. PMID:17809370

  6. Enhanced riboflavin production by recombinant Bacillus subtilis RF1 through the optimization of agitation speed.

    PubMed

    Man, Zai-wei; Rao, Zhi-ming; Cheng, Yi-peng; Yang, Tao-wei; Zhang, Xian; Xu, Mei-juan; Xu, Zheng-hong

    2014-02-01

    Dissolved oxygen is one of the most important bioprocess parameters that could affect cell growth and product formation, and it is easy to control by changing agitation speed. In this work, the effects of agitation speed on the performance of riboflavin production by recombinant Bacillus subtilis RF1 was investigated in fed-batch fermentation. The lower agitation speed (600 rpm) was beneficial for cell growth and riboflavin biosynthesis in the initial phase of fermentation process. While, during the later phase, higher agitation speed (900 rpm) was favor for cell growth and riboflavin biosynthesis. Thus, a two-stage agitation speed control strategy was proposed based on kinetic analysis, in which the agitation speed was controlled at 600 rpm in the first 26 h and then switched to 900 rpm to maintain high μ for cell growth and high q(p) for riboflavin production during the entire fermentation process. However, it was observed that a sharp increase of agitation speed resulted in an adverse effect on cell growth and riboflavin synthesis within a short time. To avoid this phenomenon, a multi-stage agitation speed control strategy was set up based on the two-stage control strategy, the maximum concentration of riboflavin reached 9.4 g l(-1) in 48 h with the yield of 0.051 g g(-1) by applying this strategy, which were 20.5 and 21.4% over the best results controlled by constant agitation speeds. PMID:24068533

  7. The interactive effects of essential ions and salinity on the survival of Mysidopsis bahia in 96-H acute toxicity tests of effluents discharged to marine and estuarine receiving waters

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, W.S.; Horne, M.T.

    1997-10-01

    The importance of salinity in whole effluent toxicity tests using marine organisms has been acknowledged in most testing protocols. However, little if any attention has been given to the specific effects of alteration of the ionic composition of seawater solutions to the test organism. The presence of persistent toxicity in effluents with no apparent toxic agents prompted examination of the potential influence of essential ions on the survival of the opossum shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia, a common effluent toxicity indicator organism. Through stepwise additions of ionic salts to deionized water, the minimum complement of salts to maintain survival of M. bahia during 96-h exposures was determined to be Ca, Mg, K, Br, Na, and Cl. The toxicity curves for Ca, Mg, K, and Br were then determined across test salinity ranging from 10 to 35 parts per thousand. These curves for Ca, Mg, and K revealed that there are significant negative effects on survival when the essential ions are present in either low or high concentrations relative to the levels in natural seawater. Although there were no statistically detectable effects of Br on organism survival over the concentration range tested (5--480 mg/L). Br toxicity at concentrations less than 5 mg/L and greater than 700 mg/L have been shown in other studies. In addition, the tolerance ranges for K, Ca, and Mg were shown to shift significantly with changes in salinity, with lower salinity causing an apparent decrease in tolerance to an excess of essential ions. Tests with toxic effluents from five industrial and municipal sources revealed that adjustment of the ionic balance prior to testing reduced or eliminated toxicity in four of the five whole effluents tested. Suggestions for integrating this information into biomonitoring programs and toxicity identification evaluations are presented.

  8. Effects of soil temperature and agitation on the removal of 1,2-dichloroethane from contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yi; Du, Xiaoming; Li, Huiying; Xu, Zhu; Wang, Qunhui; Meng, Xiaoguang; Li, Fasheng

    2012-04-15

    Mechanical soil aeration is an effective and low cost ex-situ remediation technique suitable for large sites contaminated by volatile organic compounds. However, this technique is still in the testing and development phase. To understand the effectiveness of this remediation technique and the main factors influencing its efficacy, an abandoned typical chlor-alkali chemical industry site was remediated using this technology on a pilot-scale. The results showed that this technology is effective for the remediation of volatile organic compounds, with a removal efficiency of greater than 99%. During the experiment, a better result was observed in the first 120 h than the last 120 h. Both temperature and agitation affected the remediation. Higher environmental or soil temperatures resulted in more rapid attenuation of 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA). Agitation had an obvious effect during the first 120 h. A preliminary dynamic characteristic study showed that the volatilization process can be described by a function similar to y=a+be((-kt)). Temperature (both environmental and soil temperature) had a greater effect on the reaction rate constant and the half-life of 1,2-DCA compared with agitation. This study aims to improve the remediation of contaminated sites, especially large areas contaminated by volatile organic contaminants.

  9. Measuring Salinity by Conductivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapworth, C. J.

    1981-01-01

    Outlines procedures for constructing an instrument which uses an electrode and calibration methods to measure the salinity of waters in environments close to and affected by a saline estuary. (Author/DC)

  10. Can antidepressant medication relieve agitation in Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed

    Porsteinsson, Anton P; Smith, Jessica S; Keltz, Melanie A; Antonsdottir, Inga M

    2014-09-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are a major concern in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Historically, NPS are difficult to treat effectively due to a high side-effect burden associated with commonly used medications, such as atypical antipsychotics. Non-pharmacological treatment approaches have become the first line option. However, when such treatment fails, pharmacological options are often used. Thus, a push toward finding safer alternative pharmacological treatments has occurred. Antidepressants, particularly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have shown promise in clinical trials for alleviating the burden of NPS. Lower overall agitation and caregiver stress has been reported to correlate to treatment with the SSRI citalopram. However, certain side effects of citalopram, such as QTc interval prolongation and increased cognitive decline, carry clinical concern and should be weighed when prescribing their use. PMID:25148535

  11. Power consumption in gas-inducing-type mechanically agitated contactors

    SciTech Connect

    Saravanan, K.; Mundale, V.D.; Patwardhan, A.W.; Joshi, J.B.

    1996-05-01

    Power consumption was measured in 0.57, 1.0, and 1.5 m i.d. gas inducing type of mechanically agitated contactors (GIMAC) using single and multiple impellers. The ratio of impeller diameter to vessel diameter was varied in the range of 0.13 < D/T < 0.59. The effect of liquid submergence from the top and impeller clearance from the vessel bottom was investigated in detail. In the case of multiple impeller systems, six different designs were investigated. The designs included pitched blade downflow turbine (PBTD), pitched blade upflow turbine (PBTU), downflow propeller (PD), upflow propeller (PU), straight bladed turbine (SBT) and disc turbine (DT). The effect of interimpeller clearance was studied for the multiple impeller system. The effect of impeller speed was studied in the range of 0.13 < N < 13.5 rotations/s. A mathematical model has been developed for power consumption before and after the onset of gas induction.

  12. Hydrodynamic effects on cells in agitated tissue culture reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, R. S.; Papoutsakis, E. T.

    1986-01-01

    The mechanisms by which hydrodynamic forces can affect cells grown on microcarrier beads in agitated cell culture reactors were investigated by analyzing the motion of microcarriers relative to the surrounding fluid, to each other, and to moving or stationary solid surfaces. It was found that harmful effects on cell cultures that have been previously attributed to shear can be better explained as the effects of turbulence (of a size scale comparable to the microcarriers or the spacing between them) or collisions. The primary mechanisms of cell damage involve direct interaction between microcarriers and turbulent eddies, collisions between microcarriers in turbulent flow, and collisions against the impeller or other solid surfaces. The implications of these analytical results for the design of tissue culture reactors are discussed.

  13. Time resolved PIV measurement of fluid dynamics in agitated vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasikova, D.; Kotek, M.; Kopecky, V.

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the results obtained by TR PIV measurements focused on detailed flow analysis in the selected region. The investigated area was placed 3mm above the blades axis and 5mm far from the blade edge. The captured images were firstly analysed on the mean velocity distribution and the intensity of turbulence {UV} statistics. Here we used the time resolved technique for the experimental study of the flow field in the agitated vessel. The results of the application POD and ODP algorithm on the captured datasets uncovered the existence of unsteady structures in the area that was assumed to be stable. The existence of these structures is bringing a novel view on the mixing process.

  14. Remediating agitation-induced antibody aggregation by eradicating exposed hydrophobic motifs

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Rutilio H; Latypov, Ramil F; De Imus, Cyr; Carter, Jane; Wilson, Zien; Manchulenko, Kathy; Brown, Michael E; Ketchem, Randal R

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic antibodies must encompass drug product suitable attributes to be commercially marketed. An undesirable antibody characteristic is the propensity to aggregate. Although there are computational algorithms that predict the propensity of a protein to aggregate from sequence information alone, few consider the relevance of the native structure. The Spatial Aggregation Propensity (SAP) algorithm developed by Chennamsetty et. al. incorporates structural and sequence information to identify motifs that contribute to protein aggregation. We have utilized the algorithm to design variants of a highly aggregation prone IgG2. All variants were tested in a variety of high-throughput, small-scale assays to assess the utility of the method described herein. Many variants exhibited improved aggregation stability whether induced by agitation or thermal stress while still retaining bioactivity. PMID:25484048

  15. Automated Agitation-Assisted Demulsification Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liang; Chia, Shao Hua; Lee, Hian Kee

    2016-03-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) is an extremely fast and efficient sample preparation procedure. For its capability and applicability to be fully exploited, full automation of its operations seamlessly integrated with analysis is necessary. In this work, for the first time, fully automated agitation-assisted demulsification (AAD)-DLLME integrated with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was developed for the convenient and efficient determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental water samples. The use of a commercially available multipurpose autosampler equipped with two microsyringes of different capacities allowed elimination or significant reduction of manpower, labor, and time with the large-volume microsyringe used for liquid transfers and the small-volume microsyringe for extract collection and injection for analysis. Apart from enhancing accessibility of DLLME, the procedure was characterized by the application of agitation after extraction to break up the emulsion (that otherwise would need centrifugation or a demulsification solvent), further improving overall operational efficiency and flexibility. Additionally, the application of low-density solvent as extractant facilitated the easy collection of extract as the upper layer over water. Some parameters affecting the automated AAD-DDLME procedure were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the procedure provided good linearity (ranging from a minimum of 0.1-0.5 μg/L to a maximum of 50 μg/L), low limits of detection (0.010-0.058 μg/L), and good repeatability of the extractions (relative standard deviations, below 5.3%, n = 6). The proposed method was applied to analyze PAHs in real river water samples. PMID:26818217

  16. Investigation of CO2 plume behavior for a large-scale pilot test of geologic carbon storage in a saline formation

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, C.

    2009-04-01

    The hydrodynamic behavior of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injected into a deep saline formation is investigated, focusing on trapping mechanisms that lead to CO{sub 2} plume stabilization. A numerical model of the subsurface at a proposed power plant with CO{sub 2} capture is developed to simulate a planned pilot test, in which 1,000,000 metric tons of CO{sub 2} is injected over a four-year period, and the subsequent evolution of the CO{sub 2} plume for hundreds of years. Key measures are plume migration distance and the time evolution of the partitioning of CO{sub 2} between dissolved, immobile free-phase, and mobile free-phase forms. Model results indicate that the injected CO{sub 2} plume is effectively immobilized at 25 years. At that time, 38% of the CO{sub 2} is in dissolved form, 59% is immobile free phase, and 3% is mobile free phase. The plume footprint is roughly elliptical, and extends much farther up-dip of the injection well than down-dip. The pressure increase extends far beyond the plume footprint, but the pressure response decreases rapidly with distance from the injection well, and decays rapidly in time once injection ceases. Sensitivity studies that were carried out to investigate the effect of poorly constrained model parameters permeability, permeability anisotropy, and residual CO{sub 2} saturation indicate that small changes in properties can have a large impact on plume evolution, causing significant trade-offs between different trapping mechanisms.

  17. Long Term Surface Salinity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Raymond W.; Brown, Neil L.

    2005-01-01

    Our long-term goal is to establish a reliable system for monitoring surface salinity around the global ocean. Salinity is a strong indicator of the freshwater cycle and has a great influence on upper ocean stratification. Global salinity measurements have potential to improve climate forecasts if an observation system can be developed. This project is developing a new internal field conductivity cell that can be protected from biological fouling for two years. Combined with a temperature sensor, this foul-proof cell can be deployed widely on surface drifters. A reliable in-situ network of surface salinity sensors will be an important adjunct to the salinity sensing satellite AQUARIUS to be deployed by NASA in 2009. A new internal-field conductivity cell has been developed by N Brown, along with new electronics. This sensor system has been combined with a temperature sensor to make a conductivity - temperature (UT) sensor suitable for deployment on drifters. The basic sensor concepts have been proven on a high resolution CTD. A simpler (lower cost) circuit has been built for this application. A protection mechanism for the conductivity cell that includes antifouling protection has also been designed and built. Mr. A.Walsh of our commercial partner E-Paint has designed and delivered time-release formulations of antifoulants for our application. Mr. G. Williams of partner Clearwater Instrumentation advised on power and communication issues and supplied surface drifters for testing.

  18. Scale-up of high shear granulation based on agitation power.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yoshinobu; Okamoto, Takumi; Watano, Satoru

    2005-12-01

    Scale-up of wet granulation in a vertical high shear mixer was conducted. Pharmaceutical excipient mixtures composed of lactose, cornstarch and micro-crystalline cellulose, and hydroxypropylecellulose as a binder were mixed together and then granulated with purified water under various operating conditions and vessel scales. Torque of agitator shaft was continuously measured and then agitation power per unit vessel volume was calculated. The agitation power per unit vessel volume showed a good correlation with physical properties of obtained granules, such as mass median diameter, strength and compressibility. This implied that the scale-up characteristics could be well analyzed by means of the agitation power per unit vessel volume. In addition, the effects of agitator tip speed and Froude number on the agitation power per unit vessel volume were investigated. The results showed that the agitation power per unit vessel volume was well characterized by the tip speed rather than the Froude number. This meant that the granule growth mainly progressed by the shear stress from the agitator blade. Dynamic characteristics of high shear granulation were also discussed here. PMID:16327186

  19. System for agitating the acid in a lead-acid battery

    DOEpatents

    Weintraub, Alvin; MacCormack, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    A system and method for agitating the acid in a large lead-sulfuric acid storage battery of the calcium type. An air-lift is utilized to provide the agitation. The air fed to the air-lift is humidified prior to being delivered to the air-lift.

  20. The Relationship between Agitated Behavior and Cognitive Functioning in Nursing Home Residents: Preliminary Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska

    Agitation is a significant problem for nursing home residents, their families, and their caretakers. Agitation is defined as inappropriate verbal, vocal, or motor activity which is not explained by needs or confusion per se. It includes behaviors such as aimless wandering, pacing, cursing, screaming, biting, and fighting. The inappropriate nature…

  1. Behavioral Characteristics of Agitated Nursing Home Residents with Dementia at the End of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rebecca S.; Burgio, Louis D.; Fisher, Susan E.; Hardin, J. Michael; Shuster, John L., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine group differences in verbal agitation, verbal interaction, bed restraint, pain, analgesic and neuroleptic medication use, and medical comorbidity among agitated nursing home residents who died during a 6-month clinical trial compared with residents of the same gender and similar initial cognitive…

  2. A Longitudinal Examination of Agitation and Resident Characteristics in the Nursing Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgio, Louis D.; Park, Nan Sook; Hardin, J. Michael; Sun, Fei

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Agitation frequently accompanies cognitive decline among nursing home residents. This study used cross-sectional and longitudinal (up to 18 months) methods to examine agitation among profoundly and moderately impaired residents using both staff report and direct observation methods. Design and Methods: The study included participants (N =…

  3. 40 CFR 63.169 - Standards: Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation systems; and pressure relief devices in liquid...: Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation systems; and pressure..., pressure relief devices in light liquid or heavy liquid service, and instrumentation systems shall...

  4. The effects of agitation and aeration on the production of gluconic acid by Aspergillus niger

    SciTech Connect

    Dronawat, S.N.; Svihla, C.K.; Hanley, T.R.

    1995-12-31

    The effects of agitation and aeration in the production of gluconic acid by Aspergillus niger from a glucose medium were investigated. Experiments were conducted at aeration rates of 5.0 and 10.0 L/min. Four different agitation speeds were investigated for each aeration rate. Gluconic acid concentration and biomass concentration were analyzed, and the rate of consumption of substrate by A. niger was noted. The main purpose of this work was to find the optimal conditions of agitation and aeration for the growth of A. niger and production of gluconic acid in submerged culture in a batch fermentor at a bench-top scale. The oxygen-transfer rates at different agitation and aeration rates were calculated. The gluconic acid concentration and rate of growth of A. niger increased with increase in the agitation and aeration rates.

  5. Agitated behavior in elderly nursing home residents with dementia in Japan.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, A S; Yamamoto, E; Shiotani, H

    2000-05-01

    This study is the first investigation of the frequency of agitated behaviors in elderly dementia patients in Japanese nursing homes using the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (J. Cohen-Mansfield, 1991). Despite major differences between Japanese and American cultures, findings were highly consistent with those of previous U.S. studies. Physically aggressive behavior, although evidenced by only 10-20% of the sample, comprised the strongest factor. A separate factor for verbal agitation also emerged. The behaviors declined during the evening and night shifts. In both the Japanese and U.S. samples, wandering, general restlessness, verbal agitation such as repetitious questioning, cursing, and complaining occurred most frequently. Another 4-point scale was used to code the degree to which agitated behavior occurred during eating, dressing, bathing, and toileting for each resident. The majority of aggressive behavior occurred in relation to personal caregiving, especially in regard to bathing. Despite major cultural differences, Japanese findings paralleled previous U.S. results.

  6. Effect of Aromatherapy Massage on Agitation and Depressive Mood in Individuals With Dementia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ya-Ping; Wang, Chi-Jane; Wang, Jing-Jy

    2016-09-01

    The current study examined the effects of aromatherapy massage on alleviating agitation and depressive mood in individuals with dementia. A randomized controlled trial and repeated measures design was conducted. A total of 59 participants were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups. The intervention group received aromatherapy massage once per week for 8 weeks. Results indicated no significant changes over time in overall agitation for either group, but agitation decreased from Week 1 to Week 5 for the intervention group. In addition, the overall depressive symptoms decreased significantly over time for the intervention group compared to the control group (p < 0.001). However, changes in agitation within 24 hours following aromatherapy massage showed some significant changes in Weeks 5 and 9. Aromatherapy massage can be an effective and safe intervention to alleviate specific agitated behaviors and depressive mood in individuals with dementia. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(9), 38-46.]. PMID:27319407

  7. [Application of music therapy for managing agitated behavior in older people with dementia].

    PubMed

    Sung, Huei-Chuan; Chang, Anne M; Abbey, Jennifer

    2006-10-01

    Older people with dementia may display negative emotions, memory problems, sleep disturbance, and agitated behavior. Among these symptoms, agitated behavior has been identified by families and nursing staff as the care problem that presents the greatest challenge. Several studies have found that music therapy reduced agitated behaviors in those with dementia and recommended use of music as an effective strategy in managing this behavioral problem. Music therapy represents a lower cost, effective care approach that nursing staff can easily learn and apply to those with dementia. Furthermore, reductions in agitated behavior in dementia patients that result from music therapy can also alleviate caregiver stress and burden of care, leading to improvements in the health and quality of life of both dementia patients and their caregivers. This paper aims to introduce the principles and application of music therapy in the management of agitated behavior in those with dementia.

  8. Prevention of sevoflurane related emergence agitation in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy: A comparison of dexmedetomidine and propofol

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Monaz Abdulrahman; Abdellatif, Ashraf Abualhasan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Emergence agitation (EA) in children is increased after sevoflurane anesthesia. Propofol and dexmedetomidine have been used for prophylactic treatment with controversial results. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of a single dose of propofol or dexmedetomidine prior to termination of sevoflurane-based anesthesia on the incidence and severity of EA in children. Methods: One hundred and twenty children, American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II, 2-6 years old undergoing adenotonsillectomy under sevoflurane based anesthesia were enrolled in the study. Children were randomly allocated to one of the three equal groups: (Group C) received 10 ml saline 0.9%, (Group P) received propofol 1 mg/kg or (group D) received dexmedetomidine 0.3 ug/kg-1. The study drugs were administered 5 min before the end of surgery. In post anesthesia care unit (PACU), the incidence of EA was assessed with Aonos four point scale and the severity of EA was assessed with pediatric anesthesia emergence delirium scale upon admission (T0), after 5 min (T5), 15 min (T15) and 30 min (T30). Extubation time, emergence time, duration of PACU stay and pain were assessed. Results: The incidence and severity of EA were lower in group P and group D compared to group C at T0, T5 and T15. The incidence and severity of EA in group P were significantly higher than group D at the same times. The incidence and severity of EA decreased significantly over time in all groups. The modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale was significantly lower in group D compared to group C and group P. Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine 0.3 ug/kg1 was more effective than propofol 1 mg/kg in decreasing the incidence and severity of EA, when administered 5 min before the end of surgery in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy under sevoflurane anesthesia. PMID:24015133

  9. Smear layer removal efficacy of combination of herbal extracts in two different ratios either alone or supplemented with sonic agitation: An in vitro scanning electron microscope study

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Naveen; Gyanani, Hitesh; Kamatagi, Laxmikant

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the combination of two natural extracts in varying ratios for removal of smear layer either alone or supplemented with sonic agitation. Materials and Methods: Fifty extracted single-rooted teeth were collected, disinfected and decoronated below the cementoenamel junction to obtain standardized root length of 10 mm. Root canals were instrumented using rotary files at working length 1 mm short of the apex. Specimens were divided into six groups according to the irrigation protocol as follows: Group A – Distilled water, Group B – 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, Group C – Herbal extracts in 1:1 ratio, Group D – Herbal extracts in 1:1 ratio supplemented with sonic agitation, Group E – Herbal extracts in 2:1 ratio, Group F – Herbal extracts in 2:1 ratio supplemented with sonic agitation. Specimens were longitudinally sectioned and evaluated under scanning electron microscope for smear layer removal efficacy. Obtained scores were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and post-hoc test. Results: Among all, Group B showed the best results followed by Group F. Remaining other groups showed inferior outcome (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The combination of two extracts in 2:1 ratio was slightly better than 1:1 ratio and the smear layer removal efficacy was further improved when accompanied with sonic agitation. PMID:26430300

  10. Effects of heat, pH, antioxidant, agitation and light on betacyanin stability using red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) juice and concentrate as models.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yen-Ming; Siow, Lee-Fong

    2015-05-01

    Red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) is rich in antioxidants. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of heat pasteurization, pH adjustment, ascorbic acid addition as well as storage under agitation and light or dark condition on betacyanin content in red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) juice and concentrate. The concentrate was produced by concentrating clarified red-fleshed dragon fruit juice in a rotary evaporator at 40 °C. UV-Visible spectrophotometer was used for analyzing betacyanin content. Addition of 0.25 % ascorbic acid, pH 4.0, and pasteurization at 65 °C for 30 min were selected as the best processing conditions to retain betacyanin content in red-fleshed dragon fruit juice. Storage at the agitation speed of 220 rpm showed that the concentrated samples had higher betacyanin stability compared to juice, while both juice and concentrate had almost similar betacyanin stability when tested for storage in the presence of light. In summary, ascorbic acid stabilized betacyanin in both juice and concentrate at agitated or non-agitated conditions. In contrast, light degraded betacyanin in both juice and concentrate models.

  11. Effects of agitation on the microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Porphyridium cruentum.

    PubMed

    Sobczuk, T Mazzuca; Camacho, F García; Grima, E Molina; Chisti, Yusuf

    2006-03-01

    The effect of mechanical agitation on the microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Porphyridium cruentum was investigated in aerated continuous cultures with and without the added shear protectant Pluronic F68. Damage to cells was quantified through a decrease in the steady state concentration of the biomass in the photobioreactor. For a given aeration rate, the steady state biomass concentration rose with increasing rate of mechanical agitation until an upper limit on agitation speed was reached. This maximum tolerable agitation speed depended on the microalgal species. Further increase in agitation speed caused a decline in the steady state concentration of the biomass. An impeller tip speed of >1.56 m s(-1) damaged P. tricornutum in aerated culture. In contrast, the damage threshold tip speed for P. cruentum was between 2.45 and 2.89 m s(-1). Mechanical agitation was not the direct cause of cell damage. Damage occurred because of the rupture of small gas bubbles at the surface of the culture, but mechanical agitation was instrumental in generating the bubbles that ultimately damaged the cells. Pluronic F68 protected the cells against damage and increased the steady state concentration of the biomass relative to operation without the additive. The protective effect of Pluronic was concentration-dependent over the concentration range of 0.01-0.10% w/v.

  12. Individual music therapy for agitation in dementia: an exploratory randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Stige, Brynjulf; Qvale, Liv Gunnhild; Gold, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Agitation in nursing home residents with dementia leads to increase in psychotropic medication, decrease in quality of life, and to patient distress and caregiver burden. Music therapy has previously been found effective in treatment of agitation in dementia care but studies have been methodologically insufficient. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of individual music therapy on agitation in persons with moderate/severe dementia living in nursing homes, and to explore its effect on psychotropic medication and quality of life. Method: In a crossover trial, 42 participants with dementia were randomized to a sequence of six weeks of individual music therapy and six weeks of standard care. Outcome measures included agitation, quality of life and medication. Results: Agitation disruptiveness increased during standard care and decreased during music therapy. The difference at −6.77 (95% CI (confidence interval): −12.71, −0.83) was significant (p = 0.027), with a medium effect size (0.50). The prescription of psychotropic medication increased significantly more often during standard care than during music therapy (p = 0.02). Conclusion: This study shows that six weeks of music therapy reduces agitation disruptiveness and prevents medication increases in people with dementia. The positive trends in relation to agitation frequency and quality of life call for further research with a larger sample. PMID:23621805

  13. Modeling Air Stripping of Ammonia in an Agitated Vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Kofi, Adu-Wusu; Martino, Christopher J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Bennett, William M.; Peters, Robert s.

    2005-11-29

    A model has been developed to predict the rate of removal of ammonia (NH{sub 3}) from solution in a sparged agitated vessel. The model is first-order with respect to liquid-phase concentration of NH{sub 3}. The rate constant for the first-order equation is a function of parameters related to the vessel/impeller characteristics, the air/liquid properties as well as the process conditions. However, the vessel/impeller characteristics, the air/liquid properties, and the process conditions reduce the rate constant dependence to only three parameters, namely, the air sparge rate, the liquid volume or batch size, and the Henry's law constant of NH{sub 3} for the liquid or solution. Thus, the rate of removal is not mass-transfer limited. High air sparge rates, high temperatures, and low liquid volumes or batch sizes increase the rate of removal of NH{sub 3} from solution. The Henry's law constant effect is somewhat reflected in the temperature since Henry's law constant increases with increasing temperature. Data obtained from actual air stripping operation agree fairly well with the model predictions.

  14. Management of pain, agitation, and delirium in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Pandharipande, Pratik P; Patel, Mayur B; Barr, Juliana

    2014-01-01

    Pain, agitation, and delirium (PAD) are common in critically ill patients. Consequently, analgesic and sedative medications are frequently administered to critically ill patients to treat PAD, to improve synchrony with mechanical ventilation, and to decrease the physiological stress response. However, prolonged, continuous deep sedation of intensive care unit (ICU) patients is associated with numerous adverse outcomes, including longer durations of mechanical ventilation, prolonged ICU stays, acute brain dysfunction, and an increased risk of death. The 2013 ICU PAD Guidelines were developed to provide a clear, evidence-based road map for clinicians to better manage PAD in critically ill patients. Significant knowledge gaps in these areas still remain, but if widely adopted, the PAD Guidelines can help bridge these gaps and will be transformative in terms of their impact on ICU care. Strong evidence indicates that linking PAD management strategies with ventilator weaning, early mobility, and sleep hygiene in ICU patients will result in significant synergistic benefits to patient care and reductions in costs. An interdisciplinary team-based approach, using proven process improvement strategies, and ICU patient and family activation and engagement, will help ensure successful implementation of the ICU PAD Care Bundle in ICUs. This paper highlights the major recommendations of the 2013 ICU PAD Guidelines. We hope this review will help ICU physicians and other health care providers advance the management of PAD in critically ill patients, and improve patients' clinical outcomes.

  15. EFFECTS OF MECHANICAL AGITATION AND OF TEMPERATURE UPON COMPLEMENT.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, H; Bronfenbrenner, J

    1911-02-01

    1. Under certain conditions, mechanical agitation destroys the complementary activity of guinea pig serum. It is most injurious when carried out constantly at a temperature of 37 degrees C., but it is extremely insignificant at 10 degrees C. After the first few hours at 37 degrees C., the destruction of complement proceeded much more rapidly, and after six hours it was almost complete. On the other hand, within one hour shaking had almost no destructive effect on complement, even at 37 degrees C. From this we may conclude that the several shakings which are necessary for fixation experiments during incubation do not modify perceptibly the outcome of the reactions. 2. The rate of destruction of the complement of guinea pig serum at temperatures above 45 degrees C. is progressively greater as it approaches 55 degrees C., at which temperature the activity is reduced in thirty minutes to one-thirtieth to one-fortieth of the original strength of the unheated serum; but it is not completely destroyed, as is commonly assumed. The velocity of destruction of guinea pig complement when exposed to 55 degrees C. for various lengths of time is found to be quite irregular, and not proportional to the length of time. This irregularity, however, presents a certain rhythm, a period of greater destruction alternating with one of less destruction.

  16. Optimal nonpharmacological management of agitation in Alzheimer's disease: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Millán-Calenti, José Carlos; Lorenzo-López, Laura; Alonso-Búa, Begoña; de Labra, Carmen; González-Abraldes, Isabel; Maseda, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Many patients with Alzheimer's disease will develop agitation at later stages of the disease, which constitutes one of the most challenging and distressing aspects of dementia. Recently, nonpharmacological therapies have become increasingly popular and have been proven to be effective in managing the behavioral symptoms (including agitation) that are common in the middle or later stages of dementia. These therapies seem to be a good alternative to pharmacological treatment to avoid unpleasant side effects. We present a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focused on the nonpharmacological management of agitation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients aged 65 years and above. Of the 754 studies found, eight met the inclusion criteria. This review suggests that music therapy is optimal for the management of agitation in institutionalized patients with moderately severe and severe AD, particularly when the intervention includes individualized and interactive music. Bright light therapy has little and possibly no clinically significant effects with respect to observational ratings of agitation but decreases caregiver ratings of physical and verbal agitation. Therapeutic touch is effective for reducing physical nonaggressive behaviors but is not superior to simulated therapeutic touch or usual care for reducing physically aggressive and verbally agitated behaviors. Melissa oil aromatherapy and behavioral management techniques are not superior to placebo or pharmacological therapies for managing agitation in AD. Further research in clinical trials is required to confirm the effectiveness and long-term effects of nonpharmacological interventions for managing agitation in AD. These types of studies may lead to the development of future intervention protocols to improve the well-being and daily functioning of these patients, thereby avoiding residential care placement. PMID:26955265

  17. Optimal nonpharmacological management of agitation in Alzheimer’s disease: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Millán-Calenti, José Carlos; Lorenzo-López, Laura; Alonso-Búa, Begoña; de Labra, Carmen; González-Abraldes, Isabel; Maseda, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Many patients with Alzheimer’s disease will develop agitation at later stages of the disease, which constitutes one of the most challenging and distressing aspects of dementia. Recently, nonpharmacological therapies have become increasingly popular and have been proven to be effective in managing the behavioral symptoms (including agitation) that are common in the middle or later stages of dementia. These therapies seem to be a good alternative to pharmacological treatment to avoid unpleasant side effects. We present a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focused on the nonpharmacological management of agitation in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients aged 65 years and above. Of the 754 studies found, eight met the inclusion criteria. This review suggests that music therapy is optimal for the management of agitation in institutionalized patients with moderately severe and severe AD, particularly when the intervention includes individualized and interactive music. Bright light therapy has little and possibly no clinically significant effects with respect to observational ratings of agitation but decreases caregiver ratings of physical and verbal agitation. Therapeutic touch is effective for reducing physical nonaggressive behaviors but is not superior to simulated therapeutic touch or usual care for reducing physically aggressive and verbally agitated behaviors. Melissa oil aromatherapy and behavioral management techniques are not superior to placebo or pharmacological therapies for managing agitation in AD. Further research in clinical trials is required to confirm the effectiveness and long-term effects of nonpharmacological interventions for managing agitation in AD. These types of studies may lead to the development of future intervention protocols to improve the well-being and daily functioning of these patients, thereby avoiding residential care placement. PMID:26955265

  18. Managing Agitation Associated with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder in the Emergency Setting

    PubMed Central

    Zeller, Scott L.; Citrome, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Patient agitation represents a significant challenge in the emergency department (ED), a setting in which medical staff are working under pressure dealing with a diverse range of medical emergencies. The potential for escalation into aggressive behavior, putting patients, staff, and others at risk, makes it imperative to address agitated behavior rapidly and efficiently. Time constraints and limited access to specialist psychiatric support have in the past led to the strategy of “restrain and sedate,” which was believed to represent the optimal approach; however, it is increasingly recognized that more patient-centered approaches result in improved outcomes. The objective of this review is to raise awareness of best practices for the management of agitation in the ED and to consider the role of new pharmacologic interventions in this setting. Discussion The Best practices in Evaluation and Treatment of Agitation (BETA) guidelines address the complete management of agitation, including triage, diagnosis, interpersonal calming skills, and medicine choices. Since their publication in 2012, there have been further developments in pharmacologic approaches for dealing with agitation, including both new agents and new modes of delivery, which increase the options available for both patients and physicians. Newer modes of delivery that could be useful in rapidly managing agitation include inhaled, buccal/sublingual and intranasal formulations. To date, the only formulation administered via a non-intramuscular route with a specific indication for agitation associated with bipolar or schizophrenia is inhaled loxapine. Non-invasive formulations, although requiring cooperation from patients, have the potential to improve overall patient experience, thereby improving future cooperation between patients and healthcare providers. Conclusion Management of agitation in the ED should encompass a patient-centered approach, incorporating non-pharmacologic approaches

  19. Optimal nonpharmacological management of agitation in Alzheimer's disease: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Millán-Calenti, José Carlos; Lorenzo-López, Laura; Alonso-Búa, Begoña; de Labra, Carmen; González-Abraldes, Isabel; Maseda, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Many patients with Alzheimer's disease will develop agitation at later stages of the disease, which constitutes one of the most challenging and distressing aspects of dementia. Recently, nonpharmacological therapies have become increasingly popular and have been proven to be effective in managing the behavioral symptoms (including agitation) that are common in the middle or later stages of dementia. These therapies seem to be a good alternative to pharmacological treatment to avoid unpleasant side effects. We present a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focused on the nonpharmacological management of agitation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients aged 65 years and above. Of the 754 studies found, eight met the inclusion criteria. This review suggests that music therapy is optimal for the management of agitation in institutionalized patients with moderately severe and severe AD, particularly when the intervention includes individualized and interactive music. Bright light therapy has little and possibly no clinically significant effects with respect to observational ratings of agitation but decreases caregiver ratings of physical and verbal agitation. Therapeutic touch is effective for reducing physical nonaggressive behaviors but is not superior to simulated therapeutic touch or usual care for reducing physically aggressive and verbally agitated behaviors. Melissa oil aromatherapy and behavioral management techniques are not superior to placebo or pharmacological therapies for managing agitation in AD. Further research in clinical trials is required to confirm the effectiveness and long-term effects of nonpharmacological interventions for managing agitation in AD. These types of studies may lead to the development of future intervention protocols to improve the well-being and daily functioning of these patients, thereby avoiding residential care placement.

  20. Change in agitation in Alzheimer's disease in the placebo arm of a 9-week controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Drye, Lea T.; Porsteinsson, Anton P.; Pollock, Bruce G.; Devanand, D.P.; Frangakis, Constantine; Ismail, Zahinoor; Marano, Christopher; Meinert, Curtis L.; Mintzer, Jacobo E.; Munro, Cynthia A.; Pelton, Gregory; Rabins, Peter V.; Schneider, Lon S.; Shade, David M.; Weintraub, Daniel; Newell, Jeffery; Yesavage, Jerome; Lyketsos, Constantine G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Placebo responses raise significant challenges for design of clinical trials. We report changes in agitation outcomes in the placebo arm of a recent trial of citalopram for agitation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods In the Citalopram for Agitation in Alzheimer's Disease (Cit AD) study, all participants and caregivers received a psychosocial intervention and 92 were assigned to placebo for 9 weeks. Outcomes included Neurobehavioral Rating Scale agitation subscale (NBRS-A), modified Alzheimer Disease Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC), Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI), the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) Agitation/Aggression domain (NPI A/A) and Total (NPI-Total) and ADLs. Continuous outcomes were analyzed with mixed-effects modeling and dichotomous outcomes with logistic regression. Results Agitation outcomes improved over 9 weeks: NBRS-A mean (SD) decreased from 7.8 (3.0) at baseline to 5.4 (3.2), CMAI from 28.7 (6.7) to 26.7 (7.4), NPI A/A from 8.0 (2.4) to 4.9 (3.8), and NPI-Total from 37.3 (17.7) to 28.4 (22.1). The proportion of CGI-C agitation responders ranged from 21 to 29% and was significantly different from zero. MMSE improved from 14.4 (6.9) to 15.7 (7.2) and ADLs similarly improved. Most of the improvement was observed by 3 weeks and was sustained through 9 weeks. The major predictor of improvement in each agitation measure was a higher baseline score in that measure. Conclusions We observed significant placebo response which may be due to regression to the mean, response to a psychosocial intervention, natural course of symptoms, or nonspecific benefits of participation in a trial. PMID:26305876

  1. Salinity Trends in the Upper Colorado River Basin Upstream From the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit, Colorado, 1986-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leib, Kenneth J.; Bauch, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Salinity Control Unit was 10,700 tons/year. This accounts for approximately 27 percent of the decrease observed downstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. Salinity loads were decreasing at the fastest rate (6,950 tons/year) in Region 4, which drains an area between the Colorado River at Cameo, Colorado (station CAMEO) and Colorado River above Glenwood Springs, Colorado (station GLEN) streamflow-gaging stations. Trends in salinity concentration and streamflow were tested at station CAMEO to determine if salinity concentration, streamflow, or both are controlling salinity loads upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. Trend tests of individual ion concentrations were included as potential indicators of what sources (based on mineral composition) may be controlling trends in the upper Colorado. No significant trend was detected for streamflow from 1986 to 2003 at station CAMEO; however, a significant downward trend was detected for salinity concentration. The trend slope indicates that salinity concentration is decreasing at a median rate of about 3.54 milligrams per liter per year. Five major ions (calcium, magnesium, sodium, sulfate, and chloride) were tested for trends. The results indicate that processes within source areas with rock and soil types (or other unidentified sources) bearing calcium, sodium, and sulfate had the largest effect on the downward trend in salinity load upstream from station CAMEO. Downward trends in salinity load resulting from ground-water sources and/or land-use change were thought to be possible reasons for the observed decreases in salinity loads; however, the cause or causes of the decreasing salinity loads are not fully understood. A reduction in the amount of ground-water percolation from Region 4 (resulting from work done through Federal irrigation system improvement programs as well as privately funded irrigation system improvements) has helped reduce annual salinity load from Region 4 by approxima

  2. Do laboratory salinity tolerances of freshwater animals correspond with their field salinity?

    PubMed

    Kefford, Ben J; Papas, Phil J; Metzeling, Leon; Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    2004-06-01

    The degree to which laboratory derived measures of salinity tolerance reflect the field distributions of freshwater biota is uncertain. In this paper we compare laboratory-derived acute salinity tolerance (LC(50) values) of freshwater macroinvertebrates (range 5.5-76 mS/cm) and fish (range 2.7-82 mS/cm) from southeastern Australia with the salinity from which they have been collected in the field. Only 4% of the macroinvertebrates were collected at salinity levels substantially higher than their 72-h LC(50) obtained from directly transferring animals from low salinity water to the water they were tested (direct transfer LC(50)). This LC(50) value was correlated with the maximum salinity at which a species had been collected. For common macroinvertebrates, the maximum field salinity was approximated by the direct transfer 72-h LC(50). For adult freshwater fish, 21% of species were collected at salinities substantially greater than their acute direct transfer LC(50) and there was a weak relationship between these two variables. Although there was a weak correlation between the direct transfer LC(50) of early life stages of freshwater fish and the maximum field salinity, 58% of the field distribution were in higher than their LC(50) values. In contrast, LC(50) determined from experiments that acclimated adult fish to higher salinity (slow acclimation) provided a better indication of the field distribution: with only one fish species (7%) being in conflict with their maximum field salinity and a strong positive relationship between these variables. This study shows that laboratory measures of acute salinity tolerance can reflect the maximum salinity that macroinvertebrate and fish species inhabit and are consistent with some anecdotal observations from other studies. PMID:15016457

  3. Sparging and agitation-induced injury of cultured animals cells: Do cell-to-bubble interactions in the bulk liquid injure cells?

    PubMed

    Michaels, J D; Mallik, A K; Papoutsakis, E T

    1996-08-20

    It has been established that the forces resulting from bubbles rupturing at the free air (gas)/liquid surface injure animal cells in agitated and/or sparged bioreactors. Although it has been suggested that bubble coalescence and breakup within agitated and sparged bioreactors (i.e., away from the free liquid surface) can be a source of cell injury as well, the evidence has been indirect. We have carried out experiments to examine this issue. The free air/liquid surface in a sparged and agitated bioractor was eliminated by completely filling the 2-L reactor and allowing sparged bubbles to escape through an outlet tube. Two identical bioreactors were run in parallel to make comparisons between cultures that were oxygenated via direct air sparging and the control culture in which silicone tubing was used for bubble-free oxygenation. Thus, cell damage from cell-to-bubble interactions due to processes (bubble coalescence and breakup) occurring in the bulk liquid could be isolated by eliminating damage due to bubbles rupturing at the free air/liquid surface of the bioreactor. We found that Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells grown in medium that does not contain shear-protecting additives can be agitated at rates up to 600 rpm without being damaged extensively by cell-to bubble interactions in the bulk of the bioreactor. We verified this using both batch and high-density perfusion cultures. We tested two impeller designs (pitched blade and Rushton) and found them not to affect cell damage under similar operational conditions. Sparger location (above vs. below the impeller) had no effect on cell damage at higher agitation rates but may affect the injury process at lower agitation intensities (here, below 250 rpm). In the absence of a headspace, we found less cell damage at higher agitation intensities (400 and 600 rpm), and we suggest that this nonintuitive finding derives from the important effect of bubble size and foam stability on the cell damage process. (c) 1996 John

  4. Saline infusion sonohysterography.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    Saline infusion sonohysterography consists of ultrasonographic imaging of the uterus and uterocervical cavity, using real-time ultrasonography during injection of sterile saline into the uterus. When properly performed, saline infusion sonohysterography can provide information about the uterus and endometrium. The most common indication for sonohysterography is abnormal uterine bleeding. sonohysterography should not be performed in a woman who is pregnant or could be pregnant or in a woman with a pelvic infection or unexplained pelvic tenderness. Physicians who perform or supervise diagnostic saline infusion sonohysterograpy should have training, experience, and demonstrated competence in gynecologic ultrasonography and saline infusion sonohysterography. Portions of this document were developed jointly with the American College of Radiology and the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine. PMID:14968760

  5. Measuring soil salinity.

    PubMed

    Hardie, Marcus; Doyle, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Soil salinity is a form of land degradation in which salts accumulate in the soil profile to an extent that plant growth or infrastructure are negatively affected. A range of both field and laboratory procedures exist for measuring soil salinity. In the field, soil salinity is usually inferred from apparent electrical conductivity (EC(a)) using a range of devices, depending on the required depth of analysis, or size of the survey area. Field measurements of EC(a) require calibration to the actual salt content by laboratory analysis. In the laboratory, soil salinity is usually assessed by determining either the total soluble salts by evaporation of a soil water extract (TSS), or by determining the electrical conductivity (EC) of either a 1:5 distilled water:soil dilution, or a saturated paste extract. Although procedures for measuring soil salinity appear relatively straightforward, differences in methodology have considerable influence on measured values and interpretation of results. PMID:22895776

  6. Remote sensing of salinity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomann, G. C.

    1975-01-01

    The complex dielectric constant of sea water is a function of salinity at 21 cm wavelength, and sea water salinity can be determined by a measurement of emissivity at 21 cm along with a measurement of thermodynamic temperature. Three aircraft and one helicopter experiments using two different 21 cm radiometers were conducted under different salinity and temperature conditions. Single or multiple ground truth measurements were used to calibrate the data in each experiment. It is inferred from these experiments that accuracies of 1 to 2%/OO are possible with a single surface calibration point necessary only every two hours if the following conditions are met--water temperatures above 20 C, salinities above 10%/OO, and level plane flight. More frequent calibration, constraint of the aircraft's orientation to the same as it was during calibration, and two point calibration (at a high and low salinity level) rather than single point calibration may give even better accuracies in some instances.

  7. High-Dose Ketamine Sedation of an Agitated Patient During Air Medical Transport.

    PubMed

    Reicher, David

    2016-01-01

    We report a case in which a high-dose ketamine infusion was used to sedate an agitated patient for air medical transport, avoiding the risks of general anesthesia and causing no exacerbation of psychiatric symptoms. PMID:27021674

  8. Flocculation of colloidal sols: Diffusion-controlled vs agitation-induced flocculation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A proposal for carrying out flocculation experiments in microgravity is presented. These experiments might allow a correlation between theory and experiment. First, all particles, whether single primary particles or aggregates of primary particles would not settle or cream at any agitation rate, or even in the absence of agitation. This failure to separate would keep all aggregates active, still serving as centers for diffusion-controlled flocculation. Keeping all particles suspended would allow the possibility of determining the total number of particles as a function of time from beginning to end of flocculation. Finally, the experiments would allow a definite separation diffusion-controlled and agitation-induced flocculation by studying diffusion-controlled flocculation with and without agitation.

  9. Role of citalopram in the treatment of agitation in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Porsteinsson, Anton P; Keltz, Melanie A; Smith, Jessica S

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are common among individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), associated with excess morbidity and mortality, greater healthcare use, earlier institutionalization, and caregiver burden. Agitation presents as emotional distress, excessive psychomotor activity, aggressive behaviors, disruptive irritability and dishibition. There is an unmet need to find pharmacologic treatment for agitation in patients with AD that can be safely and effectively used as a concurrent treatment alongside psychosocial interventions. A recent, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial explored the efficacy of a 30-mg daily dose of citalopram for agitation in patients with AD and showed a significant decrease in agitation for citalopram compared with placebo. Both QTc prolongation and cognitive worsening, as measured by the Mini Mental State Examination, were observed in the citalopram group and present a concern to clinicians. Citalopram at a 20-mg daily dose should be considered as a possible first-line treatment in addition to psychosocial intervention. PMID:25405648

  10. Hydraulic characteristics simulation of an innovative self-agitation anaerobic baffled reactor (SA-ABR).

    PubMed

    Qi, Wei-Kang; Hojo, Toshimasa; Li, Yu-You

    2013-05-01

    An investigation was conducted on a self-agitation anaerobic baffled reactor (SA-ABR) with agitation caused solely by the release of stored gas. The compound in the reactor is mixed without the use of any mechanical equipment and electricity. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation used to provide details of the flow pattern and information about the agitation process and a solid basis for design and optimization purposes. Every self-agitation cycle could be separated into the pressure energy storage process, the exergonic process and the buffer stage. The reactor is regarded as the combination of continuous stirred tank reactor and a small plug flow reactor. The liquid level and diffusion varies widely depending on the length of the U-tube. The compound transition phenomenon in the 1st chamber mainly occurs during the energy exergonic process and buffer stage. The fluid-diffusion in the 3rd and 4th chambers mainly happens after the buffer period.

  11. Bulk Moisture and Salinity Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nurge, Mark; Monje, Oscar; Prenger, Jessica; Catechis, John

    2013-01-01

    Measurement and feedback control of nutrient solutions in plant root zones is critical to the development of healthy plants in both terrestrial and reduced-gravity environments. In addition to the water content, the amount of fertilizer in the nutrient solution is important to plant health. This typically requires a separate set of sensors to accomplish. A combination bulk moisture and salinity sensor has been designed, built, and tested with different nutrient solutions in several substrates. The substrates include glass beads, a clay-like substrate, and a nutrient-enriched substrate with the presence of plant roots. By measuring two key parameters, the sensor is able to monitor both the volumetric water content and salinity of the nutrient solution in bulk media. Many commercially available moisture sensors are point sensors, making localized measurements over a small volume at the point of insertion. Consequently, they are more prone to suffer from interferences with air bubbles, contact area of media, and root growth. This makes it difficult to get an accurate representation of true moisture content and distribution in the bulk media. Additionally, a network of point sensors is required, increasing the cabling, data acquisition, and calibration requirements. measure the dielectric properties of a material in the annular space of the vessel. Because the pore water in the media often has high salinity, a method to measure the media moisture content and salinity simultaneously was devised. Characterization of the frequency response for capacitance and conductance across the electrodes was completed for 2-mm glass bead media, 1- to 2-mm Turface (a clay like media), and 1- to 2-mm fertilized Turface with the presence of root mass. These measurements were then used to find empirical relationships among capacitance (C), the dissipation factor (D), the volumetric water content, and the pore water salinity.

  12. Retrospective analysis of psychomotor agitation, hypomanic symptoms, and suicidal ideation in unipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Olgiati, Paolo; Serretti, Alessandro; Colombo, Cristina

    2006-01-01

    In bipolar depression, psychomotor agitation is relatively common and often is associated with other noneuphoric hypomanic symptoms and suicidal ideation. Our goal in this retrospective study was to ascertain the co-occurrence of agitation, bipolar features, and suicidal ideation in unipolar disorder. We retrospectively evaluated 314 inpatients with DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) and no other Axis I diagnosis with the National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) Life Chart Method and the Operational Criteria for Psychotic Illness (OPCRIT) checklist to ascertain their symptom profiles across all episodes. Univariate and multivariate comparisons were performed between the subgroups with and without psychomotor agitation (OPCRIT item 23> or =1). Agitated depression (AD, a major depressive episode with psychomotor agitation) was present in 19% of the sample. Compared to nonagitated counterparts, patients with AD were older and had lower educational levels and more dysphoria, insomnia, positive thought disorder, and psychotic manifestations. Hypomanic symptoms other than agitation were relatively uncommon (<10%) and more represented in subjects with AD. No significant differences emerged between AD and control groups with respect to most bipolar validators (gender, familiarity, recurrence). Patients with AD had higher levels of suicidal ideation than non-AD controls; however, such a difference was no longer significant after controlling for psychotic features. Excessive self-reproach, early awakening, diurnal changes, poor appetite, and hypomanic symptoms were independently associated with suicidal thoughts in nonpsychotic MDD. Incomplete information on drug treatment, exclusion of patients with Axis I comorbidity, and tertiary care setting were the most important limitations of the study. Although we failed to support the bipolar nature of MDD-AD by common validators, probably because we used a more heterogeneous definition of agitation compared to similar

  13. [Study of the action of sultopride on psychomotor agitation. Apropos of 31 cases].

    PubMed

    Mouren, P; Poinso, Y; Guigou, G

    1976-06-23

    A study of sultopride, a new derivative of the substituted anisamides, has shown that this neuroleptic drug reduces markedly and rapidly psychomotor agitation, especially its aggressive component. It also has an action on hallucinations. Its indications, in order of efficacy, are states of acute agitation, psychotic states during the active phase, acute manifestations of alcoholism and behaviour disorders such as expansivity, impulsivity and agressivity. Its tolerance is good considering its strong activity.

  14. Using a therapy dog to alleviate the agitation and desocialization of people with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Churchill, M; Safaoui, J; McCabe, B W; Baun, M M

    1999-04-01

    1. Short-term exposure to a therapy dog can reduce the number of agitation behaviors in institutionalized persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD), particularly during the period of agitation known as sundown syndrome. 2. The presence of a therapy dog can increase socialization behaviors among a group of persons with AD. 3. A therapy dog can be used as an adjunct to other calming interventions for persons with AD.

  15. Agitated saline sonography: a simple technique for intraprocedural feeder identification during transcatheter arterial chemoembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Krishna Prasad, B P; Ray, Brijesh

    2016-01-01

    Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the most widely used treatment modality for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who are not eligible for surgery. Selective tumor embolization is very important, more so in patients with mild to moderate liver cell failure, but determining feeder vessels could be difficult with two-dimensional angiogram alone. Cone beam computed tomography and detection software are available for intraprocedural accurate feeder vessel detection; however, these facilities are not widely available. We have evaluated and successfully applied a very simple technique using only a portable ultrasonography machine to ensure superselective feeder cannulation prior to embolization. PMID:27015444

  16. Silicone Oil- and Agitation-Induced Aggregation of a Monoclonal Antibody in Aqueous Solution

    PubMed Central

    Thirumangalathu, Renuka; Krishnan, Sampathkumar; Ricci, Margaret Speed; Brems, David N.; Randolph, Theodore W.; Carpenter, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Silicone oil, which is used as a lubricant or coating in devices such as syringes, needles and pharmaceutical containers, has been implicated in aggregation and particulation of proteins and antibodies. Aggregation of therapeutic protein products induced by silicone oil can pose a challenge to their development and commercialization. To systematically characterize the role of silicone oil on protein aggregation, the effects of agitation, temperature, pH and ionic strength on silicone oil-induced loss of monomeric anti-streptavidin IgG 1 antibody were examined. Additionally, the influences of excipients polysorbate20 and sucrose on protein aggregation were investigated. In the absence of agitation, protein absorbed to silicone oil with approximately monolayer coverage, however silicone oil did not stimulate aggregation during isothermal incubation unless samples were also agitated. A synergistic stimulation of aggregation by a combination of agitation and silicone oil was observed. Solution conditions which reduced colloidal stability of the antibody, as assessed by determination of osmotic second virial coefficients, accelerated aggregation during agitation with silicone oil. Polysorbate20 completely inhibited silicone oil-induced monomer loss during agitation. A formulation strategy optimizing colloidal stability of the antibody as well as incorporation of surfactants such as polysorbate20 is proposed to reduce silicone oil-induced aggregation of therapeutic protein products. PMID:19360857

  17. Comparison of two different sevoflurane expelling methods on emergence agitation in infants following sevoflurane anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yunliang; Song, Tieying; Wang, Hong; Gu, Kunfeng; Ma, Pengyu; Ma, Xiaojing; Zhao, Jianhui; Li, Yuxia; Zhao, JianHui; Yang, Guangyao; Yan, Ruyu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of two different inhalation anesthetic expelling methods on emergence agitation in infants following sevoflurane anesthesia. Methods: 100 infants (1~3 years old) with cleft lip and palate and ASA classification I~II were randomized into two groups, a sevoflurane concentration decreasing expelling group (group n = 50 cases) and a low fresh gas flow expelling group (group D = 50 cases). The operation for cleft lip and palate repair was under general anesthesia, in which 30 minutes after initiation of narcosis ending extubation was indicated and after the tubes were removed the patients were sent to the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) to record anesthesia times, emergence agitation scores, Ramsay scores and adverse reactions including drowsiness, respiratory depression, nausea and vomiting, chills, hiccough or laryngospasms. Results: There were no differences in anesthesia times, awaking time and time until extubation between the two groups. 10 min after start of expelling sevoflurane, blood pressure and heart rates were higher in group N than in group D (P < 0.05). The postoperative agitation incidence and the degree of agitation were lower in group D than in group N (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Postoperative agitation is prone to occur in patients with sevoflurane concentration decreasing expelling. Avoiding sevoflurane application maintenance in the stage of sevoflurane expelling reduces the occurrence of postoperative agitation and diminishes physiological and psychological harm. PMID:26131225

  18. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) insights into agitation stress methods in biopharmaceutical development.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ge; Bee, Jared S; Biddlecombe, James G; Chen, Quanmin; Leach, W Thomas

    2012-02-28

    Agitation of small amounts of liquid is performed routinely in biopharmaceutical process, formulation, and packaging development. Protein degradation commonly results from agitation, but the specific stress responsible or degradation mechanism is usually not well understood. Characterization of the agitation stress methods is critical to identifying protein degradation mechanisms or specific sensitivities. In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to model agitation of 1 mL of fluid by four types of common laboratory agitation instruments, including a rotator, orbital shaker, magnetic stirrer and vortex mixer. Fluid stresses in the bulk liquid and near interfaces were identified, quantified and compared. The vortex mixer provides the most intense stresses overall, while the stir bar system presented locally intense shear proximal to the hydrophobic stir bar surface. The rotator provides gentler fluid stresses, but the air-water interfacial area and surface stresses are relatively high given its low rotational frequency. The orbital shaker provides intermediate-level stresses but with the advantage of a large stable platform for consistent vial-to-vial homogeneity. Selection of experimental agitation methods with targeted types and intensities of stresses can facilitate better understanding of protein degradation mechanisms and predictability for "real world" applications. PMID:22172288

  19. Citalopram for agitation in Alzheimer’s disease (CitAD): design and methods

    PubMed Central

    Drye, Lea T.; Ismail, Zahinoor; Porsteinsson, Anton P.; Rosenberg, Paul B.; Weintraub, Daniel; Marano, Christopher; Pelton, Gregory; Frangakis, Constantine; Rabins, Peter V.; Munro, Cynthia A.; Meinert, Curtis L.; Devanand, D.P.; Yesavage, Jerome; Mintzer, Jacobo E.; Schneider, Lon S.; Pollock, Bruce G.; Lyketsos, Constantine G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Agitation is one of the most common neuropsychiatric symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and is associated with serious adverse consequences for patients and caregivers. Evidence-supported treatment options for agitation are limited. The citalopram for agitation in Alzheimer’s disease (CitAD) study was designed to evaluate the potential of citalopram to ameliorate these symptoms. Methods CitAD is a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled multicenter clinical trial with two parallel treatment groups assigned in a 1:1 ratio and randomization stratified by clinical center. The study has eight recruiting clinical centers, a chair’s office and a coordinating center located in university settings in the United States and Canada. 200 people having probable Alzheimer’s disease with clinically significant agitation and without major depression are being recruited. Patients are randomized to receive citalopram (target dose of 30 mg/day) or matching placebo. Caregivers of patients in both treatment groups receive a structured psychosocial therapy. Agitation will be compared between treatment groups using the NeuroBehavioral Rating Scale and the AD Cooperative Study- Clinical Global Impression of Change which are the primary outcomes. Functional performance, cognition, caregiver distress and rates of adverse and serious adverse events will also be measured. Conclusion The authors believe the design elements in CitAD are important features to be included in trials assessing the safety and efficacy of psychotropic medications for clinically significant agitation in Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:22301195

  20. Effect of agitation on ligninase activity and ligninase production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatadri, R.; Irvine, R.L. )

    1990-09-01

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium produces extracellular ligninases as part of its idiophasic ligninolytic system. Agitation has been widely reported to suppress both ligninase production and lignin degradation. Results show that mechanical inactivation of ligninase is possibly the reason why ligninase accumulation is low or absent in agitated shake-flask cultures. Agitation seems to affect the catalytic activity of ligninase and has no apparent effect on either the rate of ligninase production or the physiology of P. chrysosporium. The detergents Tween 20, Tween 40, Tween 60, Tween 80, and 3-((3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio)-1-propanesuflonate (CHAPS) are able to protect both purified ligninase and extant ligninase in culture fluids (free of biomass) against mechanical inactivation due to agitation. Addition of Tween 80 at the end of primary growth to agitated shake flasks containing either pelleted or immobilized mycelial cultures results in production and maintenance of high levels of ligninase activity over several days under conditions of high agitation. Possible mechanisms by which the detergents could protect ligninase are discussed.

  1. Removal of salt from high-level waste tanks by density-driven circulation or mechanical agitation

    SciTech Connect

    Kiser, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-two high-level waste storage tanks at the Savannah River Plant are to be retired in the tank replacement/waste transfer program. The salt-removal portion of this program requires dissolution of about 19 million liters of salt cake. Steam circulation jets were originally proposed to dissolve the salt cake. However, the jets heated the waste tank to 80 to 90/sup 0/C. This high temperature required a long cooldown period before transfer of the supernate by jet, and increased the risk of stress-corrosion cracking in these older tanks. A bench-scale investigation at the Savannah River Laboratory developed two alternatives to steam-jet circulation. One technique was density-driven circulation, which in bench tests dissolved salt at the same rate as a simulated steam circulation jet but at a lower temperature. The other technique was mechanical agitation, which dissolved the salt cake faster and required less fresh water than either density-driven circulation or the simulated steam circulation jet. Tests in an actual waste tank verified bench-scale results and demonstrated the superiority of mechanical agitation.

  2. Development, Testing, and Application of a Coupled Hydrodynamic Surface-Water/Groundwater Model (FTLOADDS) with Heat and Salinity Transport in the Ten Thousand Islands/Picayune Strand Restoration Project Area, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, Eric D.; Decker, Jeremy D.

    2009-01-01

    fluctuations which affect manatee behavior. Comparison of the existing conditions simulation with the simulation incorporating restoration changes indicated that the restoration would increase the period of inundation for most of the coastal wetlands. Generally, surface-water salinity was lowered by restoration changes in most of the wetlands areas, especially during the early dry season. However, the opposite pattern was observed in the primary canal habitat for manatees, namely, the Port of the Islands. Salinities at this location tended to be moderately elevated during the dry season, and unchanged during the wet season. Water temperatures were in close agreement between the existing conditions and restoration simulations, although minimum temperatures at the Port of the Islands were slightly higher in the restoration simulation as a result of the additional surface-water ponding and warming that occurs in adjacent wetlands. The TTI application output was used to generate salinity and temperature time series for comparison to manatee field tracking data and an individually-based manatee-behavior model. Overlaying field data with salinity and temperature results from the TTI application reflects the effect of warm water availability and the periodic need for low-salinity drinking water on manatee movements. The manatee-behavior model uses the TTI application data at specific model nodes along the main manatee travel corridors to determine manatee migration patterns. The differences between the existing conditions and restoration scenarios can then be compared for manatee refugia. The TTI application can be used to test a variety of hydrologic conditions and their effect on important criteria.

  3. Bathyphotometer bioluminescence potential measurements: A framework for characterizing flow agitators and predicting flow-stimulated bioluminescence intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latz, Michael I.; Rohr, Jim

    2013-07-01

    Bathyphotometer measurements of bioluminescence are used as a proxy for the abundance of luminescent organisms for studying population dynamics; the interaction of luminescent organisms with physical, chemical, and biological oceanographic processes; and spatial complexity especially in coastal areas. However, the usefulness of bioluminescence measurements has been limited by the inability to compare results from different bathyphotometer designs, or even the same bathyphotometer operating at different volume flow rates. The primary objective of this study was to compare measurements of stimulated bioluminescence of four species of cultured dinoflagellates, the most common source of bioluminescence in coastal waters, using two different bathyphotometer flow agitators as a function of bathyphotometer volume flow rate and dinoflagellate concentration. For both the NOSC and BIOLITE flow agitators and each species of dinoflagellate tested, there was a critical volume flow rate, above which average bioluminescence intensity, designated as bathyphotometer bioluminescence potential (BBP), remained relatively constant and scaled directly with dinoflagellate cell concentration. At supra-critical volume flow rates, the ratio of BIOLITE to NOSC BBP was nearly constant for the same species studied, but varied between species. The spatial pattern and residence time of flash trajectories within the NOSC flow agitator indicated the presence of dominant secondary recirculating flows, where most of the bioluminescence was detected. A secondary objective (appearing in the Appendix) was to study the feasibility of using NOSC BBP to scale flow-stimulated bioluminescence intensity across similar flow fields, where the contributing composition of luminescent species remained the same. Fully developed turbulent pipe flow was chosen because it is hydrodynamically well characterized. Average bioluminescence intensity in a 2.54-cm i.d. pipe was highly correlated with wall shear stress and

  4. Potential environmental issues of CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers: geochemical results from the Frio-I brine pilot test, Texas, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Kharaka, Dr. Yousif; Thordsen, Dr. James; Hovorka, Dr. Susan; Nance, Dr. H Seay; Cole, David R; Phelps, Tommy Joe; Knauss, Dr. Kevin; Chialvo, Ariel A

    2009-01-01

    Sedimentary basins in general and deep saline aquifers in particular, are being investigated as possible repositories for large volumes of anthropogenic CO2 that must be sequestered to mitigate global warming and related climate changes. To investigate the potential for the long-term storage of CO2 in such saline aquifers, 1600 t of CO2 were injected at 1500 m depth into a 24-m-thick C sandstone section of the Frio Formation, a regional aquifer in the U.S. Gulf Coast. Fluid samples obtained before CO2 injection from the injection well and an observation well 30 m up dip showed a Na-Ca-Cl type brine with ~93,000 mg/L TDS at saturation with CH4 at reservoir conditions; gas analyses show CH4 comprised ~95% of dissolved gas, but CO2 was low at 0.3%. Following CO2 breakthrough, 51 h after injection, samples showed sharp drops in pH (6.5 to 5.7), pronounced increases in alkalinity (100 to 3000 mg/L as HCO3) and in Fe (30 to 1100 mg/L), a slug of very high DOC values, and significant shifts in the isotopic compositions of H2O, DIC, and CH4. These data coupled with geochemical modeling indicate rapid dissolution of minerals, especially calcite and iron oxyhydroxides caused by lowered pH (initially ~3.0 at subsurface conditions) of the brine in contact with supercritical CO2.

  5. Sea Surface Salinity

    NASA Video Gallery

    The heat of the sun also forces evaporation at the ocean's surface, which puts water vapor into the atmosphere but leaves minerals and salts behind, keeping the ocean salty. The salinity of the oce...

  6. Salinity determination using NIRA

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschfeld, T.

    1985-07-01

    The determination of salinity of water by near infrared spectroscopic techniques is discussed. The concept of 'spectral shift reagents' is used and sufficiently rapid computer calculations yield the concentrations of Naci from measured absorbances at selected wavelengths. (AIP)

  7. Can Agitated Behavior of Nursing Home Residents with Dementia be Prevented With the Use of Standardized Stimuli?

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Marx, Marcia S.; Dakheel-Ali, Maha; Regier, Natalie G.; Thein, Khin; Freedman, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this paper was to assess the relative impact of different types of stimuli on agitated behaviors of nursing home residents with dementia. Design Setting/Participants Participants were 111 residents of 7 Maryland nursing homes with a diagnosis of dementia who exhibited agitation. Intervention Different types of stimuli (music, social stimuli, simulated social stimuli, and individualized stimuli based on the person’s self-identity) to prevent behavior problems. Measurements Agitation was directly observed and recorded via the Agitated Behaviors Mapping Instrument. Results All stimulus categories were associated with significantly less physical agitation than baseline observations, and all except for manipulative stimuli were associated with significantly less total agitation. Live social stimuli were associated with less agitation than music, self-identity, work, simulated social, and manipulative stimulus categories. Task and reading stimulus categories were each associated with significantly less agitation than work, simulated social, and manipulative stimulus categories. Music and self-identity stimuli were associated with less agitation than simulated social and manipulative stimuli. Conclusion Providing stimuli offers a proactive approach to preventing agitation in persons with dementia, with live social stimuli being most successful. PMID:20579167

  8. Isolation and characterization of an efficient bacterial cellulose producer strain in agitated culture: Gluconacetobacter hansenii P2A.

    PubMed

    Aydın, Yasar Andelib; Aksoy, Nuran Deveci

    2014-02-01

    In this study, typical niches of acetic acid bacteria were screened for isolation of cellulose producer strains. Hestrin Schramm broth was used as enrichment and production media. Only nine out of 329 isolates formed thick biofilms on liquid surface and were identified as potential cellulose producers. Physiological and biochemical tests proved that all cellulose producers belonged to Gluconacetobacter genus. Most productive and mutation-resistant strain was subjected to 16S rRNA sequence analysis and identified as Gluconacetobacter hansenii P2A due to 99.8 % sequence similarity. X-ray diffraction analysis proved that the biofilm conformed to Cellulose I crystal structure, rich in Iα mass fraction. Static cultivation of G. hansenii P2A in HS medium resulted with 1.89 ± 0.08 g/l of bacterial cellulose production corresponding to 12.0 ± 0.3 % yield in terms of substrate consumption. Shaking and agitation at 120 rpm aided in enhancement of the amount and yield of produced cellulose. Productivity and yield reached up to 3.25 ± 0.11 g/l and 17.20 ± 0.14 % in agitated culture while a slight decrease from 78.7 % to 77.3 % was observed in the crystallinity index. PMID:24190494

  9. Isolation and characterization of an efficient bacterial cellulose producer strain in agitated culture: Gluconacetobacter hansenii P2A.

    PubMed

    Aydın, Yasar Andelib; Aksoy, Nuran Deveci

    2014-02-01

    In this study, typical niches of acetic acid bacteria were screened for isolation of cellulose producer strains. Hestrin Schramm broth was used as enrichment and production media. Only nine out of 329 isolates formed thick biofilms on liquid surface and were identified as potential cellulose producers. Physiological and biochemical tests proved that all cellulose producers belonged to Gluconacetobacter genus. Most productive and mutation-resistant strain was subjected to 16S rRNA sequence analysis and identified as Gluconacetobacter hansenii P2A due to 99.8 % sequence similarity. X-ray diffraction analysis proved that the biofilm conformed to Cellulose I crystal structure, rich in Iα mass fraction. Static cultivation of G. hansenii P2A in HS medium resulted with 1.89 ± 0.08 g/l of bacterial cellulose production corresponding to 12.0 ± 0.3 % yield in terms of substrate consumption. Shaking and agitation at 120 rpm aided in enhancement of the amount and yield of produced cellulose. Productivity and yield reached up to 3.25 ± 0.11 g/l and 17.20 ± 0.14 % in agitated culture while a slight decrease from 78.7 % to 77.3 % was observed in the crystallinity index.

  10. Delayed egg hatching of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) pending water agitation.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Babak; Shakibi, Sanam; Foster, Woodbridge A

    2014-05-01

    Mosquito eggs laid on water surfaces typically hatch spontaneously soon after the embryos within them become fully formed first-instar larvae. However, we have found that Anopheles gambiae Giles, an important vector of malaria in Africa, exhibits delayed hatching until the water surface is agitated, a feature overlooked in most laboratory colonies. Agitation within 24 h postoviposition, before embryonation was complete, failed to stimulate delayed postembryonic hatching of isolated eggs on the following day (day 2), when < 1% had hatched spontaneously. However, 5 min of water agitation of these dormant pharate first-instar larvae on day 2 resulted in an almost immediate hatch of 63.3 versus 0% of nonagitated controls, plus another 3.9 versus 0.3%, respectively, during the following 24 h. With daily agitation, installment hatching occurred mainly during 2-6 d postoviposition. The mean cumulative hatch after 7 d of daily agitation was 83.1 versus 1.1% of nonagitated eggs. Experiments with eggs in groups demonstrated that egg density and activity of already-hatched larvae had no stimulatory effect. Eggs stored 1-4 wk at 25.5 or at 15.5 degrees C, and then agitated daily for 6 d at 25.5 degrees C, showed a gradual decline in viability. Viability was sustained longer at the lower temperature. Implications of agitation-induced egg hatching for rainy-season and dry-season ecology of An. gambiae are discussed. Suspended hatching and cool storage already are proving convenient for efficient mass rearing and accurate modeling of weather-based population dynamics.

  11. [Characteristics of soil salinity profiles and their electromagnetic response under various vegetation types in coastal saline area].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing-Song; Yao, Rong-Jiang; Zou, Ping; Liu, Guang-Ming

    2008-10-01

    Aiming at the intrinsic relationships between vegetation type and soil salinity in coastal saline area, and by using electromagnetic induction EM38 and field sampling method, the characteristics of soil salinity profiles under various vegetation types in typical coastal saline region of the Yellow River Delta were analyzed, and the electromagnetic response characters of the salinity profiles were compared. The results showed that across the study area, soil salinity exhibited the characteristics of top enrichment and strong spatial variation. The horizontal electromagnetic conductivity EM(h) responded well to soil salinity at upper layers, and the response of vertical electromagnetic conductivity EM(v) to soil salinity at deeper layers was superior to that of EM(h). Soil salinity profiles were classified into inverted, normal, and uniform types. The vegetation types of inverted salinity profiles were mainly bare land and Suaeda salsa, while those of normal and uniform salinity profiles were cotton and weed, respectively. The sequence of top enrichment intensity was bare land > S. salsa land > weed land > cotton land. With the change of vegetation type of cotton-weed-S. salsa-bare land, the EM(v)/EM(h) value of salinity profiles decreased gradually. Nonparametric test results showed that there was a significant correlation between vegetation type and electromagnetic response characters, and the distribution characters of EM(v)/EM(h) under various vegetation types varied significantly.

  12. Effect of Citalopram on Agitation in Alzheimer's Disease – The CitAD Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Porsteinsson, Anton P.; Drye, Lea T.; Pollock, Bruce G.; Devanand, D.P.; Frangakis, Constantine; Ismail, Zahinoor; Marano, Christopher; Meinert, Curtis L.; Mintzer, Jacobo E.; Munro, Cynthia A.; Pelton, Gregory; Rabins, Peter V.; Rosenberg, Paul B.; Schneider, Lon S.; Shade, David M.; Weintraub, Daniel; Yesavage, Jerome; Lyketsos, Constantine G.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Agitation is common, persistent, and associated with adverse consequences for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Pharmacological treatment options, including antipsychotics are not satisfactory. Objective The primary objective was to evaluate the efficacy of citalopram for agitation in patients with AD. Key secondary objectives examined effects of citalopram on function, caregiver distress, safety, cognitive safety, and tolerability. Design, Setting and Participants The Citalopram for Agitation in Alzheimer's Disease Study (CitAD) was a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group trial that enrolled 186 patients with probable AD and clinically significant agitation from eight academic centers in the US and Canada from August 2009 to January 2013. Interventions Participants (n=186) were randomized to receive a psychosocial intervention plus either citalopram (n=94) or placebo (n=92) for 9 weeks. Dose began at 10 mg/d with planned titration to 30 mg/d over 3 weeks based on response and tolerability. Main Outcomes and Measures Primary outcome measures were the Neurobehavioral Rating Scale, agitation subscale (NBRS-A) and the modified Alzheimer Disease Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change (mADCS-CGIC) Other outcomes were the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), activities of daily living (ADLs), caregiver distress, cognitive safety (MMSE), and adverse events. Results Participants on citalopram showed significant improvement compared to placebo on both primary outcome measures. NBRS-A estimated treatment difference at week 9 (citalopram minus placebo) was −0.93 [95% CI: −1.80 to −0.06], p = 0.036. mADCS-CGIC results showed 40% of citalopram participants having moderate or marked improvement from baseline compared to 26% on placebo, with estimated treatment effect (odds ratio of being at or better than a given CGIC category) of 2.13 [95% CI 1.23 to 3.69], p = 0

  13. An investigation of long-term effects of group music therapy on agitation levels of people with Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ledger, Alison J; Baker, Felicity A

    2007-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the long-term effects of group music therapy on agitation manifested by nursing home residents with Alzheimer's disease. A non-randomised experimental design was employed with one group receiving weekly music therapy (n = 26) and another group receiving standard nursing home care (n = 19). Agitation levels were measured five times over one year using the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (Cohen-Mansfield, J. (1989). Agitation in the elderly. In N. Billig & P. V. Rabins (Eds.), Issues in geriatric psychiatry (pp. 101-113). Basel, Switzerland: Karger). Although music therapy participants showed short-term reductions in agitation, there were no significant differences between the groups in the range, frequency, and severity of agitated behaviours manifested over time. Multiple measures of treatment efficacy are necessary to better understand the long-term effects music therapy programs have on this population.

  14. Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Agitation and Aggression in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Celina S; Chau, Sarah A; Ruthirakuhan, Myuri; Lanctôt, Krista L; Herrmann, Nathan

    2015-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is frequently associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) such as agitation and aggression, especially in the moderate to severe stages of the illness. The limited efficacy and high-risk profiles of current pharmacotherapies for the management of agitation and aggression in AD have driven the search for safer pharmacological alternatives. Over the past few years, there has been a growing interest in the therapeutic potential of medications that target the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The behavioural effects of ECS medications, as well as their ability to modulate neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, make targeting this system potentially relevant in AD. This article summarizes the literature to date supporting this rationale and evaluates clinical studies investigating cannabinoids for agitation and aggression in AD. Letters, case studies, and controlled trials from four electronic databases were included. While findings from six studies showed significant benefits from synthetic cannabinoids—dronabinol or nabilone—on agitation and aggression, definitive conclusions were limited by small sample sizes, short trial duration, and lack of placebo control in some of these studies. Given the relevance and findings to date, methodologically rigorous prospective clinical trials are recommended to determine the safety and efficacy of cannabinoids for the treatment of agitation and aggression in dementia and AD.

  15. [Effect of agitation on hyaluronic acid produced by Streptococcus zooepidemicus by using computational fluid dynamics].

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaohua; Duan, Xujie; Tan, Wensong; Zhang, Xu

    2009-11-01

    Agitation plays an important role in the hyaluronic acid (HA) fermentation process. However, views about the effect of agitation on HA production remain controversial. We investigated the effect of agitation on cell growth and HA synthesis during HA fermentation process by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technology. The results showed that the biomass and HA yield changed a little with the increase of impeller speed, but the HA molecular weight firstly increased and then decreased. The results of phase agitation control strategy demonstrated that the influence of agitation on the HA molecular weight mainly exhibited at the stage of HA synthesis. Moreover, the CFD simulation results indicated that when impeller speed increased, the mixing time reduced while the shear rate increased significantly. The removal of anchor could moderate the contradiction between the mixing time and shear rate, and finally the HA molecular weight increased by 23.9%. The results of this work could provide guidelines for optimizing the HA fermentation, as well as the bioreactor design and scaling up. PMID:20222466

  16. Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Agitation and Aggression in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Celina S; Chau, Sarah A; Ruthirakuhan, Myuri; Lanctôt, Krista L; Herrmann, Nathan

    2015-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is frequently associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) such as agitation and aggression, especially in the moderate to severe stages of the illness. The limited efficacy and high-risk profiles of current pharmacotherapies for the management of agitation and aggression in AD have driven the search for safer pharmacological alternatives. Over the past few years, there has been a growing interest in the therapeutic potential of medications that target the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The behavioural effects of ECS medications, as well as their ability to modulate neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, make targeting this system potentially relevant in AD. This article summarizes the literature to date supporting this rationale and evaluates clinical studies investigating cannabinoids for agitation and aggression in AD. Letters, case studies, and controlled trials from four electronic databases were included. While findings from six studies showed significant benefits from synthetic cannabinoids—dronabinol or nabilone—on agitation and aggression, definitive conclusions were limited by small sample sizes, short trial duration, and lack of placebo control in some of these studies. Given the relevance and findings to date, methodologically rigorous prospective clinical trials are recommended to determine the safety and efficacy of cannabinoids for the treatment of agitation and aggression in dementia and AD. PMID:26271310

  17. The effects of researcher-composed music at mealtime on agitation in nursing home residents with dementia.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shu-Yuan; Lai, Hui-Ling; Jeng, Shaw-Yeu; Tang, Chih-Wei; Sung, Huei-Chuan; Chen, Pin-Wen

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the effects of music at mealtimes on agitation in 22 nursing home residents with dementia. We used a pretest-posttest research design. We played researcher-composed music to residents at each of two mealtimes daily over a consecutive 4-week period. We observed and recorded agitation 24 hours daily for the 4-week period and the following 2-week period. Results revealed a significant decline in mean agitation scores. A cumulative dose effect and a short-term linger effect were observed. Findings suggest that soothing music may be beneficial in managing agitation in nursing home residents with dementia.

  18. A protocol for the acute control of agitation in palliative care: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Ferraz; Almeida, Ana; Teixeira, Sara; Pereira, Sara; Edra, Natércia

    2012-11-01

    Agitation is one of the most frequent causes for palliative sedation. It often requires urgent control to avoid negative consequences and even endangerment of all involved, including the patients themselves. A protocol for the control of episodes of agitation was developed, based on a previous experience. The protocol includes a combination of haloperidol and midazolam. The protocol was used 86 times in 27 patients. Each patient was sedated from 1 to 12 times, median 2 times. The median time from the beginning of sedation to the control of agitation was 15 minutes with a range from 1 minute (2 cases) to 3 hours and 5 minutes (only 1 case). In 71 cases (83%), only the first dose was needed. There were no significant complications. PMID:22363035

  19. Stabilization of tetanus toxoid formulation containing aluminium hydroxide adjuvant against agitation.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Vipul A; Jain, Nishant K; Roy, Ipsita

    2012-02-28

    The aggregation of tetanus toxoid leads to reduced bioavailability of the vaccine and failure of immunization programmes in many parts of the globe. One of the main reasons for denaturation and aggregation of tetanus toxoid formulations is agitation of the protein during transport. We have identified that agitation leads to collapse of the gel matrix of aluminium hydroxide which is used as an adjuvant in these preparations. This results in desorption of the toxoid from the matrix, which then loses its antigenicity due to agitation-induced denaturation of the protein. We show that incorporation of some compatible osmolytes like sorbitol, glucose and arginine, but not trehalose, is able to protect the adjuvant matrix from degradation, and retain the integrity of the vaccine preparation in terms of its antigenicity.

  20. Evaluation and accuracy of the local velocity data measurements in an agitated vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kysela, Bohuš; Konfršt, Jiří; Chára, Zdeněk; Kotek, Michal

    2014-03-01

    Velocity measurements of the flow field in an agitated vessel are necessary for the improvement and better understanding of the mixing processes. The obtained results are used for the calculations of the impeller pumping capacity, comparison of the power consumption etc. We performed various measurements of the local velocities in an agitated vessel final results of which should be processed for several purposes so it was necessary to make an analysis of the obtained data suitability and their quality. Analysed velocity data were obtained from the LDA (Laser Doppler Anemometry) and PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) measurements performed on a standard equipment where the flat bottomed vessel with four baffles was agitated by the six-blade Rushton turbine. The results from both used methods were compared. The frequency analyses were examined as well as the dependency of the data rates, time series lengths etc. The demands for the data processed in the form of the ensemble-averaged results were also established.

  1. Stabilization of insulin against agitation-induced aggregation by the GMO cubic phase gel.

    PubMed

    Sadhale, Y; Shah, J C

    1999-11-25

    The main objective of the study was to evaluate if the liquid crystalline cubic phase gel of glyceryl monooleate (GMO) protects insulin from agitation induced aggregation. The aggregation of Humulin(R), Regular Iletin I(R) and Regular Iletin II(R), in cubic phase GMO gels at 30 U/g of gel was compared with that in PBS at 100 oscillations/min at 37 degrees C using optical density at 600 nm. The effect of agitation on the secondary structure of insulin in solution and in the gels was determined with circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and the time course of aggregation was also followed by HPLC. A sigmoidal increase in optical density of solution with time indicated formation of increasing amounts of insoluble insulin aggregates. However, in the gels, optical density values stayed at, or around, the initial optical density value, comparable with that of a blank gel suggesting that insulin had not aggregated in the gel. CD spectroscopy of the soluble insulin showed a total loss of native conformation upon aggregation of insulin in solution. In contrast, CD spectra of insulin in the gel were unaltered suggesting protection from aggregation during agitation. Furthermore, agitation of insulin in gels for a duration as long as 2 months at 37 degrees C, had very little adverse effect on the native conformation of insulin, as indicated by the lack of a significant change in its CD spectrum. Therefore, the cubic phase gel was indeed able to protect insulin from agitation-induced aggregation and subsequent precipitation. Although the majority of insulin in solution appeared to have aggregated and precipitated after 8 days by UV and CD spectroscopy, RP-HPLC results indicated the presence of some soluble aggregates of insulin. In summary, the liquid crystalline cubic phase gel of GMO protects peptides, like insulin, from agitation-induced aggregation.

  2. Flurbiprofen Axetil Enhances Analgesic Effects of Sufentanil and Attenuates Postoperative Emergence Agitation and Systemic Proinflammation in Patients Undergoing Tangential Excision Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Wujun; Hong, Wandong; Wang, Junlu; Dai, Qinxue; Mo, Yunchang; Shi, Kejian; Sun, Jiehao; Qin, Jinling; Li, Mei; Tang, Hongli

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Our present study tested whether flurbiprofen axetil could reduce perioperative sufentanil consumption and provide postoperative analgesia with decrease in emergency agitation and systemic proinflammatory cytokines release. Methods. Ninety patients undergoing tangential excision surgery were randomly assigned to three groups: (1) preoperative dose of 100 mg flurbiprofen axetil and a postoperative dose of 2 μg/kg sufentanil and 10 mL placebo by patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) pump, (2) preoperative dose of 100 mg flurbiprofen axetil and a postoperative dose of 2 μg/kg sufentanil and 100 mg flurbiprofen axetil by PCA pump, and (3) 10 mL placebo and a postoperative dose of 2 μg/kg sufentanil and 10 mL placebo by PCA pump. Results. Preoperative administration of flurbiprofen axetil decreased postoperative tramadol consumption and the visual analog scale at 4, 6, 12, and 24 h after surgery, which were further decreased by postoperative administration of flurbiprofen axetil. Furthermore, flurbiprofen axetil attenuated emergency agitation score and Ramsay score at 0, 5, and 10 min after extubation and reduced the TNF-α and interleukin- (IL-) 6 levels at 24 and 48 h after the operation. Conclusion. Flurbiprofen axetil enhances analgesic effects of sufentanil and attenuates emergence agitation and systemic proinflammation in patients undergoing tangential excision surgery. PMID:26273138

  3. Salinity on irrigated lands

    SciTech Connect

    Westmore, R.A.; Manbeck, D.M.

    1984-02-01

    The technology for controlling salinity on irrigated lands is relatively simple, involving both minor and major changes in current land-management practices. Minor changes include more frequent irrigation, the use of salt-tolerant crops, preplanning irrigation, and seed placement. The major changes require a shift from gravity to sprinkler or drip systems, increased water supply and quality, soil modification, land grading, and improved drainage. Some of the major changes are difficult, and some impossible, to accomplish. Examples of reclamation include the Mardan Salinity Control and Reclamation Project (SCARP) in Pakistan. 5 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  4. Acute toxicity of saline produced waters to marine organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Pillard, D.A.; Evans, J.M.; DuFresne, D.L.

    1996-11-01

    Produced waters from oil and gas drilling operations are typically very saline, and may cause acute toxicity to marine organisms due imbalances as well as to an excess or deficiency of to osmotic specific common ions. In order to better understand the relationship between toxicity and ion concentration, laboratory toxicity tests were conducted using mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), sheepshead minnow, (Cyprinodon variegatus), and inland silvemide (Menidia beryllina). For each species the ionic concentration of standard laboratory water was proportionally increased or decreased to produce test solutions with a range of salinities. Individual ions (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, strontium, chloride, bromide, sulfate, bicarbonate, and borate) were also manipulated to examine individual ion toxicity. Organisms were exposed for 48 hours. The three test species differ in their tolerance of salinity. Mysid shrimp show a marked decrease in survival at salinities less than approximately 5 ppt. Both fish species tolerated low salinity water, however, silversides were less tolerant of saline waters (salinity greater than 40 ppt). There were also significant differences in the responses of the organisms to different ions. The results show that salinity of the test solution may play an important role in the responses of the organisms to produced water effluent. Predictable toxicity/ion relationships developed in this study can be used to estimate whether toxicity in produced water is a result of common ions, salinity, or some other unknown toxicant.

  5. Swab Sample Transfer for Point-Of-Care Diagnostics: Characterization of Swab Types and Manual Agitation Methods

    PubMed Central

    Panpradist, Nuttada; Toley, Bhushan J.; Zhang, Xiaohong; Byrnes, Samantha; Buser, Joshua R.; Englund, Janet A.; Lutz, Barry R.

    2014-01-01

    Background The global need for disease detection and control has increased effort to engineer point-of-care (POC) tests that are simple, robust, affordable, and non-instrumented. In many POC tests, sample collection involves swabbing the site (e.g., nose, skin), agitating the swab in a fluid to release the sample, and transferring the fluid to a device for analysis. Poor performance in sample transfer can reduce sensitivity and reproducibility. Methods In this study, we compared bacterial release efficiency of seven swab types using manual-agitation methods typical of POC devices. Transfer efficiency was measured using quantitative PCR (qPCR) for Staphylococcus aureus under conditions representing a range of sampling scenarios: 1) spiking low-volume samples onto the swab, 2) submerging the swab in excess-volume samples, and 3) swabbing dried sample from a surface. Results Excess-volume samples gave the expected recovery for most swabs (based on tip fluid capacity); a polyurethane swab showed enhanced recovery, suggesting an ability to accumulate organisms during sampling. Dry samples led to recovery of ∼20–30% for all swabs tested, suggesting that swab structure and volume is less important when organisms are applied to the outer swab surface. Low-volume samples led to the widest range of transfer efficiencies between swab types. Rayon swabs (63 µL capacity) performed well for excess-volume samples, but showed poor recovery for low-volume samples. Nylon (100 µL) and polyester swabs (27 µL) showed intermediate recovery for low-volume and excess-volume samples. Polyurethane swabs (16 µL) showed excellent recovery for all sample types. This work demonstrates that swab transfer efficiency can be affected by swab material, structure, and fluid capacity and details of the sample. Results and quantitative analysis methods from this study will assist POC assay developers in selecting appropriate swab types and transfer methods. PMID:25181250

  6. Pain, agitation, and delirium guidelines: nurses' involvement in development and implementation.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Judy E; Winkelman, Chris; Gélinas, Céline; Dermenchyan, Anna

    2015-06-01

    The 2013 American College of Critical Care Medicine/Society of Critical Care Medicine clinical practice guidelines for the management of pain, agitation, and delirium in adult patients in the intensive care unit serves as a living example of nurses' involvement in the development and implementation of professional guidelines. Nurses who served on this guideline-writing panel describe their experiences. Specific examples from the pain, agitation, and delirium guidelines for care are used to explore the roles of the nurse leader, nurse informaticist, staff nurse, and nurse researcher in relationship to guideline implementation. PMID:26033098

  7. Effects of physical agitation on yield of greenhouse-grown soybean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. S.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    Agronomic and horticultural crop species experience reductions in growth and harvestable yield after exposure to physical agitation (also known as mechanical stress), as by wind or rain. A greenhouse study was conducted to test the influence of mechanical stress on soybean yield and to determine if exposure to mechanical stress during discrete growth periods has differential effects on seed yield. A modified rotatory shaker was used to apply seismic (i.e., shaking) stress. Brief, periodic episodes of seismic stress reduced stem length, total seed dry weight, and seed number of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Lodging resistance was greater for plants stressed during vegetative growth or throughout vegetative and reproductive growth than during reproductive growth only. Seed dry weight yield was reduced regardless of the timing or duration of stress application, but was lowest when applied during reproductive development. Seismic stress applied during reproductive growth stages R1 to R2 (Days 3 to 4) was as detrimental to seed dry weight accumulation as was stress applied during growth stages R1 to R6 (Days 39 to 42). Seed dry weight per plant was highly correlated with seed number per plant, and seed number was correlated with the seed number of two- and three-seeded pods. Dry weight per 100 seeds was unaffected by seismic-stress treatment. Growth and yield reductions resulting from treatments applied only during the vegetative stage imply that long-term mechanical effects were induced, from which the plants did not fully recover. It is unclear which yield-controlling physiological processes were affected by mechanical stress. Both transient and long-term effects on yield-controlling processes remain to be elucidated.

  8. Potential environmental issues of CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers: Geochemical results from the Frio-I Brine Pilot test, Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Thordsen, J.J.; Hovorka, S.D.; Seay, Nance H.; Cole, D.R.; Phelps, T.J.; Knauss, K.G.

    2009-01-01

    Sedimentary basins in general, and deep saline aquifers in particular, are being investigated as possible repositories for large volumes of anthropogenic CO2 that must be sequestered to mitigate global warming and related climate changes. To investigate the potential for the long-term storage of CO2 in such aquifers, 1600 t of CO2 were injected at 1500 m depth into a 24-m-thick "C" sandstone unit of the Frio Formation, a regional aquifer in the US Gulf Coast. Fluid samples obtained before CO2 injection from the injection well and an observation well 30 m updip showed a Na-Ca-Cl type brine with ???93,000 mg/L TDS at saturation with CH4 at reservoir conditions; gas analyses showed that CH4 comprised ???95% of dissolved gas, but CO2 was low at 0.3%. Following CO2 breakthrough, 51 h after injection, samples showed sharp drops in pH (6.5-5.7), pronounced increases in alkalinity (100-3000 mg/L as HCO3) and in Fe (30-1100 mg/L), a slug of very high DOC values, and significant shifts in the isotopic compositions of H2O, DIC, and CH4. These data, coupled with geochemical modeling, indicate corrosion of pipe and well casing as well as rapid dissolution of minerals, especially calcite and iron oxyhydroxides, both caused by lowered pH (initially ???3.0 at subsurface conditions) of the brine in contact with supercritical CO2. These geochemical parameters, together with perfluorocarbon tracer gases (PFTs), were used to monitor migration of the injected CO2 into the overlying Frio "B", composed of a 4-m-thick sandstone and separated from the "C" by ???15 m of shale and siltstone beds. Results obtained from the Frio "B" 6 months after injection gave chemical and isotopic markers that show significant CO2 (2.9% compared with 0.3% CO2 in dissolved gas) migration into the "B" sandstone. Results of samples collected 15 months after injection, however, are ambiguous, and can be interpreted to show no additional injected CO2 in the "B" sandstone. The presence of injected CO2 may

  9. 40 CFR 63.1029 - Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and instrumentation systems..., connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and... in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in light liquid or heavy liquid service;...

  10. 40 CFR 63.1010 - Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and instrumentation systems..., connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and... heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in light liquid or heavy liquid service;...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1029 - Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and instrumentation systems..., connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and... in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in light liquid or heavy liquid service;...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1010 - Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and instrumentation systems..., connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and... heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in light liquid or heavy liquid service;...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1029 - Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 2 Standards § 63.1029 Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and... agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and instrumentation...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1010 - Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 1 § 63.1010 Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and... agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and instrumentation...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1029 - Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 2 Standards § 63.1029 Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and... agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and instrumentation...

  16. Effect of agitation on the performance of an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor in the treatment of dairy effluents.

    PubMed

    Penteado, T Z; Santana, R S S; Dibiazi, A L B; de Pinho, S C; Ribeiro, R; Tommaso, G

    2011-01-01

    Agitation rate is an important parameter in the operation of Anaerobic Sequencing Biofilm Batch Reactors (ASBBRs), and a proper agitation rate guarantees good mixing, improves mass transfer, and enhances the solubility of the particulate organic matter. Dairy effluents have a high amount of particulate organic matter, and their anaerobic digestion presents inhibitory intermediates (e.g., long-chain fatty acids). The importance of studying agitation in such batch systems is clear. The present study aimed to evaluate how agitation frequency influences the anaerobic treatment of dairy effluents. The ASBBR was fed with wastewater from milk pasteurisation process and cheese manufacture with no whey segregation. The organic matter concentration, measured as chemical oxygen demand (COD), was maintained at approximately 8,000 mg/L. The reactor was operated with four agitation frequencies: 500 rpm, 350 rpm, 200 rpm, and no agitation. In terms of COD removal efficiency, similar results were observed for 500 rpm and 350 rpm (around 90%) and for 200 rpm and no agitation (around 80%). Increasing the system's agitation thus not only improved the global efficiency of organic matter removal but also influenced volatile acid production and consumption and clearly modified this balance in each experimental condition. PMID:21411951

  17. Effect of agitation on the performance of an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor in the treatment of dairy effluents.

    PubMed

    Penteado, T Z; Santana, R S S; Dibiazi, A L B; de Pinho, S C; Ribeiro, R; Tommaso, G

    2011-01-01

    Agitation rate is an important parameter in the operation of Anaerobic Sequencing Biofilm Batch Reactors (ASBBRs), and a proper agitation rate guarantees good mixing, improves mass transfer, and enhances the solubility of the particulate organic matter. Dairy effluents have a high amount of particulate organic matter, and their anaerobic digestion presents inhibitory intermediates (e.g., long-chain fatty acids). The importance of studying agitation in such batch systems is clear. The present study aimed to evaluate how agitation frequency influences the anaerobic treatment of dairy effluents. The ASBBR was fed with wastewater from milk pasteurisation process and cheese manufacture with no whey segregation. The organic matter concentration, measured as chemical oxygen demand (COD), was maintained at approximately 8,000 mg/L. The reactor was operated with four agitation frequencies: 500 rpm, 350 rpm, 200 rpm, and no agitation. In terms of COD removal efficiency, similar results were observed for 500 rpm and 350 rpm (around 90%) and for 200 rpm and no agitation (around 80%). Increasing the system's agitation thus not only improved the global efficiency of organic matter removal but also influenced volatile acid production and consumption and clearly modified this balance in each experimental condition.

  18. Women, Scientists, Agitators: Magazine Portrayal of Rachel Carson and Theo Colborn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Julia B.

    2001-01-01

    Utilizes a theoretical framework of the media's role in reporting conflict and uncertain science, and feminism and science in a thematic analysis of magazine coverage given Rachel Carson and "the Rachel Carson of '90s," Theo Colborn. Notes that Carson and Colborn's identities as women, scientists, and agitators led critics to charge that their…

  19. Hydraulic characteristics simulation of an innovative self-agitation anaerobic baffled reactor (SA-ABR).

    PubMed

    Qi, Wei-Kang; Hojo, Toshimasa; Li, Yu-You

    2013-05-01

    An investigation was conducted on a self-agitation anaerobic baffled reactor (SA-ABR) with agitation caused solely by the release of stored gas. The compound in the reactor is mixed without the use of any mechanical equipment and electricity. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation used to provide details of the flow pattern and information about the agitation process and a solid basis for design and optimization purposes. Every self-agitation cycle could be separated into the pressure energy storage process, the exergonic process and the buffer stage. The reactor is regarded as the combination of continuous stirred tank reactor and a small plug flow reactor. The liquid level and diffusion varies widely depending on the length of the U-tube. The compound transition phenomenon in the 1st chamber mainly occurs during the energy exergonic process and buffer stage. The fluid-diffusion in the 3rd and 4th chambers mainly happens after the buffer period. PMID:23567669

  20. Using Simulation to Train Junior Psychiatry Residents to Work with Agitated Patients: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigman, Daniel; Young, Meredith; Chalk, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the benefit and feasibility of introducing a new, simulation-based learning intervention for junior psychiatry residents. Method: Junior psychiatry residents were invited to participate in a new simulation-based learning intervention focusing on agitated patients. Questionnaires were used to explore the success of…

  1. Effect of agitation and aeration on the citric acid production by Yarrowia lipolytica grown on glycerol.

    PubMed

    Rywińska, Anita; Musiał, Izabela; Rymowicz, Waldemar; Zarowska, Barbara; Boruczkowski, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    The effects of agitation rates from 400 to 900 rpm and aeration rates ranging from 0.18 to 0.6 vvm on biomass and citric acid production on glycerol media by acetate-negative mutants of Yarrowia lipolytica, Wratislavia 1.31 and Wratislavia AWG7, in batch culture were studied. The agitation rates of 800 and 900 rpm (at a constant aeration rate of 0.36 vvm) and aeration rates within the range of 0.24-0.48 vvm (at a constant agitation rate of 800 rpm), which generated dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) higher than 40%, were found the best for citric acid biosynthesis from glycerol. An increase in agitation rate (higher than 800 rpm) and aeration rate (higher than 0.36 vvm) had no impact on DO and citric acid production. The highest citric acid concentration (92.8 g/L) and yield (0.63 g/g) were obtained with Wratislavia 1.31 strain at 0.24 vvm. The highest volumetric citric acid production rate (1.15 g/Lh) and specific citric acid production rate (0.071 g/gh) were reached at 0.48 vvm.

  2. Brief Report: Retrospective Case Series of Oxcarbazepine for Irritability/Agitation Symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Jessica F.; Sanders, Kevin B.; Benneyworth, M. Hannah; Smith, Jessica L.; DeJean, Virginia M.; McGrew, Susan G.; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    We examined response to oxcarbazepine prescribed for irritability/agitation symptoms in a retrospective case series of 30 patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The average patient was 12.0 years old (range 5-21) and taking two other psychotropic medications (range 0-4). Fourteen patients (47 %) had a clinical global impression of…

  3. Pharmacological Management of Agitation and Aggression in an Adolescent with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Findling, Robert L.; McDougle, Christopher J.; Scahill, Lawrence; Hamarman, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an "autism vignette" and then poses an evaluative question to several autism specialists, documenting their varied responses to the scenario and question posed. A 13-year-old boy with autism and severe mental retardation presented to the inpatient psychiatric unit due to a recent increase in agitation and physical aggression.…

  4. Mass transfer in a bubble-agitated liquid-liquid system

    SciTech Connect

    Clinton, S.D.; Perona, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    A polarographic method was used to measure the mass transfer coefficients between a mercury layer and an aqueous layer agitated by gas bubbles. The effects of gas rate, vessel size, and sparge-tube diameter were studied. The Schmidt number of the aqueous phase was varied by the use of sucrose solutions.

  5. Boiling heat transfer enhancement of nanofluids on a smooth surface with agitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xin; Qi, Baojin; Wei, Jinjia; Li, Wei; Ding, Jie; Zhang, Yonghai

    2016-02-01

    The pool boiling heat transfer performance on a smooth silicon chip surface with agitation was experimentally investigated in this study. The nanofluids (Ag/alcohol) of 0.02 % volume concentration and ethyl alcohol with purification over 99.9 % were the two contrast working fluids. For each group, subcoolings of 40, 50 and 60 K were conducted under atmospheric pressure. To enhance the heat transfer performance, an agitating device was fixed above the top of the chip. The experimental results indicated that nanofluids could enhance the heat transfer performance especially in the nucleate boiling region. The heat transfer coefficient was significantly increased with nanofluids, while the critical heat flux (CHF) was nearly not changed. In the agitation Reynolds number of 20,300, the heat transfer performance of nanofluids was significantly enhanced in the convection region, and the CHF was increased by more than 25 % for all groups. This boiling phenomenon was observed for both nanofluids and alcohol groups. Meanwhile, the boiling curves of different liquid subcoolings in the nucleate region were quite similar to each other under agitation.

  6. The effect of agitation state on polyol synthesis of silver nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirjani, Amirmostafa; Marashi, Pirooz; Fatmehsari, Davoud Haghshenas

    2016-11-01

    In the present work, the effect of agitation rate on the growth mechanism of silver nanowires is evaluated during polyol process. It was found that increasing the agitation rate leads to the increase in the oxygen transfer rate which in turn enhances the oxidative etching conditions leading to the formation of a variety of nanostructures (nanoparticles, nanorods and nanowires). In light of the obtained experimental results, it can be stated that agitation is not essential for synthesizing silver nanowires by polyol method and it is possible to obtain uniform nanowires with ~200 nm diameters in the length of 20-30 microns several microns length in the stagnant condition. By setting the stirring rate at 200 rpm, it is possible to reduce the nanowires diameters to ~130 nm and the obtained nanostructures are still mono-dispersed. This paper provides complete information about the effect of agitation state on the polyol synthesis of silver nanowires which is truly useful for further studies in this case.

  7. Effects of hydrostatic pressure, agitation and CO2 stress on Phytophthora nicotianae zoospore survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora nicotianae Breda de Haan was used as a model pathogen to investigate the effects of hydrostatic pressure, agitation, and aeration with CO2 or breathable air on the survival of Phytophthora zoospores in water. Injecting CO2 into 2 liters of zoospore-infested water for 5 min at 110.4 ml ...

  8. Maximization of beta-galactosidase production: a simultaneous investigation of agitation and aeration effects.

    PubMed

    Alves, Fernanda Germano; Filho, Francisco Maugeri; de Medeiros Burkert, Janaína Fernandes; Kalil, Susana Juliano

    2010-03-01

    In this work, the agitation and aeration effects in the maximization of the beta-galactosidase production from Kluyveromyces marxianus CCT 7082 were investigated simultaneously, in relation to the volumetric enzyme activity and the productivity, as well as the analysis of the lactose consumption and production of glucose, and galactose of this process. Agitation and aeration effects were studied in a 2 L batch stirred reactor. A central composite design (2(2) trials plus three central points) was carried out. Agitation speed varied from 200 to 500 rpm and aeration rate from 0.5 to 1.5 vvm. It has been shown in this study that the volumetric enzyme production was strongly influenced by mixing conditions, while aeration was shown to be less significant. Linear models for activity and productivity due to agitation and aeration were obtained. The favorable condition was 500 rpm and 1.5 vvm, which lead to the best production of 17 U mL(-1) for enzymatic activity, 1.2 U mL(-1) h(-1) for productivity in 14 h of process, a cellular concentration of 11 mg mL(-1), and a 167.2 h(-1) volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient. PMID:19517069

  9. Non-biodegradable landfill leachate treatment by combined process of agitation, coagulation, SBR and filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Abood, Alkhafaji R.; Bao, Jianguo; Du, Jiangkun; Zheng, Dan; Luo, Ye

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • A novel method of stripping (agitation) was investigated for NH{sub 3}-N removal. • PFS coagulation followed agitation process enhanced the leachate biodegradation. • Nitrification–denitrification achieved by changing operation process in SBR treatment. • A dual filter of carbon-sand is suitable as a polishing treatment of leachate. • Combined treatment success for the complete treatment of non-biodegradable leachate. - Abstract: This study describes the complete treatment of non-biodegradable landfill leachate by combined treatment processes. The processes consist of agitation as a novel stripping method used to overcome the ammonia toxicity regarding aerobic microorganisms. The NH{sub 3}-N removal ratio was 93.9% obtained at pH 11.5 and a gradient velocity (G) 150 s{sup −1} within a five-hour agitation time. By poly ferric sulphate (PFS) coagulation followed the agitation process; chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}) were removed at 70.6% and 49.4%, respectively at an optimum dose of 1200 mg L{sup −1} at pH 5.0. The biodegradable ratio BOD{sub 5}/COD was improved from 0.18 to 0.31 during pretreatment step by agitation and PFS coagulation. Thereafter, the effluent was diluted with sewage at a different ratio before it was subjected to sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treatment. Up to 93.3% BOD{sub 5}, 95.5% COD and 98.1% NH{sub 3}-N removal were achieved by SBR operated under anoxic–aerobic–anoxic conditions. The filtration process was carried out using sand and carbon as a dual filter media as polishing process. The final effluent concentration of COD, BOD{sub 5}, suspended solid (SS), NH{sub 3}-N and total organic carbon (TOC) were 72.4 mg L{sup −1}, 22.8 mg L{sup −1}, 24.2 mg L{sup −1}, 18.4 mg L{sup −1} and 50.8 mg L{sup −1} respectively, which met the discharge standard. The results indicated that a combined process of agitation-coagulation-SBR and filtration effectively eliminated

  10. [Effects of salinity on spawning and larval development of Exopalaemon carinicauda].

    PubMed

    Liang, Jun-Ping; Li, Jian; Li, Ji-Tao; Liu, Ping; Zhao, Fa-Zhen; Nie, Guo-Xing; Li, Xue-Jun; Kong, Xiang-Hui

    2014-07-01

    Female Exopalaemon carinicauda at ovarian maturation stage II rearing by artificial propagation in the laboratory were chosen as test material. The shrimps were gradually acclimated to the experimental salinity levels of 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 to determine the effects of salinity on spawning, embryonic development and larval growth of E. carinicauda. The results showed that the ovaries of female E. carinicauda could mature at all test salinity levels. However, it failed to spawn at salinity 2. Salinity levels from 10 to 20 were the most favorable for female E. carinicauda spawning. Although larval development was most successful in eggs incubated at salinity levels of 5 to 30, embryonic development were significantly affected by salinity, and the egg incubation period was shorter at salinities of 15, 20 and 25 than at the other salinities. There were no significant effects of salinity on the rates of larval metamorphosis and survival, but the dry mass of individuals was significantly affected by salinity. The dry mass of shrimps reared at salinities of 15 and 20 were significantly higher than at the other salinities. The growth of 20-day old shrimps was significantly affected by salinity. The specific growth rate increased with the increasing salinity level from 5 to 20, and then decreased at the salinity above 20. The mRNA level of gill Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase was high at high and low salinities, and the lowest at the theoretical salinity 17.5, which might be equal to the hemolymph osmotic pressure of E. carinicauda. It was implied that female parent E. carinicauda could reproduce in a wide range of salinities, while 20-day old shrimps presented higher growth rates at salinities near its theoretical isosmotic point.

  11. Comparisons between cellulase production by Aspergillus fumigatus in agitated vessels and in an air-lift fermentor

    SciTech Connect

    Wase, D.A.J.; McManamey, W.J.; Raymahasay, S.; Vaid, A.K.

    1985-08-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus was cultured in disc-turbine-agitated vessels and in an air-lift fermentor. In the agitated vessels the yield of cellulase was reduced when the agitation rate was increased, although extracellular protein levels rose. The enzyme complex itself was shown to be exceptionally stable under conditions similar to those in the agitated vessels, so probably shear damage to the mycelium had occurred, liberating intracellular contents. These appeared to contain an inhibitor that could be removed by fabricated inorganic protein absorbents, such as kieselguhr and alumina. However, the inhibitor was not likely to be protease, since only relatively low levels could be detected and its identity has not been established. The use of an air-lift fermentor avoided the shear effects due to use of the disc turbine agitator in the conventional fermentors, and yields of enzyme were then found to increase by about 20%, maximum yields being obtained at maximum Kla values.

  12. Salinity Measurements During the Gulf Stream Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Koblinsky, C.; Howden, S.; Goodberlet, M.

    2000-01-01

    The salinity of the open ocean is important for understanding ocean circulation, for understanding energy exchange with the atmosphere and for improving models to predict weather and climate. Passive microwave sensors at L-band (1.4 GHz) operating from aircraft have demonstrated that salinity can be measured with sufficient accuracy (1 psu) to be scientifically meaningful in coastal waters. However, measuring salinity in the open ocean presents unresolved issues largely because of the much greater accuracy (approx. 0.1 psu) required to be scientifically viable. In the summer of 1999 a series of measurements called, The Gulf Stream Experiment, were conducted as part of research at the Goddard Space Flight Center to test the potential for passive microwave remote sensing of salinity in the open ocean. The measurements consisted of a compliment of airborne microwave instruments (radiometers and scatterometer) and ships and drifters for surface truth. The study area was a 200 km by 100 km rectangle about 250 km east of Delaware Bay between the continental shelf waters and north wall of the Gulf Stream. The primary passive instruments were the ESTAR radiometer (L-band, H-pol) and the SLFMR radiometer (L-band, V-pol). In addition, the compliment of instruments on the aircraft included a C-band radiometer (ACMR), an ocean wave scatterometer (ROWS) and an infrared radiometer. A GPS backscatter experiment was also part of the package. These instruments were mounted on the NASA P-3 Orion aircraft. Surface salinity measurements were provided by the RN Cape Henlopen and MN Oleander (thermosalinographs) plus salinity and temperature sensors on three surface drifters deployed from the RN Cape Henopen. The primary experiment period was August 26-September 2, 1999. During this period the salinity field within the study area consisted of a gradient on the order of 2-3 psu in the vicinity of the shelf break and a warm core ring with a gradient of 1-2 psu. Detailed maps were made

  13. Development of a semipurified test diet for determining amino acid requirements of Florida pompano Trachinotus carolinus reared under low-salinity conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two trials were conducted to develop a semipurified test diet for determining indispensable amino acid (IAA) requirements for Florida pompano Trachinotus carolinus. The objective of the first trial was to evaluate casein and corn gluten meal as principal intact protein sources, and the ability of F...

  14. Impact of vibration and agitation speed on dissolution of USP prednisone tablets RS and various IR tablet formulations.

    PubMed

    Seeger, Nicole; Lange, Sigrid; Klein, Sandra

    2015-08-01

    Dissolution testing is an in vitro procedure which is widely used in quality control (QC) of solid oral dosage forms and, given that real biorelevant test conditions are applied, can also be used as a predictive tool for the in vivo performance of such formulations. However, if a dissolution method is intended to be used for such purposes, it has to deliver results that are only determined by the quality of the test product, but not by other variables. In the recent past, more and more questions were arising on how to address the effects of vibration on dissolution test results. The present study was performed to screen for the correlation of prednisone dissolution of USP Prednisone Tablets RS with vibration caused by a commercially available vibration source as well as to investigate how drug release from a range of immediate release formulations containing class 1-4 drugs of the biopharmaceutical classification scheme is affected by vibration when performing dissolution experiments at different agitation rates. Results of the present study show that the dissolution process of oral drug formulations can be affected by vibration. However, it also becomes clear that the degree of which a certain level of vibration impacts dissolution is strongly dependent on several factors such as drug properties, formulation parameters, and the design of the dissolution method. To ensure the establishment of robust and predictive dissolution test methods, the impact of variation should thus be considered in method design and validation.

  15. Effects of salinity on leaf breakdown: Dryland salinity versus salinity from a coalmine.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Felix G; Bundschuh, Mirco; Zubrod, Jochen P; Schäfer, Ralf B; Thompson, Kristie; Kefford, Ben J

    2016-08-01

    Salinization of freshwater ecosystems as a result of human activities represents a global threat for ecosystems' integrity. Whether different sources of salinity with their differing ionic compositions lead to variable effects in ecosystem functioning is unknown. Therefore, the present study assessed the impact of dryland- (50μS/cm to 11,000μS/cm) and coalmine-induced (100μS/cm to 2400μS/cm) salinization on the leaf litter breakdown, with focus on microorganisms as main decomposer, in two catchments in New South Wales, Australia. The breakdown of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves decreased with increasing salinity by up to a factor of three. Coalmine salinity, which is characterised by a higher share of bicarbonates, had a slightly but consistently higher breakdown rate at a given salinity relative to dryland salinity, which is characterised by ionic proportions similar to sea water. Complementary laboratory experiments supported the stimulatory impact of sodium bicarbonates on leaf breakdown when compared to sodium chloride or artificial sea salt. Furthermore, microbial inoculum from a high salinity site (11,000μS/cm) yielded lower leaf breakdown at lower salinity relative to inoculum from a low salinity site (50μS/cm). Conversely, inoculum from the high salinity site was less sensitive towards increasing salinity levels relative to inoculum from the low salinity site. The effects of the different inoculum were the same regardless of salt source (sodium bicarbonate, sodium chloride and artificial sea salt). Finally, the microorganism-mediated leaf litter breakdown was most efficient at intermediate salinity levels (≈500μS/cm). The present study thus points to severe implications of increasing salinity intensities on the ecosystem function of leaf litter breakdown, while the underlying processes need further scrutiny.

  16. Effects of salinity on leaf breakdown: Dryland salinity versus salinity from a coalmine.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Felix G; Bundschuh, Mirco; Zubrod, Jochen P; Schäfer, Ralf B; Thompson, Kristie; Kefford, Ben J

    2016-08-01

    Salinization of freshwater ecosystems as a result of human activities represents a global threat for ecosystems' integrity. Whether different sources of salinity with their differing ionic compositions lead to variable effects in ecosystem functioning is unknown. Therefore, the present study assessed the impact of dryland- (50μS/cm to 11,000μS/cm) and coalmine-induced (100μS/cm to 2400μS/cm) salinization on the leaf litter breakdown, with focus on microorganisms as main decomposer, in two catchments in New South Wales, Australia. The breakdown of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves decreased with increasing salinity by up to a factor of three. Coalmine salinity, which is characterised by a higher share of bicarbonates, had a slightly but consistently higher breakdown rate at a given salinity relative to dryland salinity, which is characterised by ionic proportions similar to sea water. Complementary laboratory experiments supported the stimulatory impact of sodium bicarbonates on leaf breakdown when compared to sodium chloride or artificial sea salt. Furthermore, microbial inoculum from a high salinity site (11,000μS/cm) yielded lower leaf breakdown at lower salinity relative to inoculum from a low salinity site (50μS/cm). Conversely, inoculum from the high salinity site was less sensitive towards increasing salinity levels relative to inoculum from the low salinity site. The effects of the different inoculum were the same regardless of salt source (sodium bicarbonate, sodium chloride and artificial sea salt). Finally, the microorganism-mediated leaf litter breakdown was most efficient at intermediate salinity levels (≈500μS/cm). The present study thus points to severe implications of increasing salinity intensities on the ecosystem function of leaf litter breakdown, while the underlying processes need further scrutiny. PMID:27393920

  17. The effect of ketamine versus fentanyl on the incidence of emergence agitation after sevoflurane anesthesia in pediatric patients undergoing tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Abdelhalim, Ashraf Arafat; Alarfaj, Ahmed Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Background: Emergence agitation (EA) has been documented as a common side-effect of sevoflurane anesthesia. This prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed to compare the effects of ketamine versus fentanyl, administered 10 min before the end of surgery on the development of EA. Methods: A total of 120 children aged 3-7 years of American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II physical status were randomly assigned to one of three equal groups receiving either ketamine 0.5 mg/kg (Group K), fentanyl 1 μg/kg (Group F) or saline (Group C) at 10 min before the end of surgery. Post-operative EA was assessed with Aono's four point scale. Recovery times, the post-operative pain and adverse reactions were assessed. Results: There was no significant difference between the three groups regarding recovery and discharge times from post-anesthesia care unit. The incidence of EA was significantly low in Group K and Group F (15% and 17.5%, respectively) compared to the control group (42.5%), with no significant difference between Group K and Group F. There were no significant differences in Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale between the three groups. The incidence of nausea or vomiting was significantly more in Group F compared to that in other two groups. However, no complications such as somnolence, oxygen desaturation or respiratory depression occurred during the study period and there were no episodes of hallucinations or bad dreams in the ketamine group. Conclusion: The intravenous administration of either ketamine 0.5 mg/kg or fentanyl 1 μg/kg before the end of surgery in sevoflurane-anesthetized children undergoing tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy reduces the incidence of post-operative agitation without delaying emergence. PMID:24348289

  18. Salinity driven oceanographic upwelling

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, David H.

    1986-01-01

    The salinity driven oceanographic upwelling is maintained in a mariculture device that includes a long main duct in the general shape of a cylinder having perforated cover plates at each end. The mariculture device is suspended vertically in the ocean such that one end of the main duct is in surface water and the other end in relatively deep water that is cold, nutrient rich and relatively fresh in comparison to the surface water which is relatively warm, relatively nutrient deficient and relatively saline. A plurality of elongated flow segregating tubes are disposed in the main duct and extend from the upper cover plate beyond the lower cover plate into a lower manifold plate. The lower manifold plate is spaced from the lower cover plate to define a deep water fluid flow path to the interior space of the main duct. Spacer tubes extend from the upper cover plate and communicate with the interior space of the main duct. The spacer tubes are received in an upper manifold plate spaced from the upper cover plate to define a surface water fluid flow path into the flow segregating tubes. A surface water-deep water counterflow is thus established with deep water flowing upwardly through the main duct interior for discharge beyond the upper manifold plate while surface water flows downwardly through the flow segregating tubes for discharge below the lower manifold plate. During such counterflow heat is transferred from the downflowing warm water to the upflowing cold water. The flow is maintained by the difference in density between the deep water and the surface water due to their differences in salinity. The upwelling of nutrient rich deep water is used for marifarming by fertilizing the nutrient deficient surface water.

  19. Salinity driven oceanographic upwelling

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, D.H.

    1984-08-30

    The salinity driven oceanographic upwelling is maintained in a mariculture device that includes a long main duct in the general shape of a cylinder having perforated cover plates at each end. The mariculture device is suspended vertically in the ocean such that one end of the main duct is in surface water and the other end in relatively deep water that is cold, nutrient rich and relatively fresh in comparison to the surface water which is relatively warm, relatively nutrient deficient and relatively saline. A plurality of elongated flow segregating tubes are disposed in the main duct and extend from the upper cover plate beyond the lower cover plate into a lower manifold plate. The lower manifold plate is spaced from the lower cover plate to define a deep water fluid flow path to the interior space of the main duct. Spacer tubes extend from the upper cover plate and communicate with the interior space of the main duct. The spacer tubes are received in an upper manifold plate spaced from the upper cover plate to define a surface water fluid flow path into the flow segregating tubes. A surface water-deep water counterflow is thus established with deep water flowing upwardly through the main duct interior for discharge beyond the upper manifold plate while surface water flows downwardly through the flow segregating tubes for discharge below the lower manifold plate. During such counterflow heat is transferred from the downflowing warm water to the upflowing cold water. The flow is maintained by the difference in density between the deep water and the surface water due to their differences in salinity. The upwelling of nutrient rich deep water is used for marifarming by fertilizing the nutrient deficient surface water. 1 fig.

  20. Influence of thermal agitation on the electric field induced precessional magnetization reversal with perpendicular easy axis

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Hongguang Deng, Ning

    2013-12-15

    We investigated the influence of thermal agitation on the electric field induced precessional magnetization switching probability with perpendicular easy axis by solving the Fokker-Planck equation numerically with finite difference method. The calculated results show that the thermal agitation during the reversal process crucially influences the switching probability. The switching probability can be achieved is only determined by the thermal stability factor Δ of the free layer, it is independent on the device dimension, which is important for the high density device application. Ultra-low error rate down to the order of 10{sup −9} can be achieved for the device of thermal stability factor Δ of 40. Low damping factor α material should be used for the free layer for high reliability device applications. These results exhibit potential of electric field induced precessional magnetization switching with perpendicular easy axis for ultra-low power, high speed and high density magnetic random access memory (MRAM) applications.

  1. Psychosis-related disturbances. Psychosis, agitation, and disinhibition in Alzheimer's disease: definitions and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Lesser, Jary M; Hughes, Susan

    2006-12-01

    Approximately 50% to 80% of persons diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have some type of behavioral or psychiatric condition (eg, agitation, psychosis, and/or disinhibition). Agitation is defined in the context of restlessness, irritability, and resistiveness. Psychosis is recognized as a disturbance in the perception of objective reality. Disinhibition means a chronic loss of social restraint. In the case of AD, disinhibition can present as aggression, hyperactivity, and socially intrusive behavior. Such conditions can be burdensome for physicians and caregivers to manage. Consequences may include caregiver burnout or illness, patient abuse, and even institutionalization for the patient. Management of behavioral disturbances is no longer primarily handled by psychiatrists, but is now entering the realm of family practice and primary care. This article provides evaluation methods and treatment options for the aforementioned behavioral disturbances.

  2. [Sultopride, treatment of choice for psychomotor agitation in severe encephalopathy. 33 cases in a neuropediatric milieu].

    PubMed

    Gadisseux, J F; Fournaux, J; Hallet, J; Ferriere, G

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-three patients showing a definite group of symptoms including chiefly agitation or self-mutilation often dramatic have been treated with sultopride at doses ranging from 7 to 50 mg/kg/day at the Institut Médico-Pédagogique de l'Enfant-Jésus at Ciney. Forty-eight per cent showing this particular symptoms have been cured or greatly improved with sultopride. In 36% the response was incomplete in that it appeared to be identical with sultopride solely or with the previous medications. An opposite result has been noted in 16% only. Side-effects consisted in extra-pyramidal symptoms, drowsiness and digestive disorders. This study leads to the conclusion that sultopride can be considered as the most efficient therapeutical approach to the management of agitation or self-mutilation in severe encephalopathy.

  3. Particle-liquid mass transfer in three-phase mechanically agitated contactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kushalkar, K.B.; Pangarkar, V.G. . Dept. of Chemical Technology)

    1994-07-01

    Mass transfer to or from solid particles suspended in an agitated liquid is relevant to many chemical processes such as adsorption, crystallization, fermentation, slurry reactors, extraction of metals, polymer processing, waste water treatment, etc. Particle-liquid mass transfer in a three-phase mechanically agitated contactor has been studied. The experiments covered a broad range of particle sizes, liquid viscosities, and gas velocities besides variations in system geometry. The impellers used were upflow pitched blade turbine (PTU), downflow pitched blade turbine (PTD), the disk turbine (DT). The results indicated a unique relationship of the particle-liquid mass-transfer coefficient with respect to the critical suspension speed under gassed conditions, N[sub sg]. This observation has resulted in a simplified correlation for the particle-liquid mass-transfer coefficient.

  4. Highly sensitive detection and stochastic analysis of magnetization agitation induced in a single layered magnetic wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Akinobu; Motoi, Keiichi; Miyajima, Hideki

    2016-03-01

    This study shows that broadband magnetic noise in a ferromagnetic wire can be detected over a wide frequency range between 500 MHz and 8 GHz using a lock-in detection technique. The magnetic noise spectrum from a 20 nm-thick single-layered Fe19Ni81 wire biased with a dc current is measured as functions of an external field and dc current. This noise is caused by thermal agitation in magnetization due to ambient temperature and Joule heating. The noise behaviors are well reproduced by a stochastic model. Thus, this paper presents a stochastic analysis of magnetic noise behaviors induced by thermal agitation using a highly sensitive technique for detecting the magnetic noise in a single layered ferromagnetic wire.

  5. Mixing and solid suspension of up-down agitators in a slab tank

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, C.J. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Kyser, E.A. III; Tatterson, G.B. )

    1989-01-01

    Seven different up-down agitators were studied for their ability to produce mixing and solid suspension in a slab tank. Mixing times were measured as the time needed to disperse injected dye. The solid suspension studies determined the minimum stroke frequency of the agitators needed for complete off-bottom suspension. The effects of stroke frequency, n; amplitude, a; blade width, w; blade clearance, c; and liquid depth, h, and weight percent solids, X, were studied. The most effective geometry, in terms of mixing, solid suspension and design simplicity, was a single flat blade with minimum off-bottom clearance and a blade width/tank thickness ratio, w/T, of 0.74 at the maximum stroke amplitude studied. 15 refs., 7 figs.

  6. The effect of agitation on the biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminants in soil slurries.

    PubMed

    Stroud, Jacqueline L; Paton, Graeme I; Semple, Kirk T

    2009-09-01

    Slurry-based mineralisation assays are widely used to investigate contaminant biodegradation in soil; however, the importance of shaking speed on microbial degradation has not been considered. This study investigated the mineralisation of (14)C-analogues of phenanthrene, hexadecane and octacosane, shaken at 0, 25 and 100 rpm. The results showed that the fastest rates and highest levels of mineralisation in 0 d aged soils were in the highly agitated conditions (100 rpm). However, the highest levels of mineralisation in 500 d aged soil were found in the gently shaken conditions (25 rpm), with the levels of mineralisation significantly (p<0.05) one third higher than under the highly agitated conditions (100 rpm). Consequently, estimation of the maximum levels of biodegradation of organic contaminants in aged soil systems should be considered under gentle mixing conditions. PMID:19487012

  7. Development and testing of a novel lab-scale direct steam-injection apparatus to hydrolyse model and saline crop slurries.

    PubMed

    Santi, Guglielmo; Guglielmo, Santi; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Alessandro, D'Annibale; Petruccioli, Maurizio; Maurizio, Petruccioli; Crognale, Silvia; Silvia, Crognale; Ruzzi, Maurizio; Maurizio, Ruzzi; Valentini, Riccardo; Riccardo, Valentini; Moresi, Mauro; Moresi, Mauro

    2012-02-20

    In this work, a novel laboratory-scale direct steam-injection apparatus (DSIA) was developed to overcome the main drawback of the conventional batch-driven lab rigs, namely the long time needed to heat fiber slurry from room to reaction temperatures greater than 150 °C. The novel apparatus mainly consisted of three units: (i) a mechanically-stirred bioreactor where saturated steam at 5-30 bar can be injected; (ii) an automatic on-off valve to flash suddenly the reaction medium after a prefixed reaction time; (iii) a cyclone separator to recover the reacted slurry. This system was tested using 0.75 dm³ of an aqueous solution of H₂SO₄ (0.5%, v/v) enriched with 50 kg m⁻³ of either commercial particles of Avicel® and Larch xylan or 0.5 mm sieved particles of Tamarix jordanis. Each slurry was heated to about 200 °C by injecting steam at 28 bar for 90 s. The process efficiency was assessed by comparing the dissolution degree of suspended solid (Y(S)), as well as xylose (Y(X)), glucose (Y(G)), and furfural (Y(F)) yields, with those obtained in a conventional steam autoclave at 130 °C for 30 or 60 min. Treatment of T. jordanis particles in DSIA resulted in Y(S) and Y(G) values quite similar to those obtained in the steam autoclave at 130 °C for 60 min, but in a less efficient hemicellulose solubilization. A limited occurrence of pentose degradation products was observed in both equipments, suggesting that hydrolysis predominated over degradation reactions. The susceptibility of the residual solid fractions from DSIA treatment to a conventional 120 h long cellulolytic treatment using an enzyme loading of 5.4 FPU g⁻¹ was markedly higher than that of samples hydrolysed in the steam autoclave, their corresponding glucose yields being equal to 0.94 and 0.22 g per gram of initial cellulose, respectively. Thus, T. jordanis resulted to be a valuable source of sugars for bioethanol production as proved by preliminary tests in the novel lab rig developed here.

  8. geothermal salinity control system

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, B.C.; Zajac, E.

    1985-01-08

    Highly saline geothermal brine, such as that produced from the lower geothermal reserve of the Salton Sea geothermal field, is diluted with non-geothermal water of much lower salinity in a mixing zone proximate the high temperature end of a geothermal power plant, and preferably down in the production well just above the production zone, so as to reduce the chloride salt content of the production brine to a level that is at or below the saturated level at reinjection temperatures, thereby preventing any material chloride salt scaling at any location in the plant through reinjection. The permanent cemented-in production casing in the well is protected against the corrosive effects of the hot production brine by means of a removable production liner that is generally coextensive with the casing. Said mixing zone is provided in the lower portion of the liner, and the liner establishes an annulus between it and the casing through which said non-geothermal water flows downwardly to the mixing zone so as to exclude the production brine from contact with the casing.

  9. Unlocking Chain Exchange in Highly Amphiphilic Block Polymer Micellar Systems: Influence of Agitation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chain exchange between block polymer micelles in highly selective solvents, such as water, is well-known to be arrested under quiescent conditions, yet this work demonstrates that simple agitation methods can induce rapid chain exchange in these solvents. Aqueous solutions containing either pure poly(butadiene-b-ethylene oxide) or pure poly(butadiene-b-ethylene oxide-d4) micelles were combined and then subjected to agitation by vortex mixing, concentric cylinder Couette flow, or nitrogen gas sparging. Subsequently, the extent of chain exchange between micelles was quantified using small angle neutron scattering. Rapid vortex mixing induced chain exchange within minutes, as evidenced by a monotonic decrease in scattered intensity, whereas Couette flow and sparging did not lead to measurable chain exchange over the examined time scale of hours. The linear kinetics with respect to agitation time suggested a surface-limited exchange process at the air–water interface. These findings demonstrate the strong influence of processing conditions on block polymer solution assemblies. PMID:25642383

  10. Effect Of Developer Type And Agitation On Dissolution Of Positive Photoresist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zee, Cynthia; Bell, W. R.; Neureuther, A. R.

    1988-01-01

    The role of surfactants and agitation in improving the performance of diazo type positive photoresist is explored through dissolution measurements, quantitative models for process simulation with SAM-PLE and SEM profile comparison. In-situ dissolution measurements of a commercial resist, Shipley 1400-31 in MF312, 314 and 319 developers were made on a Perkin Elmer development rate monitor (DRM) with and without moderate agitation. The quality of the measurement data was improved by using a nitride-oxide-nitride thin-film coating to reduce standing wave effects within the resist. Both developers with surfactants, MF314 and 319, show improved contrast over MF312 in plots of thickness remaining versus exposure dose. Although contrast was improved in all three cases by agitation, the effect was most pronounced with MF314. R(M) plots, obtained from combining dissolution rate data with exposure state, distinguish surface retardation effects from bulk effects and suggest that the improvement in contrast for MF314 is due to enhanced surface rate retardation. Using the rate parameters extracted from the R(M) plots, resist profiles were simulated and compared to SEM profiles of fine-lines.

  11. Performance and characterization of a newly developed self-agitated anaerobic reactor with biological desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takuro; Li, Yu-You

    2011-05-01

    The continuous operation of a newly developed methane fermentation reactor, which requires no electricity for the agitation of the fermentation liquid was investigated, and the extent of the biological desulfurization was monitored. Inside the reactor, the continual change in the liquid level and the self-agitation, occurring between 5 and 16 times every day, distributed the organic load near the inlet port of the reactor, as well as providing a nutrient supply to the hydrogen sulfide oxidizing bacteria. At different COD(Cr) loading rates (5, 7, 10 kg m(3)d(-1)), the reactor achieved a biogas production yield of 0.72-0.82 m(3)g(-1)-TS, a COD(Cr) reduction of 79.4-85.5% and an average of 99% hydrogen sulfide removal. This investigation demonstrated that the self-agitated reactor is comparable in digestion performance to the completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) investigated in a previous study, and that the desulfurization performance was significantly enhanced compared to the CSTR.

  12. Impacts on wave-driven harbour agitation due to climate change in Catalan ports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, J. P.; Casas-Prat, M.; Virgili, M.; Mosso, C.; Sanchez-Arcilla, A.

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present work is to analyse how changes in wave patterns due to the effect of climate change can affect harbour agitation (oscillations within the port due to wind waves). The study focuses on 13 harbours located on the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean) using a methodology with general applicability. To obtain the patterns of agitation, a Boussinesq-type model is used, which is forced at the boundaries by present/future offshore wave conditions extracted from recently developed high-resolution wave projections in the NW Mediterranean. These wave projections were obtained with the SWAN model forced by present/future surface wind fields projected, respectively, by five different combinations of global and regional circulation models (GCMs and RCMs) for the A1B scenario. The results show a general slight reduction in the annual average agitation for most of the ports, except for the northernmost and southernmost areas of the region, where a slight increase is obtained. A seasonal analysis reveals that the tendency to decrease is accentuated in winter. However, the inter-model variability is large for both the winter and the annual analysis. Conversely, a general increase with a larger agreement among models is found during summer, which is the period with greater activity in most of the studied ports (marinas). A qualitative assessment of the factors of variability seems to indicate that the choice of GCM tends to affect the spatial pattern, whereas the choice of RCM induces a more homogeneous bias over the regional domain.

  13. Helically agitated mixing in dry dilute acid pretreatment enhances the bioconversion of corn stover into ethanol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dry dilute acid pretreatment at extremely high solids loading of lignocellulose materials demonstrated promising advantages of no waste water generation, less sugar loss, and low steam consumption while maintaining high hydrolysis yield. However, the routine pretreatment reactor without mixing apparatus was found not suitable for dry pretreatment operation because of poor mixing and mass transfer. In this study, helically agitated mixing was introduced into the dry dilute acid pretreatment of corn stover and its effect on pretreatment efficiency, inhibitor generation, sugar production, and bioconversion efficiency through simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation (SSF) were evaluated. Results The overall cellulose conversion taking account of cellulose loss in pretreatment was used to evaluate the efficiency of pretreatment. The two-phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model on dry pretreatment was established and applied to analyze the mixing mechanism. The results showed that the pretreatment efficiency was significantly improved and the inhibitor generation was reduced by the helically agitated mixing, compared to the dry pretreatment without mixing: the ethanol titer and yield from cellulose in the SSF reached 56.20 g/L and 69.43% at the 30% solids loading and 15 FPU/DM cellulase dosage, respectively, corresponding to a 26.5% increase in ethanol titer and 17.2% increase in ethanol yield at the same fermentation conditions. Conclusions The advantage of helically agitated mixing may provide a prototype of dry dilute acid pretreatment processing for future commercial-scale production of cellulosic ethanol. PMID:24387051

  14. Pumping Characteristics of a Helical Screw Agitator with a Draught Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Youn-Jea

    In the use of helical type agitator, the mixing process is usually restricted to the laminar flow regime. Common examples of laminar mixing are found where the fluid has a very high viscosity, i.e., pseudoplastic fluids. It can be indicated that a helical type agitator is sufficiently suited to the creeping flow mixing. The pumping characteristic of a Helical Screw Agitator with a draught tube (HSA) is required to evaluate its capacity for the optimal configuration of the mixing chamber. It could be executed by changing some parameters such as the number of helix, the angular velocity and the rotating direction and so on. In this study, the numerical simulation was carried out with the Eulerian multiphase mixture model and the moving mesh approximation. Some of the optimum design parameters have been developed with the aid of numerical data from the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis. Using the commercial code, Fluent, the pumping characteristics in the HSA are investigated from the rheological properties, and the results are graphically depicted.

  15. The effect of salinity on experimental infections of a Hematodinium sp. in blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Anna H; Li, Caiwen; Shields, Jeffrey D

    2012-06-01

    The parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium sp. parasitizes blue crabs along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States. Infections in blue crabs have only been reported from waters where salinity is >11 practical salinity units (psu). Blue crabs maintain a hyperosmotic internal concentration at low salinities (0-5 psu), roughly comparable to 24 psu, and should be capable of maintaining an infection in low-salinity waters even if Hematodinium spp. cells are intolerant of low salinities. We tested this notion by observing the effect of low salinity on the progression of disease in crabs experimentally infected with the parasite. Blue crabs were acclimated to 5 psu or 30 psu salinity treatments. They were inoculated with Hematodinium sp. and necropsied 3, 7, 10, and 15 days post-inoculation. The low-salinity treatment did not have an effect on the proliferation of Hematodinium sp. infections in blue crabs; moreover, a greater proportion of infections in crabs in the low-salinity treatment developed dinospore stages than did those in the high-salinity treatment, indicating that salinity may affect the development of the parasite. However, dinospores from in vitro cultures rapidly became inactive when held in salinities <15 psu. Our experiments indicate that Hematodinium spp. can develop in blue crabs at low salinities, but that the parasite is incapable of transmission in this environment, which explains the lack of natural infections in crabs at low salinities.

  16. Qualitative analysis and quantitative simulation on Yin-Huang water salinization mechanism in Bei-Da-Gang Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen-yu; Wang, Qi-shan; Wu, Li-bo; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Xiao-qin

    2005-01-01

    Yellow River water transfer for Tianjin is important in solving the water shortage in Tianjin, which facilitate economic development and social progress for many years. Fresh water drawn from Yellow River (i.e., Yin-Huang water) becomes saltier and saltier when being stored in the Bei-Da-Gang reservoir. We qualitatively analyze the water salinization mechanism based on mass transfer theory. The main factors are salinity transfer of saline soil, evaporation concentrating, and the agitation of wind. A simulative experimental pond and an evaporation pond were built beside the Bei-Da-Gang reservoir to quantitatively investigate the water salinization based on water and solute balance in the simulative pond. 80% of increased [Cl-] is due to the salinity transfer of the saline soil and the other 20% is due to evaporation concentrating, so the former is the most important factor. We found that the salinization of Yin-Huang water can be described with a zero-dimension linear model.

  17. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Salinity Evaluation and Minimization Plan for Cooling Towers and Mechanical Equipment Discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Daily III, W D

    2010-02-24

    This document was created to comply with the Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board (CVRWQCB) Waste Discharge Requirement (Order No. 98-148). This order established new requirements to assess the effect of and effort required to reduce salts in process water discharged to the subsurface. This includes the review of technical, operational, and management options available to reduce total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations in cooling tower and mechanical equipment water discharges at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) Experimental Test Site (Site 300) facility. It was observed that for the six cooling towers currently in operation, the total volume of groundwater used as make up water is about 27 gallons per minute and the discharge to the subsurface via percolation pits is 13 gallons per minute. The extracted groundwater has a TDS concentration of 700 mg/L. The cooling tower discharge concentrations range from 700 to 1,400 mg/L. There is also a small volume of mechanical equipment effluent being discharged to percolation pits, with a TDS range from 400 to 3,300 mg/L. The cooling towers and mechanical equipment are maintained and operated in a satisfactory manner. No major leaks were identified. Currently, there are no re-use options being employed. Several approaches known to reduce the blow down flow rate and/or TDS concentration being discharged to the percolation pits and septic systems were reviewed for technical feasibility and cost efficiency. These options range from efforts as simple as eliminating leaks to implementing advanced and innovative treatment methods. The various options considered, and their anticipated effect on water consumption, discharge volumes, and reduced concentrations are listed and compared in this report. Based on the assessment, it was recommended that there is enough variability in equipment usage, chemistry, flow rate, and discharge configurations that each discharge location at Site 300 should be

  18. Saline intrusion in partially mixed estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prandle, D.

    2004-03-01

    Restricting interest to partially mixed estuaries, earlier studies of tidally averaged linearised theories relating to the vertical structure of salinity and velocities (accompanying saline intrusion) are extended to take account of tidal straining and associated convective overturning. The applicability of these theories is evaluated by reference to a 'single-point' numerical model in which the time-varying cycle of depth-averaged tidal current amplitude, Û, and a (temporally and vertically) constant saline gradient, S x, are specified. This model highlights the importance of convective overturning in counteracting unstable density structures introduced by tidal straining. By omitting overturning in the model, results agree closely with linearised theoretical derivations. However, incorporating overturning substantially increases tidally averaged surface-to-bed differences for both residual currents, δ u, and salinity, δ s. The vertical structure of tidal currents is a maximum, and hence the effect of tidal straining, in shallow macro-tidal estuaries. The propagation of tidal elevations and currents remains insensitive to saline intrusion in partially mixed estuaries. The applicability of the model was evaluated by simulation of recent measurements by Rippeth et al. (J. Phys. Oceanogr. 31 (2001) 2458). To explore the generality of estuarine responses, the model was run for a wide range of values of saline intrusion lengths, L, and water depths, D. Additional sensitivity analyses were made for changes in Û and bed stress coefficient, k. Response frameworks are shown for: δ u, δ s, potential energy anomaly φ, work done by bed friction and internal shear, rates and efficiency of saline mixing and ratios of relative mixing by diffusion to overturning. By equating the rate of mixing associated with vertical diffusion with river flow, Q, an expression for saline intrusion length L∝D 2/k ÛU o ( Uo river flow velocity) was derived. This formulation agrees with

  19. Evaporation over fresh and saline water surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelrady, Ahmed; Timmermans, Joris; Vekerdy, Zoltan

    2013-04-01

    RMSE of 4.7 %. Afterwards the validity of salinity adapted model was tested over different study areas using ECMWF data. It was found that for the original SEBS model and salinity-adapted model over Great Salt Lake, the RMSE were 0.62 and 0.24 mm respectively and the rRMSE 19% and 24%. The evaporation reduction of the Great Salt Lake and the oceans are 27% and 1 %, respectively. In conclusion, SEBS model is adapted to calculate the daily evaporation over fresh water and salt water by integration the salinity factor in the model.

  20. [Adaptability of mangrove Kandelia obovata seedlings to salinity-waterlogging].

    PubMed

    You, Hui-ming

    2015-03-01

    A laboratory test on the effects of 12 salinity-waterlogging stresses on the growth of Kandelia obovata seedlings was conducted. Nine growth indexes including seedling height, stem height, basal diameter, node number, leaf number, root biomass, stem biomass, leaf biomass and total biomass were measured. The results showed that salinity and salinity-waterlogging stresses had significant effects on the growth of K. obovata seedlings, while waterlogging stress had no significant effects on the seedling height, stem height, basal diameter, node number and leaf number, but had significant effects on root biomass, stem biomass, leaf biomass and total biomass. The growth and biomass of K. obovata seedlings decreased with increasing the salinity and waterlogging time. The principal components analysis showed that K. obovata seedlings would grow best under the 7 per thousand salinity+2 h waterlogging stress, while the 21per thousand+8 h combination was a critical stress.

  1. [Adaptability of mangrove Kandelia obovata seedlings to salinity-waterlogging].

    PubMed

    You, Hui-ming

    2015-03-01

    A laboratory test on the effects of 12 salinity-waterlogging stresses on the growth of Kandelia obovata seedlings was conducted. Nine growth indexes including seedling height, stem height, basal diameter, node number, leaf number, root biomass, stem biomass, leaf biomass and total biomass were measured. The results showed that salinity and salinity-waterlogging stresses had significant effects on the growth of K. obovata seedlings, while waterlogging stress had no significant effects on the seedling height, stem height, basal diameter, node number and leaf number, but had significant effects on root biomass, stem biomass, leaf biomass and total biomass. The growth and biomass of K. obovata seedlings decreased with increasing the salinity and waterlogging time. The principal components analysis showed that K. obovata seedlings would grow best under the 7 per thousand salinity+2 h waterlogging stress, while the 21per thousand+8 h combination was a critical stress. PMID:26211047

  2. Effect of salinity induced pH/alkalinity changes on benthic foraminifera: A laboratory culture experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraswat, Rajeev; Kouthanker, Mamata; Kurtarkar, Sujata R.; Nigam, Rajiv; Naqvi, S. W. A.; Linshy, V. N.

    2015-02-01

    The salinity of coastal waters in the vicinity of seasonally fresh water fed estuaries changes tremendously and reportedly affects the living calcite secreting organisms like foraminifera, as well as their dead remains. The precise mechanism of adverse effect of such seasonal salinity changes on calcite secreting organisms is, however not clear. The seasonal fresh water influx from the estuaries also affects the pH and alkalinity of the coastal seawater. Therefore, to understand the effect of salinity induced pH/alkalinity variations on benthic foraminifera, living specimens of Rosalina globularis were subjected to different salinity. Additionally, water samples were collected from an estuary during both monsoon and post monsoon season to understand the relationship between salinity, pH and total alkalinity (TA). The pH decreased with decreasing salinity during both the seasons. A similar decrease in TA with decreasing salinity was also observed but only till 20 psu salinity, below which the TA increased with decreasing salinity. Even though the maximum growth was reported in specimens kept at 35 psu salinity, growth of specimens maintained at >25 psu salinity, was same. Specimens kept at 10 psu and 15 psu salinity, however were much smaller and turned opaque within two days of lowering the salinity and later on their tests dissolved within 24 and 43 days, respectively. No specimen reproduced at 10 psu and 15 psu salinity, while only a few specimens (3%) reproduced at 20 psu salinity. As compared to 10-20 psu salinity, ∼60% reproduction was observed in specimens subjected to 25-40 salinity. The specimens maintained at 20 psu salinity took twice the time to reach maturity than those subjected to 25-40 psu salinity. Since a big drop in pH was observed at 10-15 psu salinity (pH 7.2 and 7.5, respectively), while the alkalinity was still higher, we suggest that fresh water influx induced drop in pH adversely affects calcification and reproduction in benthic

  3. Union Agitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishali

    2006-01-01

    A decade has passed since a few union leaders formed the network known as Teacher Union Reform Network (TURN) to search for innovative ways to enhance education. Selling their message has not always been easy. Created in 1995, TURN was the brain child of Adam Urbanski, the president of the Rochester (N.Y.) Teachers Association for the past 25…

  4. Salinity Adaptation and the Contribution of Parental Environmental Effects in Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Moriuchi, Ken S.; Friesen, Maren L.; Cordeiro, Matilde A.; Badri, Mounawer; Vu, Wendy T.; Main, Bradley J.; Aouani, Mohamed Elarbi; Nuzhdin, Sergey V.; Strauss, Sharon Y.; von Wettberg, Eric J. B.

    2016-01-01

    High soil salinity negatively influences plant growth and yield. Some taxa have evolved mechanisms for avoiding or tolerating elevated soil salinity, which can be modulated by the environment experienced by parents or offspring. We tested the contribution of the parental and offspring environments on salinity adaptation and their potential underlying mechanisms. In a two-generation greenhouse experiment, we factorially manipulated salinity concentrations for genotypes of Medicago truncatula that were originally collected from natural populations that differed in soil salinity. To compare population level adaptation to soil salinity and to test the potential mechanisms involved we measured two aspects of plant performance, reproduction and vegetative biomass, and phenological and physiological traits associated with salinity avoidance and tolerance. Saline-origin populations had greater biomass and reproduction under saline conditions than non-saline populations, consistent with local adaptation to saline soils. Additionally, parental environmental exposure to salt increased this difference in performance. In terms of environmental effects on mechanisms of salinity adaptation, parental exposure to salt spurred phenological differences that facilitated salt avoidance, while offspring exposure to salt resulted in traits associated with greater salt tolerance. Non-saline origin populations expressed traits associated with greater growth in the absence of salt while, for saline adapted populations, the ability to maintain greater performance in saline environments was also associated with lower growth potential in the absence of salt. Plastic responses induced by parental and offspring environments in phenology, leaf traits, and gas exchange contribute to salinity adaptation in M. truncatula. The ability of plants to tolerate environmental stress, such as high soil salinity, is likely modulated by a combination of parental effects and within-generation phenotypic

  5. Salinity Adaptation and the Contribution of Parental Environmental Effects in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Moriuchi, Ken S; Friesen, Maren L; Cordeiro, Matilde A; Badri, Mounawer; Vu, Wendy T; Main, Bradley J; Aouani, Mohamed Elarbi; Nuzhdin, Sergey V; Strauss, Sharon Y; von Wettberg, Eric J B

    2016-01-01

    High soil salinity negatively influences plant growth and yield. Some taxa have evolved mechanisms for avoiding or tolerating elevated soil salinity, which can be modulated by the environment experienced by parents or offspring. We tested the contribution of the parental and offspring environments on salinity adaptation and their potential underlying mechanisms. In a two-generation greenhouse experiment, we factorially manipulated salinity concentrations for genotypes of Medicago truncatula that were originally collected from natural populations that differed in soil salinity. To compare population level adaptation to soil salinity and to test the potential mechanisms involved we measured two aspects of plant performance, reproduction and vegetative biomass, and phenological and physiological traits associated with salinity avoidance and tolerance. Saline-origin populations had greater biomass and reproduction under saline conditions than non-saline populations, consistent with local adaptation to saline soils. Additionally, parental environmental exposure to salt increased this difference in performance. In terms of environmental effects on mechanisms of salinity adaptation, parental exposure to salt spurred phenological differences that facilitated salt avoidance, while offspring exposure to salt resulted in traits associated with greater salt tolerance. Non-saline origin populations expressed traits associated with greater growth in the absence of salt while, for saline adapted populations, the ability to maintain greater performance in saline environments was also associated with lower growth potential in the absence of salt. Plastic responses induced by parental and offspring environments in phenology, leaf traits, and gas exchange contribute to salinity adaptation in M. truncatula. The ability of plants to tolerate environmental stress, such as high soil salinity, is likely modulated by a combination of parental effects and within-generation phenotypic

  6. Salinity Adaptation and the Contribution of Parental Environmental Effects in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Moriuchi, Ken S; Friesen, Maren L; Cordeiro, Matilde A; Badri, Mounawer; Vu, Wendy T; Main, Bradley J; Aouani, Mohamed Elarbi; Nuzhdin, Sergey V; Strauss, Sharon Y; von Wettberg, Eric J B

    2016-01-01

    High soil salinity negatively influences plant growth and yield. Some taxa have evolved mechanisms for avoiding or tolerating elevated soil salinity, which can be modulated by the environment experienced by parents or offspring. We tested the contribution of the parental and offspring environments on salinity adaptation and their potential underlying mechanisms. In a two-generation greenhouse experiment, we factorially manipulated salinity concentrations for genotypes of Medicago truncatula that were originally collected from natural populations that differed in soil salinity. To compare population level adaptation to soil salinity and to test the potential mechanisms involved we measured two aspects of plant performance, reproduction and vegetative biomass, and phenological and physiological traits associated with salinity avoidance and tolerance. Saline-origin populations had greater biomass and reproduction under saline conditions than non-saline populations, consistent with local adaptation to saline soils. Additionally, parental environmental exposure to salt increased this difference in performance. In terms of environmental effects on mechanisms of salinity adaptation, parental exposure to salt spurred phenological differences that facilitated salt avoidance, while offspring exposure to salt resulted in traits associated with greater salt tolerance. Non-saline origin populations expressed traits associated with greater growth in the absence of salt while, for saline adapted populations, the ability to maintain greater performance in saline environments was also associated with lower growth potential in the absence of salt. Plastic responses induced by parental and offspring environments in phenology, leaf traits, and gas exchange contribute to salinity adaptation in M. truncatula. The ability of plants to tolerate environmental stress, such as high soil salinity, is likely modulated by a combination of parental effects and within-generation phenotypic

  7. Toward an understanding of the effects of agitation and aeration on growth and laccases production by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Tinoco-Valencia, Raunel; Gómez-Cruz, Cristina; Galindo, Enrique; Serrano-Carreón, Leobardo

    2014-05-10

    Mycelial growth and laccase production by Pleurotus ostreatus CP50 cultured in a 10-L mechanically agitated bioreactor were assessed through a 2(3) factorial experimental design. The main effects and interactions of three factors (agitation, aeration and copper induction) over five responses (μ, αLacc, βLacc, maximal volumetric laccase activity and maximal biomass concentration) were analyzed. P. ostreatus growth was significantly improved when culturing was conducted with high agitation (5.9kW/m(3)s) and aeration flow (0.5vvm) rates. Under the experimental conditions evaluated, no evidence of hydrodynamic stress affecting fungal growth was observed. However, the high agitation and aeration conditions were detrimental for the growth-associated laccase production constant (αLacc), leading to a very complex optimization of the process. The maximal laccase volumetric activity (1.2 and 3.8U/ml for non-induced and copper-induced cultures, respectively) was observed when the culturing was performed at a low agitation rate (0.9kW/m(3)s) and a high aeration flow rate (0.5vvm). Laccase proteolysis may explain the complex interactions observed between agitation and aeration and the effects of these factors on the laccase volumetric activity observed in the cultures.

  8. Mushroom polysaccharides and lipids synthesized in liquid agitated and static cultures. Part I: screening various mushroom species.

    PubMed

    Diamantopoulou, Panagiota; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kapoti, Maria; Komaitis, Michael; Aggelis, George; Philippoussis, Antonios

    2012-06-01

    The effect of four synthetic media containing glucose (initial concentration 30 g l(-1)) on mycelial growth, exopolysaccharides (EPS) and cellular lipids production was examined in 11 mushroom species after 12 and 16 days of culture in static- and shake-flasks. Fatty acid analysis of cellular lipids produced was also performed. Agitation had a positive effect on biomass production, glucose consumption and lipid biosynthesis. Media that favoured the production of biomass were not suitable for EPS biosynthesis and vice versa. Biomass values varied from ~1.0 g l(-1) (Lentinula edodes) to ~19 g l(-1) (Pleurotus ostreatus), while the highest EPS quantity achieved ranged between 1.6 and 1.8 g l(-1) (for Ganoderma lucidum and L. edodes, respectively). Quantities of total cellular lipids varied between 2.5 and 18.5 % w/w, in dry mycelial mass for the fungi tested. Lipid in dry weight values were influenced by the medium composition. Cellular lipids presented noticeable quantities of poly-unsaturated fatty acids like linoleic acid. Compared to most of the mushrooms tested, lipids of Volvariella volvacea were more saturated. The ability of several mushroom species of our study to produce in notable quantities the above-mentioned added-value compounds renders these fungi worthy for further investigations.

  9. The complementary role of SMOS sea surface salinity observations for estimating global ocean salinity state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zeting; Cheng, Lijing; Zhu, Jiang; Lin, Renping

    2016-06-01

    Salinity is a key ocean state property, changes in which reveal the variation of the water cycle and the ocean thermohaline circulation. However, prior to this century, in situ salinity observations were extremely sparse, which decreased the reliability of simulations of ocean general circulation by ocean and climate models. In 2009, sea surface salinity (SSS) observations covered the global ocean via the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, and several versions of global SSS products were subsequently released. How can these data benefit model performance? Previous studies found contradictory results. In this work, we assimilated SMOS-SSS data into the LASG/IAP Climate system Ocean Model (LICOM) using the Ensemble Optimum Interpolation (EnOI) assimilation scheme. To assess and quantify the contribution of SMOS-SSS data to model performance, several tests were conducted. The results indicate that the CECOS/CATDS 2010.V02 SMOS-SSS product can significantly improve model simulations of sea surface/subsurface salinity fields. This study provides the basis for the future assimilation of SMOS-SSS data for short-range climate forecasting.

  10. Spatial and temporal variability in microbial activities of coastal acid saline soils of Goa, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, G. R.; Manjunath, B. L.; Latare, A. M.; D'Souza, R.; Vishwakarma, S.; Singh, N. P.

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the spatio-temporal variability of the microbial activities in coastal saline soils (locally called Khazan) of Goa, India (west coast region). The coastal soil salinity is a major constraint for reduced crop yields and abandonment of farming in these areas. Three replicated global positioning based soil samples (0-0.20 m depth) from each of four salinity groups i.e. non-saline (EC=0.08±0.06 dS m-1), weakly saline (EC=2.04±0.06 dS m-1), moderately saline (EC=3.50±0.57 dS m-1) and strongly saline (EC=5.49±0.49 dS m-1) during three seasons-monsoon, post-monsoon and pre-monsoon were collected. Soil microbial activity in terms of soil microbial carbon (MBC), MBC as a fraction of soil organic carbon (SOC) (MBC/SOC), basal soil respiration (BSR), metabolic quotient (qCO2) and soil enzyme activities-dehydrogenase, phosphatase and urease was tested. In all the seasons, the soil cationic composition depended significantly (p<0.01) on salinity levels and the exchangeable sodium (Na) was the second most dominant among the tested cations. The MBC, MBC/SOC and BSR reduced significantly with increasing salinity, whereas qCO2 increased with increased salinity levels. In general, MBC, MBC/SOC and BSR and soil enzyme activities were observed as: salinity levels-strongly saline < moderately saline < weakly saline < non-saline and season-post-monsoon > monsoon > during pre-monsoon season. The mean MBC and MBC/SOC of non-saline soils were 1.61 and 2.28 times higher than that of strongly saline soils, whereas qCO2 of strongly saline soils was 2.4 times higher than that of non-saline soils. This indirectly indicates the salinity stress on the soil microorganisms. Irrespective of season, the soil enzyme activities decreased significantly (p<0.05) with increasing salinity levels. Suitable countermeasures needs to be taken up to alleviate the depressive salinity effect on the microbial and activity for the sustainable crop production in

  11. Prehospital Use of IM Ketamine for Sedation of Violent and Agitated Patients

    PubMed Central

    Scheppke, Kenneth A.; Braghiroli, Joao; Shalaby, Mostafa; Chait, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Violent and agitated patients pose a serious challenge for emergency medical services (EMS) personnel. Rapid control of these patients is paramount to successful prehospital evaluation and also for the safety of both the patient and crew. Sedation is often required for these patients, but the ideal choice of medication is not clear. The objective is to demonstrate that ketamine, given as a single intramuscular injection for violent and agitated patients, including those with suspected excited delirium syndrome (ExDS), is both safe and effective during the prehospital phase of care, and allows for the rapid sedation and control of this difficult patient population. Methods We reviewed paramedic run sheets from five different catchment areas in suburban Florida communities. We identified 52 patients as having been given intramuscular ketamine 4mg/kg IM, following a specific protocol devised by the EMS medical director of these jurisdictions, to treat agitated and violent patients, including a subset of which would be expected to suffer from ExDS. Twenty-six of 52 patients were also given parenteral midazolam after medical control was obtained to prevent emergence reactions associated with ketamine. Results Review of records demonstrated that almost all patients (50/52) were rapidly sedated and in all but three patients no negative side effects were noted during the prehospital care. All patients were subsequently transported to the hospital before ketamine effects wore off. Conclusion Ketamine may be safely and effectively used by trained paramedics following a specific protocol. The drug provides excellent efficacy and few clinically significant side effects in the prehospital phase of care, making it an attractive choice in those situations requiring rapid and safe sedation especially without intravenous access. PMID:25493111

  12. Genetic variation and plasticity of Plantago coronopus under saline conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smekens, Marret J.; van Tienderen, Peter H.

    2001-08-01

    Phenotypic plasticity may allow organisms to cope with variation in the environmental conditions they encounter in their natural habitats. Salt adaptation appears to be an excellent example of such a plastic response. Many plant species accumulate organic solutes in response to saline conditions. Comparative and molecular studies suggest that this is an adaptation to osmotic stress. However, evidence relating the physiological responses to fitness parameters is rare and requires assessing the potential costs and benefits of plasticity. We studied the response of thirty families derived from plants collected in three populations of Plantago coronopus in a greenhouse experiment under saline and non-saline conditions. We indeed found a positive selection gradient for the sorbitol percentage under saline conditions: plant families with a higher proportion of sorbitol produced more spikes. No effects of sorbitol on fitness parameters were found under non-saline conditions. Populations also differed genetically in leaf number, spike number, sorbitol concentration and percentages of different soluble sugars. Salt treatment led to a reduction of vegetative biomass and spike production but increased leaf dry matter percentage and leaf thickness. Both under saline and non-saline conditions there was a negative trade-off between vegetative growth and reproduction. Families with a high plasticity in leaf thickness had a lower total spike length under non-saline conditions. This would imply that natural selection under predominantly non-saline conditions would lead to a decrease in the ability to change leaf morphology in response to exposure to salt. All other tests revealed no indication for any costs of plasticity to saline conditions.

  13. Growth kinetics of potassium alum crystal in a well-agitated vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Clifford Y.; Yu, K. H.

    1989-08-01

    Growth rates of potassium alum crystal in a well-agitated vessel were determined from the de-supersaturation curve of the solution. The mass transfer and surface integration coefficients were then estimated using the two-step model. Both coefficients were found to increase with increasing crystal size. Judging from the Damköhler number for crystal growth and the over-all order of the growth rate equation, it is concluded that both mass transfer resistance and surface integration resistance are significant in the growth process.

  14. Dexmedetomidine Infusion to Control Agitation due to Anticholinergic Toxidromes in Adolescents, a Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ada; Tobias, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    Dexmedetomidine is an α2-adrenergic agonist approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the sedation of adults who are intubated on mechanical ventilation and in non-intubated adults who are undergoing surgical procedures. However, it has also recently become a commonly used sedative agent in varied clinical settings for the pediatric patient as well. We present the use of dexmedetomidine for sedation in a unique clinical scenario, the severely agitated and combative patient following the intentional misuse of anticholinergic drugs. Its applications in this situation are discussed, and previous reports in the literature are reviewed. PMID:26380573

  15. High-quality fiber fabrication in buffered hydrofluoric acid solution with ultrasonic agitation.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Nianbing; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Wang, Yongzhong; Chen, Rong

    2013-03-01

    An etching method for preparing high-quality fiber-optic sensors using a buffered etchant with ultrasonic agitation is proposed. The effects of etching conditions on the etch rate and surface morphology of the etched fibers are investigated. The effect of surface roughness is discussed on the fibers' optical properties. Linear etching behavior and a smooth fiber surface can be repeatedly obtained by adjusting the ultrasonic power and etchant pH. The fibers' spectral quality is improved as the ratio of the pit depth to size decreases, and the fibers with smooth surfaces are more sensitive to a bacterial suspension than those with rough surfaces.

  16. Methods for determining enzymatic activity comprising heating and agitation of closed volumes

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, David Neil; Henriksen, Emily DeCrescenzo; Reed, David William; Jensen, Jill Renee

    2016-03-15

    Methods for determining thermophilic enzymatic activity include heating a substrate solution in a plurality of closed volumes to a predetermined reaction temperature. Without opening the closed volumes, at least one enzyme is added, substantially simultaneously, to the closed volumes. At the predetermined reaction temperature, the closed volumes are agitated and then the activity of the at least one enzyme is determined. The methods are conducive for characterizing enzymes of high-temperature reactions, with insoluble substrates, with substrates and enzymes that do not readily intermix, and with low volumes of substrate and enzyme. Systems for characterizing the enzymes are also disclosed.

  17. Kinetics of insulin aggregation in aqueous solutions upon agitation in the presence of hydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed Central

    Sluzky, V; Tamada, J A; Klibanov, A M; Langer, R

    1991-01-01

    The stability of protein-based pharmaceuticals (e.g., insulin) is important for their production, storage, and delivery. To gain an understanding of insulin's aggregation mechanism in aqueous solutions, the effects of agitation rate, interfacial interactions, and insulin concentration on the overall aggregation rate were examined. Ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography, and quasielastic light scattering analyses were used to monitor the aggregation reaction and identify intermediate species. The reaction proceeded in two stages; insulin stability was enhanced at higher concentration. Mathematical modeling of proposed kinetic schemes was employed to identify possible reaction pathways and to explain greater stability at higher insulin concentration. Images PMID:1946348

  18. Mass transfer in a bubble-agitated liquid-liquid system

    SciTech Connect

    Clinton, S.D.; Perona, J.J.

    1982-08-01

    A polarographic method was used to measure the mass transfer coefficients between a mercury layer and an aqueous layer agitated by gas bubbles. The effects of gas rate, vessel size, and sparge-tube diameter were studied. The Schmidt number of the aqueous phase was varied by the use of sucrose solutions. The data are well represented by N/sub Sh/.1.33N/sub Re//sup 0.70/N/sub SC//sup 1/3/. 4 refs.

  19. Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder: Confluent Patient History of Agitated Depression, Paroxetine Cessation, and a Tarlov Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Hans Mørch

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a woman suffering from persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) after paroxetine cessation. She was admitted to a psychiatric department and diagnosed with agitated depression. Physical investigation showed no gynaecological or neurological explanation; however, a pelvic MRI scan revealed a Tarlov cyst. Size and placement of the cyst could not explain the patient's symptoms; thus neurosurgical approach would not be helpful. Her depression was treated with antidepressant with little effect. Electroconvulsive therapy improved the patient's symptoms though they did not fully resolve. More awareness of PGAD and thorough interdisciplinary conferences are necessary to insure an unequivocal treatment strategy. PMID:25525548

  20. Effects of viewing a preferred nature image and hearing preferred music on engagement, agitation, and mental status in persons with dementia

    PubMed Central

    Eggert, Julia; Vincent, Ellen; Parker, Veronica; Daily, Shaundra B; Pham, Hiep; Watson, Alison Turner; Summey, Hollie; Roy, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the described exploratory study was to test proactive strategies for enhancing engagement and cognitive ability while diminishing dementia-related disordered behaviors of those diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias. Study participants resided in an Memory Care unit of an assisted living community. Method: The researchers measured the effects of exposure to music and nature images on engagement using the Individualized Dementia Engagement and Activities Scale tool, on cognitive ability using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and on agitation using the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory. Result: The within-subject study design revealed that use of both music and nature images hold promise for reducing undesirable behaviors and improving engagement of residents. Conclusion: The authors suggest caregivers for those with Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias can effectively use nature images and music to improve engagement and reduce disordered behaviors, thus potentially enhancing quality of life for the care recipient as well as the caregiver while possibly reducing the costs of medications used to control dementia-related undesirable behaviors. PMID:26770801

  1. Cd Isotope Fractionation During Adsorption Varies with Salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasylenki, L. E.; Montanez, G.; Anbar, A. D.

    2009-12-01

    Because its marine concentration profile is very similar to that of phosphate [1], Cd is considered to have potential as a paleophosphate or paleonutrient proxy in the geologic record. Previous work [2,3] has established that lighter isotopes of Cd are preferentially assimilated by phytoplankton, leaving surface waters isotopically heavy. Another recent study [4] suggests that analysis of Cd isotope variations in transects of ferromanganese crusts could reveal past variations in the extent to which Cd, and thus phosphate, has been depleted over time. This idea presumes that the extent of consumption of Cd by phytoplankton is reflected in the isotopic composition of seawater and that the Cd isotopic composition of seawater is in turn faithfully recorded in ferromanganese crusts. To test the latter assumption, Rehkämper et al. [4] measured the Cd isotopic composition of 15 Fe-Mn crusts from various ocean basins and found that 13 of those samples were within analytical error of the Cd isotopic composition of deep seawater from [3], indicating that Cd often does not fractionate appreciably during incorporation into ferromanganese crusts. Other studies [5,6] have likewise revealed little or no variation in Cd isotopic compositions among various terrestrial rocks and carbonaceous chondrites, suggesting that few earth processes significantly fractionate Cd isotopes. To test this conclusion experimentally, we performed adsorption experiments in which aqueous Cd was allowed to adsorb to synthetic birnessite (Mn oxyhydroxide). Stock solutions of dissolved Cd and birnessite suspension were mixed and agitated from 1 to 48 hours at room temperature. Some experiments had 0.1m KNO3 as background electrolyte, while others had 0.3m NaCl + 0.1m KNO3. After filtration, both the fluid with remaining dissolved Cd and solids with adsorbed Cd were purified with anion exchange chemistry. Column yields and proportions of dissolved and adsorbed Cd were determined by ICP-MS, and isotope

  2. Isohaline Salinity Budget of the North Atlantic Salinity Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, F.; Bachman, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study (SPURS) field experiment was designed as a multi-scale investigation of the processes that give rise to the North Atlantic subtropical salinity maximum. The choice of control volume influences the processes that dominate budgets of ocean properties. In this study we analyze the salinity budget of the North Atlantic subtropical salinity maximum region for control volumes bounded by isohaline surfaces. We provide closed budgets based on output from a high-resolution numerical simulation, and partial budgets based on climatological analyses of observations. With this choice of control volume, advection is eliminated from the instantaneous volume integrated salt budget, and time mean advection eliminated from the budget evaluated from time-averaged data. In this way, the role of irreversible mixing processes in the maintenance and variability of the salinity maximum are more readily revealed. By carrying out the analysis with near instantaneous and time-filtered model output, the role of mesoscale eddies in stirring and mixing for this region is determined. We find that the small-scale mixing acting on enhanced gradients generated by the mesoscale eddies is approximately equal to that acting on the large-scale gradients estimated from climatological mean conditions. The isohaline salinity budgets can be related to water mass transformation rates associated with surface forcing and mixing processes in a straightforward manner. We find that the surface net evaporation in the North Atlantic salinity maximum region accounts for a transformation of 7 Sv of water into the salinity maximum in the simulation, whereas the estimate based on climatological observations is 10 Sv.

  3. Distinguishing saline from nonsaline rangelands with Skylab imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everitt, J. H.; Gerbermann, A. H.; Cuellar, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    A flight line in Starr County, Texas, was used to test the feasibility of distinguishing saline from nonsaline rangelands using very small scale (1:3,000,000), Skylab satellite imagery. Film optical density readings were made on six different films (four black-and-white, one conventional, and one infrared color) using various film/filter combinations. Differentiating between saline and nonsaline rangelands was possible by using microdensitometry on black-and-white Skylab imagery.

  4. 40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... estuary. The downstream migration of the salinity gradient can occur, displacing the maximum sedimentation... migration of the salinity gradient displacing the maximim sedimentation zone. This migration may...

  5. 40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... estuary. The downstream migration of the salinity gradient can occur, displacing the maximum sedimentation... migration of the salinity gradient displacing the maximim sedimentation zone. This migration may...

  6. Shear and mixing effects on cells in agitated microcarrier tissue culture reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, Robert S.; Papoutsakis, E. Terry

    1987-01-01

    Tissue cells are known to be sensitive to mechanical stresses imposed on them by agitation in bioreactors. The amount of agitation provided in a microcarrier or suspension bioreactor should be only enough to provide effective homogeneity. Three distinct flow regions can be identified in the reactor: bulk turbulent flow, bulk laminar flow and boundary-layer flows. Possible mechanisms of cell damage are examined by analyzing the motion of microcarriers or free cells relative to the surrounding fluid, to each other and to moving or stationary solid surfaces. The primary mechanisms of cell damage appear to result from: (1) direct interaction between microcarriers and turbulent eddies; (2) collisions between microcarriers in turbulent flow; and (3) collisions against the impeller or other stationary surfaces. If the smallest eddies of turbulent flow are of the same size as the microcarrier beads, they may cause high shear stresses on the cells. Eddies the size of the average interbead spacing may cause bead-bead collisions which damage cells. The severity of the collisions increases when the eddies are also of the same size as the beads. Impeller collisions occur when beads cannot avoid the impeller leading edge as it advances through the liquid. The implications of the results of this analysis on the design and operation of tissue culture reactors are discussed.

  7. Phonological studies of the new gas-induced agitated reactor using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Yang, T C; Hsu, Y C; Wang, S F

    2001-06-01

    An ozone-induced agitated reactor has been found to be very effective in degrading industrial wastewater. However, the cost of the ozone generation as well as its short residence time in reactors has restricted its application in a commercial scale. An innovated gas-induced draft tube installed inside a conventional agitated reactor was proved to effectively retain the ozone in a reactor. The setup was demonstrated to significantly promote the ozone utilization rate up to 96% from the conventional rate of 60% above the onset speed. This work investigates the mixing mechanism of an innovated gas-induced reactor for the future scale-up design by using the technique of computational fluid dynamics. A three-dimensional flow model was proposed to compute the liquid-gas free surface as well as the flow patterns inside the reactor. The turbulent effects generated by two 45 degrees pitch-blade turbines were considered and the two phases mixing phenomena were also manipulated by the Eulerian-Eulerian techniques. The consistency of the free surface profiles and the fluid flow patterns proved a good agreement between computational results and the experimental observation. PMID:11482384

  8. Magnetically agitated photocatalytic reactor for photocatalytic oxidation of aqueous phase organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Kostedt, William L; Drwiega, Jack; Mazyck, David W; Lee, Seung-Woo; Sigmund, Wolfgang; Wu, Chang-Yu; Chadik, Paul

    2005-10-15

    A magnetically agitated photocatalytic reactor (MAPR) has been developed and assessed for oxidation of phenol. The MAPR uses a titanium dioxide composite photocatalyst with a ferromagnetic barium ferrite core. The catalyst motion was controlled with a dual-component magnetic field. First, a permanent magnet above the reactor provided a static magnetic field to counteract the force of gravity, hence increasing catalyst exposure to UV. Second, an alternating magnetic field generated by a solenoid was used to agitate the catalyst, thus increasing mass transfer between pollutants and byproducts to the catalyst. Optimal performance of the MAPR was achieved with the permanent magnet present and 1 A of alternating current to the solenoid between 20 and 80 Hz. Operating with a 60-Hz signal at 1 A with the permanent magnet present and 100 mg of catalyst, the system reduced an 11 mg/L phenol concentration by97% and decreased nonpurgeable dissolved organic carbon by 93% in 7 h using three 8-W 365-nm peak UV lamps.

  9. [Aconite in homeopathic relief of post-operative pain and agitation in children].

    PubMed

    Alibeu, J P; Jobert, J

    1990-01-01

    Despite the use of modern analgesic methods and an improved use of narcotics, the combination pain-agitation sometimes persists in the recovery-room. Aconit seems to be an appropriate homeopathic treatment in this case. To prescribe it, the following conditions must be combined: violence and suddeness of the stress bringing about intense and anguish. The study included 50 children with such symptoms; it was carried out double-blind, the children being given either placebo or Aconit. Aconit proved to be effective for children's postoperative agitation with 95% good results. It is usually stated in such studies that the placebo effect is high and may reach rates higher than 30%. Aconit is an amazing cure when well prescribed, as much for the speediness of its action as for its efficiency. This remedy has a place in the recovery-room and should be in every physician's emergency case. The fundamental research could specify how the remedy works and may be discover other molecules effective for stress.

  10. The Interactive Relationship between Pain, Psychosis, and Agitation in People with Dementia: Results from a Cluster-Randomised Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Habiger, Torstein F; Flo, Elisabeth; Achterberg, Wilco P; Husebo, Bettina S

    2016-01-01

    Background. Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in people with dementia, and pain is thought to be an important underlying factor. Pain has previously been associated with agitation, and pain treatment has been shown to ameliorate agitated behaviour. So far, the association between pain and psychosis and the effect of pain treatment on psychotic symptoms is unclear. Furthermore, the impact of opioid treatment on psychosis is not established. Aim. To investigate the efficacy of a stepwise protocol for treating pain (SPTP) on psychosis and agitation measured with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, Nursing Home version, and to explore the impact of opioid analgesics on psychosis. Method. Secondary analyses are from a cluster-randomised controlled trial including 352 patients with advanced dementia and agitation from 18 nursing homes in Western Norway. The intervention group received pain treatment according to SPTP. Results. Pain was associated with disinhibition (adjusted OR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.10-1.34) and irritability (adjusted OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01-1.21) at baseline. Pain treatment reduced agitation (p < 0.001, df = 1; 300) and aberrant motor behaviour (p = 0.017, df = 1; 300). Psychosis was reduced in people with at least one symptom at baseline (p = 0.034, df = 1; 135). The use of opioid analgesics did not increase psychotic symptoms. Study Registration. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01021696), Norwegian Medicines Agency, EudraCT (EudraCTnr: 2008-007490-20). PMID:27247487

  11. Saline aquifer mapping project in the southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Lester J.; Spechler, Rick M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a study of saline aquifers in the southeastern United States to evaluate the potential use of brackish or saline water from the deeper portions of the Floridan aquifer system and the underlying Coastal Plain aquifer system (Fig. 1). The objective of this study is to improve the overall understanding of the available saline water resources for potential future development. Specific tasks are to (1) develop a digital georeferenced database of borehole geophysical data to enable analysis and characterization of saline aquifers (see locations in Fig. 1), (2) identify and map the regional extent of saline aquifer systems and describe the thickness and character of hydrologic units that compose these systems, and (3) delineate salinity variations at key well sites and along section lines to provide a regional depiction of the freshwater-saltwater interfaces. Electrical resistivity and induction logs, coupled with a variety of different porosity logs (sonic, density, and neutron), are the primary types of borehole geophysical logs being used to estimate the water quality in brackish and saline formations. The results from the geophysical log calculations are being compared to available water-quality data obtained from water wells and from drill-stem water samples collected in test wells. Overall, the saline aquifer mapping project is helping to improve the understanding of saline water resources in the area. These aquifers may be sources of large quantities of water that could be treated by using reverse osmosis or similar technologies, or they could be used for aquifer storage and recovery systems.

  12. A simple collapse, agitation and pathological crying in a young woman? - Atypical onset of a basilar thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Etgen, Thorleif; Milankovic-Eberl, Dragana; Rieder, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Background A collapse and agitation in a young person comprises many differential diagnoses, but usually does not include a life-threatening basilar thrombosis. Methods and Results We report the case of a 19-year old woman who presented mainly with a collapse and agitation. CT and CT-angiography yielded distal basilar thrombosis which was successfully treated by intraarterial thrombolysis. MRI confirmed multiple small ischemic lesions in the vertebrobasilar territory. The patient improved quickly and returned to her normal daily activities of life after a few months. Conclusions Posterior circulation ischemia should be included among the possible differential diagnoses of any acute onset of an agitated or confusional state. Conflicts of interest/Disclosures None to declare. Ethics Written informed consent of the patient has been obtained. PMID:25422712

  13. Dewaxing process using agitated heat exchanger to chill solvent-oil and wax slurry to wax filtration temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Broadhurst, Th.E.

    1984-04-10

    In an improved process for dewaxing waxy hydrocarbon oils, wherein said waxy oil is cooled in an indirect chilling zone to a temperature greater than the wax separation temperature whereby wax is precipitated to form a wax-oil-solvent slurry, cooling the slurry to the wax separation temperature in an indirect chilling zone thereby precipitating a further portion of wax from said waxy oil and separating said precipitated wax from the wax-oil-solvent slurry in solid-liquid separation means, the improvement comprises using as the indirect chilling zone an indirect heat exchanger means operated at a high level of agitation. Expressed in terms of Impeller Reynolds Number the agitation is on the order of about 1,000 to 1,000,000. Alternatively, the direct chilling zone is totally replaced by the high agitation indirect heat exchanger means.

  14. [Effective Dexmedetomidine Administration for the Prevention of Emergence Agitation and Postoperative Delirium in Patients with a History of Postoperative Delirium].

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Takanobu; Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Fujiwara, Atsushi; Kido, Haruki; Minami, Toshiaki

    2016-04-01

    We successfully performed intraoperative dexmedetomidine (DEX) administration for the prevention of emergence agitation or postoperative delirium after lung resection in four patients (71.3 ± 5.7 year old, 3 males and 1 female) with a past history of postoperative delirium. DEX was started at 0.35-0.45 μg x kg(-1) x hr(-1) continuously without loading. The average time from DEX initiation to extubation was 141.3 ± 94.4 minutes. No patient had emergence agitation, and DEX administration was continued until the following morning with monitoring in all patients without any symptoms of delirium. Intraoperative DEX administration may be beneficial for the prevention of emergence agitation or postoperative delirium in patients with a past history of postoperative delirium. PMID:27188116

  15. [Effective Dexmedetomidine Administration for the Prevention of Emergence Agitation and Postoperative Delirium in Patients with a History of Postoperative Delirium].

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Takanobu; Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Fujiwara, Atsushi; Kido, Haruki; Minami, Toshiaki

    2016-04-01

    We successfully performed intraoperative dexmedetomidine (DEX) administration for the prevention of emergence agitation or postoperative delirium after lung resection in four patients (71.3 ± 5.7 year old, 3 males and 1 female) with a past history of postoperative delirium. DEX was started at 0.35-0.45 μg x kg(-1) x hr(-1) continuously without loading. The average time from DEX initiation to extubation was 141.3 ± 94.4 minutes. No patient had emergence agitation, and DEX administration was continued until the following morning with monitoring in all patients without any symptoms of delirium. Intraoperative DEX administration may be beneficial for the prevention of emergence agitation or postoperative delirium in patients with a past history of postoperative delirium.

  16. Could high salinity be used to control bullfrogs in small ponds?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, David L.; Finch, Colton; Blasius, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    We examined survival of bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) eggs and tadpoles at 3 ppt and 6 ppt salinity in the laboratory to determine if low-level salinity could be used to eradicate bullfrogs from small ponds that contain native fishes. Bullfrog eggs and tadpoles <10 days old experienced 100% mortality when held at 6 ppt salinity for 10 days. Bullfrog tadpoles 10–15 days old experienced significantly reduced survival when exposed to salinity of 6 ppt for 10 days. Older bullfrog tadpoles (>9 months old) appeared unaffected by 14 days of 6 ppt salinity. Salinity of 3 ppt did not impact survival of bullfrog tadpole eggs or tadpoles at any of the life stages we tested. Adding salt to ponds in the early spring to increase salinity to 6 ppt may be a cost effective way to eradicate bullfrogs from small ponds without harming native fishes.

  17. Saline as the Sole Contrast Agent for Successful MRI-guided Epidural Injections

    SciTech Connect

    Deli, Martin; Mateiescu, Serban Busch, Martin; Becker, Jan Garmer, Marietta Groenemeyer, Dietrich

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. To assess the performance of sterile saline solution as the sole contrast agent for percutaneous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided epidural injections at 1.5 T. Methods. A retrospective analysis of two different techniques of MRI-guided epidural injections was performed with either gadolinium-enhanced saline solution or sterile saline solution for documentation of the epidural location of the needle tip. T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo (FLASH) images or T2-weighted single-shot turbo spin echo (HASTE) images visualized the test injectants. Methods were compared by technical success rate, image quality, table time, and rate of complications. Results. 105 MRI-guided epidural injections (12 of 105 with gadolinium-enhanced saline solution and 93 of 105 with sterile saline solution) were performed successfully and without complications. Visualization of sterile saline solution and gadolinium-enhanced saline solution was sufficient, good, or excellent in all 105 interventions. For either test injectant, quantitative image analysis demonstrated comparable high contrast-to-noise ratios of test injectants to adjacent body substances with reliable statistical significance levels (p < 0.001). The mean table time was 22 {+-} 9 min in the gadolinium-enhanced saline solution group and 22 {+-} 8 min in the saline solution group (p = 0.75). Conclusion. Sterile saline is suitable as the sole contrast agent for successful and safe percutaneous MRI-guided epidural drug delivery at 1.5 T.

  18. Impact of salinity on the anaerobic metabolism of phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) and glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAO).

    PubMed

    Welles, L; Lopez-Vazquez, C M; Hooijmans, C M; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Brdjanovic, D

    2014-09-01

    The use of saline water as secondary quality water in urban environments for sanitation is a promising alternative towards mitigating fresh water scarcity. However, this alternative will increase the salinity in the wastewater generated that may affect the biological wastewater treatment processes, such as biological phosphorus removal. In addition to the production of saline wastewater by the direct use of saline water in urban environments, saline wastewater is also generated by some industries. Intrusion of saline water into the sewers is another source of salinity entering the wastewater treatment plant. In this study, the short-term effects of salinity on the anaerobic metabolism of phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) and glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAO) were investigated to assess the impact of salinity on enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Hereto, PAO and GAO cultures enriched at a relatively low salinity level (0.02 % W/V) were exposed to salinity concentrations of up to 6 % (as NaCl) in anaerobic batch tests. It was demonstrated that both PAO and GAO are affected by higher salinity levels, with PAO being the more sensitive organisms to the increasing salinity. The maximum acetate uptake rate of PAO decreased by 71 % when the salinity increased from 0 to 1 %, while that of GAO decreased by 41 % for the same salinity increase. Regarding the stoichiometry of PAO, a decrease in the P-release/HAc uptake ratio accompanied with an increase in the glycogen consumption/HAc uptake ratio was observed for PAO when the salinity increased from 0 to 2 % salinity, indicating a metabolic shift from a poly-P-dependent to a glycogen-dependent metabolism. The anaerobic maintenance requirements of PAO and GAO increased as the salinity concentrations risen up to 4 % salinity. PMID:24831025

  19. Impact of salinity on the anaerobic metabolism of phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) and glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAO).

    PubMed

    Welles, L; Lopez-Vazquez, C M; Hooijmans, C M; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Brdjanovic, D

    2014-09-01

    The use of saline water as secondary quality water in urban environments for sanitation is a promising alternative towards mitigating fresh water scarcity. However, this alternative will increase the salinity in the wastewater generated that may affect the biological wastewater treatment processes, such as biological phosphorus removal. In addition to the production of saline wastewater by the direct use of saline water in urban environments, saline wastewater is also generated by some industries. Intrusion of saline water into the sewers is another source of salinity entering the wastewater treatment plant. In this study, the short-term effects of salinity on the anaerobic metabolism of phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) and glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAO) were investigated to assess the impact of salinity on enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Hereto, PAO and GAO cultures enriched at a relatively low salinity level (0.02 % W/V) were exposed to salinity concentrations of up to 6 % (as NaCl) in anaerobic batch tests. It was demonstrated that both PAO and GAO are affected by higher salinity levels, with PAO being the more sensitive organisms to the increasing salinity. The maximum acetate uptake rate of PAO decreased by 71 % when the salinity increased from 0 to 1 %, while that of GAO decreased by 41 % for the same salinity increase. Regarding the stoichiometry of PAO, a decrease in the P-release/HAc uptake ratio accompanied with an increase in the glycogen consumption/HAc uptake ratio was observed for PAO when the salinity increased from 0 to 2 % salinity, indicating a metabolic shift from a poly-P-dependent to a glycogen-dependent metabolism. The anaerobic maintenance requirements of PAO and GAO increased as the salinity concentrations risen up to 4 % salinity.

  20. Numerical simulation of mixing in a jet agitated horizontal cylindrical tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zughbi, Habib D.

    2006-02-01

    Mixing in a fluid jet agitated large horizontal cylindrical tank is simulated using computational fluid dynamics. A known volume of hot fluid is mixed with a cooler main fluid in a large tank. Temperature measurements are used to quantify mixing. Results show that the blending time is largely dependent on the flow patterns generated inside the tank. These flow patterns are a function of the tank geometry, the location of the jet and the angle at which the jet is injected. The role played by the length of the jet in determining the blending time is not as great as was thought by earlier workers. A significant reduction in blending times, ranging from 600% at a Reynolds number of 40,000 to 350% at a Reynolds number of 60,000, is achieved by changing the location and/or the angle of the incoming jet in a way that results in a better flow circulation.

  1. Cultivation of microorganisms in an air-solid fluidized bed fermentor with agitators

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, M.; Kawaide, A.; Matsuno, R.

    1986-09-01

    The productivity of a cell mass of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and enzymes of Eupenicillium javanicum increased by cultivation in an air-solid fluidized bed fermentor with agitators. The usefulness of the apparatus for the fluidized bed culture was verified. The productivity of amylase and protease of the fungus by fluidized bed culture was twice as high as that by stationary culture, considering the dry weight of cells and the enzyme activity. Physiological properties of yeast cells were changed by the fludized bed culture; there was a decrease in the cell size of yeast and changes to the aerobic properties of the yeast cells resulting from excessive supply of oxygen with a high flowrate of air. 8 references.

  2. Mechanism of continuous-phase mass transfer in agitated liquid-liquid systems

    SciTech Connect

    Skelland, A.H.P.; Moeti, L.T. )

    1990-11-01

    In this paper data are reported on 180 area-free, continuous-phase mass-transfer coefficients for 9 turbine-agitated liquid-liquid systems in baffled vessels. Criteria are established that identify the prevailing class of mass-transfer mechanisms for systems of intermediate or high interfacial tension with low {phi}---namely, k{sub c} {proportional to} D{sub c}{sup 2/3} {mu}{sub c}{sup {minus}1/3} N{sup 3/2}. It is also deduced that k{sub c} {proportional to} d{sub p}{sup 0} for the combined ranges of d{sub p}, {Delta}{rho}, and {mu}{sub c} investigated. A subsidiary result is the correlation of the k{sub c} values obtained, on the basis of local isotropic turbulence theory for the inertial subrange of eddy sizes.

  3. Reactor concepts for atomic layer deposition on agitated particles: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Longrie, Delphine Deduytsche, Davy; Detavernier, Christophe

    2014-01-15

    The number of possible applications for nanoparticles has strongly increased in the last decade. For many applications, nanoparticles with different surface and bulk properties are necessary. A popular surface modification technique is coating the particle surface with a nanometer thick layer. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is known as a reliable method for depositing ultrathin and conformal coatings. In this article, agitation or fluidization of the particles is necessary for performing ALD on (nano)particles. The principles of gas fluidization of particles will be outlined, and a classification of the gas fluidization behavior of particles based on their size and density will be given. Following different reactor concepts that have been designed to conformally coat (nano)particles with ALD will be described, and a concise overview will be presented of the work that has been performed with each of them ending with a concept reactor for performing spatial ALD on fluidized particles.

  4. Estimation of turbulence dissipation rate by Large eddy PIV method in an agitated vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kysela, Bohuš; Jašíková, Darina; Konfršt, Jiří; Šulc, Radek; Ditl, Pavel

    2015-05-01

    The distribution of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate is important for design of mixing apparatuses in chemical industry. Generally used experimental methods of velocity measurements for measurement in complex geometries of an agitated vessel disallow measurement in resolution of small scales close to turbulence dissipation ones. Therefore, Particle image velocity (PIV) measurement method improved by large eddy Ply approach was used. Large eddy PIV method is based on modeling of smallest eddies by a sub grid scale (SGS) model. This method is similar to numerical calculations using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and the same SGS models are used. In this work the basic Smagorinsky model was employed and compared with power law approximation. Time resolved PIV data were processed by Large Eddy PIV approach and the obtained results of turbulent kinetic dissipation rate were compared in selected points for several operating conditions (impeller speed, operating liquid viscosity).

  5. Entropy correlates with Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ankur; Singh, Preet Mohinder; Trikha, Anjan; Rewari, Vimi; Chandralekha

    2014-04-01

    Sedation is routinely used in intensive care units. However due to absence of objective scoring systems like Bispectral Index and entropy our ability to regulate the degree of sedation is limited. This deficiency is further highlighted by the fact that agitation scores used in intensive care units (ICU) have no role in paralyzed patients. The present study compares entropy as a sedation scoring modality with Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS) in mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients in an ICU. Twenty-seven, mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients of either sex, 16-65 years of age, were studied over a period of 24 h. They received a standard sedation regimen consisting of a bolus dose of propofol 0.5 mg/kg and fentanyl 1 lg/kg followed by infusions of propofol and fentanyl ranging from 1.5 to 5 mg/kg/h and 0.5 to 2.0 lg/kg/h, respectively. Clinically relevant values of RASS for optimal ICU sedation (between 0 and -3) in non-paralyzed patients were compared to corresponding entropy values, to find if any significant correlation exists between the two. These entropy measurements were obtained using the Datex-Ohmeda-M-EntropyTM module. This module is presently not approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for monitoring sedation in ICU. A total of 527 readings were obtained. There was a statistically significant correlation between the state entropy (SE) and RASS [Spearman's rho/rs = 0.334, p\\0.0001]; response entropy (RE) and RASS [Spearman's rho/rs = 0.341, p\\0.0001]). For adequate sedation as judged by a RASS value of 0 to -3, the mean SE was 57.86 ± 16.50 and RE was 67.75 ± 15.65. The present study illustrates that entropy correlates with RASS (between scores 0 and -3) when assessing the level of sedation in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients.

  6. Reducing fischer-tropsch catalyst attrition losses in high agitation reaction systems

    DOEpatents

    Singleton, Alan H.; Oukaci, Rachid; Goodwin, James G.

    2001-01-01

    A method for reducing catalyst attrition losses in hydrocarbon synthesis processes conducted in high agitation reaction systems; a method of producing an attrition-resistant catalyst; a catalyst produced by such method; a method of producing an attrition-resistant catalyst support; and a catalyst support produced by such method. The inventive method of reducing catalyst attrition losses comprises the step of reacting a synthesis gas in a high agitation reaction system in the presence of a catalyst. In one aspect, the catalyst preferably comprises a .gamma.-alumina support including an amount of titanium effective for increasing the attrition resistance of the catalyst. In another aspect, the catalyst preferably comprises a .gamma.-alumina support which has been treated, after calcination, with an acidic, aqueous solution. The acidic aqueous solution preferably has a pH of not more than about 5. In another aspect, the catalyst preferably comprises cobalt on a .gamma.-alumina support wherein the cobalt has been applied to the .gamma.-alumina support by totally aqueous, incipient wetness-type impregnation. In another aspect, the catalyst preferably comprises cobalt on a .gamma.-alumina support with an amount of a lanthana promoter effective for increasing the attrition resistance of the catalyst. In another aspect, the catalyst preferably comprises a .gamma.-alumina support produced from boehmite having a crystallite size, in the 021 plane, in the range of from about 30 to about 55 .ANG.ngstrons. In another aspect, the inventive method of producing an attrition-resistant catalyst comprises the step of treating a .gamma.-alumina support, after calcination of and before adding catalytic material to the support, with an acidic solution effective for increasing the attrition resistance of the catalyst. In another aspect, the inventive method of producing an attrition-resistant catalyst support comprises the step of treating calcined .gamma.-alumina with an acidic, aqueous

  7. Medication Development for Agitation and Aggression in Alzheimer Disease: Review and Discussion of Recent Randomized Clinical Trial Design

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Maria; Andrieu, Sandrine; Nourhashemi, Fati; Ousset, Pierre Jean; Ballard, Clive; Robert, Philippe; Vellas, Bruno; Lyketsos, Constantine; Rosenberg, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background The management of disruptive neuropsychiatric symptom (NPS) such as agitation and aggression (A/A) is a major priority in caring for people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Few effective pharmacological or non-pharmacological options are available. Results of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of drugs for A/A have been disappointing. This may result from the absence of biological efficacy for medications tested in treating A/A. It may also be related to methodological issues such as the choice of outcomes. The aim of this review was to highlight key methodological issues pertaining to RCTs of current and emerging medications for the treatment of A/A in AD. Methods We searched PubMed/Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ClinicalTrials.gov for RCTs comparing medications with either placebo or other drugs in the treatment of A/A in AD, between January 2008 and December 2013. Results We identified a total of 18 RCTs; of these, 11 were completed and 7 ongoing. Of the ongoing RCTs, only one is in Phase III. Seven of 10 completed RCTs with reported results did not report greater benefit from drug than placebo. Each of the completed RCTs used a different definition of “clinically significant A/A”. There was considerable heterogeneity in study desin. The primary endpoints were largely proxy-based but a variety of scales were used. The definition of caregiver and scales used to assess caregiver outcomes were similarly heterogeneous. Placebo response was notable in all trials. Conclusions This review highlights a great heterogeneity in RCTs design of drugs for A/A in AD and some key methodological issues such as definition of A/A, choice of outcome measures and caregiver participation that could be addressed by an expert consensus to optimize future trials design. PMID:25226218

  8. Palm-based diacylglycerol fat dry fractionation: effect of crystallisation temperature, cooling rate and agitation speed on physical and chemical properties of fractions.

    PubMed

    Ab Latip, Razam; Lee, Yee-Ying; Tang, Teck-Kim; Phuah, Eng-Tong; Lee, Choon-Min; Tan, Chin-Ping; Lai, Oi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Fractionation which separates the olein (liquid) and stearin (solid) fractions of oil is used to modify the physicochemical properties of fats in order to extend its applications. Studies showed that the properties of fractionated end products can be affected by fractionation processing conditions. In the present study, dry fractionation of palm-based diacylglycerol (PDAG) was performed at different: cooling rates (0.05, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0°C/min), end-crystallisation temperatures (30, 35, 40, 45 and 50°C) and agitation speeds (30, 50, 70, 90 and 110 rpm) to determine the effect of these parameters on the properties and yield of the solid and liquid portions. To determine the physicochemical properties of olein and stearin fraction: Iodine value (IV), fatty acid composition (FAC), acylglycerol composition, slip melting point (SMP), solid fat content (SFC), thermal behaviour tests were carried out. Fractionation of PDAG fat changes the chemical composition of liquid and solid fractions. In terms of FAC, the major fatty acid in olein and stearin fractions were oleic (C18:1) and palmitic (C16:0) respectively. Acylglycerol composition showed that olein and stearin fractions is concentrated with TAG and DAG respectively. Crystallization temperature, cooling rate and agitation speed does not affect the IV, SFC, melting and cooling properties of the stearin fraction. The stearin fraction was only affected by cooling rate which changes its SMP. On the other hand, olein fraction was affected by crystallization temperature and cooling rate but not agitation speed which caused changes in IV, SMP, SFC, melting and crystallization behavior. Increase in both the crystallization temperature and cooling rate caused a reduction of IV, increment of the SFC, SMP, melting and crystallization behaviour of olein fraction and vice versa. The fractionated stearin part melted above 65°C while the olein melted at 40°C. SMP in olein fraction also reduced to a range of 26 to

  9. Palm-based diacylglycerol fat dry fractionation: effect of crystallisation temperature, cooling rate and agitation speed on physical and chemical properties of fractions

    PubMed Central

    Ab Latip, Razam; Lee, Yee-Ying; Tang, Teck-Kim; Phuah, Eng-Tong; Lee, Choon-Min; Tan, Chin-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Fractionation which separates the olein (liquid) and stearin (solid) fractions of oil is used to modify the physicochemical properties of fats in order to extend its applications. Studies showed that the properties of fractionated end products can be affected by fractionation processing conditions. In the present study, dry fractionation of palm-based diacylglycerol (PDAG) was performed at different: cooling rates (0.05, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0°C/min), end-crystallisation temperatures (30, 35, 40, 45 and 50°C) and agitation speeds (30, 50, 70, 90 and 110 rpm) to determine the effect of these parameters on the properties and yield of the solid and liquid portions. To determine the physicochemical properties of olein and stearin fraction: Iodine value (IV), fatty acid composition (FAC), acylglycerol composition, slip melting point (SMP), solid fat content (SFC), thermal behaviour tests were carried out. Fractionation of PDAG fat changes the chemical composition of liquid and solid fractions. In terms of FAC, the major fatty acid in olein and stearin fractions were oleic (C18:1) and palmitic (C16:0) respectively. Acylglycerol composition showed that olein and stearin fractions is concentrated with TAG and DAG respectively. Crystallization temperature, cooling rate and agitation speed does not affect the IV, SFC, melting and cooling properties of the stearin fraction. The stearin fraction was only affected by cooling rate which changes its SMP. On the other hand, olein fraction was affected by crystallization temperature and cooling rate but not agitation speed which caused changes in IV, SMP, SFC, melting and crystallization behavior. Increase in both the crystallization temperature and cooling rate caused a reduction of IV, increment of the SFC, SMP, melting and crystallization behaviour of olein fraction and vice versa. The fractionated stearin part melted above 65°C while the olein melted at 40°C. SMP in olein fraction also reduced to a range of 26 to

  10. Palm-based diacylglycerol fat dry fractionation: effect of crystallisation temperature, cooling rate and agitation speed on physical and chemical properties of fractions.

    PubMed

    Ab Latip, Razam; Lee, Yee-Ying; Tang, Teck-Kim; Phuah, Eng-Tong; Lee, Choon-Min; Tan, Chin-Ping; Lai, Oi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Fractionation which separates the olein (liquid) and stearin (solid) fractions of oil is used to modify the physicochemical properties of fats in order to extend its applications. Studies showed that the properties of fractionated end products can be affected by fractionation processing conditions. In the present study, dry fractionation of palm-based diacylglycerol (PDAG) was performed at different: cooling rates (0.05, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0°C/min), end-crystallisation temperatures (30, 35, 40, 45 and 50°C) and agitation speeds (30, 50, 70, 90 and 110 rpm) to determine the effect of these parameters on the properties and yield of the solid and liquid portions. To determine the physicochemical properties of olein and stearin fraction: Iodine value (IV), fatty acid composition (FAC), acylglycerol composition, slip melting point (SMP), solid fat content (SFC), thermal behaviour tests were carried out. Fractionation of PDAG fat changes the chemical composition of liquid and solid fractions. In terms of FAC, the major fatty acid in olein and stearin fractions were oleic (C18:1) and palmitic (C16:0) respectively. Acylglycerol composition showed that olein and stearin fractions is concentrated with TAG and DAG respectively. Crystallization temperature, cooling rate and agitation speed does not affect the IV, SFC, melting and cooling properties of the stearin fraction. The stearin fraction was only affected by cooling rate which changes its SMP. On the other hand, olein fraction was affected by crystallization temperature and cooling rate but not agitation speed which caused changes in IV, SMP, SFC, melting and crystallization behavior. Increase in both the crystallization temperature and cooling rate caused a reduction of IV, increment of the SFC, SMP, melting and crystallization behaviour of olein fraction and vice versa. The fractionated stearin part melted above 65°C while the olein melted at 40°C. SMP in olein fraction also reduced to a range of 26 to

  11. Desertification, salinization, and biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Miyazono, Seiji; Patiño, Reynaldo; Taylor, Christopher M

    2015-04-01

    This study determined long-term changes in fish assemblages, river discharge, salinity, and local precipitation, and examined hydrological drivers of biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem, the Trans-Pecos region of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte (USA/Mexico). Historical (1977-1989) and current (2010-2011) fish assemblages were analyzed by rarefaction analysis (species richness), nonmetric multidimensional scaling (composition/variability), multiresponse permutation procedures (composition), and paired t-test (variability). Trends in hydrological conditions (1970s-2010s) were examined by Kendall tau and quantile regression, and associations between streamflow and specific conductance (salinity) by generalized linear models. Since the 1970s, species richness and variability of fish assemblages decreased in the Rio Grande below the confluence with the Rio Conchos (Mexico), a major tributary, but not above it. There was increased representation of lower-flow/higher-salinity tolerant species, thus making fish communities below the confluence taxonomically and functionally more homogeneous to those above it. Unlike findings elsewhere, this biotic homogenization was due primarily to changes in the relative abundances of native species. While Rio Conchos discharge was>2-fold higher than Rio Grande discharge above their confluence, Rio Conchos discharge decreased during the study period causing Rio Grande discharge below the confluence to also decrease. Rio Conchos salinity is lower than Rio Grande salinity above their confluence and, as Rio Conchos discharge decreased, it caused Rio Grande salinity below the confluence to increase (reduced dilution). Trends in discharge did not correspond to trends in precipitation except at extreme-high (90th quantile) levels. In conclusion, decreasing discharge from the Rio Conchos has led to decreasing flow and increasing salinity in the Rio Grande below the confluence. This spatially uneven desertification and

  12. Desertification, salinization, and biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miyazono, S.; Patino, Reynaldo; Taylor, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study determined long-term changes in fish assemblages, river discharge, salinity, and local precipitation, and examined hydrological drivers of biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem, the Trans-Pecos region of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte (USA/Mexico). Historical (1977-1989) and current (2010-2011) fish assemblages were analyzed by rarefaction analysis (species richness), nonmetric multidimensional scaling (composition/variability), multiresponse permutation procedures (composition), and paired t-test (variability). Trends in hydrological conditions (1970s-2010s) were examined by Kendall tau and quantile regression, and associations between streamfiow and specific conductance (salinity) by generalized linear models. Since the 1970s, species richness and variability of fish assemblages decreased in the Rio Grande below the confluence with the Rio Conchos (Mexico), a major tributary, but not above it. There was increased representation of lower-flow/higher-salinity tolerant species, thus making fish communities below the confluence taxonomically and functionally more homogeneous to those above it. Unlike findings elsewhere, this biotic homogenization was due primarily to changes in the relative abundances of native species. While Rio Conchos discharge was > 2-fold higher than Rio Grande discharge above their confluence, Rio Conchos discharge decreased during the study period causing Rio Grande discharge below the confluence to also decrease. Rio Conchos salinity is lower than Rio Grande salinity above their confluence and, as Rio Conchos discharge decreased, it caused Rio Grande salinity below the confluence to increase (reduced dilution). Trends in discharge did not correspond to trends in precipitation except at extreme-high (90th quantile) levels. In conclusion, decreasing discharge from the Rio Conchos has led to decreasing flow and increasing salinity in the Rio Grande below the confluence. This spatially uneven desertification and

  13. Desertification, salinization, and biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Miyazono, Seiji; Patiño, Reynaldo; Taylor, Christopher M

    2015-04-01

    This study determined long-term changes in fish assemblages, river discharge, salinity, and local precipitation, and examined hydrological drivers of biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem, the Trans-Pecos region of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte (USA/Mexico). Historical (1977-1989) and current (2010-2011) fish assemblages were analyzed by rarefaction analysis (species richness), nonmetric multidimensional scaling (composition/variability), multiresponse permutation procedures (composition), and paired t-test (variability). Trends in hydrological conditions (1970s-2010s) were examined by Kendall tau and quantile regression, and associations between streamflow and specific conductance (salinity) by generalized linear models. Since the 1970s, species richness and variability of fish assemblages decreased in the Rio Grande below the confluence with the Rio Conchos (Mexico), a major tributary, but not above it. There was increased representation of lower-flow/higher-salinity tolerant species, thus making fish communities below the confluence taxonomically and functionally more homogeneous to those above it. Unlike findings elsewhere, this biotic homogenization was due primarily to changes in the relative abundances of native species. While Rio Conchos discharge was>2-fold higher than Rio Grande discharge above their confluence, Rio Conchos discharge decreased during the study period causing Rio Grande discharge below the confluence to also decrease. Rio Conchos salinity is lower than Rio Grande salinity above their confluence and, as Rio Conchos discharge decreased, it caused Rio Grande salinity below the confluence to increase (reduced dilution). Trends in discharge did not correspond to trends in precipitation except at extreme-high (90th quantile) levels. In conclusion, decreasing discharge from the Rio Conchos has led to decreasing flow and increasing salinity in the Rio Grande below the confluence. This spatially uneven desertification and

  14. Reducing Agitated-Disruptive Behavior of Mentally Retarded Residents of Community Group Homes: The Role of Self-Recording and Peer-Prompted Self-Recording.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, R. Matthew; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Agitated-disruptive behavior from three mentally retarded adults in community group homes was reduced using procedures that included a self-recorded differential reinforcement of other behavior point fines for agitated-disruptive behavior, social skills training, and relaxation training. (Author/CL)

  15. 40 CFR 63.1028 - Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., based on design considerations and operating experience, criteria that indicates failure of the seal... the design criteria and an explanation of the design criteria; and any changes to these criteria and the reasons for the changes. (2) No external shaft. Any agitator that is designed with no...

  16. The effects of nutrient concentration, addition of thickeners, and agitation speed on liquid fermentation of Steinernema feltiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Therefore, this study was aimed at developing a more suitable liquid media for mass production of Steinernema feltiae, by assessing the effects of nutrient concentration, media viscosity, and agitation speed on infective juvenile (IJ) yield. For all the experiments, the base medium contained yeast ...

  17. 40 CFR 65.109 - Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... service and in light liquid service. 65.109 Section 65.109 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service. (a) Compliance schedule. The owner or... system that purges the barrier fluid into a process stream. (ii) The barrier fluid is not in light...

  18. 40 CFR 63.173 - Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... light liquid organic HAP service. (3) Each barrier fluid system is equipped with a sensor that will... service and in light liquid service. 63.173 Section 63.173 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Equipment Leaks § 63.173 Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service. (a)(1)...

  19. 40 CFR 63.173 - Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... light liquid organic HAP service. (3) Each barrier fluid system is equipped with a sensor that will... service and in light liquid service. 63.173 Section 63.173 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Equipment Leaks § 63.173 Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service. (a)(1)...

  20. 40 CFR 65.109 - Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... service and in light liquid service. 65.109 Section 65.109 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service. (a) Compliance schedule. The owner or... system that purges the barrier fluid into a process stream. (ii) The barrier fluid is not in light...

  1. 40 CFR 63.173 - Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... light liquid organic HAP service. (3) Each barrier fluid system is equipped with a sensor that will... service and in light liquid service. 63.173 Section 63.173 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Equipment Leaks § 63.173 Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service. (a)(1)...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1009 - Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in light liquid service standards. 63.1009 Section 63.1009 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... § 63.1009 Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards. (a) Compliance... the barrier fluid into a process stream. (ii) The barrier fluid is not in light liquid service....

  3. 40 CFR 65.109 - Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... service and in light liquid service. 65.109 Section 65.109 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service. (a) Compliance schedule. The owner or... system that purges the barrier fluid into a process stream. (ii) The barrier fluid is not in light...

  4. 40 CFR 65.109 - Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... service and in light liquid service. 65.109 Section 65.109 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service. (a) Compliance schedule. The owner or... system that purges the barrier fluid into a process stream. (ii) The barrier fluid is not in light...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1028 - Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in light liquid service standards. 63.1028 Section 63.1028 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Standards § 63.1028 Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards. (a) Compliance... barrier fluid into a process stream. (ii) The barrier fluid is not in light liquid service. (iii)...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1028 - Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in light liquid service standards. 63.1028 Section 63.1028 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Standards § 63.1028 Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards. (a) Compliance... barrier fluid into a process stream. (ii) The barrier fluid is not in light liquid service. (iii)...

  7. 40 CFR 63.173 - Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... light liquid organic HAP service. (3) Each barrier fluid system is equipped with a sensor that will... service and in light liquid service. 63.173 Section 63.173 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Equipment Leaks § 63.173 Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service. (a)(1)...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1009 - Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in light liquid service standards. 63.1009 Section 63.1009 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... § 63.1009 Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards. (a) Compliance... the barrier fluid into a process stream. (ii) The barrier fluid is not in light liquid service....

  9. 40 CFR 63.1010 - Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and instrumentation systems standards. 63.1010 Section 63.1010 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE...

  10. How to Radicalize Graduate Students: Take These Simple Steps to Intimidate, Alienate, and Agitate Your Own Flock of Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffen, Heather

    2011-01-01

    As the recession, budget cuts, endowment losses, and Republican governors gut university funding, campuses across the country have become host to occupations, union actions, and demonstrations. One can take steps to intimidate, alienate, and agitate a flock of graduate students. The author discusses steps that offer simple ways to rile up and…

  11. 40 CFR 63.173 - Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... leakage from the seal or seals to a process or fuel gas system or to a control device that complies with... agitator shall be monitored monthly to detect leaks by the methods specified in § 63.180(b) of this subpart... system that includes a barrier fluid system is exempt from the requirements of paragraph (a) of...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1009 - Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reservoir that is routed to a process or fuel gas system or connected by a closed vent system to a control... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 1... in the referencing subpart. (b) Leak detection—(1) Monitoring method. Each agitator seal shall...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1028 - Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or fuel gas system or connected by a closed-vent system to a control device that meets the... process or fuel gas system that captures and transports leakage from the agitator to a control device... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level...

  14. 40 CFR 65.109 - Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... system to a control device that meets the requirements of § 65.115; or (C) Equipped with a closed-loop...) Leak detection—(1) Monitoring method. Each agitator seal shall be monitored monthly to detect leaks by the methods specified in § 65.104(b) and (c), except as provided in § 65.102(b) or paragraph (e)...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1028 - Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... or fuel gas system or connected by a closed-vent system to a control device that meets the... process or fuel gas system that captures and transports leakage from the agitator to a control device... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1009 - Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reservoir that is routed to a process or fuel gas system or connected by a closed vent system to a control... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 1... in the referencing subpart. (b) Leak detection—(1) Monitoring method. Each agitator seal shall...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1029 - Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and instrumentation systems... instrumentation systems standards. (a) Compliance schedule. The owner or operator shall comply with this section... instrumentation systems shall be monitored within 5 calendar days by the method specified in § 63.1023(b) and,...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1010 - Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and instrumentation systems... instrumentation systems standards. (a) Compliance schedule. The owner or operator shall comply with this section... instrumentation systems shall be monitored within 5 calendar days by the method specified in § 63.1004(b)...

  19. Magnetically driven agitation in a tube mixer affords clog-resistant fast mixing independent of linear velocity.

    PubMed

    Dolman, Sarah J; Nyrop, Jason L; Kuethe, Jeffrey T

    2011-02-01

    An economical and simple flow mixer based on magnetically driven agitation in a tube (MDAT) is reported. Mixing via MDAT compared favorably to both Tee and multilaminar mixers at low flow and was successfully used to screen and optimize two challenging organometallic reactions at low temperature without clogging or the need for high dilution. PMID:21235265

  20. Effects of ultrasonic agitation and surfactant additive on surface roughness of Si (111) crystal plane in alkaline KOH solution.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Qingbin; Tan, Xin; Zhu, Jiwei; Feng, Shulong; Gao, Jianxiang

    2016-07-01

    In the silicon wet etching process, the "pseudo-mask" formed by the hydrogen bubbles generated during the etching process is the reason causing high surface roughness and poor surface quality. Based upon the ultrasonic mechanical effect and wettability enhanced by isopropyl alcohol (IPA), ultrasonic agitation and IPA were used to improve surface quality of Si (111) crystal plane during silicon wet etching process. The surface roughness Rq is smaller than 15 nm when using ultrasonic agitation and Rq is smaller than 7 nm when using IPA. When the range of IPA concentration (mass fraction, wt%) is 5-20%, the ultrasonic frequency is 100 kHz and the ultrasound intensity is 30-50 W/L, the surface roughness Rq is smaller than 2 nm when combining ultrasonic agitation and IPA. The surface roughness Rq is equal to 1 nm when the mass fraction of IPA, ultrasound intensity and the ultrasonic frequency is 20%, 50 W and 100 kHz respectively. The experimental results indicated that the combination of ultrasonic agitation and IPA could obtain a lower surface roughness of Si (111) crystal plane in silicon wet etching process.

  1. A study for the thermal treatment of dehydrated sewage sludge with gas-agitated double screw type dryer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hey-Suk; Shin, Mi-Soo; Jang, Dong-Soon; Na, Eun-Soo

    2005-01-01

    A specially designed dryer has been developed for the thermal treatment of dehydrated, highly viscous sewage sludge with moisture content more than 80 wt.% by an gas-agitated, double-screw type dryer system. The treatment capacity of sludge dryer was about 100 kg/h. It consists of burner, feeding hopper, hot gas supplying ducts with double screw conveyor, damper and outlets of drying gas and dried material. The sewage sludge was transported by the revolution of the cylinder conveyor together with the tumbling and mixing action of the screw and lifters. The heating of the sludge was made efficient by the combination action of conduction and convection modes together with the gas-agitation process. The conduction occurred across the surface of the combustor cylinder, the convection was made by the flue gas interaction over the sludge and the agitation action through holes of conveyor cylinder into the bottom of the sludge. The number and location of gas-agitation holes and thereby the fraction of drying gas into the agitation holes were evaluated by numerical calculation of turbulent reacting flow. To evaluate the performance of the dryer developed in this study, a series of parametric experiments were performed in terms of important variables. In general drying process occurred successfully even for the highly agglomerating municipal sewage sludge through the first lumped plastic phase to a fine granulate state when the heat and mass balance was matched by adjusting rpm of the conveyor, burner capacity, and the fraction of gas-agitation. Further the avoidance of initial sludge agglomeration was considered to be important by the combination action of screw and lifter. The weight of the sludge was reduced approximately by 60% and therefore the volume of sludge was decreased to approximately 75% of initial volume with the water content of 10-20%. Energy efficiency of dryer was evaluated in the range of 70-75% at the sludge feed rate, 100 kg/h. The results obtained show

  2. Effects of salinity on striped bass eggs and larvae from the Savannah River, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winger, P.V.; Lasier, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Operation of a tide gate installed in the Savannah River by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to reduce dredging activities increased salinities upstream in important spawning habitat for striped bass Morone saxatilis. To assess the effects of salinity on survival and growth of striped bass at early life stages, newly fertilized eggs and 48-h-posthatch were exposed to serial dilutions of seawater, with salinities ranging from 0 to 33 permill (g/L) in increments of 3 permill in addition, older larvae (5-d posthatch) were exposed to salinities of 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 permill. Eggs were exposed until 24 h posthatch, 48-h-posthatch larvae were exposed for 10 d, and 5-d-posthatch larvae were exposed for 6 d. Eggs died within 24 h in salinities greater than 18 permill. Both survival and total length of larvae hatched from eggs exposed to salinities of 15 permill or higher were reduced. Percent mortality and mean total lengths of newly hatched larvae followed the same pattern for each of three sets of salinity regimes (i.e., changes in salinities over time) that striped bass eggs might encounter during passage downstream in the Savannah River. Hardening eggs in freshwater did not increase survival or length of hatched larvae over that shown by eggs hardened in saline water. The 5-d-posthatch larvae were less sensitive to salinity than the 48-h-posthatch larvae. Survival of larvae was negatively con-elated with both salinity and exposure time. For 48-h-posthatch larvae, the 10-d LC50 (the salinity lethal to 50% of the test fish within 10 d) was 10 permill. Probabilities of survival for larval striped bass exposed to different salinities for different amounts of time can be estimated from curves generated from models of survival analysis. Salinities judged to be critical to Savannah River striped bass eggs and larvae are those greater than 9 permill.

  3. [Management of agitated, violent or psychotic patients in the emergency department: an overdue protocol for an increasing problem].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Busselo, M T; Aragó Domingo, J; Nuño Ballesteros, A; Loño Capote, J; Ochando Perales, G

    2005-12-01

    Patients with extreme agitation, delirium, violent behavior or acute psychosis are frequently evaluated in the emergency departments of general hospitals. However, the traditional infrequency of this type of situation in pediatric emergency services can lead to a certain lack of foresight and efficiency in the initial management of these patients. Because of the current known increase of psychosocial disorders in pediatric emergencies, new pharmacological treatments for juvenile psychotic processes, and particularly the lack of compliance with these treatments, as well as the earlier consumption of ever more varied illicit drugs among young people, the frequency and diversity of this kind of disorder is on the increase. The treatment of agitation, aggression and violence begins with successful management of the acute episode, followed by strategies designed to reduce the intensity and frequency of subsequent episodes. The key to safety is early intervention to prevent progression from agitation to aggression and violence. Consequently, urgent measures designed to inhibit agitation should be adopted without delay by the staff initially dealing with the patient, usually in the emergency unit. Patients with psychomotor agitation disorder (PMAD) may require emergency physical and/or chemical restraints for their own safety and that of the healthcare provider in order to prevent harmful clinical sequelae and to expedite medical evaluation to determine the cause. However, the risks of restraint measures must be weighed against the benefits in each case. This review aims to present the emergency measures to be taken in children with PMAD. The distinct etiological situations and criteria for the choice of drugs for chemical restraint in each situation, as well as the complications associated with certain drugs, are discussed. It is advisable, therefore, that health professionals become familiar with the distinct pharmacological options.

  4. Mycelial bacteria of saline soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvyagintsev, D. G.; Zenova, G. M.; Oborotov, G. V.

    2008-10-01

    The actinomycetal complexes of saline soils comprise the representatives of the Streptomyces and Micromonospora genera, the number of which are hundreds and thousands of CFU/g soil. Complexes of mycelial bacteria in saline soils are poorer in terms of number (by 1-3 orders of magnitude) and taxonomic composition than the complexes of the zonal soil types. A specific feature of the actinomycetal complexes of saline soils is the predominance of halophilic, alkaliphilic, and haloalkaliphilic streptomycetes that well grow at pH 8-9 and concentrations of NaCl close to 5%. Actinomycetes in saline soils grow actively, and the length of their mycelium reaches 140 m in 1 gram of soil. The haloalkaliphilic streptomycetes grow fast and inhibit the formation of spores at pH 9 and high concentrations of salts (Na2SO4 and MgCl2, 5%) as compared to their behavior on a neutral medium with a salt concentration of 0.02%. They are characterized by the maximal radial growth rate of colonies on an alkaline medium with 5% NaCl.

  5. Determining Salinity by Simple Means.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This paper describes the construction and use of a simple salinometer. The salinometer is composed, mainly, of a milliammeter and a battery and uses the measurement of current flow to determine the salinity of water. A complete list of materials is given, as are details of construction and operation of the equipment. The use of the salinometer in…

  6. Use of seagrass meadows as an adaptation measure to climate change for reducing port agitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Arcilla, Agustín; Lin, Jue; Pau Sierra, Joan; Gracia, Vicenç; Casas-Prat, Merce; Virgili, Marc

    2014-05-01

    One of the best-known consequences of the greenhouse effect and the resulting global warming is sea-level rise. However, sea level rise is not the only process of concern to coastal communities. The greenhouse effect and the complex interactions in atmospheric processes is expected to produce changes in near-surface wind and pressure patterns, which in turn can affect the pattern of another important coastal driver: the wave field. Changes in wave conditions can affect the wave pattern within harbours as shown by Casas-Prat and Sierra (2012), increasing port agitation and, as a consequence, reducing the safety and comfort of the users, decreasing operation performance or even generating port inactivity. This effect will be enhanced by an increase in mean sea level. To avoid costly structural measure there are "green" options such as sea-grass that can attenuate wave energy (Koftis et al., 2013), since their roots induce sea bottom roughness and their stems and leaves increase the drag coefficient. The combined effect of vegetation is, thus, to create drag forces that dissipate part of the energy from incoming waves. Casas-Prat and Sierra (2013) showed that wave patterns may change in the future in certain areas of the Catalan Coast (northwestern Mediterranean) and as a consequence port agitation could be affected by changes in wave height or direction as well in those areas. The suggested "green" measures can help to prevent potential negative effects on port operations. The adaptive approach, depending on the downscaled climatic projections, would combine vegetation (as for example the existence of a sea-grass meadow in the vicinity of the harbour entrance) with some structural reinforcement if required. In this paper, the wave projections of Casas-Prat and Sierra (2013) are used together with a Boussinesq-type model to study wave propagation in several harbours of the Catalan Coast. This analysis of harbour oscillations is carried out for present conditions and

  7. Salinization: unplumbed salt in a parched landscape.

    PubMed

    Williams, W D

    2001-01-01

    The global hydrological and salt cycles are described, as are the ways in which human activities have led to their disturbance. One effect of this disturbance is the unnatural increase in the salinity of many inland waters (secondary salinization). The geographical extent of secondary salinization is outlined, together with its effects on various types of inland waters, such as salt lakes, freshwater lakes and wetlands, and rivers and streams. The likely impact on salinization of global climate change is summarized.

  8. Stennis Space Center Salinity Drifter Project. A Collaborative Project with Hancock High School, Kiln, MS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalcic, Maria; Turowski, Mark; Hall, Callie

    2010-01-01

    Presentation topics include: importance of salinity of coastal waters, habitat switching algorithm, habitat switching module, salinity estimates from Landsat for Sabine Calcasieu Basin, percent of time inundated in 2006, salinity data, prototyping the system, system as packaged for field tests, salinity probe and casing, opening for water flow, cellular antenna used to transmit data, preparing to launch, system is launched in the Pearl River at Stennis Space Center, data are transmitted to Twitter by cell phone modem every 15 minutes, Google spreadsheet I used to import the data from the Twitter feed and to compute salinity (from conductivity) and display charts of salinity and temperature, results are uploaded to NASA's Applied Science and Technology Project Office Webpage.

  9. Use of LANDSAT-1 data for the detection and mapping of saline seeps in Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, G. A. (Principal Investigator); Petersen, G. W.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. April, May, and August are the best times to detect saline seeps. Specific times within these months would be dependent upon weather, phenology, and growth conditions. Saline seeps can be efficiently and accurately mapped, within resolution capabilities, from merged May and August LANDSAT 1 data. Seeps were mapped by detecting salt crusts in the spring and indicator plants in the fall. These indicator plants were kochia, inkweed, and foxtail barley. The total hectares of the mapped saline seeps were calculated and tabulated. Saline seeps less than two hectares in size or that have linear configurations less than 200 meters in width were not mapped using the LANDSAT 1 data. Saline seep signatures developed in the Coffee Creek test site were extended to map saline seeps located outside this area.

  10. [Study on spatial variability of soil salinity based on spectral indices and EM38 readings].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ya-kun; Yang, Jin-song; Li, Xiao-ming

    2009-04-01

    Taking Feng-qiu County as a case of soil salinization widely existing in the semiarid region, the spatial variability of soil salinity was investigated by using remote sensing and EM (electromagnetic induction) technologies in the present study. Descriptive statistics was applied to soil salinity data interpreted from EM38 measurements using field sampling method. Spectral indices (soil index and plant index) were derived from 25-resolution Landsat TM image taken in April 2005, and proved to be significantly correlated with soil salinity interpreted by EM38 readings. Regression models were further established between the interpreted soil electrical conductivity and spectral indices (soil index and plant index), and'spatial distribution patterns across the study area were finally mapped based on the above regression models. Results indicated that soil salinity at each soil layer is from 0.259 to 0.572 and exhibits the moderate spatial variability owing to compound impact of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Spatial distribution maps of soil salinity were obtained with the application of plant index, soil index and EM38 measurements. It was shown that soil salinization, mainly located in the north and south of the study area, exhibited obvious trend effect. Salinity at surface soil was the greatest and showed the trend of a decrease at subsoil layer and then an increase at deep layer in the whole soil profile. The accuracy of the predictions was tested using 40 soil sampled points. The root mean square error (RMSE) of calibration for soil salinity in each layer was 0.094, 0.052, 0.071 and 0.067 ds x m(-1) respectively, showing that the precision is ideal. The change trends of RMSE were the same as soil salinity in soil profile. The trends indicated that soil salinity had effect on the salinity prediction by spectral indices, and showed better accuracy at low soil salinity.

  11. Cellular pathology and histopathology of hypo-salinity exposure on the coral Stylophora pistillata.

    PubMed

    Downs, Craig A; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti; Woodley, Cheryl M; Downs, Aaron; Winters, Gidon; Loya, Yossi; Ostrander, Gary K

    2009-08-15

    Coral reefs can experience extreme salinity changes, particularly hypo-salinity, as a result of storms, heavy rainy seasons (e.g., monsoons), and coastal runoff. Field and laboratory observations have documented that corals exposed to hypo-saline conditions can undergo extensive bleaching and mortality. There is controversy in the literature as to whether hypo-saline conditions induce a pathological response in corals, and if there is a relationship between decreasing salinity treatment and pathological responses. To test the hypothesis that hypo-salinity exposure does not have a pathological effect on coral, we used histological and cellular diagnostic methods to characterize the pathology in hypo-salinity-exposed corals. Colonies of Stylophora pistillata were exposed to five salinity concentrations [39 parts per thousand (ppt), 32 ppt, 28 ppt, 24 ppt, and 20 ppt] that may realistically occur on a reef. Histological examination indicated an increasing severity of pathomorphologies associated with decreasing salinity, including increased tissue swelling, degradation and loss of zooxanthellae, and tissue necrosis. Pulse-amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorimetry kinetics demonstrated a decreasing photosynthetic efficiency with decreasing salinity conditions. Cytochrome P450 levels were affected by even slight changes in salinity concentration suggesting that detoxification pathways, as well as several endocrine pathways, may be adversely affected. Finally, these studies demonstrated that hypo-saline conditions can induce an oxidative-stress response in both the host and in its algal symbiont, and in so doing, may synergistically increase oxidative-stress burdens. As with other types of environmental stresses, exposure to hypo-saline conditions may have long-term consequences on coral physiology.

  12. Salinity tolerance and mycorrhizal responsiveness of native xeroriparian plants in semi-arid western USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beauchamp, Vanessa B.; Walz, C.; Shafroth, P.B.

    2009-01-01

    Restoration of salt-affected soils is a global concern. In the western United States, restoration of salinized land, particularly in river valleys, often involves control of Tamarix, an introduced species with high salinity tolerance. Revegetation of hydrologically disconnected floodplains and terraces after Tamarix removal is often difficult because of limited knowledge regarding the salinity tolerance of candidate native species for revegetation. Additionally, Tamarix appears to be non-mycorrhizal. Extended occupation of Tamarix may deplete arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the soil, further decreasing the success of revegetation efforts. To address these issues, we screened 42 species, races, or ecotypes native to southwestern U.S. for salinity tolerance and mycorrhizal responsiveness. As expected, the taxa tested showed a wide range of responses to salinity and mycorrhizal fungi. This variation also occurred between ecotypes or races of the same species, indicating that seed collected from high-salinity reference systems is likely better adapted to harsh conditions than seed originating from less saline environments. All species tested had a positive or neutral response to mycorrhizal inoculation. We found no clear evidence that mycorrhizae increased salinity tolerance, but some species were so dependent on mycorrhizal fungi that they grew poorly at all salinity levels in pasteurized soil. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Drying process optimization for an API solvate using heat transfer model of an agitated filter dryer.

    PubMed

    Nere, Nandkishor K; Allen, Kimberley C; Marek, James C; Bordawekar, Shailendra V

    2012-10-01

    Drying an early stage active pharmaceutical ingredient candidate required excessively long cycle times in a pilot plant agitated filter dryer. The key to faster drying is to ensure sufficient heat transfer and minimize mass transfer limitations. Designing the right mixing protocol is of utmost importance to achieve efficient heat transfer. To this order, a composite model was developed for the removal of bound solvent that incorporates models for heat transfer and desolvation kinetics. The proposed heat transfer model differs from previously reported models in two respects: it accounts for the effects of a gas gap between the vessel wall and solids on the overall heat transfer coefficient, and headspace pressure on the mean free path length of the inert gas and thereby on the heat transfer between the vessel wall and the first layer of solids. A computational methodology was developed incorporating the effects of mixing and headspace pressure to simulate the drying profile using a modified model framework within the Dynochem software. A dryer operational protocol was designed based on the desolvation kinetics, thermal stability studies of wet and dry cake, and the understanding gained through model simulations, resulting in a multifold reduction in drying time.

  14. Critical review and meta-analysis of serial agitated dilutions in experimental toxicology.

    PubMed

    Linde, K; Jonas, W B; Melchart, D; Worku, F; Wagner, H; Eitel, F

    1994-07-01

    1. We conducted an overview and quantitative meta-analysis of all experimental literature on the protective effects of serial agitated dilutions (SADs) of toxin preparations. 2. Articles were systematically collected and evaluated for scientific quality using pre-defined methodological criteria and then independently analysed for validity. 3. We found 105 publications exploring the effects of SAD preparations in toxicological systems. 4. The quality of evidence in these studies was low with only 43% achieving one half of the maximum possible quality score and only 31% reported in a fashion that permitted reevaluation of the data. 5. Very few studies were independently replicated using comparable models. 6. Among the high quality studies, positive effects were reported 50% more often than negative effects. 7. Four of 5 outcomes meeting quality and comparability criteria for meta-analysis showed positive effects from SAD preparations. 8. Average percent protection over controls in these preparations was 19.7 (95%Cl 6.2-33.2). 9. Further research with special attention to methodological detail and independent replication should be done.

  15. Removal of copper powder from aqueous solution by cementation using an agitated vessel.

    PubMed

    Amin, N K; El-Ashtouky, E-S Z; Abdelwahab, O

    2014-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the removal of copper powder from aqueous solution by cementation on a stationary disc placed inside an agitated vessel. The influence of several parameters on the rate of cementation, such as initial copper sulphate concentration, impeller rotational speed, presence of surfactant (Triton X-100), distance between the disc and the impeller, type of blade turbine and presence of baffles, has been investigated. The rate of cementation was found to increase with increasing impeller rotational speed and initial copper sulphate concentration. On the other hand, the rate decreases with increasing distance between the disc and the impeller. The rate of cementation was inhibited in solutions containing Triton X-100. Performance of a four-blade 90 degree turbine with regard to the rate of copper cementation was superior to the performance of a four-blade 45 degree pitched turbine. The present data can be correlated in terms of mass transfer coefficient of cementation as Sh = 0.905 Sc0.33 Re0.89 (d/l)0.41 (four-blade 90 degree turbine); Sh = 0.815 Sc0.33Re0.79 (d/l)0.47 (four-blade 45 degree pitched turbine), for the conditions 2035 < Sc < 2810 and 35,000 < Re < 179,000.

  16. Systematic microcarrier screening and agitated culture conditions improves human mesenchymal stem cell yield in bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Rafiq, Qasim A.; Coopman, Karen; Nienow, Alvin W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Production of human mesenchymal stem cells for allogeneic cell therapies requires scalable, cost‐effective manufacturing processes. Microcarriers enable the culture of anchorage‐dependent cells in stirred‐tank bioreactors. However, no robust, transferable methodology for microcarrier selection exists, with studies providing little or no reason explaining why a microcarrier was employed. We systematically evaluated 13 microcarriers for human bone marrow‐derived MSC (hBM‐MSCs) expansion from three donors to establish a reproducible and transferable methodology for microcarrier selection. Monolayer studies demonstrated input cell line variability with respect to growth kinetics and metabolite flux. HBM‐MSC1 underwent more cumulative population doublings over three passages in comparison to hBM‐MSC2 and hBM‐MSC3. In 100 mL spinner flasks, agitated conditions were significantly better than static conditions, irrespective of donor, and relative microcarrier performance was identical where the same microcarriers outperformed others with respect to growth kinetics and metabolite flux. Relative growth kinetics between donor cells on the microcarriers were the same as the monolayer study. Plastic microcarriers were selected as the optimal microcarrier for hBM‐MSC expansion. HBM‐MSCs were successfully harvested and characterised, demonstrating hBM‐MSC immunophenotype and differentiation capacity. This approach provides a systematic method for microcarrier selection, and the findings identify potentially significant bioprocessing implications for microcarrier‐based allogeneic cell therapy manufacture. PMID:26632496

  17. Studies on heat transfer to Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids in agitated vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triveni, B.; Vishwanadham, B.; Venkateshwar, S.

    2008-09-01

    Heat transfer studies to Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids are carried out in a stirred vessel fitted with anchor/turbine impeller and a coil for heating/cooling with an objective of determining experimentally the heat transfer coefficient of few industrially important systems namely castor oil and its methyl esters, soap solution, CMC and chalk slurries. The effect of impeller geometry, speed and aeration is investigated. Generalized Reynolds and Prandtl numbers are calculated using an apparent viscosity for non-Newtonian fluids. The data is correlated using a Sieder-Tate type equation. A trend of increase in heat transfer coefficient with RPM in presence and absence of solids has been observed. Relatively high values of Nusselt numbers are obtained for non-Newtonian fluids when aeration is coupled with agitation. The contribution of natural convection to heat transfer has been accounted for by incorporating the Grashof number. The correlations developed based on these studies are applied for design of commercial scale soponification reactor. Power per unit volume resulted in reliable design of a reactor.

  18. Assessing Alzheimer's disease patients with the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory: scoring and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Myron F; Tractenberg, Rochelle E; Jin, Shelia; Gamst, Anthony; Thomas, Ronald G; Koss, Elisabeth; Thal, Leon J

    2002-01-01

    We explored the applicability of the standard scoring of the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI), a widely used nursing-home derived instrument, to community-dwelling persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Item responses to the CMAI were gathered from participants in two large clinical studies, one of which specifically included patients with behavioral disturbances. Confirmatory factor analysis in these two groups of well-characterized AD patients suggested that conventional CMAI subscoring did not adequately describe the responses of these two groups. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that the four CMAI subscores, based on a verbal-physical and aggressive-non-aggressive conceptualization of behavioral disturbance, did not fit community dwelling persons with AD. Based on cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, there was suggestive evidence for three behavioral clusters, but these clusters did not achieve statistical significance Overall, the CMAI seemed best suited to describe the overall level rather than the specific subtypes of behavioral dyscontrol in community-dwelling persons with AD. PMID:11755457

  19. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulations on Multiphase Flow in Mechanically Agitated Seed Precipitation Tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hong-Liang; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Ting-An; Gu, Songqing; Zhang, Chao

    2014-07-01

    The large-scale mechanically agitated tank has been widely used in the decomposition process of sodium aluminate solution in the alumina industry. The mixing process in three types of seed precipitation tanks (Robin, Ekato, and improved Ekato) stirred with multiple impellers was compared by using computational fluid dynamics, respectively. The flow field, solid distribution, mixing time, and power consumption were numerically simulated by adopting a Eulerian granular multiphase model and a standard k- ɛ turbulence model. A steady multiple reference frame approach was used to represent impeller rotation. Compared with the Robin tank, the Ekato tank can generate an axial circulation loop, which is better for fluid mixing and solid suspension; meanwhile about half of the power can be saved. With future improvements in the Ekato tank, the fluid mixing and exchanging can be enhanced under the interaction of a lengthened Intermig impeller coupled with sloped baffles. With a little increase in power consumption, the maximum of the relative solid concentration difference in the whole tank can be maintained within 3%, which meets the design requirement.

  20. CFD investigation of turbulence models for mechanical agitation of non-Newtonian fluids in anaerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Wu, Binxin

    2011-02-01

    This study evaluates six turbulence models for mechanical agitation of non-Newtonian fluids in a lab-scale anaerobic digestion tank with a pitched blade turbine (PBT) impeller. The models studied are: (1) the standard k-ɛ model, (2) the RNG k-ɛ model, (3) the realizable k-ɛ model, (4) the standard k-ω model, (5) the SST k-ω model, and (6) the Reynolds stress model. Through comparing power and flow numbers for the PBT impeller obtained from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with those from the lab specifications, the realizable k-ɛ and the standard k-ω models are found to be more appropriate than the other turbulence models. An alternative method to calculate the Reynolds number for the moving zone that characterizes the impeller rotation is proposed to judge the flow regime. To check the effect of the model setup on the predictive accuracy, both discretization scheme and numerical approach are investigated. The model validation is conducted by comparing the simulated velocities with experimental data in a lab-scale digester from literature. Moreover, CFD simulation of mixing in a full-scale digester with two side-entry impellers is performed to optimize the installation. PMID:21216428

  1. Recovery of Copper from Effluents by Cementation on Aluminum in a Multirotating Cylinder-Agitated Vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Aziz, M. H.; El-Ashtoukhy, E.-S. Z.; Bassyouni, M.

    2016-02-01

    Recovery of copper from synthetic waste solution using cementation technique in a new agitated vessel employing multirotating aluminum cylinders impeller was investigated. Parameters studied are cylinder diameter, rotation speed, initial copper ion concentrations, and effect of surfactants. Solution analysis and scanning electron microscopy were employed to investigate the kinetic and mechanism of the process. The rate of recovery was found to be at its maximum value at the operating conditions of 350 rpm rotation speed, 5000 ppm initial CuSO4 concentration, and 1.2 cm cylinder diameter. All data were correlated by the dimensionless equation: {Sh} = 1.16 {Sc}^{0.33} {Re}^{0.63} ( {{d_{{c}} }/L} )^{0.54}, with an average deviation of ±8.5 pct and a standard deviation of 5.88 pct. Presence of nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactant in the solution decreased the rate of recovery by an amount ranging from 2.94 to 38.57 pct depending on the operating conditions. The present geometry gave higher rates of recovery compared to both the single rotating cylinder and rotating disc reactor.

  2. Reducing agitation energy-consumption by improving rheological properties of corn stover substrate in anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Tian, Libin; Shen, Fei; Yuan, Hairong; Zou, Dexun; Liu, Yanping; Zhu, Baoning; Li, Xiujin

    2014-09-01

    Rheological properties of corn stover substrate were investigated to explore agitation energy reduction potential for different total solid (TS) in anaerobic digestion. The effects of particle size and temperature on rheological properties and corresponding energy reduction were studied. The results indicated that corn stover slurry exhibited pseudo-plastic flow behavior at TS of 4.23-7.32%, and was well described by Power-law model. At TS of 4.23%, rheological properties were not obviously affected by particle size and temperature. However, when TS was increased to 7.32%, there was 10.37% shear stress reduction by size-reduction from 20 to 80-mesh, and 11.73% shear stress reduction by temperature-increase from 25 to 55 °C. PTS was advanced as variations of power consumption by TS-increase from 4.23% to 7.32%. There was 9.2% PTS-reduction by size-reduction from 20 to 80-mesh at 35 °C. Moreover, PTS-reduction of 10.3%/10 °C was achieved at 20-mesh compared with 9.0%/10 °C at 80-mesh.

  3. Spatial variability of sugarcane yields in relation to soil salinity in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High soil salinity levels have been documented to negatively impact sugarcane yields. Tests were conducted in commercial sugarcane fields in South Louisiana in 2009-2010 to determine if elevated soil salinity levels resulting from salt water intrusion from several recent hurricanes was having a neg...

  4. The Aquarius Salinity Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meissner, Thomas; Wentz, Frank; Hilburn, Kyle; Lagerloef, Gary; Le Vine, David

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this presentation gives an overview over the Aquarius salinity retrieval algorithm. The instrument calibration [2] converts Aquarius radiometer counts into antenna temperatures (TA). The salinity retrieval algorithm converts those TA into brightness temperatures (TB) at a flat ocean surface. As a first step, contributions arising from the intrusion of solar, lunar and galactic radiation are subtracted. The antenna pattern correction (APC) removes the effects of cross-polarization contamination and spillover. The Aquarius radiometer measures the 3rd Stokes parameter in addition to vertical (v) and horizontal (h) polarizations, which allows for an easy removal of ionospheric Faraday rotation. The atmospheric absorption at L-band is almost entirely due to molecular oxygen, which can be calculated based on auxiliary input fields from numerical weather prediction models and then successively removed from the TB. The final step in the TA to TB conversion is the correction for the roughness of the sea surface due to wind, which is addressed in more detail in section 3. The TB of the flat ocean surface can now be matched to a salinity value using a surface emission model that is based on a model for the dielectric constant of sea water [3], [4] and an auxiliary field for the sea surface temperature. In the current processing only v-pol TB are used for this last step.

  5. Impact assessment of subsurface drainage on waterlogged and saline lands.

    PubMed

    Ghumman, Abdul R; Ghazaw, Yousry Mahmoud; Niazi, Muhammed F; Hashmi, Hashim N

    2011-01-01

    Waterlogging and salinity due to seepage from canals have polluted land and environment in various parts of Pakistan. A sustainable environment requires urgent remedial measures for this problem. The research in this paper presents the impacts of the Fourth Drainage Project, Faisalabad on the twin problem of waterlogging and salinity. Monitoring of the project was made on regular basis. The key performance indicators for the project include the lowering of water table, improvement of water quality and soil salinity, increase in area under cultivation, cropping intensity, and socioeconomic status of the project population. Data regarding water levels and discharge from the drain pipes were collected to monitor the impact on waterlogging. Soil samples were tested to evaluate the impact of drainage on land. It has been found that the percentage of the contaminated land in the project area has considerably been decreased, while the cropping intensities have been increased.

  6. Protective effects of Healon and Occucoat against air bubble endothelial damage during ultrasonic agitation of the anterior chamber.

    PubMed

    Monson, M C; Tamura, M; Mamalis, N; Olson, R J; Olson, R J

    1991-09-01

    An important aspect of any new viscoelastic substance is the corneal endothelial protection. We compared the protective effects of sodium hyaluronate (Healon) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (Occucoat) by introducing a controlled volume of air bubbles into the anterior chamber of human eye bank eyes during ultrasonic agitation of the anterior chamber. Eight eyes received Healon and 11 eyes received Occucoat. Damage to endothelial cells in the central cornea was quantified by vital staining. Endothelial damage averaged 4.5% in eyes in which no viscoelastic was used (positive control); damage was 0.4% in eyes in which a viscoelastic was injected but no air bubbles were introduced (negative control). We found that endothelial damage averaged 4.25% in specimens that received air plus Healon and 1.4% in specimens that received air plus Occucoat. Occucoat appeared to have somewhat better protective effects than Healon against air bubble damage to the corneal endothelium during ultrasonic agitation of the anterior chamber.

  7. Radiocesium and radioiodine in soil particles agitated by agricultural practices: field observation after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, N; Eguchi, S; Fujiwara, H; Hayashi, K; Tsukada, H

    2012-05-15

    Three weeks after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, we determined the activity concentrations of (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs in atmospheric dust fugitively resuspended from soil particles due to soil surface perturbation by agricultural practices. The atmospheric concentrations of (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs increased because of the agitation of soil particles by a hammer-knife mower and a rotary tiller. Coarse soil particles were primarily agitated by the perturbation of the soil surface of Andosols. For dust particles smaller than 10 μm, the resuspension factors of radiocesium during the operation of agricultural equipment were 16-times higher than those under background condition. Before tillage, most of the radionuclides accumulated within a few cm of the soil surface. Tillage diluted their concentration in the uppermost soil layer.

  8. Prevalence and clinical significance of subsyndromal manic symptoms, including irritability and psychomotor agitation, during bipolar major depressive episodes

    PubMed Central

    Judd, Lewis L.; Schettler, Pamela J.; Akiskal, Hagop; Coryell, William; Fawcett, Jan; Fiedorowicz, Jess G.; Solomon, David A.; Keller, Martin B.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence that subsyndromal manic symptoms occur frequently during bipolar major depressive episodes (MDEs) and may be a subtle form of ‘depressive mixed state.’ This paper examines the prevalence and clinical characteristics of MDEs with subsyndromal manic symptoms. The specific effects of overt irritability and psychomotor agitation are examined. Methods Bipolar (type I or II) patients with an MDE at intake (N=142) were compared based on the presence or absence of concurrent subsyndromal manic symptoms. The groups were further subdivided by the presence of symptoms of overt irritability and/or psychomotor agitation. Results Subsyndromal manic symptoms during bipolar MDEs were highly prevalent (76.1%), and were associated with significantly increased severity of depression/dysphoria in the intake episode, longer episode duration, and more suicidal ideation and behavior (past, current, and during long-term follow-up). Overt irritability and psychomotor agitation were the most prevalent subsyndromal manic symptoms (co-occurring in 57% and 39% of MDEs, respectively), and accounted for most of the negative effects associated with subsyndromal manic symptoms. Limitations The findings need to be confirmed in larger samples, which also examine the relationship to adequate antidepressant and/or mood stabilizing treatment. Conclusions The presence of one or more subsyndromal manic symptoms appears to be the modal presentation of bipolar MDEs and a marker for a subtle form of bipolar mixed depressive state. In particular, patients with symptoms of overt irritability and/or psychomotor agitation should be monitored closely to avoid serious clinical outcomes such as longer affective episodes, exacerbation of manic symptoms syndromal mania, and heightened suicidality. PMID:22314261

  9. Agitation of amyloid proteins to speed aggregation measured by ThT fluorescence: a call for standardization.

    PubMed

    Batzli, Kiersten M; Love, Brian J

    2015-03-01

    This retrospective study of protein aggregation measured by Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence assay in published literature has assessed protein sensitivity to denaturing conditions that include elevated temperatures, fluctuations in pH, and concentration and, in particular, agitation to induce amyloid structure formation. The dynamic tracking of fluorescence shows a sigmoidal evolution as aggregates form; the resulting kinetics of association have been analyzed to explore the range of aggregation behavior which occurs based on environmental parameters. Comparisons between the experimental results of different groups have been historically difficult due to subtleties of experimental procedures including denaturing temperature, protein type and concentration, formulation differences, and how agitation is achieved. While it is clear that agitation has a strong influence on the driving force for aggregation, the use of magnetic stirring bar or shaker table rotational speed is insufficient to characterize the degree of turbulence produced during shear. The pathway forward in resolving dependence of aggregate formation on shear may require alternative methodologies or better standardization of the experimental protocols.

  10. Effect of visual art on patient anxiety and agitation in a mental health facility and implications for the business case.

    PubMed

    Nanda, U; Eisen, S; Zadeh, R S; Owen, D

    2011-06-01

    There is a growing body of evidence on the impact of the environment on health and well-being. This study focuses on the impact of visual artworks on the well-being of psychiatric patients in a multi-purpose lounge of an acute care psychiatric unit. Well-being was measured by the rate of pro re nata (PRN) medication issued by nurses in response to visible signs of patient anxiety and agitation. Nurses were interviewed to get qualitative feedback on the patient response. Findings revealed that the ratio of PRN/patient census was significantly lower on the days when a realistic nature photograph was displayed, compared to the control condition (no art) and abstract art. Nurses reported that some patients displayed agitated behaviour in response to the abstract image. This study makes a case for the impact of visual art on mental well-being. The research findings were also translated into the time and money invested on PRN incidents, and annual cost savings of almost $US30,000 a year was projected. This research makes a case that simple environmental interventions like visual art can save the hospital costs of medication, and staff and pharmacy time, by providing a visual distraction that can alleviate anxiety and agitation in patients.

  11. Hydrogeologic processes in saline systems: Playas, sabkhas, and saline lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yechieli, Y.; Wood, W.W.

    2002-01-01

    Pans, playas, sabkhas, salinas, saline lakes, and salt flats are hydrologically similar, varying only in their boundary conditions. Thus, in evaluating geochemical processes in these systems, a generic water and solute mass-balance approach can be utilized. A conceptual model of a coastal sabkha near the Arabian Gulf is used as an example to illustrate the various water and solute fluxes. Analysis of this model suggests that upward flux of ground water from underlying formations could be a major source of solutes in the sabkha, but contribute only a small volume of the water. Local rainfall is the main source of water in the modeled sabkha system with a surprisingly large recharge-to-rainfall ratio of more than 50%. The contribution of seawater to the solute budget depends on the ratio of the width of the supratidal zone to the total width and is generally confined to a narrow zone near the shoreline of a typical coastal sabkha. Because of a short residence time of water, steady-state flow is expected within a short time (50,000 years). The solute composition of the brine in a closed saline system depends largely on the original composition of the input water. The high total ion content in the brine limits the efficiency of water-rock interaction and absorption. Because most natural systems are hydrologically open, the chemistry of the brines and the associated evaporite deposits may be significantly different than that predicted for hydrologically closed systems. Seasonal changes in temperature of the unsaturated zone cause precipitation of minerals in saline systems undergoing evaporation. Thus, during the hot dry season months, minerals exhibit retrograde solubility so that gypsum, anhydrite and calcite precipitate. Evaporation near the surface is also a major process that causes mineral precipitation in the upper portion of the unsaturated zone (e.g. halite and carnallite), provided that the relative humidity of the atmosphere is less than the activity of water

  12. Passive Microwave Measurements of Salinity: The Gulf Stream Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Koblinsky, C.; Haken, M.; Howden, S.; Bingham, F.; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Passive microwave sensors at L-band (1.4 GHz) operating from aircraft have demonstrated that salinity can be measured with sufficient accuracy (I psu) to be scientifically meaningful in coastal waters. However, measuring salinity in the open ocean presents unresolved issues largely because of the much greater accuracy (approximately 0.2 psu) required of global maps to be scientifically viable. The development of a satellite microwave instrument to make global measurements of SSS (Sea Surface Salinity) is the focus of a joint JPL/GSFC/NASA ocean research program called Aquarius. In the summer of 1999 a series of measurements called, The Gulf Stream Experiment, were conducted as part of research at the Goddard Space Flight Center to test the potential for passive microwave remote sensing of salinity in the open ocean. The measurements consisted of airborne microwave instruments together with ships and drifters for surface truth. The study area was a 200 km by 100 km rectangle about 250 km east of Delaware Bay between the continental shelf waters and north wall of the Gulf Stream. The primary passive instruments were the ESTAR radiometer (L-band, H-pol) and the SLFMR radiometer (L-band, V-pol). In addition, the instruments on the aircraft included a C-band radiometer (ACMR), an ocean wave scatterometer (ROWS) and an infrared radiometer (for surface temperature). These instruments were mounted on the NASA P-3 Orion aircraft. Sea surface measurements consisted of thermosalinograph data provided by the R/V Cape Henlopen and the MN Oleander, and data from salinity and temperature sensors on three surface drifters deployed from the R/V Cape Henlopen. The primary experiment period was August 26-September 2, 1999. During this period the salinity field within the study area consisted of a gradient on the order of 2-3 psu in the vicinity of the shelf break and a warm core ring with a gradient of 1-2 psu. Detailed maps were made with the airborne sensors on August 28 and 29 and

  13. Implications of salinity pollution hotspots on agricultural production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floerke, Martina; Fink, Julia; Malsy, Marcus; Voelker, Jeanette; Alcamo, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Salinity pollution can have many negative impacts on water resources used for drinking, irrigation, and industrial purposes. Elevated concentrations of salinity in irrigation water can lead to decreased crop production or crop death and, thus, causing an economic problem. Overall, salinity pollution is a global problem but tends to be more severe in arid and semi-arid regions where the dilution capacity of rivers and lakes is lower and the use of irrigation higher. Particularly in these regions agricultural production is exposed to high salinity of irrigation water as insufficient water quality further reduces the available freshwater resources. According to the FAO, irrigated agriculture contributes about 40 percent of the total food production globally, and therefore, high salinity pollution poses a major concern for food production and food security. We use the WaterGAP3 modeling framework to simulate hydrological, water use, and water quality conditions on a global scale for the time period 1990 to 2010. The modeling framework is applied to simulate total dissolved solids (TDS) loadings and in-stream concentrations from different point and diffuse sources to get an insight on potential environmental impacts as well as risks to agricultural food production. The model was tested and calibrated against observed data from GEMStat and literature sources. Although global in scope, the focus of this study is on developing countries, i.e., in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, as these are most threatened by salinity pollution. Furthermore, insufficient water quality for irrigation and therefore restrictions in irrigation water use are examined, indicating limitations to crop production. Our results show that elevated salinity concentrations in surface waters mainly occur in peak irrigation regions as irrigated agriculture is not only the most relevant water use sector contributing to water abstractions, but also the dominant source of salinity pollution. Additionally

  14. Evolutionary history influences the salinity preference of bacterial taxa in wetland soils

    PubMed Central

    Morrissey, Ember M.; Franklin, Rima B.

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is a major driver of bacterial community composition across the globe. Despite growing recognition that different bacterial species are present or active at different salinities, the mechanisms by which salinity structures community composition remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that these patterns reflect ecological coherence in the salinity preferences of phylogenetic groups using a reciprocal transplant experiment of fresh- and saltwater wetland soils. The salinity of both the origin and host environments affected community composition (16S rRNA gene sequences) and activity (CO2 and CH4 production, and extracellular enzyme activity). These changes in community composition and activity rates were strongly correlated, which suggests the effect of environment on function could be mediated, at least in part, by microbial community composition. Based on their distribution across treatments, each phylotype was categorized as having a salinity preference (freshwater, saltwater, or none) and phylogenetic analyses revealed a significant influence of evolutionary history on these groupings. This finding was corroborated by examining the salinity preferences of high-level taxonomic groups. For instance, we found that the majority of α- and γ-proteobacteria in these wetland soils preferred saltwater, while many β-proteobacteria prefer freshwater. Overall, our results indicate the effect of salinity on bacterial community composition results from phylogenetically-clustered salinity preferences. PMID:26483764

  15. Analysis of fluid flow and wall shear stress patterns inside partially filled agitated culture well plates.

    PubMed

    Salek, M Mehdi; Sattari, Pooria; Martinuzzi, Robert J

    2012-03-01

    The appearance of highly resistant bacterial biofilms in both community and hospitals environments is a major challenge in modern clinical medicine. The biofilm structural morphology, believed to be an important factor affecting the behavioral properties of these "super bugs", is strongly influenced by the local hydrodynamics over the microcolonies. Despite the common use of agitated well plates in the biology community, they have been used rather blindly without knowing the flow characteristics and influence of the rotational speed and fluid volume in these containers. The main purpose of this study is to characterize the flow in these high-throughput devices to link local hydrodynamics to observed behavior in cell cultures. In this work, the flow and wall shear stress distribution in six-well culture plates under planar orbital translation is simulated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Free surface, flow pattern and wall shear stress for two shaker speeds (100 and 200 rpm) and two volumes of fluid (2 and 4 mL) were investigated. Measurements with a non-intrusive optical shear stress sensor and High Frame-rate Particle Imaging Velocimetry (HFPIV) are used to validate CFD predictions. An analytical model to predict the free surface shape is proposed. Results show a complex three-dimensional flow pattern, varying in both time and space. The distribution of wall shear stress in these culture plates has been related to the topology of flow. This understanding helps explain observed endothelial cell orientation and bacterial biofilm distributions observed in culture dishes. The results suggest that the mean surface stress field is insufficient to capture the underlying dynamics mitigating biological processes. PMID:22042624

  16. Effect of ketamine combined with butorphanol on emergence agitation of postoperative patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Liang; Liu, Shuncui; Chen, Zhenyi; Lin, Shaoli

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate the effect of ketamine combined with butorphanol on emergence agitation (EA) in postoperative gastric cancer patients. Materials and methods A total of 150 patients with gastric cancer were included and divided into group B (1 mg butorphanol before anesthesia induction, n=50), group K (1 mg/kg ketamine, n=50), and group C (1 mg butorphanol combined with 1 mg/kg ketamine, n=50). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) at the end of operation, just before extubation (T0) and at 0 minute (T1), 5 minutes (T2), and 30 minutes (T3) after extubation were compared. Statistical analysis of recovery time, extubation time, time in postanesthesia care unit, and EA incidence and adverse reactions were performed. Results There were no differences among groups with respect to MAP and HR at T0 and T1 (P>0.05). Compared with patients in group C, significant reduction of MAP and HR were observed in groups K and B at T2 and T3 (P<0.05), while no differences were found between group K and group B (P>0.05). Recovery time, extubation time, time in postanesthesia care unit, and incidence of EA in group C were significantly less than those in groups K and B (P<0.05), but no differences were observed between group K and group B (P>0.05). Total incidence of adverse reactions were significantly increased in group K compared to those in groups C and B (P<0.05). Conclusion Injection of ketamine combined with butorphanol before anesthesia induction was more effective than injection of ketamine or butorphanol separately in the prevention of EA. PMID:27217761

  17. The effect of impeller type on silica sol formation in laboratory scale agitated tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurtono, Tantular; Suprana, Yayang Ade; Latif, Abdul; Dewa, Restu Mulya; Machmudah, Siti; Widiyastuti, Winardi, Sugeng

    2016-02-01

    The multiphase polymerization reaction of the silica sol formation produced from silicic acid and potassium hydroxide solutions in laboratory scale agitated tank was studied. The reactor is equipped with four segmental baffle and top entering impeller. The inside diameter of reactor is 9 cm, the baffle width is 0.9 cm, and the impeller position is 3 cm from tank bottom. The diameter of standard six blades Rushton and three blades marine propeller impellers are 5 cm. The silicic acid solution was made from 0.2 volume fraction of water glass (sodium silicate) solution in which the sodium ion was exchanged by hydrogen ion from cation resin. The reactor initially filled with 286 ml silicic acid solution was operated in semi batch mode and the temperature was kept constant in 60 °C. The 3 ml/minute of 1 M potassium hydroxide solution was added into stirred tank and the solution was stirred. The impeller rotational speed was varied from 100 until 700 rpm. This titration was stopped if the solution in stirred tank had reached the pH of 10-The morphology of the silica particles in the silica sol product was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The size of silica particles in silica sol was measured based on the SEM image. The silica particle obtained in this research was amorphous particle and the shape was roughly cylinder. The flow field generated by different impeller gave significant effect on particle size and shape. The smallest geometric mean of length and diameter of particle (4.92 µm and 2.42 µm, respectively) was generated in reactor with marine propeller at 600 rpm. The reactor with Rushton impeller produced particle which the geometric mean of length and diameter of particle was 4.85 µm and 2.36 µm, respectively, at 150 rpm.

  18. Flow-induced agitations create a granular fluid: Effective viscosity and fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichol, Kiri; van Hecke, Martin

    2012-06-01

    We fluidize a granular medium with localized stirring in a split-bottom shear cell. We probe the mechanical response of quiescent regions far from the main flow by observing the vertical motion of cylindrical probes rising, sinking, and floating in the grains. First, we find that the probe motion suggests that the granular material behaves in a liquid-like manner: high-density probes sink and low-density probes float at the depth given by Archimedes’ law. Second, we observe that the drag force on moving probes scales linearly with their velocity, which allows us to define an effective viscosity for the system. This effective viscosity is inversely proportional to the rotation rate of the disk which drives the split bottom flow. Moreover, the apparent viscosity depends on radius and mass of the probe: despite the linear dependence of the drag forces on sinking speed of the probe, the granular medium is not simply Newtonian, but exhibits a more complex rheology. The decrease of viscosity with filling height of the cell, combined with the poor correlation between local strain rate and viscosity, suggests that the fluid-like character of the material is set by agitations generated in the stirred region: the relation between applied stress and observed strain rate in one location depends on the strain rate in another location. We probe the nature of the granular fluctuations that we believe mediates these nonlocal interactions by characterizing the small and random up and down motion that the probe experiences. These Gaussian fluctuations exhibit a mix of diffusive and subdiffusive behavior at short times and saturate at a value of roughly 1/10th of a grain diameter longer times, consistent with the picture of a random walker in a potential well. The product of crossover time and effective viscosity is constant, evidencing a direct link between fluctuations and viscosity.

  19. Agitation during lipoplex formation improves the gene knockdown effect of siRNA.

    PubMed

    Barichello, Jose Mario; Kizuki, Shinji; Tagami, Tatsuaki; Asai, Tomohiro; Ishida, Tatsuhiro; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Oku, Naoto; Kiwada, Hiroshi

    2011-05-30

    The successful delivery of therapeutic siRNA to the designated target cells and their availability at the intracellular site of action are crucial requirements for successful RNAi therapy. In the present study, we focused on the siRNA-lipoplex preparation procedure and its effect on the gene-knockdown efficiency of siRNA in vitro. Agitation (vortex-mixing) during siRNA-lipoplex (vor-LTsiR) preparation and its effect on the gene-knockdown efficiency of stably expressed cell GFP was investigated, and their efficiency was compared with that of spontaneously formed lipoplex (spo-LTsiR). A dramatic difference in size between lipoplexes was observed at the N/P ratio of 7.62 (siRNA dose of 30 nM), even though both lipoplexes were positively charged. With the siRNA dose of 30 nM, vor-LTsiR accomplished a 50% gene-knockdown, while spo-LTsiR managed a similar knockdown effect at the 120 nM level, suggesting that the preparation procedure remarkably affects the gene-knockdown efficacy of siRNA. The uptake of vor-LTsiR was mainly via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, whereas that of spo-LTsiR was via membrane fusion. In addition, by inhibiting clathrin-mediated endocytosis, the gene-knockdown efficiency was significantly lowered. The size of the lipoplex, promoted by the preparation procedure, is likely to define the entry pathway, resulting in an increased amount of siRNA internalized in cells and an enhanced gene-knockdown efficacy. The results of the present study definitively show that a proper siRNA-lipoplex preparation procedure makes a significant contribution to the efficiency of cellular uptake, and thereby, to the gene-knockdown efficiency of siRNA. PMID:21392562

  20. Analysis of fluid flow and wall shear stress patterns inside partially filled agitated culture well plates.

    PubMed

    Salek, M Mehdi; Sattari, Pooria; Martinuzzi, Robert J

    2012-03-01

    The appearance of highly resistant bacterial biofilms in both community and hospitals environments is a major challenge in modern clinical medicine. The biofilm structural morphology, believed to be an important factor affecting the behavioral properties of these "super bugs", is strongly influenced by the local hydrodynamics over the microcolonies. Despite the common use of agitated well plates in the biology community, they have been used rather blindly without knowing the flow characteristics and influence of the rotational speed and fluid volume in these containers. The main purpose of this study is to characterize the flow in these high-throughput devices to link local hydrodynamics to observed behavior in cell cultures. In this work, the flow and wall shear stress distribution in six-well culture plates under planar orbital translation is simulated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Free surface, flow pattern and wall shear stress for two shaker speeds (100 and 200 rpm) and two volumes of fluid (2 and 4 mL) were investigated. Measurements with a non-intrusive optical shear stress sensor and High Frame-rate Particle Imaging Velocimetry (HFPIV) are used to validate CFD predictions. An analytical model to predict the free surface shape is proposed. Results show a complex three-dimensional flow pattern, varying in both time and space. The distribution of wall shear stress in these culture plates has been related to the topology of flow. This understanding helps explain observed endothelial cell orientation and bacterial biofilm distributions observed in culture dishes. The results suggest that the mean surface stress field is insufficient to capture the underlying dynamics mitigating biological processes.

  1. Salinity variability in the North Atlantic through synergetic analysis of Argo floats and satellite altimetry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stendardo, Ilaria; Rhein, Monika; Klein, Birgit; Roessler, Achim

    2015-04-01

    Salinity distribution in the North Atlantic is affected by changes in the circulation and freshwater fluxes. Changes in salinity are introduced into the ocean's interior by vertical processes like subduction or convection, and transported along circulation pathways. At a given location and depth, salinity could vary by water mass changes due to changes in the freshwater flux, or by vertical migration of density surfaces caused either by wind-driven changes of ocean ventilation or by thermodynamic processes, like poleward migration of isopycnals as a result of surface warming. Changes in the wind driven circulation with a consequence shift of the subpolar front, that separates the fresher subpolar from the saline subtropical gyre, also have a marked influence on upper ocean salinity in the subpolar North Atlantic. Due to the lack of temporal and spatial resolution of salinity observations, salinity anomalies in the last century could only be studied by 5-year means. Thanks to the Argo program, the temporal and spatial resolution of salinity and temperature profiles since early 2000 have significantly improved, allowing to calculate even monthly means. To further improve temporal and spatial resolution of salinity, Argo profiles are combined with altimetry data and a "Transfer function", the Gravest Empirical Mode (GEM), is calculated. The GEM technique exploits the relationship between T/S profiles and dynamic height in order to parameterize salinity data as a function of dynamic height from the satellite altimetry. This technique gives the opportunity to extend the investigation of the salinity variability, with extremely high temporal (daily) and spatial (1/4°) resolution, back to 1993, the beginning of the altimetry data. This method was tested on several regions of the North Atlantic and it works particularly well for some of them, for example in the regions where the North Atlantic Current plays an important role. Within these regions salinity variability in

  2. Adopted: A practical salinity scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Unesco/ICES/SCOR/IAPSO Joint Panel on Oceanographic Tables and Standards has recommended the adoption of a Practical Salinity Scale, 1978, and a corresponding new International Equation of State of Seawater, 1980. A full account of the research leading to their recommendation is available in the series Unesco Technical Papers in Marine Science.The parent organizations have accepted the panel's recommendations and have set January 1, 1982, as the date when the new procedures, formulae, and tables should replace those now in use.

  3. Biochemical and anatomical changes and yield reduction in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under varied salinity regimes.

    PubMed

    Hakim, M A; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Hanafi, M M; Ismail, Mohd Razi; Selamat, Ahmad; Rafii, M Y; Latif, M A

    2014-01-01

    Five Malaysian rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties, MR33, MR52, MR211, MR219, and MR232, were tested in pot culture under different salinity regimes for biochemical response, physiological activity, and grain yield. Three different levels of salt stresses, namely, 4, 8, and 12 dS m(-1), were used in a randomized complete block design with four replications under glass house conditions. The results revealed that the chlorophyll content, proline, sugar content, soluble protein, free amino acid, and yield per plant of all the genotypes were influenced by different salinity levels. The chlorophyll content was observed to decrease with salinity level but the proline increased with salinity levels in all varieties. Reducing sugar and total sugar increased up to 8 dS m(-1) and decreased up to 12 dS m(-1). Nonreducing sugar decreased with increasing the salinity levels in all varieties. Soluble protein and free amino acid also decreased with increasing salinity levels. Cortical cells of MR211 and MR232 did not show cell collapse up to 8 dS m(-1) salinity levels compared to susceptible checks (IR20 and BRRI dhan29). Therefore, considering all parameters, MR211 and MR232 showed better salinity tolerance among the tested varieties. Both cluster and principal component analyses depict the similar results.

  4. Chemical and physical properties of some saline lakes in Alberta and Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Jeff S; Sachs, Julian P

    2008-01-01

    Background The Northern Great Plains of Canada are home to numerous permanent and ephemeral athalassohaline lakes. These lakes display a wide range of ion compositions, salinities, stratification patterns, and ecosystems. Many of these lakes are ecologically and economically significant to the Great Plains Region. A survey of the physical characteristics and chemistry of 19 lakes was carried out to assess their suitability for testing new tools for determining past salinity from the sediment record. Results Data on total dissolved solids (TDS), specific conductivity, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), and pH were measured in June, 2007. A comparison of these data with past measurements indicates that salinity is declining at Little Manitou and Big Quill Lakes in the province of Saskatchewan. However salinity is rising at other lakes in the region, including Redberry and Manito Lakes. Conclusion The wide range of salinities found across a small geographic area makes the Canadian saline lakes region ideal for testing salinity proxies. A nonlinear increase in salinity at Redberry Lake is likely influenced by its morphometry. This acceleration has ecological implications for the migratory bird species found within the Redberry Important Bird Area. PMID:18430240

  5. Biochemical and anatomical changes and yield reduction in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under varied salinity regimes.

    PubMed

    Hakim, M A; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Hanafi, M M; Ismail, Mohd Razi; Selamat, Ahmad; Rafii, M Y; Latif, M A

    2014-01-01

    Five Malaysian rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties, MR33, MR52, MR211, MR219, and MR232, were tested in pot culture under different salinity regimes for biochemical response, physiological activity, and grain yield. Three different levels of salt stresses, namely, 4, 8, and 12 dS m(-1), were used in a randomized complete block design with four replications under glass house conditions. The results revealed that the chlorophyll content, proline, sugar content, soluble protein, free amino acid, and yield per plant of all the genotypes were influenced by different salinity levels. The chlorophyll content was observed to decrease with salinity level but the proline increased with salinity levels in all varieties. Reducing sugar and total sugar increased up to 8 dS m(-1) and decreased up to 12 dS m(-1). Nonreducing sugar decreased with increasing the salinity levels in all varieties. Soluble protein and free amino acid also decreased with increasing salinity levels. Cortical cells of MR211 and MR232 did not show cell collapse up to 8 dS m(-1) salinity levels compared to susceptible checks (IR20 and BRRI dhan29). Therefore, considering all parameters, MR211 and MR232 showed better salinity tolerance among the tested varieties. Both cluster and principal component analyses depict the similar results. PMID:24579076

  6. Optimization of Aeration and Agitation Rate for Lipid and Gamma Linolenic Acid Production by Cunninghamella bainieri 2A1 in Submerged Fermentation Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Normah; Abdeshahian, Peyman; Kalil, Mohd Sahaid; Wan Yusoff, Wan Mohtar

    2014-01-01

    The locally isolated filamentous fungus Cunninghamella bainieri 2A1 was cultivated in a 5 L bioreactor to produce lipid and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA). The optimization was carried out using response surface methodology based on a central composite design. A statistical model, second-order polynomial model, was adjusted to the experimental data to evaluate the effect of key operating variables, including aeration rate and agitation speed on lipid production. Process analysis showed that linear and quadratic effect of agitation intensity significantly influenced lipid production process (P < 0.01). The quadratic model also indicated that the interaction between aeration rate and agitation speed had a highly significant effect on lipid production (P < 0.01). Experimental results showed that a lipid content of 38.71% was produced in optimum conditions using an airflow rate and agitation speed of 0.32 vvm and 599 rpm, respectively. Similar results revealed that 0.058 (g/g) gamma-linolenic acid was produced in optimum conditions where 1.0 vvm aeration rate and 441.45 rpm agitation rate were used. The regression model confirmed that aeration and agitation were of prime importance for optimum production of lipid in the bioreactor. PMID:25610901

  7. Effects of developmental acclimation on adult salinity tolerance in the freshwater-invading copepod Eurytemora affinis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Carol Eunmi; Petersen, Christine H

    2003-01-01

    Invasive species are commonly thought to have broad tolerances that enable them to colonize new habitats, but this assumption has rarely been tested. In particular, the relative importance of acclimation (plasticity) and adaptation for invasion success are poorly understood. This study examined effects of short-term and developmental acclimation on adult salinity tolerance in the copepod Eurytemora affinis. This microcrustacean occurs in estuarine and salt marsh habitats but has invaded freshwater habitats within the past century. Effects of short-term acclimation were determined by comparing adult survival in response to acute versus gradual salinity change to low salinity (fresh water). Effects of developmental acclimation on adult tolerance were determined using a split-brood 4 x 2 factorial experimental design for one brackish-water population from Edgartown Great Pond, Massachusetts. Twenty full-sib clutches were split and reared at four salinities (fresh, 5, 10, and 27 practical salinity units [PSU]). On reaching adulthood, clutches from three of the salinity treatments (no survivors at fresh) were split into low- (fresh) and high- (40 PSU) salinity stress treatments, at which survival was measured for 24 h. Short-term acclimation of adults did not appear to have a long-term affect on low-salinity tolerance, given that gradual transfers to fresh water enhanced survival relative to acute transfers in the short term (after 7 h) but not over a longer period of 8 d. Developmental acclimation had contrasting effects on low- versus high-salinity tolerance. Namely, rearing salinity had a significant effect on tolerance of high-salinity (40 PSU) stress but no significant effect on tolerance of low-salinity (freshwater) stress. In addition, there was a significant effect of clutch on survival under freshwater conditions, indicating a genetic component to low-salinity tolerance but no significant clutch effect in response to high salinity. While developmental

  8. 46 CFR 162.060-26 - Land-based testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... each set of test cycles, a salinity range must be chosen. With respect to the salinity of water bodies... accordance with § 162.060-10(g) will list the salinity ranges for which the BWMS is approved. (f) The...

  9. Enhanced Resolution for Aquarius Salinity Retrieval near Land-Water Boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utku, Cuneyt; Le Vine, David M.

    2014-01-01

    A numerical reconstruction of the brightness temperature is examined as a potential way to improve the retrieval of salinity from Aquarius measurements closer to landwater boundaries. A test case using simulated ocean-land scenes suggest promise for the technique.

  10. Estuarine turbidity, flushing, salinity, and circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchard, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of estuarine turbidity, flushing, salinity, and circulation on the ecology of the Chesapeake Bay are discussed. The sources of fresh water, the variations in salinity, and the circulation patterns created by temperature and salinity changes are analyzed. The application of remote sensors for long term observation of water temperatures is described. The sources of sediment and the biological effects resulting from increased sediments and siltation are identified.

  11. Saline-water resources of Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winslow, Allen George; Kister, Lester Ray

    1956-01-01

    Most of the aquifers in Texas contain saline water in some parts, and a few are capable of producing large quantities of saline water. Of the early Paleozoic formations, the Hickory sandstone member of the Riley formation of Cambrian age and the Ellenburger group of Ordovician age are potential sources of small to moderate supplies of saline water in parts of central and west-central Texas.

  12. Effect of aripiprazole lauroxil on agitation and hostility in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Citrome, Leslie; Du, Yangchun; Risinger, Robert; Stankovic, Srdjan; Claxton, Amy; Zummo, Jacqueline; Bose, Anjana; Silverman, Bernard L; Ehrich, Elliot W

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of aripiprazole lauroxil on hostility and aggressive behavior in patients with schizophrenia. Patients aged 18-70 years with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and currently experiencing an acute exacerbation or relapse were randomized to intramuscular (IM) aripiprazole lauroxil 441 mg (n=207), 882 mg (n=208), or placebo (n=207) for 12 weeks. In post-hoc analyses, hostility and aggression were assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) Hostility item (P7) and a specific antihostility effect was assessed by adjusting for positive symptoms of schizophrenia, somnolence, and akathisia. The PANSS excited component score [P4 (Excitement), P7 (Hostility), G4 (Tension), G8 (Uncooperativeness), and G14 (Poor impulse control)], and the Personal and Social Performance scale disturbing and aggressive behavior domain were also assessed. Of the 147 patients who received aripiprazole lauroxil 882 mg and with a baseline PANSS Hostility item P7 more than 1, there was a significant (P<0.05) improvement versus placebo on the PANSS Hostility item P7 score by mixed-model repeated-measures at the end of the study, which remained significant when PANSS-positive symptoms and somnolence or akathisia were included as additional covariates. The proportion with PANSS Hostility item P7 more than 1 at endpoint was significantly (P<0.05) lower with aripiprazole lauroxil versus placebo (53.6, 46.1, and 66.3% for 441, 882 mg, and placebo). A significant (P<0.05) improvement was found with aripiprazole lauroxil versus placebo for change from baseline in the PANSS excited component score. The proportion of patients with aggressive behavior on the Personal and Social Performance scale was significantly (P<0.05) lower for aripiprazole lauroxil: 30.0% for 441 mg versus 44.1% for placebo (P=0.006) and 22.2% for 881 mg (P<0.001 versus placebo). Treatment with aripiprazole lauroxil resulted in decreases in agitation and hostility in patients

  13. 0.9% saline induced hyperchloremic acidosis.

    PubMed

    Barker, Megan E

    2015-01-01

    In the acute care setting, the type and amount of fluid administered has a significant impact on patient outcomes. In particular, 0.9% saline infusions are known to cause or exacerbate hyperchloremia. The studies presented evaluate possible complications from 0.9% saline infusions. These studies compared administration of 0.9% saline with lactated ringer or plasmalyte in the acute care setting. In each trial, the patients who were randomized to receive 0.9% saline infusions had a more severe acidosis from increased serum chloride levels. From the available data, chloride-restrictive intravenous fluid such as plasmalyte appears to reduce acid-base disturbances and improve patient outcomes.

  14. Soil Salinity Mapping Using Multitemporal Landsat Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azabdaftari, A.; Sunar, F.

    2016-06-01

    Soil salinity is one of the most important problems affecting many areas of the world. Saline soils present in agricultural areas reduce the annual yields of most crops. This research deals with the soil salinity mapping of Seyhan plate of Adana district in Turkey from the years 2009 to 2010, using remote sensing technology. In the analysis, multitemporal data acquired from LANDSAT 7-ETM+ satellite in four different dates (19 April 2009, 12 October 2009, 21 March 2010, 31 October 2010) are used. As a first step, preprocessing of Landsat images is applied. Several salinity indices such as NDSI (Normalized Difference Salinity Index), BI (Brightness Index) and SI (Salinity Index) are used besides some vegetation indices such as NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), RVI (Ratio Vegetation Index), SAVI (Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index) and EVI (Enhamced Vegetation Index) for the soil salinity mapping of the study area. The field's electrical conductivity (EC) measurements done in 2009 and 2010, are used as a ground truth data for the correlation analysis with the original band values and different index image bands values. In the correlation analysis, two regression models, the simple linear regression (SLR) and multiple linear regression (MLR) are considered. According to the highest correlation obtained, the 21st March, 2010 dataset is chosen for production of the soil salinity map in the area. Finally, the efficiency of the remote sensing technology in the soil salinity mapping is outlined.

  15. Common carotid artery duplex for the bubble test to detect right-to-left shunt.

    PubMed

    Censori, Bruno; Partziguian, Tania; Poloni, Marco

    2010-04-01

    We prospectively compared the bubble test with agitated saline for right-to-left shunt using transcranial Doppler (TCD) of the right middle cerebral artery and second harmonic imaging duplex of the right common carotid artery (CCA) in 100 consecutive patients. Microembolic signals (MES) were counted offline. MES were classified into 6 classes: absent (class 0), 1-10 MES (class 1), 11-20 MES (class 2), 21-30 MES (class 3), 31-50 MES (class 4) and >50 MES or "curtain effect" (class 5). For TCD, classes 2-5 combined (i.e., "large" shunts), the sensitivity of duplex with the Valsalva maneuver was 95.3%, the specificity was 100%, the positive predictive 100%, the negative predictive value 96.6% and accuracy 98.0%. Second harmonic imaging duplex of the CCA may substitute TCD for the bubble test when an adequate cranial bone window is not available. This technique may also greatly increase the number of facilities where the bubble test can be carried out. However, tests with few or no MES need to be confirmed by TCD or transesophageal echocardiography.

  16. Soil salinity detection from satellite image analysis: an integrated approach of salinity indices and field data.

    PubMed

    Morshed, Md Manjur; Islam, Md Tazmul; Jamil, Raihan

    2016-02-01

    This paper attempts to detect soil salinity from satellite image analysis using remote sensing and geographic information system. Salinity intrusion is a common problem for the coastal regions of the world. Traditional salinity detection techniques by field survey and sampling are time-consuming and expensive. Remote sensing and geographic information system offer economic and efficient salinity detection, monitoring, and mapping. To predict soil salinity, an integrated approach of salinity indices and field data was used to develop a multiple regression equation. The correlations between different indices and field data of soil salinity were calculated to find out the highly correlated indices. The best regression model was selected considering the high R (2) value, low P value, and low Akaike's Information Criterion. About 20% variation was observed between the field data and predicted EC from the satellite image analysis. The precision of this salinity detection technique depends on the accuracy and uniform distribution of field data.

  17. Soil salinity detection from satellite image analysis: an integrated approach of salinity indices and field data.

    PubMed

    Morshed, Md Manjur; Islam, Md Tazmul; Jamil, Raihan

    2016-02-01

    This paper attempts to detect soil salinity from satellite image analysis using remote sensing and geographic information system. Salinity intrusion is a common problem for the coastal regions of the world. Traditional salinity detection techniques by field survey and sampling are time-consuming and expensive. Remote sensing and geographic information system offer economic and efficient salinity detection, monitoring, and mapping. To predict soil salinity, an integrated approach of salinity indices and field data was used to develop a multiple regression equation. The correlations between different indices and field data of soil salinity were calculated to find out the highly correlated indices. The best regression model was selected considering the high R (2) value, low P value, and low Akaike's Information Criterion. About 20% variation was observed between the field data and predicted EC from the satellite image analysis. The precision of this salinity detection technique depends on the accuracy and uniform distribution of field data. PMID:26815557

  18. Assessing Salinity in Cotton and Tomato Plants by Using Reflectance Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldshleger, Naftaly

    2016-04-01

    Irrigated lands in semi-arid and arid areas are subjected to salinization processes. An example of this phenomenon is the Jezreel Valley in northern Israel where soil salinity has increased over the years. The increase in soil salinity results in the deterioration of the soil structure and crops damage. In this experiment we quantified the relation between the chemical and spectral features of cotton and tomato plants and their mutual relationship to soil salinity. The experiment was carried out as part of ongoing research aiming to detect and monitor saline soils and vegetation by combining different remote sensing methods. The aim of this study was to use vegetation reflectance measurements to predict foliar Cl and Na concentration and assess salinity in the soil and in vegetation by their reflectance measurements. The model developed for determining concentrations of chlorine and sodium in tomato and cotton produced good results ( R2 = 0.92 for sodium and 0.85 for chlorine in tomato and R2 = 0.84 for sodium and 0.82 for chlorine in cotton). Lately, we extend the method to calculate vegetation salinity, by doing correlation between the reflectance slopes of the tested crops CL and Na from two research areas. The developed model produced a good results for all the data (R2=0.74) Our method can be implemented to assess vegetation salinity ahead of planting, and developed as a generic tool for broader use for agriculture in semi-arid regions. In our opinion these results show the possibility of monitoring for a threshold level of salinity in tomato and cotton leaves so remedial action can be taken in time to prevent crop damage. Our results strongly suggest that future imaging spectroscopy remote sensing measurements collected by airborne and satellite platforms could measure the salinity of soil and vegetation over larger areas. These results can be the first steps for generic a model which includes more vegetation for salinity measurements.

  19. Salinity effects on growth, photosynthetic parameters, and nitrogenase activity in estuarine planktonic cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Moisander, P H; McClinton, E; Paerl, H W

    2002-05-01

    Salinity has been suggested as being a controlling factor for blooms of N2-fixing cyanobacteria in estuaries. We tested the effect of salinity on the growth, N2 fixation, and photosynthetic activities of estuarine and freshwater isolates of heterocystous bloom-forming cyanobacteria. Anabaena aphanizomenoides and Anabaenopsis sp. were isolated from the Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina, and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii from Lakes Dora and Griffin, central Florida. Salinity tolerance of these cyanobacteria was compared with that of two Nodularia strains from the Baltic Sea. We measured growth rates, N2 fixation (nitrogenase activity), and CO2 fixation at salinities between 0 and 20 g L(-1) NaCl. We also examined photosynthesis-irradiance relation-ships in response to salinity. Anabaenopsis maintained similar growth rates in the full range of salinities from 2 to 20 g L(-1) NaCl. Anabaena grew at up to 15 g L-', but the maximum salinity 20 g L(-1) NaCl was inhibitory. The upper limit for salinity tolerance of Cylindrospermopsis was 4 g L(-1) NaCl. Nodularia spp. maintained similar growth rates in the full range of salinities from 0 to 20 g L(-1) . Between 0 and 10 g L(-1), the growth rate of Nodularia spumigena was slower than that of the Neuse Estuary strains. In most strains, the sensitivity of nitrogenase activity and CO2 fixation to salinity appeared similar. Anabaenopsis, Anabaena, and the two Nodularia strains rapidly responded to NaCl by increasing their maximum photosynthetic rates (Pmn). Overall, both Neuse River Estuary and Baltic Sea strains showed an ability to acclimate to salt stress over short-(24 h) and long-term (several days to weeks) exposures. The study suggested that direct effect of salinity (as NaCl in these experiments) on cyanobacterial physiology does not alone explain the low frequency and magnitude of blooms of N2-fixing cyanobacteria in estuaries. PMID:12043002

  20. Effect of agitation speed on the morphology of Aspergillus niger HFD5A-1 hyphae and its pectinase production in submerged fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Darah; Weloosamy, Haritharan; Lim, Sheh-Hong

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the impact of agitation speed on pectinase production and morphological changing of Aspergillus niger (A. niger) HFD5A-1 in submerged fermentation. METHODS: A. niger HFM5A-1 was isolated from a rotted pomelo. The inoculum preparation was performed by adding 5.0 mL of sterile distilled water containing 0.1% Tween 80 to a sporulated culture. Cultivation was carried out with inoculated 1 × 107 spores/mL suspension and incubated at 30 °C with different agitation speed for 6 d. The samples were withdrawn after 6 d cultivation time and were assayed for pectinase activity and fungal growth determination. The culture broth was filtered through filter paper (Whatman No. 1, London) to separate the fungal mycelium. The cell-free culture filtrate containing the crude enzyme was then assayed for pectinase activity. The biomass was dried at 80 °C until constant weight. The fungal cell dry weight was then expressed as g/L. The 6 d old fungal mycelia were harvested from various agitation speed, 0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 rpm. The morphological changing of samples was then viewed under the light microscope and scanning electron microscope. RESULTS: In the present study, agitation speed was found to influence pectinase production in a batch cultivation system. However, higher agitation speeds than the optimal speed (150 rpm) reduced pectinase production which due to shear forces and also collision among the suspended fungal cells in the cultivation medium. Enzyme activity increased with the increasing of agitation speed up to 150 rpm, where it achieved its maximal pectinase activity of 1.559 U/mL. There were significant different (Duncan, P < 0.05) of the pectinase production with the agitation speed at static, 50, 100, 200 and 250 rpm. At the static condition, a well growth mycelial mat was observed on the surface of the cultivation medium and sporulation occurred all over the fungal mycelial mat. However with the increased in agitation speed, the

  1. Saline water in southeastern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hiss, W.L.; Peterson, J.B.; Ramsey, T.R.

    1969-01-01

    Saline waters from formations of several geologic ages are being studied in a seven-county area in southeastern New Mexico and western Texas, where more than 30,000 oil and gas tests have been drilled in the past 40 years. This area of 7,500 sq. miles, which is stratigraphically complex, includes the northern and eastern margins of the Delaware Basin between the Guadalupe and Glass Mountains. Chloride-ion concentrations in water produced from rocks of various ages and depths have been mapped in Lea County, New Mexico, using machine map-plotting techniques and trend analyses. Anomalously low chloride concentrations (1,000-3,000 mg/l) were found along the western margin of the Central Basin platform in the San Andres and Capitan Limestone Formations of Permian age. These low chloride-ion concentrations may be due to preferential circulation of ground water through the more porous and permeable rocks. Data being used in the study were obtained principally from oil companies and from related service companies. The P.B.W.D.S. (Permian Basin Well Data System) scout-record magnetic-tape file was used as a framework in all computer operations. Shallow or non-oil-field water analyses acquired from state, municipal, or federal agencies were added to these data utilizing P.B.W.D.S.-compatible reference numbers and decimal latitude-longitude coordinates. Approximately 20,000 water analyses collected from over 65 sources were coded, recorded on punch cards and stored on magnetic tape for computer operations. Extensive manual and computer error checks for duplication and accuracy were made to eliminate data errors resulting from poorly located or identified samples; non-representative or contaminated samples; mistakes in coding, reproducing or key-punching; laboratory errors; and inconsistent reporting. The original 20,000 analyses considered were reduced to 6,000 representative analyses which are being used in the saline water studies. ?? 1969.

  2. Oil recovery method using unique salinity for oil recovery surfactant system

    SciTech Connect

    Glinsmann, G.R.; Hedges, J.H.

    1981-05-05

    A series of surfactant systems is prepared at varying electrolyte concentrations, each system being mixed with oil to be displaced or its equivalent and allowed to equilibrate to determine the salinity at which the microemulsion phase has approximately equal volumes of oil and water; thereafter additional series of such surfactant systems are prepared utilizing different cosurfactants; thereafter the resulting surfactant systems are used at their optimal salinity (I.E., the salinity at which approximately equal volumes of oil and water are taken up into the microemulsion phase) to recover oil from test cores and the resulting oil recovery plotted versus the salinity to give the unique salinity at which maximum oil recovery is obtained for the particular oil-surfactant combination.

  3. ASSESSMENT OF LONG-TERM SALINITY CHANGES IN AN IRRIGATED STREAM-AQUIFER SYSTEM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konikow, Leonard F.; Person, Mark

    1985-01-01

    Changes in salinity in groundwater and surface water in the Arkansas River valley of southeastern Colorado are primarily related to irrigation practices. A solute transport model was applied to an 11-mile reach of the valley to compute salinity changes in response to spatially and temporally varying stresses. The model was calibrated in 1973 using detailed field measurements made during 1971 and 1972. In 1973 the calibrated model was used to predict that a gradual long-term increase in groundwater salinity of about 2-3% per year would occur if the observed irrigation practices continued. The study area was resampled during the winter of 1982 to help evaluate if any long-term changes in salinity are actually occurring. Nonparametric and parametric statistical tests were used to help assess the significance of observed changes in groundwater salinity.

  4. The Effect of Salinity on Egg Development and Viability of Schistocephalus solidus (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidea).

    PubMed

    Simmonds, Natalie E; Barber, Iain

    2016-02-01

    Schistocephalus solidus plerocercoids commonly infect three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus populations in brackish and freshwaters, but infections are typically absent from marine populations. Here we provide an experimental test of the salinity tolerance of S. solidus eggs, to determine the role of salinity in limiting the distribution of infection in coastal zones. We find that S. solidus eggs, derived from the in vitro culture of 3 different plerocercoids, developed normally in salinities of up to 12.5‰, but above this egg viability dropped rapidly, and no egg hatching was observed at salinities above 20‰. Our results are consistent with the distribution of infections in natural stickleback populations and add resolution to previous descriptive observations on salinity tolerance in S. solidus. They also demonstrate that S. solidus presents a novel disease challenge to marine populations of three-spined sticklebacks entering brackish and freshwater environments.

  5. The Effect of Salinity on Egg Development and Viability of Schistocephalus solidus (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidea).

    PubMed

    Simmonds, Natalie E; Barber, Iain

    2016-02-01

    Schistocephalus solidus plerocercoids commonly infect three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus populations in brackish and freshwaters, but infections are typically absent from marine populations. Here we provide an experimental test of the salinity tolerance of S. solidus eggs, to determine the role of salinity in limiting the distribution of infection in coastal zones. We find that S. solidus eggs, derived from the in vitro culture of 3 different plerocercoids, developed normally in salinities of up to 12.5‰, but above this egg viability dropped rapidly, and no egg hatching was observed at salinities above 20‰. Our results are consistent with the distribution of infections in natural stickleback populations and add resolution to previous descriptive observations on salinity tolerance in S. solidus. They also demonstrate that S. solidus presents a novel disease challenge to marine populations of three-spined sticklebacks entering brackish and freshwater environments. PMID:26418088

  6. Combined effects of cadmium and salinity on juvenile Takifugu obscurus: cadmium moderates salinity tolerance; salinity decreases the toxicity of cadmium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Zhu, Xuexia; Huang, Xin; Gu, Lei; Chen, Yafen; Yang, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Obscure puffer Takifugu obscurus, a species of anadromous fish, experiences several salinity changes in its lifetime. Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal that can potentially induce oxidative stress in fish. The present study aimed to detect the combined effects of Cd (0, 5, 10, 20 and 50 mg L(-1)) and salinity (0, 15 and 30 ppt) on juvenile T. obscurus. Results showed the juveniles could survive well under different salinities; however, with Cd exposure, the survival rates significantly decreased at 0 and 30 ppt. At 15 ppt, tolerance to Cd increased. Cd exposure clearly induced oxidative stress, and the responses among different tissues were qualitatively similar. Salinity acted as a protective factor which could reduce the reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde levels. In addition, salinity could enhance the antioxidant defense system, including superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity significantly decreased under Cd exposure in gill, kidney and intestine. These findings indicated that Cd could moderate the adaptability of juvenile T. obscurus to high salinity and low salinity played a protective role upon Cd exposure. Thus, the role of salinity should be considered when evaluating the effect of heavy metals on anadromous and estuarine fishes. PMID:27487764

  7. Combined effects of cadmium and salinity on juvenile Takifugu obscurus: cadmium moderates salinity tolerance; salinity decreases the toxicity of cadmium

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Zhu, Xuexia; Huang, Xin; Gu, Lei; Chen, Yafen; Yang, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Obscure puffer Takifugu obscurus, a species of anadromous fish, experiences several salinity changes in its lifetime. Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal that can potentially induce oxidative stress in fish. The present study aimed to detect the combined effects of Cd (0, 5, 10, 20 and 50 mg L−1) and salinity (0, 15 and 30 ppt) on juvenile T. obscurus. Results showed the juveniles could survive well under different salinities; however, with Cd exposure, the survival rates significantly decreased at 0 and 30 ppt. At 15 ppt, tolerance to Cd increased. Cd exposure clearly induced oxidative stress, and the responses among different tissues were qualitatively similar. Salinity acted as a protective factor which could reduce the reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde levels. In addition, salinity could enhance the antioxidant defense system, including superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione. Na+/K+–ATPase activity significantly decreased under Cd exposure in gill, kidney and intestine. These findings indicated that Cd could moderate the adaptability of juvenile T. obscurus to high salinity and low salinity played a protective role upon Cd exposure. Thus, the role of salinity should be considered when evaluating the effect of heavy metals on anadromous and estuarine fishes. PMID:27487764

  8. Effect of an interactive therapeutic robotic animal on engagement, mood states, agitation and psychotropic drug use in people with dementia: a cluster-randomised controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    Moyle, Wendy; Beattie, Elizabeth; Draper, Brian; Shum, David; Thalib, Lukman; Jones, Cindy; O'Dwyer, Siobhan; Mervin, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Apathy, agitated behaviours, loneliness and depression are common consequences of dementia. This trial aims to evaluate the effect of a robotic animal on behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia in people with dementia living in long-term aged care. Methods and analysis A cluster-randomised controlled trial with three treatment groups: PARO (robotic animal), Plush-Toy (non-robotic PARO) or Usual Care (Control). The nursing home sites are Australian Government approved and accredited facilities of 60 or more beds. The sites are located in South-East Queensland, Australia. A sample of 380 adults with a diagnosis of dementia, aged 60 years or older living in one of the participating facilities will be recruited. The intervention consists of three individual 15 min non-facilitated sessions with PARO or Plush-Toy per week, for a period of 10 weeks. The primary outcomes of interest are improvement in agitation, mood states and engagement. Secondary outcomes include sleep duration, step count, change in psychotropic medication use, change in treatment costs, and staff and family perceptions of PARO or Plush-Toy. Video data will be analysed using Noldus XT Pocket Observer; descriptive statistics will be used for participants’ demographics and outcome measures; cluster and individual level analyses to test all hypotheses and Generalised Linear Models for cluster level and Generalised Estimation Equations and/or Multi-level Modeling for individual level data. Ethics and dissemination The study participants or their proxy will provide written informed consent. The Griffith University Human Research Ethics Committee has approved the study (NRS/03/14/HREC). The results of the study will provide evidence of the efficacy of a robotic animal as a psychosocial treatment for the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. Findings will be presented at local and international conference meetings and published in peer-reviewed journals. Trial

  9. Aquarius Instrument and Salinity Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, D. M.

    2011-01-01

    Aquarius has been designed to map the surface salinity field of the global ocean from space a parameter important for understanding ocean circulation and its relationship to climate and the global water cycle. Salinity is measured remotely from space by measuring the thermal emission from the ocean surface. This is done at the low frequency end of the microwave spectrum (e.g. 1.4 GHz) where the emission is sufficiently sensitive to changes in salinity to be detected with sophisticated radiometers. The goal is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean by providing maps on a monthly basis with a spatial resolution of 150 km and an accuracy of 0.2 psu. These are challenging requirements that have led to some unique features of the instrument. These include: a) The addition of a co-located scatterometer to help provide a correction for roughness; b) The addition of a polarimetric channel (third Stokes parameter) to the radiometer to help correct for Faraday rotation; c) Asun-synchronous orbit with a 6 pm ascending equatorial crossing to minimize Faraday rotation and with the antennas looking away from the sun toward the nighttime side to minimize contamination by radiation from the sun; and d) An antenna designed to limit side lobes in the direction of rays from the sun. In addition, achieving the accuracy goal of 0.2 psu requires averaging over one month and to do this requires a highly stable radiometer. Aquarius has three separate radiometers that image in pushbroom fashion with the three antenna beams looking across track. The antenna is a 2.5-m diameter, offset parabolic reflector with three feed horns and the three beams are arranged to image with the boresight aligned to look across track, roughly perpendicular to the spacecraft heading and pointing away from the Sun. The three beams point at angles of theta = 25.8 deg., 33.8 deg. and 40.3 deg. with respect to the spacecraft

  10. Insights into Kinetics of Agitation-Induced Aggregation of Hen Lysozyme under Heat and Acidic Conditions from Various Spectroscopic Methods.

    PubMed

    Chaari, Ali; Fahy, Christine; Chevillot-Biraud, Alexandre; Rholam, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Protein misfolding and amyloid formation are an underlying pathological hallmark in a number of prevalent diseases of protein aggregation ranging from Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases to systemic lysozyme amyloidosis. In this context, we have used complementary spectroscopic methods to undertake a systematic study of the self-assembly of hen egg-white lysozyme under agitation during a prolonged heating in acidic pH. The kinetics of lysozyme aggregation, monitored by Thioflavin T fluorescence, dynamic light scattering and the quenching of tryptophan fluorescence by acrylamide, is described by a sigmoid curve typical of a nucleation-dependent polymerization process. Nevertheless, we observe significant differences between the values deduced for the kinetic parameters (lag time and aggregation rate). The fibrillation process of lysozyme, as assessed by the attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, is accompanied by an increase in the β-sheet conformation at the expense of the α-helical conformation but the time-dependent variation of the content of these secondary structures does not evolve as a gradual transition. Moreover, the tryptophan fluorescence-monitored kinetics of lysozyme aggregation is described by three phases in which the temporal decrease of the tryptophan fluorescence quantum yield is of quasilinear nature. Finally, the generated lysozyme fibrils exhibit a typical amyloid morphology with various lengths (observed by atomic force microscopy) and contain exclusively the full-length protein (analyzed by highly performance liquid chromatography). Compared to the data obtained by other groups for the formation of lysozyme fibrils in acidic pH without agitation, this work provides new insights into the structural changes (local, secondary, oligomeric/fibrillar structures) undergone by the lysozyme during the agitation-induced formation of fibrils. PMID:26571264

  11. Changes in QTc Interval in the Citalopram for Agitation in Alzheimer's Disease (CitAD) Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Drye, Lea T.; Spragg, David; Devanand, D. P.; Frangakis, Constantine; Marano, Christopher; Meinert, Curtis L.; Mintzer, Jacobo E.; Munro, Cynthia A.; Pelton, Gregory; Pollock, Bruce G.; Porsteinsson, Anton P.; Rabins, Peter V.; Rosenberg, Paul B.; Schneider, Lon S.; Shade, David M.; Weintraub, Daniel; Yesavage, Jerome; Lyketsos, Constantine G.

    2014-01-01

    Background A Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety communication in August 2011 warned that citalopram was associated with a dose dependent risk of QT prolongation and recommended dose restriction in patients over the age of 60 but did not provide data for this age group. Methods CitAD was a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial for agitation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Participants were assigned to citalopram (target dose of 30 mg/day) or placebo in a 1∶1 ratio. 186 people, 181 of whom were over the age of 60, having probable AD with clinically significant agitation were recruited from September 2009 to January 2013. After the FDA safety communication about citalopram, ECG was added to the required study procedures before enrollment and repeated at week 3 to monitor change in QTc interval. Forty-eight participants were enrolled after enhanced monitoring began. Results Citalopram treatment was associated with a larger increase in QTc interval than placebo (difference in week 3 QTc adjusting for baseline QTc: 18.1 ms [95% CI: 6.1, 30.1]; p = 0.004). More participants in the citalopram group had an increase ≥30 ms from baseline to week 3 (7 in citalopram versus 1 in placebo; Fisher's exact p = 0.046), but only slightly more in the citalopram group met a gender-specific threshold for prolonged QTc (450 ms for males; 470 ms for females) at any point during follow-up (3 in citalopram versus 1 in placebo, Fisher's exact p = 0.611). One of the citalopram participants who developed prolonged QTc also displayed ventricular bigeminy. No participants in either group had a cardiovascular-related death. Conclusion Citalopram at 30 mg/day was associated with improvement in agitation in patients with AD but was also associated with QT prolongation. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00898807 PMID:24914549

  12. Insights into Kinetics of Agitation-Induced Aggregation of Hen Lysozyme under Heat and Acidic Conditions from Various Spectroscopic Methods

    PubMed Central

    Chaari, Ali; Fahy, Christine; Chevillot-Biraud, Alexandre; Rholam, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Protein misfolding and amyloid formation are an underlying pathological hallmark in a number of prevalent diseases of protein aggregation ranging from Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases to systemic lysozyme amyloidosis. In this context, we have used complementary spectroscopic methods to undertake a systematic study of the self-assembly of hen egg-white lysozyme under agitation during a prolonged heating in acidic pH. The kinetics of lysozyme aggregation, monitored by Thioflavin T fluorescence, dynamic light scattering and the quenching of tryptophan fluorescence by acrylamide, is described by a sigmoid curve typical of a nucleation-dependent polymerization process. Nevertheless, we observe significant differences between the values deduced for the kinetic parameters (lag time and aggregation rate). The fibrillation process of lysozyme, as assessed by the attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, is accompanied by an increase in the β-sheet conformation at the expense of the α-helical conformation but the time-dependent variation of the content of these secondary structures does not evolve as a gradual transition. Moreover, the tryptophan fluorescence-monitored kinetics of lysozyme aggregation is described by three phases in which the temporal decrease of the tryptophan fluorescence quantum yield is of quasilinear nature. Finally, the generated lysozyme fibrils exhibit a typical amyloid morphology with various lengths (observed by atomic force microscopy) and contain exclusively the full-length protein (analyzed by highly performance liquid chromatography). Compared to the data obtained by other groups for the formation of lysozyme fibrils in acidic pH without agitation, this work provides new insights into the structural changes (local, secondary, oligomeric/fibrillar structures) undergone by the lysozyme during the agitation-induced formation of fibrils. PMID:26571264

  13. Seagrass proliferation precedes mortality during hypo-salinity events: a stress-induced morphometric response.

    PubMed

    Collier, Catherine J; Villacorta-Rath, Cecilia; van Dijk, Kor-jent; Takahashi, Miwa; Waycott, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Halophytes, such as seagrasses, predominantly form habitats in coastal and estuarine areas. These habitats can be seasonally exposed to hypo-salinity events during watershed runoff exposing them to dramatic salinity shifts and osmotic shock. The manifestation of this osmotic shock on seagrass morphology and phenology was tested in three Indo-Pacific seagrass species, Halophila ovalis, Halodule uninervis and Zostera muelleri, to hypo-salinity ranging from 3 to 36 PSU at 3 PSU increments for 10 weeks. All three species had broad salinity tolerance but demonstrated a moderate hypo-salinity stress response--analogous to a stress induced morphometric response (SIMR). Shoot proliferation occurred at salinities <30 PSU, with the largest increases, up to 400% increase in shoot density, occurring at the sub-lethal salinities <15 PSU, with the specific salinity associated with peak shoot density being variable among species. Resources were not diverted away from leaf growth or shoot development to support the new shoot production. However, at sub-lethal salinities where shoots proliferated, flowering was severely reduced for H. ovalis, the only species to flower during this experiment, demonstrating a diversion of resources away from sexual reproduction to support the investment in new shoots. This SIMR response preceded mortality, which occurred at 3 PSU for H. ovalis and 6 PSU for H. uninervis, while complete mortality was not reached for Z. muelleri. This is the first study to identify a SIMR in seagrasses, being detectable due to the fine resolution of salinity treatments tested. The detection of SIMR demonstrates the need for caution in interpreting in-situ changes in shoot density as shoot proliferation could be interpreted as a healthy or positive plant response to environmental conditions, when in fact it could signal pre-mortality stress.

  14. Seagrass Proliferation Precedes Mortality during Hypo-Salinity Events: A Stress-Induced Morphometric Response

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Catherine J.; Villacorta-Rath, Cecilia; van Dijk, Kor-jent; Takahashi, Miwa; Waycott, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Halophytes, such as seagrasses, predominantly form habitats in coastal and estuarine areas. These habitats can be seasonally exposed to hypo-salinity events during watershed runoff exposing them to dramatic salinity shifts and osmotic shock. The manifestation of this osmotic shock on seagrass morphology and phenology was tested in three Indo-Pacific seagrass species, Halophila ovalis, Halodule uninervis and Zostera muelleri, to hypo-salinity ranging from 3 to 36 PSU at 3 PSU increments for 10 weeks. All three species had broad salinity tolerance but demonstrated a moderate hypo-salinity stress response – analogous to a stress induced morphometric response (SIMR). Shoot proliferation occurred at salinities <30 PSU, with the largest increases, up to 400% increase in shoot density, occurring at the sub-lethal salinities <15 PSU, with the specific salinity associated with peak shoot density being variable among species. Resources were not diverted away from leaf growth or shoot development to support the new shoot production. However, at sub-lethal salinities where shoots proliferated, flowering was severely reduced for H. ovalis, the only species to flower during this experiment, demonstrating a diversion of resources away from sexual reproduction to support the investment in new shoots. This SIMR response preceded mortality, which occurred at 3 PSU for H. ovalis and 6 PSU for H. uninervis, while complete mortality was not reached for Z. muelleri. This is the first study to identify a SIMR in seagrasses, being detectable due to the fine resolution of salinity treatments tested. The detection of SIMR demonstrates the need for caution in interpreting in-situ changes in shoot density as shoot proliferation could be interpreted as a healthy or positive plant response to environmental conditions, when in fact it could signal pre-mortality stress. PMID:24705377

  15. Seagrass proliferation precedes mortality during hypo-salinity events: a stress-induced morphometric response.

    PubMed

    Collier, Catherine J; Villacorta-Rath, Cecilia; van Dijk, Kor-jent; Takahashi, Miwa; Waycott, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Halophytes, such as seagrasses, predominantly form habitats in coastal and estuarine areas. These habitats can be seasonally exposed to hypo-salinity events during watershed runoff exposing them to dramatic salinity shifts and osmotic shock. The manifestation of this osmotic shock on seagrass morphology and phenology was tested in three Indo-Pacific seagrass species, Halophila ovalis, Halodule uninervis and Zostera muelleri, to hypo-salinity ranging from 3 to 36 PSU at 3 PSU increments for 10 weeks. All three species had broad salinity tolerance but demonstrated a moderate hypo-salinity stress response--analogous to a stress induced morphometric response (SIMR). Shoot proliferation occurred at salinities <30 PSU, with the largest increases, up to 400% increase in shoot density, occurring at the sub-lethal salinities <15 PSU, with the specific salinity associated with peak shoot density being variable among species. Resources were not diverted away from leaf growth or shoot development to support the new shoot production. However, at sub-lethal salinities where shoots proliferated, flowering was severely reduced for H. ovalis, the only species to flower during this experiment, demonstrating a diversion of resources away from sexual reproduction to support the investment in new shoots. This SIMR response preceded mortality, which occurred at 3 PSU for H. ovalis and 6 PSU for H. uninervis, while complete mortality was not reached for Z. muelleri. This is the first study to identify a SIMR in seagrasses, being detectable due to the fine resolution of salinity treatments tested. The detection of SIMR demonstrates the need for caution in interpreting in-situ changes in shoot density as shoot proliferation could be interpreted as a healthy or positive plant response to environmental conditions, when in fact it could signal pre-mortality stress. PMID:24705377

  16. Irrigation and Soil Salinization in Mediterranean agro-ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Angelo; Viola, Francesco; Valerio Noto, Leonardo; Mau, Yair; Porporato, Amilcare

    2015-04-01

    During the warm and dry growing season of Mediterranean climates, the availability of good quality water for primary production in agriculture tends to be limited. This aspect makes the use of saline and brackish water appealing, given the potential of natural flushing of the soils by deep percolation during the wet and colder dormant season. Thus the cyclic alternation between the two different phases in the cold and warm season gives rise to a delicate equilibrium that can lead to long term secondary salinization if the mean salt input from irrigation overpasses the average annual natural leakage amount. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the long term salt mass balance in the presence of irrigation and possible changes in seasonality. An elevated concentration of salt in the soil may in turn lead to both a decrease of its fertility and to osmotic stress reducing plant productivity. To this purpose, a stochastic soil and water balance salinity model is developed to quantify the balance between salt accumulation phases during the growing season and leaching phases during the wet season. We provide the numerical and the analytical representation of secondary long-term salinization process, highlighting the role of soil depth, plant and climate together with the impact of shifts in the seasonal vs. interannual rainfall fluctuations. An application to a test case in the Southern part of Sicily (ITALY) is also presented, highlighting the strong relationship between salt dynamics, water management and climatic conditions.

  17. Functional tradeoffs underpin salinity-driven divergence in microbial community composition.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Chris L; Larsson, John; Yooseph, Shibu; Ininbergs, Karolina; Goll, Johannes; Asplund-Samuelsson, Johannes; McCrow, John P; Celepli, Narin; Allen, Lisa Zeigler; Ekman, Martin; Lucas, Andrew J; Hagström, Åke; Thiagarajan, Mathangi; Brindefalk, Björn; Richter, Alexander R; Andersson, Anders F; Tenney, Aaron; Lundin, Daniel; Tovchigrechko, Andrey; Nylander, Johan A A; Brami, Daniel; Badger, Jonathan H; Allen, Andrew E; Rusch, Douglas B; Hoffman, Jeff; Norrby, Erling; Friedman, Robert; Pinhassi, Jarone; Venter, J Craig; Bergman, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial community composition and functional potential change subtly across gradients in the surface ocean. In contrast, while there are significant phylogenetic divergences between communities from freshwater and marine habitats, the underlying mechanisms to this phylogenetic structuring yet remain unknown. We hypothesized that the functional potential of natural bacterial communities is linked to this striking divide between microbiomes. To test this hypothesis, metagenomic sequencing of microbial communities along a 1,800 km transect in the Baltic Sea area, encompassing a continuous natural salinity gradient from limnic to fully marine conditions, was explored. Multivariate statistical analyses showed that salinity is the main determinant of dramatic changes in microbial community composition, but also of large scale changes in core metabolic functions of bacteria. Strikingly, genetically and metabolically different pathways for key metabolic processes, such as respiration, biosynthesis of quinones and isoprenoids, glycolysis and osmolyte transport, were differentially abundant at high and low salinities. These shifts in functional capacities were observed at multiple taxonomic levels and within dominant bacterial phyla, while bacteria, such as SAR11, were able to adapt to the entire salinity gradient. We propose that the large differences in central metabolism required at high and low salinities dictate the striking divide between freshwater and marine microbiomes, and that the ability to inhabit different salinity regimes evolved early during bacterial phylogenetic differentiation. These findings significantly advance our understanding of microbial distributions and stress the need to incorporate salinity in future climate change models that predict increased levels of precipitation and a reduction in salinity. PMID:24586863

  18. Impacts of salinity parameterizations on temperature simulation over and in a hypersaline lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Lijuan; Nagabhatla, Nidhi; Zhao, Lin; Li, Zhaoguo; Chen, Shiqiang

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we introduced parameterizations of the salinity effects (on heat capacity, thermal conductivity, freezing point and saturated vapor pressure) in a lake scheme integrated in the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with the Community Land Model (WRF-CLM). This was done to improve temperature simulation over and in a saline lake and to test the contributions of salinity effects on various water properties via sensitivity experiments. The modified lake scheme consists of the lake module in the CLM model, which is the land component of the WRF-CLM model. The Great Salt Lake (GSL) in the USA was selected as the study area. The simulation was performed from September 3, 2001 to September 30, 2002. Our results show that the modified WRF-CLM model that includes the lake scheme considering salinity effects can reasonably simulate temperature over and in the GSL. This model had much greater accuracy than neglecting salinity effects, particularly in a very cold event when that effect alters the freezing point. The salinity effect on saturated vapor pressure can reduce latent heat flux over the lake and make it slightly warmer. The salinity effect on heat capacity can also make lake temperature prone to changes. However, the salinity effect on thermal conductivity was found insignificant in our simulations.

  19. Phytoremediation of cadmium by the facultative halophyte plant Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla, at different salinities.

    PubMed

    Santos, Márcia S S; Pedro, Carmen A; Gonçalves, Sílvia C; Ferreira, Susana M F

    2015-10-01

    The cadmium phytoremediation capacity of the halophyte plant Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla and the influence of water salinity were assessed in a greenhouse experiment, in order to better understand the bioremediation capacity of this plant. Three concentrations of cadmium (0, 50 and 100 μg l(-1)) and four salinity conditions (0, 5, 10 and 20) were chosen to evaluate the cadmium accumulation, in order to test these plants as a potential phytoremediation tool in brackish environments. The cadmium content in water and plants (underground organs, stems and leaves) was analysed with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. All the plants submitted to salinity 20 and in the three cadmium treatments died. The plants' survival was highest in the lowest salinities, where highest growth and biomasses were also obtained. The plants presented more cadmium content in the rhizomes, followed by stems and even less in leaves. The salt stress of the plants interfered with their cadmium accumulation capacity. The highest cadmium accumulation in the rhizomes occurred at salinity 0, while the salinities 0 and 5 were the most adequate for stems and leaves. The experiment pointed out that B. maritimus represents a good possible intervenient for cadmium bioremediation in freshwater and low salinity brackish water environments, but its use is limited in the habitats of higher salinity. PMID:26013743

  20. Functional Tradeoffs Underpin Salinity-Driven Divergence in Microbial Community Composition

    PubMed Central

    Yooseph, Shibu; Ininbergs, Karolina; Goll, Johannes; Asplund-Samuelsson, Johannes; McCrow, John P.; Celepli, Narin; Allen, Lisa Zeigler; Ekman, Martin; Lucas, Andrew J.; Hagström, Åke; Thiagarajan, Mathangi; Brindefalk, Björn; Richter, Alexander R.; Andersson, Anders F.; Tenney, Aaron; Lundin, Daniel; Tovchigrechko, Andrey; Nylander, Johan A. A.; Brami, Daniel; Badger, Jonathan H.; Allen, Andrew E.; Rusch, Douglas B.; Hoffman, Jeff; Norrby, Erling; Friedman, Robert; Pinhassi, Jarone; Venter, J. Craig; Bergman, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial community composition and functional potential change subtly across gradients in the surface ocean. In contrast, while there are significant phylogenetic divergences between communities from freshwater and marine habitats, the underlying mechanisms to this phylogenetic structuring yet remain unknown. We hypothesized that the functional potential of natural bacterial communities is linked to this striking divide between microbiomes. To test this hypothesis, metagenomic sequencing of microbial communities along a 1,800 km transect in the Baltic Sea area, encompassing a continuous natural salinity gradient from limnic to fully marine conditions, was explored. Multivariate statistical analyses showed that salinity is the main determinant of dramatic changes in microbial community composition, but also of large scale changes in core metabolic functions of bacteria. Strikingly, genetically and metabolically different pathways for key metabolic processes, such as respiration, biosynthesis of quinones and isoprenoids, glycolysis and osmolyte transport, were differentially abundant at high and low salinities. These shifts in functional capacities were observed at multiple taxonomic levels and within dominant bacterial phyla, while bacteria, such as SAR11, were able to adapt to the entire salinity gradient. We propose that the large differences in central metabolism required at high and low salinities dictate the striking divide between freshwater and marine microbiomes, and that the ability to inhabit different salinity regimes evolved early during bacterial phylogenetic differentiation. These findings significantly advance our understanding of microbial distributions and stress the need to incorporate salinity in future climate change models that predict increased levels of precipitation and a reduction in salinity. PMID:24586863

  1. Phytoremediation of cadmium by the facultative halophyte plant Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla, at different salinities.

    PubMed

    Santos, Márcia S S; Pedro, Carmen A; Gonçalves, Sílvia C; Ferreira, Susana M F

    2015-10-01

    The cadmium phytoremediation capacity of the halophyte plant Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla and the influence of water salinity were assessed in a greenhouse experiment, in order to better understand the bioremediation capacity of this plant. Three concentrations of cadmium (0, 50 and 100 μg l(-1)) and four salinity conditions (0, 5, 10 and 20) were chosen to evaluate the cadmium accumulation, in order to test these plants as a potential phytoremediation tool in brackish environments. The cadmium content in water and plants (underground organs, stems and leaves) was analysed with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. All the plants submitted to salinity 20 and in the three cadmium treatments died. The plants' survival was highest in the lowest salinities, where highest growth and biomasses were also obtained. The plants presented more cadmium content in the rhizomes, followed by stems and even less in leaves. The salt stress of the plants interfered with their cadmium accumulation capacity. The highest cadmium accumulation in the rhizomes occurred at salinity 0, while the salinities 0 and 5 were the most adequate for stems and leaves. The experiment pointed out that B. maritimus represents a good possible intervenient for cadmium bioremediation in freshwater and low salinity brackish water environments, but its use is limited in the habitats of higher salinity.

  2. Salinity Preference in the Estuarine Teleost Fish Mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus): Halocline Behavior.

    PubMed

    Marshall, W S; Tait, J C; Mercer, E W

    2016-01-01

    Mummichogs prefer seawater (SW) but have wide ability to acclimate to extreme temperatures and salinities. In the field, minnow trapping revealed that mummichogs move progressively into low-salinity warmer water during early spring after ice melt and show significant aversion to colder temperatures and high salinity. First appearance in estuarine shallows occurred above 10°C, and catch increased to 21°C over 4 wk. Three-spine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) also preferred warmer low-salinity locations but preferred slowing streams, whereas mummichogs preferred tidal ponds. In the laboratory, artificial haloclines tested isothermal salinity preference, between 28‰ full-strength SW (below) and 10% SW (3.0‰; above). Mummichogs of both sexes acclimated to 5°C in SW strongly preferred SW. Freshwater (0% SW)-acclimated mummichogs at 21°C also preferred SW, but of sexually mature fish acclimated to 21°C SW, only the males preferred SW; the females showed no significant preference for SW, meaning they freely entered low salinity. SW preference was manifested by a stereotypic passive aversion to the dilute upper layer at the halocline. We conclude that the overall movement of mummichogs into summer breeding grounds of low salinity is driven by maturation of females and their preference for warmer water regardless of salinity. PMID:27153132

  3. Combined effects of seawater acidification and salinity changes in Ruditapes philippinarum.

    PubMed

    Velez, Catia; Figueira, Etelvina; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Freitas, Rosa

    2016-07-01

    Due to human activities, predictions for the coming years indicate increasing frequency and intensity of extreme weather events (rainy and drought periods) and pollution levels, leading to salinity shifts and ocean acidification. Therefore, several authors have assessed the effects of seawater salinity shifts and pH decrease on marine bivalves, but most of these studies evaluated the impacts of both factors independently. Since pH and salinity may act together in the environment, and their impacts may differ from their effects when acting alone, there is an urgent need to increase our knowledge when these environmental changes act in combination. Thus, the present study assessed the effects of seawater acidification and salinity changes, both acting alone and in combination, on the physiological (condition index, Na and K concentrations) and biochemical (oxidative stress related biomarkers) performance of Ruditapes philippinarum. For that, specimens of R. philippinarum were exposed for 28days to the combination of different pH levels (7.8 and 7.3) and salinities (14, 28 and 35). The results obtained showed that under control pH (7.8) and low salinity (14) the physiological status and biochemical performance of clams was negatively affected, revealing oxidative stress. However, under the same pH and at salinities 28 and 35 clams were able to maintain/regulate their physiological status and biochemical performance. Moreover, our findings showed that clams under low pH (7.3) and different salinities were able to maintain their physiological status and biochemical performance, suggesting that the low pH tested may mask the negative effects of salinity. Our results further demonstrated that, in general, at each salinity, similar physiological and biochemical responses were found in clams under both tested pH levels. Also, individuals under low pH (salinities 14, 28 and 25) and exposed to pH 7.8 and salinity 28 (control) tend to present a similar response pattern. These

  4. Combined effects of seawater acidification and salinity changes in Ruditapes philippinarum.

    PubMed

    Velez, Catia; Figueira, Etelvina; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Freitas, Rosa

    2016-07-01

    Due to human activities, predictions for the coming years indicate increasing frequency and intensity of extreme weather events (rainy and drought periods) and pollution levels, leading to salinity shifts and ocean acidification. Therefore, several authors have assessed the effects of seawater salinity shifts and pH decrease on marine bivalves, but most of these studies evaluated the impacts of both factors independently. Since pH and salinity may act together in the environment, and their impacts may differ from their effects when acting alone, there is an urgent need to increase our knowledge when these environmental changes act in combination. Thus, the present study assessed the effects of seawater acidification and salinity changes, both acting alone and in combination, on the physiological (condition index, Na and K concentrations) and biochemical (oxidative stress related biomarkers) performance of Ruditapes philippinarum. For that, specimens of R. philippinarum were exposed for 28days to the combination of different pH levels (7.8 and 7.3) and salinities (14, 28 and 35). The results obtained showed that under control pH (7.8) and low salinity (14) the physiological status and biochemical performance of clams was negatively affected, revealing oxidative stress. However, under the same pH and at salinities 28 and 35 clams were able to maintain/regulate their physiological status and biochemical performance. Moreover, our findings showed that clams under low pH (7.3) and different salinities were able to maintain their physiological status and biochemical performance, suggesting that the low pH tested may mask the negative effects of salinity. Our results further demonstrated that, in general, at each salinity, similar physiological and biochemical responses were found in clams under both tested pH levels. Also, individuals under low pH (salinities 14, 28 and 25) and exposed to pH 7.8 and salinity 28 (control) tend to present a similar response pattern. These

  5. Mixing Time in a Cylindrical Bath Agitated by Swirling Liquid Jet Generated with J-Shaped Lance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Naoko; Iguchi, Manabu

    A novel and efficient method is proposed to agitate a molten steel bath. A water model study is carried out to understand the mixing characteristic of the bath. A water jet is generated with a J-shaped lance in a cylindrical bath. The lance exit made of glass pipe is sharpened to form a single-hole nozzle and the nozzle is placed on the centerline of the bath. Mixing time in the bath is measured with an electric conductivity sensor. An empirical equation is proposed for correlating the measured values of the mixing time as a function of the water flow rate, vessel diameter, and so on.

  6. Determination of chrysene degradation under saline conditions by Fusarium sp. F092, a fungus screened from nature.

    PubMed

    Hidayat, Asep; Tachibana, Sanro; Itoh, Kazutaka

    2012-06-01

    Sixty-two rotted wood and soil samples were used to screen for chrysene-degrading fungi. A strain of Fusarium, named F092, was identified as most capable of degrading chrysene. F092 was active under saline and nonsaline conditions, breaking down 48% of the chrysene in 30 d. The percentage of chrysene degraded did not change at 35‰ salinity with pH 8.2 in solid and liquid cultures. The degradation under saline conditions increased about 0.6- and 2.1-fold in cultures with polypeptone and Tween80, and 0.03-fold in agitated cultures. F092 secreted nonligninolytic enzymes named 1,2-dioxygenase and 2,3-dioxygenase. The level of 1,2-dioxygenase activity reached 203.5 U L(-1) at 30 d and that of 2,3-dioxygenase activity, 29.7 U L(-1) at 40 d. The degradation pathway was clarified from the intermediates produced; chrysene 1,2-oxide, chrysene trans-1,2-dihydrodiol, 1-hydroxy 2-naphtoic acid, and catechol. F092 is a potential degrader of chrysene for bioremediation.

  7. Salinity change impairs pipefish immune defence.

    PubMed

    Birrer, Simone C; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Roth, Olivia

    2012-12-01

    Global change is associated with fast and severe alterations of environmental conditions. Superimposed onto existing salinity variations in a semi-enclosed brackish water body such as the Baltic Sea, a decrease in salinity is predicted due to increased precipitation and freshwater inflow. Moreover, we predict that heavy precipitation events will accentuate salinity fluctuations near shore. Here, we investigated how the immune function of the broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle), an ecologically important teleost with sex-role reversal, is influenced by experimentally altered salinities (control: 18 PSU, lowered: 6 PSU, increased: 30 PSU) upon infection with bacteria of the genus Vibrio. Salinity changes resulted in increased activity and proliferation of immune cells. However, upon Vibrio infection, individuals at low salinity were unable to mount specific immune response components, both in terms of monocyte and lymphocyte cell proliferation and immune gene expression compared to pipefish kept at ambient salinities. We interpret this as resource allocation trade-off, implying that resources needed for osmoregulation under salinity stress are lacking for subsequent activation of the immune defence upon infection. Our data suggest that composition of small coastal fish communities may change due to elevated environmental stress levels and the incorporated consequences thereof. PMID:22982326

  8. Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Salinity II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Presented is a science activity in which the student investigates methods of calibration of a simple conductivity meter via a hands-on inquiry technique. Conductivity is mathematically compared to salinity using a point slope formula and graphical techniques. Sample solutions of unknown salinity are provided so that the students can sharpen their…

  9. Salinity change impairs pipefish immune defence.

    PubMed

    Birrer, Simone C; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Roth, Olivia

    2012-12-01

    Global change is associated with fast and severe alterations of environmental conditions. Superimposed onto existing salinity variations in a semi-enclosed brackish water body such as the Baltic Sea, a decrease in salinity is predicted due to increased precipitation and freshwater inflow. Moreover, we predict that heavy precipitation events will accentuate salinity fluctuations near shore. Here, we investigated how the immune function of the broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle), an ecologically important teleost with sex-role reversal, is influenced by experimentally altered salinities (control: 18 PSU, lowered: 6 PSU, increased: 30 PSU) upon infection with bacteria of the genus Vibrio. Salinity changes resulted in increased activity and proliferation of immune cells. However, upon Vibrio infection, individuals at low salinity were unable to mount specific immune response components, both in terms of monocyte and lymphocyte cell proliferation and immune gene expression compared to pipefish kept at ambient salinities. We interpret this as resource allocation trade-off, implying that resources needed for osmoregulation under salinity stress are lacking for subsequent activation of the immune defence upon infection. Our data suggest that composition of small coastal fish communities may change due to elevated environmental stress levels and the incorporated consequences thereof.

  10. Geological Characterization, Capacity Estimates and Long-Term Fate of CO2 Storage in Deep Saline Aquifers in the Two Elk Energy Park Pilot Test site, Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, R.; Benson, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Energy Park (North America Power Group) is a commercial-scale demonstration project planned as a series of renewable and other electric power generation, carbon capture, sequestration and related facilities, located in the eastern side of the Powder River Basin, northeastern Wyoming. The site is located on top of several deep saline aquifers, depleted oil reservoirs, and coal seams. The Powder River basin was identified by NETL and Big Sky partnership as having high potential for CO2 sequestration. The aims of our current study were to identify and describe all porous sections below the proposed site, to estimate the capacity of each unit, and to conduct simulations to better understand the faith of injected CO2 between those different layers. The storage goal of the project is 3 Mt/year for 50 years of operation. The project is supported by the DOE. Detailed geological characterization of the section between the Madison Formation and the Mowry Shale was based on two wells, located ~10 km from the proposed site. Porous sandstone layers were identified in the Minnelusa, Spearfish, Sundance, Morrison, Lakota, and Dakota formations. Average porosity in all of those units is between 8 to 15%. These formations consist of interbedded sandstone and shale, with some anhydrite and dolomite layers in the Minnelusa Formation. Our interest was to examine the ability of these impermeable layers (shale, anhydrite, and dolomite) to act as local seal to the different porous units. Other shale dominant formations also occur in the section (Opeche, Fuson, Skull, and Mowry formations) and will act as major seals to the whole porous section. The complex stratigraphy and relatively low permeability of the rocks at this site appear to preclude identification of a single unit that can be used for CO2 storage. Instead, the most promising option is to inject CO2 into large thickness of sediments, resulting in the injection of a relatively small amount of CO2 into a number of formations

  11. Insights into saline intrusion and freshwater resources in coastal karstic aquifers using a lumped Rainfall-Discharge-Salinity model (the Port-Miou brackish spring, SE France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arfib, Bruno; Charlier, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a conceptual model of saline intrusion within coastal karst aquifers by analyzing Rainfall-Discharge-Salinity data and to assess freshwater resources using a lumped modeling approach. In a first step, we analyzed 4 years of data (rainfall, discharge and salinity times series) of the Port-Miou brackish submarine spring in South France (400 km2). A conceptual model of the aquifer was then designed to differentiate a deep brackish reservoir and a shallower fresh one. Salinity variations at the spring are assumed to be controlled mainly by dilution originating from the fresh water in the shallower reservoir. In a second step, a lumped modeling approach was developed based on the conceptual model to simulate discharge as well as salinity over time. We proposed a reservoir-model to take into account slow and fast components in the shallower part of the aquifer and a saline intrusion in the deeper one. This Rainfall-Discharge-Salinity model was calibrated and validated for two periods of 1.5 years at a daily time step and was also tested to reproduce a multi-annual evolution of the available discharge and salinity time series. Good simulation results were obtained to reproduce water and mass budgets as well as discharge and salinity dynamics during several hydrological cycles. The simultaneous modeling of hydrodynamics and quality data showed the robustness of the model in addition to its easy implementation. Our results led us to propose a new type of seawater mixing mechanism for brackish springs: the dilution type, in addition to the well-known Ventury suction and Head balance types. The application of the lumped model on the Port-Miou brackish spring validated the hydrogeological processes deduced from experimental data, given an initial quantification of the freshwater resources available in such complex brackish karstic aquifers.

  12. Case study on combined CO₂ sequestration and low-salinity water production potential in a shallow saline aquifer in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Tausif Khizar; Nasrabadi, Hadi

    2012-10-30

    CO₂ is one of the byproducts of natural gas production in Qatar. The high rate of natural gas production from Qatar's North Field (world's largest non-associated gas field) has led to the production of significant amounts of CO₂. The release of CO₂ into the atmosphere may be harmful from the perspective of global warming. In this work, we study the CO₂ sequestration potential in Qatar's Aruma aquifer. The Aruma aquifer is a saline aquifer in the southwest of Qatar. It occupies an area of approximately 1985 km₂ on land (16% of Qatar's total area). We have developed a compositional model for CO₂ sequestration in the Aruma aquifer on the basis of available log and flow test data. We suggest water production at some distance from the CO₂ injection wells as a possible way to control the pore pressure. This method increases the potential for safe sequestration of CO₂ in the aquifer without losing integrity of the caprock and without any CO₂ leakage. The water produced from this aquifer is considerably less saline than seawater and could be a good water source for the desalination process, which is currently the main source of water in Qatar. The outcome of the desalination process is water with higher salinity than the seawater that is currently discharged into the sea. This discharge can have negative long-term environmental effects. The water produced from the Aruma aquifer is considerably less saline than seawater and can be a partial solution to this problem.

  13. Reconstructing Past Ocean Salinity ((delta)18Owater)

    SciTech Connect

    Guilderson, T P; Pak, D K

    2005-11-23

    Temperature and salinity are two of the key properties of ocean water masses. The distribution of these two independent but related characteristics reflects the interplay of incoming solar radiation (insolation) and the uneven distribution of heat loss and gain by the ocean, with that of precipitation, evaporation, and the freezing and melting of ice. Temperature and salinity to a large extent, determine the density of a parcel of water. Small differences in temperature and salinity can increase or decrease the density of a water parcel, which can lead to convection. Once removed from the surface of the ocean where 'local' changes in temperature and salinity can occur, the water parcel retains its distinct relationship between (potential) temperature and salinity. We can take advantage of this 'conservative' behavior where changes only occur as a result of mixing processes, to track the movement of water in the deep ocean (Figure 1). The distribution of density in the ocean is directly related to horizontal pressure gradients and thus (geostrophic) ocean currents. During the Quaternary when we have had systematic growth and decay of large land based ice sheets, salinity has had to change. A quick scaling argument following that of Broecker and Peng [1982] is: the modern ocean has a mean salinity of 34.7 psu and is on average 3500m deep. During glacial maxima sea level was on the order of {approx}120m lower than present. Simply scaling the loss of freshwater (3-4%) requires an average increase in salinity a similar percentage or to {approx}35.9psu. Because much of the deep ocean is of similar temperature, small changes in salinity have a large impact on density, yielding a potentially different distribution of water masses and control of the density driven (thermohaline) ocean circulation. It is partly for this reason that reconstructions of past salinity are of interest to paleoceanographers.

  14. Influence of increasing temperature and salinity on herbicide toxicity in estuarine phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    DeLorenzo, Marie E; Danese, Loren E; Baird, Thomas D

    2013-07-01

    Ecological risk assessments are, in part, based on results of toxicity tests conducted under standard exposure conditions. Global climate change will have a wide range of effects on estuarine habitats, including potentially increasing water temperature and salinity, which may alter the risk assessment of estuarine pollutants. We examined the effects of increasing temperature and salinity on the toxicity of common herbicides (irgarol, diuron, atrazine, and ametryn) to the phytoplankton species Dunaliella tertiolecta. Static 96-h algal bioassays were conducted for each herbicide under four exposure scenarios: standard temperature and salinity (25°C, 20 ppt), standard temperature and elevated salinity (25°C, 40 ppt), elevated temperature and standard salinity (35°C, 20 ppt), and elevated temperature and elevated salinity (35°C, 40 ppt). The endpoints assessed were algal cell density at 96 h, growth rate, chlorophyll a content, lipid content, and starch content. Increasing exposure temperature reduced growth rate and 96-h cell density but increased the cellular chlorophyll and lipid concentrations of the control algae. Exposure condition did not alter starch content of control algae. Herbicides were found to decrease growth rate, 96 h cell density, and cellular chlorophyll and lipid concentrations, while starch concentrations increased with herbicide exposure. Herbicide effects under standard test conditions were then compared with those observed under elevated temperature and salinity. Herbicide effects on growth rate, cell density, and starch content were more pronounced under elevated salinity and temperature conditions. To encompass the natural variability in estuarine temperature and salinity, and to account for future changes in climate, toxicity tests should be conducted under a wider range of environmental conditions.

  15. Spectral Characteristics of Salinized Soils during Microbial Remediation Processes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chuang; Shen, Guang-rong; Zhi, Yue-e; Wang, Zi-jun; Zhu, Yun; Li, Xian-hua

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the spectral reflectance of saline soils, the associated soil salt content (SSC) and the concentrations of salt ions were measured and analysed by tracing the container microbial remediation experiments for saline soil (main salt is sodium chloride) of Dongying City, Shandong Province. The sensitive spectral reflectance bands of saline soils to SSC, Cl- and Na+ in the process of microbial remediation were analysed. The average-dimension reduction of these bands was conducted by using a combination of correlation coefficient and decision coefficient, and by gradually narrowing the sampling interval method. Results showed that the tendency and magnitude of the average spectral reflectance in all bands of saline soils during the total remediation processes were nearly consistent with SSC and with Cl- coocentration, respectively. The degree of salinity of the soil, including SSC and salt ion concentrations, had a significant positive correlation with the spectral reflectance of all bands, particularly in the near-infrared band. The optimal spectral bands of SSC were 1370 to 1445 nm and 1447 to 1608 nm, whereas the optimal spectral bands of Cl- and Na+ were 1336 to 1461 nm and 1471 to 1561 nm, respectively. The relationship model among SSC, soil salt ion concentrations (Cl- and Na+) and soil spectral reflectance of the corresponding optimal spectral band was established. The largest R2 of relationship model between SSC and the average reflectance of associated optimal band reached to 0.95, and RMSEC and RMSEP were 1.076 and 0.591, respectively. Significant statistical analysis of salt factors and soil reflectance for different microbial remediation processes indicated that the spectral response characteristics and sensitivity of SSC to soil reflectance, which implied the feasibility of high spectrum test on soil microbial remediation monitoring, also provided the basis for quick nondestructive monitoring soil bioremediation process by soil spectral

  16. TREC-Rio trial: a randomised controlled trial for rapid tranquillisation for agitated patients in emergency psychiatric rooms [ISRCTN44153243

    PubMed Central

    Huf, Gisele; Coutinho, Evandro SF; Adams, Clive E

    2002-01-01

    Background Agitated or violent patients constitute 10% of all emergency psychiatric treatment. Management guidelines, the preferred treatment of clinicians and clinical practice all differ. Systematic reviews show that all relevant studies are small and none are likely to have adequate power to show true differences between treatments. Worldwide, current treatment is not based on evidence from randomised trials. In Brazil, the combination haloperidol-promethazine is frequently used, but no studies involving this mix exist. Methods TREC-Rio (Tranquilização Rápida-Ensaio Clínico [Translation: Rapid Tranquillisation-Clinical Trial]) will compare midazolam with haloperidol-promethazine mix for treatment of agitated patients in emergency psychiatric rooms of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. TREC-Rio is a randomised, controlled, pragmatic and open study. Primary measure of outcome is tranquillisation at 20 minutes but effects on other measures of morbidity will also be assessed. TREC-Rio will involve the collaboration of as many health care professionals based in four psychiatric emergency rooms of Rio as possible. Because the design of this trial does not substantially complicate clinical management, and in several aspects simplifies it, the study can be large, and treatments used in everyday practice can be evaluated. PMID:12383353

  17. Control of Grifola frondosa Morphology by Agitation and Aeration for Improving Mycelia and Exo-Polymer Production.

    PubMed

    Cui, Feng-Jie; Chen, Xiao-Xiao; Liu, Wei-Min; Sun, Wen-Jing; Huo, Shuhao; Yang, Yan

    2016-06-01

    The present study describes the improved mycelia and exo-polymer production under control of Grifola frondosa morphology by changing the aeration rate and agitation intensity in a 25-L stirred fermentor. The aeration rate of 1.0 vvm yielded a highest mycelia biomass of 24.754 g/L with the lowest pellet percentage of 20.5 %. The maximum exo-polymer (2.324 g/L) was achieved at 0.75 vvm with mycelia polysaccharide production (0.321 g/g), whereas clumps and filaments dominated the ratios of 45.6 and 33.9 %, respectively. The change of aeration rate and agitation intensity had slight influence on the monosaccharide compositions in exo-polymers and significantly affected glucose and mannose contents in the mycelia polysaccharides. These findings will provide a clue for exploring the relationship between fermentation parameters, morphologies, and polysaccharide synthesis pathway of G. frondosa.

  18. Verbal De-escalation of the Agitated Patient: Consensus Statement of the American Association for Emergency Psychiatry Project BETA De-escalation Workgroup.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Janet S; Berlin, Jon S; Fishkind, Avrim B; Holloman, Garland H; Zeller, Scott L; Wilson, Michael P; Rifai, Muhamad Aly; Ng, Anthony T

    2012-02-01

    Agitation is an acute behavioral emergency requiring immediate intervention. Traditional methods of treating agitated patients, ie, routine restraints and involuntary medication, have been replaced with a much greater emphasis on a noncoercive approach. Experienced practitioners have found that if such interventions are undertaken with genuine commitment, successful outcomes can occur far more often than previously thought possible. In the new paradigm, a 3-step approach is used. First, the patient is verbally engaged; then a collaborative relationship is established; and, finally, the patient is verbally de-escalated out of the agitated state. Verbal de-escalation is usually the key to engaging the patient and helping him become an active partner in his evaluation and treatment; although, we also recognize that in some cases nonverbal approaches, such as voluntary medication and environment planning, are also important. When working with an agitated patient, there are 4 main objectives: (1) ensure the safety of the patient, staff, and others in the area; (2) help the patient manage his emotions and distress and maintain or regain control of his behavior; (3) avoid the use of restraint when at all possible; and (4) avoid coercive interventions that escalate agitation. The authors detail the proper foundations for appropriate training for de-escalation and provide intervention guidelines, using the "10 domains of de-escalation."

  19. Assessment of risk to aquatic biota from elevated salinity -- a case study from the Hunter River, Australia.

    PubMed

    Muschal, Monika

    2006-05-01

    An ecological risk assessment was performed on salinity levels of the Hunter River and its tributaries to respond to concerns that high salinity may be damaging aquatic ecosystems. Probabilistic techniques were used to assess likelihood and consequence, and hence the risk to aquatic biota from salinity. Continuous electrical conductivity distributions were used to describe the likelihood that high salinity would occur (exposure dataset) and toxicity values were compiled from the limited literature sources available to describe the consequence of high salinity (effects dataset). The assessment was preliminary in the sense that it modelled risk on the basis of existing data and did not undertake site-specific toxicity testing. Some sections of the Hunter River catchment have geologies that are saline because of their marine origins. Catchment development has increased the liberation rates of salts into surface-waters. Such modifying activities include coal-mining, power generation and land clearing. The aquatic biota of tributaries had a greater risk of impairment from high salinity than that of the Hunter River. High salinities in the tributaries were attributed to the combined factors of naturally saline geologies, increased liberation of salts due to modification of the landscape, and reduced dilution by flushing flows. A salinity guideline trigger value of 1100 mg L(-1) was recommended.

  20. Collection of High Energy Yielding Strains of Saline Microalgae from the Hawaiian Islands: Final Technical Report, Year 1

    SciTech Connect

    York, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    Microalgae were collected from 48 locations in the Hawaiian Islands in 1985. The sites were an aquaculture tank; a coral reef; bays; a geothermal steam vent; Hawaiian fish ponds; a Hawaiian salt punawai (well); the ocean; river mouths; saline lakes; saline pools; saline ponds; a saline swamp; and the ponds, drainage ditches and sumps of commercial shrimp farms. From 4,800 isolations, 100 of the most productive clones were selected to be maintained by periodic transfer to sterile medium. Five clones were tested for growth rate and production in a full-spectrum-transmitting solarium.

  1. World salinization with emphasis on Australia.

    PubMed

    Rengasamy, Pichu

    2006-01-01

    Salinization is the accumulation of water-soluble salts in the soil solum or regolith to a level that impacts on agricultural production, environmental health, and economic welfare. Salt-affected soils occur in more than 100 countries of the world with a variety of extents, nature, and properties. No climatic zone in the world is free from salinization, although the general perception is focused on arid and semi-arid regions. Salinization is a complex process involving the movement of salts and water in soils during seasonal cycles and interactions with groundwater. While rainfall, aeolian deposits, mineral weathering, and stored salts are the sources of salts, surface and groundwaters can redistribute the accumulated salts and may also provide additional sources. Sodium salts dominate in many saline soils of the world, but salts of other cations such as calcium, magnesium, and iron are also found in specific locations. Different types of salinization with a prevalence of sodium salts affect about 30% of the land area in Australia. While more attention is given to groundwater-associated salinity and irrigation salinity, which affects about 16% of the agricultural area, recent investigations suggest that 67% of the agricultural area has a potential for "transient salinity", a type of non-groundwater-associated salinity. Agricultural soils in Australia, being predominantly sodic, accumulate salts under seasonal fluctuations and have multiple subsoil constraints such as alkalinity, acidity, sodicity, and toxic ions. This paper examines soil processes that dictate the exact edaphic environment upon which root functions depend and can help in research on plant improvement.

  2. World salinization with emphasis on Australia.

    PubMed

    Rengasamy, Pichu

    2006-01-01

    Salinization is the accumulation of water-soluble salts in the soil solum or regolith to a level that impacts on agricultural production, environmental health, and economic welfare. Salt-affected soils occur in more than 100 countries of the world with a variety of extents, nature, and properties. No climatic zone in the world is free from salinization, although the general perception is focused on arid and semi-arid regions. Salinization is a complex process involving the movement of salts and water in soils during seasonal cycles and interactions with groundwater. While rainfall, aeolian deposits, mineral weathering, and stored salts are the sources of salts, surface and groundwaters can redistribute the accumulated salts and may also provide additional sources. Sodium salts dominate in many saline soils of the world, but salts of other cations such as calcium, magnesium, and iron are also found in specific locations. Different types of salinization with a prevalence of sodium salts affect about 30% of the land area in Australia. While more attention is given to groundwater-associated salinity and irrigation salinity, which affects about 16% of the agricultural area, recent investigations suggest that 67% of the agricultural area has a potential for "transient salinity", a type of non-groundwater-associated salinity. Agricultural soils in Australia, being predominantly sodic, accumulate salts under seasonal fluctuations and have multiple subsoil constraints such as alkalinity, acidity, sodicity, and toxic ions. This paper examines soil processes that dictate the exact edaphic environment upon which root functions depend and can help in research on plant improvement. PMID:16510516

  3. [Soil Salinity Estimation Based on Near-Ground Multispectral Imagery in Typical Area of the Yellow River Delta].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong-rui; Zhao, Geng-xing; Gao, Ming-xiu; Wang, Zhuo-ran; Jia, Ji-chao; Li, Ping; An, De-yu

    2016-01-01

    This study chooses the core demonstration area of 'Bohai Barn' project as the study area, which is located in Wudi, Shandong Province. We first collected near-ground and multispectral images and surface soil salinity data using ADC portable multispectral camera and EC110 portable salinometer. Then three vegetation indices, namely NDVI, SAVI and GNDVI, were used to build 18 models respectively with the actual measured soil salinity. These models include linear function, exponential function, logarithmic function, exponentiation function, quadratic function and cubic function, from which the best estimation model for soil salinity estimation was selected and used for inverting and analyzing soil salinity status of the study area. Results indicated that all models mentioned above could effectively estimate soil salinity and models using SAVI as the dependent variable were more effective than the others. Among SAVI models, the linear model (Y = -0.524x + 0.663, n = 70) is the best, under which the test value of F is the highest as 141.347 at significance test level, estimated R2 0.797 with a 93.36% accuracy. Soil salinity of the study area is mainly around 2.5 per thousand - 3.5 per thousand, which gradually increases from southwest to northeast. The study has probed into soil salinity estimation methods based on near-ground and multispectral data, and will provide a quick and effective technical soil salinity estimation approach for coastal saline soil of the study area and the whole Yellow River Delta. PMID:27228776

  4. Effect of Agitation on Crystallization Behavior of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-Na2O-CaF2 Mold Fluxes with Varying Basicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiangling; Shu, Qifeng; Chou, Kuochih

    2015-08-01

    The effect of agitation on crystallization behaviors of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-Na2O-CaF2 mold fluxes with basicity of 1.1 and 1.2 was investigated. It was found that crystallization temperatures of agitated samples were higher than those of static samples. The morphology of cuspidine shifted from dendrites to facet crystals with the decrease of temperature. The agitation was conducive to the formation of small dendritic cuspidine and could lead to crystals with smaller size. Crystalline fraction could be significantly enhanced by agitation at the initial stage of crystallization.

  5. Water salination: a source of energy.

    PubMed

    Norman, R S

    1974-10-25

    The thermodynamically reversible mixing of freshwater and seawater at constant temperature releases free energy. Salination power as a resource is comparable with hydroelectric power in magnitude; U.S. freshwater runoff could yield over 10(10) watts. The energy flux available for natural salination is equivalent to each river in the world ending at its mouth in a waterfall 225 meters high. An osmotic salination converter could possibly operate at 25 percent efficiency. This energy source is renewable and nonpolluting. Although its full utilization would destroy estuarine environments, it might be practical for specialized purposes.

  6. [Comparative study of the effects of sultopride and haloperidol in agitation states. 94 cases at the psychiatric infirmary of the Paris police headquarters].

    PubMed

    Anguera, P; Bulteau, J; Soubrier, J P

    1983-06-23

    We report the results of a comparative study of sultopride and haloperidol in two groups of 46 and 48 patients. The study was single-blind at first, then double-blind. It was carried out at the psychiatric infirmary of the central police station, run according to the law of June 30th, 1938, which allows to detain patients presenting with severe agitation during 24 hours or more for observation and treatment. The target symptom is psychomotor agitation. The purpose is to make a psychiatric interview possible without suppressing all the clinical manifestations or masking the patient's personality. The efficiency of both drugs seems comparable but is better with sultopride given initially in high dosages. As its side-effects are mild and are not aggravated when dosages are increased sultopride is the choice neuroleptic for the initial treatment of psychomotor agitation in patients admitted in the specific conditions of deferred emergencies.

  7. Effect of agitation on the peptide fibrillization: Alzheimer's amyloid-β peptide 1-42 but not amylin and insulin fibrils can grow under quiescent conditions.

    PubMed

    Tiiman, Ann; Noormägi, Andra; Friedemann, Merlin; Krishtal, Jekaterina; Palumaa, Peep; Tõugu, Vello

    2013-06-01

    Many peptides and proteins can form fibrillar aggregates in vitro, but only a limited number of them are forming pathological amyloid structures in vivo. We studied the fibrillization of four peptides--Alzheimer's amyloid-β (Aβ) 1-40 and 1-42, amylin and insulin. In all cases, intensive mechanical agitation of the solution initiated fast fibrillization. However, when the mixing was stopped during the fibril growth phase, the fibrillization of amylin and insulin was practically stopped, and the rate for Aβ40 substantially decreased, whereas the fibrillization of Aβ42 peptide continued to proceed with almost the same rate as in the agitated conditions. The reason for the different sensitivity of the in vitro fibrillization of these peptides towards agitation in the fibril growth phase remains elusive. PMID:23609985

  8. Propagated fixed-bed mixed-acid fermentation: Part I: Effect of volatile solid loading rate and agitation at high pH.

    PubMed

    Golub, Kristina W; Forrest, Andrea K; Mercy, Kevin L; Holtzapple, Mark T

    2011-11-01

    Countercurrent fermentation is a high performing process design for mixed-acid fermentation. However, there are high operating costs associated with moving solids, which is an integral component of this configuration. This study investigated the effect of volatile solid loading rate (VSLR) and agitation in propagated fixed-bed fermentation, a configuration which may be more commercially viable. To evaluate the role of agitation on fixed-bed configuration performance, continuous mixing was compared with periodic mixing. VSLR was also varied and not found to affect acid yields. However, increased VSLR and liquid retention time did result in higher conversions, productivity, acid concentrations, but lower selectivities. Agitation was demonstrated to be important for this fermentor configuration, the periodically-mixed fermentation had the lowest conversion and yields. Operating at a high pH (∼9) contributed to the high selectivity to acetic acid, which might be industrially desirable but at the cost of lower yield compared to a neutral pH.

  9. Advances in measuring ocean salinity with an optical sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Menn, M.; de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, J. L.; Grosso, P.; Delauney, L.; Podeur, C.; Brault, P.; Guillerme, O.

    2011-11-01

    Absolute salinity measurement of seawater has become a key issue in thermodynamic models of the oceans. One of the most direct ways is to measure the seawater refractive index which is related to density and can therefore be related to the absolute salinity. Recent advances in high resolution position sensitive devices enable us to take advantage of small beam deviation measurements using refractometers. This paper assesses the advantages of such technology with respect to the current state-of-the-art technology. In particular, we present the resolution dependence on refractive index variations and derive the limits of such a solution for designing seawater sensors well suited for coastal and deep-sea applications. Particular attention has been paid to investigate the impact of environmental parameters, such as temperature and pressure, on an optical sensor, and ways to mitigate or compensate them have been suggested here. The sensor has been successfully tested in a pressure tank and in open oceans 2000 m deep.

  10. Larval salinity tolerances of the sibling species of Anopheles farauti.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, A W

    1987-12-01

    Experiments conducted with laboratory colonies of the sibling species of Anopheles farauti showed larvae of An. farauti No. 1 had a higher salinity tolerance than larvae of An. farauti No. 2 and An. farauti No. 3. The salinity response of field-collected larvae of An. farauti No. 1 from Cowley Beach, Queensland, Australia was similar to that of larvae from two colonies of this species which originated from Papua New Guinea. These results indicate that An. farauti No. 1 is the species which is likely to be found breeding in brackish water whereas the other species may be restricted to freshwater habitats. Laboratory experiments conducted with the colonies and with specimens collected from three localities in northern Queensland indicated that a simple test, based on exposure of first-instar larvae to sea water for 1 hr, should enable identification of An. farauti No. 1 in the field. PMID:3504945

  11. In situ bioremediation under high saline conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Bosshard, B.; Raumin, J.; Saurohan, B.

    1995-12-31

    An in situ bioremediation treatability study is in progress at the Salton Sea Test Base (SSTB) under the NAVY CLEAN 2 contract. The site is located in the vicinity of the Salon Sea with expected groundwater saline levels of up to 50,000 ppm. The site is contaminated with diesel, gasoline and fuel oils. The treatability study is assessing the use of indigenous heterotrophic bacteria to remediate petroleum hydrocarbons. Low levels of significant macro nutrients indicate that nutrient addition of metabolic nitrogen and Orthophosphate are necessary to promote the process, requiring unique nutrient addition schemes. Groundwater major ion chemistry indicates that precipitation of calcium phosphorus compounds may be stimulated by air-sparging operations and nutrient addition, which has mandated the remedial system to include pneumatic fracturing as an option. This presentation is tailored at an introductory level to in situ bioremediation technologies, with some emphasize on innovations in sparge air delivery, dissolved oxygen uptake rates, nutrient delivery, and pneumatic fracturing that should keep the expert`s interest.

  12. Increased resistance to a generalist herbivore in a salinity-stressed non-halophytic plant

    PubMed Central

    Renault, Sylvie; Wolfe, Scott; Markham, John; Avila-Sakar, Germán

    2016-01-01

    Plants often grow under the combined stress of several factors. Salinity and herbivory, separately, can severely hinder plant growth and reproduction, but the combined effects of both factors are still not clearly understood. Salinity is known to reduce plant tissue nitrogen content and growth rates. Since herbivores prefer tissues with high N content, and biochemical pathways leading to resistance are commonly elicited by salt-stress, we hypothesized that plants growing in saline conditions would have enhanced resistance against herbivores. The non-halophyte, Brassica juncea, and the generalist herbivore Trichoplusia ni were used to test the prediction that plants subjected to salinity stress would be both more resistant and more tolerant to herbivory than those growing without salt stress. Plants were grown under different NaCl levels, and either exposed to herbivores and followed by removal of half of their leaves, or left intact. Plants were left to grow and reproduce until senescence. Tissue quality was assessed, seeds were counted and biomass of different organs measured. Plants exposed to salinity grew less, had reduced tissue nitrogen, protein and chlorophyll content, although proline levels increased. Specific leaf area, leaf water content, transpiration and root:shoot ratio remained unaffected. Plants growing under saline condition had greater constitutive resistance than unstressed plants. However, induced resistance and tolerance were not affected by salinity. These results support the hypothesis that plants growing under salt-stress are better defended against herbivores, although in B. juncea this may be mostly through resistance, and less through tolerance. PMID:27169610

  13. Experimentally derived salinity tolerance of hatchling Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) from the Everglades, Florida (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, Kristen M.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Gregoire, Denise R.

    2012-01-01

    In a laboratory setting, we tested the ability of 24 non-native, wild-caught hatchling Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) collected in the Florida Everglades to survive when given water containing salt to drink. After a one-month acclimation period in the laboratory, we grouped snakes into three treatments, giving them access to water that was fresh (salinity of 0, control), brackish (salinity of 10), or full-strength sea water (salinity of 35). Hatchlings survived about one month at the highest marine salinity and about five months at the brackish-water salinity; no control animals perished during the experiment. These results are indicative of a "worst-case scenario", as in the laboratory we denied access to alternate fresh-water sources that may be accessible in the wild (e.g., through rainfall). Therefore, our results may underestimate the potential of hatchling pythons to persist in saline habitats in the wild. Because of the effect of different salinity regimes on survival, predictions of ultimate geographic expansion by non-native Burmese pythons that consider salt water as barriers to dispersal for pythons may warrant re-evaluation, especially under global climate change and associated sea-level-rise scenarios.

  14. Increased resistance to a generalist herbivore in a salinity-stressed non-halophytic plant.

    PubMed

    Renault, Sylvie; Wolfe, Scott; Markham, John; Avila-Sakar, Germán

    2016-01-01

    Plants often grow under the combined stress of several factors. Salinity and herbivory, separately, can severely hinder plant growth and reproduction, but the combined effects of both factors are still not clearly understood. Salinity is known to reduce plant tissue nitrogen content and growth rates. Since herbivores prefer tissues with high N content, and biochemical pathways leading to resistance are commonly elicited by salt-stress, we hypothesized that plants growing in saline conditions would have enhanced resistance against herbivores. The non-halophyte, Brassica juncea, and the generalist herbivore Trichoplusia ni were used to test the prediction that plants subjected to salinity stress would be both more resistant and more tolerant to herbivory than those growing without salt stress. Plants were grown under different NaCl levels, and either exposed to herbivores and followed by removal of half of their leaves, or left intact. Plants were left to grow and reproduce until senescence. Tissue quality was assessed, seeds were counted and biomass of different organs measured. Plants exposed to salinity grew less, had reduced tissue nitrogen, protein and chlorophyll content, although proline levels increased. Specific leaf area, leaf water content, transpiration and root:shoot ratio remained unaffected. Plants growing under saline condition had greater constitutive resistance than unstressed plants. However, induced resistance and tolerance were not affected by salinity. These results support the hypothesis that plants growing under salt-stress are better defended against herbivores, although in B. juncea this may be mostly through resistance, and less through tolerance.

  15. Experimentally derived salinity tolerance of hatchling Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) from the Everglades, Florida (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, K.M.; Schofield, P.J.; Gregoire, D.R.

    2012-01-01

    In a laboratory setting, we tested the ability of 24 non-native, wild-caught hatchling Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) collected in the Florida Everglades to survive when given water containing salt to drink. After a one-month acclimation period in the laboratory, we grouped snakes into three treatments, giving them access to water that was fresh (salinity of 0, control), brackish (salinity of 10), or full-strength sea water (salinity of 35). Hatchlings survived about one month at the highest marine salinity and about five months at the brackish-water salinity; no control animals perished during the experiment. These results are indicative of a "worst-case scenario", as in the laboratory we denied access to alternate fresh-water sources that may be accessible in the wild (e.g., through rainfall). Therefore, our results may underestimate the potential of hatchling pythons to persist in saline habitats in the wild. Because of the effect of different salinity regimes on survival, predictions of ultimate geographic expansion by non-native Burmese pythons that consider salt water as barriers to dispersal for pythons may warrant re-evaluation, especially under global climate change and associated sea-level-rise scenarios. ?? 2011.

  16. Effect of salinity on the toxicity of road dust in an estuarine amphipod Grandidierella japonica.

    PubMed

    Hiki, Kyoshiro; Nakajima, Fumiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Urban runoff can reach coastal aquatic environments; however, little is known about the effect of salinity on road runoff toxicity. The objective of this study is to investigate the toxicity of highway road dust over a salinity gradient from 5 to 35‰, in an estuarine benthic amphipod, Grandidierella japonica. Road dust toxicity was evaluated by assessing mortality after 10 days of exposure and short-term microbead ingestion activity of the amphipod. For all road dust samples considered, amphipod mortality increased with increasing salinity, whereas no significant difference in mortality was observed among test salinities in the reference river sediment. Ingestion activity during exposure to road dust decreased with increasing salinity. In fact, none of the individuals ingested any microbeads at salinity of 35‰. If assumed microbead ingestion is a proxy for feeding activity, high mortality at 35‰ could be attributed to aquatic exposure and not to dietary exposure. These findings suggest that road dust may have considerable impact on benthic organisms at high salinity levels. PMID:26360764

  17. Increased resistance to a generalist herbivore in a salinity-stressed non-halophytic plant.

    PubMed

    Renault, Sylvie; Wolfe, Scott; Markham, John; Avila-Sakar, Germán

    2016-01-01

    Plants often grow under the combined stress of several factors. Salinity and herbivory, separately, can severely hinder plant growth and reproduction, but the combined effects of both factors are still not clearly understood. Salinity is known to reduce plant tissue nitrogen content and growth rates. Since herbivores prefer tissues with high N content, and biochemical pathways leading to resistance are commonly elicited by salt-stress, we hypothesized that plants growing in saline conditions would have enhanced resistance against herbivores. The non-halophyte, Brassica juncea, and the generalist herbivore Trichoplusia ni were used to test the prediction that plants subjected to salinity stress would be both more resistant and more tolerant to herbivory than those growing without salt stress. Plants were grown under different NaCl levels, and either exposed to herbivores and followed by removal of half of their leaves, or left intact. Plants were left to grow and reproduce until senescence. Tissue quality was assessed, seeds were counted and biomass of different organs measured. Plants exposed to salinity grew less, had reduced tissue nitrogen, protein and chlorophyll content, although proline levels increased. Specific leaf area, leaf water content, transpiration and root:shoot ratio remained unaffected. Plants growing under saline condition had greater constitutive resistance than unstressed plants. However, induced resistance and tolerance were not affected by salinity. These results support the hypothesis that plants growing under salt-stress are better defended against herbivores, although in B. juncea this may be mostly through resistance, and less through tolerance. PMID:27169610

  18. Effect of salinity on the toxicity of road dust in an estuarine amphipod Grandidierella japonica.

    PubMed

    Hiki, Kyoshiro; Nakajima, Fumiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Urban runoff can reach coastal aquatic environments; however, little is known about the effect of salinity on road runoff toxicity. The objective of this study is to investigate the toxicity of highway road dust over a salinity gradient from 5 to 35‰, in an estuarine benthic amphipod, Grandidierella japonica. Road dust toxicity was evaluated by assessing mortality after 10 days of exposure and short-term microbead ingestion activity of the amphipod. For all road dust samples considered, amphipod mortality increased with increasing salinity, whereas no significant difference in mortality was observed among test salinities in the reference river sediment. Ingestion activity during exposure to road dust decreased with increasing salinity. In fact, none of the individuals ingested any microbeads at salinity of 35‰. If assumed microbead ingestion is a proxy for feeding activity, high mortality at 35‰ could be attributed to aquatic exposure and not to dietary exposure. These findings suggest that road dust may have considerable impact on benthic organisms at high salinity levels.

  19. Surface-water salinity in the Gunnison River Basin, Colorado, water years 1989 through 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaffrath, Keelin R.

    2012-01-01

    Elevated levels of dissolved solids in water (salinity) can result in numerous and costly issues for agricultural, industrial, and municipal water users. The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-320) authorized planning and construction of salinity-control projects in the Colorado River Basin. One of the first projects was the Lower Gunnison Unit, a project to mitigate salinity in the Lower Gunnison and Uncompahgre River Basins. In cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study to quantify changes in salinity in the Gunnison River Basin. Trends in salinity concentration and load during the period water years (WY) 1989 through 2004 (1989-2004) were determined for 15 selected streamflow-gaging stations in the Gunnison River Basin. Additionally, trends in salinity concentration and load during the period WY1989 through 2007 (1989-2007) were determined for 5 of the 15 sites for which sufficient data were available. Trend results also were used to identify regions in the Lower Gunnison River Basin (downstream from the Gunnison Tunnel) where the largest changes in salinity loads occur. Additional sources of salinity, including residential development (urbanization), changes in land cover, and natural sources, were estimated within the context of the trend results. The trend results and salinity loads estimated from trends testing also were compared to USBR and Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) estimates of off-farm and on-farm salinity reduction from salinity-control projects in the basin. Finally, salinity from six additional sites in basins that are not affected by irrigated agriculture or urbanization was monitored from WY 2008 to 2010 to quantify what portion of salinity may be from nonagricultural or natural sources. In the Upper Gunnison area, which refers to Gunnison River Basin above the site located on the Gunnison River below the Gunnison Tunnel, estimated mean annual

  20. On observing acoustic backscattering from salinity turbulence.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Louis; Sastre-Cordova, Marcos M

    2011-08-01

    It has been hypothesized that at sufficiently high levels of oceanic salinity turbulence it should be possible to observe acoustic backscattering. However, there have been limited in situ measurements to confirm this hypothesis. Using an autonomous underwater vehicle equipped with upward and downward looking 1.2 MHz acoustic Doppler current profilers and with turbulence and fine scale sensors, measurements were performed in a region of intense turbulence and a strong salinity gradient. The approach taken was to correlate variations in the backscattered acoustic intensity, I, with a theoretical acoustic backscattering cross section per volume for salinity turbulence, σ(s), to obtain an estimated scattering cross section per volume, σ(e). Results indicated that of order 50% of the observed region was characterized by salinity turbulence induced backscattering. PMID:21877785

  1. On observing acoustic backscattering from salinity turbulence.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Louis; Sastre-Cordova, Marcos M

    2011-08-01

    It has been hypothesized that at sufficiently high levels of oceanic salinity turbulence it should be possible to observe acoustic backscattering. However, there have been limited in situ measurements to confirm this hypothesis. Using an autonomous underwater vehicle equipped with upward and downward looking 1.2 MHz acoustic Doppler current profilers and with turbulence and fine scale sensors, measurements were performed in a region of intense turbulence and a strong salinity gradient. The approach taken was to correlate variations in the backscattered acoustic intensity, I, with a theoretical acoustic backscattering cross section per volume for salinity turbulence, σ(s), to obtain an estimated scattering cross section per volume, σ(e). Results indicated that of order 50% of the observed region was characterized by salinity turbulence induced backscattering.

  2. Aquarius Observations of Sea Surface Salinity

    NASA Video Gallery

    This visualization shows changes in global sea surface salinity, as measured by NASA’s Aquarius instrument aboard the Aquarius/SAC-D spacecraft, from December 2011 through December 2012. Red repr...

  3. Anammox Coupled With Nitrification Impacts a Saline, High Ammonia Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, L. A.; Landkamer, L.; Peterson, D. M.; Metzler, D.

    2007-05-01

    High amounts of ammonia (130 to 2200 mg-N/l) in a saline environment (TDS = 10-20 g/l) are present in a groundwater plume adjacent to the Colorado River near Moab, Utah. Ammonia levels sufficient to affect aquatic life have been observed in limited sections of the river adjacent to the site, which has prompted interim treatment efforts. Microcosm studies were performed to assess the potential for microbial transformations of ammonia in the hyporheic zone sediment and the effect of ground/river-water mixing on transformations. Experiments were conducted using sub-riverbed sediment and mixtures of groundwater (290 mg-N/L ammonia) and river water (100%, 50% and 10% plume water) in anaerobic and aerobic environments. Aqueous NH4+, NO2-, NO3-, pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were monitored over 38 days. Interestingly, the ammonia concentration decreased in all microcosms (29% to 100%) with the highest removal occurring in the oxic microcosms. Total nitrogen removal ranged from 27% to 83%. Three lines of evidence suggest that anammox occurred in the anaerobic microcosms: 1) NH4+ concentrations decreased, 2) little change in DOC occurred and 3) DIC decreased. DIC should increase if denitrification were the dominant process. It is possible that small amounts of O2 diffused into the microcosms, driving some nitrification that supplied NO2- for anammox. In the aerobic microcosms, denitrification or anammox occurred in addition to nitrification because nitrate did not accumulate in general. Again, we believe anammox occurred because of DOC and DIC trends. In the aerobic 10% groundwater microcosm, NO3- accumulated once the ammonia concentration became low and the nitrate level stabilized after the ammonia was gone. This also indicated that anammox was the dominant process because denitrification should not stop due to ammonia depletion. The aerobic microcosms were only agitated twice per week, which would allow the sediments to become

  4. Sea Surface Salinity : Research Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, David; Lagerloef, Gary; Font, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Sea surface salinity (SSS) can be important in regulating sea surface temperature (SST). Two technological breakthrough satellite SSS missions, Aquarius and Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), are currently producing high-quality SSS data. This paper provides an overview of the importance of SSS for weather and climate applications and describes the Aquarius and SMOS missions. The newness of adequately sampled SSS data prompted a first-time at-sea field campaign devoted to improved understanding of SSS variations.

  5. High volume normal saline alone is as effective as nebulized salbutamol-normal saline, epinephrine-normal saline, and 3% saline in mild bronchiolitis.

    PubMed

    Anil, Ayse Berna; Anil, Murat; Saglam, Ayse Bircan; Cetin, Nevin; Bal, Alkan; Aksu, Nejat

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effectivenesses of nebulized salbutamol, epinephrin, 3% saline, and normal saline (0.9% NaCl) in the treatment of mildly affected infants with acute bronchiolitis. We enrolled 186 children (mean age 9.5 +/- 5.3 months, range 1.5-24 months, 65.1% male) with a first episode of wheezing diagnosed as mild bronchiolitis in emergency department. Patients were randomized in a double-blind fashion to receive 4 ml dose either of 1.5 mg epinephrine plus normal saline (group 1; n = 38) or 1.5 mg epinephrine plus 3% saline (group 2; n = 39) or 2.5 mg salbutamol plus normal saline (group 3; n = 36) or 2.5 mg salbutamol plus 3% saline (group 4; n = 36) or normal saline alone (group 5; n = 37) at 0 and 30 min. Thus, all treatment modalities included high amount of NaCl (72-240 mg). Clinical score, oxygen saturation and heart rate were assessed at 0, 30, 60, and 120 min. After discharge, patients were reassessed by telephone contact at 48 hr and 6 months. The baseline characteristics were similar in all groups (P > 0.05). The outcome of patients at 120 min was found significantly better than the baseline values (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the outcome variables of the groups (P > 0.05). No adverse effects attributable to nebulized therapy were seen. In conclusion, all treatment modalities used in this study, including a total of 8 ml normal saline inhalation at 30-min interval showed clinically significant and swift improvement in mildly affected ambulatory infants with acute bronchiolitis.

  6. Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-06-11

    A method for treating a nahcolite containing subsurface formation includes removing water from a saline zone in or near the formation. The removed water is heated using a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. The heated water is provided to the nahcolite containing formation. A fluid is produced from the nahcolite containing formation. The fluid includes at least some dissolved nahcolite. At least some of the fluid is provided to the saline zone.

  7. Gas-Liquid Mass Transfer in Agitated Tanks Containing Non-Newtonian Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.R.

    1998-11-06

    The purpose of the tests was to investigate the effects of operating parameters, such as KTPB concentration, time, sodium molarity, temperature, salt composition, sludge concentration, and radiation dose, on benzene retention and release. This paper describes the results of the tests.

  8. [Investigation and canonical correspondence analysis of salinity contents in secondary salinization greenhouse soils in Shanghai suburb].

    PubMed

    Tang, Dong; Mao, Liang; Zhi, Yue-e; Zhang, Jin-Zhong; Zhou, Pei; Chai, Xiao-Tong

    2014-12-01

    The salinity characteristics of greenhouse soils with cropping obstacles in Shanghai suburb were investigated and analyzed. The salinity contents of the salinization greenhouse soils showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing with the increasing cropping duration. The salinized soils mainly included slightly salted, mildly salted and salted soils, which accounted for 17.39%, 56.52% and 13.04%, respectively. Among them, the degree of salinity in greenhouse soil planted with asparagus in Chongming County was the highest. Among the salt ions in greenhouse soils, the cations were mainly Ca2+ and Na+, while the anions were mainly NO3- and SO4(2-). The degree of salinity was mainly influenced by fertilization mode, cropping duration, crop type and management level, which led to the great variation in the salinity contents and salt ions. Canonical correspondence analysis found that the contents of Ca2+, Mg2+ and NO3- in greenhouse soils were greatly affected by cropping duration, and the degree of salinity would be enhanced and attenuated with long-term application of single fertilizer and mixed application of chemical fertilizer and organic manure, respectively. The greenhouse soils in Shanghai suburb could be classified as four patterns influenced by the relationship between salinity ions and samples, and the most soils were influenced by Ca2+, Mg2+, NO3- and Cl-, which required to be primarily controlled. PMID:25826944

  9. [Investigation and canonical correspondence analysis of salinity contents in secondary salinization greenhouse soils in Shanghai suburb].

    PubMed

    Tang, Dong; Mao, Liang; Zhi, Yue-e; Zhang, Jin-Zhong; Zhou, Pei; Chai, Xiao-Tong

    2014-12-01

    The salinity characteristics of greenhouse soils with cropping obstacles in Shanghai suburb were investigated and analyzed. The salinity contents of the salinization greenhouse soils showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing with the increasing cropping duration. The salinized soils mainly included slightly salted, mildly salted and salted soils, which accounted for 17.39%, 56.52% and 13.04%, respectively. Among them, the degree of salinity in greenhouse soil planted with asparagus in Chongming County was the highest. Among the salt ions in greenhouse soils, the cations were mainly Ca2+ and Na+, while the anions were mainly NO3- and SO4(2-). The degree of salinity was mainly influenced by fertilization mode, cropping duration, crop type and management level, which led to the great variation in the salinity contents and salt ions. Canonical correspondence analysis found that the contents of Ca2+, Mg2+ and NO3- in greenhouse soils were greatly affected by cropping duration, and the degree of salinity would be enhanced and attenuated with long-term application of single fertilizer and mixed application of chemical fertilizer and organic manure, respectively. The greenhouse soils in Shanghai suburb could be classified as four patterns influenced by the relationship between salinity ions and samples, and the most soils were influenced by Ca2+, Mg2+, NO3- and Cl-, which required to be primarily controlled.

  10. A less saline Baltic Sea promotes cyanobacterial growth, hampers intracellular microcystin production, and leads to strain-specific differences in allelopathy.

    PubMed

    Brutemark, Andreas; Vandelannoote, Angélique; Engström-Öst, Jonna; Suikkanen, Sanna

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the main factors that explain the distribution of species in the Baltic Sea. Increased precipitation and consequent increase in freshwater inflow is predicted to decrease salinity in some areas of the Baltic Sea. Clearly such changes may have profound effects on the organisms living there. Here we investigate the response of the commonly occurring cyanobacterium Dolichospermum spp. to three salinities, 0, 3 and 6. For the three strains tested we recorded growth, intracellular toxicity (microcystin) and allelopathic properties. We show that Dolichospermum can grow in all the three salinities tested with highest growth rates in the lowest salinity. All strains showed allelopathic potential and it differed significantly between strains and salinities, but was highest in the intermediate salinity and lowest in freshwater. Intracellular toxin concentration was highest in salinity 6. In addition, based on monitoring data from the northern Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland, we show that salinity has decreased, while Dolichospermum spp. biomass has increased between 1979 and 2013. Thus, based on our experimental findings it is evident that salinity plays a large role in Dolichospermum growth, allelopathic properties and toxicity. In combination with our long-term data analyses, we conclude that decreasing salinity is likely to result in a more favourable environment for Dolichospermum spp. in some areas of the Baltic Sea. PMID:26042598

  11. A Less Saline Baltic Sea Promotes Cyanobacterial Growth, Hampers Intracellular Microcystin Production, and Leads to Strain-Specific Differences in Allelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Brutemark, Andreas; Vandelannoote, Angélique; Engström-Öst, Jonna; Suikkanen, Sanna

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the main factors that explain the distribution of species in the Baltic Sea. Increased precipitation and consequent increase in freshwater inflow is predicted to decrease salinity in some areas of the Baltic Sea. Clearly such changes may have profound effects on the organisms living there. Here we investigate the response of the commonly occurring cyanobacterium Dolichospermum spp. to three salinities, 0, 3 and 6. For the three strains tested we recorded growth, intracellular toxicity (microcystin) and allelopathic properties. We show that Dolichospermum can grow in all the three salinities tested with highest growth rates in the lowest salinity. All strains showed allelopathic potential and it differed significantly between strains and salinities, but was highest in the intermediate salinity and lowest in freshwater. Intracellular toxin concentration was highest in salinity 6. In addition, based on monitoring data from the northern Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland, we show that salinity has decreased, while Dolichospermum spp. biomass has increased between 1979 and 2013. Thus, based on our experimental findings it is evident that salinity plays a large role in Dolichospermum growth, allelopathic properties and toxicity. In combination with our long-term data analyses, we conclude that decreasing salinity is likely to result in a more favourable environment for Dolichospermum spp. in some areas of the Baltic Sea. PMID:26042598

  12. Impact of Nutrition and Salinity Changes on Biological Performances of Green and White Sturgeon

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Pedro G.; Kebreab, Ermias; Hung, Silas S. O.; Fadel, James G.; Lee, Seunghyung; Fangue, Nann A.

    2015-01-01

    Green and white sturgeon are species of high conservational and economic interest, particularly in the San Francisco Bay Delta (SFBD) for which significant climate change-derived alterations in salinity and nutritional patterns are forecasted. Although there is paucity of information, it is critical to test the network of biological responses underlying the capacity of animals to tolerate current environmental changes. Through nutrition and salinity challenges, climate change will likely have more physiological effect on young sturgeon stages, which in turn may affect growth performance. In this study, the two species were challenged in a multiple-factor experimental setting, first to levels of feeding rate, and then to salinity levels for different time periods. Data analysis included generalized additive models to select predictors of growth performance (measured by condition factor) among the environmental stressors considered and a suite of physiological variables. Using structural equation modeling, a path diagram is proposed to quantify the main linkages among nutrition status, salinity, osmoregulation variables, and growth performances. Three major trends were anticipated for the growth performance of green and white sturgeon in the juvenile stage in the SFBD: (i) a decrease in prey abundance will be highly detrimental for the growth of both species; (ii) an acute increase in salinity within the limits studied can be tolerated by both species but possibly the energy spent in osmoregulation may affect green sturgeon growth within the time window assessed; (iii) the mechanism of synergistic effects of nutrition and salinity changes will be more complex in green sturgeon, with condition factor responding nonlinearly to interactions of salinity and nutrition status or time of salinity exposure. Green sturgeon merits special scientific attention and conservation effort to offset the effects of feed restriction and salinity as key environmental stressors in the

  13. [Study on three-dimension spatial variability of regional soil salinity based on spectral indices].

    PubMed

    Liu, Guang-Ming; Wu, Ya-Kun; Yang, Jin-Song; Yu, Shi-Peng

    2013-10-01

    In order to illustrate the three-dimension spatial variability of soil salinity in central China flood area of the Yellow river, integrated soil sampling data and remote sensing data, spectral indices and inverse distance weighting (IDW) method were applied to the estimation and simulation of three-dimension spatial distribution of soil salinity. The study was carried out in typical central China flood area of the Yellow river in Fengqiu County, Henan Province, China. The electrical conductivity of the saturation extract (EC1: 5) of 505 soil samples collected at 101 points was measured. The results indicated that the coefficient of variation of soil salinity at each soil layer is from 0.218 to 0.324 and exhibited the moderate spatial variability. The average of soil electrical conductivity is from 0.121 to 0.154 ds x m(-1). The 2 820 three-dimension spatial scattered data for soil electrical conductivity were taken at soil salinity mapping interpreted by spectral indices and soil electrical conductivity. Three-dimension IDW interpolation showed that a large area of high soil salinity mainly located in the region of Tianran canal and the along of the Yellow river. The shape of the soil salinity profile was downward flowed, revealing soil salinity increasing with depth in whole soil profile and soil salinity accumulated in the subsoil. The accuracy of the predictions was tested using 20 soil sampled points. The root mean square error (RMSE) of calibration for three-dimension distribution of soil salinity showed that the IDW method based on spectral indices was ideal. The research results can provide theoretical foundations to the management and utilization of salt-affected land in China flood area, especially in the Yellow river zone.

  14. Impact of nutrition and salinity changes on biological performances of green and white sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Pedro G; Kebreab, Ermias; Hung, Silas S O; Fadel, James G; Lee, Seunghyung; Fangue, Nann A

    2015-01-01

    Green and white sturgeon are species of high conservational and economic interest, particularly in the San Francisco Bay Delta (SFBD) for which significant climate change-derived alterations in salinity and nutritional patterns are forecasted. Although there is paucity of information, it is critical to test the network of biological responses underlying the capacity of animals to tolerate current environmental changes. Through nutrition and salinity challenges, climate change will likely have more physiological effect on young sturgeon stages, which in turn may affect growth performance. In this study, the two species were challenged in a multiple-factor experimental setting, first to levels of feeding rate, and then to salinity levels for different time periods. Data analysis included generalized additive models to select predictors of growth performance (measured by condition factor) among the environmental stressors considered and a suite of physiological variables. Using structural equation modeling, a path diagram is proposed to quantify the main linkages among nutrition status, salinity, osmoregulation variables, and growth performances. Three major trends were anticipated for the growth performance of green and white sturgeon in the juvenile stage in the SFBD: (i) a decrease in prey abundance will be highly detrimental for the growth of both species; (ii) an acute increase in salinity within the limits studied can be tolerated by both species but possibly the energy spent in osmoregulation may affect green sturgeon growth within the time window assessed; (iii) the mechanism of synergistic effects of nutrition and salinity changes will be more complex in green sturgeon, with condition factor responding nonlinearly to interactions of salinity and nutrition status or time of salinity exposure. Green sturgeon merits special scientific attention and conservation effort to offset the effects of feed restriction and salinity as key environmental stressors in the

  15. Pain, agitation, and behavioural problems in people with dementia admitted to general hospital wards: a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Elizabeth L; White, Nicola; Lord, Kathryn; Leurent, Baptiste; Vickerstaff, Victoria; Scott, Sharon; Jones, Louise

    2015-04-01

    Pain is underdetected and undertreated in people with dementia. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of pain in people with dementia admitted to general hospitals and explore the association between pain and behavioural and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD). We conducted a longitudinal cohort study of 230 people, aged above 70, with dementia and unplanned medical admissions to 2 UK hospitals. Participants were assessed at baseline and every 4 days for self-reported pain (yes/no question and FACES scale) and observed pain (Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia scale [PAINAD]) at movement and at rest, for agitation (Cohen-Mansfield Agitating Inventory [CMAI]) and BPSD (Behavioural Pathology in Alzheimer Disease Scale [BEHAVE-AD]). On admission, 27% of participants self-reported pain rising to 39% on at least 1 occasion during admission. Half of them were able to complete the FACES scale, this proportion decreasing with more severe dementia. Using the PAINAD, 19% had pain at rest and 57% had pain on movement on at least 1 occasion (in 16%, this was persistent throughout the admission). In controlled analyses, pain was not associated with CMAI scores but was strongly associated with total BEHAVE-AD scores, both when pain was assessed on movement (β = 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.07-0.32, P = 0.002) and at rest (β = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.14-0.69, P = 0.003). The association was the strongest for aggression and anxiety. Pain was common in people with dementia admitted to the acute hospital and associated with BPSD. Improved pain management may reduce distressing behaviours and improve the quality of hospital care for people with dementia. PMID:25790457

  16. Pain, agitation, and behavioural problems in people with dementia admitted to general hospital wards: a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Elizabeth L; White, Nicola; Lord, Kathryn; Leurent, Baptiste; Vickerstaff, Victoria; Scott, Sharon; Jones, Louise

    2015-04-01

    Pain is underdetected and undertreated in people with dementia. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of pain in people with dementia admitted to general hospitals and explore the association between pain and behavioural and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD). We conducted a longitudinal cohort study of 230 people, aged above 70, with dementia and unplanned medical admissions to 2 UK hospitals. Participants were assessed at baseline and every 4 days for self-reported pain (yes/no question and FACES scale) and observed pain (Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia scale [PAINAD]) at movement and at rest, for agitation (Cohen-Mansfield Agitating Inventory [CMAI]) and BPSD (Behavioural Pathology in Alzheimer Disease Scale [BEHAVE-AD]). On admission, 27% of participants self-reported pain rising to 39% on at least 1 occasion during admission. Half of them were able to complete the FACES scale, this proportion decreasing with more severe dementia. Using the PAINAD, 19% had pain at rest and 57% had pain on movement on at least 1 occasion (in 16%, this was persistent throughout the admission). In controlled analyses, pain was not associated with CMAI scores but was strongly associated with total BEHAVE-AD scores, both when pain was assessed on movement (β = 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.07-0.32, P = 0.002) and at rest (β = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.14-0.69, P = 0.003). The association was the strongest for aggression and anxiety. Pain was common in people with dementia admitted to the acute hospital and associated with BPSD. Improved pain management may reduce distressing behaviours and improve the quality of hospital care for people with dementia.

  17. Tandem air-agitated liquid-liquid microextraction as an efficient method for determination of acidic drugs in complicated matrices.

    PubMed

    Bazregar, Mohammad; Rajabi, Maryam; Yamini, Yadollah; Asghari, Alireza; Hemmati, Maryam

    2016-04-21

    A rapid and simple microextraction method with a high sample clean-up, termed as tandem air-agitated liquid-liquid microextraction (TAALLME), is described. This method is based upon the tandem implementation of the air-agitated liquid-liquid microextraction (AALLME), and this approach improves the applicability of the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) methods in complicated matrices. With very simple tools, the three non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs diclofenac, ibuprofen, and mefenamic acid were efficiently extracted, with an overall extraction time of 7 min. By performing the first AALLME, these acidic analytes, contained in an aqueous sample solution (donor phase, 8.0 mL), were extracted into the organic solvent (1,2-dichloroethane, 37 μL), and their simple back-extraction into the aqueous acceptor solution (pH, 10.01, 51 μL) was obtained in 2 min by a second implementation of AALLME. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for optimization of the experimental parameters. The pH values 2.94 and 10.01 were obtained for the donor and acceptor phases, respectively, and the volumes 99.5 and 51 μL were obtained for the organic solvent and the acceptor phase, respectively, as the optimal extraction conditions. Under the optimized conditions, tandem AALLME-HPLC-UV provided a good linearity in the range of 0.5-4000 ng mL(-1), limits of detection (0.1-0.3 ng mL(-1)), extraction repeatabilities (relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 7.7%, n = 5), and the enrichment factors (EFs) of 80-104. Finally, the applicability of the proposed method was evaluated by the extraction and determination of the drugs under study in the wastewater and human plasma samples. PMID:27026599

  18. Tandem air-agitated liquid-liquid microextraction as an efficient method for determination of acidic drugs in complicated matrices.

    PubMed

    Bazregar, Mohammad; Rajabi, Maryam; Yamini, Yadollah; Asghari, Alireza; Hemmati, Maryam

    2016-04-21

    A rapid and simple microextraction method with a high sample clean-up, termed as tandem air-agitated liquid-liquid microextraction (TAALLME), is described. This method is based upon the tandem implementation of the air-agitated liquid-liquid microextraction (AALLME), and this approach improves the applicability of the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) methods in complicated matrices. With very simple tools, the three non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs diclofenac, ibuprofen, and mefenamic acid were efficiently extracted, with an overall extraction time of 7 min. By performing the first AALLME, these acidic analytes, contained in an aqueous sample solution (donor phase, 8.0 mL), were extracted into the organic solvent (1,2-dichloroethane, 37 μL), and their simple back-extraction into the aqueous acceptor solution (pH, 10.01, 51 μL) was obtained in 2 min by a second implementation of AALLME. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for optimization of the experimental parameters. The pH values 2.94 and 10.01 were obtained for the donor and acceptor phases, respectively, and the volumes 99.5 and 51 μL were obtained for the organic solvent and the acceptor phase, respectively, as the optimal extraction conditions. Under the optimized conditions, tandem AALLME-HPLC-UV provided a good linearity in the range of 0.5-4000 ng mL(-1), limits of detection (0.1-0.3 ng mL(-1)), extraction repeatabilities (relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 7.7%, n = 5), and the enrichment factors (EFs) of 80-104. Finally, the applicability of the proposed method was evaluated by the extraction and determination of the drugs under study in the wastewater and human plasma samples.

  19. Clam Ruditapes philippinarum recovery from short-term exposure to the combined effect of salinity shifts and Arsenic contamination.

    PubMed

    Velez, Catia; Teixeira, Miguel; Wrona, Frederick J; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Figueira, Etelvina; Freitas, Rosa

    2016-04-01

    The current study assessed the biochemical alterations induced in the clam species Ruditapes philippinarum after exposure to salinity shifts (14, 28 and 42) and arsenic (As) contamination (0 and 2mg/L). The capacity of this species to recover (96h and 28 days) after exposure (96h) to both stressors, acting alone and in combination, was also evaluated. After exposure, regardless of the salinity tested, clams contaminated with As showed higher concentrations than non-contaminated specimens. After recovery, As concentration in clams decreased, with contaminated and non-contaminated specimens presenting similar values. The results obtained further demonstrated that exposure to As (2mg/L) at different salinities (salinities 14, 28 and 42) and salinity 42 (As 0mg/L) lead to an increase of lipid peroxidation and detoxification mechanisms in clams, compared with non-contaminated clams at salinities of 14 and 28. After recovery, at salinities 14 and 28, clams previously exposed to As were capable to decrease their oxidative stress to levels found in non-contaminated clams. Nevertheless, at salinity 42 both contaminated and non-contaminated clams did not survive. Overall results of measured energy-related parameters, indicators of oxidative stress, antioxidant and biotransformation enzymes indicated that As exposure and salinity shifts caused biochemical alterations in R. philippinarum, with stronger impacts when both stressors were acting in combination. PMID:26889773

  20. Influence of salinity and temperature on uptake of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) by hydroponically grown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongxia; Qu, Baocheng; Guan, Yue; Jiang, Jingqiu; Chen, Xiuying

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have recently attracted increasing concerns due to their ubiquitous existence, adverse effects and persistence in environment. This study employed four perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) to examine effects of salinity and temperature on the PFAS uptake in wheat, one of the major crops in the North China Plain. Wheat plants were grown in the spiked-PFCA hydroponic culture system at different salinities and temperatures. As expected, salinity and temperature significantly impacted the root uptake and translocation of wheat to four PFCAs, and the concentrations for each of PFCAs in wheat root and shoot increased with increasing salinity and temperature, respectively. PFCA concentrations at high salinity or high temperature were up to thrice those found at low salinity or low temperature. Except for perfluorobutanoic acid, the amount of PFCAs in root was always higher than that in shoot at the ranges of salinity and temperature tested. Additionally salinity and temperature were also capable of influencing the transfer factors (TFs) of four PFCAs, and significant increase was observed in the TFs in response to the increases in salinity and temperature.

  1. Clam Ruditapes philippinarum recovery from short-term exposure to the combined effect of salinity shifts and Arsenic contamination.

    PubMed

    Velez, Catia; Teixeira, Miguel; Wrona, Frederick J; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Figueira, Etelvina; Freitas, Rosa

    2016-04-01

    The current study assessed the biochemical alterations induced in the clam species Ruditapes philippinarum after exposure to salinity shifts (14, 28 and 42) and arsenic (As) contamination (0 and 2mg/L). The capacity of this species to recover (96h and 28 days) after exposure (96h) to both stressors, acting alone and in combination, was also evaluated. After exposure, regardless of the salinity tested, clams contaminated with As showed higher concentrations than non-contaminated specimens. After recovery, As concentration in clams decreased, with contaminated and non-contaminated specimens presenting similar values. The results obtained further demonstrated that exposure to As (2mg/L) at different salinities (salinities 14, 28 and 42) and salinity 42 (As 0mg/L) lead to an increase of lipid peroxidation and detoxification mechanisms in clams, compared with non-contaminated clams at salinities of 14 and 28. After recovery, at salinities 14 and 28, clams previously exposed to As were capable to decrease their oxidative stress to levels found in non-contaminated clams. Nevertheless, at salinity 42 both contaminated and non-contaminated clams did not survive. Overall results of measured energy-related parameters, indicators of oxidative stress, antioxidant and biotransformation enzymes indicated that As exposure and salinity shifts caused biochemical alterations in R. philippinarum, with stronger impacts when both stressors were acting in combination.

  2. Salinity and Temperature Tolerance of the Nemertean Worm Carcinonemertes errans, an Egg Predator of the Dungeness Crab.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Paul H; Young, Craig M

    2015-04-01

    Estuaries can be harsh habitats for the marine animals that enter them, but they may also provide these species with sub-saline refuges from their parasites. The nemertean egg predator Carcinonemertes errans is known to occur less frequently and in smaller numbers on its host, the Dungeness crab Metacarcinus magister, when the hosts are found within estuaries. We examined the temperature and salinity tolerances of C. errans to determine if this observed distribution represents a true salinity refuge. We monitored the survival of juvenile and larval worms exposed to ecologically relevant salinities (5-30) and temperatures (8-20 °C) over the course of several days under laboratory conditions. Juvenile worms were unaffected by the experimental temperature levels and exhibited robustness to salinity treatments 25 and 30. However, significant mortality was seen at salinity treatments 20 and below. Larvae were less tolerant than juveniles to lowered salinity and were also somewhat more susceptible to the higher temperatures tested. Given that the Dungeness crab can tolerate forays into mesohaline (salinity 5-18) waters for several days at a time, our findings suggest that salinity gradients play an important role in creating a parasite refuge for this species within the estuaries of the Pacific Northwest.

  3. Influence of salinity and temperature on uptake of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) by hydroponically grown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongxia; Qu, Baocheng; Guan, Yue; Jiang, Jingqiu; Chen, Xiuying

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have recently attracted increasing concerns due to their ubiquitous existence, adverse effects and persistence in environment. This study employed four perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) to examine effects of salinity and temperature on the PFAS uptake in wheat, one of the major crops in the North China Plain. Wheat plants were grown in the spiked-PFCA hydroponic culture system at different salinities and temperatures. As expected, salinity and temperature significantly impacted the root uptake and translocation of wheat to four PFCAs, and the concentrations for each of PFCAs in wheat root and shoot increased with increasing salinity and temperature, respectively. PFCA concentrations at high salinity or high temperature were up to thrice those found at low salinity or low temperature. Except for perfluorobutanoic acid, the amount of PFCAs in root was always higher than that in shoot at the ranges of salinity and temperature tested. Additionally salinity and temperature were also capable of influencing the transfer factors (TFs) of four PFCAs, and significant increase was observed in the TFs in response to the increases in salinity and temperature. PMID:27186505

  4. Effects of Methane-Rich Saline on the Capability of One-Time Exhaustive Exercise in Male SD Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Lei; Sun, Xuejun; Lou, Shujie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explore the effects of methane-rich saline (CH4 saline) on the capability of one-time exhaustive exercise in male SD rats. Methods Thirty rats were equally divided into to three groups at random: control group (C), placebo group (P) and methane saline group (M). Rats in M group underwent intraperitoneal injection of CH4 saline, and the other two groups simultaneously underwent intraperitoneal injection of normal saline. Then, the exercise capability of rats was tested through one-time exhaustive treadmill exercise except C group. Exercise time and body weight were recorded before and after one-time exhaustive exercise. After exhaustive exercise, the blood and gastrocnemius samples were collected from all rats to detect biochemical parameters in different methods. Results It was found that the treadmill running time was significantly longer in rats treated with CH4 saline. At the same time, CH4 saline reduced the elevation of LD and UN in blood caused by one-time exhaustive exercise. The low level of blood glucose induced by exhaustive exercise was also normalized by CH4 saline. Also CH4 saline lowered the level of CK in plasma. Furthermore, this research indicated that CH4 saline markedly increased the volume of T-AOC in plasma and alleviated the peak of TNF-α in both plasma and gastrocnemius. From H&E staining, CH4 saline effectively improved exercise-induced structural damage in gastrocnemius. Conclusions CH4 saline could enhance exercise capacity in male SD rats through increase of glucose aerobic oxidation, improvement of metabolic clearance and decrease of exhaustive exercise-induced gastrocnemius injury. PMID:26942576

  5. Polymer tensiometers in a saline environment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Ploeg, Martine; Gooren, H. P. A.; Bakker, G.; Russell, W.; Hoogendam, C. W.; Huiskes, C.; Shouse, P.; de Rooij, G. H.

    2010-05-01

    It is estimated that 20% of all cultivated land and nearly half of the irrigated land is salt-affected, which pose major economic and environmental problems. Salinity may be the result of two processes; dryland and irrigation salinity. Dryland salinity is caused by a rise in the groundwater table, which occurs as a result of the replacement of deep-rooted, perennial native vegetation by shallow-rooted annual species meant for production. Irrigation salinity may occur as a result of poor water quality, poor drainage, or inefficient use of water. Consequently, new strategies to enhance crop yield stability on saline soils represent a major research priority (Botella et al. 2005). At the same time, native vegetation is capable of thriving under saline and/or dry conditions. The plant physiology of such vegetation has been investigated thoroughly, but the relation with in situ soil properties (soil moisture and salinity) may be more difficult to unravel as soil moisture sensors are less sensitive in dry soil, and the signal of most soil moisture content sensors is strongly attenuated by soil salinity. Recently, polymer tensiometer were developed that are able to measure matric potentials (closely related to a soil's moisture status) in dry soils. Polymer tensiometers consist of a solid ceramic, a stainless steel cup and a pressure transducer. The ceramic consist of a support layer and a membrane with 2 nm pore-size to prevent polymer leakage. Between the ceramic membrane and the pressure transducer a tiny chamber is located, which contains the polymer solution. The polymer's osmotic potential strongly reduces the total water potential inside the polymer tensiometer, which causes build-up of osmotic pressure. Polymer tensiometers would thus be an ideal instrument to measure in dry soil, if the polymer inside the tensiometer is not affected by the salts in the soil solution. We will address some key issues regarding the use of POTs in saline environments by showing

  6. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Enhance Salinity Stress Tolerance in Okra through ROS-Scavenging Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Habib, Sheikh Hasna; Kausar, Hossain; Saud, Halimi Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is a major environmental stress that limits crop production worldwide. In this study, we characterized plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and examined their effect on salinity stress tolerance in okra through the induction of ROS-scavenging enzyme activity. PGPR inoculated okra plants exhibited higher germination percentage, growth parameters, and chlorophyll content than control plants. Increased antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, APX, and CAT) and upregulation of ROS pathway genes (CAT, APX, GR, and DHAR) were observed in PGPR inoculated okra plants under salinity stress. With some exceptions, inoculation with Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 had a significant influence on all tested parameters under salt stress, as compared to other treatments. Thus, the ACC deaminase-containing PGPR isolate Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 could be an effective bioresource for enhancing salt tolerance and growth of okra plants under salinity stress.

  7. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Enhance Salinity Stress Tolerance in Okra through ROS-Scavenging Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Sheikh Hasna; Kausar, Hossain; Saud, Halimi Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is a major environmental stress that limits crop production worldwide. In this study, we characterized plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and examined their effect on salinity stress tolerance in okra through the induction of ROS-scavenging enzyme activity. PGPR inoculated okra plants exhibited higher germination percentage, growth parameters, and chlorophyll content than control plants. Increased antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, APX, and CAT) and upregulation of ROS pathway genes (CAT, APX, GR, and DHAR) were observed in PGPR inoculated okra plants under salinity stress. With some exceptions, inoculation with Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 had a significant influence on all tested parameters under salt stress, as compared to other treatments. Thus, the ACC deaminase-containing PGPR isolate Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 could be an effective bioresource for enhancing salt tolerance and growth of okra plants under salinity stress. PMID:26951880

  8. Macroalgal diversity along the Baltic Sea salinity gradient challenges Remane's species-minimum concept.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Hendrik; Feuerpfeil, Peter; Marquardt, Ronny; Telesh, Irena; Skarlato, Sergei

    2011-09-01

    Remane's species-minimum concept, which states that the lowest number of taxa occurs at the horohalinicum (5-8psu), was tested by investigating macroalgal diversity on hard substrates along the natural salinity gradient in the Baltic Sea. Field data on species occurrence and abundance were collected by SCUBA diving along 10 transects of the Finnish, Swedish and German coasts, covering a salinity range from 3.9 to 27psu. Macroalgal species numbers declined steadily with salinity, decreasing until 7.2psu was reached, but in the horohalinicum, a marked reduction of species number and a change in diversity were indicated by the Shannon index and evenness values. The non-linear decrease in macroalgal diversity at 5-8psu and the lack of increase in species numbers at salinities below 5psu imply a restricted applicability of Remane's species-minimum concept to macroalgae.

  9. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Enhance Salinity Stress Tolerance in Okra through ROS-Scavenging Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Habib, Sheikh Hasna; Kausar, Hossain; Saud, Halimi Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is a major environmental stress that limits crop production worldwide. In this study, we characterized plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and examined their effect on salinity stress tolerance in okra through the induction of ROS-scavenging enzyme activity. PGPR inoculated okra plants exhibited higher germination percentage, growth parameters, and chlorophyll content than control plants. Increased antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, APX, and CAT) and upregulation of ROS pathway genes (CAT, APX, GR, and DHAR) were observed in PGPR inoculated okra plants under salinity stress. With some exceptions, inoculation with Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 had a significant influence on all tested parameters under salt stress, as compared to other treatments. Thus, the ACC deaminase-containing PGPR isolate Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 could be an effective bioresource for enhancing salt tolerance and growth of okra plants under salinity stress. PMID:26951880

  10. Dispersant and salinity effects on weathering and acute toxicity of South Louisiana crude oil.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, Adam J; Nyman, J Andrew; Kaller, Michael D; Green, Christopher C

    2013-11-01

    Chemical dispersants are an important technology in the remediation of oil spills in the aquatic environment, facilitating degradation of crude oil and salinity is an important factor in dispersant effectiveness. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of salinity on the degradation chemistry of crude oil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and acute toxicity of the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of the dispersant COREXIT 9500A and chemically dispersed crude oil on a common estuarine fish. Laboratory microcosms were designed at salinities of 4 parts per thousand (ppt), 12 ppt, or 18 ppt and spiked with crude oil, COREXIT 9500A, or a combined exposure to crude oil and COREXIT and allowed to biodegrade for 1 wk, 4 wk, and 16 wk. The WAF was harvested for analytical PAH analysis and acute toxicity testing in juvenile Fundulus grandis. Compared with undispersed oil, COREXIT exponentially increased the PAH concentrations in the WAF for up to 16 wk; hopane-normalized concentrations indicated that biodegradation was slowed for the first 4 wk. Dispersed crude oil and COREXIT were acutely toxic following 1 wk of biodegradation with no correlation between PAH concentrations and crude oil WAF mortality. Both dispersant and dispersant oil mixtures remained toxic for at least 4 wk at the lowest salinity tested, suggesting increased sensitivity or reduced biodegradation of toxic components in low-saline environments. At the lowest salinity, oil dispersed with COREXIT was more toxic than either the COREXIT alone or oil alone, even after 16 wk of biodegradation. PMID:24377102

  11. Temperature and salinity effects on the toxicity of common pesticides to the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio.

    PubMed

    DeLorenzo, Marie E; Wallace, Sarah C; Danese, Loren E; Baird, Thomas D

    2009-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of increased temperature and salinity, two potential impacts of global climate change, on the toxicity of two common pesticides to the estuarine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio. Larval and adult grass shrimp were exposed to the fungicide chlorothalonil and the insecticide Scourge under standard toxicity test conditions, a 10 degrees C increase in temperature, a 10 ppt increase in salinity, and a combined increased temperature and salinity exposure. Toxicity of the fungicide chlorothalonil increased with temperature and salinity. Toxicity of the insecticide Scourge also increased with temperature; while increased salinity reduced Scourge toxicity, but only in adult shrimp. These findings suggest that changes in temperature and salinity may alter the toxicity of certain pesticides, and that the nature of the effect will depend on both the organism's life stage and the chemical contaminant. Standard toxicity bioassays may not be predictive of actual pesticide toxicity under variable environmental conditions, and testing under a wider range of exposure conditions could improve the accuracy of chemical risk assessments.

  12. Temperature and salinity effects on the toxicity of common pesticides to the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio.

    PubMed

    DeLorenzo, Marie E; Wallace, Sarah C; Danese, Loren E; Baird, Thomas D

    2009-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of increased temperature and salinity, two potential impacts of global climate change, on the toxicity of two common pesticides to the estuarine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio. Larval and adult grass shrimp were exposed to the fungicide chlorothalonil and the insecticide Scourge under standard toxicity test conditions, a 10 degrees C increase in temperature, a 10 ppt increase in salinity, and a combined increased temperature and salinity exposure. Toxicity of the fungicide chlorothalonil increased with temperature and salinity. Toxicity of the insecticide Scourge also increased with temperature; while increased salinity reduced Scourge toxicity, but only in adult shrimp. These findings suggest that changes in temperature and salinity may alter the toxicity of certain pesticides, and that the nature of the effect will depend on both the organism's life stage and the chemical contaminant. Standard toxicity bioassays may not be predictive of actual pesticide toxicity under variable environmental conditions, and testing under a wider range of exposure conditions could improve the accuracy of chemical risk assessments. PMID:20183050

  13. Dispersant and salinity effects on weathering and acute toxicity of South Louisiana crude oil.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, Adam J; Nyman, J Andrew; Kaller, Michael D; Green, Christopher C

    2013-11-01

    Chemical dispersants are an important technology in the remediation of oil spills in the aquatic environment, facilitating degradation of crude oil and salinity is an important factor in dispersant effectiveness. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of salinity on the degradation chemistry of crude oil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and acute toxicity of the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of the dispersant COREXIT 9500A and chemically dispersed crude oil on a common estuarine fish. Laboratory microcosms were designed at salinities of 4 parts per thousand (ppt), 12 ppt, or 18 ppt and spiked with crude oil, COREXIT 9500A, or a combined exposure to crude oil and COREXIT and allowed to biodegrade for 1 wk, 4 wk, and 16 wk. The WAF was harvested for analytical PAH analysis and acute toxicity testing in juvenile Fundulus grandis. Compared with undispersed oil, COREXIT exponentially increased the PAH concentrations in the WAF for up to 16 wk; hopane-normalized concentrations indicated that biodegradation was slowed for the first 4 wk. Dispersed crude oil and COREXIT were acutely toxic following 1 wk of biodegradation with no correlation between PAH concentrations and crude oil WAF mortality. Both dispersant and dispersant oil mixtures remained toxic for at least 4 wk at the lowest salinity tested, suggesting increased sensitivity or reduced biodegradation of toxic components in low-saline environments. At the lowest salinity, oil dispersed with COREXIT was more toxic than either the COREXIT alone or oil alone, even after 16 wk of biodegradation.

  14. Ultra Stable Microwave Radiometers for Future Sea Surface Salinity Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William J.; Tanner, Alan B.; Pellerano, Fernando A.; Horgan, Kevin A.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Earth Science System Pathfinder (ESSP) mission Aquarius will measure global sea surface salinity with 100-km spatial resolution every 8 days with an average monthly salinity accuracy of 0.2 psu (parts per thousand). This requires an L-band low-noise radiometer with the long-term calibration stability of less than 0.1 K over 8 days. This three-year research program on ultra stable radiometers has addressed the radiometer requirements and configuration necessary to achieve this objective for Aquarius and future ocean salinity missions. The system configuration and component performance have been evaluated with radiometer testbeds at both JPL and GSFC. The research has addressed several areas including component characterization as a function of temperature, a procedure for the measurement and correction for radiometer system non-linearity, noise diode calibration versus temperature, low noise amplifier performance over voltage, and temperature control requirements to achieve the required stability. A breadboard radiometer, utilizing microstrip-based technologies, has been built to demonstrate this long-term stability. This report also presents the results of the radiometer test program, a detailed radiometer noise model, and details of the operational switching sequence optimization that can be used to achieve the low noise and stability requirements. Many of the results of this research have been incorporated into the Aquarius radiometer design and will allow this instrument to achieve its goals.

  15. Hypertonic saline releases the attached small intestinal cystic fibrosis mucus.

    PubMed

    Ermund, Anna; Meiss, Lauren N; Scholte, Bob J; Hansson, Gunnar C

    2015-01-01

    Hypertonic saline inhalation has become a cornerstone in the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF), but its effect on CF mucus is still not understood. In CF, mucus stagnates in the airways, causing mucus plugging, and forming a substrate for bacterial invasion. Using horizontal Ussing-type chambers to allow easy access to the tissue, we have recently shown that the small intestinal mucus of CF mice is attached to the epithelium and not freely movable as opposed to normal mucus, thus pointing to a similarity between the CF mucus in the ileum and airways. In the same type of system, we investigated how hypertonic saline affects mucus thickness, attachment and penetrability to fluorescent beads the size of bacteria in ileal explants from the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutant (ΔF508) mouse, in order to characterize how this common therapy affects mucus properties. Hypertonic saline (1.75-5%) detached the mucus from the epithelium, but the mucus remained impenetrable to beads the size of bacteria. This approach might be used to test other mucolytic interventions in CF.

  16. Hypertonic saline releases the attached small intestinal cystic fibrosis mucus

    PubMed Central

    Ermund, Anna; Meiss, Lauren N; Scholte, Bob J; Hansson, Gunnar C

    2015-01-01

    Hypertonic saline inhalation has become a cornerstone in the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF), but its effect on CF mucus is still not understood. In CF, mucus stagnates in the airways, causing mucus plugging, and forming a substrate for bacterial invasion. Using horizontal Ussing-type chambers to allow easy access to the tissue, we have recently shown that the small intestinal mucus of CF mice is attached to the epithelium and not freely movable as opposed to normal mucus, thus pointing to a similarity between the CF mucus in the ileum and airways. In the same type of system, we investigated how hypertonic saline affects mucus thickness, attachment and penetrability to fluorescent beads the size of bacteria in ileal explants from the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutant (ΔF508) mouse, in order to characterize how this common therapy affects mucus properties. Hypertonic saline (1.75–5%) detached the mucus from the epithelium, but the mucus remained impenetrable to beads the size of bacteria. This approach might be used to test other mucolytic interventions in CF. PMID:25311799

  17. Influence of salinity on the bioaccumulation and photoinduced toxicity of fluoranthene to an estuarine shrimp and oligochaete.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, John E

    2003-12-01

    The effect of salinity on the photoinduced toxicity of waterborne fluoranthene to larvae of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) and tubificid oligochaete worms (Monopylephorus rubroniveus) was studied in a laboratory system under simulated sunlight. In the grass shrimp toxicity tests, five concentrations of fluoranthene (0, 3.6, 7.3, 13.8, and 29.0 microg/L) and four salinities (6.9, 14.5, 21.2, and 28.6 per thousand) were achieved. In the oligochaete toxicity tests, five concentrations of fluoranthene (0, 0.8, 1.4, 3.3, and 7.7 microg/L) and four salinities (7.1, 13.3, 20.5, and 27.6 per thousand) were achieved. Salinity had no effect on either the photoinduced toxicity or the bioaccumulation of fluoranthene in the grass shrimp. However, the highest level of salinity decreased the median lethal time for the oligochaete. Bioaccumulation of fluoranthene was inversely related to salinity for the oligochaete. Additional experiments demonstrated an inverse relationship between salinity and short-term osmotic weight change in the oligochaete. Weight of the grass shrimp larvae was not affected by salinity. These findings show that salinity can influence the toxicity and bioaccumulation of fluoranthene in some estuarine organisms. The influence of salinity on these populations may be related to physiological responses associated with internal osmotic volume changes. Thus, salinity needs to be taken into account when assessing the risk of photoactivated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) to at least some estuarine species.

  18. Nitrification at different salinities: Biofilm community composition and physiological plasticity.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Silva, Blanca M; Jonassen, Kjell Rune; Bakke, Ingrid; Østgaard, Kjetill; Vadstein, Olav

    2016-05-15

    This paper describes an experimental study of microbial communities of three moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBR) inoculated with nitrifying cultures originated from environments with different salinity; freshwater, brackish (20‰) and seawater. All reactors were run until they operated at a conversion efficiency of >96%. The microbial communities were profiled using 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Statistical analysis was used to investigate the differences in microbial community structure and distribution of the nitrifying populations with different salinity environments. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis (NMDS) and the PERMANOVA test based on Bray-Curtis similarities revealed significantly different community structure in the three reactors. The brackish reactor showed lower diversity index than fresh and seawater reactors. Venn diagram showed that 60 and 78% of the total operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) guild, respectively, were unique OTUs for a given reactor. Similarity Percentages (SIMPER) analysis showed that two-thirds of the total difference in community structure between the reactors was explained by 10 OTUs, indicating that only a small number of OTUs play a numerically dominant role in the nitrification process. Acute toxicity of salt stress on ammonium and nitrite oxidizing activities showed distinctly different patterns, reaching 97% inhibition of the freshwater reactor for ammonium oxidation rate. In the brackish culture, inhibition was only observed at maximal level of salinity, 32‰. In the fully adapted seawater culture, higher activities were observed at 32‰ than at any of the lower salinities. PMID:26986496

  19. Identifying the Cause of Toxicity of a Saline Mine Water

    PubMed Central

    van Dam, Rick A.; Harford, Andrew J.; Lunn, Simon A.; Gagnon, Marthe M.

    2014-01-01

    Elevated major ions (or salinity) are recognised as being a key contributor to the toxicity of many mine waste waters but the complex interactions between the major ions and large inter-species variability in response to salinity, make it difficult to relate toxicity to causal factors. This study aimed to determine if the toxicity of a typical saline seepage water was solely due to its major ion constituents; and determine which major ions were the leading contributors to the toxicity. Standardised toxicity tests using two tropical freshwater species Chlorella sp. (alga) and Moinodaphnia macleayi (cladoceran) were used to compare the toxicity of 1) mine and synthetic seepage water; 2) key major ions (e.g. Na, Cl, SO4 and HCO3); 3) synthetic seepage water that were modified by excluding key major ions. For Chlorella sp., the toxicity of the seepage water was not solely due to its major ion concentrations because there were differences in effects caused by the mine seepage and synthetic seepage. However, for M. macleayi this hypothesis was supported because similar effects caused by mine seepage and synthetic seepage. Sulfate was identified as a major ion that could predict the toxicity of the synthetic waters, which might be expected as it was the dominant major ion in the seepage water. However, sulfate was not the primary cause of toxicity in the seepage water and electrical conductivity was a better predictor of effects. Ultimately, the results show that specific major ions do not clearly drive the toxicity of saline seepage waters and the effects are probably due to the electrical conductivity of the mine waste waters. PMID:25180579

  20. Identifying the cause of toxicity of a saline mine water.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Rick A; Harford, Andrew J; Lunn, Simon A; Gagnon, Marthe M

    2014-01-01

    Elevated major ions (or salinity) are recognised as being a key contributor to the toxicity of many mine waste waters but the complex interactions between the major ions and large inter-species variability in response to salinity, make it difficult to relate toxicity to causal factors. This study aimed to determine if the toxicity of a typical saline seepage water was solely due to its major ion constituents; and determine which major ions were the leading contributors to the toxicity. Standardised toxicity tests using two tropical freshwater species Chlorella sp. (alga) and Moinodaphnia macleayi (cladoceran) were used to compare the toxicity of 1) mine and synthetic seepage water; 2) key major ions (e.g. Na, Cl, SO4 and HCO3); 3) synthetic seepage water that were modified by excluding key major ions. For Chlorella sp., the toxicity of the seepage water was not solely due to its major ion concentrations because there were differences in effects caused by the mine seepage and synthetic seepage. However, for M. macleayi this hypothesis was supported because similar effects caused by mine seepage and synthetic seepage. Sulfate was identified as a major ion that could predict the toxicity of the synthetic waters, which might be expected as it was the dominant major ion in the seepage water. However, sulfate was not the primary cause of toxicity in the seepage water and electrical conductivity was a better predictor of effects. Ultimately, the results show that specific major ions do not clearly drive the toxicity of saline seepage waters and the effects are probably due to the electrical conductivity of the mine waste waters. PMID:25180579