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Sample records for agitated saline test

  1. Ultrasonic agitation method for accelerating batch leaching tests

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.J.; Stegemann, J.A.; Chao, C.C.

    1996-12-31

    A method has been developed which uses ultrasonic cavitation to accelerate batch leaching tests. Batch leaching tests, in which attainment of an equilibrium between the solid sample and liquid leachant is desired, usually involve particle size reduction and mixing to hasten mass transfer of soluble compounds. In the study discussed here, mixing in the form of ultrasonic cavitation was used to supply an intense level of agitation. Breaking the liquid boundary layer surrounding individual waste particles ensured a maximum concentration gradient between the solid and liquid phases and accelerated attainment of steady state concentrations. Evaluation of the acceleration technique was made through comparison of leachate quality of stabilized/solidified (S/S) residue samples tested using the Wastewater Technology Centre`s (WTC) equilibrium extraction (EE) and an ultrasonically agitated version of the same test method (UEE). The sample preparation, liquid-to-solid ratio, extraction fluid, etc., specified in the EE method were held constant for the EE and UEE samples, while the duration and method of agitation was altered for the UEE samples. To date, this evaluation has been made using five metal finishing residues, which were selected based on their elevated concentrations of regulated contaminants. The results of the evaluations are presented and suggestions are made as to the applicability of this accelerated test method.

  2. Agitation in DWPF Precipitate Pump Pit Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Marek, J.C.

    1986-01-20

    An experimental program to test the reference agitator design for DWPF Precipitate Pump Pit Tanks has been completed. It was not known whether the reference agitator design would produce uniform mixing of precipitate slurry. There was also a concern that the reference agitator would produce excessive foaming of precipitate. An alternative agitator design that produces good mixing with little or no foam buildup was identified in the tests and is recommended for use in DWPF Precipitate Pump Pit Tanks. 7 refs.

  3. A Controlled Agitation Process for Improving Quality of Canned Green Beans during Agitation Thermal Processing.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anika; Pratap Singh, Anubhav; Ramaswamy, Hosahalli S

    2016-06-01

    This work introduces the concept of a controlled agitation thermal process to reduce quality damage in liquid-particulate products during agitation thermal processing. Reciprocating agitation thermal processing (RA-TP) was used as the agitation thermal process. In order to reduce the impact of agitation, a new concept of "stopping agitations after sufficient development of cold-spot temperature" was proposed. Green beans were processed in No. 2 (307×409) cans filled with liquids of various consistency (0% to 2% CMC) at various frequencies (1 to 3 Hz) of RA-TP using a full-factorial design and heat penetration results were collected. Corresponding operator's process time to impart a 10-min process lethality (Fo ) and agitation time (AT) were calculated using heat penetration results. Accordingly, products were processed again by stopping agitations as per 3 agitation regimes, namely; full time agitation, equilibration time agitation, and partial time agitation. Processed products were photographed and tested for visual quality, color, texture, breakage of green beans, turbidity, and percentage of insoluble solids in can liquid. Results showed that stopping agitations after sufficient development of cold-spot temperatures is an effective way of reducing product damages caused by agitation (for example, breakage of beans and its leaching into liquid). Agitations till one-log temperature difference gave best color, texture and visual product quality for low-viscosity liquid-particulate mixture and extended agitations till equilibration time was best for high-viscosity products. Thus, it was shown that a controlled agitation thermal process is more effective in obtaining high product quality as compared to a regular agitation thermal process.

  4. Reducing agitator energy consumption without sacrificing agitation

    SciTech Connect

    Golobic, R.A.; Derrickson, G.S.

    1982-01-01

    Rising energy costs and their increasing net effect on the cost of a mineral product requires that every aspect of processing-plant operations reduce consumed horsepower without sacrificing the grade of the product. This paper addresses two principles in the design and selection of axial-flow agitator propellers that contribute to significant reductions in required horsepower. The first of these involves the use of good design principles. The swirling wake generated by an agitator propeller induces losses in the pumping action. By designing an agitator of proper twist and shape one can minimize these losses. Depending upon the design chosen for comparison, these losses can be reduced by 30 to 50% without any sacrifice in pumping or without increasing the complexity of the design. The second aspect involves an appropriate selection of the agitator propeller diameter. The required horsepower can be significantly reduced by using a propeller of larger diameter while operating it at a lower revolutions per minute (RPM) with no sacrifice in the pumping. 3 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  5. Granulation of core particles suitable for film coating by agitation fluidized bed I. Optimum formulation for core particles and development of a novel friability test method.

    PubMed

    Hamashita, Tomohiro; Nakagawa, Yasuo; Aketo, Takao; Watano, Satoru

    2007-08-01

    To prepare powdered medicines without bitter taste, film coating is required to cover the surface of core particles. In this study, effect of formulation and operating conditions of agitation fluidized bed on the core particle properties was investigated. In order to prevent breakage of the core particles during coating process, which sometimes causes variation of drug dissolution rate, addition of maltose syrup powder during the formulation process of the core particles was investigated. Also, a method for friability test in which the core particles were subjected to strong impact was proposed to evaluate strength of the core particles. The friability of the core particles determined by this test method correlated well with the actual friability of the particles during the coating process. Based on this result, we confirmed this novel friability test method could predict the core particle endurance during the coating process.

  6. SALINITY TOLERANCE OF DAPHNIA MAGNA AND POTENTIAL USE FOR ESTUARINE SEDIMENT TOXICITY TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Daphnia magna Straus, a common organism used for freshwater sediment toxicity tests, was evaluated to determine its tolerance to salinity and suitability for tests with estuarine water and sediments. Daphnids were exposed for 2 to 21 days to salinity in a variety of water-only te...

  7. Agitation apparatus. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Beets, A.L.; Lewis, B.E. Jr.

    1982-03-12

    Agitation apparatus includes a tank with a cylindrical upper portion, a frustoconical intermediate portion, and a cylindrical lower portion, a lift tube extending from the upper portion of the tank to a point near an end cap attached to the lower portion of the tank, the lift tube being concentric with the lower portion of the tank to provide a flow passage there between, and a plurality of air supply conduits extending along the lift tube and spaced apart around its perimeter, these air supply conduits terminating adjacent the lower end of the lift tube. Air discharged from the lower ends of the air supply conduits causes liquid in the tank to flow upwardly through the lift tube and out of apertures in the upper portion thereof. Due to the unique properties of nuclear fuel dissolver solutions and the constraint placed on the amount of air that can be injected therein by conventional apparatus, there has been a need for a more effective means for agitating liquid in nuclear fuel digester tanks.

  8. Platelet preservation: agitation and containers.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Pieter F; de Korte, Dirk

    2011-06-01

    For platelets to maintain their in vitro quality and in vivo effectiveness, they need to be stored at room temperature with gentle agitation in gas-permeable containers. The mode of agitation affects the quality of the platelets, and a gentle method of agitation, either a circular or a flat bed movement, provides the best results. Tumblers or elliptical agitators induce platelet activation and subsequent damage. As long as the platelets remain in suspension, the agitation speed is not important. Agitation of the platelet concentrates ensures that the platelets are continuously oxygenated, that sufficient oxygen can enter the storage container and that excess carbon dioxide can be expelled. During transportation of platelet concentrates, nowadays over long distances where they are held without controlled agitation, platelets may tolerate a certain period without agitation. However, evidence is accumulating that during the time without agitation, local hypoxia surrounding the platelets may induce irreversible harm to the platelets. Over the decades, more gas-permeable plastics have been used to manufacture platelet containers. The use of different plastics and their influence on the platelet quality both in vitro and in vivo is discussed. The improved gas-permeability has allowed the extension of platelet storage from 3 days in the early 1980s, to currently at least 7 days. In the light of new developments, particularly the introduction of pathogen reduction techniques, the use of platelet additive solutions and the availability of improved automated separators, further (renewed) research in this area is warranted.

  9. Particle Breakage in Agitated Dryers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hare, Colin L.; Ghadiri, Mojtaba; Dennehy, Robert; Collier, Alan

    2009-06-01

    A method for predicting particle breakage in agitated dryers is described. The method utilizes an estimation of stresses and strains occurring in a dryer bed sheared by an impeller using the Distinct Element Method (DEM). An assemblage of particles is then subjected to these stresses in a shear cell to assess the extent of attrition under a range of stresses and strains. Paracetamol particles in the size range 500-600 μm are used for the experimental work. The relationship of attrition with stress and strain is then incorporated into the distribution of stress and strain in the dryer estimated by DEM. The extent of attrition for a range of conditions including the impeller speed has been analysed. The prediction shows impeller speed to have limited effect on attrition within the range of speeds tested.

  10. Design of agitation systems in Bingham slurries by pilot simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    A method was required to determine the optimum agitator speed needed to produce overall motion of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) high-level waste slurries in remote process cell vessels. Project schedule and limited process space required an accurate determination of agitator horsepower and size without the benefit of full-scale testing. The small scale testing of unique clear rheologically similar fluid is described along with tests and scale-up procedures. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Cavitation-controlled ultrasonic agitator

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, S.H.; Lawrence, W.P.; Raptis, A.C.

    1989-10-01

    High-intensity ultrasound generally produces nonlinear acoustic cavitation and streaming in liquids. The ultrasonic energy required to cause cavitation and streaming in a liquid depends on the physical properties of the liquid, e.g., surface tension, viscosity, and entrained gases. Both cavitation and streaming generate acoustic noise whose signatures may be used to distinguish the stage of agitation and thus allow the process to be controlled. An ultrasonic agitator has been designed for application in a confined area with a high-temperature, high-pressure, and corrosive environment. Control of this agitator is based on the detection of noise levels and subharmonics produced during cavitation and streaming. Noise signatures of agitation in different liquids and in liquids with particles have been determined, and discussed. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Downhole gaseous liquid flow agitator

    SciTech Connect

    Kamilos, N.; Kennedy, D.D.; Lederhos, L.J. Jr.

    1989-03-14

    An apparatus is described for agitating and mixing of a gaseous phase and a liquid phase comprising: a first tube having non-blocking internal threads within the first tube to agitate a liquid phase adhering thereto with a gaseous phase passing therethrough, whereby a uniform gaseous phase and liquid phase mixture is formed; and a second tube connected to an end of the first tube having non-blocking internal threads of opposite handedness.

  13. Effectiveness of the Saline Load Test in Diagnosis of Traumatic Elbow Arthrotomies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Effectiveness of the Saline Load Test in Diagnosis of Traumatic Elbow Arthrotomies Todd Feathers, MD, Daniel Stinner, MD, Kevin Kirk... elbow . Methods: A cadaveric study was conducted using 36 thawed, fresh-frozen forequarter amputations. An elbow arthrotomy was made in the posterocen...joint. The elbow joint was then loaded with saline mixed with methylene blue. During the injection, the known arthrotomy site was observed for leakage

  14. Influence of salinity on fertilization and larval development toxicity tests with two species of sea urchin.

    PubMed

    Carballeira, C; Martín-Díaz, L; Delvalls, T A

    2011-10-01

    Sea urchin embryo-larval development (ELD) and fertilization tests have been widely used in ecotoxicity studies and are included in regulatory frameworks. Biological processes occur naturally within a range of salinity that depends on the species considered. In an attempt to determine the optimum range of salinity, ELD and fertilization bioassays were performed at different salinities (15-40.5‰) with two species of Atlantic sea urchin: Arbacia lixula and Paracentrotus lividus. In the ELD assay, the optimum range of salinity was wider for A. lixula (29-35.5‰) than for P. lividus (29-33‰). In the fertilization assay with P. lividus as a bioindicator species, the highest percentage of fertilization (90%) was obtained at salinities of between 29 and 33‰. More research on A. lixula is required, since the fertilization success was below 60%. The results of the present study demonstrate that salinity may be a confounding factor in interpreting ELD test results.

  15. A field test of the modified SP log interpretation method for estimating groundwater salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nativ, Ronit; Fligelman, Haim

    1994-09-01

    Groundwater salinity in deep formations containing saline fluids can be estimated using SP logs. However, values of groundwater salinity calculated using traditional methods often deviate from measured values of sampled groundwater. In this study we adopted and modified Smits' model for the interpretation of groundwater conductivity (which can be correlated with salinity). The modified approach takes into account effects of the clay mineral content and its electrochemical features on the electrochemical potential. Whereas Smits' theoretical model was tested under laboratory conditions, its validity under field conditions was never established. We tested this model in four deep boreholes, penetrating the Gevanim (Anisian) and the Heletz (Neocomian) formations in Israel. Cores sampled from each formation were analysed for minerals as well as for cation exchange capacity, porosity and bulk density. These parameters were later incorporated into the modified Smits equations. Formation-water resistivity was calculated using both the traditional and the modified Smits models. Salinity values in the Heletz Formation calculated by each of these methods were similar, and very close to the measured values obtained from chemical analysis of sampled formation water. Values calculated by each method in the Gevanim Formation were also similar, but lower than the measured value. Findings in the two different formations suggest that the modified Smits model does not provide the log interpreter with a more accurate analytical tool. We assume that the reason is that in these formations the shale acts as a perfect membrane. Under these circumstances, the modified Smits model offers no advantage over the traditional method.

  16. Effect of agitation of EDTA with 808-nm diode laser on dentin microhardness.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Hakan; Yeter, Kübra Y; Karatas, Ertugrul; Yilmaz, Cenk B; Ayranci, Leyla B; Ozsu, Damla

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of agitation of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) with diode laser at different agitation times on root dentin microhardness. Eighty-four specimens were divided randomly into seven groups, as follows: (1) distilled water, (2) 17% EDTA, (3) EDTA with 60 s ultrasonic agitation, (4) EDTA with 10 s laser agitation, (5) EDTA with 20 s laser agitation, (6) EDTA with 30 s laser agitation, and (7) EDTA with 40 s laser agitation. All of the specimens were irrigated with 5% NaOCl and distilled water except the distilled water group. Microhardness values were calculated before and after the procedures. Statistical analyses were performed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests. Statistically significant differences were determined between the distilled water and other groups. Also, statistically significant differences were observed between EDTA with 40 s laser agitation and EDTA, and EDTA with 10 and 20 s laser agitations. Ultrasonic agitation of EDTA affected microhardness of root dentin similar to EDTA (p > .05). All applications decreased the microhardness of root dentin when compared with distilled water. Agitation of EDTA with diode laser for 40 s caused more reduction in microhardness of root dentin when compared with EDTA.

  17. Treating agitation with dexmedetomidine in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit frequently experience delirium, anxiety, and agitation, with a variety of treatments used. This article discusses the role of an alpha-adrenoceptor agonist, dexmedetomidine, and its clinical relevance and advantages for the agitated patient.

  18. 7 CFR 58.417 - Mechanical agitators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mechanical agitators. 58.417 Section 58.417 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....417 Mechanical agitators. The mechanical agitators shall be of sanitary construction. The...

  19. 7 CFR 58.513 - Agitators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agitators. 58.513 Section 58.513 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....513 Agitators. Mechanical agitators shall meet the requirements of § 58.417....

  20. 7 CFR 58.513 - Agitators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agitators. 58.513 Section 58.513 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....513 Agitators. Mechanical agitators shall meet the requirements of § 58.417....

  1. 7 CFR 58.417 - Mechanical agitators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mechanical agitators. 58.417 Section 58.417 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....417 Mechanical agitators. The mechanical agitators shall be of sanitary construction. The...

  2. 7 CFR 58.513 - Agitators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agitators. 58.513 Section 58.513 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....513 Agitators. Mechanical agitators shall meet the requirements of § 58.417....

  3. 7 CFR 58.417 - Mechanical agitators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mechanical agitators. 58.417 Section 58.417 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....417 Mechanical agitators. The mechanical agitators shall be of sanitary construction. The...

  4. 7 CFR 58.513 - Agitators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agitators. 58.513 Section 58.513 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....513 Agitators. Mechanical agitators shall meet the requirements of § 58.417....

  5. 7 CFR 58.513 - Agitators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agitators. 58.513 Section 58.513 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....513 Agitators. Mechanical agitators shall meet the requirements of § 58.417....

  6. In Vitro Assessment of Serum-Saline Ratios for Fluid Simulator Testing of Highly Modular Spinal Implants With Articulating Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Khandha, Ashutosh; Malcolmson, George; Timm, JP

    2008-01-01

    Background The increasing complexity of articulating spinal implants prohibits the use of serum-supplemented simulator fluid testing because multicomponent interfaces retain residual protein and preclude gravimetric measurement. Our original hypothesis was that simulator testing of a posterior dynamic stabilization implant that has metal-on-metal articulating bearings will not produce dramatically different wear debris when tested using pure saline versus testing in saline supplemented with 20% serum. Methods This hypothesis was tested using simulator testing of 12 dynamic stabilization spinal implants, 6 in 100% saline and 6 in 20%-serum saline. Gravimetric and particle analysis were performed after every million cycles up to 10 million cycles, with flexion of 11.3°/extension of 5.6° coupled with axial rotation of ± 4°. Results The mean gravimetric weight loss was approximately 200 mg over 10 million cycles for the implants tested in 100% saline, while the mean weight loss for those tested in 20%-serum saline was below the method detection limits (< 10 mg over 10 million cycles). For the 100%-saline and 20%-serum simulator fluids, the average particle size over the course of 0 to 10 million cycles remained relatively constant at 0.2 µm-dia (saline) and 3.2 µm-dia (20%-serum saline). Testing in 100% saline generated > 1000-fold more particles, compared to testing in 20% serum-supplemented saline. Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analyses of particles demonstrated that the 100% saline debris was composed of Co-Cr-P-O (Cr-Co metal oxides), and for the 20%-serum saline debris only bulk metal Co-Cr was detected. Conclusion Our initial hypothesis was not supported. There were significant differences in gravimetric wear, average size, and type of wear debris that were mechanistically attributable to the type of simulator fluid used. The over-protective effect of serum proteins appears to underscore the importance of using both saline and serum when establishing upper

  7. Agitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... alertness (altered consciousness) can be a sign of delirium . Delirium has a medical cause and should be checked ... PCP, or opiates) Hospitalization (older adults often have delirium while in the hospital) Overactive thyroid gland ( hyperthyroidism ) ...

  8. Agitated Depression in Substance Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Leventhal, Adam M.; Gelernter, Joel; Oslin, David; Anton, Raymond F.; Farrer, Lindsay A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Depression with psychomotor agitation (PMA; “agitated depression”) is a putative psychiatric phenotype that appears to associate with some forms of substance dependence. However, it is unclear whether such relationships extend across different substances and independent (I-MDE) versus substance-induced (SI-MDE) subtypes of major depressive episodes. Method We examined whether lifetime depression with (vs. without) PMA was associated with lifetime substance dependence across individuals with lifetime: (1) I-MDE only (n = 575); and (2) SI-MDE only (n = 1683). Data were pooled from several family and genetic studies of substance dependence in which participants received identical structured interviews to diagnose DSM-IV mental disorders. Results In I-MDE, PMA was significantly associated with alcohol, cocaine, opioid, other drug (hallucinogen, inhalant, speed-ball), and sedative dependence. After controlling for demographic and clinical co-factors, PMA's relationship to dependence on opioids, other drugs, and sedatives remained significant, but not its relationship to alcohol or cocaine. In SI-MDE, PMA was significantly associated with alcohol, cocaine, opioid, and other drug dependence. After adjusting for co-factors, associations remained significant for dependence on cocaine and opioids, but not alcohol or other drugs. Relationships between PMA and opioid dependence were stronger in I-MDE than SI-MDE. Depression subtype (I-MDE vs. SI-MDE) did not moderate relations between PMA and non-opioid forms of substance dependence. Conclusions Agitated depression associates with certain forms of substance dependence, particularly opioid dependence. MDE subtype did not alter most PMA-dependence associations, which suggests that the mechanisms underlying this comorbidity are complex and potentially bidirectional. PMID:21277711

  9. Application of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs to large agitators

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, W.E.; Anderson, T.D. ); Bethmann, H.K. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the basis for and implementation of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs for large tank-mounted agitators. This modification to the original design was intended to minimize maintenance personnel exposure to ionizing radiation and also provide for disassembly capability without damage to shafts or hubs. In addition to realizing these objectives, test confirmed that the modified couplings reduced agitator shaft end runouts approximately 65%, thereby reducing bearing loads and increasing service life, a significant enhancement for a nuclear facility. 5 refs.

  10. Application of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs to large agitators

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, W.E.; Anderson, T.D.; Bethmann, H.K.

    1991-12-31

    This paper describes the basis for and implementation of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs for large tank-mounted agitators. This modification to the original design was intended to minimize maintenance personnel exposure to ionizing radiation and also provide for disassembly capability without damage to shafts or hubs. In addition to realizing these objectives, test confirmed that the modified couplings reduced agitator shaft end runouts approximately 65%, thereby reducing bearing loads and increasing service life, a significant enhancement for a nuclear facility. 5 refs.

  11. Emma Goldman: A Study in Female Agitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Elizabeth

    The role of the agitator in society and the special characteristics of women agitators--in particular, Emma Goldman, an American anarchist from the early twentieth century--are discussed in this paper. Specific examples of the rhetoric used by Emma Goldman in her speeches (supporting anarchism, against women's suffrage, against abortion control,…

  12. Biological activity of insulin in GMO gels and the effect of agitation.

    PubMed

    Sadhale, Y; Shah, J C

    1999-11-25

    Glyceryl monooleate (GMO)-water cubic phase gel was previously shown to protect insulin from agitation induced aggregation. However, it is not known if insulin is biologically active in the gel and what effect agitation has on insulin in the gel. Therefore, the objective was to determine the stability of insulin in cubic phase gel in terms of its biological activity in a suitable animal model such as Sprague-Dawley rats. Effect of agitation on biological activity of insulin in cubic phase GMO gel was determined by subcutaneous injections of the agitated and non-agitated gels to two groups of previously fasted rats and measuring the effect on their blood glucose levels. Two groups of rats administered with agitated insulin solution and normal saline were used as controls. The biological activity of insulin was evaluated by comparing AAC (area above the blood glucose level-time curve, in %-h), C(max) (maximum % decrease in blood glucose levels) and t(max) (time required to attain C(max), in h) values for the four groups of rats. Since cubic phase gel is highly viscous, therapeutic equivalency of insulin in the lamellar phase gel, which converts in situ into cubic phase gel, was compared to insulin solution with normal saline as the control, using AAC, C(max) and t(max) of the blood glucose profile. Insulin was biologically active in both agitated and non-agitated gels; however, upon agitation, insulin in solution totally lost its hypoglycemic activity. Agitation of insulin in the cubic phase gel was seen to have very little deleterious effect on its biological activity. Insulin in the lamellar phase gel was not only biologically active but also therapeutically equivalent to insulin solution based on AAC (327.9+/-100.8 and 431.7+/-113.3), C(max) (57. 1+/-7.0 and 70.2+/-6.5) and t(max) (2.8+/-0.7 and 4.0+/-1.7) for the lamellar phase gel and insulin solution, respectively (no significant difference, P0.05). In summary, GMO cubic phase gel protected insulin from

  13. Saline Infusion Test highly associated with the incidence of cardio- and cerebrovascular events in primary aldosteronism.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Reiko; Tamada, Daisuke; Murata, Masahiko; Mukai, Kosuke; Kitamura, Tetsuhiro; Otsuki, Michio; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2017-03-18

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is caused by excess secretion of aldosterone and is an independent risk factor for cardio-cerebro-vascular (CCV) events. The goal of treatment of PA should include prevention of CCV events. A definitive diagnosis of PA is established by confirmatory tests [saline infusion test (SIT), furosemide upright test (FUT) and captopril challenge test (CCT)]. However, there is no information on whether the hormone levels measured by these confirmatory tests are associated with CCV events. The aim of this retrospective study was to elucidate the relationship between the results of the above confirmatory tests and prevalence of CCV disease in patients with PA. The study subjects were 292 PA patients who were assessed for past history of CCV events at the time of diagnosis of PA. CCV events were significantly higher in patients with positive than negative SIT (12.8% vs. 3.3%, p=0.04). There were no differences in the incidences of CCV events between patients with positive and negative CCT and FUT (CCT: 11.0% vs. 3.9%, p=0.13, FUT: 6.1% vs. 5.7%, p=0.93). Our results demonstrated a higher incidence of CCV disease in PA SIT-positive patients compared to those with negative test. SIT is a potentially useful test not only for the diagnosis of PA but also assessment of the risk of CCV events.

  14. Combined use of heat and saline tracer to estimate aquifer properties in a forced gradient test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombani, N.; Giambastiani, B. M. S.; Mastrocicco, M.

    2015-06-01

    Usually electrolytic tracers are employed for subsurface characterization, but the interpretation of tracer test data collected by low cost techniques, such as electrical conductivity logging, can be biased by cation exchange reactions. To characterize the aquifer transport properties a saline and heat forced gradient test was employed. The field site, located near Ferrara (Northern Italy), is a well characterized site, which covers an area of 200 m2 and is equipped with a grid of 13 monitoring wells. A two-well (injection and pumping) system was employed to perform the forced gradient test and a straddle packer was installed in the injection well to avoid in-well artificial mixing. The contemporary continuous monitor of hydraulic head, electrical conductivity and temperature within the wells permitted to obtain a robust dataset, which was then used to accurately simulate injection conditions, to calibrate a 3D transient flow and transport model and to obtain aquifer properties at small scale. The transient groundwater flow and solute-heat transport model was built using SEAWAT. The result significance was further investigated by comparing the results with already published column experiments and a natural gradient tracer test performed in the same field. The test procedure shown here can provide a fast and low cost technique to characterize coarse grain aquifer properties, although some limitations can be highlighted, such as the small value of the dispersion coefficient compared to values obtained by natural gradient tracer test, or the fast depletion of heat signal due to high thermal diffusivity.

  15. The effect of salinity on growth and weight loss of juvenile plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa, L): An experimental test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augley, Julian; Huxham, Mark; Fernandes, Teresa F.; Lyndon, Alastair R.

    2008-11-01

    Previous population estimates of the 0+ plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa L.) in the Firth of Forth, east central Scotland, did not take account of the Forth estuary west of the Forth bridges. Previous work found plaice in the estuary grew as fast as, or faster than, the outer firth plaice. It was hypothesised that salinity may affect growth rates of early 0+ plaice. This hypothesis was tested in a laboratory experiment, by exposing juvenile plaice to three different, but naturally — experienced by the juveniles, salinities; 25, 30 and 35. Plaice fed a minimum ration did not grow in length. Mean weight decreased at all three salinities, however, the lowest weight loss was found at the lowest salinity (25) and the highest weight loss was found at the highest salinity (35). The minimum feeding ration was halted and plaice were then fed ad libitum. Consumption rates were not significantly different during the ad libitum feeding, while significant differences in mean weight change were found between the highest and lowest salinities.

  16. Testing the D/H ratio of alkenones and palmitic acid as salinity proxies in the Amazon Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häggi, C.; Chiessi, C. M.; Schefuß, E.

    2015-08-01

    The stable hydrogen isotope composition of lipid biomarkers, such as alkenones, is a promising new tool for the improvement of paleosalinity reconstructions. Laboratory studies confirmed the correlation between lipid biomarker δD composition (δDLipid), water δD composition (δDH2O) and salinity. Yet, there is limited insight into the applicability of this proxy in oceanic environments. To fill this gap, we test the use of the δD composition of alkenones (δDC37) and palmitic acid (δDPA) as salinity proxies using samples of surface suspended material along the distinct salinity gradient induced by the Amazon Plume. Our results indicate a positive correlation between salinity and δDH2O, while the relationship between δDH2O and δDLipid is more complex: δDPA correlates strongly with δDH2O (r2 = 0.81) and shows a salinity dependent isotopic fractionation factor. δDC37 only correlates with δDH2O in samples with alkenone concentrations > 10 ng L-1 (r2 = 0.51). These findings are mirrored by alkenone based temperature reconstructions, which are inaccurate for samples with alkenone concentrations < 10 ng L-1. Deviations in δDC37 and temperature are likely to be caused by limited haptophyte algae growth due to low salinity and light limitation imposed by the Amazon Plume. Our study confirms the applicability of δDLipid as a salinity proxy in oceanic environments. But it raises a note of caution concerning regions where low alkenone production can be expected due to very low salinity conditions. To circumvent these limitations, we suggest the complementary use of δDC37 and δDPA.

  17. Testing the D / H ratio of alkenones and palmitic acid as salinity proxies in the Amazon Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häggi, C.; Chiessi, C. M.; Schefuß, E.

    2015-12-01

    The stable hydrogen isotope composition of lipid biomarkers, such as alkenones, is a promising new tool for the improvement of palaeosalinity reconstructions. Laboratory studies confirmed the correlation between lipid biomarker δD composition (δDLipid), water δD composition (δDH2O) and salinity; yet there is limited insight into the applicability of this proxy in oceanic environments. To fill this gap, we test the use of the δD composition of alkenones (δDC37) and palmitic acid (δDPA) as salinity proxies using samples of surface suspended material along the distinct salinity gradient induced by the Amazon Plume. Our results indicate a positive correlation between salinity and δDH2O, while the relationship between δDH2O and δDLipid is more complex: δDPAM correlates strongly with δDH2O (r2 = 0.81) and shows a salinity-dependent isotopic fractionation factor. δDC37 only correlates with δDH2O in a small number (n = 8) of samples with alkenone concentrations > 10 ng L-1, while there is no correlation if all samples are taken into account. These findings are mirrored by alkenone-based temperature reconstructions, which are inaccurate for samples with low alkenone concentrations. Deviations in δDC37 and temperature are likely to be caused by limited haptophyte algae growth due to low salinity and light limitation imposed by the Amazon Plume. Our study confirms the applicability of δDLipid as a salinity proxy in oceanic environments. But it raises a note of caution concerning regions where low alkenone production can be expected due to low salinity and light limitation, for instance, under strong riverine discharge.

  18. Properly choose mechanical agitators for viscous liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Bakker, A.; Gates, L.E.

    1995-12-01

    High-viscosity mixing applications occur in most chemical process industries (CPI) plants. High-viscosity applications occur in the production of food, paint, drilling mud, and greases, to name a few. Mixing can occur in pipeline systems with motionless mixers, or in vessels using mechanical agitators, depending on the application and the process requirements. A wide variety of both motionless mixers and mechanical agitators is available to handle specific mixing problems and fluid types. This article gives an overview of designing the most commonly used agitator for blending applications: a top-entering agitator with a single shaft. The agitator can be equipped with multiple turbine-style impellers of different design, or with helical-ribbon or anchor-style impellers to optimize the agitator for the specific application and blending problem on hand. Although turbulent blending will be briefly discussed here also, this article will focus on blending in the laminar and transitional regimes. Also, the authors will discuss the special requirements for blending non-newtonian fluids, with and without yield stress. They first discuss the flow patterns and applicability of different impeller types and then present some design guidelines.

  19. Making species salinity sensitivity distributions reflective of naturally occurring communities: using rapid testing and Bayesian statistics.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Graeme L; Kefford, Ben J; Dunlop, Jason E; Craig, Peter S

    2008-11-01

    Species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) may accurately predict the proportion of species in a community that are at hazard from environmental contaminants only if they contain sensitivity data from a large sample of species representative of the mix of species present in the locality or habitat of interest. With current widely accepted ecotoxicological methods, however, this rarely occurs. Two recent suggestions address this problem. First, use rapid toxicity tests, which are less rigorous than conventional tests, to approximate experimentally the sensitivity of many species quickly and in approximate proportion to naturally occurring communities. Second, use expert judgements regarding the sensitivity of higher taxonomic groups (e.g., orders) and Bayesian statistical methods to construct SSDs that reflect the richness (or perceived importance) of these groups. Here, we describe and analyze several models from a Bayesian perspective to construct SSDs from data derived using rapid toxicity testing, combining both rapid test data and expert opinion. We compare these new models with two frequentist approaches, Kaplan-Meier and a log-normal distribution, using a large data set on the salinity sensitivity of freshwater macroinvertebrates from Victoria (Australia). The frequentist log-normal analysis produced a SSD that overestimated the hazard to species relative to the Kaplan-Meier and Bayesian analyses. Of the Bayesian analyses investigated, the introduction of a weighting factor to account for the richness (or importance) of taxonomic groups influenced the calculated hazard to species. Furthermore, Bayesian methods allowed us to determine credible intervals representing SSD uncertainty. We recommend that rapid tests, expert judgements, and novel Bayesian statistical methods be used so that SSDs reflect communities of organisms found in nature.

  20. Tests for injecting, storing, and recovering freshwater in a saline artesian aquifer, Lee County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    An investigation was made of the suitability of a saline, artesian limestone aquifer for the injection, storage, and recovery of freshwater from the Caloosahatchee River. The tests were conducted on a well tapping a leaky artesian system that has a transmissivity of 800 square feet per day, a storage of 1 x 10-4, and a leakance of 0.01 per day. The specific capacity of the injection well was increased through acidizing and was decreased as a result of well clogging during injection. Three injection tests were made wherein the amounts of freshwater injected, the storage duration, and the quality of water injected varied. Analysis of the test data showed that freshwater recoverability ranged from 9.7 to 38.7 percent of the total injected. Differences were attributed principally to differences in the quality of water injected and storage duration. Repeated injection-recovery cycles probably would result in greater recoverability. Head buildup, nearly 200 feet in one test, was a prime problem related chiefly to clogging from suspended material in the injected water and to bacterial growth at the wellbore-limestone interface. Regular backflushing was required. Total head buildup decreased as a result of acidizing the injection well. No coliforms or fecal streptococcus were noted in the recovered water. Growth of anaerobic bacteria occurred. Changes in the quality of the recovered water included decreases in concentration of dissolved organic carbon by as much as 15 mg/L (milligrams per liter), organic nitrogen by as much as 0.80 mg/L, and nitrate by as much as 0.50 mg/L. Increases were noted in ammonia by 0.40 mg/L, and iron by as much as 0.60 mg/L. These changes are consistent with the presence of an anaerobic bacterial ecosystem.

  1. Microbial Ecology in Anaerobic Digestion at Agitated and Non-Agitated Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Zhuoli; Cabrol, Léa; Ruiz-Filippi, Gonzalo; Pullammanappallil, Pratap

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the distribution and dynamics of microbial community in anaerobic digestion at agitated and non-agitated condition, 454 pyrosequencing of 16s rRNA was conducted. It revealed the distinct community compositions between the two digesters and their progressive shifting over time. Methanogens and syntrophic bacteria were found much less abundant in the agitated digester, which was mainly attributed to the presence of bacterial genera Acetanaerobacterium and Ruminococcus with relatively high abundance. The characterization of the microbial community corroborated the digestion performance affected at the agitated condition, where lower methane yield and delayed methane production rate were observed. This was further verified by the accumulation of propionic acid in the agitated digester. PMID:25313520

  2. Effects of ultrasonic agitation on adhesion strength of micro electroforming Ni layer on Cu substrate.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhong; Du, Liqun; Xu, Zheng; Shao, Ligeng

    2016-03-01

    Micro electroforming is an important technology, which is widely used for fabricating micro metal devices in MEMS. The micro metal devices have the problem of poor adhesion strength, which has dramatically influenced the dimensional accuracy of the devices and seriously limited the development of the micro electroforming technology. In order to improve the adhesion strength, ultrasonic agitation method is applied during the micro electroforming process in this paper. To explore the effect of the ultrasonic agitation, micro electroforming experiments were carried out under ultrasonic and ultrasonic-free conditions. The effects of the ultrasonic agitation on the micro electroforming process were investigated by polarization and alternating current (a.c.) impedance methods. The real surface area of the electroforming layer was measured by cyclic voltammetry method. The compressive stress and the crystallite size of the electroforming layer were measured by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) method. The adhesion strength of the electroforming layer was measured by scratch test. The experimental results show that the imposition of the ultrasonic agitation decreases the polarization overpotential and increases the charge transfer process at the electrode-electrolyte interface during the electroforming process. The ultrasonic agitation increases the crystallite size and the real surface area, and reduces the compressive stress. Then the adhesion strength is improved about 47% by the ultrasonic agitation in average. In addition, mechanisms of the ultrasonic agitation improving the adhesion strength are originally explored in this paper. The mechanisms are that the ultrasonic agitation increases the crystallite size, which reduces the compressive stress. The lower the compressive stress is, the larger the adhesion strength is. Furthermore, the ultrasonic agitation increases the real surface area, enhances the mechanical interlocking strength and consequently increases the adhesion

  3. Coal storage hopper with vibrating screen agitator

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, C.S.; Lackey, M.E.; Sy, R.L.

    1984-09-11

    The present invention is directed to a vibrating screen agitator in a coal storage hopper for assuring the uniform feed of coal having sufficient moisture content to effect agglomeration and bridging thereof in the coal hopper from the latter onto a conveyor mechanism. The vibrating screen agitator is provided by a plurality of transversely oriented and vertically spaced apart screens in the storage hopper with a plurality of vertically oriented rods attached to the screens. The rods are vibrated to effect the vibration of the screens and the breaking up of agglomerates in the coal which might impede the uniform flow of the coal from the hopper onto a conveyer.

  4. Coal storage hopper with vibrating screen agitator

    DOEpatents

    Daw, Charles S.; Lackey, Mack E.; Sy, Ronald L.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a vibrating screen agitator in a coal storage hopper for assuring the uniform feed of coal having sufficient moisture content to effect agglomeration and bridging thereof in the coal hopper from the latter onto a conveyor mechanism. The vibrating screen agitator is provided by a plurality of transversely oriented and vertically spaced apart screens in the storage hopper with a plurality of vertically oriented rods attached to the screens. The rods are vibrated to effect the vibration of the screens and the breaking up of agglomerates in the coal which might impede the uniform flow of the coal from the hopper onto a conveyer.

  5. A meta-analytic review of the association between agitation and suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Megan L; Ringer, Fallon B; Joiner, Thomas E

    2016-08-01

    Agitation has been implicated as an acute risk factor for suicidal behavior, yet the literature to date has not been consolidated to better understand this relationship. We conducted a meta-analysis of the association between agitation and suicidal behavior to synthesize the existing literature (k=13 studies) and point out future directions for research. Results indicated that the association between agitation and suicidal behavior is moderate (Hedge's g=0.40, p=0.007, 95% CI [0.08, 0.72]). Follow-up meta-regressions revealed that age, gender, and year of publication were not significant moderators of the magnitude of this relationship. However, there was evidence of publication bias, as shown by a funnel plot and Egger's test. These findings suggest the importance of future research that examines the nature of the association between agitation and suicidal behavior longitudinally and with novel research designs, as implications for clinical practice and suicide risk assessment may be substantial.

  6. An Agitation Experiment with Multiple Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Jordan L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a multifaceted agitation and mixing experiment. The relatively inexpensive apparatus includes a variable-speed stirrer motor, two polycarbonate tanks, and an instrumented torque table. Students measure torque as a function of stirrer speed, and use conductive tracer data to estimate two parameters of a flow model. The effect…

  7. Salinization and Saline Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vengosh, A.

    2003-12-01

    One of the most conspicuous phenomena of water-quality degradation, particularly in arid and semi-arid zones, is salinization of water and soil resources. Salinization is a long-term phenomenon, and during the last century many aquifers and river basins have become unsuitable for human consumption owing to high levels of salinity. Future exploitation of thousands of wells in the Middle East and in many other water-scarce regions in the world depends, to a large extent, on the degree and rate of salinization. Moreover, every year a large fraction of agricultural land is salinized and becomes unusable.Salinization is a global environmental phenomenon that affects many different aspects of our life (Williams, 2001a, b): changing the chemical composition of natural water resources (lakes, rivers, and groundwater), degrading the quality of water supply to the domestic and agriculture sectors, contribution to loss of biodiversity, taxonomic replacement by halotolerant species ( Williams, 2001a, b), loss of fertile soil, collapse of agricultural and fishery industries, changing of local climatic conditions, and creating severe health problems (e.g., the Aral Basin). The damage due to salinity in the Colorado River Basin alone, for example, ranges between 500 and 750 million per year and could exceed 1 billion per year if the salinity in the Imperial Dam increases from 700 mg L-1 to 900 mg L-1 (Bureau of Reclamation, 2003, USA). In Australia, accelerating soil salinization has become a massive environmental and economic disaster. Western Australia is "losing an area equal to one football oval an hour" due to spreading salinity ( Murphy, 1999). The annual cost for dryland salinity in Australia is estimated as AU700 million for lost land and AU$130 million for lost production ( Williams et al., 2002). In short, the salinization process has become pervasive.Salinity in water is usually defined by the chloride content (mg L-1) or total dissolved solids content (TDS, mg L-1or g

  8. Improved understanding and testing for salinity tolerance in cool-season turfgrasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water is a critical issue for sustainability of golf courses in urban areas. Rapid population growth and climate change have increased the necesssity for golf courses to be efficient users of water, and sometimes users of low quality, high salinity water. Our research has focused on determining wh...

  9. Caring for relatives with agitation at home: a qualitative study of positive coping strategies

    PubMed Central

    Jesnick, Leah; Turner, Rebecca; Leavey, Gerard; Livingston, Gill

    2017-01-01

    Background Trials of psychological interventions for reducing agitation in people with dementia living at home have been unsuccessful. Aims To inform future interventions by identifying successful strategies of family carers with relatives with dementia and agitation living at home. Method Qualitative in-depth individual interviews were performed with 18 family carers. We used thematic analysis to identify emerging themes. Results Carers described initial surprise and then acceptance that agitation is a dementia symptom and learned to respond flexibly. Their strategies encompassed: prevention of agitation by familiar routine; reduction of agitation by addressing underlying causes and using distraction; prevention of escalation by risk enablement, not arguing; and control of their emotional responses by ensuring their relative’s safety then walking away, carving out some time for themselves and using family and services for emotional and practical help. Conclusions These strategies can be manualised and tested in future randomised controlled trials for clinical effectiveness in reducing agitation in people with dementia living at home. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:28243464

  10. 82. VIEW OF AGITATORS FROM EAST. DRIVE AND STRUCTURAL SUPPORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    82. VIEW OF AGITATORS FROM EAST. DRIVE AND STRUCTURAL SUPPORT OF AGITATOR No. 1 IN FOREGROUND. HORIZONTAL AIR LINE PARALLELS AGITATORS IN RIGHT HALF OF VIEW. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  11. 83. AGITATORS No. 2, No. 3, AND No. 4 FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    83. AGITATORS No. 2, No. 3, AND No. 4 FROM EAST. AIR SUPPLY RUNS THROUGH BENT BRACES ON RIGHT. NOTE AGITATOR RAKE LEANING AGAINST RETAINING WALL BETWEEN AGITATOR No. 2 AND No. 3. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  12. Advanced impeller geometry boosts liquid agitation

    SciTech Connect

    Fasano, J.B.; Bakker, A.; Penney, W.R. )

    1994-08-01

    A traditional agitator impeller often functions as a rather inefficient pump because of the way it produces fluid motion and pressure head. However, one can improve the amount of flow or shear generated by an impeller at constant power consumption and torque by changing its design. For example, a high-efficiency, axial-flow impeller produces more fluid motion per unit of power at constant torque than an otherwise similar pitched-blade turbine. The more-vigorous fluid motion cuts blend time and enhances heat-transfer in various flow-controlled mixing operations, such as blending of miscible fluids. For most applications, a higher degree of agitation intensity can be achieved on the same machine by substituting a high-efficiency impeller for a conventional pitched-blade unit. The high-efficiency impeller features a larger geometric pitch angle (30--60 deg) at the hub than at the tip (10--30 deg). Results from recently conducted controlled experiments indicate the beneficial effects of the high-efficiency impeller on blend time and heat-transfer coefficients in liquid-liquid mixing as well as solids suspension. This articles focuses on liquid agitation, with discussions of solids suspension set aside for a forthcoming piece in this series of articles on mixing.

  13. Is bacteriostatic saline superior to normal saline as an echocardiographic contrast agent?

    PubMed

    Cardozo, Shaun; Gunasekaran, Prasad; Patel, Hena; McGorisk, Timothy; Toosi, Mehrdad; Faraz, Haroon; Zalawadiya, Sandip; Alesh, Issa; Kottam, Anupama; Afonso, Luis

    2014-12-01

    Objective data on the performance characteristics and physical properties of commercially available saline formulations [normal saline (NS) vs. bacteriostatic normal saline (bNS)] are sparse. This study sought to compare the in vitro physical properties and in vivo characteristics of two commonly employed echocardiographic saline contrast agents in an attempt to assess superiority. Nineteen patients undergoing transesophageal echocardiograms were each administered agitated regular NS and bNS injections in random order and in a blinded manner according to a standardized protocol. Video time-intensity (TI) curves were constructed from a representative region of interest, placed paraseptally within the right atrium, in the bicaval view. TI curves were analyzed for maximal plateau acoustic intensity (Vmax, dB) and dwell time (DT, s), defined as time duration between onset of Vmax and decay of video intensity below clinically useful levels, reflecting the duration of homogenous opacification of the right atrium. To further characterize the physical properties of the bubbles in vitro, fixed aliquots of similarly agitated saline were injected into a glass well slide-cover slip assembly and examined using an optical microscope to determine bubble diameter in microns (µm) and concentration [bubble count/high power field (hpf)]. A higher acoustic intensity (a less negative dB level), higher bubble concentration and longer DT were considered properties of a superior contrast agent. For statistical analysis, a paired t test was conducted to evaluate the differences in means of Vmax and DT. Compared to NS, bNS administration was associated with superior opacification (video intensity -8.69 ± 4.7 vs. -10.46 ± 4.1 dB, P = 0.002), longer DT (17.3 ± 6.1 vs. 10.2 ± 3.7 s) in vivo and smaller mean bubble size (43.4 vs. 58.6 μm) and higher bubble concentration (1,002 vs. 298 bubble/hpf) in vitro. bNS provides higher intensity and more sustained opacification of the right atrium

  14. Fuel agitating device for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Scouten, D.G.

    1992-09-22

    This patent describes an agitator for fuel being conducted to an internal combustion engine. It comprises: a casing, a chamber within the casing between the fuel inlet conduit and the fuel outlet conduit, flow divider means in the chamber for dividing the chamber into a plurality of fuel flow paths on opposite sides thereof, an inner wall in the casing defining the exit portion, flange means in the casing within the chamber and spaced radially inwardly from the inner wall, and conduit means within the flange means for conducting fuel to the outlet conduit.

  15. Multicomponent leach tests in Standard Canadian Shield Saline Solution on glasses containing simulated nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Heimann, R.B.; Wood, D.D.; Hamon, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Leaching experiments on borosilicate glass frit and simulated nuclear waste glasses were performed as a preliminary to leaching experiments on glasses incorporating radioactive waste. The experimental design included (1) simulated waste glass, (2) ASTM Grade-2 titanium container material, (3) clay buffer material, (4) Standard Canadian Shield Saline Solution, and (5) granitic rock. Cumulative fractions of release for boron were determined, as well as the solution concentrations of silicon, iron, strontium and cesium. The leach rates for boron after 28 d were approximately 5 x 10/sup -6/ kg x m/sup -2/ x s/sup -1/ in Hastelloy vessels. There is an apparently strong relationship between the clay/groundwater ratio, the concentration of iron in the solution, and the concentrations of silicon, strontium, and cesium.

  16. Spontaneous knotting of an agitated string.

    PubMed

    Raymer, Dorian M; Smith, Douglas E

    2007-10-16

    It is well known that a jostled string tends to become knotted; yet the factors governing the "spontaneous" formation of various knots are unclear. We performed experiments in which a string was tumbled inside a box and found that complex knots often form within seconds. We used mathematical knot theory to analyze the knots. Above a critical string length, the probability P of knotting at first increased sharply with length but then saturated below 100%. This behavior differs from that of mathematical self-avoiding random walks, where P has been proven to approach 100%. Finite agitation time and jamming of the string due to its stiffness result in lower probability, but P approaches 100% with long, flexible strings. We analyzed the knots by calculating their Jones polynomials via computer analysis of digital photos of the string. Remarkably, almost all were identified as prime knots: 120 different types, having minimum crossing numbers up to 11, were observed in 3,415 trials. All prime knots with up to seven crossings were observed. The relative probability of forming a knot decreased exponentially with minimum crossing number and Möbius energy, mathematical measures of knot complexity. Based on the observation that long, stiff strings tend to form a coiled structure when confined, we propose a simple model to describe the knot formation based on random "braid moves" of the string end. Our model can qualitatively account for the observed distribution of knots and dependence on agitation time and string length.

  17. Finite element analysis of vessel nozzle for agitator supports

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, D.M.

    1996-12-01

    There are many industrial applications involving agitators/mixers supported by a vessel head and nozzle. The flow-induced agitator loads are often neglected or only partially considered in the vessel design stage. Inadequate supports reduce agitator drive operating life and in most cases promote vibration problems leading to fatigue failures. The vessel head and nozzle should be stiff enough to withstand the induced agitator loads. Some of the more significant design criteria are: (1) nozzle and head stiffness should be at least 1 million lb/in; (2) agitator shaft deflection should not be more than 1/32 inch per foot of shaft extension; (3) agitator support plane should not rotate more than 0.15 degree. This paper deals with a parametric finite element study of three tank sizes (4 ft., 8 ft. and 12 ft. diameter) to verify the validity and ease of compliance of these criteria in vessel design.

  18. Effect of agitation on removal of acetic acid from pretreated hydrolysate by activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Priddy, Sarah A; Hanley, Thomas R

    2003-01-01

    The effect of agitation on the adsorption of acetic acid by activated carbon was tested utilizing an external mass transfer-diffusion model. Simulated pretreated biomass was contacted with activated carbon under prescribed conditions of temperature and agitation. Adsorption isotherm studies are presented as well as batch kinetic rate studies. Use of these data enabled the determination of isotherm constants, an external mass transfer coefficient, and an effective diffusivity for each agitation rate studied. The external film coefficient results ranged from 33.62 microm/s to a complete absence of external mass transfer resistance, and the diffusivity results ranged from 0.8625 to 10.70 microm(2)/s. The optimum combination of no external film resistance, and highest diffusivity, 10.70 microm(2)/s, occurred at 250 rpm and 25 degrees C. The results of these models and the experimental parameters suggested an efficacious method and conditions for the removal of this undesirable chemical.

  19. The influence of turbulence on aggregation of small particles in agitated vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusters, Karel Antonius

    The influence of the hydrodynamics in baffled turbine agitated vessels on the turbulent coagulation of small solid particles is studied, with focus on the dependence of the aggregate size on stirrer speed, concentration of solids, destabilizer concentration, and vessel size. The following studies are presented: aggregation theory; hydrodynamics in stirred tanks; numerical particle tracking in a turbine agitated vessel; aggregation kinetics in stirred tanks; and maximum aggregate size in stirred tanks. The application of the model to describe the aggregation process in strirred tanks to experimental conditions other than those tested and to particulate systems with different physical properties is discussed.

  20. Indicators: Salinity

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Salinity is the dissolved salt content of a body of water. Excess salinity, due to evaporation, water withdrawal, wastewater discharge, and other sources, is a chemical sterssor that can be toxic for aquatic environments.

  1. Modelling gas exchange during platelet storage without agitation.

    PubMed

    Torres, R; Tormey, C A

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to create a model of oxygen distribution within platelet storage bags to evaluate implications of reduced agitation approaches. Based on our model, platelet concentration and surface area most affect internal partial pressure of oxygen, while temperature modifications have least effect, indicating primary potential approaches for optimization of platelet storage with reduced or absent agitation.

  2. Effect of Preferred Music on Agitation After Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Park, Soohyun; Williams, Reg Arthur; Lee, Donghyun

    2016-04-01

    Agitation is a common behavioral problem after traumatic brain injury (TBI), which threatens the safety of patients and caregivers and disrupts the rehabilitation process. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a preferred music intervention on the reduction of agitation in TBI patients and to compare the effects of preferred music with those of classical "relaxation" music. A single group, within-subjects, randomized crossover trial design was formed, consisting of 14 agitated patients with cognitive impairment after severe TBI. Patients listened to preferred music and classical "relaxation" music, with a wash-out period in between. Patients listening to the preferred music reported a significantly greater reduction in agitation compared with the effect seen during the classical "relaxation" music intervention (p = .046). These findings provide preliminary evidence that the preferred music intervention may be effective as an environmental therapeutic approach for reducing agitation after TBI.

  3. Effects of Tween 80 on cellulase stability under agitated conditions.

    PubMed

    Okino, Shohei; Ikeo, Makoto; Ueno, Yoshiki; Taneda, Daisuke

    2013-08-01

    The mechanism of the increase in the hydrolysis rate and yield by the addition of Tween 80 to the hydrolysis reaction of filter paper was investigated under static and agitated conditions. The increase in the hydrolysis rate by addition of Tween 80 was observed under the agitated condition only. The effects of Tween 80 on the changes in the protein concentration of individual cellulase components were investigated in the absence of substrates. Agitation of the enzyme solution resulted in the drastic decrease of SDS-PAGE bands intensity of CBH2 (cellobiohydrolase 2). The addition of Tween 80 prevented this. Thus, the Tween 80 functions to stabilize instable cellulase components under the agitated condition. Moreover, addition of Tween 80 completely suppressed the decrease of CBH2 intensity by agitation at 30°C. Results suggest that Tween 80 stabilizes instable cellulase components not only during hydrolysis, but during enzyme production also.

  4. Preliminary data from Arbuckle test wells, Miami, Douglas, Saline, and Labette counties, Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gogel, Tony

    1981-01-01

    Formation data from drill-stem tests are presented for use in calculating transmissivity, hydraulic conductivity, and hydraulic head. Complete analyses of water samples from wells at sites 2, 3, and 4, and a partial analysis at site 1, are presented to indicate water quality in the aquifers.

  5. Dexmedetomidine Injection during Strabismus Surgery Reduces Emergence Agitation without Increasing the Oculocardiac Reflex in Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ah-Young; Baik, Ji-Seok; Kim, Jin Hee; Hwang, Jung- Won; Jeon, Young-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Objective Dexmedetomidine is known to reduce the incidence of emergence agitation, which is a common complication after inhalational anesthesia like sevoflurane or desflurane in children. However, the dose of dexmedetomidine used for this purpose is reported variously and the most effective dose is not known. In this study, we tried to find the most effective dose of dexmedetomidine to reduce the incidence of emergence agitation in children undergoing strabismus surgery without the complications like oculocardiac reflex (OCR) or postoperative vomiting. Methods We randomized 103 pediatric patients aged 2–6 years and undergoing elective strabismus surgery into four groups. Anesthesia was induced with sevoflurane and maintained with desflurane. At the start of induction, dexmedetomidine, delivered at 0.25, 0.5, or 1 μg/kg, or saline was infused intravenously in the D0.25, D0.5, D1 groups, respectively. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of emergence agitation and the secondary outcome measure was the incidence of intraoperative OCR, postoperative vomiting, and desaturation events. Results The incidence of emergence agitation was 60, 48, 44, and 21% (P = 0.005) and the incidence of intraoperative OCR was 36, 36, 36, and 37% (P = 0.988) in the control, D0.25, D0.5, and D1 groups, respectively. And, postoperative vomiting rate and desaturation events were low in the all groups. Conclusion Dexmedetomidine decreased the incidence of emergence agitation without increasing intraoperative oculocardiac reflex. Dexmedetomidine delivered at 1 μg/kg was more effective at reducing emergence agitation than lower doses in children undergoing strabismus surgery under desflurane anesthesia. Trial Registration Clinical Research Information Service KCT0000141 PMID:27617832

  6. Agitated Honeybees Exhibit Pessimistic Cognitive Biases

    PubMed Central

    Bateson, Melissa; Desire, Suzanne; Gartside, Sarah E.; Wright, Geraldine A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Whether animals experience human-like emotions is controversial and of immense societal concern [1–3]. Because animals cannot provide subjective reports of how they feel, emotional state can only be inferred using physiological, cognitive, and behavioral measures [4–8]. In humans, negative feelings are reliably correlated with pessimistic cognitive biases, defined as the increased expectation of bad outcomes [9–11]. Recently, mammals [12–16] and birds [17–20] with poor welfare have also been found to display pessimistic-like decision making, but cognitive biases have not thus far been explored in invertebrates. Here, we ask whether honeybees display a pessimistic cognitive bias when they are subjected to an anxiety-like state induced by vigorous shaking designed to simulate a predatory attack. We show for the first time that agitated bees are more likely to classify ambiguous stimuli as predicting punishment. Shaken bees also have lower levels of hemolymph dopamine, octopamine, and serotonin. In demonstrating state-dependent modulation of categorization in bees, and thereby a cognitive component of emotion, we show that the bees' response to a negatively valenced event has more in common with that of vertebrates than previously thought. This finding reinforces the use of cognitive bias as a measure of negative emotional states across species and suggests that honeybees could be regarded as exhibiting emotions. Video Abstract PMID:21636277

  7. Nanocellulose Composite Materials Synthesizes with Ultrasonic Agitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidd, Timothy; Folken, Andrew; Fritch, Byron; Bradley, Derek

    We have extended current techniques in forming nanocellulose composite solids, suspensions and aerogels to enhance the breakdown of cellulose into its molecular components. Using only mechanical processing which includes ball milling, using a simple mortar and pestle, and ultrasonic agitation, we are able to create very low concentration uniform nanocellulose suspensions in water, as well as incorporate other materials such as graphite, carbon nanotubes, and magnetic materials. Of interest is that no chemical processing is necessary, nor is the use of nanoparticles, necessary for composite formation. Using both graphite and carbon nanotubes, we are able to achieve conducting nanocellulose solids and aerogels. Standard magnetic powder can also be incorporated to create magnetic solids. The technique also allows for the creation of an extremely fine nanocellulose suspension in water. Using extremely low concentrations, less than 1% cellulose by mass, along with careful control over processing parameters, we are able to achieve highly dilute, yet homogenous nanocellulose suspensions. When air dried, these suspensions have similar hardness and strength properties to those created with more typical starting cellulose concentrations (2-10%). However, when freeze-dried, these dilute suspensions form aerogels with a new morphology with much higher surface area than those with higher starting concentrations. We are currently examining the effect of this higher surface area on the properties of nanocellulose aerogel composites and how it influences the impact of incorporating nanocellulose into other polymer materials.

  8. 5-day storage of platelet concentrates in CLX containers: effect of type of agitation.

    PubMed

    Snyder, E L; Bookbinder, M; Kakaiya, R; Ferri, P; Kiraly, T

    1983-01-01

    To determine the degree of platelet damage produced by different modes of agitation during storage of concentrates for 5 days in CLX blood bags, we studied pH, platelet counts, release of LDH and beta thromboglobulin, morphology and osmotic recovery. Platelets were maintained at 20-24 degrees C on elliptical, 6-rpm circular, 2-rpm circular and flat bed agitators. At 72-120 h platelet concentrates stored on the flat bed shaker had significantly lower pH values than units stored on the elliptical or on either of the circular rotators (p less than 0.05). The percent LDH discharged was highest for the units stored on the elliptical rotator (p less than 0.05). Remaining tests of platelet function were not significantly different for concentrates stored on any of the four agitators. Flat bed shakers were unable to resuspend the platelet 'button' which formed after the final preparative centrifugation. Based on our in vitro studies, we conclude that due to problems with low pH values, flat bed shakers may not be optimal for storing platelet concentrates in CLX blood bags and that some other form of agitation should be used.

  9. Effect of agitation and storage temperature on water sorption and solubility of adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Argolo, Saryta; Mathias, Paula; Aguiar, Thaiane; Lima, Adriano; Santos, Sara; Foxton, Richard; Cavalcanti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of storage temperature and flask agitation on the water sorption (WS) and solubility (SL) of simplified adhesive systems. Seventy-two disc-shaped specimens were prepared according to the adhesive system (water/ethanol-based: Adper Single Bond 2; and water-based: One Coat Bond SL) and experimental conditions tested (mechanical agitation and storage temperature). Statistical analysis (3-way ANOVA, alpha=5%) found significantly greater WS and SL means for the water/ethanol-based system when compared to the water-based. Irrespective of factors studied, significant differences in WS and SL were noted between cold and room temperatures, with greater values been obtained at 1°C, and lower ones at 20°C. Agitation provided increased WS for both materials at all temperatures, but did not affect their SL. The mechanical agitation of the flask may negatively affect the dynamics of diffusion of simplified adhesive systems, even at extremely cold or warm temperatures.

  10. Risk factors for agitation in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Thiago Miranda Lopes; de Azevedo, Luciano Cesar Pontes; Nosé, Paulo Maurício Garcia; de Freitas, Flavio Geraldo Resende; Machado, Flávia Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the incidence of agitation in the first 7 days after intensive care unit admission, its risk factors and its associations with clinical outcomes. Methods This single-center prospective cohort study included all patients older than 18 years with a predicted stay > 48 hours within the first 24 hours of intensive care unit admission. Agitation was defined as a Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale score ≥ +2, an episode of agitation or the use of a specific medication recorded in patient charts. Results Agitation occurred in 31.8% of the 113 patients. Multivariate analysis showed that delirium [OR = 24.14; CI95% 5.15 - 113.14; p < 0.001], moderate or severe pain [OR = 5.74; CI95% 1.73 - 19.10; p = 0.004], mechanical ventilation [OR = 10.14; CI95% 2.93 - 35.10; p < 0.001], and smoking habits [OR = 4.49; CI95% 1.33 - 15.17; p = 0.015] were independent factors for agitation, while hyperlactatemia was associated with a lower risk [OR = 0.169; CI95% 0.04 - 0.77; p = 0.021]. Agitated patients had fewer mechanical ventilation-free days at day 7 (p = 0.003). Conclusion The incidence of agitation in the first 7 days after admission to the intensive care unit was high. Delirium, moderate/severe pain, mechanical ventilation, and smoking habits were independent risk factors. Agitated patients had fewer ventilator-free days in the first 7 days. PMID:28099638

  11. Enhancing the adhesion strength of micro electroforming layer by ultrasonic agitation method and the application.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhong; Du, Liqun; Tao, Yousheng; Li, Qingfeng; Luo, Lei

    2016-11-01

    Micro electroforming is widely used for fabricating micro metal devices in Micro Electro Mechanism System (MEMS). However, there is the problem of poor adhesion strength between micro electroforming layer and substrate. This dramatically influences the dimensional accuracy of the device. To solve this problem, ultrasonic agitation method is applied during the micro electroforming process. To explore the effect of the ultrasonic agitation on the adhesion strength, micro electroforming experiments were carried out under different ultrasonic power (0W, 100W, 150W, 200W, 250W) and different ultrasonic frequencies (0kHz, 40kHz, 80kHz, 120kHz, 200kHz). The effects of the ultrasonic power and the ultrasonic frequency on the micro electroforming process were investigated by polarization method and alternating current (a.c.) impedance method. The adhesion strength between the electroforming layer and the substrate was measured by scratch test. The compressive stress of the electroforming layer was measured by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) method. The crystallite size of the electroforming layer was measured by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) method. The internal contact surface area of the electroforming layer was measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV) method. The experimental results indicate that the ultrasonic agitation can decrease the polarization overpotential and increase the charge transfer process. Generally, the internal contact surface area is increased and the compressive stress is reduced. And then the adhesion strength is enhanced. Due to the different depolarization effects of the ultrasonic power and the ultrasonic frequency, the effects on strengthening the adhesion strength are different. When the ultrasonic agitation is 200W and 40kHz, the effect on strengthening the adhesion strength is the best. In order to prove the effect which the ultrasonic agitation can improve the adhesion strength of the micro devices, micro pillar arrays were fabricated under

  12. 91. VIEW OF PORTLAND FILTER VACUUM RECEIVER FROM NORTHWEST. AGITATORS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    91. VIEW OF PORTLAND FILTER VACUUM RECEIVER FROM NORTHWEST. AGITATORS No. 4 AND No. 5 VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  13. 84. AGITATORS No. 3, No. 4 AND No. 5 FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    84. AGITATORS No. 3, No. 4 AND No. 5 FROM SOUTHEAST. OLD PORTLAND FILTER FLOOR IS SEEN THROUGH FRAMING, LOWER RIGHT. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  14. Agitation in Dementia: Relation to Core Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarker Levels

    PubMed Central

    Bloniecki, Victor; Aarsland, Dag; Cummings, Jeffrey; Blennow, Kaj; Freund-Levi, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to examine the associations of agitation with the cerebrospinal fluid dementia biomarkers total-tau (T-tau), phosphorylated-tau (P-tau) and Aβ1-42. Methods One hundred patients (mean age ± SD, 78.6 ± 7.5 years) with dementia and neuropsychiatric symptoms, of whom 67% were female, were included. Agitation was measured using the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI; 46.5 ± 11.8 points). Results Total CMAI correlated with T-tau [rs (31) = 0.36, p = 0.04] and P-tau [rs (31) = 0.35, p = 0.05] in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 33) but not in the total dementia population (n = 95). Conclusions Our results suggest that tau-mediated pathology including neurofibrillary tangles and the intensity of the disease process might be associated with agitation in AD. PMID:25298777

  15. 6. VIEW OF BRINING TANK Older, redwood model. Paddles agitated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF BRINING TANK Older, redwood model. Paddles agitated the skins while they soaked in brine. The skins were then hung to dry. - Sealing Plant, St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, Saint George, Aleutians West Census Area, AK

  16. Hydrodynamic effects on cell growth in agitated microcarrier bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, Robert S.; Papoutsakis, E. Terry

    1988-01-01

    The net growth rate of bovine embryonic kidney cells in microcarrier bioreactor is the result of a variable death rate imposed on a cell culture trying to grow at a constant intrinsic growth rate. The death rate is a function of the agitation conditions in the system, and increases at higher agitation because of increasingly energetic interactions of the cell covered microcarriers with turbulent eddies in the fluid. At very low agitation rates bead-bead bridging becomes important; the large clumps formed by bridging can interact with larger eddies than single beads, leading to a higher death rate at low agitation. The growth and death rate were correlated with a dimensionless eddy number which compares eddy forces to the buoyant force on the bead.

  17. Agitator Mixing Analysis in a HB-Line Flat Tank

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.

    2002-07-31

    In support of the HB-Line Engineering agitator mixing project, flow pattern calculations have been made for a 45 degrees pitched three-blade agitator submerged in a flat rectangular tank. The work is intended to determine agitator speeds that provide acceptable mixing performance for various tank liquid levels based on flow rates past solids deposited on the bottom surface of the flat tank. The modeling results will help ensure the acceptable suspension of solid particles as a function of agitator speed and tank liquid level during precipitation operations. The numerical modeling and calculations have been performed using a computational fluid dynamics approach. Three-dimensional steady-state momentum and continuity equations were used as the basic equations to estimate fluid motion driven by an agitator with three 45 degrees pitched blades. Hydraulic conditions were fully turbulent (Reynolds number about 2x104). A standard two-equation turbulence model (k-e), was used to capture turbulent eddy motion. The commercial finite volume code, Fluent [7], was used to create a prototypic geometry file with a non-orthogonal mesh. Hybrid meshing was used to fill the computational region between the round-edged tank bottom and agitator regions. At high rotational speeds and low tank levels, a surface vortex can reach the agitator blades and allow air to be drawn into the solid-fluid mixing zone. This is not desirable in terms of mixing performance. The analysis results show that the lowest liquid level among the four considered, 4.5 inches, is higher than the critical liquid height for air entrainment for agitator speeds up to 600 rpm. All the analysis results demonstrate that about 600 rpm provides adequate solids mixing capability for various tank levels (12, 8.5, 7, and 4.5 inches) containing 20-micron solids with a specific gravity of 2.5.

  18. Salinity Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Walter R.

    1987-01-01

    Discussed are the costs of deriving energy from the earth's natural reserves of salt. Argues that, as fossil fuel supplies become more depleted in the future, the environmental advantages of salinity power may prove to warrant its exploitation. (TW)

  19. Micro acoustic resonant chambers for heating/agitating/mixing (MARCHAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Noell, Aaron C.; Fisher, Anita M.; Takano, Nobuyuki; Grunthaner, Frank

    2016-04-01

    A variety of applications require the mixing and/or heating of a slurry made from a powder/fluid mixture. One of these applications, Sub Critical Water Extraction (SCWE), is a process where water and an environmental powder sample (sieved soil, drill cuttings, etc.) are heated in a sealed chamber to temperatures greater than 200 degrees Celsius by allowing the pressure to increase, but without reaching the critical point of water. At these temperatures, the ability of water to extract organics from solid particulate increases drastically. This paper describes the modeling and experimentation on the use of an acoustic resonant chamber which is part of an amino acid detection instrument called Astrobionibbler [Noell et al. 2014, 2015]. In this instrument we use acoustics to excite a fluid- solid fines mixture in different frequency/amplitude regimes to accomplish a variety of sample processing tasks. Driving the acoustic resonant chamber at lower frequencies can create circulation patterns in the fluid and mixes the liquid and fines, while driving the chamber at higher frequencies one can agitate the fluid and powder and create a suspension. If one then drives the chamber at high amplitude at resonance heating of the slurry occurs. In the mixing and agitating cell the particle levitation force depends on the relative densities and compressibility's of the particulate and fluid and on the kinetic and potential energy densities associated with the velocity and pressure fields [Glynne-Jones, Boltryk and Hill 2012] in the cell. When heating, the piezoelectric transducer and chamber is driven at high power in resonance where the solid/fines region is modelled as an acoustic transmission line with a large loss component. In this regime, heat is pumped into the solution/fines mixture and rapidly heats the sample. We have modeled the piezoelectric transducer/chamber/ sample using Mason's equivalent circuit. In order to assess the validity of the model we have built and

  20. Dispersal of Aspergillus fumigatus from Sewage Sludge Compost Piles Subjected to Mechanical Agitation in Open Air

    PubMed Central

    Millner, Patricia D.; Bassett, David A.; Marsh, Paul B.

    1980-01-01

    Aerosolization of the thermophilous fungal opportunist Aspergillus fumigatus from mechanically agitated compost piles was examined at a pilot-scale sewage sludge composting facility and two other selected test sites. Aerosols of A. fumigatus downwind from stationary compost piles were insignificant in comparison with those downwind from agitated piles. These aerosols were generated by a front-end loader moving and dropping compost. Aerial concentrations of the fungus at distances downwind from the point of emission were used to determine an emission rate for A. fumigatus associated with the moving operations. The maximum emission rate, 4.6 × 106A. fumigatus particles per s, was used to calculate predicted concentrations in an unobstructed plume with restrictive, neutral, and dispersive atmospheric mixing conditions up to 1 km downwind from the emission source. PMID:16345563

  1. Coal storage hopper with vibrating-screen agitator

    DOEpatents

    Daw, C.S.; Lackey, M.E.; Sy, R.L.

    1982-04-27

    The present invention is directed to a vibrating screen agitator in a coal storage hopper for assuring the uniform feed of coal having sufficient moisture content to effect agglomeration and bridging thereof in the coal hopper from the latter onto a conveyer mechanism. The vibrating scrren agitator is provided by a plurality of transversely oriented and vertically spaced apart screens in the storage hopper with a plurality of vertically oriented rods attached to the screens. The rods are vibrated to effect the vibration of the screens and the breaking up of agglomerates in the coal which might impede the uniform flow of the coal from the hopper onto a conveyer.

  2. Effects of individualized versus classical "relaxation" music on the frequency of agitation in elderly persons with Alzheimer's disease and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Gerdner, L A

    2000-03-01

    Confusion and agitation in elderly patients are crucial problems. This study tested Gerdner's mid-range theory of individualized music intervention for agitation. An experimental repeated measures pretest-posttest crossover design compared the immediate and residual effects of individualized music to classical "relaxation" music relative to baseline on the frequency of agitated behaviors in elderly persons with Alzheimer's disease and related disorders (ADRD). Thirty-nine subjects were recruited from six long-term-care facilities in Iowa. The sample consisted of 30 women and 9 men (mean age 82 years) with severe cognitive impairment. Baseline data were collected for 3 weeks. Findings from the Modified Hartsock Music Preference Questionnaire guided the selection of individualized music. Group A (n = 16) received individualized music for 6 weeks followed by a 2-week "washout" period and 6 weeks of classical "relaxation" music. Group B (n = 23) received the same protocol but in reverse order. Music interventions were presented for 30 minutes, two times per week. The Modified Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory measured the dependent variable. A repeated measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc test showed a significant reduction in agitation during and following individualized music compared to classical music. This study expands science by testing and supporting a theoretically based intervention for agitation in persons with ADRD.

  3. 1064-nm Nd:YAG and 980-nm Diode Laser EDTA Agitation on the Retention of an Epoxy-Based Sealer to Root Dentin.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Helena Suleiman de; Messias, Danielle Cristine Furtado; Rached-Júnior, Fuad Jacob; Oliveira, Ligia Teixeira de; Silva-Sousa, Yara Teresinha Correa; Raucci-Neto, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Root canal irrigants are used to minimize the negative effects of smear layer on endodontic sealer retention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of agitation of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) with ultrasonic, 1064-nm Nd:YAG and 980-nm diode laser on the retention of an epoxy-based sealer to the root canal walls. Forty single-rooted bovine teeth were instrumented with ProTaper rotary system and divided into four groups according to the final irrigation protocol (n = 10): (1) 17% EDTA (control); (2) 17% EDTA with 50-s ultrasonic agitation; (3) 17% EDTA with 50-s diode laser (2-W) agitation; and (4) 17% EDTA with 50-s Nd:YAG (1.5-W) laser agitation. After endodontic filling with gutta-percha F5 master cone and Sealer 26, the roots were sectioned at the cervical, middle, and apical root thirds to obtain 1.5-mm slices. Push-out tests were performed using a universal testing machine at a 1 mm/min crosshead speed. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α=0.05). Apical root thirds had significant higher retention values than cervical and middle thirds (p < 0.05). EDTA with 1064-nm Nd:YAG or 980-nm diode laser presented the highest retention values and was significantly different from EDTA with ultrasonic agitation and EDTA only (p < 0.05). Adhesive failures were predominant to EDTA only group. Mixed failures were predominant to all agitation groups. 1064-nm Nd:YAG and 980-nm diode laser EDTA agitation enhanced the retention of the epoxy-based sealer to the root canal walls compared with that due to EDTA only or EDTA with ultrasonic agitation.

  4. Efficacy of Memantine for Agitation in Alzheimer’s Dementia: A Randomised Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Chris; Crugel, Monica; Maidment, Ian; Auestad, Bjorn Henrik; Coulton, Simon; Treloar, Adrian; Ballard, Clive; Boustani, Malaz; Katona, Cornelius; Livingston, Gill

    2012-01-01

    Background Agitation in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is common and associated with poor patient life-quality and carer distress. The best evidence-based pharmacological treatments are antipsychotics which have limited benefits with increased morbidity and mortality. There are no memantine trials in clinically significant agitation but post-hoc analyses in other populations found reduced agitation. We tested the primary hypothesis, memantine is superior to placebo for clinically significant agitation, in patients with moderate-to-severe AD. Methods and Findings We recruited 153 participants with AD and clinically significant agitation from care-homes or hospitals for a double-blind randomised-controlled trial and 149 people started the trial of memantine versus placebo. The primary outcome was 6 weeks mixed model autoregressive analysis of Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI). Secondary outcomes were: 12 weeks CMAI; 6 and 12 weeks Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPI), Clinical Global Impression Change (CGI-C), Standardised Mini Mental State Examination, Severe Impairment Battery. Using a mixed effects model we found no significant differences in the primary outcome, 6 weeks CMAI, between memantine and placebo (memantine lower −3.0; −8.3 to 2.2, p = 0.26); or 12 weeks CMAI; or CGI-C or adverse events at 6 or 12 weeks. NPI mean difference favoured memantine at weeks 6 (−6.9; −12.2 to −1.6; p = 0.012) and 12 (−9.6; −15.0 to −4.3 p = 0.0005). Memantine was significantly better than placebo for cognition. The main study limitation is that it still remains to be determined whether memantine has a role in milder agitation in AD. Conclusions Memantine did not improve significant agitation in people with in moderate-to-severe AD. Future studies are urgently needed to test other pharmacological candidates in this group and memantine for neuropsychiatric symptoms. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00371059 Trial Registration International

  5. Electroless deposition of nickel-boron coatings using low frequency ultrasonic agitation: Effect of ultrasonic frequency on the coatings.

    PubMed

    Bonin, L; Bains, N; Vitry, V; Cobley, A J

    2017-01-30

    The effect of ultrasound on the properties of Nickel-Boron (NiB) coatings was investigated. NiB coatings were fabricated by electroless deposition using either ultrasonic or mechanical agitation. The deposition of Ni occurred in an aqueous bath containing a reducible metal salt (nickel chloride), reducing agent (sodium borohydride), complexing agent (ethylenediamine) and stabilizer (lead tungstate). Due to the instability of the borohydride in acidic, neutral and slightly alkaline media, pH was controlled at pH 12±1 in order to avoid destabilizing the bath. Deposition was performed in three different configurations: one with a classical mechanical agitation at 300rpm and the other two employing ultrasound at a frequency of either 20 or 35kHz. The microstructures of the electroless coatings were characterized by a combination of optical Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The chemistry of the coatings was determined by ICP-AES (Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectrometry) after dissolution in aqua regia. The mechanical properties of the coatings were established by a combination of roughness measurements, Vickers microhardness and pin-on-disk tribology tests. Lastly, the corrosion properties were analysed by potentiodynamic polarization. The results showed that low frequency ultrasonic agitation could be used to produce coatings from an alkaline NiB bath and that the thickness of coatings obtained could be increased by over 50% compared to those produced using mechanical agitation. Although ultrasonic agitation produced a smoother coating and some alteration of the deposit morphology was observed, the mechanical and corrosion properties were very similar to those found when using mechanical agitation.

  6. Mechanisms of cell damage in agitated microcarrier tissue culture reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, Robert S.; Papoutsakis, E. Terry

    1986-01-01

    Cells growing on microcarriers may be damaged by collisions of the microcarrier against another microcarrier or the reactor agitator. Bead-bead collisions are caused by small-scale turbulence, which can also cause high local shear stress on the cells. The cells are also exposed to 10-20 Hz cyclic shear stress by bead rotation.

  7. The Effects of Nutrient Concentration, Addition of Thickeners, and Agitation Speed on Liquid Fermentation of Steinernema feltiae

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Luis G.; Shapiro-Ilan, David I.; Hazir, Selcuk; Jackson, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematode production in liquid fermentation still requires improvements to maximize efficiency, yield, and nematode quality. Therefore, this study was aimed at developing a more suitable liquid medium for mass production of Steinernema feltiae, by assessing the effects of nutrient concentration, thickeners (primarily agar), and agitation speed on infective juvenile (IJ) yield. Base medium (BM) contained yeast extract (2.3%), egg yolk (1.25%), NaCl (0.5%), and corn oil (4%). All media were inoculated with Xenorhabdus bovienii, and 2 d later, with 2-d-old S. feltiae juveniles. For the nutrient concentration experiment, we evaluated the base medium versus a modified base medium containing all the components, but with 3× concentrations of yeast extract (6.9%), egg yolk (3.75%), and corn oil (12%). The nematodes and bacteria were cultured in 150-ml Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50 ml of liquid medium at (25°C) and 180 rpm on a rotary shaker incubator. To assess the effect of thickeners, IJs were inoculated in BM with agar (0.2%), carrageen (0.2%), and carboxymethyl cellulose (0.2% and 0.5%). The addition of 3× more nutrients relative to the BM resulted in a significantly lower yield of nematodes. For agar and agitation speed experiments, five levels of agar in the BM (0%, 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, and 0.8% agar) and two agitation speeds (180 and 280 rpm) were evaluated for production. Increasing agitation speed from 180 to 280 rpm and higher levels of agar in the medium (> 0.2%) significantly increased the yield of bacteria. At the lower agitation speed, media amended with 0.4% and 0.6% agar produced higher nematode yields compared to media without agar. Media with 0.2% and 0.8% agar resulted in intermediate levels of nematode production. At the higher agitation speed, media supplemented with 0.8% agar resulted in the lowest yield of nematodes when compared to the other media tested. Results indicated that increasing nutrient concentration levels was

  8. Magnetic shaft seals prevent hazardous leakage from wastewater agitators

    SciTech Connect

    Traino, F.A.

    1985-11-01

    The US Department of Energy's laboratory in Miamisburg, OH, operated by Monsanto Research Corporation, processes approximately 45,000 gallons per week of low-level radioactive wastewater to meet Federal Environmental Protection Agency quality standards. Preventing the spread of radioactive contamination throughout the operating area demands effective sealing of all process piping, valves, pumps, and agitators. Rotating shafts of pumps and agitators installed a the start of operations in 1947 were sealed by stuffing glands with graphite impregnated asbestos packing. These pumps proved to be unsatisfactory. In the mid-1970's, new process pumps with mechanical seals and some with magnetic drives were installed. Later, in January 1979, new agitator shaft drives with double tandem, spring-loaded mechanical seals were installed, maintenance of these pumps was costly. The agitator drive shafts were redesigned to accommodate magnetic seals of the type successfully used in blowers and vacuum/pressure pumps in other plant locations. One inherent advantage of the magnetic seal is that it operates with a face loading as much as 50% less than a conventional spring-loaded mechanical seal. The lower loading by a predetermined uniform magnetic force contributes to long face life. Other advantages include compactness, ease of assembly with only a few parts, and insensitivity to vibration. The magnetic shaft seals installed on the agitator shafts in February 1983 are still in service without any leakage or need for maintenance. Based on current operating data and a projected five-year meantime between failures, the estimated cost benefit of the magnetic seals over spring-loaded mechanical seals over spring-loaded mechanical seals will be $640 vs $2400 respectively per seal, with 60% less downtime for maintenance.

  9. Testing models for the Messinian salinity crisis: The Messinian record in Almería, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, Juan C.; Martín, José M.; Riding, Robert; Aguirre, Julio; Sánchez-Almazo, Isabel M.; Dinarès-Turell, Jaume

    2006-06-01

    Neogene intermontane basins in Almería Province, SE Spain, display excellent exposures of Messinian (Late Miocene) sequences. The Sorbas, Almería-Níjar and Vera basins maintained connection with the Mediterranean throughout the Messinian, except during the major desiccation phase leading to the formation of salt in the deep centre of the Western Mediterranean. These basins were part of the Western Mediterranean with no separate link to the Atlantic Ocean. The presence of normal marine sediments in these basins reflects the Western Mediterranean watermass. Messinian pre-evaporitic sediments in the basins of southeastern Almería do not show gradual change towards evaporite deposits. Instead they contain stenohaline invertebrates right up to a major erosion surface that separates them from overlying gypsum deposits. This contradicts suggestion of progressive salinity increase in this part of the Western Mediterranean prior to the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC); it also indicates that initiation of evaporite precipitation was not synchronous throughout the Mediterranean Basin. There is no major erosion surface within or at the top of the evaporites in these Almería basins, and the gypsum beds exhibit upward transition to siliciclastic and carbonate deposits. This is inconsistent with a model of Messinian Mediterranean evaporite formation whereby deposition of marginal evaporites was followed by their erosion during drawdown that resulted in formation of evaporites in the centre of the Western Mediterranean. The presence of stenohaline biotas in siliciclastic deposits interbedded with the gypsum and in the Messinian post-evaporitic sediments, challenges the view that a long-standing large body of brackish water (the Lago Mare) filled the Western Mediterranean following the MSC and prior to Early Pliocene flooding. It also contradicts the concept of many relatively small brackish basins spread across an otherwise desiccated Western Mediterranean basin. The basins

  10. Investigating the influence of pH, temperature and agitation speed on yellow pigment production by Penicillium aculeatum ATCC 10409.

    PubMed

    Afshari, Majid; Shahidi, Fakhri; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Tabatabai, Farideh; Es'haghi, Zarin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the combined effect of pH, temperature and agitation speed on yellow pigment production and mycelial growth of Penicillium aculeatum ATCC 10409 was investigated in whey media. Different pH levels (5, 6.5 and 8), temperatures (25, 30 and 35°C) and agitation speed levels (100 and 150 rpm) were tested to determine the best conditions to produce a fungal yellow pigment under submerged fermentation. The best production of yellow pigment (1.38 g/L) was obtained with a pH value of 6.5, a temperature of 30°C and an agitation speed of 150 rpm. In contrast, the maximal biomass concentration (11.12 g/L) was obtained at pH value of 8, a temperature of 30°C and an agitation speed of 100 rpm. These results demonstrated that biomass and yellow pigment production were not directly associated. The identification of the structure of unknown P. aculeatum yellow pigment was detected using UV absorption spectrum and FT-IR spectroscopy.

  11. 40 CFR 63.169 - Standards: Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation systems; and pressure relief devices in liquid...: Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation systems; and pressure relief devices in liquid service. (a) Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid...

  12. 40 CFR 63.169 - Standards: Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation systems; and pressure relief devices in liquid...: Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation systems; and pressure relief devices in liquid service. (a) Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid...

  13. 40 CFR 63.169 - Standards: Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation systems; and pressure relief devices in liquid...: Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation systems; and pressure relief devices in liquid service. (a) Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid...

  14. 40 CFR 63.169 - Standards: Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation systems; and pressure relief devices in liquid...: Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation systems; and pressure relief devices in liquid service. (a) Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid...

  15. 40 CFR 63.169 - Standards: Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation systems; and pressure relief devices in liquid...: Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; instrumentation systems; and pressure relief devices in liquid service. (a) Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid...

  16. [Pain, agitation and delirium in acute respiratory failure].

    PubMed

    Funk, G-C

    2016-02-01

    Avoiding pain, agitation and delirium as well as avoiding unnecessary deep sedation is a powerful yet challenging strategy in critical care medicine. A number of interactions between cerebral function and respiratory function should be regarded in patients with respiratory failure and mechanical ventilation. A cooperative sedation strategy (i.e. patient is awake and free of pain and delirium) is feasible in many patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. Especially patients with mild acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) seem to benefit from preserved spontaneous breathing. While completely disabling spontaneous ventilation with or without neuromuscular blockade is not a standard strategy in ARDS, it might be temporarily required in patients with severe ARDS, who have substantial dyssynchrony or persistent hypoxaemia. Since pain, agitation and delirium compromise respiratory function they should also be regarded during noninvasive ventilation and during ventilator weaning. Pharmacological sedation can have favourable effects in these situations, but should not be given routinely or uncritically.

  17. The effect of magnesium sulphate infusion on the incidence and severity of emergence agitation in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy using sevoflurane anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Abdulatif, M; Ahmed, A; Mukhtar, A; Badawy, S

    2013-10-01

    This randomised, controlled, double-blind study investigated the effects of intra-operative magnesium sulphate administration on the incidence of emergence agitation in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy using sevoflurane anaesthesia. Seventy children were randomly allocated to receive a 30 mg.kg(-1) bolus of intravenous magnesium sulphate after induction of anaesthesia followed by a continuous infusion of 10 mg.kg(-1).h(-1) or an equal volume of saline 0.9%. All children received titrated sevoflurane anaesthesia adjusted to maintain haemodynamic stability. The Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale and the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Score were used for the assessment of postoperative emergence agitation and pain, respectively. Emergence agitation was more common in the control group than in the magnesium group (23 (72%) and 12 (36%), respectively (p = 0.004)), with a relative risk of 0.51 (95% CI 0.31-0.84), an absolute risk reduction of 0.35 (95% CI 0.10-0.54), and number needed to treat of 3 (95% CI 2-9). Postoperative pain scores were comparable in the two groups. Magnesium sulphate reduces the incidence and severity of emergence agitation in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy using sevoflurane anaesthesia and is not associated with increased postoperative side-effects or delayed recovery.

  18. Practically Saline

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Jonathan; O’Neal, Catherine; Jagneaux, Tonya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. In December 2014, the Food and Drug Administration issued a recall of all Wallcur simulation products due to reports of their use in clinical practice. We present a case of septic shock and multiorgan failure after the accidental intravenous infusion of a nonsterile Wallcur simulation product. Case. The patient presented with symptoms of rigors and dyspnea occurring immediately after infusion of Wallcur Practi-0.9% saline. Initial laboratory evidence was consistent with severe septic shock and multiorgan dysfunction. His initial lactic acid level was 9 mmol/L (reference range = 0.5-2.2), and he had evidence of acute kidney injury and markers of disseminated intravascular coagulation. All 4 blood culture bottles isolated multidrug-resistant Empedobacter brevis. The patient recovered from his illness and was discharged with ciprofloxacin therapy per susceptibilities. Discussion. This patient represents the first described case of severe septic shock associated with the infusion of a Wallcur simulation product. Intravenous inoculation of a nonsterile fluid is rare and exposes the patient to unusual environmental organisms, toxins, or unsafe fluid characteristics such as tonicity. During course of treatment, we identified the possible culprit to be a multidrug-resistant isolate of Empedobacter brevis. We also discuss the systemic failures that led to this outbreak. PMID:26668812

  19. Saline Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Figure 2

    These images of the Saline Valley area, California, were acquired March 30, 2000 and cover a full ASTER scene (60 by 60 km). Each image displays data from a different spectral region, and illustrates the complementary nature of surface compositional information available as a function of wavelength. This image displays visible and near infrared bands 3, 2, and 1 in red, green, and blue (RGB). Vegetation appears red, snow and dry salt lakes are white, and exposed rocks are brown, gray, yellow and blue. Rock colors mainly reflect the presence of iron minerals, and variations in albedo. Figure 1 displays short wavelength infrared bands 4, 6, and 8 as RGB. In this wavelength region, clay, carbonate, and sulfate minerals have diagnostic absorption features, resulting in distinct colors on the image. For example, limestones are yellow-green, and purple areas are kaolinite-rich. Figure 2 displays thermal infrared bands 13, 12 and 10 as RGB. In this wavelength region, variations in quartz content appear as more or less red; carbonate rocks are green, and mafic volcanic rocks are purple. The image is located at 36.8 degrees north latitude and 117.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  20. [Ecophysiological adaptability of tropical water organisms to salinity changes].

    PubMed

    Chung, K S

    2001-03-01

    Physiological response of tropical organisms to salinity changes was studied for some marine, estuarine and freshwater fishes (Astyanax bimaculatus, Petenia karussii, Cyprinodon dearborni, and Oreochromis mossambicus), marine and freshwater crustaceans (Penaeus brasiliensis, Penaeus schmitti and Macrobrachium carcinus), and marine bivalves (Perna perna, Crassostrea rhizophorae, and Arca zebra) collected from Northeast Venezuela. They were acclimated for four weeks at various salinities, and (1) placed at high salinities to determine mean lethal salinity, (2) tested by increasing salinity 5@1000 per day to define upper lethal salinity tolerance limit, or (3) observed in a saline gradient tank to determine salinity preference. Acclimation level was the most significant factor. This phenomenon is important for tropical aquatic organisms in shallow waters, where they can adapt to high salinity during the dry season and cannot lose their acclimation level at low salinity during abrupt rain. For saline adaptation of tropical organisms, this behavior will contribute to their proliferation and distribution in fluctuating salinity environments.

  1. Flow-induced agitations create a granular fluid.

    PubMed

    Nichol, Kiri; Zanin, Alexey; Bastien, Renaud; Wandersman, Elie; van Hecke, Martin

    2010-02-19

    We fluidize a granular medium through localized stirring and probe the mechanical response of quiescent regions far away from the main flow. In these regions the material behaves like a liquid: high-density probes sink, low-density probes float at the depth given by Archimedes' law, and drag forces on moving probes scale linearly with the velocity. The fluidlike character of the material is set by agitations generated in the stirred region, suggesting a nonlocal rheology: the relation between applied stress and observed strain rate in one location depends on the strain rate in another location.

  2. Hyperactivity with Agitative-Like Behavior in a Mouse Tauopathy Model.

    PubMed

    Jul, Pia; Volbracht, Christiane; de Jong, Inge E M; Helboe, Lone; Elvang, Anders Brandt; Pedersen, Jan Torleif

    2016-01-01

    Tauopathies, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), are characterized by formation of neurofibrillary tangles consisting of hyperphosphorylated tau. In addition to memory loss, patients experience behavioral symptoms such as agitation, aggression, depression, and insomnia. We explored the behavioral phenotype of a mouse model (rTg4510) carrying the human tau P301L mutation found in a familial form of FTD. We tested these mice in locomotor activity assays as well as in the Morris water maze to access spatial memory. In addition to cognitive impairments, rTg4510 mice exhibited a hyperactivity phenotype which correlated with progression of tau pathology and was dependent on P301L tau transgene expression. The hyperactive phenotype was characterized by significantly increased locomotor activity in a novel and in a simulated home cage environment together with a disturbed day/night cycle. The P301L-tau-dependent hyperactivity and agitative-like phenotype suggests that these mice may form a correlate to some of the behavioral disturbances observed in advanced AD and FTD.

  3. Importance of plasticity and local adaptation for coping with changing salinity in coastal areas: a test case with barnacles in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Salinity plays an important role in shaping coastal marine communities. Near-future climate predictions indicate that salinity will decrease in many shallow coastal areas due to increased precipitation; however, few studies have addressed this issue. The ability of ecosystems to cope with future changes will depend on species’ capacities to acclimatise or adapt to new environmental conditions. Here, we investigated the effects of a strong salinity gradient (the Baltic Sea system – Baltic, Kattegat, Skagerrak) on plasticity and adaptations in the euryhaline barnacle Balanus improvisus. We used a common-garden approach, where multiple batches of newly settled barnacles from each of three different geographical areas along the Skagerrak-Baltic salinity gradient were exposed to corresponding native salinities (6, 15 and 30 PSU), and phenotypic traits including mortality, growth, shell strength, condition index and reproductive maturity were recorded. Results We found that B. improvisus was highly euryhaline, but had highest growth and reproductive maturity at intermediate salinities. We also found that low salinity had negative effects on other fitness-related traits including initial growth and shell strength, although mortality was also lowest in low salinity. Overall, differences between populations in most measured traits were weak, indicating little local adaptation to salinity. Nonetheless, we observed some population-specific responses – notably that populations from high salinity grew stronger shells in their native salinity compared to the other populations, possibly indicating adaptation to differences in local predation pressure. Conclusions Our study shows that B. improvisus is an example of a true brackish-water species, and that plastic responses are more likely than evolutionary tracking in coping with future changes in coastal salinity. PMID:25038588

  4. Progress in Treatment Development for Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Alzheimer’s Disease: Focus on Agitation and Aggression. A Report from the EU/US/CTAD Task Force

    PubMed Central

    Soto, M.; Abushakra, S.; Cummings, J.; Siffert, J.; Robert, P.; Vellas, B.; Lyketsos, C.G.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The management of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) such as agitation and aggression is a major priority in caring for people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Agitation and aggression (A/A) are among the most disruptive symptoms, and given their impact, they are increasingly an important target for development of effective treatments. Considerable progress has been made in the last years with a growing number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of drugs for NPS. The limited benefits reported in some RCTs may be accounted for by the absence of a biological link of the tested molecule to NPS and also by key methodological issues. In recent RCTs of A/A, a great heterogeneity design was found. Designing trials for dementia populations with NPS presents many challenges, including identification of appropriate participants for such trials, engagement and compliance of patients and caregivers in the trials and the choice of optimal outcome measures to demonstrate treatment effectiveness. The EU/US -CTAD Task Force, an international collaboration of investigators from academia, industry, non-profit foundations, and regulatory agencies met in Philadelphia on November 19, 2014 to address some of these challenges. Despite potential heterogeneity in clinical manifestations and neurobiology, agitation and aggression seems to be accepted as an entity for drug development. The field appears to be reaching a consensus in using both agitation and aggression (or other NPS)-specific quantitative measures plus a global rating of change for agitation outcomes based on clinician judgment as the main outcomes. PMID:26413494

  5. Particulate contamination removal from wafers using plasmas and mechanical agitation

    DOEpatents

    Selwyn, G.S.

    1998-12-15

    Particulate contamination removal from wafers is disclosed using plasmas and mechanical agitation. The present invention includes the use of plasmas with mechanical agitation for removing particulate matter from the surface of a wafer. The apparatus hereof comprises a mechanical activator, at least one conducting contact pin for transferring the vibration from the activator to the wafer, clamp fingers that maintain the wafer`s position, and means for generating a plasma in the vicinity of the surface of the wafer, all parts of the cleaning apparatus except the mechanical activator and part of the contact pin being contained inside the processing chamber. By exposing a wafer to a plasma and providing motion thereto in a direction perpendicular to its surface, the bonding between the particulate matter and the surface may be overcome. Once free of the wafer surface, the particulates become charged by electrons from the plasma and are drawn into the plasma by attractive forces which keep them from redepositing. The introduction of a flowing gas through the plasma sweeps the particulates away from the wafer and out of the plasma. The entire surface is cleaned during one cleaning step. The use of an rf plasma to accomplish the particulate removal was found to remove more than 90% of the particulates. 4 figs.

  6. Particulate contamination removal from wafers using plasmas and mechanical agitation

    DOEpatents

    Selwyn, Gary S.

    1998-01-01

    Particulate contamination removal from wafers using plasmas and mechanical agitation. The present invention includes the use of plasmas with mechanical agitation for removing particulate matter from the surface of a wafer. The apparatus hereof comprises a mechanical activator, at least one conducting contact pin for transferring the vibration from the activator to the wafer, clamp fingers that maintain the wafer's position, and means for generating a plasma in the vicinity of the surface of the wafer, all parts of the cleaning apparatus except the mechanical activator and part of the contact pin being contained inside the processing chamber. By exposing a wafer to a plasma and providing motion thereto in a direction perpendicular to its surface, the bonding between the particulate matter and the surface may be overcome. Once free of the wafer surface, the particulates become charged by electrons from the plasma and are drawn into the plasma by attractive forces which keep them from redepositing. The introduction of a flowing gas through the plasma sweeps the particulates away from the wafer and out of the plasma. The entire surface is cleaned during one cleaning step. The use of an rf plasma to accomplish the particulate removal was found to remove more than 90% of the particulates.

  7. Saline pulse test monitoring with the self-potential method to nonintrusively determine the velocity of the pore water in leaking areas of earth dams and embankments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikard, S. J.; Revil, A.; Jardani, A.; Woodruff, W. F.; Parekh, M.; Mooney, M.

    2012-04-01

    A method is proposed to localize preferential fluid flow pathways in porous media on the basis of time-lapse self-potential measurements associated with salt tracer injection upstream. This method is first tested using laboratory data. A network of nonpolarizing electrodes located is connected to a highly sensitive voltmeter used to record the resulting electrical field fluctuations occurring over time at the surface of the tank. The transport of the conductive salt plume through the permeable porous materials changes the localized streaming potential coupling coefficient associated with the advective drag of the excess charge of the pore water and is also responsible for a diffusion current associated with the salinity gradient. Monitoring of the electrical potential distribution at the ground surface can be used to localize the pulse of saline water over time and to determine its velocity. This method applies in real time and can be used to track highly localized flow pathways characterized by high permeability. Our sandbox experiment demonstrates the applicability of this new method under well-controlled conditions with a coarse-sand channel embedded between fine-sand banks. A finite element model allows us to reproduce the time-lapse electrical potential distribution over the channel, but some discrepancies were observed on the banks. Finally, we performed a numerical simulation for a synthetic case study inspired by a recently published field case study. A Markov chain Monte Carlo sampler is used to determine the permeability and the porosity of the preferential fluid flow pathway of this synthetic case study.

  8. Effect of viscosity on the mixing efficiency in a self-agitation anaerobic baffled reactor.

    PubMed

    Qi, Wei-Kang; Guo, Yi-Ling; Xue, Mei; Du, Jing-Ru; Li, Weicheng; Li, Yu-You

    2015-05-01

    One special self-agitation reactor, which does not require a mechanical mixer or other equipment for mixing, has been introduced. Self-agitation is affected by variation in viscosity property. To obtain and research the effect of viscosity on mixing behavior in the self-agitation reactor, Fluent® was used to create numerical simulations and to visualize the fluid flow status. The results show that when the viscosity of the liquid is 1 mPa s, the entire self-agitation results in an almost completely mixed reactor. The substrate becomes difficult to agitate, and the diffusion of the substrate and the tracer become quite after every self-agitation, as the viscosity increases. Once the viscosity is higher than 25 mPa s, the substrate and tracer could not be mixed in the entire reactor, and the reactor is recognized as the combination of several completely mixed reactors between which little exchange of liquid occurs.

  9. State of Acute Agitation at Psychiatric Emergencies in Europe: The STAGE Study

    PubMed Central

    San, Luis; Marksteiner, Josef; Zwanzger, Peter; Figuero, María Aragüés; Romero, Francisco Toledo; Kyropoulos, Grigorios; Peixoto, Alberto Bessa; Chirita, Roxana; Boldeanu, Anca

    2016-01-01

    Background: Agitation is an array of syndromes and types of behaviors that are common in patients with psychiatric disorders. In Europe, the estimation of prevalence of agitation has been difficult due to the lack of standard studies or systematic data collection done on this syndrome. Objective: An observational, cross-sectional, multicenter study aimed to assess the prevalence of agitation episodes in psychiatric emergencies in different European countries. Method: For 1 week, all episodes of acute agitation that were attended to at the psychiatric emergency room (ER) or Acute Inpatient Unit (AIU) in the 27 participating centers were registered. The clinical characteristics and management of the agitation episode were also described. A descriptive analysis was performed. Results: A total of 334 agitation episodes out of 7295 psychiatric emergencies were recorded, giving a prevalence rate of 4.6% (95% CI: 4.12-5.08). Of them, 172 [9.4% (95% CI: 8.2-10.9)] were attended at the ER and 162 [2.8% (95% CI: 2.4-3.3)] at AIU. Only data from 165 episodes of agitation (those with a signed informed consent form) was registered and described in this report. The most common psychiatric conditions associated with agitation were schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and personality disorder. The management of agitation included from non-invasive to more coercive measures (mechanical, physical restraint or seclusion) that were unavoidable in more than half of the agitation episodes (59.5%). Conclusion: The results show that agitation is a common symptom in the clinical practice, both in emergency and inpatient psychiatric departments. Further studies are warranted to better recognize (using a standardized definition) and characterize agitation episodes. PMID:27857778

  10. Risk Factors of Emergence Agitation in Adults Undergoing General Anesthesia for Nasal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Hyo-Yeol; Kim, Jin-Kyoung; Choi, Seung-Won

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify the incidence and the risk factors of emergence agitation in adults undergoing general anesthesia for nasal surgery. Methods We retrospectively examined 792 patients aged ≥18 years who underwent general anesthesia for elective nasal surgery between July 2012 and August 2013. Patients in the postanesthesia care unit with a Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale≥+1 at any time were considered to have emergence agitation. Results The overall incidence of emergence agitation is 22.2%. From multivariate regression analysis, the following six variables were found to be significantly associated with emergence agitation (P<0.05): younger age, recent smoking, sevoflurane anesthesia, postoperative pain on the numerical rating scale (NRS)≥5, presence of a tracheal tube, and presence of a urinary catheter. Presence of a tracheal tube was the greatest risk factor, increasing the risk of developing emergence agitation by approximately fivefold (odds ratio, 5.448; 95% confidence interval, 2.973 to 9.982). Younger age was also a strong risk factor (odds ratio, 0.975 for each 1-year increase; 95% confidence interval, 0.964 to 0.987). Current smoking, sevoflurane anesthesia, postoperative pain of NRS≥5, and the presence of a urinary catheter nearly doubled the risk of emergence agitation. Conclusion Emergence agitation following general anesthesia is a common complication in adult nasal surgery patients. To reduce the occurrence and consequences of agitation episodes, elimination of the associated risk factors is necessary, especially in at-risk patients. PMID:25729495

  11. Agitation Rate and Time for Complete Dissolution in BCS Biowaivers Based on Investigation of a BCS Biowaiver for Dexketoprofen Tablets.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Arieta, Alfredo; Gordon, John; Gwaza, Luther; Mangas-Sanjuan, V; Álvarez, Covadonga; Torrado, Juan J

    2015-09-08

    The objective of the present work is to investigate the validity of the existing requirements for BCS biowaivers of immediate release products containing a class I drug in relation to the agitation rate (50 or 75 rpm in the paddle apparatus) and the time limit for complete dissolution (30 min) in the current biowaivers in vitro dissolution tests. Further, the possibility of extensions will be examined since it has been proposed that the time limit for complete dissolution should be revised to 60 min, and also, if cone formation occurs with apparatus 2 at 50 rpm, then a higher agitation rate is acceptable to eliminate it. The development of four generic dexketoprofen immediate release tablets is described. Dexketoprofen is the eutomer of ketoprofen. According to the BCS, dexketoprofen is a class I drug. Three out of the four products failed to show bioequivalence for Cmax in the initial bioequivalence study conducted with the product despite similar but nonrapid dissolution profiles at 50 rpm in the paddle apparatus, or similar and very rapid dissolution profiles at 75 rpm. In conclusion, these data indicate that BCS biowaivers for class I drugs should be granted only when dissolution with the paddle apparatus is complete in 30 min at 50 rpm. The time limit for complete dissolution should not be extended to 60 min. Furthermore, the agitation rate should not be increased to 75 rpm, even in the case of a coning effect.

  12. Improved performance in viscous mycelial fermentations by agitator retrofitting.

    PubMed

    Buckland, B C; Gbewonyo, K; Dimasi, D; Hunt, G; Westerfield, G; Nienow, A W

    1988-05-01

    For viscous mycelial fermentations it was demonstrated at the pilot-plant scale that the replacement of standard radial flow Rushton turbines with larger diameter axial-flow Prochem hydrofoil impellers significantly improved oxygen transfer efficiency. It was also determined that the Streptomyces broth under evaluation is highly shear thinning. Separate experiments using a Norcardia broth with similar Theological properties demonstrated that the oxygen transfer coefficient, K(L)a, can be greatly increased by use of water additions to reduce broth viscosity. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that the improvement in oxygen transfer by changing agitator types is primarily due to an improvement in bulk mixing. A model is presented, based on the concepts of Bajpai and Reuss, which explains this improvement in performance in terms of enlargement of the well mixed micromixer region for viscous mycelial broths.

  13. Symptoms of agitated depression and/or akathisia.

    PubMed

    Peitl, Marija Vučić; Prološčić, Joško; Blažević-Zelić, Sandra; Skarpa-Usmiani, Ivona; Peitl, Vjekoslav

    2011-03-01

    Akathisia is a syndrome characterized by the unpleasant sensation of "inner" restlessness that manifests itself in the inability of sitting still or not moving. Many types of medicaments can cause akathisia as an adverse event of their use and they include: antipsychotics, antidepressants, antiemetics, antihistamines, and psychoactive substances. We will present the case of a 50 year old patient, treated on two occasions for psychotic depression. During the second hospitalization it is possible that antipsychotic treatment combined with an antidepressant caused akathisia or there were symptoms of agitated depression and akathisia present at the same time, which is very difficult to determine in everyday clinical practice. We can conclude that in this case, as in many others, akathisia as a possible adverse effect of psychopharmacs was very hard to identify. Therefore, it is necessary to have akathisia in mind when using certain medicaments, especially when combining several that use the same enzymatic system and consequently raise levels of at least one of them.

  14. Hydrodynamic effects on cells in agitated tissue culture reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, R. S.; Papoutsakis, E. T.

    1986-01-01

    The mechanisms by which hydrodynamic forces can affect cells grown on microcarrier beads in agitated cell culture reactors were investigated by analyzing the motion of microcarriers relative to the surrounding fluid, to each other, and to moving or stationary solid surfaces. It was found that harmful effects on cell cultures that have been previously attributed to shear can be better explained as the effects of turbulence (of a size scale comparable to the microcarriers or the spacing between them) or collisions. The primary mechanisms of cell damage involve direct interaction between microcarriers and turbulent eddies, collisions between microcarriers in turbulent flow, and collisions against the impeller or other solid surfaces. The implications of these analytical results for the design of tissue culture reactors are discussed.

  15. Remediating agitation-induced antibody aggregation by eradicating exposed hydrophobic motifs

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Rutilio H; Latypov, Ramil F; De Imus, Cyr; Carter, Jane; Wilson, Zien; Manchulenko, Kathy; Brown, Michael E; Ketchem, Randal R

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic antibodies must encompass drug product suitable attributes to be commercially marketed. An undesirable antibody characteristic is the propensity to aggregate. Although there are computational algorithms that predict the propensity of a protein to aggregate from sequence information alone, few consider the relevance of the native structure. The Spatial Aggregation Propensity (SAP) algorithm developed by Chennamsetty et. al. incorporates structural and sequence information to identify motifs that contribute to protein aggregation. We have utilized the algorithm to design variants of a highly aggregation prone IgG2. All variants were tested in a variety of high-throughput, small-scale assays to assess the utility of the method described herein. Many variants exhibited improved aggregation stability whether induced by agitation or thermal stress while still retaining bioactivity. PMID:25484048

  16. Genetic transformation of Platymonas ( Tetraselmis) subcordiformis (Prasinophyceae, Chlorophyta) using particle bombardment and glass-bead agitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yulin; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Jinfeng; Li, Fuchao; Chen, Yingjie; Zheng, Guoting; Qin, Song

    2012-05-01

    Platymonas ( Tetraselmis) subcordiformis is a unicellular marine green alga. It was found to be very sensitive to the herbicide Basta through a sensitivity test indicating it could be employed as a selective agent. The bar gene is a practicable and selectable marker gene. The vector containing the expression cassette of the bar gene was transferred to P. subcordiformis by both particle bombardment and glass-bead agitation and transformants were then selected using Basta. Finally, Southern blotting analysis indicated that the bar gene had been successfully integrated into the nuclear genome of P. subcordiformis using both of the transgenic techniques, with the transformation efficiency of the glass-bead method being slightly higher than that of particle bombardment. This is the first report on stable transformation of P. subcordiformis, and will improve fundamental research and enlarge application of this alga.

  17. A Longitudinal Examination of Agitation and Resident Characteristics in the Nursing Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgio, Louis D.; Park, Nan Sook; Hardin, J. Michael; Sun, Fei

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Agitation frequently accompanies cognitive decline among nursing home residents. This study used cross-sectional and longitudinal (up to 18 months) methods to examine agitation among profoundly and moderately impaired residents using both staff report and direct observation methods. Design and Methods: The study included participants (N =…

  18. The Relationship between Agitated Behavior and Cognitive Functioning in Nursing Home Residents: Preliminary Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska

    Agitation is a significant problem for nursing home residents, their families, and their caretakers. Agitation is defined as inappropriate verbal, vocal, or motor activity which is not explained by needs or confusion per se. It includes behaviors such as aimless wandering, pacing, cursing, screaming, biting, and fighting. The inappropriate nature…

  19. Behavioral Characteristics of Agitated Nursing Home Residents with Dementia at the End of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rebecca S.; Burgio, Louis D.; Fisher, Susan E.; Hardin, J. Michael; Shuster, John L., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine group differences in verbal agitation, verbal interaction, bed restraint, pain, analgesic and neuroleptic medication use, and medical comorbidity among agitated nursing home residents who died during a 6-month clinical trial compared with residents of the same gender and similar initial cognitive…

  20. System for agitating the acid in a lead-acid battery

    DOEpatents

    Weintraub, Alvin; MacCormack, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    A system and method for agitating the acid in a large lead-sulfuric acid storage battery of the calcium type. An air-lift is utilized to provide the agitation. The air fed to the air-lift is humidified prior to being delivered to the air-lift.

  1. The interactive effects of essential ions and salinity on the survival of Mysidopsis bahia in 96-H acute toxicity tests of effluents discharged to marine and estuarine receiving waters

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, W.S.; Horne, M.T.

    1997-10-01

    The importance of salinity in whole effluent toxicity tests using marine organisms has been acknowledged in most testing protocols. However, little if any attention has been given to the specific effects of alteration of the ionic composition of seawater solutions to the test organism. The presence of persistent toxicity in effluents with no apparent toxic agents prompted examination of the potential influence of essential ions on the survival of the opossum shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia, a common effluent toxicity indicator organism. Through stepwise additions of ionic salts to deionized water, the minimum complement of salts to maintain survival of M. bahia during 96-h exposures was determined to be Ca, Mg, K, Br, Na, and Cl. The toxicity curves for Ca, Mg, K, and Br were then determined across test salinity ranging from 10 to 35 parts per thousand. These curves for Ca, Mg, and K revealed that there are significant negative effects on survival when the essential ions are present in either low or high concentrations relative to the levels in natural seawater. Although there were no statistically detectable effects of Br on organism survival over the concentration range tested (5--480 mg/L). Br toxicity at concentrations less than 5 mg/L and greater than 700 mg/L have been shown in other studies. In addition, the tolerance ranges for K, Ca, and Mg were shown to shift significantly with changes in salinity, with lower salinity causing an apparent decrease in tolerance to an excess of essential ions. Tests with toxic effluents from five industrial and municipal sources revealed that adjustment of the ionic balance prior to testing reduced or eliminated toxicity in four of the five whole effluents tested. Suggestions for integrating this information into biomonitoring programs and toxicity identification evaluations are presented.

  2. Relaxing music at mealtime in nursing homes: effects on agitated patients with dementia.

    PubMed

    Hicks-Moore, Sandee Lynn

    2005-12-01

    Agitation in individuals with severe cognitive impairment is a significant problem that affects care and overall quality of life. Building on research conducted by Goddaer and Abraham (1994), this quasi-experimental study proposed that relaxing music played during meals would exert a calming effect and decrease agitated behaviors among nursing home residents with dementia. Thirty residents residing in a Special Care Unit participated in the 4-week study. The Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (Cohen-Mansfield, Marx, & Rosenthal, 1989) was used to gather data. Baseline data was obtained in Week 1 (no music). Music was introduced in Week 2, removed in Week 3, and reintroduced in Week 4. At the end of the 4-week study, overall reductions in the cumulative incidence of total agitated behaviors were observed. Reductions in absolute numbers of agitated behaviors were achieved during the weeks with music and a distinct pattern was observed.

  3. [Application of music therapy for managing agitated behavior in older people with dementia].

    PubMed

    Sung, Huei-Chuan; Chang, Anne M; Abbey, Jennifer

    2006-10-01

    Older people with dementia may display negative emotions, memory problems, sleep disturbance, and agitated behavior. Among these symptoms, agitated behavior has been identified by families and nursing staff as the care problem that presents the greatest challenge. Several studies have found that music therapy reduced agitated behaviors in those with dementia and recommended use of music as an effective strategy in managing this behavioral problem. Music therapy represents a lower cost, effective care approach that nursing staff can easily learn and apply to those with dementia. Furthermore, reductions in agitated behavior in dementia patients that result from music therapy can also alleviate caregiver stress and burden of care, leading to improvements in the health and quality of life of both dementia patients and their caregivers. This paper aims to introduce the principles and application of music therapy in the management of agitated behavior in those with dementia.

  4. Quetiapine reduces irritability and risk of suicide in patients with agitated depression.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Akiyoshi; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2013-07-20

    Patients who suffer from agitated depression accompanied by psychomotor agitation and irritability are prone to suicidal ideation and attempts and must therefore be diagnosed and treated with utmost care. Clinically, there have been more than a few cases of suicidal attempts that seemed to have been provoked by careless prescription of antidepressant medication. In the present study, administration of quetiapine to 3 patients in the acute phase of agitated depression resulted in rapid improvement in irritability and alleviation of depression. Depression in these 3 patients was caused by chronic (persistent) anxiety and tension. During the acute phase, the patients evidenced psychomotor agitation and irritability, often experiencing a sudden, overwhelming urge to commit suicide. Findings from the present study suggest that treatment with quetiapine in patients with this type of agitated depression can quickly alleviate symptoms of anxiety and irritability and reduce the risk of suicide.

  5. Do sound levels and space contribute to agitation in nursing home residents with dementia?

    PubMed

    Joosse, Laura L

    2012-07-01

    Individuals with dementia living in nursing homes may be exposed to non-therapeutic levels of sound. There is insufficient research examining the relationship between sound levels, personal space, and agitation in people with dementia. Using an observational designed study, 53 participants from four southeastern Wisconsin nursing homes were observed; data on sound levels, space, and agitation levels were obtained. Sound was a significant predictor of agitation. The accumulation of sound predicted agitated behavior and explained 16% of the variance, F(5, 47) = 4.520, p < 0.002, and adjusted R(2) = 0.253. The findings suggest agitation may be a clue that sound in the environment is causing stress for residents with dementia.

  6. Measuring Salinity by Conductivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapworth, C. J.

    1981-01-01

    Outlines procedures for constructing an instrument which uses an electrode and calibration methods to measure the salinity of waters in environments close to and affected by a saline estuary. (Author/DC)

  7. Saline Sinus Rinse Recipe

    MedlinePlus

    ... ounces of water. Using a soft rubber ear bulb syringe, infant nasal bulb or a commercial nasal saline rinse product from ... these steps: 1. Draw up saline into the bulb. Tilt your head downward over a sink (or ...

  8. Investigation of CO2 plume behavior for a large-scale pilot test of geologic carbon storage in a saline formation

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, C.

    2009-04-01

    The hydrodynamic behavior of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injected into a deep saline formation is investigated, focusing on trapping mechanisms that lead to CO{sub 2} plume stabilization. A numerical model of the subsurface at a proposed power plant with CO{sub 2} capture is developed to simulate a planned pilot test, in which 1,000,000 metric tons of CO{sub 2} is injected over a four-year period, and the subsequent evolution of the CO{sub 2} plume for hundreds of years. Key measures are plume migration distance and the time evolution of the partitioning of CO{sub 2} between dissolved, immobile free-phase, and mobile free-phase forms. Model results indicate that the injected CO{sub 2} plume is effectively immobilized at 25 years. At that time, 38% of the CO{sub 2} is in dissolved form, 59% is immobile free phase, and 3% is mobile free phase. The plume footprint is roughly elliptical, and extends much farther up-dip of the injection well than down-dip. The pressure increase extends far beyond the plume footprint, but the pressure response decreases rapidly with distance from the injection well, and decays rapidly in time once injection ceases. Sensitivity studies that were carried out to investigate the effect of poorly constrained model parameters permeability, permeability anisotropy, and residual CO{sub 2} saturation indicate that small changes in properties can have a large impact on plume evolution, causing significant trade-offs between different trapping mechanisms.

  9. Long Term Surface Salinity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Raymond W.; Brown, Neil L.

    2005-01-01

    Our long-term goal is to establish a reliable system for monitoring surface salinity around the global ocean. Salinity is a strong indicator of the freshwater cycle and has a great influence on upper ocean stratification. Global salinity measurements have potential to improve climate forecasts if an observation system can be developed. This project is developing a new internal field conductivity cell that can be protected from biological fouling for two years. Combined with a temperature sensor, this foul-proof cell can be deployed widely on surface drifters. A reliable in-situ network of surface salinity sensors will be an important adjunct to the salinity sensing satellite AQUARIUS to be deployed by NASA in 2009. A new internal-field conductivity cell has been developed by N Brown, along with new electronics. This sensor system has been combined with a temperature sensor to make a conductivity - temperature (UT) sensor suitable for deployment on drifters. The basic sensor concepts have been proven on a high resolution CTD. A simpler (lower cost) circuit has been built for this application. A protection mechanism for the conductivity cell that includes antifouling protection has also been designed and built. Mr. A.Walsh of our commercial partner E-Paint has designed and delivered time-release formulations of antifoulants for our application. Mr. G. Williams of partner Clearwater Instrumentation advised on power and communication issues and supplied surface drifters for testing.

  10. Agitation in nursing home residents: the role of gender and social context.

    PubMed

    Burgio, L D; Butler, F R; Roth, D L; Hardin, J M; Hsu, C C; Ung, K

    2000-12-01

    We investigated the relationship among gender of resident, staff social interaction, and agitation in 46 (31 male and 15 female) nursing home residents with clinically significant agitation. Direct observations were conducted of resident behaviors and environmental contextual events using a computer-assisted, real-time observational system. The system recorded frequency, duration, and temporal sequencing of events. Results show that female residents displayed almost three times the amount of agitation as male residents (35% vs. 13% of total observation time, respectively), although men in the study were more likely to receive psychoactive drugs for their agitation. Staff spent similar amounts of time verbally interacting and touching male and female residents. Sequential analyses were conducted to examine the likelihood of staff verbal and touch interactions both preceding and following resident agitation using Bakeman and Quera's (1995) SDIS-GSEQ program. Results suggest that staff touch and verbal interaction elicit agitation in a significant proportion of residents. Once agitation occurs, staff were likely to respond by interacting verbally, but not physically, with the resident.

  11. Smear layer removal efficacy of combination of herbal extracts in two different ratios either alone or supplemented with sonic agitation: An in vitro scanning electron microscope study

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Naveen; Gyanani, Hitesh; Kamatagi, Laxmikant

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the combination of two natural extracts in varying ratios for removal of smear layer either alone or supplemented with sonic agitation. Materials and Methods: Fifty extracted single-rooted teeth were collected, disinfected and decoronated below the cementoenamel junction to obtain standardized root length of 10 mm. Root canals were instrumented using rotary files at working length 1 mm short of the apex. Specimens were divided into six groups according to the irrigation protocol as follows: Group A – Distilled water, Group B – 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, Group C – Herbal extracts in 1:1 ratio, Group D – Herbal extracts in 1:1 ratio supplemented with sonic agitation, Group E – Herbal extracts in 2:1 ratio, Group F – Herbal extracts in 2:1 ratio supplemented with sonic agitation. Specimens were longitudinally sectioned and evaluated under scanning electron microscope for smear layer removal efficacy. Obtained scores were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and post-hoc test. Results: Among all, Group B showed the best results followed by Group F. Remaining other groups showed inferior outcome (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The combination of two extracts in 2:1 ratio was slightly better than 1:1 ratio and the smear layer removal efficacy was further improved when accompanied with sonic agitation. PMID:26430300

  12. Effects of heat, pH, antioxidant, agitation and light on betacyanin stability using red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) juice and concentrate as models.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yen-Ming; Siow, Lee-Fong

    2015-05-01

    Red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) is rich in antioxidants. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of heat pasteurization, pH adjustment, ascorbic acid addition as well as storage under agitation and light or dark condition on betacyanin content in red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) juice and concentrate. The concentrate was produced by concentrating clarified red-fleshed dragon fruit juice in a rotary evaporator at 40 °C. UV-Visible spectrophotometer was used for analyzing betacyanin content. Addition of 0.25 % ascorbic acid, pH 4.0, and pasteurization at 65 °C for 30 min were selected as the best processing conditions to retain betacyanin content in red-fleshed dragon fruit juice. Storage at the agitation speed of 220 rpm showed that the concentrated samples had higher betacyanin stability compared to juice, while both juice and concentrate had almost similar betacyanin stability when tested for storage in the presence of light. In summary, ascorbic acid stabilized betacyanin in both juice and concentrate at agitated or non-agitated conditions. In contrast, light degraded betacyanin in both juice and concentrate models.

  13. Influence of milk pretreatment on production of free fatty acids and volatile compounds in hard cheeses: heat treatment and mechanical agitation.

    PubMed

    Vélez, M A; Perotti, M C; Wolf, I V; Hynes, E R; Zalazar, C A

    2010-10-01

    This work aimed to identify technological steps that can increase fat hydrolysis and volatile compounds production in hard cheeses; these biochemical events have been related with improved piquant taste and development of genuine flavor during cheese ripening. For that purpose, 2 different pretreatments of cheese milk were tested: heat treatment and mechanical agitation. Both factors were assayed at 2 levels: milk was either batch pasteurized or nonthermally treated, and mechanical agitation was either applied or not applied. For all combinations, hard cheeses (Reggianito type) were produced in a pilot plant and ripened for 90 d. In all cheeses the degree of lipolysis, assessed by gas chromatography, increased similarly during ripening. However, the proportion of short-chain fatty acids was higher in the cheeses made with unpasteurized milk, suggesting a higher activity of lipases with positional specificity toward the sn-3 position of the triglyceride, among which milk lipoprotein lipase is found. Similar results were found for most of the volatile compounds, determined by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography flame-ionization detector/mass spectrometry, which constitute the groups of ketones, alcohols, esters, and the group of acids. On the contrary, no effect of mechanical agitation was observed, although some interactions between factors were found. In the conditions of the study, results suggest that heat treatment had a higher effect on cheese lipolysis and volatile compounds production than partial destabilization of the fat emulsion produced by the agitation method applied.

  14. Managing Agitation Associated with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder in the Emergency Setting

    PubMed Central

    Zeller, Scott L.; Citrome, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Patient agitation represents a significant challenge in the emergency department (ED), a setting in which medical staff are working under pressure dealing with a diverse range of medical emergencies. The potential for escalation into aggressive behavior, putting patients, staff, and others at risk, makes it imperative to address agitated behavior rapidly and efficiently. Time constraints and limited access to specialist psychiatric support have in the past led to the strategy of “restrain and sedate,” which was believed to represent the optimal approach; however, it is increasingly recognized that more patient-centered approaches result in improved outcomes. The objective of this review is to raise awareness of best practices for the management of agitation in the ED and to consider the role of new pharmacologic interventions in this setting. Discussion The Best practices in Evaluation and Treatment of Agitation (BETA) guidelines address the complete management of agitation, including triage, diagnosis, interpersonal calming skills, and medicine choices. Since their publication in 2012, there have been further developments in pharmacologic approaches for dealing with agitation, including both new agents and new modes of delivery, which increase the options available for both patients and physicians. Newer modes of delivery that could be useful in rapidly managing agitation include inhaled, buccal/sublingual and intranasal formulations. To date, the only formulation administered via a non-intramuscular route with a specific indication for agitation associated with bipolar or schizophrenia is inhaled loxapine. Non-invasive formulations, although requiring cooperation from patients, have the potential to improve overall patient experience, thereby improving future cooperation between patients and healthcare providers. Conclusion Management of agitation in the ED should encompass a patient-centered approach, incorporating non-pharmacologic approaches

  15. Change in agitation in Alzheimer's disease in the placebo arm of a 9-week controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Drye, Lea T.; Porsteinsson, Anton P.; Pollock, Bruce G.; Devanand, D.P.; Frangakis, Constantine; Ismail, Zahinoor; Marano, Christopher; Meinert, Curtis L.; Mintzer, Jacobo E.; Munro, Cynthia A.; Pelton, Gregory; Rabins, Peter V.; Schneider, Lon S.; Shade, David M.; Weintraub, Daniel; Newell, Jeffery; Yesavage, Jerome; Lyketsos, Constantine G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Placebo responses raise significant challenges for design of clinical trials. We report changes in agitation outcomes in the placebo arm of a recent trial of citalopram for agitation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods In the Citalopram for Agitation in Alzheimer's Disease (Cit AD) study, all participants and caregivers received a psychosocial intervention and 92 were assigned to placebo for 9 weeks. Outcomes included Neurobehavioral Rating Scale agitation subscale (NBRS-A), modified Alzheimer Disease Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC), Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI), the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) Agitation/Aggression domain (NPI A/A) and Total (NPI-Total) and ADLs. Continuous outcomes were analyzed with mixed-effects modeling and dichotomous outcomes with logistic regression. Results Agitation outcomes improved over 9 weeks: NBRS-A mean (SD) decreased from 7.8 (3.0) at baseline to 5.4 (3.2), CMAI from 28.7 (6.7) to 26.7 (7.4), NPI A/A from 8.0 (2.4) to 4.9 (3.8), and NPI-Total from 37.3 (17.7) to 28.4 (22.1). The proportion of CGI-C agitation responders ranged from 21 to 29% and was significantly different from zero. MMSE improved from 14.4 (6.9) to 15.7 (7.2) and ADLs similarly improved. Most of the improvement was observed by 3 weeks and was sustained through 9 weeks. The major predictor of improvement in each agitation measure was a higher baseline score in that measure. Conclusions We observed significant placebo response which may be due to regression to the mean, response to a psychosocial intervention, natural course of symptoms, or nonspecific benefits of participation in a trial. PMID:26305876

  16. Optimal nonpharmacological management of agitation in Alzheimer's disease: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Millán-Calenti, José Carlos; Lorenzo-López, Laura; Alonso-Búa, Begoña; de Labra, Carmen; González-Abraldes, Isabel; Maseda, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Many patients with Alzheimer's disease will develop agitation at later stages of the disease, which constitutes one of the most challenging and distressing aspects of dementia. Recently, nonpharmacological therapies have become increasingly popular and have been proven to be effective in managing the behavioral symptoms (including agitation) that are common in the middle or later stages of dementia. These therapies seem to be a good alternative to pharmacological treatment to avoid unpleasant side effects. We present a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focused on the nonpharmacological management of agitation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients aged 65 years and above. Of the 754 studies found, eight met the inclusion criteria. This review suggests that music therapy is optimal for the management of agitation in institutionalized patients with moderately severe and severe AD, particularly when the intervention includes individualized and interactive music. Bright light therapy has little and possibly no clinically significant effects with respect to observational ratings of agitation but decreases caregiver ratings of physical and verbal agitation. Therapeutic touch is effective for reducing physical nonaggressive behaviors but is not superior to simulated therapeutic touch or usual care for reducing physically aggressive and verbally agitated behaviors. Melissa oil aromatherapy and behavioral management techniques are not superior to placebo or pharmacological therapies for managing agitation in AD. Further research in clinical trials is required to confirm the effectiveness and long-term effects of nonpharmacological interventions for managing agitation in AD. These types of studies may lead to the development of future intervention protocols to improve the well-being and daily functioning of these patients, thereby avoiding residential care placement.

  17. Optimal nonpharmacological management of agitation in Alzheimer’s disease: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Millán-Calenti, José Carlos; Lorenzo-López, Laura; Alonso-Búa, Begoña; de Labra, Carmen; González-Abraldes, Isabel; Maseda, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Many patients with Alzheimer’s disease will develop agitation at later stages of the disease, which constitutes one of the most challenging and distressing aspects of dementia. Recently, nonpharmacological therapies have become increasingly popular and have been proven to be effective in managing the behavioral symptoms (including agitation) that are common in the middle or later stages of dementia. These therapies seem to be a good alternative to pharmacological treatment to avoid unpleasant side effects. We present a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focused on the nonpharmacological management of agitation in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients aged 65 years and above. Of the 754 studies found, eight met the inclusion criteria. This review suggests that music therapy is optimal for the management of agitation in institutionalized patients with moderately severe and severe AD, particularly when the intervention includes individualized and interactive music. Bright light therapy has little and possibly no clinically significant effects with respect to observational ratings of agitation but decreases caregiver ratings of physical and verbal agitation. Therapeutic touch is effective for reducing physical nonaggressive behaviors but is not superior to simulated therapeutic touch or usual care for reducing physically aggressive and verbally agitated behaviors. Melissa oil aromatherapy and behavioral management techniques are not superior to placebo or pharmacological therapies for managing agitation in AD. Further research in clinical trials is required to confirm the effectiveness and long-term effects of nonpharmacological interventions for managing agitation in AD. These types of studies may lead to the development of future intervention protocols to improve the well-being and daily functioning of these patients, thereby avoiding residential care placement. PMID:26955265

  18. 40 CFR 63.1010 - Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and instrumentation systems..., connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and... comply with paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section. Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1009 - Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Agitators in gas and vapor service and... § 63.1009 Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards. (a) Compliance... in the referencing subpart. (b) Leak detection—(1) Monitoring method. Each agitator seal shall...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1009 - Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Agitators in gas and vapor service and... § 63.1009 Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards. (a) Compliance... in the referencing subpart. (b) Leak detection—(1) Monitoring method. Each agitator seal shall...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1028 - Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Agitators in gas and vapor service and... Standards § 63.1028 Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards. (a) Compliance... in the referencing subpart. (b) (c) Leak detection—(1) Monitoring method. Each agitator seal shall...

  2. 40 CFR 65.110 - Standards: Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and instrumentation..., connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and..., valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in light liquid...

  3. 40 CFR 65.109 - Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor... Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service. (a) Compliance schedule. The owner or...) Leak detection—(1) Monitoring method. Each agitator seal shall be monitored monthly to detect leaks...

  4. 40 CFR 65.109 - Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor... Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service. (a) Compliance schedule. The owner or...) Leak detection—(1) Monitoring method. Each agitator seal shall be monitored monthly to detect leaks...

  5. 40 CFR 65.110 - Standards: Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and instrumentation..., connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and..., valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in light liquid...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1009 - Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Agitators in gas and vapor service and... § 63.1009 Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards. (a) Compliance... in the referencing subpart. (b) Leak detection—(1) Monitoring method. Each agitator seal shall...

  7. 40 CFR 65.110 - Standards: Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and instrumentation..., connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and..., valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in light liquid...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1010 - Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and instrumentation systems..., connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and... comply with paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section. Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators...

  9. 40 CFR 65.109 - Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor... Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service. (a) Compliance schedule. The owner or...) Leak detection—(1) Monitoring method. Each agitator seal shall be monitored monthly to detect leaks...

  10. 40 CFR 65.110 - Standards: Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and instrumentation..., connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and..., valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in light liquid...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1028 - Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Agitators in gas and vapor service and... Standards § 63.1028 Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards. (a) Compliance... in the referencing subpart. (b) (c) Leak detection—(1) Monitoring method. Each agitator seal shall...

  12. 40 CFR 63.173 - Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor... Equipment Leaks § 63.173 Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service. (a)(1) Each agitator shall be monitored monthly to detect leaks by the methods specified in § 63.180(b) of this...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1028 - Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Agitators in gas and vapor service and... Standards § 63.1028 Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards. (a) Compliance... in the referencing subpart. (b) (c) Leak detection—(1) Monitoring method. Each agitator seal shall...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1028 - Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Agitators in gas and vapor service and... Standards § 63.1028 Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards. (a) Compliance... in the referencing subpart. (b) (c) Leak detection—(1) Monitoring method. Each agitator seal shall...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1009 - Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Agitators in gas and vapor service and... § 63.1009 Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards. (a) Compliance... in the referencing subpart. (b) Leak detection—(1) Monitoring method. Each agitator seal shall...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1010 - Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and instrumentation systems..., connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and... comply with paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section. Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators...

  17. 40 CFR 65.110 - Standards: Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and instrumentation..., connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and..., valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in light liquid...

  18. 40 CFR 63.173 - Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor... Equipment Leaks § 63.173 Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service. (a)(1) Each agitator shall be monitored monthly to detect leaks by the methods specified in § 63.180(b) of this...

  19. 40 CFR 65.109 - Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor... Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service. (a) Compliance schedule. The owner or...) Leak detection—(1) Monitoring method. Each agitator seal shall be monitored monthly to detect leaks...

  20. 40 CFR 65.109 - Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor... Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service. (a) Compliance schedule. The owner or...) Leak detection—(1) Monitoring method. Each agitator seal shall be monitored monthly to detect leaks...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1028 - Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agitators in gas and vapor service and... Standards § 63.1028 Agitators in gas and vapor service and in light liquid service standards. (a) Compliance... in the referencing subpart. (b) (c) Leak detection—(1) Monitoring method. Each agitator seal shall...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1010 - Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and instrumentation systems..., connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and... comply with paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section. Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1010 - Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and instrumentation systems..., connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and... comply with paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section. Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators...

  4. 40 CFR 63.173 - Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor... Equipment Leaks § 63.173 Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service. (a)(1) Each agitator shall be monitored monthly to detect leaks by the methods specified in § 63.180(b) of this...

  5. 40 CFR 63.173 - Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor... Equipment Leaks § 63.173 Standards: Agitators in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service. (a)(1) Each agitator shall be monitored monthly to detect leaks by the methods specified in § 63.180(b) of this...

  6. Comparison of calcium hydroxide removal by self-adjusting file, EndoVac, and CanalBrush agitation techniques: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Türker, Sevinç Aktemur; Koçak, Mustafa Murat; Koçak, Sibel; Sağlam, Baran Can

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study comparatively evaluated the efficacy of self-adjusting file (SAF), Endovac, and CanalBrush irrigant agitation protocols in removing calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) from the root canals. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human mandibular canine teeth were instrumented with ProTaper rotary instruments to size #40 and dressed with Ca(OH)2. The roots were randomly assigned to four groups according to irrigant agitation protocol used (n = 15). In Group 1: Conventional syringe irrigation (no activation, control); Group 2: Rotary brush agitation (CanalBrush); Group 3: Apical negative pressure irrigation (EndoVac system); and Group 4: Sonic agitation (SAF) were used. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) evaluation was done for assessment of Ca(OH)2 removal in the coronal and apical thirds. Statistical analysis was performed by Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results: There were statistically significant differences among the groups (P = 0.218). A statistically significant difference was seen between the test groups in Ca(OH)2 removal from the apical third of the canal (P < 0.05). In the coronal third, there was no difference between the groups (P > 0.05). The most efficient Ca(OH)2 removal in apical third was recorded in Group 3 (EndoVac) and Group 4 (SAF) (P < 0.05). In Group 4 (sonic agitation), there was no significantly difference between Ca(OH)2 removal in coronal and apical thirds. Conclusions: SAF and EndoVac showed significantly better performance than CanalBrush and conventional syringe irrigation in removing Ca(OH)2 from apical third of the root canals. PMID:24082574

  7. Effect of individualized music on agitation in individuals with dementia who live at home.

    PubMed

    Park, Heeok; Pringle Specht, Janet K

    2009-08-01

    This pilot study investigated the effect of individualized music on agitation in individuals with dementia who live at home. Fifteen individuals listened to their preferred music for 30 minutes prior to peak agitation time, two times per week for 2 weeks, followed by no music intervention for 2 weeks. The process was repeated once. The findings showed that mean agitation levels were significantly lower while listening to music than before listening to the music. The findings of this pilot study suggest the importance of music intervention for individuals with dementia who live at home.

  8. Hydraulic characteristics simulation of an innovative self-agitation anaerobic baffled reactor (SA-ABR).

    PubMed

    Qi, Wei-Kang; Hojo, Toshimasa; Li, Yu-You

    2013-05-01

    An investigation was conducted on a self-agitation anaerobic baffled reactor (SA-ABR) with agitation caused solely by the release of stored gas. The compound in the reactor is mixed without the use of any mechanical equipment and electricity. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation used to provide details of the flow pattern and information about the agitation process and a solid basis for design and optimization purposes. Every self-agitation cycle could be separated into the pressure energy storage process, the exergonic process and the buffer stage. The reactor is regarded as the combination of continuous stirred tank reactor and a small plug flow reactor. The liquid level and diffusion varies widely depending on the length of the U-tube. The compound transition phenomenon in the 1st chamber mainly occurs during the energy exergonic process and buffer stage. The fluid-diffusion in the 3rd and 4th chambers mainly happens after the buffer period.

  9. Flocculation of colloidal sols: Diffusion-controlled vs agitation-induced flocculation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A proposal for carrying out flocculation experiments in microgravity is presented. These experiments might allow a correlation between theory and experiment. First, all particles, whether single primary particles or aggregates of primary particles would not settle or cream at any agitation rate, or even in the absence of agitation. This failure to separate would keep all aggregates active, still serving as centers for diffusion-controlled flocculation. Keeping all particles suspended would allow the possibility of determining the total number of particles as a function of time from beginning to end of flocculation. Finally, the experiments would allow a definite separation diffusion-controlled and agitation-induced flocculation by studying diffusion-controlled flocculation with and without agitation.

  10. Predictors of Nursing Home Admission among Alzheimer's Disease Patients with Psychosis and/or Agitation

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Edward Alan; Schneider, Lon S.; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to identify factors that predict nursing home placement among community-dwelling Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients with psychosis or agitation in a randomized clinical trial. Methods 418 participants with AD enrolled in the CATIE-AD trial of anti-psychotic medications and having no evidence of nursing home use at baseline were followed 9 months post-random assignment using data provided by caregiver proxy. χ2 tests, t-tests and Cox proportional hazard modeling were used to examine the baseline correlates of nursing home use. Results Of outpatients with no prior nursing home use, 15.0% were placed in a nursing home in the 9 months following baseline, with the average time to placement being 122 days. Bivariate analyses indicate that those with prior outpatient mental health use at study entry were more likely to be admitted; so too were those with worse physical functioning—lower scores on the AD Cooperative Study Activities of Daily Living Scale (ADCS-ADL), lower utility scores on the Health Utility Index (HUI)-III, and worse cognition on the Mini-Mental State Examination. Controlling for other factors, non-Hispanic white race (hazard ratio [HR]=2.16) and prior mental health use (HR=1.87) increased the likelihood of admission. Those with higher ADCS-ADL scores were less likely to be placed (HR=0.97). Conclusion Factors leading to nursing home entry among psychotic/agitated AD patients are similar to the general population, though high incidence of nursing home entry highlights the importance of accounting for such utilization in health economic studies of AD outcomes. It also highlights the importance of using information on ADLs and other characteristics to develop profiles identifying those at greater or lesser risk of nursing home entry and, in so doing inform population planning associated with AD and identification of those patients and caregivers who might benefit most from interventions to prevent eventual placement

  11. Effect of ketorolac on the prevention of emergence agitation in children after sevoflurane anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Deokkyu; Doo, A Ram; Lim, Hyungsun; Son, Ji-Seon; Lee, Jun-Rae; Han, Young-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ketorolac on the incidence and severity of emergence agitation in children recovering from sevoflurane anesthesia. Methods Eighty-five children aged 3 to 7 years were randomly assigned to the control group or the ketorolac group (1 mg/kg ketorolac). The children were evaluated by the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium Scale and a four-point agitation scale. Results The median agitation scores did not differ significantly between the two groups. The overall incidence of emergence agitation was similar in the two groups (41% in the control group vs. 32% in the ketorolac group, P = 0.526). The number of children who received rescue drugs for treatment of emergence agitation was not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions The administration of 1 mg/kg of ketorolac is not effective in decreasing the incidence and severity of emergence agitation in children aged 3 to 7 years after sevoflurane anesthesia. PMID:23560190

  12. Effect of agitation on ligninase activity and ligninase production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatadri, R.; Irvine, R.L. )

    1990-09-01

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium produces extracellular ligninases as part of its idiophasic ligninolytic system. Agitation has been widely reported to suppress both ligninase production and lignin degradation. Results show that mechanical inactivation of ligninase is possibly the reason why ligninase accumulation is low or absent in agitated shake-flask cultures. Agitation seems to affect the catalytic activity of ligninase and has no apparent effect on either the rate of ligninase production or the physiology of P. chrysosporium. The detergents Tween 20, Tween 40, Tween 60, Tween 80, and 3-((3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio)-1-propanesuflonate (CHAPS) are able to protect both purified ligninase and extant ligninase in culture fluids (free of biomass) against mechanical inactivation due to agitation. Addition of Tween 80 at the end of primary growth to agitated shake flasks containing either pelleted or immobilized mycelial cultures results in production and maintenance of high levels of ligninase activity over several days under conditions of high agitation. Possible mechanisms by which the detergents could protect ligninase are discussed.

  13. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) insights into agitation stress methods in biopharmaceutical development.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ge; Bee, Jared S; Biddlecombe, James G; Chen, Quanmin; Leach, W Thomas

    2012-02-28

    Agitation of small amounts of liquid is performed routinely in biopharmaceutical process, formulation, and packaging development. Protein degradation commonly results from agitation, but the specific stress responsible or degradation mechanism is usually not well understood. Characterization of the agitation stress methods is critical to identifying protein degradation mechanisms or specific sensitivities. In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to model agitation of 1 mL of fluid by four types of common laboratory agitation instruments, including a rotator, orbital shaker, magnetic stirrer and vortex mixer. Fluid stresses in the bulk liquid and near interfaces were identified, quantified and compared. The vortex mixer provides the most intense stresses overall, while the stir bar system presented locally intense shear proximal to the hydrophobic stir bar surface. The rotator provides gentler fluid stresses, but the air-water interfacial area and surface stresses are relatively high given its low rotational frequency. The orbital shaker provides intermediate-level stresses but with the advantage of a large stable platform for consistent vial-to-vial homogeneity. Selection of experimental agitation methods with targeted types and intensities of stresses can facilitate better understanding of protein degradation mechanisms and predictability for "real world" applications.

  14. The glass is not yet half empty: agitation but not Varroa treatment causes cognitive bias in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Schlüns, Helge; Welling, Helena; Federici, Julian René; Lewejohann, Lars

    2017-03-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are prone to judge an ambiguous stimulus negatively if they had been agitated through shaking which simulates a predator attack. Such a cognitive bias has been suggested to reflect an internal emotional state analogous to humans who judge more pessimistically when they do not feel well. In order to test cognitive bias experimentally, an animal is conditioned to respond to two different stimuli, where one is punished while the other is rewarded. Subsequently a third, ambiguous stimulus is presented and it is measured whether the subject responds as if it expects a reward or a punishment. Generally, it is assumed that negative experiences lower future expectations, rendering the animals more pessimistic. Here we tested whether a most likely negatively experienced formic acid treatment against the parasitic mite Varroa destructor also affects future expectations of honey bees. We applied an olfactory learning paradigm (i.e., conditioned proboscis extension response) using two odorants and blends of these odorants as the ambiguous stimuli. Unlike agitating honey bees, exposure to formic acid did not significantly change the response to the ambiguous stimuli in comparison with untreated bees. Overall evidence suggests that the commonest treatment against one of the most harmful bee pests has no detrimental effects on cognitive bias in honey bees.

  15. Salinity Trends in the Upper Colorado River Basin Upstream From the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit, Colorado, 1986-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leib, Kenneth J.; Bauch, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Salinity Control Unit was 10,700 tons/year. This accounts for approximately 27 percent of the decrease observed downstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. Salinity loads were decreasing at the fastest rate (6,950 tons/year) in Region 4, which drains an area between the Colorado River at Cameo, Colorado (station CAMEO) and Colorado River above Glenwood Springs, Colorado (station GLEN) streamflow-gaging stations. Trends in salinity concentration and streamflow were tested at station CAMEO to determine if salinity concentration, streamflow, or both are controlling salinity loads upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. Trend tests of individual ion concentrations were included as potential indicators of what sources (based on mineral composition) may be controlling trends in the upper Colorado. No significant trend was detected for streamflow from 1986 to 2003 at station CAMEO; however, a significant downward trend was detected for salinity concentration. The trend slope indicates that salinity concentration is decreasing at a median rate of about 3.54 milligrams per liter per year. Five major ions (calcium, magnesium, sodium, sulfate, and chloride) were tested for trends. The results indicate that processes within source areas with rock and soil types (or other unidentified sources) bearing calcium, sodium, and sulfate had the largest effect on the downward trend in salinity load upstream from station CAMEO. Downward trends in salinity load resulting from ground-water sources and/or land-use change were thought to be possible reasons for the observed decreases in salinity loads; however, the cause or causes of the decreasing salinity loads are not fully understood. A reduction in the amount of ground-water percolation from Region 4 (resulting from work done through Federal irrigation system improvement programs as well as privately funded irrigation system improvements) has helped reduce annual salinity load from Region 4 by approxima

  16. Salinity Management in Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Existing guidelines and standards for reclamation of saline soils and management to control salinity exist but have not been updated for over 25 years. In the past few years a looming water scarcity has resulted in questioning of the long term future of irrigation projects in arid and semi arid regi...

  17. Remote sensing of salinity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomann, G. C.

    1975-01-01

    The complex dielectric constant of sea water is a function of salinity at 21 cm wavelength, and sea water salinity can be determined by a measurement of emissivity at 21 cm along with a measurement of thermodynamic temperature. Three aircraft and one helicopter experiments using two different 21 cm radiometers were conducted under different salinity and temperature conditions. Single or multiple ground truth measurements were used to calibrate the data in each experiment. It is inferred from these experiments that accuracies of 1 to 2%/OO are possible with a single surface calibration point necessary only every two hours if the following conditions are met--water temperatures above 20 C, salinities above 10%/OO, and level plane flight. More frequent calibration, constraint of the aircraft's orientation to the same as it was during calibration, and two point calibration (at a high and low salinity level) rather than single point calibration may give even better accuracies in some instances.

  18. Delayed egg hatching of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) pending water agitation.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Babak; Shakibi, Sanam; Foster, Woodbridge A

    2014-05-01

    Mosquito eggs laid on water surfaces typically hatch spontaneously soon after the embryos within them become fully formed first-instar larvae. However, we have found that Anopheles gambiae Giles, an important vector of malaria in Africa, exhibits delayed hatching until the water surface is agitated, a feature overlooked in most laboratory colonies. Agitation within 24 h postoviposition, before embryonation was complete, failed to stimulate delayed postembryonic hatching of isolated eggs on the following day (day 2), when < 1% had hatched spontaneously. However, 5 min of water agitation of these dormant pharate first-instar larvae on day 2 resulted in an almost immediate hatch of 63.3 versus 0% of nonagitated controls, plus another 3.9 versus 0.3%, respectively, during the following 24 h. With daily agitation, installment hatching occurred mainly during 2-6 d postoviposition. The mean cumulative hatch after 7 d of daily agitation was 83.1 versus 1.1% of nonagitated eggs. Experiments with eggs in groups demonstrated that egg density and activity of already-hatched larvae had no stimulatory effect. Eggs stored 1-4 wk at 25.5 or at 15.5 degrees C, and then agitated daily for 6 d at 25.5 degrees C, showed a gradual decline in viability. Viability was sustained longer at the lower temperature. Implications of agitation-induced egg hatching for rainy-season and dry-season ecology of An. gambiae are discussed. Suspended hatching and cool storage already are proving convenient for efficient mass rearing and accurate modeling of weather-based population dynamics.

  19. The effects of excipients on protein aggregation during agitation: an interfacial shear rheology study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lu; Qi, Wei; Schwartz, Daniel K; Randolph, Theodore W; Carpenter, John F

    2013-08-01

    We investigated the effects of excipients in solutions of keratinocyte growth factor 2 (KGF-2) on protein aggregation during agitation as well as on interfacial shear rheology at the air-water interface. Samples were incubated with or without agitation, and in the presence or absence of the excipients heparin, sucrose, or polysorbate 80 (PS80). The effect of excipients on the extent of protein aggregation was determined by UV-visible spectroscopy and micro-flow imaging. Interfacial shear rheology was used to detect the gelation time and strength of protein gels at the air-water interface. During incubation, protein particles of size ≥1 μm and insoluble aggregates formed faster for KGF-2 solutions subjected to agitation. Addition of either heparin or sucrose promoted protein aggregation during agitation. In contrast, PS80 substantially inhibited agitation-induced KGF-2 aggregation but facilitated protein particulate formation in quiescent solutions. The combination of PS80 and heparin or sucrose completely prevented protein aggregation during both nonagitated and agitated incubations. Interfacial rheological measurements showed that KGF-2 in buffer alone formed an interfacial gel within a few minutes. In the presence of heparin, KGF-2 interfacial gels formed too quickly for gelation time to be determined. KGF-2 formed gels in about 10 min in the presence of sucrose. The presence of PS80 in the formulation inhibited gelation of KGF-2. Furthermore, the interfacial gels formed by the protein in the absence of PS80 were reversible when PS80 was added to the samples after gelation. Therefore, there is a correspondence between formulations that exhibited interfacial gelation and formulations that exhibited agitation-induced aggregation.

  20. CFD simulation of local and global mixing time in an agitated tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liangchao; Xu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    The Issue of mixing efficiency in agitated tanks has drawn serious concern in many industrial processes. The turbulence model is very critical to predicting mixing process in agitated tanks. On the basis of computational fluid dynamics(CFD) software package Fluent 6.2, the mixing characteristics in a tank agitated by dual six-blade-Rushton-turbines(6-DT) are predicted using the detached eddy simulation(DES) method. A sliding mesh(SM) approach is adopted to solve the rotation of the impeller. The simulated flow patterns and liquid velocities in the agitated tank are verified by experimental data in the literature. The simulation results indicate that the DES method can obtain more flow details than Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes(RANS) model. Local and global mixing time in the agitated tank is predicted by solving a tracer concentration scalar transport equation. The simulated results show that feeding points have great influence on mixing process and mixing time. Mixing efficiency is the highest for the feeding point at location of midway of the two impellers. Two methods are used to determine global mixing time and get close result. Dimensionless global mixing time remains unchanged with increasing of impeller speed. Parallel, merging and diverging flow pattern form in the agitated tank, respectively, by changing the impeller spacing and clearance of lower impeller from the bottom of the tank. The global mixing time is the shortest for the merging flow, followed by diverging flow, and the longest for parallel flow. The research presents helpful references for design, optimization and scale-up of agitated tanks with multi-impeller.

  1. Bulk Moisture and Salinity Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nurge, Mark; Monje, Oscar; Prenger, Jessica; Catechis, John

    2013-01-01

    Measurement and feedback control of nutrient solutions in plant root zones is critical to the development of healthy plants in both terrestrial and reduced-gravity environments. In addition to the water content, the amount of fertilizer in the nutrient solution is important to plant health. This typically requires a separate set of sensors to accomplish. A combination bulk moisture and salinity sensor has been designed, built, and tested with different nutrient solutions in several substrates. The substrates include glass beads, a clay-like substrate, and a nutrient-enriched substrate with the presence of plant roots. By measuring two key parameters, the sensor is able to monitor both the volumetric water content and salinity of the nutrient solution in bulk media. Many commercially available moisture sensors are point sensors, making localized measurements over a small volume at the point of insertion. Consequently, they are more prone to suffer from interferences with air bubbles, contact area of media, and root growth. This makes it difficult to get an accurate representation of true moisture content and distribution in the bulk media. Additionally, a network of point sensors is required, increasing the cabling, data acquisition, and calibration requirements. measure the dielectric properties of a material in the annular space of the vessel. Because the pore water in the media often has high salinity, a method to measure the media moisture content and salinity simultaneously was devised. Characterization of the frequency response for capacitance and conductance across the electrodes was completed for 2-mm glass bead media, 1- to 2-mm Turface (a clay like media), and 1- to 2-mm fertilized Turface with the presence of root mass. These measurements were then used to find empirical relationships among capacitance (C), the dissipation factor (D), the volumetric water content, and the pore water salinity.

  2. Influence of agitation, inoculum density, pH, and strain on the growth parameters of Escherichia coli O157:H7--relevance to risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Coleman, M E; Tamplin, M L; Phillips, J G; Marmer, B S

    2003-06-15

    Foods may differ in at least two key variables from broth culture systems typically used to measure growth kinetics of enteropathogens: initial population density of the pathogen and agitation of the culture. The present study used nine Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains isolated from beef and associated with human illness. Initial kinetic experiments with one E. coli O157:H7 strain in brain-heart infusion (BHI) broth at pH 5.5 were performed in a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial design, testing the effects of a low (ca. 1-10 colony-forming units [CFU]/ml) or high (ca. 1000 CFU/ml) initial population density, culture agitation or no culture agitation, and incubation temperatures of 10, 19, and 37 degrees C. Kinetic data were modeled using simple linear regression and the Baranyi model. Both model forms provided good statistical fit to the data (adjusted r(2)>0.95). Significant effects of agitation and initial population density were identified at 10 degrees C but not at 19 or 37 degrees C. Similar growth patterns were observed for two additional strains tested under the same experimental design. The lag, slope, and maximum population density (MPD) parameters were significantly different by treatment. Further tests were conducted in a 96-well microtiter plate system to determine the effect of initial population density and low pH (4.6-5.5) on the growth of E. coli O157:H7 strains in BHI at 10, 19, and 37 degrees C. Strain variability was more apparent at the boundary conditions of growth of low pH and low temperature. This study demonstrates the need for growth models that are specific to food products and environments for plausible extrapolation to risk assessment models.

  3. Effect of Citalopram on Agitation in Alzheimer's Disease – The CitAD Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Porsteinsson, Anton P.; Drye, Lea T.; Pollock, Bruce G.; Devanand, D.P.; Frangakis, Constantine; Ismail, Zahinoor; Marano, Christopher; Meinert, Curtis L.; Mintzer, Jacobo E.; Munro, Cynthia A.; Pelton, Gregory; Rabins, Peter V.; Rosenberg, Paul B.; Schneider, Lon S.; Shade, David M.; Weintraub, Daniel; Yesavage, Jerome; Lyketsos, Constantine G.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Agitation is common, persistent, and associated with adverse consequences for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Pharmacological treatment options, including antipsychotics are not satisfactory. Objective The primary objective was to evaluate the efficacy of citalopram for agitation in patients with AD. Key secondary objectives examined effects of citalopram on function, caregiver distress, safety, cognitive safety, and tolerability. Design, Setting and Participants The Citalopram for Agitation in Alzheimer's Disease Study (CitAD) was a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group trial that enrolled 186 patients with probable AD and clinically significant agitation from eight academic centers in the US and Canada from August 2009 to January 2013. Interventions Participants (n=186) were randomized to receive a psychosocial intervention plus either citalopram (n=94) or placebo (n=92) for 9 weeks. Dose began at 10 mg/d with planned titration to 30 mg/d over 3 weeks based on response and tolerability. Main Outcomes and Measures Primary outcome measures were the Neurobehavioral Rating Scale, agitation subscale (NBRS-A) and the modified Alzheimer Disease Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change (mADCS-CGIC) Other outcomes were the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), activities of daily living (ADLs), caregiver distress, cognitive safety (MMSE), and adverse events. Results Participants on citalopram showed significant improvement compared to placebo on both primary outcome measures. NBRS-A estimated treatment difference at week 9 (citalopram minus placebo) was −0.93 [95% CI: −1.80 to −0.06], p = 0.036. mADCS-CGIC results showed 40% of citalopram participants having moderate or marked improvement from baseline compared to 26% on placebo, with estimated treatment effect (odds ratio of being at or better than a given CGIC category) of 2.13 [95% CI 1.23 to 3.69], p = 0

  4. Development, Testing, and Application of a Coupled Hydrodynamic Surface-Water/Groundwater Model (FTLOADDS) with Heat and Salinity Transport in the Ten Thousand Islands/Picayune Strand Restoration Project Area, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, Eric D.; Decker, Jeremy D.

    2009-01-01

    fluctuations which affect manatee behavior. Comparison of the existing conditions simulation with the simulation incorporating restoration changes indicated that the restoration would increase the period of inundation for most of the coastal wetlands. Generally, surface-water salinity was lowered by restoration changes in most of the wetlands areas, especially during the early dry season. However, the opposite pattern was observed in the primary canal habitat for manatees, namely, the Port of the Islands. Salinities at this location tended to be moderately elevated during the dry season, and unchanged during the wet season. Water temperatures were in close agreement between the existing conditions and restoration simulations, although minimum temperatures at the Port of the Islands were slightly higher in the restoration simulation as a result of the additional surface-water ponding and warming that occurs in adjacent wetlands. The TTI application output was used to generate salinity and temperature time series for comparison to manatee field tracking data and an individually-based manatee-behavior model. Overlaying field data with salinity and temperature results from the TTI application reflects the effect of warm water availability and the periodic need for low-salinity drinking water on manatee movements. The manatee-behavior model uses the TTI application data at specific model nodes along the main manatee travel corridors to determine manatee migration patterns. The differences between the existing conditions and restoration scenarios can then be compared for manatee refugia. The TTI application can be used to test a variety of hydrologic conditions and their effect on important criteria.

  5. An investigation of long-term effects of group music therapy on agitation levels of people with Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ledger, Alison J; Baker, Felicity A

    2007-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the long-term effects of group music therapy on agitation manifested by nursing home residents with Alzheimer's disease. A non-randomised experimental design was employed with one group receiving weekly music therapy (n = 26) and another group receiving standard nursing home care (n = 19). Agitation levels were measured five times over one year using the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (Cohen-Mansfield, J. (1989). Agitation in the elderly. In N. Billig & P. V. Rabins (Eds.), Issues in geriatric psychiatry (pp. 101-113). Basel, Switzerland: Karger). Although music therapy participants showed short-term reductions in agitation, there were no significant differences between the groups in the range, frequency, and severity of agitated behaviours manifested over time. Multiple measures of treatment efficacy are necessary to better understand the long-term effects music therapy programs have on this population.

  6. The Effect on Apheresis Platelet Quality During Shipment with Continued Interruption of Agitation for 24 and 48 Hours

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-26

    The Effect on Apheresis Platelet Quality During Shipment With Continued Interruption of Agitation for 24 and 48 Hours R.R. Leslie-Holt and V. W...EFFECT ON APHERESIS PLATELET QUALITY DURING SHIPMENT WITH CONTINUED INTERRUPTION OF AGITATION FOR 24 AND 48 HOURS. 6. AUTHOR(S) CAPT LESLIEHOLT RONNI...maintaining an oxidative metabolism. Key Words: Agitation, apheresis , lactate, pH, platelet , quality 4 INTRODUCTION The Armed Services Blood Program

  7. Sea Surface Salinity

    NASA Video Gallery

    The heat of the sun also forces evaporation at the ocean's surface, which puts water vapor into the atmosphere but leaves minerals and salts behind, keeping the ocean salty. The salinity of the oce...

  8. Stabilization of tetanus toxoid formulation containing aluminium hydroxide adjuvant against agitation.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Vipul A; Jain, Nishant K; Roy, Ipsita

    2012-02-28

    The aggregation of tetanus toxoid leads to reduced bioavailability of the vaccine and failure of immunization programmes in many parts of the globe. One of the main reasons for denaturation and aggregation of tetanus toxoid formulations is agitation of the protein during transport. We have identified that agitation leads to collapse of the gel matrix of aluminium hydroxide which is used as an adjuvant in these preparations. This results in desorption of the toxoid from the matrix, which then loses its antigenicity due to agitation-induced denaturation of the protein. We show that incorporation of some compatible osmolytes like sorbitol, glucose and arginine, but not trehalose, is able to protect the adjuvant matrix from degradation, and retain the integrity of the vaccine preparation in terms of its antigenicity.

  9. The effects of researcher-composed music at mealtime on agitation in nursing home residents with dementia.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shu-Yuan; Lai, Hui-Ling; Jeng, Shaw-Yeu; Tang, Chih-Wei; Sung, Huei-Chuan; Chen, Pin-Wen

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the effects of music at mealtimes on agitation in 22 nursing home residents with dementia. We used a pretest-posttest research design. We played researcher-composed music to residents at each of two mealtimes daily over a consecutive 4-week period. We observed and recorded agitation 24 hours daily for the 4-week period and the following 2-week period. Results revealed a significant decline in mean agitation scores. A cumulative dose effect and a short-term linger effect were observed. Findings suggest that soothing music may be beneficial in managing agitation in nursing home residents with dementia.

  10. Study of dissolution hydrodynamic conditions versus drug release from hypromellose matrices: the influence of agitation sequence.

    PubMed

    Asare-Addo, Kofi; Levina, Marina; Rajabi-Siahboomi, Ali R; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2010-12-01

    In this article, the influence of agitation in descending and ascending sequences as a systematic method development process for potentially discriminating fed and fasted states and evaluation of its effects on the drug release from swelling gel-forming hydrophilic matrix tablets were investigated. Theophylline extended release (ER) matrices containing hypromellose (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)) were evaluated in media with a pH range of 1.2-7.5, using an automated USP type III, Bio-Dis dissolution apparatus at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 dips per minute (dpm). Agitation had a profound effect on the drug release from the HPMC K100LV matrices. Drug release in pH 1.2 changed from about 40% at 5 dpm to about 80% at 30 dpm over a 60 min period alone. The matrices containing HPMC K4M, K15M and K100M however were not significantly affected by the agitation rate. The similarity factor f2 was calculated using drug release at 10 dpm as a reference. The ascending agitations of 5-30 dpm and the descending order of agitation 30-5 dpm were also evaluated. Anomalous transport was the only kinetic of release for the K4M, K15M and K100M tablet matrices. The lower viscous polymer of K100LV had some matrices exhibiting Fickian diffusion as its kinetics of release. The use of systematic change of agitation method may indicate potential fed and fasted effects on drug release from hydrophilic matrices.

  11. Time to response to citalopram treatment for agitation in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Weintraub, Daniel; Drye, Lea T.; Porsteinsson, Anton P.; Rosenberg, Paul B.; Pollock, Bruce G.; Devanand, D.P.; Frangakis, Constantine; Ismail, Zahinoor; Marano, Christopher; Meinert, Curtis L.; Mintzer, Jacobo E.; Munro, Cynthia A.; Pelton, Gregory; Rabins, Peter V.; Schneider, Lon S.; Shade, David M.; Yesavage, Jerome; Lyketsos, Constantine G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Agitation is a common and significant problem in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In the recent Citalopram for Agitation in Alzheimer’s Disease (CitAD) study, citalopram was efficacious for the treatment of AD agitation. Here we examined the time course and predictors of response to treatment. Methods Response in CitAD was defined as a modified Alzheimer Disease Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change (mADCS-CGIC) score of 1 or 2, or a Neurobehavioral Rating Scale agitation subscale (NBRS-A) score reduction ≥50% from baseline. “Stable early response” was defined as meeting the aforementioned criteria at both weeks 3 and 9, “late response” was response at week 9 but not at week 3, and “unstable response” was response at week 3 but not at week 9. Results In the primary analyses, citalopram was superior to placebo on both the CGIC and the NBRS-A response measures. There were little between-group differences in response rates in the first three weeks of the study (21% vs 19% on the CGIC). Citalopram patients were more likely than placebo patients to be a late responder (18% vs. 8% on CGIC, Fisher’s exact p=0.09; 31% vs. 15% on NBRS-A, Fisher’s exact p=0.02). Approximately half (45–56%) of citalopram responders at end-of-study achieved response later in the study, compared with 30–44% of placebo responders. Discussion Treatment with citalopram for agitation in AD needs to be at least nine weeks in duration to allow sufficient time for full response, and study duration is an important factor to consider in the design of clinical trials for agitation in Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26238225

  12. Do Bartonella Infections Cause Agitation, Panic Disorder, and Treatment-Resistant Depression?

    PubMed Central

    Schaller, James L.; Burkland, Glenn A.; Langhoff, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Bartonella is an emerging infection found in cities, suburbs, and rural locations. Routine national labs offer testing for only 2 species, but at least 9 have been discovered as human infections within the last 15 years. Some authors discuss Bartonella cases having atypical presentations, with serious morbidity considered uncharacteristic of more routine Bartonella infections. Some atypical findings include distortion of vision, abdominal pain, severe liver and spleen tissue abnormalities, thrombocytopenic purpura, bone infection, arthritis, abscesses, heart tissue and heart valve problems. While some articles discuss Bartonella as a cause of neurologic illnesses, psychiatric illnesses have received limited attention. Case reports usually do not focus on psychiatric symptoms and typically only as incidental comorbid findings. In this article, we discuss patients exhibiting new-onset agitation, panic attacks, and treatment-resistant depression, all of which may be attributed to Bartonella. Methods Three patients receiving care in an outpatient clinical setting developed acute onset personality changes and agitation, depression, and panic attacks. They were retrospectively examined for evidence of Bartonella infections. The medical and psychiatric treatment progress of each patient was tracked until both were significantly resolved and the Bartonella was cured. Results The patients generally seemed to require higher dosing of antidepressants, benzodiazepines, or antipsychotics in order to function normally. Doses were reduced following antibiotic treatment and as the presumed signs of Bartonella infection remitted. All patients improved significantly following treatment and returned to their previously healthy or near-normal baseline mental health status. Discussion New Bartonella species are emerging as human infections. Most do not have antibody or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnostic testing at this time. Manual differential examinations are of

  13. Effects of physical agitation on yield of greenhouse-grown soybean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. S.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    Agronomic and horticultural crop species experience reductions in growth and harvestable yield after exposure to physical agitation (also known as mechanical stress), as by wind or rain. A greenhouse study was conducted to test the influence of mechanical stress on soybean yield and to determine if exposure to mechanical stress during discrete growth periods has differential effects on seed yield. A modified rotatory shaker was used to apply seismic (i.e., shaking) stress. Brief, periodic episodes of seismic stress reduced stem length, total seed dry weight, and seed number of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Lodging resistance was greater for plants stressed during vegetative growth or throughout vegetative and reproductive growth than during reproductive growth only. Seed dry weight yield was reduced regardless of the timing or duration of stress application, but was lowest when applied during reproductive development. Seismic stress applied during reproductive growth stages R1 to R2 (Days 3 to 4) was as detrimental to seed dry weight accumulation as was stress applied during growth stages R1 to R6 (Days 39 to 42). Seed dry weight per plant was highly correlated with seed number per plant, and seed number was correlated with the seed number of two- and three-seeded pods. Dry weight per 100 seeds was unaffected by seismic-stress treatment. Growth and yield reductions resulting from treatments applied only during the vegetative stage imply that long-term mechanical effects were induced, from which the plants did not fully recover. It is unclear which yield-controlling physiological processes were affected by mechanical stress. Both transient and long-term effects on yield-controlling processes remain to be elucidated.

  14. Barbiturate Induction for the Prevention of Emergence Agitation after Pediatric Sevoflurane Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Nakahara, Haruna; Kimoto, Ayako; Beppu, Yuki; Yoshimura, Maki; Kojima, Toshiyuki; Fukano, Taku

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Emergence agitation (EA) is a common and troublesome problem in pediatric patients recovering from general anesthesia. The incidence of EA is reportedly higher after general anesthesia maintained with sevoflurane, a popular inhalational anesthetic agent for pediatric patients. We conducted this prospective, randomized, double-blind study to test the effect of an intravenous ultra-short–acting barbiturate, thiamylal, administered during induction of general anesthesia on the incidence and severity of EA in pediatric patients recovering from Sevoflurane anesthesia. METHODS: Fifty-four pediatric patients (1 to 6 years of age) undergoing subumbilical surgeries were randomized into 2 groups. Patients received either intravenous thiamylal 5mg/kg (Group T) or inhalational Sevoflurane 5% (Group S) as an anesthetic induction agent. Following induction, general anesthesia was maintained with Sevoflurane and nitrous oxide (N2O) in both groups. To control the intra- and post-operative pain, caudal block or ilioinguinal/iliohypogastric block was performed. The incidence and severity of EA were evaluated by using the Modified Objective Pain Scale (MOPS: 0 to 6) at 15 and 30 min after arrival in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). RESULTS: Fifteen minutes after arrival in the PACU, the incidence of EA in Group T (28%) was significantly lower than in Group S (64%; p = 0.023) and the MOPS in Group T (median 0, range 0 to 6) was significantly lower than in Group S (median 4, range 0 to 6; p = 0.005). The interval from discontinuation of Sevoflurane to emergence from anesthesia was not significantly different between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: Thiamylal induction reduced the incidence and severity of EA in pediatric patients immediately after Sevoflurane anesthesia. PMID:26472953

  15. Accumulation of dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans in agar cultures and in stationary and agitated liquid cultures of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill.

    PubMed

    Szopa, Agnieszka; Kokotkiewicz, Adam; Marzec-Wróblewska, Urszula; Bucinski, Adam; Luczkiewicz, Maria; Ekiert, Halina

    2016-05-01

    Schisandra chinensis plant in vitro cultures were maintained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 3 mg/l 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 1 mg/l 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) in an agar system and also in two different liquid systems: stationary and agitated. Liquid cultures were grown in batch (30 and 60 days) and fed-batch modes. In the methanolic extracts from lyophilized biomasses and in the media, quantification of fourteen dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans identified based on co-chromatography with authentic standards using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and/or liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESI-MS) methods. For comparison purposes, phytochemical analyses were performed of lignans in the leaves and fruits of the parent plant. The main lignans detected in the biomass extracts from all the tested systems were schisandrin (max. 65.62 mg/100 g dry weight (DW)), angeloyl-/tigloylgomisin Q (max. 49.73 mg/100 g DW), deoxyschisandrin (max. 43.65 mg/100 g DW), and gomisin A (max. 34.36 mg/100 g DW). The highest total amounts of lignans in the two tested stationary systems were found in extracts from the biomass harvested after 30 days of batch cultivation: 237.86 mg/100 g DW and 274.65 mg/100 g DW, respectively. In the agitated culture, the total content reached a maximum value of 244.80 mg/100 g DW after 60 days of the fed-batch mode of cultivation. The lignans were not detected in the media. This is the first report which documents the potential usefulness of S. chinensis shoot cultures cultivated in liquid systems for practical purposes.

  16. Women, Scientists, Agitators: Magazine Portrayal of Rachel Carson and Theo Colborn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Julia B.

    2001-01-01

    Utilizes a theoretical framework of the media's role in reporting conflict and uncertain science, and feminism and science in a thematic analysis of magazine coverage given Rachel Carson and "the Rachel Carson of '90s," Theo Colborn. Notes that Carson and Colborn's identities as women, scientists, and agitators led critics to charge that…

  17. The effect of agitation state on polyol synthesis of silver nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirjani, Amirmostafa; Marashi, Pirooz; Fatmehsari, Davoud Haghshenas

    2016-11-01

    In the present work, the effect of agitation rate on the growth mechanism of silver nanowires is evaluated during polyol process. It was found that increasing the agitation rate leads to the increase in the oxygen transfer rate which in turn enhances the oxidative etching conditions leading to the formation of a variety of nanostructures (nanoparticles, nanorods and nanowires). In light of the obtained experimental results, it can be stated that agitation is not essential for synthesizing silver nanowires by polyol method and it is possible to obtain uniform nanowires with ~200 nm diameters in the length of 20-30 microns several microns length in the stagnant condition. By setting the stirring rate at 200 rpm, it is possible to reduce the nanowires diameters to ~130 nm and the obtained nanostructures are still mono-dispersed. This paper provides complete information about the effect of agitation state on the polyol synthesis of silver nanowires which is truly useful for further studies in this case.

  18. Boiling heat transfer enhancement of nanofluids on a smooth surface with agitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xin; Qi, Baojin; Wei, Jinjia; Li, Wei; Ding, Jie; Zhang, Yonghai

    2016-12-01

    The pool boiling heat transfer performance on a smooth silicon chip surface with agitation was experimentally investigated in this study. The nanofluids (Ag/alcohol) of 0.02 % volume concentration and ethyl alcohol with purification over 99.9 % were the two contrast working fluids. For each group, subcoolings of 40, 50 and 60 K were conducted under atmospheric pressure. To enhance the heat transfer performance, an agitating device was fixed above the top of the chip. The experimental results indicated that nanofluids could enhance the heat transfer performance especially in the nucleate boiling region. The heat transfer coefficient was significantly increased with nanofluids, while the critical heat flux (CHF) was nearly not changed. In the agitation Reynolds number of 20,300, the heat transfer performance of nanofluids was significantly enhanced in the convection region, and the CHF was increased by more than 25 % for all groups. This boiling phenomenon was observed for both nanofluids and alcohol groups. Meanwhile, the boiling curves of different liquid subcoolings in the nucleate region were quite similar to each other under agitation.

  19. Pharmacological Management of Agitation and Aggression in an Adolescent with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Findling, Robert L.; McDougle, Christopher J.; Scahill, Lawrence; Hamarman, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an "autism vignette" and then poses an evaluative question to several autism specialists, documenting their varied responses to the scenario and question posed. A 13-year-old boy with autism and severe mental retardation presented to the inpatient psychiatric unit due to a recent increase in agitation and physical aggression.…

  20. Using Simulation to Train Junior Psychiatry Residents to Work with Agitated Patients: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigman, Daniel; Young, Meredith; Chalk, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the benefit and feasibility of introducing a new, simulation-based learning intervention for junior psychiatry residents. Method: Junior psychiatry residents were invited to participate in a new simulation-based learning intervention focusing on agitated patients. Questionnaires were used to explore the success of…

  1. Escalation of Agitative Rhetoric: A Case Study of Mattachine Midwest, 1967-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darsey, James

    This paper examines the adequacy of Bowers and Ochs' theory of social movements as applied to the escalating agitative strategies of a dissident group, the homosexual-rights organization Mattachine Midwest. The group's activities are described chronologically, in terms of the strategies employed: petition, promulgation, polarization,…

  2. Brief Report: Retrospective Case Series of Oxcarbazepine for Irritability/Agitation Symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Jessica F.; Sanders, Kevin B.; Benneyworth, M. Hannah; Smith, Jessica L.; DeJean, Virginia M.; McGrew, Susan G.; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    We examined response to oxcarbazepine prescribed for irritability/agitation symptoms in a retrospective case series of 30 patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The average patient was 12.0 years old (range 5-21) and taking two other psychotropic medications (range 0-4). Fourteen patients (47 %) had a clinical global impression of…

  3. Effects of hydrostatic pressure, agitation and CO2 stress on Phytophthora nicotianae zoospore survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora nicotianae Breda de Haan was used as a model pathogen to investigate the effects of hydrostatic pressure, agitation, and aeration with CO2 or breathable air on the survival of Phytophthora zoospores in water. Injecting CO2 into 2 liters of zoospore-infested water for 5 min at 110.4 ml ...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1029 - Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and instrumentation systems..., connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and... shall comply with paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section. Pumps, valves, connectors, and...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1029 - Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and instrumentation systems..., connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and... shall comply with paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section. Pumps, valves, connectors, and...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1029 - Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and instrumentation systems..., connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and... shall comply with paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section. Pumps, valves, connectors, and...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1029 - Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and instrumentation systems..., connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and... shall comply with paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section. Pumps, valves, connectors, and...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1029 - Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and instrumentation systems..., connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and... shall comply with paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section. Pumps, valves, connectors, and...

  9. Non-biodegradable landfill leachate treatment by combined process of agitation, coagulation, SBR and filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Abood, Alkhafaji R.; Bao, Jianguo; Du, Jiangkun; Zheng, Dan; Luo, Ye

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • A novel method of stripping (agitation) was investigated for NH{sub 3}-N removal. • PFS coagulation followed agitation process enhanced the leachate biodegradation. • Nitrification–denitrification achieved by changing operation process in SBR treatment. • A dual filter of carbon-sand is suitable as a polishing treatment of leachate. • Combined treatment success for the complete treatment of non-biodegradable leachate. - Abstract: This study describes the complete treatment of non-biodegradable landfill leachate by combined treatment processes. The processes consist of agitation as a novel stripping method used to overcome the ammonia toxicity regarding aerobic microorganisms. The NH{sub 3}-N removal ratio was 93.9% obtained at pH 11.5 and a gradient velocity (G) 150 s{sup −1} within a five-hour agitation time. By poly ferric sulphate (PFS) coagulation followed the agitation process; chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}) were removed at 70.6% and 49.4%, respectively at an optimum dose of 1200 mg L{sup −1} at pH 5.0. The biodegradable ratio BOD{sub 5}/COD was improved from 0.18 to 0.31 during pretreatment step by agitation and PFS coagulation. Thereafter, the effluent was diluted with sewage at a different ratio before it was subjected to sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treatment. Up to 93.3% BOD{sub 5}, 95.5% COD and 98.1% NH{sub 3}-N removal were achieved by SBR operated under anoxic–aerobic–anoxic conditions. The filtration process was carried out using sand and carbon as a dual filter media as polishing process. The final effluent concentration of COD, BOD{sub 5}, suspended solid (SS), NH{sub 3}-N and total organic carbon (TOC) were 72.4 mg L{sup −1}, 22.8 mg L{sup −1}, 24.2 mg L{sup −1}, 18.4 mg L{sup −1} and 50.8 mg L{sup −1} respectively, which met the discharge standard. The results indicated that a combined process of agitation-coagulation-SBR and filtration effectively eliminated

  10. Salinity on irrigated lands

    SciTech Connect

    Westmore, R.A.; Manbeck, D.M.

    1984-02-01

    The technology for controlling salinity on irrigated lands is relatively simple, involving both minor and major changes in current land-management practices. Minor changes include more frequent irrigation, the use of salt-tolerant crops, preplanning irrigation, and seed placement. The major changes require a shift from gravity to sprinkler or drip systems, increased water supply and quality, soil modification, land grading, and improved drainage. Some of the major changes are difficult, and some impossible, to accomplish. Examples of reclamation include the Mardan Salinity Control and Reclamation Project (SCARP) in Pakistan. 5 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  11. Metabolomics for salinity research.

    PubMed

    Roessner, Ute; Beckles, Diane M

    2012-01-01

    Soil salinity devastates agriculture. It reduces crop yields and makes arable land unsuitable for later use. Many species have evolved highly efficient strategies to sense, transduce, and build up tolerance to high salinity and even sensitive species have endogenous mechanism for coping with this stress. These underlying physiological and metabolic mechanisms can be unraveled using metabolomics. Here we describe detailed protocols of how to extract polar metabolites for analysis using GC-MS and LC-MS. We also touch briefly on considerations that should be taken into account when designing the experiment and how the resulting data may be analyzed and visualized in a biological context.

  12. Non-biodegradable landfill leachate treatment by combined process of agitation, coagulation, SBR and filtration.

    PubMed

    Abood, Alkhafaji R; Bao, Jianguo; Du, Jiangkun; Zheng, Dan; Luo, Ye

    2014-02-01

    This study describes the complete treatment of non-biodegradable landfill leachate by combined treatment processes. The processes consist of agitation as a novel stripping method used to overcome the ammonia toxicity regarding aerobic microorganisms. The NH3-N removal ratio was 93.9% obtained at pH 11.5 and a gradient velocity (G) 150 s(-1) within a five-hour agitation time. By poly ferric sulphate (PFS) coagulation followed the agitation process; chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD5) were removed at 70.6% and 49.4%, respectively at an optimum dose of 1200 mg L(-1) at pH 5.0. The biodegradable ratio BOD5/COD was improved from 0.18 to 0.31 during pretreatment step by agitation and PFS coagulation. Thereafter, the effluent was diluted with sewage at a different ratio before it was subjected to sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treatment. Up to 93.3% BOD5, 95.5% COD and 98.1% NH3-N removal were achieved by SBR operated under anoxic-aerobic-anoxic conditions. The filtration process was carried out using sand and carbon as a dual filter media as polishing process. The final effluent concentration of COD, BOD5, suspended solid (SS), NH3-N and total organic carbon (TOC) were 72.4 mg L(-1), 22.8 mg L(-1), 24.2 mg L(-1), 18.4 mg L(-1) and 50.8 mg L(-1) respectively, which met the discharge standard. The results indicated that a combined process of agitation-coagulation-SBR and filtration effectively eliminated pollutant loading from landfill leachate.

  13. Swelling and erosion properties of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (Hypromellose) matrices--influence of agitation rate and dissolution medium composition.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Nicole; Corrigan, Owen I

    2004-07-26

    The effect of dissolution medium variables, such as medium composition, ionic strength and agitation rate, on the swelling and erosion of Hypromellose (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, HPMC) matrices of different molecular weights was examined. Swelling and erosion of HPMC polymers was determined by measuring the wet and subsequent dry weights of matrices. It was possible to describe the rate of dissolution medium uptake in terms of a square root relationship and the erosion of the polymer in terms of the cube root law. The extent of swelling increased with increasing molecular weight, and decreased with increasing agitation rate. The erosion rate was seen to increase with decrease in polymer molecular weight, with a decrease in ionic strength and with increasing agitation rate. The sensitivity of polymer erosion to the degree of agitation may influence the ability of these polymers to give reproducible, agitation-independent release, compared to more rigid non-eroding matrix materials, in the complex hydrodynamic environment of the gastrointestinal tract.

  14. Acute toxicity of saline produced waters to marine organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Pillard, D.A.; Evans, J.M.; DuFresne, D.L.

    1996-11-01

    Produced waters from oil and gas drilling operations are typically very saline, and may cause acute toxicity to marine organisms due imbalances as well as to an excess or deficiency of to osmotic specific common ions. In order to better understand the relationship between toxicity and ion concentration, laboratory toxicity tests were conducted using mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), sheepshead minnow, (Cyprinodon variegatus), and inland silvemide (Menidia beryllina). For each species the ionic concentration of standard laboratory water was proportionally increased or decreased to produce test solutions with a range of salinities. Individual ions (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, strontium, chloride, bromide, sulfate, bicarbonate, and borate) were also manipulated to examine individual ion toxicity. Organisms were exposed for 48 hours. The three test species differ in their tolerance of salinity. Mysid shrimp show a marked decrease in survival at salinities less than approximately 5 ppt. Both fish species tolerated low salinity water, however, silversides were less tolerant of saline waters (salinity greater than 40 ppt). There were also significant differences in the responses of the organisms to different ions. The results show that salinity of the test solution may play an important role in the responses of the organisms to produced water effluent. Predictable toxicity/ion relationships developed in this study can be used to estimate whether toxicity in produced water is a result of common ions, salinity, or some other unknown toxicant.

  15. Impact of vibration and agitation speed on dissolution of USP prednisone tablets RS and various IR tablet formulations.

    PubMed

    Seeger, Nicole; Lange, Sigrid; Klein, Sandra

    2015-08-01

    Dissolution testing is an in vitro procedure which is widely used in quality control (QC) of solid oral dosage forms and, given that real biorelevant test conditions are applied, can also be used as a predictive tool for the in vivo performance of such formulations. However, if a dissolution method is intended to be used for such purposes, it has to deliver results that are only determined by the quality of the test product, but not by other variables. In the recent past, more and more questions were arising on how to address the effects of vibration on dissolution test results. The present study was performed to screen for the correlation of prednisone dissolution of USP Prednisone Tablets RS with vibration caused by a commercially available vibration source as well as to investigate how drug release from a range of immediate release formulations containing class 1-4 drugs of the biopharmaceutical classification scheme is affected by vibration when performing dissolution experiments at different agitation rates. Results of the present study show that the dissolution process of oral drug formulations can be affected by vibration. However, it also becomes clear that the degree of which a certain level of vibration impacts dissolution is strongly dependent on several factors such as drug properties, formulation parameters, and the design of the dissolution method. To ensure the establishment of robust and predictive dissolution test methods, the impact of variation should thus be considered in method design and validation.

  16. Measurement of agitation and aggression in adult and aged neuropsychiatric patients: review of definitions and frequently used measurement scales.

    PubMed

    Volicer, Ladislav; Citrome, Leslie; Volavka, Jan

    2017-02-09

    Agitation and aggression in adult psychiatric patients with psychoses and in persons with dementia increase the burden of disease and frequently cause hospitalization. The implementation of currently available management strategies and the development of new ones is hindered by inconsistent terminology that confuses agitation with aggression. This confusion is maintained by many rating scales that fail to distinguish between these two syndromes. We review the frequently used rating scales with a particular focus on their ability to separate agitation from aggression. Agitation and aggression are two different syndromes. For example, reactive aggression is often precipitated by rejection of care and may not be associated with agitation per se. We propose, in treatment studies of behavioral symptoms of dementia and challenging behaviors in psychoses, that outcomes should be evaluated separately for agitation and aggression. This is important for investigation of drug effectiveness since the medication may be effective against one syndrome but not the other. Separate assessments of agitation and aggression should be a general principle of trial design with particular salience for registration studies of medications proposed for approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and other regulatory bodies.

  17. Saline Systems highlights for 2006

    PubMed Central

    DasSarma, Shiladitya

    2007-01-01

    Saline Systems is a journal devoted to both basic and applied studies of saline and hypersaline environments and their biodiversity. Here, I review the reports and commentaries published in the journal in 2006, including some exploring the geochemistry of saline estuaries, lakes, and ponds, others on the ecology and molecular biology of the indigenous halophilic organisms, and still others addressing the environmental challenges facing saline environments. Several studies are relevant to applications in biotechnology and aquaculture. PMID:17244355

  18. Salinity Measurements During the Gulf Stream Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Koblinsky, C.; Howden, S.; Goodberlet, M.

    2000-01-01

    The salinity of the open ocean is important for understanding ocean circulation, for understanding energy exchange with the atmosphere and for improving models to predict weather and climate. Passive microwave sensors at L-band (1.4 GHz) operating from aircraft have demonstrated that salinity can be measured with sufficient accuracy (1 psu) to be scientifically meaningful in coastal waters. However, measuring salinity in the open ocean presents unresolved issues largely because of the much greater accuracy (approx. 0.1 psu) required to be scientifically viable. In the summer of 1999 a series of measurements called, The Gulf Stream Experiment, were conducted as part of research at the Goddard Space Flight Center to test the potential for passive microwave remote sensing of salinity in the open ocean. The measurements consisted of a compliment of airborne microwave instruments (radiometers and scatterometer) and ships and drifters for surface truth. The study area was a 200 km by 100 km rectangle about 250 km east of Delaware Bay between the continental shelf waters and north wall of the Gulf Stream. The primary passive instruments were the ESTAR radiometer (L-band, H-pol) and the SLFMR radiometer (L-band, V-pol). In addition, the compliment of instruments on the aircraft included a C-band radiometer (ACMR), an ocean wave scatterometer (ROWS) and an infrared radiometer. A GPS backscatter experiment was also part of the package. These instruments were mounted on the NASA P-3 Orion aircraft. Surface salinity measurements were provided by the RN Cape Henlopen and MN Oleander (thermosalinographs) plus salinity and temperature sensors on three surface drifters deployed from the RN Cape Henopen. The primary experiment period was August 26-September 2, 1999. During this period the salinity field within the study area consisted of a gradient on the order of 2-3 psu in the vicinity of the shelf break and a warm core ring with a gradient of 1-2 psu. Detailed maps were made

  19. Potential environmental issues of CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers: Geochemical results from the Frio-I Brine Pilot test, Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Yousif K.; Thordsen, James J.; Hovorka, Susan D.; Nance, H. Seay; Cole, David R.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Knauss, Kevin G.

    2009-01-01

    Sedimentary basins in general, and deep saline aquifers in particular, are being investigated as possible repositories for large volumes of anthropogenic CO2 that must be sequestered to mitigate global warming and related climate changes. To investigate the potential for the long-term storage of CO2 in such aquifers, 1600 t of CO2 were injected at 1500 m depth into a 24-m-thick "C" sandstone unit of the Frio Formation, a regional aquifer in the US Gulf Coast. Fluid samples obtained before CO2 injection from the injection well and an observation well 30 m updip showed a Na–Ca–Cl type brine with ∼93,000 mg/L TDS at saturation with CH4 at reservoir conditions; gas analyses showed that CH4 comprised ∼95% of dissolved gas, but CO2 was low at 0.3%. Following CO2 breakthrough, 51 h after injection, samples showed sharp drops in pH (6.5–5.7), pronounced increases in alkalinity (100–3000 mg/L as HCO3) and in Fe (30–1100 mg/L), a slug of very high DOC values, and significant shifts in the isotopic compositions of H2O, DIC, and CH4. These data, coupled with geochemical modeling, indicate corrosion of pipe and well casing as well as rapid dissolution of minerals, especially calcite and iron oxyhydroxides, both caused by lowered pH (initially ∼3.0 at subsurface conditions) of the brine in contact with supercritical CO2.These geochemical parameters, together with perfluorocarbon tracer gases (PFTs), were used to monitor migration of the injected CO2 into the overlying Frio “B”, composed of a 4-m-thick sandstone and separated from the “C” by ∼15 m of shale and siltstone beds. Results obtained from the Frio “B” 6 months after injection gave chemical and isotopic markers that show significant CO2 (2.9% compared with 0.3% CO2 in dissolved gas) migration into the “B” sandstone. Results of samples collected 15 months after injection, however, are ambiguous, and can be interpreted to show no additional injected CO2 in the “B” sandstone

  20. Process agitator operating problems and equipment failures, F-Canyon Reprocessing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Durant, W.S.; Starks, J.B.; Low, J.M.; Galloway, W.D.

    1988-09-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) maintains a compilation of operating problems and equipment failures that have occurred in the fuel reprocessing areas of the Savannah River Plant (SRP). At present, the data bank contains more than 200,000 entries ranging from minor equipment malfunctions to incidents with the potential for injury or contamination of personnel, or for economic loss. The data bank has been used extensively for a wide variety of purposes, such as failure analyses, trend analyses, and preparation of safety analyses. Typical of the data are problems associated with the F-Canyon process agitators. This report contains a compilation of the agitator operating problems and equipment failures primarily as an aid to organizations with related equipment. Publication of these data was prompted by a number of requests for this information by other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Highly sensitive detection and stochastic analysis of magnetization agitation induced in a single layered magnetic wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Akinobu; Motoi, Keiichi; Miyajima, Hideki

    2016-03-01

    This study shows that broadband magnetic noise in a ferromagnetic wire can be detected over a wide frequency range between 500 MHz and 8 GHz using a lock-in detection technique. The magnetic noise spectrum from a 20 nm-thick single-layered Fe19Ni81 wire biased with a dc current is measured as functions of an external field and dc current. This noise is caused by thermal agitation in magnetization due to ambient temperature and Joule heating. The noise behaviors are well reproduced by a stochastic model. Thus, this paper presents a stochastic analysis of magnetic noise behaviors induced by thermal agitation using a highly sensitive technique for detecting the magnetic noise in a single layered ferromagnetic wire.

  2. Effects of Tween 20 and Tween 80 on the stability of Albutropin during agitation.

    PubMed

    Chou, Danny K; Krishnamurthy, Rajesh; Randolph, Theodore W; Carpenter, John F; Manning, Mark Cornell

    2005-06-01

    The objectives of this work were to determine the effects of nonionic surfactants (Tween 20 and Tween 80) on agitation-induced aggregation of the recombinant fusion protein, Albutropintrade mark (human growth hormone genetically fused to human albumin), and to characterize the binding interactions between the surfactants and the protein. Knowing the binding stoichiometry would allow a rational choice of surfactant concentration to protect the protein from surface-induced aggregation. Fluorescence spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) were employed to study Albutropin surfactant binding. Albutropin was agitated at 25 +/- 2 degrees C to induce aggregation, and samples were taken during a 96-h incubation. Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC-HPLC) (HPLC, high-performance liquid chromatography) was used to detect and quantify the extent of protein aggregation. The effect of surfactants on the protein's free energy of unfolding was determined using guanidine HCl as a denaturant. Tween 20 and Tween 80 had saturable binding to Albutropin with a molar binding stoichiometry of 10:1 and 9:1 (surfactant:protein), respectively. Binding of the surfactants to Albutropin increased the free energy of unfolding by over 1 and 0.6 kcal/mol, respectively. In protein samples that were agitated in the absence of surfactant, soluble aggregates were detected within 24 h, and there was almost complete loss of monomer to soluble aggregates by the end of the 96-h experiment. At the molar binding stoichiometry, Tween 20 and Tween 80 prevented the formation of soluble aggregates, even though the concentrations of surfactants were well below their critical micelle concentrations (CMC). Tween 20 and Tween 80 protected Albutropin against agitation-induced aggregation, even at concentrations below the CMC. Equilibrium unfolding data indicate that Tween confer protection by increasing the free energy of unfolding of Albutropin.

  3. Development of a semipurified test diet for determining amino acid requirements of Florida pompano Trachinotus carolinus reared under low-salinity conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two trials were conducted to develop a semipurified test diet for determining indispensable amino acid (IAA) requirements for Florida pompano Trachinotus carolinus. The objective of the first trial was to evaluate casein and corn gluten meal as principal intact protein sources, and the ability of F...

  4. Agitation and delirium at the end of life: "We couldn't manage him".

    PubMed

    Breitbart, William; Alici, Yesne

    2008-12-24

    Delirium is the most common neuropsychiatric complication experienced by patients with advanced illness, occurring in up to 85% of patients in the last weeks of life. Using the case of Mr L, a 59-year-old man with metastatic lung cancer who developed an agitated delirium in the last week of life, we review the evaluation and management of delirium near the end of life. Although some studies have identified agitation as a central feature of delirium in 13% to 46% of patients, other studies have found up to 80% of patients near the end of life develop a hypoactive, nonagitated delirium. Both the agitated (hyperactive) and nonagitated (hypoactive) forms of delirium are harbingers of impending death and are associated with increased morbidity in patients who are terminally ill, causing distress for patients, family members, and staff. Delirium is a sign of significant physiological disturbance, usually involving multiple causes, including infection, organ failure, and medication adverse effects. Often these causes of delirium are not reversible in the dying patient, and this influences the outcomes of its management. Delirium can also significantly interfere with the recognition and control of other physical and psychological symptoms, such as pain. Unfortunately, delirium is often misdiagnosed or unrecognized and thus inappropriately treated or untreated in terminally ill patients. To manage delirium in terminally ill patients, clinicians must be able to diagnose it accurately, undertake appropriate assessment of underlying causes, and understand the benefits and risks of the available pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions.

  5. Pumping Characteristics of a Helical Screw Agitator with a Draught Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Youn-Jea

    In the use of helical type agitator, the mixing process is usually restricted to the laminar flow regime. Common examples of laminar mixing are found where the fluid has a very high viscosity, i.e., pseudoplastic fluids. It can be indicated that a helical type agitator is sufficiently suited to the creeping flow mixing. The pumping characteristic of a Helical Screw Agitator with a draught tube (HSA) is required to evaluate its capacity for the optimal configuration of the mixing chamber. It could be executed by changing some parameters such as the number of helix, the angular velocity and the rotating direction and so on. In this study, the numerical simulation was carried out with the Eulerian multiphase mixture model and the moving mesh approximation. Some of the optimum design parameters have been developed with the aid of numerical data from the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis. Using the commercial code, Fluent, the pumping characteristics in the HSA are investigated from the rheological properties, and the results are graphically depicted.

  6. Helically agitated mixing in dry dilute acid pretreatment enhances the bioconversion of corn stover into ethanol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dry dilute acid pretreatment at extremely high solids loading of lignocellulose materials demonstrated promising advantages of no waste water generation, less sugar loss, and low steam consumption while maintaining high hydrolysis yield. However, the routine pretreatment reactor without mixing apparatus was found not suitable for dry pretreatment operation because of poor mixing and mass transfer. In this study, helically agitated mixing was introduced into the dry dilute acid pretreatment of corn stover and its effect on pretreatment efficiency, inhibitor generation, sugar production, and bioconversion efficiency through simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation (SSF) were evaluated. Results The overall cellulose conversion taking account of cellulose loss in pretreatment was used to evaluate the efficiency of pretreatment. The two-phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model on dry pretreatment was established and applied to analyze the mixing mechanism. The results showed that the pretreatment efficiency was significantly improved and the inhibitor generation was reduced by the helically agitated mixing, compared to the dry pretreatment without mixing: the ethanol titer and yield from cellulose in the SSF reached 56.20 g/L and 69.43% at the 30% solids loading and 15 FPU/DM cellulase dosage, respectively, corresponding to a 26.5% increase in ethanol titer and 17.2% increase in ethanol yield at the same fermentation conditions. Conclusions The advantage of helically agitated mixing may provide a prototype of dry dilute acid pretreatment processing for future commercial-scale production of cellulosic ethanol. PMID:24387051

  7. Electromagnetic simulations for salinity index error estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilczek, Andrzej; Szypłowska, Agnieszka; Kafarski, Marcin; Nakonieczna, Anna; Skierucha, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    Soil salinity index (SI) is a measure of salt concentration in soil water. The salinity index is calculated as a partial derivative of the soil bulk electrical conductivity (EC) with respect to the bulk dielectric permittivity (DP). The paper focused on the impact of different sensitivity zones for measured both EC and DP on the salinity index determination accuracy. For this purpose, a set of finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations was prepared. The simulations were carried out on the model of a reflectometric probe consisting of three parallel rods inserted into a modelled material of simulated DP and EC. The combinations of stratified distributions of DP and EC were tested. An experimental verification of the simulation results on selected cases was performed. The results showed that the electromagnetic simulations can provide useful data to improve accuracy of the determination of soil SI.

  8. Union Agitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishali

    2006-01-01

    A decade has passed since a few union leaders formed the network known as Teacher Union Reform Network (TURN) to search for innovative ways to enhance education. Selling their message has not always been easy. Created in 1995, TURN was the brain child of Adam Urbanski, the president of the Rochester (N.Y.) Teachers Association for the past 25…

  9. Granulation of core particles suitable for film coating by agitation fluidized bed III. Effect of scale, agitator rotational speed and blade shape on granule properties and development of a high accuracy scale-up theory.

    PubMed

    Hamashita, Tomohiro; Ono, Tetsuo; Ono, Masaki; Tsunenari, Yoshinobu; Aketo, Takao; Watano, Satoru

    2009-04-01

    The preparation of core particles suitable for subsequent film coating was examined using different scales of agitation fluidized beds. Specifically, the effects of agitator rotational speed and agitator blade shape in different scales of granulators on granule properties such as mass median diameter, apparent density, friability and shape factor were studied. As the agitator rotational speed was increased or when the agitator blade height and angle were large, the mass median diameter and friability of the granules decreased, while the apparent density and shape factor increased, in a manner independent of the vessel size because the granules were subjected to greater compression, shearing and rolling effects. The same core particles could not be prepared using granulators with different vessel sizes by simply adopting a conventional scale-up theory(1,2)) based on kinetic energy similarity. Here, a novel scale-up theory that takes into account agitator blade shape factors is proposed.(3)) When the two scale-up theories were compared, our new theory was capable of predicting the granule properties more accurately than the conventional theory. By adopting this novel theory, the same core particles could be prepared under different operating conditions in any scale of granulator.

  10. Effects of salinity on leaf breakdown: Dryland salinity versus salinity from a coalmine.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Felix G; Bundschuh, Mirco; Zubrod, Jochen P; Schäfer, Ralf B; Thompson, Kristie; Kefford, Ben J

    2016-08-01

    Salinization of freshwater ecosystems as a result of human activities represents a global threat for ecosystems' integrity. Whether different sources of salinity with their differing ionic compositions lead to variable effects in ecosystem functioning is unknown. Therefore, the present study assessed the impact of dryland- (50μS/cm to 11,000μS/cm) and coalmine-induced (100μS/cm to 2400μS/cm) salinization on the leaf litter breakdown, with focus on microorganisms as main decomposer, in two catchments in New South Wales, Australia. The breakdown of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves decreased with increasing salinity by up to a factor of three. Coalmine salinity, which is characterised by a higher share of bicarbonates, had a slightly but consistently higher breakdown rate at a given salinity relative to dryland salinity, which is characterised by ionic proportions similar to sea water. Complementary laboratory experiments supported the stimulatory impact of sodium bicarbonates on leaf breakdown when compared to sodium chloride or artificial sea salt. Furthermore, microbial inoculum from a high salinity site (11,000μS/cm) yielded lower leaf breakdown at lower salinity relative to inoculum from a low salinity site (50μS/cm). Conversely, inoculum from the high salinity site was less sensitive towards increasing salinity levels relative to inoculum from the low salinity site. The effects of the different inoculum were the same regardless of salt source (sodium bicarbonate, sodium chloride and artificial sea salt). Finally, the microorganism-mediated leaf litter breakdown was most efficient at intermediate salinity levels (≈500μS/cm). The present study thus points to severe implications of increasing salinity intensities on the ecosystem function of leaf litter breakdown, while the underlying processes need further scrutiny.

  11. Osmotic and hydraulic adjustment of mangrove saplings to extreme salinity.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Alonzo, Rodrigo; López-Portillo, Jorge; Moctezuma, Coral; Bartlett, Megan K; Sack, Lawren

    2016-12-01

    Salinity tolerance in plant species varies widely due to adaptation and acclimation processes at the cellular and whole-plant scales. In mangroves, extreme substrate salinity induces hydraulic failure and ion excess toxicity and reduces growth and survival, thus suggesting a potentially critical role for physiological acclimation to salinity. We tested the hypothesis that osmotic adjustment, a key type of plasticity that mitigates salinity shock, would take place in coordination with declines in whole-plant hydraulic conductance in a common garden experiment using saplings of three mangrove species with different salinity tolerances (Avicennia germinans L., Rhizophora mangle L. and Laguncularia racemosa (L.) C.F. Gaertn., ordered from higher to lower salinity tolerance). For each mangrove species, four salinity treatments (1, 10, 30 and 50 practical salinity units) were established and the time trajectories were determined for leaf osmotic potential (Ψs), stomatal conductance (gs), whole-plant hydraulic conductance (Kplant) and predawn disequilibrium between xylem and substrate water potentials (Ψpdd). We expected that, for all three species, salinity increments would result in coordinated declines in Ψs, gs and Kplant, and that the Ψpdd would increase with substrate salinity and time of exposure. In concordance with our predictions, reductions in substrate water potential promoted a coordinated decline in Ψs, gs and Kplant, whereas the Ψpdd increased substantially during the first 4 days but dissipated after 7 days, indicating a time lag for equilibration after a change in substratum salinity. Our results show that mangroves confront and partially ameliorate acute salinity stress via simultaneous reductions in Ψs, gs and Kplant, thus developing synergistic physiological responses at the cell and whole-plant scales.

  12. Quantitative comparison of calcium hydroxide removal by EndoActivator, ultrasonic and ProTaper file agitation techniques: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Khaleel, Huda Yasir; Al-Ashaw, Ahmed Jawad; Yang, Yan; Pang, Ai-hui; Ma, Jing-zhi

    2013-02-01

    Calcium hydroxide (CH) dressing residues can compromise endodontic sealing. This study aimed to evaluate the amount of remaining CH in root canals after mechanical removal by four groups of irrigation techniques including needle irrigation only, ProTaper file, EndoActivator, and ultrasonic file. Fifteen extracted single-rooted teeth were collected and used for all four groups. The samples were firstly prepared by ProTaper rotary instruments, and then sectioned longitudinally through the long axis of the root canals, followed by final reassembling by wires. CH was kept in the canals for 7 days setting. The removal procedure began with 5 mL of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) followed by 1 mL of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and a final irrigation with 5 mL of 2.5% NaOCl solution for all groups. No additional agitation of the irrigant was performed in group 1, while agitation for 20 s between irrigants was done with F2 ProTaper rotary file in group 2, EndoActivator with tip size 25/.04 in group 3 and by an ultrasonic file 25/.02 in group 4. The total activation time was 60 s. The roots were then disassembled and captured by digital camera. The ratio of CH coated surface area to the surface area of the whole canal as well as each third of the canal was calculated. The data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA using post hoc Tukey test. Results showed that none of the four techniques could remove all CH. No significant difference was found between EndoActivator and ultrasonic techniques. However, they both removed significantly more CH than ProTaper and needle irrigation (P=0.0001). In conclusion, the sonic and ultrasonic agitation techniques were more effective in removing intracanal medicaments than the ProTaper rotary file and needle irrigation in all thirds of the canal.

  13. Addressing the need for rapid treatment of agitation in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: focus on inhaled loxapine as an alternative to injectable agents

    PubMed Central

    Citrome, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Agitation (excessive motor or verbal activity) can be associated with schizophrenia or bipolar mania, and can further escalate into aggressive behavior and potentially lead to injuries in patients and staff. Medications used to treat agitation include antipsychotics and benzodiazepines, usually administered intramuscularly when rapid action is desired. Loxapine, a first-generation antipsychotic, has recently been reformulated into an inhaled powder that allows for direct administration to the lungs, resulting in rapid absorption into the systemic circulation. Administered via a single-use device, inhaled loxapine was tested in randomized controlled trials in agitation associated with schizophrenia or bipolar mania; doses of 5 mg and 10 mg were found to be efficacious, with an apparent dose response. In the Phase III studies, number needed to treat versus placebo for a ≥40% reduction from baseline on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale – Excited Component (PANSS-EC) at 2 hours was three for patients with bipolar disorder, and five for 5 mg and four for 10 mg for patients with schizophrenia, with effect sizes comparable to what has been observed in analogous studies of intramuscular injection of antipsychotics or lorazepam. Separation from placebo on the PANSS-EC was as early as 10 minutes postinhalation, the first time point where this was measured. Dysgeusia was the most commonly encountered spontaneously reported adverse event. Adverse events related to extrapyramidal symptoms and akathisia were relatively rare. Spirometry studies identified the potential for bronchospasm particularly in persons with asthma. Because of concerns over pulmonary safety, inhaled loxapine is restricted to use in hospitals and patients need to be prescreened for the presence of pulmonary disease, as well as monitored for signs and symptoms of bronchospasm for 1 hour postdose administration, as per a Food and Drug Administration-mandated Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy

  14. Salinity driven oceanographic upwelling

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, David H.

    1986-01-01

    The salinity driven oceanographic upwelling is maintained in a mariculture device that includes a long main duct in the general shape of a cylinder having perforated cover plates at each end. The mariculture device is suspended vertically in the ocean such that one end of the main duct is in surface water and the other end in relatively deep water that is cold, nutrient rich and relatively fresh in comparison to the surface water which is relatively warm, relatively nutrient deficient and relatively saline. A plurality of elongated flow segregating tubes are disposed in the main duct and extend from the upper cover plate beyond the lower cover plate into a lower manifold plate. The lower manifold plate is spaced from the lower cover plate to define a deep water fluid flow path to the interior space of the main duct. Spacer tubes extend from the upper cover plate and communicate with the interior space of the main duct. The spacer tubes are received in an upper manifold plate spaced from the upper cover plate to define a surface water fluid flow path into the flow segregating tubes. A surface water-deep water counterflow is thus established with deep water flowing upwardly through the main duct interior for discharge beyond the upper manifold plate while surface water flows downwardly through the flow segregating tubes for discharge below the lower manifold plate. During such counterflow heat is transferred from the downflowing warm water to the upflowing cold water. The flow is maintained by the difference in density between the deep water and the surface water due to their differences in salinity. The upwelling of nutrient rich deep water is used for marifarming by fertilizing the nutrient deficient surface water.

  15. Salinity driven oceanographic upwelling

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, D.H.

    1984-08-30

    The salinity driven oceanographic upwelling is maintained in a mariculture device that includes a long main duct in the general shape of a cylinder having perforated cover plates at each end. The mariculture device is suspended vertically in the ocean such that one end of the main duct is in surface water and the other end in relatively deep water that is cold, nutrient rich and relatively fresh in comparison to the surface water which is relatively warm, relatively nutrient deficient and relatively saline. A plurality of elongated flow segregating tubes are disposed in the main duct and extend from the upper cover plate beyond the lower cover plate into a lower manifold plate. The lower manifold plate is spaced from the lower cover plate to define a deep water fluid flow path to the interior space of the main duct. Spacer tubes extend from the upper cover plate and communicate with the interior space of the main duct. The spacer tubes are received in an upper manifold plate spaced from the upper cover plate to define a surface water fluid flow path into the flow segregating tubes. A surface water-deep water counterflow is thus established with deep water flowing upwardly through the main duct interior for discharge beyond the upper manifold plate while surface water flows downwardly through the flow segregating tubes for discharge below the lower manifold plate. During such counterflow heat is transferred from the downflowing warm water to the upflowing cold water. The flow is maintained by the difference in density between the deep water and the surface water due to their differences in salinity. The upwelling of nutrient rich deep water is used for marifarming by fertilizing the nutrient deficient surface water. 1 fig.

  16. Overview of SMOS Salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, R.

    2014-12-01

    While it is well known that the ocean is one of the most important components of the climate system, with a heat capacity 1100 times greater than the atmosphere, the ocean is also the primary reservoir for freshwater transport to the atmosphere and largest component of the global water cycle. Two new satellite sensors, the ESA Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and the NASA Aquarius SAC-D missions are now providing the first space borne measurements of the sea surface salinity (SSS). In this talk, we will present examples demonstrating how SMOS-derived SSS data are being used to better characterize key land-ocean and atmosphere-ocean interaction processes that occur within the marine hydrological cycle. In particular, we shall illustrate how SMOS and its ocean mapping capability provides observations across the world's largest tropical ocean fresh pool regions and we will discuss intra-seasonal to interannual precipitation impacts as well as large-scale river runoff from the Amazon-Orinoco and Congo rivers and its offshore advection. Synergistic multi-satellite analyses of these new surface salinity data sets combined with sea surface temperature, dynamical height and currents from altimetry, surface wind, ocean color, rainfall estimates, and in situ observations will be shown to yield new freshwater budget and ocean circulation insight. Examples of SMOS capabilities of monitoring salt exchanges across the Gulf Stream through meso-scale eddies will be provided. SSS observations from the SMOS and Aquarius/SAC-D sensors are combined to examine the response of the upper ocean to tropical cyclone passage including the potential role that a freshwater-induced upper ocean barrier layer may play in modulating surface cooling and enthalpy flux in tropical cyclone track regions.

  17. Toward an understanding of the effects of agitation and aeration on growth and laccases production by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Tinoco-Valencia, Raunel; Gómez-Cruz, Cristina; Galindo, Enrique; Serrano-Carreón, Leobardo

    2014-05-10

    Mycelial growth and laccase production by Pleurotus ostreatus CP50 cultured in a 10-L mechanically agitated bioreactor were assessed through a 2(3) factorial experimental design. The main effects and interactions of three factors (agitation, aeration and copper induction) over five responses (μ, αLacc, βLacc, maximal volumetric laccase activity and maximal biomass concentration) were analyzed. P. ostreatus growth was significantly improved when culturing was conducted with high agitation (5.9kW/m(3)s) and aeration flow (0.5vvm) rates. Under the experimental conditions evaluated, no evidence of hydrodynamic stress affecting fungal growth was observed. However, the high agitation and aeration conditions were detrimental for the growth-associated laccase production constant (αLacc), leading to a very complex optimization of the process. The maximal laccase volumetric activity (1.2 and 3.8U/ml for non-induced and copper-induced cultures, respectively) was observed when the culturing was performed at a low agitation rate (0.9kW/m(3)s) and a high aeration flow rate (0.5vvm). Laccase proteolysis may explain the complex interactions observed between agitation and aeration and the effects of these factors on the laccase volumetric activity observed in the cultures.

  18. Mushroom polysaccharides and lipids synthesized in liquid agitated and static cultures. Part I: screening various mushroom species.

    PubMed

    Diamantopoulou, Panagiota; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kapoti, Maria; Komaitis, Michael; Aggelis, George; Philippoussis, Antonios

    2012-06-01

    The effect of four synthetic media containing glucose (initial concentration 30 g l(-1)) on mycelial growth, exopolysaccharides (EPS) and cellular lipids production was examined in 11 mushroom species after 12 and 16 days of culture in static- and shake-flasks. Fatty acid analysis of cellular lipids produced was also performed. Agitation had a positive effect on biomass production, glucose consumption and lipid biosynthesis. Media that favoured the production of biomass were not suitable for EPS biosynthesis and vice versa. Biomass values varied from ~1.0 g l(-1) (Lentinula edodes) to ~19 g l(-1) (Pleurotus ostreatus), while the highest EPS quantity achieved ranged between 1.6 and 1.8 g l(-1) (for Ganoderma lucidum and L. edodes, respectively). Quantities of total cellular lipids varied between 2.5 and 18.5 % w/w, in dry mycelial mass for the fungi tested. Lipid in dry weight values were influenced by the medium composition. Cellular lipids presented noticeable quantities of poly-unsaturated fatty acids like linoleic acid. Compared to most of the mushrooms tested, lipids of Volvariella volvacea were more saturated. The ability of several mushroom species of our study to produce in notable quantities the above-mentioned added-value compounds renders these fungi worthy for further investigations.

  19. Development and testing of a novel lab-scale direct steam-injection apparatus to hydrolyse model and saline crop slurries.

    PubMed

    Santi, Guglielmo; Guglielmo, Santi; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Alessandro, D'Annibale; Petruccioli, Maurizio; Maurizio, Petruccioli; Crognale, Silvia; Silvia, Crognale; Ruzzi, Maurizio; Maurizio, Ruzzi; Valentini, Riccardo; Riccardo, Valentini; Moresi, Mauro; Moresi, Mauro

    2012-02-20

    In this work, a novel laboratory-scale direct steam-injection apparatus (DSIA) was developed to overcome the main drawback of the conventional batch-driven lab rigs, namely the long time needed to heat fiber slurry from room to reaction temperatures greater than 150 °C. The novel apparatus mainly consisted of three units: (i) a mechanically-stirred bioreactor where saturated steam at 5-30 bar can be injected; (ii) an automatic on-off valve to flash suddenly the reaction medium after a prefixed reaction time; (iii) a cyclone separator to recover the reacted slurry. This system was tested using 0.75 dm³ of an aqueous solution of H₂SO₄ (0.5%, v/v) enriched with 50 kg m⁻³ of either commercial particles of Avicel® and Larch xylan or 0.5 mm sieved particles of Tamarix jordanis. Each slurry was heated to about 200 °C by injecting steam at 28 bar for 90 s. The process efficiency was assessed by comparing the dissolution degree of suspended solid (Y(S)), as well as xylose (Y(X)), glucose (Y(G)), and furfural (Y(F)) yields, with those obtained in a conventional steam autoclave at 130 °C for 30 or 60 min. Treatment of T. jordanis particles in DSIA resulted in Y(S) and Y(G) values quite similar to those obtained in the steam autoclave at 130 °C for 60 min, but in a less efficient hemicellulose solubilization. A limited occurrence of pentose degradation products was observed in both equipments, suggesting that hydrolysis predominated over degradation reactions. The susceptibility of the residual solid fractions from DSIA treatment to a conventional 120 h long cellulolytic treatment using an enzyme loading of 5.4 FPU g⁻¹ was markedly higher than that of samples hydrolysed in the steam autoclave, their corresponding glucose yields being equal to 0.94 and 0.22 g per gram of initial cellulose, respectively. Thus, T. jordanis resulted to be a valuable source of sugars for bioethanol production as proved by preliminary tests in the novel lab rig developed here.

  20. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Salinity Evaluation and Minimization Plan for Cooling Towers and Mechanical Equipment Discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Daily III, W D

    2010-02-24

    This document was created to comply with the Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board (CVRWQCB) Waste Discharge Requirement (Order No. 98-148). This order established new requirements to assess the effect of and effort required to reduce salts in process water discharged to the subsurface. This includes the review of technical, operational, and management options available to reduce total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations in cooling tower and mechanical equipment water discharges at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) Experimental Test Site (Site 300) facility. It was observed that for the six cooling towers currently in operation, the total volume of groundwater used as make up water is about 27 gallons per minute and the discharge to the subsurface via percolation pits is 13 gallons per minute. The extracted groundwater has a TDS concentration of 700 mg/L. The cooling tower discharge concentrations range from 700 to 1,400 mg/L. There is also a small volume of mechanical equipment effluent being discharged to percolation pits, with a TDS range from 400 to 3,300 mg/L. The cooling towers and mechanical equipment are maintained and operated in a satisfactory manner. No major leaks were identified. Currently, there are no re-use options being employed. Several approaches known to reduce the blow down flow rate and/or TDS concentration being discharged to the percolation pits and septic systems were reviewed for technical feasibility and cost efficiency. These options range from efforts as simple as eliminating leaks to implementing advanced and innovative treatment methods. The various options considered, and their anticipated effect on water consumption, discharge volumes, and reduced concentrations are listed and compared in this report. Based on the assessment, it was recommended that there is enough variability in equipment usage, chemistry, flow rate, and discharge configurations that each discharge location at Site 300 should be

  1. Dexmedetomidine Infusion to Control Agitation due to Anticholinergic Toxidromes in Adolescents, a Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ada; Tobias, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    Dexmedetomidine is an α2-adrenergic agonist approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the sedation of adults who are intubated on mechanical ventilation and in non-intubated adults who are undergoing surgical procedures. However, it has also recently become a commonly used sedative agent in varied clinical settings for the pediatric patient as well. We present the use of dexmedetomidine for sedation in a unique clinical scenario, the severely agitated and combative patient following the intentional misuse of anticholinergic drugs. Its applications in this situation are discussed, and previous reports in the literature are reviewed. PMID:26380573

  2. Methods for determining enzymatic activity comprising heating and agitation of closed volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David Neil; Henriksen, Emily DeCrescenzo; Reed, David William; Jensen, Jill Renee

    2016-03-15

    Methods for determining thermophilic enzymatic activity include heating a substrate solution in a plurality of closed volumes to a predetermined reaction temperature. Without opening the closed volumes, at least one enzyme is added, substantially simultaneously, to the closed volumes. At the predetermined reaction temperature, the closed volumes are agitated and then the activity of the at least one enzyme is determined. The methods are conducive for characterizing enzymes of high-temperature reactions, with insoluble substrates, with substrates and enzymes that do not readily intermix, and with low volumes of substrate and enzyme. Systems for characterizing the enzymes are also disclosed.

  3. Treatment of post-electroconvulsive therapy delirium and agitation with donepezil.

    PubMed

    Logan, Christopher J; Stewart, Jonathan T

    2007-03-01

    Delirium and agitation are commonly encountered after administration of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Management is generally fairly straightforward, although some patients may have a severe, prolonged, or refractory course. We recently cared for a 65-year-old man who consistently developed severe and very prolonged post-ECT delirium that did not respond to typical pharmacological agents; the duration of delirium was dramatically shortened by the addition of donepezil. Cholinesterase inhibitors may have a place in mitigating severe and prolonged post-ECT delirium.

  4. Persistent genital arousal disorder: confluent patient history of agitated depression, paroxetine cessation, and a tarlov cyst.

    PubMed

    Eibye, Simone; Jensen, Hans Mørch

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a woman suffering from persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) after paroxetine cessation. She was admitted to a psychiatric department and diagnosed with agitated depression. Physical investigation showed no gynaecological or neurological explanation; however, a pelvic MRI scan revealed a Tarlov cyst. Size and placement of the cyst could not explain the patient's symptoms; thus neurosurgical approach would not be helpful. Her depression was treated with antidepressant with little effect. Electroconvulsive therapy improved the patient's symptoms though they did not fully resolve. More awareness of PGAD and thorough interdisciplinary conferences are necessary to insure an unequivocal treatment strategy.

  5. Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder: Confluent Patient History of Agitated Depression, Paroxetine Cessation, and a Tarlov Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Hans Mørch

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a woman suffering from persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) after paroxetine cessation. She was admitted to a psychiatric department and diagnosed with agitated depression. Physical investigation showed no gynaecological or neurological explanation; however, a pelvic MRI scan revealed a Tarlov cyst. Size and placement of the cyst could not explain the patient's symptoms; thus neurosurgical approach would not be helpful. Her depression was treated with antidepressant with little effect. Electroconvulsive therapy improved the patient's symptoms though they did not fully resolve. More awareness of PGAD and thorough interdisciplinary conferences are necessary to insure an unequivocal treatment strategy. PMID:25525548

  6. [Adaptability of mangrove Kandelia obovata seedlings to salinity-waterlogging].

    PubMed

    You, Hui-ming

    2015-03-01

    A laboratory test on the effects of 12 salinity-waterlogging stresses on the growth of Kandelia obovata seedlings was conducted. Nine growth indexes including seedling height, stem height, basal diameter, node number, leaf number, root biomass, stem biomass, leaf biomass and total biomass were measured. The results showed that salinity and salinity-waterlogging stresses had significant effects on the growth of K. obovata seedlings, while waterlogging stress had no significant effects on the seedling height, stem height, basal diameter, node number and leaf number, but had significant effects on root biomass, stem biomass, leaf biomass and total biomass. The growth and biomass of K. obovata seedlings decreased with increasing the salinity and waterlogging time. The principal components analysis showed that K. obovata seedlings would grow best under the 7 per thousand salinity+2 h waterlogging stress, while the 21per thousand+8 h combination was a critical stress.

  7. Effects of viewing a preferred nature image and hearing preferred music on engagement, agitation, and mental status in persons with dementia

    PubMed Central

    Eggert, Julia; Vincent, Ellen; Parker, Veronica; Daily, Shaundra B; Pham, Hiep; Watson, Alison Turner; Summey, Hollie; Roy, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the described exploratory study was to test proactive strategies for enhancing engagement and cognitive ability while diminishing dementia-related disordered behaviors of those diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias. Study participants resided in an Memory Care unit of an assisted living community. Method: The researchers measured the effects of exposure to music and nature images on engagement using the Individualized Dementia Engagement and Activities Scale tool, on cognitive ability using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and on agitation using the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory. Result: The within-subject study design revealed that use of both music and nature images hold promise for reducing undesirable behaviors and improving engagement of residents. Conclusion: The authors suggest caregivers for those with Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias can effectively use nature images and music to improve engagement and reduce disordered behaviors, thus potentially enhancing quality of life for the care recipient as well as the caregiver while possibly reducing the costs of medications used to control dementia-related undesirable behaviors. PMID:26770801

  8. Salinity Adaptation and the Contribution of Parental Environmental Effects in Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Moriuchi, Ken S.; Friesen, Maren L.; Cordeiro, Matilde A.; Badri, Mounawer; Vu, Wendy T.; Main, Bradley J.; Aouani, Mohamed Elarbi; Nuzhdin, Sergey V.; Strauss, Sharon Y.; von Wettberg, Eric J. B.

    2016-01-01

    High soil salinity negatively influences plant growth and yield. Some taxa have evolved mechanisms for avoiding or tolerating elevated soil salinity, which can be modulated by the environment experienced by parents or offspring. We tested the contribution of the parental and offspring environments on salinity adaptation and their potential underlying mechanisms. In a two-generation greenhouse experiment, we factorially manipulated salinity concentrations for genotypes of Medicago truncatula that were originally collected from natural populations that differed in soil salinity. To compare population level adaptation to soil salinity and to test the potential mechanisms involved we measured two aspects of plant performance, reproduction and vegetative biomass, and phenological and physiological traits associated with salinity avoidance and tolerance. Saline-origin populations had greater biomass and reproduction under saline conditions than non-saline populations, consistent with local adaptation to saline soils. Additionally, parental environmental exposure to salt increased this difference in performance. In terms of environmental effects on mechanisms of salinity adaptation, parental exposure to salt spurred phenological differences that facilitated salt avoidance, while offspring exposure to salt resulted in traits associated with greater salt tolerance. Non-saline origin populations expressed traits associated with greater growth in the absence of salt while, for saline adapted populations, the ability to maintain greater performance in saline environments was also associated with lower growth potential in the absence of salt. Plastic responses induced by parental and offspring environments in phenology, leaf traits, and gas exchange contribute to salinity adaptation in M. truncatula. The ability of plants to tolerate environmental stress, such as high soil salinity, is likely modulated by a combination of parental effects and within-generation phenotypic

  9. Salinity Adaptation and the Contribution of Parental Environmental Effects in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Moriuchi, Ken S; Friesen, Maren L; Cordeiro, Matilde A; Badri, Mounawer; Vu, Wendy T; Main, Bradley J; Aouani, Mohamed Elarbi; Nuzhdin, Sergey V; Strauss, Sharon Y; von Wettberg, Eric J B

    2016-01-01

    High soil salinity negatively influences plant growth and yield. Some taxa have evolved mechanisms for avoiding or tolerating elevated soil salinity, which can be modulated by the environment experienced by parents or offspring. We tested the contribution of the parental and offspring environments on salinity adaptation and their potential underlying mechanisms. In a two-generation greenhouse experiment, we factorially manipulated salinity concentrations for genotypes of Medicago truncatula that were originally collected from natural populations that differed in soil salinity. To compare population level adaptation to soil salinity and to test the potential mechanisms involved we measured two aspects of plant performance, reproduction and vegetative biomass, and phenological and physiological traits associated with salinity avoidance and tolerance. Saline-origin populations had greater biomass and reproduction under saline conditions than non-saline populations, consistent with local adaptation to saline soils. Additionally, parental environmental exposure to salt increased this difference in performance. In terms of environmental effects on mechanisms of salinity adaptation, parental exposure to salt spurred phenological differences that facilitated salt avoidance, while offspring exposure to salt resulted in traits associated with greater salt tolerance. Non-saline origin populations expressed traits associated with greater growth in the absence of salt while, for saline adapted populations, the ability to maintain greater performance in saline environments was also associated with lower growth potential in the absence of salt. Plastic responses induced by parental and offspring environments in phenology, leaf traits, and gas exchange contribute to salinity adaptation in M. truncatula. The ability of plants to tolerate environmental stress, such as high soil salinity, is likely modulated by a combination of parental effects and within-generation phenotypic

  10. ASSESSING THE IMPACTS OF SALINITY AND NUTRIENT ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Healthy seagrass beds were once found throughout the shallow areas of Narragansett Bay, R.I. but have disappeared due to infilling, pollution and disease. In Greenwich Bay, a highly developed embayment within Narragansett Bay, Ruppia maritima has colonized an area on the northern shore once dominated by Zostera marina. This area is sandy, which may allow groundwater seepage. Ruppia is extremely salinity tolerant, and may also be more nutrient tolerant than Zostera. A six week microcosm experiment at two salinity (20 and 30 ppt) and 4 nutrient (0, 5, 10, and 30 µM inorganic N) levels to test their relative tolerance was conducted in 2014. Treatments were renewed daily to simulate tidal flushing and the exposure water was dosed with 15N for the first week of the experiment. At the end of the experiment, the plants were weighed and measured, and dried for later isotopic analysis. In the first experiment, Ruppia had significant structural responses to both nutrients and salinity; there was a slight decline in root weight and a decrease in the total number of shoots with increasing nutrients. Average Ruppia blade length decreased with increasing nutrients and this decrease was more evident at 30 ppt. In contrast, Zostera had no significant structural differences. For both species, there were no differences in shoot or root/rhizome weights in any treatment, nor were there differences in isotopic results due to salinity. However, δ15N in the tissue increase

  11. Indirect antiglobulin test-crossmatch using low-ionic-strength saline-albumin enhancement medium and reduced incubation time: effectiveness in the detection of most clinically significant antibodies and impact on blood utilization.

    PubMed

    Dinardo, C L; Bonifácio, S L; Mendrone, A

    2014-01-01

    Indirect antiglobulin test-crossmatch (IAT-XM) using enhancement media such as low-ionic-strength saline (LISS) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) usually requires 15 minutes of incubation. These methods are necessary when testing samples from blood recipients who have a higher risk of alloimmunization. In emergency situations, IAT-XM can be time-consuming and can influence presurgery routine, resulting in more red blood cell (RBC) units being tested and stored to avoid the transfusion of uncrossmatched ones. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a LISS-albumin enhancer to intensify antigen-antibody reaction after 5 minutes of 37oC incubation and compare this performance with that of other enhancers, gel, and conventional tube testing. Second, the study evaluated the impact of this method's implementation in the C:T ratio (crossmatched to transfused RBC units) of a transfusion laboratory. Ninety serum samples containing alloantibodies of potential clinical significance were tested against phenotyped RBCs using four different methods: (1) tube with LISS-albumin enhancer (5 minutes of incubation), (2) tube with LISS-albumin and PEG (15 minutes of incubation), (3) gel, and (4) conventional tube method (60 minutes of incubation). In parallel, the study compared the C:T ratio of a tertiary-hospital transfusion laboratory in two different periods: 3 months before and 3 months after the implementation of the 5-minute IAT-XM protocol. The use of LISS-albumin with 5 minutes of incubation exhibited the same performance as LISS-albumin, PEG, and gel with 15 minutes of incubation. Conventional tube method results were equally comparable, but reactions were significantly less intense, except for anti-c (p = 0.406). Accuracy was 100 percent for all selected methods. After the implementation of the 5-minute IAT-XM protocol, the C:T ratio fell from 2.74 to 1.29 (p < 0.001). IAT-XM can have its incubation time reduced to 5 minutes with the use of LISS

  12. Management of dryland saline seeps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Discussed is the identification, diagnosis, control, and reclamation of dryland saline seep problems as found in the North American Great Plains. Saline seeps develop because of geologic stratifications within the soil profile and insufficient use of precipitation by crops used in dryland farming s...

  13. Shear and mixing effects on cells in agitated microcarrier tissue culture reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, Robert S.; Papoutsakis, E. Terry

    1987-01-01

    Tissue cells are known to be sensitive to mechanical stresses imposed on them by agitation in bioreactors. The amount of agitation provided in a microcarrier or suspension bioreactor should be only enough to provide effective homogeneity. Three distinct flow regions can be identified in the reactor: bulk turbulent flow, bulk laminar flow and boundary-layer flows. Possible mechanisms of cell damage are examined by analyzing the motion of microcarriers or free cells relative to the surrounding fluid, to each other and to moving or stationary solid surfaces. The primary mechanisms of cell damage appear to result from: (1) direct interaction between microcarriers and turbulent eddies; (2) collisions between microcarriers in turbulent flow; and (3) collisions against the impeller or other stationary surfaces. If the smallest eddies of turbulent flow are of the same size as the microcarrier beads, they may cause high shear stresses on the cells. Eddies the size of the average interbead spacing may cause bead-bead collisions which damage cells. The severity of the collisions increases when the eddies are also of the same size as the beads. Impeller collisions occur when beads cannot avoid the impeller leading edge as it advances through the liquid. The implications of the results of this analysis on the design and operation of tissue culture reactors are discussed.

  14. [Current treatment of depression and agitation in the elderly -- clinical use of trazodone].

    PubMed

    Osváth, Péter

    2013-09-01

    Due to their increasing frequency, mental disorders among the elderly have special importance in the clinical practice. In this article we summarize the characteristics, diagnostic problems and modern treatments of mental disorders (especially depression) in old age. As this period of life means special somatic and psychic features in people's condition, it may be difficult to find the most effective and well-tolerated treatment, especially in case of comorbid dementia or agitated behaviour. In this article we review the therapeutic experience with the SARI antidepressant trazodone. Clinical studies and everyday practice indicate that trazodone due to its special multifunctional receptorprofile can be particularly effective in the treatment of depression accompanied by severe insomnia and anxiety. Due to its special anxiolytic and sleep normalising effect and well-tolerated side effect profile trazodone is found to be clinically useful not only in the treatment of depression in the elderly, but also in the case of serious comorbidity with dementia or agitated behaviour. We also illustrate the possibilities of using trazodone in the everyday practice with the presentation of two case reports. Furthermore we review the viewpoints of complex therapy which facilitates the successful treatment of depression in the elderly and the restoration of quality of life.

  15. Experimental study on agitated drying characteristics of sewage sludge under the effects of different additive agents.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wenyi; Su, Yaxin

    2014-07-01

    Drying experiments of dewatered sewage sludge (DSS) were conducted on a agitated paddle dryer, and the effects of additive agents, i.e., CaO, pulverized coal (PC), heavy oil (HO), and dried sludge ("DS" through back mixing) on the agitated drying characteristics of DSS were investigated. The results indicated that CaO can significantly increase the drying rate of DSS. The drying rate at CaO/DSS (mass ratio)=1/100 was 135% higher than that of CaO/DSS=0. Pulverized coal has no obvious effect on drying rate, but the increase of PC/DSS can promote breaking up of sludge lump. Heavy oil was found to be slightly effective in improving the drying rate of DSS in the examined experimental range of HO/DSS=0-1/20. It is also found that HO can reduce the torque of the dryer shaft, due to its lubrication effect. Back mixing of DS was found to be effective in alleviating the unfavorable effect of the lumpy phase by improving the mixing effect of the paddle dryer. There was a marked increase of drying rate with an increase of the DS/DSS in the experimental range of DS/DSS=0-1/3.

  16. Properties of a calicivirus isolated from cats dying in an agitated state.

    PubMed

    Sato, Y; Ohe, K; Fukuyama, M; Furuhata, K; Kishikawa, S; Sakai, S; Kiuchi, A; Hara, M; Watanabe, T; Ishikawa, Y; Taneno, A

    In June 1993, two of five pet cats kept in Yokohama city in Japan suddenly became agitated and died. Feline calicivirus (FCV) was isolated from them. One strain (FCV-S) was isolated from the spinal cord, lung and tonsil of cat 1, another (FCV-B) from the ileum, medulla oblongata and cervical spinal cord of cat 2, and a third (FCV-SAKURA) from the oral cavity of one of the three surviving cats which showed no clinical signs. These three strains were equally resistant to pH 3.0 and serologically similar to each other, but distinct from strain F9. A genetic analysis, using a 208 base pair fragment from region E of the capsid, showed that FCV-Ari had a 70.4 per cent nucleotide and 77.3 per cent amino acid homology and FCV-F9 had a 68.6 per cent nucleotide and 73.9 per cent amino acid homology with the three strains, indicating that these two strains were genetically distinct from the three new isolates. Unvaccinated cats and cats which had been vaccinated against FCV-F9 developed watery diarrhoea but did not become agitated after the administration of FCV-S. The FCV-S strain did not induce signs of excitability after it was administered orally to specific pathogen-free cats.

  17. Clinical monitoring scales in acute brain injury: assessment of coma, pain, agitation, and delirium.

    PubMed

    Riker, Richard R; Fugate, Jennifer E

    2014-12-01

    Serial clinical examination represents the most fundamental and basic form of neurological monitoring, and is often the first and only form of such monitoring in patients. Even in patients subjected to physiological monitoring using a range of technologies, the clinical examination remains an essential tool to follow neurological progress. Key aspects of the clinical examination have now been systematized into scoring schemes, and address consciousness, pain, agitation, and delirium (PAD). The Glasgow Coma Scale has been the traditional tool to measure consciousness, but the full outline of unresponsiveness (FOUR) score has recently been validated in a variety of settings, and at present, both represent clinically useful tools. Assessment of PAD in neurologically compromised patients present special challenges. For pain, the Numeric Rating Scale is the preferred initial approach, with either the Behavioral Pain Scale or the Critical Care Pain Observation Tool in subjects who are not able to respond. The Nociception Coma Scale-Revised may be useful in patients with severe disorders of consciousness. Conventional sedation scoring tools for critical care, such as the Richmond Area Sedation Scale (RASS) and Sedation-Agitation Scale (SAS) may provide reasonable tools in some neurocritical care patients. The use of sedative drugs and neuromuscular blockers may invalidate the use of some clinical examination tools in others. The use of sedation interruption to assess neurological status can result in physiological derangement in unstable patients (such as those with uncontrolled intracranial hypertension), and is not recommended.

  18. Rapid Tranquilization for Psychiatric Patients with Psychomotor Agitation: What is Known About it?

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Clayton Gonçalves; Del Grossi Moura, Mariana; Barberato-Filho, Silvio; de Sá Del Fiol, Fernando; Motta, Rogério Heládio Lopes; de Cássia Bergamaschi, Cristiane

    2017-03-09

    Rapid tranquilization is an intervention used in control of agitation or aggression in patients with mental disorders. This study synthesized the available evidence regarding efficacy and safety of drugs used for rapid tranquilization in psychiatric patients with psychomotor agitation. It is an overview study of systematic reviews and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT) identified in the database MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and LILACS until April 2015. A team of reviewers, in pairs and independently, identified eligible studies and assessed methodological quality using AMSTAR. Data were extracted from four studies (61 RCT, 8021 participants). The association of haloperidol with promethazine (H + P) promoted tranquilization and presented better safety profile, with moderate quality evidence. Olanzapine demonstrated benefit towards tranquilization and good safety profile, but needed additional administration to keep tranquilization. There was no benefit in the use of haloperidol alone or associated to another psychotropic to most outcomes evaluated. The evidence was of low quality to most of the interventions. H + P was considered a good option for rapid tranquilization, however, more RCT are necessary to confirm the efficacy and safety of the available interventions.

  19. Effects of agitation on particle-size distribution and enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated spruce and giant reed

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mixing is an energy demanding process which has been previously shown to affect enzymatic hydrolysis. Concentrated biomass slurries are associated with high and non-Newtonian viscosities and mixing in these systems is a complex task. Poor mixing can lead to mass and/or heat transfer problems as well as inhomogeneous enzyme distribution, both of which can cause possible yield reduction. Furthermore the stirring energy dissipation may impact the particle size which in turn may affect the enzymatic hydrolysis. The objective of the current work was to specifically quantify the effects of mixing on particle-size distribution (PSD) and relate this to changes in the enzymatic hydrolysis. Two rather different materials were investigated, namely pretreated Norway spruce and giant reed. Results Changes in glucan hydrolysis and PSD were measured as a function of agitation during enzymatic hydrolysis at fiber loadings of 7 or 13% water-insoluble solids (WIS). Enzymatic conversion of pretreated spruce was strongly affected by agitation rates at the higher WIS content. However, at low WIS content the agitation had almost no effect on hydrolysis. There was some effect of agitation on the hydrolysis of giant reed at high WIS loading, but it was smaller than that for spruce, and there was no measurable effect at low WIS loading. In the case of spruce, intense agitation clearly affected the PSD and resulted in a reduced mean particle size, whereas for giant reed the decrease in particle size was mainly driven by enzymatic action. However, the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis was not increased after size reduction by agitation. Conclusions The impact of agitation on the enzymatic hydrolysis clearly depends not only on feedstock but also on the solids loading. Agitation was found to affect the PSD differently for the examined pretreated materials spruce and giant reed. The fact that the reduced mean particle diameter could not explain the enhanced hydrolysis rates found for

  20. Effect of Agitation on Acidogenesis Stage of Two-Stage Anaerobic Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) into Biogas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trisakti, B.; Irvan; Adipasah, H.; Taslim; Turmuzi, M.

    2017-03-01

    The acidogenesis stage in two-stage anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was studied in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). This research investigated the effect of agitation rate on the growth of microorganisms, the degradation of organic substances, and volatile fatty acids (VFA) production and composition. Initially, the suitable loading up was determined by varying the HRT 6.7, 5.0, and 4.0 days in a 2 L CSTR with agitation rate 50 rpm, pH 6.0 ± 0.2, at room temperature. Next, effect of agitation on the process was determined by varying agitation rate at 25, 50, 100, and 200 rpm. Analysis of total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), total suspended solids (TSS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and volatile fatty acids (VFA) were conducted in order to study the growth of microorganisms and their abilities in converting organic compound to produce VFA. The highest growth of microorganisms was achieved at HRT 4.0 day with microorganism concentration was 20.62 mg VSS/L and COD reduction was 15.7%. The highest production of total VFA achieved was 5,766.61 mg/L mg/L at agitation rate 200 rpm, with concentration of acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid were 1,889.23; 1,161.43; and 2,725.95 mg/L, respectively. While degradation VS and COD were 16.61 and 38.79%.

  1. The Interactive Relationship between Pain, Psychosis, and Agitation in People with Dementia: Results from a Cluster-Randomised Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Habiger, Torstein F.; Flo, Elisabeth; Achterberg, Wilco P.; Husebo, Bettina S.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in people with dementia, and pain is thought to be an important underlying factor. Pain has previously been associated with agitation, and pain treatment has been shown to ameliorate agitated behaviour. So far, the association between pain and psychosis and the effect of pain treatment on psychotic symptoms is unclear. Furthermore, the impact of opioid treatment on psychosis is not established. Aim. To investigate the efficacy of a stepwise protocol for treating pain (SPTP) on psychosis and agitation measured with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, Nursing Home version, and to explore the impact of opioid analgesics on psychosis. Method. Secondary analyses are from a cluster-randomised controlled trial including 352 patients with advanced dementia and agitation from 18 nursing homes in Western Norway. The intervention group received pain treatment according to SPTP. Results. Pain was associated with disinhibition (adjusted OR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.10–1.34) and irritability (adjusted OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01–1.21) at baseline. Pain treatment reduced agitation (p < 0.001, df = 1; 300) and aberrant motor behaviour (p = 0.017, df = 1; 300). Psychosis was reduced in people with at least one symptom at baseline (p = 0.034, df = 1; 135). The use of opioid analgesics did not increase psychotic symptoms. Study Registration. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01021696), Norwegian Medicines Agency, EudraCT (EudraCTnr: 2008-007490-20). PMID:27247487

  2. The complementary role of SMOS sea surface salinity observations for estimating global ocean salinity state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zeting; Cheng, Lijing; Zhu, Jiang; Lin, Renping

    2016-06-01

    Salinity is a key ocean state property, changes in which reveal the variation of the water cycle and the ocean thermohaline circulation. However, prior to this century, in situ salinity observations were extremely sparse, which decreased the reliability of simulations of ocean general circulation by ocean and climate models. In 2009, sea surface salinity (SSS) observations covered the global ocean via the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, and several versions of global SSS products were subsequently released. How can these data benefit model performance? Previous studies found contradictory results. In this work, we assimilated SMOS-SSS data into the LASG/IAP Climate system Ocean Model (LICOM) using the Ensemble Optimum Interpolation (EnOI) assimilation scheme. To assess and quantify the contribution of SMOS-SSS data to model performance, several tests were conducted. The results indicate that the CECOS/CATDS 2010.V02 SMOS-SSS product can significantly improve model simulations of sea surface/subsurface salinity fields. This study provides the basis for the future assimilation of SMOS-SSS data for short-range climate forecasting.

  3. Spatial and temporal variability in microbial activities of coastal acid saline soils of Goa, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, G. R.; Manjunath, B. L.; Latare, A. M.; D'Souza, R.; Vishwakarma, S.; Singh, N. P.

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the spatio-temporal variability of the microbial activities in coastal saline soils (locally called Khazan) of Goa, India (west coast region). The coastal soil salinity is a major constraint for reduced crop yields and abandonment of farming in these areas. Three replicated global positioning based soil samples (0-0.20 m depth) from each of four salinity groups i.e. non-saline (EC=0.08±0.06 dS m-1), weakly saline (EC=2.04±0.06 dS m-1), moderately saline (EC=3.50±0.57 dS m-1) and strongly saline (EC=5.49±0.49 dS m-1) during three seasons-monsoon, post-monsoon and pre-monsoon were collected. Soil microbial activity in terms of soil microbial carbon (MBC), MBC as a fraction of soil organic carbon (SOC) (MBC/SOC), basal soil respiration (BSR), metabolic quotient (qCO2) and soil enzyme activities-dehydrogenase, phosphatase and urease was tested. In all the seasons, the soil cationic composition depended significantly (p<0.01) on salinity levels and the exchangeable sodium (Na) was the second most dominant among the tested cations. The MBC, MBC/SOC and BSR reduced significantly with increasing salinity, whereas qCO2 increased with increased salinity levels. In general, MBC, MBC/SOC and BSR and soil enzyme activities were observed as: salinity levels-strongly saline < moderately saline < weakly saline < non-saline and season-post-monsoon > monsoon > during pre-monsoon season. The mean MBC and MBC/SOC of non-saline soils were 1.61 and 2.28 times higher than that of strongly saline soils, whereas qCO2 of strongly saline soils was 2.4 times higher than that of non-saline soils. This indirectly indicates the salinity stress on the soil microorganisms. Irrespective of season, the soil enzyme activities decreased significantly (p<0.05) with increasing salinity levels. Suitable countermeasures needs to be taken up to alleviate the depressive salinity effect on the microbial and activity for the sustainable crop production in

  4. Genetic variation and plasticity of Plantago coronopus under saline conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smekens, Marret J.; van Tienderen, Peter H.

    2001-08-01

    Phenotypic plasticity may allow organisms to cope with variation in the environmental conditions they encounter in their natural habitats. Salt adaptation appears to be an excellent example of such a plastic response. Many plant species accumulate organic solutes in response to saline conditions. Comparative and molecular studies suggest that this is an adaptation to osmotic stress. However, evidence relating the physiological responses to fitness parameters is rare and requires assessing the potential costs and benefits of plasticity. We studied the response of thirty families derived from plants collected in three populations of Plantago coronopus in a greenhouse experiment under saline and non-saline conditions. We indeed found a positive selection gradient for the sorbitol percentage under saline conditions: plant families with a higher proportion of sorbitol produced more spikes. No effects of sorbitol on fitness parameters were found under non-saline conditions. Populations also differed genetically in leaf number, spike number, sorbitol concentration and percentages of different soluble sugars. Salt treatment led to a reduction of vegetative biomass and spike production but increased leaf dry matter percentage and leaf thickness. Both under saline and non-saline conditions there was a negative trade-off between vegetative growth and reproduction. Families with a high plasticity in leaf thickness had a lower total spike length under non-saline conditions. This would imply that natural selection under predominantly non-saline conditions would lead to a decrease in the ability to change leaf morphology in response to exposure to salt. All other tests revealed no indication for any costs of plasticity to saline conditions.

  5. The Mediterranean salinity crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Hsue, K.J.

    1988-08-01

    That the Mediterranean Sea underwent a salinity crisis during the Miocene (Messinian) is proven by the 1970 JOIDES deep sea drilling expedition. Subsequent work by ocean drilling and by studies on land have recorded the history of this crisis. Based upon the deep desiccated-basin model, the use of event-stratigraphy, calibrated by strontium-isotope dating and magnetostratigraphy, has enabled them to decipher the following events between 6.0 and 5.1 Ma: (1) deposition of marine diatom-rich sediments in a partially restricted basin, (2) first desiccation of the Mediterranean when Calcare di base was deposited at a time of isolation from the Atlantic because of a glacial eustatic drop of sea level, (3) influx of marine waters through southern Spanish basins to furnish brines for the deposition of the main salt, (4) Intra-Messinian desiccation, as evidenced by the erosional unconformity above the lower evaporite, (5) Intra-Messinian denudation, when reefs grew on Cyprus and marine sediments were deposited in basins, (6) frequency isolations due to oscillating sea level, when the upper evaporite was deposited, (7) Lago mare, formation of freshwater and brackish lakes due to influx of Paratethys water, (8) opening of the Gibraltar and Pliocene inundation of the Mediterranean.

  6. A simple collapse, agitation and pathological crying in a young woman? - Atypical onset of a basilar thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Etgen, Thorleif; Milankovic-Eberl, Dragana; Rieder, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Background A collapse and agitation in a young person comprises many differential diagnoses, but usually does not include a life-threatening basilar thrombosis. Methods and Results We report the case of a 19-year old woman who presented mainly with a collapse and agitation. CT and CT-angiography yielded distal basilar thrombosis which was successfully treated by intraarterial thrombolysis. MRI confirmed multiple small ischemic lesions in the vertebrobasilar territory. The patient improved quickly and returned to her normal daily activities of life after a few months. Conclusions Posterior circulation ischemia should be included among the possible differential diagnoses of any acute onset of an agitated or confusional state. Conflicts of interest/Disclosures None to declare. Ethics Written informed consent of the patient has been obtained. PMID:25422712

  7. Paradoxical severe agitation induced by add-on high-doses quetiapine in schizo-affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Fond, Guillaume; MacGregor, Alexandra; Ducasse, Deborah; Brittner, Marie

    2014-05-15

    We report the case of a 35-year-old patient suffering from schizo-affective disorder since the age of 19 years, treated by a combination of first-generation antipsychotics, zuclopenthixol (100 mg/day) and lithium (1200 mg/day) (serum lithium=0.85 mEq/l). This patient had no associated personality disorder (particularly no antisocial disorder) and no substance abuse disorder. Within the 48 h following the gradual introduction of quetiapine (up to 600 mg/day), the patient presented severe agitation without an environmental explanation, contrasting with the absence of a history of aggressiveness or personality disorder. The diagnoses of manic shift and akathisia were dismissed. The withdrawal and the gradual reintroduction of quetiapine 2 weeks later, which led to another severe agitation, enabled us to attribute the agitation specifically to quetiapine.

  8. Effects of agitation speed on the ex vivo expansion of cord blood hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in stirred suspension culture.

    PubMed

    Jing, Qiang; Cai, Haibo; Du, Zheng; Ye, Zhaoyang; Tan, Wen-song

    2013-04-01

    The mononuclear cells were cultivated in stirred flasks at different agitation speeds of 30 rpm, 45 rpm, 60 rpm and 80 rpm. At the agitation speed of 30 rpm, total cells achieved higher expansion folds and the CFC density increased. When at higher agitation speed of 60 rpm or 80 rpm, the number of cells dropped rapidly and characteristics of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) were not maintained. Moreover, the culture duration of 6-9 days was better for HSPCs ex vivo expansion. These data indicated that HSPCs should be cultured at relatively low agitation speed and for a short-term period when cultured in stirred suspension system.

  9. The Role of Inhaled Loxapine in the Treatment of Acute Agitation in Patients with Psychiatric Disorders: A Clinical Review

    PubMed Central

    de Berardis, Domenico; Fornaro, Michele; Orsolini, Laura; Iasevoli, Felice; Tomasetti, Carmine; de Bartolomeis, Andrea; Serroni, Nicola; Valchera, Alessandro; Carano, Alessandro; Vellante, Federica; Marini, Stefano; Piersanti, Monica; Perna, Giampaolo; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Loxapine is a first generation antipsychotic, belonging to the dibenzoxazepine class. Recently, loxapine has been reformulated at a lower dose, producing an inhaled powder that can be directly administered to the lungs to treat the agitation associated with psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Thus, the aim of this narrative and clinical mini-review was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of inhaled loxapine in the treatment of acute agitation in patients with psychiatric disorders. The efficacy of inhaled loxapine has been evaluated in one Phase II trial on patients with schizophrenia, and in two Phase III trials in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Moreover, there are two published case series on patients with borderline personality disorder and dual diagnosis patients. Inhaled loxapine has proven to be effective and generally well tolerated when administered to agitated patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Two case series have suggested that inhaled loxapine may also be useful to treat agitation in patients with borderline personality disorder and with dual diagnosis, but further studies are needed to clarify this point. However, the administration of inhaled loxapine requires at least some kind of patient collaboration, and is not recommended in the treatment of severe agitation in totally uncooperative patients. Moreover, the drug-related risk of bronchospasm must always be kept in mind when planning to use inhaled loxapine, leading to a careful patient assessment prior to, and after, administration. Also, the higher costs of inhaled loxapine, when compared to oral and intramuscular medications, should be taken into account when selecting it for the treatment of agitation. PMID:28208695

  10. Cd Isotope Fractionation During Adsorption Varies with Salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasylenki, L. E.; Montanez, G.; Anbar, A. D.

    2009-12-01

    Because its marine concentration profile is very similar to that of phosphate [1], Cd is considered to have potential as a paleophosphate or paleonutrient proxy in the geologic record. Previous work [2,3] has established that lighter isotopes of Cd are preferentially assimilated by phytoplankton, leaving surface waters isotopically heavy. Another recent study [4] suggests that analysis of Cd isotope variations in transects of ferromanganese crusts could reveal past variations in the extent to which Cd, and thus phosphate, has been depleted over time. This idea presumes that the extent of consumption of Cd by phytoplankton is reflected in the isotopic composition of seawater and that the Cd isotopic composition of seawater is in turn faithfully recorded in ferromanganese crusts. To test the latter assumption, Rehkämper et al. [4] measured the Cd isotopic composition of 15 Fe-Mn crusts from various ocean basins and found that 13 of those samples were within analytical error of the Cd isotopic composition of deep seawater from [3], indicating that Cd often does not fractionate appreciably during incorporation into ferromanganese crusts. Other studies [5,6] have likewise revealed little or no variation in Cd isotopic compositions among various terrestrial rocks and carbonaceous chondrites, suggesting that few earth processes significantly fractionate Cd isotopes. To test this conclusion experimentally, we performed adsorption experiments in which aqueous Cd was allowed to adsorb to synthetic birnessite (Mn oxyhydroxide). Stock solutions of dissolved Cd and birnessite suspension were mixed and agitated from 1 to 48 hours at room temperature. Some experiments had 0.1m KNO3 as background electrolyte, while others had 0.3m NaCl + 0.1m KNO3. After filtration, both the fluid with remaining dissolved Cd and solids with adsorbed Cd were purified with anion exchange chemistry. Column yields and proportions of dissolved and adsorbed Cd were determined by ICP-MS, and isotope

  11. Characterization of a continuous agitated cell reactor for oxygen dependent biocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Toftgaard Pedersen, Asbjørn; de Carvalho, Teresa Melo; Sutherland, Euan; Rehn, Gustav; Ashe, Robert; Woodley, John M

    2017-02-10

    Biocatalytic oxidation reactions employing molecular oxygen as the electron acceptor are difficult to conduct in a continuous flow reactor because of the requirement for high oxygen transfer rates. In this paper, the oxidation of glucose to glucono-1,5-lactone by glucose oxidase was used as a model reaction to study a novel continuous agitated cell reactor (ACR). The ACR consists of ten cells interconnected by small channels. An agitator is placed in each cell, which mixes the content of the cell when the reactor body is shaken by lateral movement. Based on tracer experiments, a hydrodynamic model for the ACR was developed. The model consisted of ten tanks-in-series with back-mixing occurring within and between each cell. The back-mixing was a necessary addition to the model in order to explain the observed phenomenon that the ACR behaved as two continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) at low flow rates, while it at high flow rates behaved as the expected ten CSTRs in series. The performance of the ACR was evaluated by comparing the steady state conversion at varying residence times with the conversion observed in a stirred batch reactor of comparable size. It was found that the ACR could more than double the overall reaction rate, which was solely due to an increased oxygen transfer rate in the ACR caused by the intense mixing as a result of the spring agitators. The volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient, kL a, was estimated to be 344 h(-1) in the 100 mL ACR, opposed to only 104 h(-1) in a batch reactor of comparable working volume. Interestingly, the large deviation from plug flow behavior seen in the tracer experiments was found to have little influence on the conversion in the ACR, since both a plug flow reactor (PFR) model and the backflow cell model described the data sufficiently well. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;9999: 1-9. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Comparison of oral dexmedetomidine versus oral midazolam as premedication to prevent emergence agitation after sevoflurane anaesthesia in paediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, M Kavya; Mehandale, Sripada G

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: Sevoflurane is the most often used inhalational agent in paediatric anaesthesia, but emergence agitation (EA) remains a major concern. Oral midazolam and parenteral dexmedetomidine are known to be effective in controlling EA. We attempted to elucidate whether oral dexmedetomidine is better than midazolam in controlling EA. Methods: Prospective double-blinded study involving ninety patients aged 1–10 years, undergoing elective surgeries of <2 h of expected duration under sevoflurane general anaesthesia, randomised to receive either midazolam (Group A) or dexmedetomidine (Group B) as oral premedication was carried out to record level of sedation before induction, haemodynamic parameters and recovery time. Incidence and severity of EA, post-operative pain and requirement of rescue analgesic were assessed at 0, 5, 15, 30 and 60 min postoperatively. Results: Data were analysed applying Student's t-test and Chi-square test using SPSS software. Mask acceptance was better in Group B (97.8% vs. 73.4%, P < 0.001). Mean arterial pressure was lower in Group B (P < 0.001) though clinically not significant. More rescue analgesic was required in Group A (5.6% vs. 0%). There was no significant difference in adverse effects. Although there was a higher incidence of EA in Group A (Aono's score 3 and 4; 40% vs. 4.4%), none of them required intervention (paediatric anaesthesia emergence delirium score >10; 0 vs. 0). Conclusion: Premedication with oral dexmedetomidine provides smooth induction and recovery, reduces the EA and provides better analgesia and sedation as compared to oral midazolam. PMID:28250481

  13. Intradermal microdialysis of hypertonic saline attenuates cutaneous vasodilatation in response to local heating.

    PubMed

    DuPont, Jennifer J; Farquhar, William B; Edwards, David G

    2011-07-01

    We tested the hypothesis that microdialysis of hypertonic saline would attenuate the skin blood flow response to local heating. Seventeen healthy subjects (23 ± 1 years old) were studied. In one group (n = 9), four microdialysis fibres were placed in the forearm skin and infused with the following: (1) Ringer solution; (2) normal saline (0.9% NaCl); (3) hypertonic saline (3% NaCl); and (4) 10 mm l-NAME. A second group (n = 8) was infused with the following: (1) normal saline; (2) hypertonic saline; (3) normal saline + l-NAME; and (4) hypertonic saline + l-NAME. Red blood cell flux was measured via laser Doppler flowmetry during local heating to 42°C. Site-specific maximal vasodilatation was determined by infusing 28 mm sodium nitroprusside while the skin was heated to 43°C. Data were expressed as the percentage of maximal cutaneous vascular conductance (%CVC(max)). The local heating response at the Ringer solution and normal saline sites did not differ (n = 9; initial peak Ringer solution, 69 ± 6 versus normal saline, 66 ± 2%CVC(max); plateau Ringer solution, 89 ± 4 versus normal saline, 89 ± 5%CVC(max)). Hypertonic saline reduced the initial peak (n = 9; normal saline, 66 ± 2 versus hypertonic saline, 54 ± 4%CVC(max); P < 0.05) and plateau (normal saline, 89 ± 5 versus hypertonic saline, 78 ± 2%CVC(max); P < 0.05) compared with normal saline. Plateau %CVC(max) was attenuated to a similar value at the normal saline + l-NAME and hypertonic saline + l-NAME sites (n = 8; normal saline + l-NAME, 39 ± 6 and hypertonic saline + l-NAME, 39 ± 5%CVC(max)). The nitric oxide contribution (plateau %CVC(max) - l-NAME plateau %CVC(max)) was lower at the hypertonic saline site (normal saline, 55 ± 6 versus hypertonic saline, 35 ± 4; P < 0.01). These data suggest an effect of salt on the cutaneous response to local heating, which may be mediated through a decreased production and/or availability of nitric oxide.

  14. Isohaline Salinity Budget of the North Atlantic Salinity Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, F.; Bachman, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study (SPURS) field experiment was designed as a multi-scale investigation of the processes that give rise to the North Atlantic subtropical salinity maximum. The choice of control volume influences the processes that dominate budgets of ocean properties. In this study we analyze the salinity budget of the North Atlantic subtropical salinity maximum region for control volumes bounded by isohaline surfaces. We provide closed budgets based on output from a high-resolution numerical simulation, and partial budgets based on climatological analyses of observations. With this choice of control volume, advection is eliminated from the instantaneous volume integrated salt budget, and time mean advection eliminated from the budget evaluated from time-averaged data. In this way, the role of irreversible mixing processes in the maintenance and variability of the salinity maximum are more readily revealed. By carrying out the analysis with near instantaneous and time-filtered model output, the role of mesoscale eddies in stirring and mixing for this region is determined. We find that the small-scale mixing acting on enhanced gradients generated by the mesoscale eddies is approximately equal to that acting on the large-scale gradients estimated from climatological mean conditions. The isohaline salinity budgets can be related to water mass transformation rates associated with surface forcing and mixing processes in a straightforward manner. We find that the surface net evaporation in the North Atlantic salinity maximum region accounts for a transformation of 7 Sv of water into the salinity maximum in the simulation, whereas the estimate based on climatological observations is 10 Sv.

  15. The influence of salinity on D/H fractionation in dinosterol and brassicasterol from globally distributed saline and hypersaline lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Daniel B.; Sachs, Julian P.

    2014-05-01

    Salinity, growth rate, growth stage, nutrient limitation and temperature have all been shown to influence the magnitude of D/H fractionation in algal lipids through laboratory and field studies. Of these factors, salinity has been studied most extensively in the field, but to date all such investigations have focused on transect studies within specific and isolated environments. Here we test the relationship between salinity and the magnitude of D/H fractionation in algal lipids through paired analyses of sedimentary and particulate lipid and water hydrogen isotope values at a wide range of continental and coastal lake sites spanning salinities from 0 to 117 ppt. Our results demonstrate broad consistency between D/H fractionations in dinosterol and brassicasterol with those obtained from previous work, with salinity changes of 1 ppt resulting in lipid δD changes of 0.7-1‰. Although our results also show variability in D/H fractionation between sites that is not related to salinity, the fact that any relationship emerges above the influences of other factors suggests that the salinity effect is dominant for some lipids in the majority of saline to hypersaline environments. This improved understanding of D/H fractionation in dinosterol and brassicasterol synthesis supports the use of these compounds as paleohydrologic indicators. When combined with D/H measurements from a second lipid or oxygen isotope measurements from carbonate, quantitative reconstructions of salinity and lake water isotope changes are possible. Extending the number of algal lipids within which a consistent relationship between D/H fractionation and salinity has been identified also supports the notion that the relationship is widespread among unicellular photoautotrophs.

  16. Successful treatment for psychomotor agitation in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder with trazodone-risperidone combination: a case report.

    PubMed

    Narita, Zui; Takano, Harumasa; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki

    2017-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a relapsing disease that typically affects the spinal cord and optic nerves. So far, a few studies have reported pharmacologic treatment for psychiatric symptoms in patients with NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD). However, no literature has described psychomotor agitation associated with the disease and its treatment. We report an 84-year-old woman with NMOSD whose psychomotor agitation was effectively treated with a combination of trazodone and risperidone. Our observation suggests the ability of augmentation of antipsychotic drugs with antidepressants to ameliorate psychotic symptoms associated with NMOSD.

  17. Successful treatment for psychomotor agitation in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder with trazodone–risperidone combination: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Narita, Zui; Takano, Harumasa; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki

    2017-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a relapsing disease that typically affects the spinal cord and optic nerves. So far, a few studies have reported pharmacologic treatment for psychiatric symptoms in patients with NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD). However, no literature has described psychomotor agitation associated with the disease and its treatment. We report an 84-year-old woman with NMOSD whose psychomotor agitation was effectively treated with a combination of trazodone and risperidone. Our observation suggests the ability of augmentation of antipsychotic drugs with antidepressants to ameliorate psychotic symptoms associated with NMOSD. PMID:28331329

  18. Salinity Effects on Superhydrophobic Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochanda, F. O.; Samaha, M. A.; Vahedi Tafreshi, H.; Tepper, G. C.; Gad-El-Hak, M.

    2011-11-01

    Experiments are carried out to investigate the effect of NaCl concentrations on degree of hydrophobicity and longevity of polystyrene fibrous coating. A rheological study using salt water as a test fluid is performed to observe the generated drag reduction from the coating with increasing salt concentration compared to deionized water. Contact-angle measurements of droplets of solutions on the surface are used to validate the results from the rheometer. In situ noninvasive optical spectroscopy system is used to measure the time-dependent loss of entrapped air within the submerged fibrous coating. water for comparison. The superhydrophobic coating used is made of polystyrene fibers that are deposited using DC-biased AC-electrospinning. Such fabrication methods are far less expensive than ordered-microstructured fabrications, bringing the technology closer to large-scale submerged bodies such as submarines and ships. The present study sheds some light on how properties of a superhydrophobic coating could be influenced by water salinity. Financial support from DARPA, contract number W91CRB-10-1-0003, is acknowledged.

  19. Assessment of Electromagnetic Stirrer Agitated Liquid Metal Flows by Dynamic Neutron Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ščepanskis, Mihails; Sarma, Mārtiņš; Vontobel, Peter; Trtik, Pavel; Thomsen, Knud; Jakovičs, Andris; Beinerts, Toms

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents qualitative and quantitative characterization of two-phase liquid metal flows agitated by the stirrer on rotating permanent magnets. The stirrer was designed to fulfill various eddy flows, which may have different rates of solid particle entrapment from the liquid surface and their homogenization. The flow was characterized by visualization of the tailored tracer particles by means of dynamic neutron radiography, an experimental method well suited for liquid metal flows due to low opacity of some metals for neutrons. The rather high temporal resolution of the image acquisition (32 Hz image acquisition rate) allows for the quantitative investigation of the flows up to 30 cm/s using neutron particle image velocimetry. In situ visualization of the two-phase liquid metal flow is also demonstrated.

  20. Assessment of Electromagnetic Stirrer Agitated Liquid Metal Flows by Dynamic Neutron Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ščepanskis, Mihails; Sarma, Mārtiņš; Vontobel, Peter; Trtik, Pavel; Thomsen, Knud; Jakovičs, Andris; Beinerts, Toms

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents qualitative and quantitative characterization of two-phase liquid metal flows agitated by the stirrer on rotating permanent magnets. The stirrer was designed to fulfill various eddy flows, which may have different rates of solid particle entrapment from the liquid surface and their homogenization. The flow was characterized by visualization of the tailored tracer particles by means of dynamic neutron radiography, an experimental method well suited for liquid metal flows due to low opacity of some metals for neutrons. The rather high temporal resolution of the image acquisition (32 Hz image acquisition rate) allows for the quantitative investigation of the flows up to 30 cm/s using neutron particle image velocimetry. In situ visualization of the two-phase liquid metal flow is also demonstrated.

  1. Reactor concepts for atomic layer deposition on agitated particles: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Longrie, Delphine Deduytsche, Davy; Detavernier, Christophe

    2014-01-15

    The number of possible applications for nanoparticles has strongly increased in the last decade. For many applications, nanoparticles with different surface and bulk properties are necessary. A popular surface modification technique is coating the particle surface with a nanometer thick layer. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is known as a reliable method for depositing ultrathin and conformal coatings. In this article, agitation or fluidization of the particles is necessary for performing ALD on (nano)particles. The principles of gas fluidization of particles will be outlined, and a classification of the gas fluidization behavior of particles based on their size and density will be given. Following different reactor concepts that have been designed to conformally coat (nano)particles with ALD will be described, and a concise overview will be presented of the work that has been performed with each of them ending with a concept reactor for performing spatial ALD on fluidized particles.

  2. Theoretical estimate of the effect of thermal agitation on ribosome motion generated by stochastic microswimming.

    PubMed

    González-García, José S

    2016-11-04

    The effect of thermal agitation on ribosome motion is evaluated through the Péclet number, assuming that the ribosome is self-propelled along the mRNA during protein synthesis by a swimming stroke consisting of a cycle of stochastically-generated ribosome configurations involving its two subunits. The ribosome velocity probability distribution function is obtained, giving an approximately normal distribution. Its mean and variance together with an estimate of the in vivo free diffusion coefficient of the ribosome and using only configuration changes of small size, give a Péclet number similar to motor proteins and microorganisms. These results suggest the feasibility of the stochastic microswimming hypothesis to explain ribosome motion.

  3. Reducing fischer-tropsch catalyst attrition losses in high agitation reaction systems

    DOEpatents

    Singleton, Alan H.; Oukaci, Rachid; Goodwin, James G.

    2001-01-01

    A method for reducing catalyst attrition losses in hydrocarbon synthesis processes conducted in high agitation reaction systems; a method of producing an attrition-resistant catalyst; a catalyst produced by such method; a method of producing an attrition-resistant catalyst support; and a catalyst support produced by such method. The inventive method of reducing catalyst attrition losses comprises the step of reacting a synthesis gas in a high agitation reaction system in the presence of a catalyst. In one aspect, the catalyst preferably comprises a .gamma.-alumina support including an amount of titanium effective for increasing the attrition resistance of the catalyst. In another aspect, the catalyst preferably comprises a .gamma.-alumina support which has been treated, after calcination, with an acidic, aqueous solution. The acidic aqueous solution preferably has a pH of not more than about 5. In another aspect, the catalyst preferably comprises cobalt on a .gamma.-alumina support wherein the cobalt has been applied to the .gamma.-alumina support by totally aqueous, incipient wetness-type impregnation. In another aspect, the catalyst preferably comprises cobalt on a .gamma.-alumina support with an amount of a lanthana promoter effective for increasing the attrition resistance of the catalyst. In another aspect, the catalyst preferably comprises a .gamma.-alumina support produced from boehmite having a crystallite size, in the 021 plane, in the range of from about 30 to about 55 .ANG.ngstrons. In another aspect, the inventive method of producing an attrition-resistant catalyst comprises the step of treating a .gamma.-alumina support, after calcination of and before adding catalytic material to the support, with an acidic solution effective for increasing the attrition resistance of the catalyst. In another aspect, the inventive method of producing an attrition-resistant catalyst support comprises the step of treating calcined .gamma.-alumina with an acidic, aqueous

  4. A comparison of postoperative emergence agitation between sevoflurane and thiopental anesthesia induction in pediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Son, Ji-Seon; Jang, Eunjoo; Oh, Min Wook; Lee, Ji-Hye; Han, Young Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background This study was performed to compare the incidence of emergence agitation (EA) between inhalation and intravenous anesthesia induction in children after sevoflurane anesthesia. Methods In this prospective and double-blind study, 100 children aged 3 to 7 years were enrolled. Subjects were randomly assigned to the sevoflurane (Group S) or thiopental (Group T) anesthesia induction groups. Anesthesia was induced using 8% sevoflurane and 4-6 mg/kg thiopental in Groups S and T, respectively. Anesthesia was maintained with nitrous oxide and sevoflurane. The children were evaluated at 5 and 20 min after arrival in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) with a four-point agitation scale and the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale. The incidence of EA and administration of the rescue agent were recorded. Results The incidence of EA was significantly lower in Group T compared to Group S at 5 min after PACU arrival (3/49 patients, 6% vs. 12/47 patients, 26%, P = 0.019). However, there was no difference between the two groups at 20 min after PACU arrival (23/49 vs. 19/47 patients in Group T vs. Group S, P = 0.425). The overall incidence of EA was 60% (28/47 patients) in Group S and 41% (20/49 patients) in Group T (P = 0.102). The number of children who received propofol as a rescue agent was significantly lower in Group T (Group S: 14/47 vs. Group T: 5/49, P = 0.031). Conclusions Intravenous anesthesia induction with thiopental reduced the incidence of EA in the early PACU period compared to inhalation induction with sevoflurane in 3- to 7-year-old children undergoing sevoflurane anesthesia. PMID:26257850

  5. Impact of pharmaceutical care on pain and agitation in a medical intensive care unit in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Dilokpattanamongkol, Pitchaya; Tangsujaritvijit, Viratch; Suansanae, Thanarat; Suthisisang, Chuthamanee

    2017-03-29

    Background Currently, a lack of pharmaceutical care exists concerning pain and agitation in medical intensive care units (MICU) in Thailand. Pharmaceutical care focusing on analgesics/sedatives would improve clinical outcomes. Objective To investigate the impact of pharmaceutical care of pain and agitation on ICU length of stay (LOS), hospital LOS, ventilator days and mortality. Setting The MICU of a university hospital. Method A before/after study was conducted on mechanically ventilated patients receiving analgesics/sedatives. Medical chart reviews and data collection were conducted in the retrospective group (no pharmacists involved). In the prospective group, pharmacists involved with the critical care team helped select analgesics/sedatives for individual patients. Main outcome measure ICU LOS Results In total, 90 and 66 patients were enrolled in retrospective and prospective groups, respectively. The median duration of ICU LOS was reduced from 10.00 (2.00-72.00) in the retrospective group to 6.50 days (2.00-30.00) in the prospective group (p = 0.002). The median hospital stay was reduced from 30.50 days (2.00-119.00) in the retrospective group to 17.50 days (2.00-110.00) in the prospective group (p < 0.001). Also, the median ventilator days was reduced from 14.00 days (2.00-90.00) to 8.50 days (1.00-45.00), p = 0.008. Mortality was 53.03% in the prospective group and 46.67% in the retrospective group (p = 0.432). Conclusion Pharmacist participation in a critical care team resulted in a significant reduction in the duration of ICU LOS, hospital LOS and ventilator days, but not mortality.

  6. Entropy correlates with Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ankur; Singh, Preet Mohinder; Trikha, Anjan; Rewari, Vimi; Chandralekha

    2014-04-01

    Sedation is routinely used in intensive care units. However due to absence of objective scoring systems like Bispectral Index and entropy our ability to regulate the degree of sedation is limited. This deficiency is further highlighted by the fact that agitation scores used in intensive care units (ICU) have no role in paralyzed patients. The present study compares entropy as a sedation scoring modality with Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS) in mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients in an ICU. Twenty-seven, mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients of either sex, 16-65 years of age, were studied over a period of 24 h. They received a standard sedation regimen consisting of a bolus dose of propofol 0.5 mg/kg and fentanyl 1 lg/kg followed by infusions of propofol and fentanyl ranging from 1.5 to 5 mg/kg/h and 0.5 to 2.0 lg/kg/h, respectively. Clinically relevant values of RASS for optimal ICU sedation (between 0 and -3) in non-paralyzed patients were compared to corresponding entropy values, to find if any significant correlation exists between the two. These entropy measurements were obtained using the Datex-Ohmeda-M-EntropyTM module. This module is presently not approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for monitoring sedation in ICU. A total of 527 readings were obtained. There was a statistically significant correlation between the state entropy (SE) and RASS [Spearman's rho/rs = 0.334, p\\0.0001]; response entropy (RE) and RASS [Spearman's rho/rs = 0.341, p\\0.0001]). For adequate sedation as judged by a RASS value of 0 to -3, the mean SE was 57.86 ± 16.50 and RE was 67.75 ± 15.65. The present study illustrates that entropy correlates with RASS (between scores 0 and -3) when assessing the level of sedation in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients.

  7. Nonthermal microwave effects revisited: on the importance of internal temperature monitoring and agitation in microwave chemistry.

    PubMed

    Herrero, M Antonia; Kremsner, Jennifer M; Kappe, C Oliver

    2008-01-04

    The concept of nonthermal microwave effects has received considerable attention in recent years and is the subject of intense debate in the scientific community. Nonthermal microwave effects have been postulated to result from a direct stabilizing interaction of the electric field with specific (polar) molecules in the reaction medium that is not related to a macroscopic temperature effect. In order to probe the existence of nonthermal microwave effects, four synthetic transformations (Diels-Alder cycloaddition, alkylation of triphenylphosphine and 1,2,4-triazole, direct amide bond formation) were reevaluated under both microwave dielectric heating and conventional thermal heating. In all four cases, previous studies have claimed the existence of nonthermal microwave effects in these reactions. Experimentally, significant differences in conversion and/or product distribution comparing the conventionally and microwave-heated experiments performed at the same measured reaction temperature were found. The current reevaluation of these reactions was performed in a dedicated reactor setup that allowed accurate internal reaction temperature measurements using a multiple fiber-optic probe system. Using this technology, the importance of efficient stirring and internal temperature measurement in microwave-heated reactions was made evident. Inefficient agitation leads to temperature gradients within the reaction mixture due to field inhomogeneities in the microwave cavity. Using external infrared temperature sensors in some cases results in significant inaccuracies in the temperature measurement. Applying the fiber-optic probe temperature monitoring device, a critical reevaluation of all four reactions has provided no evidence for the existence of nonthermal microwave effects. Ensuring efficient agitation of the reaction mixture via magnetic stirring, no significant differences in terms of conversion and selectivity between experiments performed under microwave or oil bath

  8. Salinity effects on viability, metabolic activity and proliferation of three Perkinsus species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    La, Peyre M.; Casas, S.; La, Peyre J.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known regarding the range of conditions in which many Perkinsus species may proliferate, making it difficult to predict conditions favorable for their expansion, to identify conditions inducing mortality, or to identify instances of potential cross-infectivity among sympatric host species. In this study, the effects of salinity on viability, metabolic activity and proliferation of P. marinus, P. olseni and P. chesapeaki were determined. Specifically, this research examined the effects of 5 salinities (7, 11, 15, 25, 35???), (1) without acclimation, on the viability and metabolic activity of 2 isolates of each Perkinsus species, and (2) with acclimation, on the viability, metabolic activity, size and number of 1 isolate of each species. P. chesapeaki showed the widest range of salinity tolerance of the 3 species, with high viability and cell proliferation at all salinities tested. Although P. chesapeaki originated from low salinity areas (i.e. <15???), several measures (i.e. cell number and metabolic activity) indicated that higher salinities (15, 25???) were more favorable for its growth. P. olseni, originating from high salinity areas, had better viability and proliferation at the higher salinities (15, 25, 35???). Distinct differences in acute salinity response of the 2 P. olseni isolates at lower salinities (7, 11???), however, suggest the need for a more expansive comparison of isolates to better define the lower salinity tolerance. Lastly, P. marinus was more tolerant of the lower salinities (7 and 11???) than P. olseni, but exhibited reduced viability at 7???, even after acclimation. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  9. Phylogenetic Signals of Salinity and Season in Bacterial Community Composition Across the Salinity Gradient of the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Herlemann, Daniel P. R.; Lundin, Daniel; Andersson, Anders F.; Labrenz, Matthias; Jürgens, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the key processes that control bacterial community composition has enabled predictions of bacterial distribution and function within ecosystems. In this study, we used the Baltic Sea as a model system to quantify the phylogenetic signal of salinity and season with respect to bacterioplankton community composition. The abundances of 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing reads were analyzed from samples obtained from similar geographic locations in July and February along a brackish to marine salinity gradient in the Baltic Sea. While there was no distinct pattern of bacterial richness at different salinities, the number of bacterial phylotypes in winter was significantly higher than in summer. Bacterial community composition in brackish vs. marine conditions, and in July vs. February was significantly different. Non-metric multidimensional scaling showed that bacterial community composition was primarily separated according to salinity and secondly according to seasonal differences at all taxonomic ranks tested. Similarly, quantitative phylogenetic clustering implicated a phylogenetic signal for both salinity and seasonality. Our results suggest that global patterns of bacterial community composition with respect to salinity and season are the result of phylogenetically clustered ecological preferences with stronger imprints from salinity. PMID:27933046

  10. Improvement of the agitation granulation method to prepare granules containing a high content of a very hygroscopic drug.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Nobuaki; Ishikawa, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Koichi

    2006-11-01

    This study describes a new approach to the preparation of a granulate with a high content of a very hygroscopic powder or drug, using the agitation granulation method, and the development of a tablet formulation using these granulates. A Chinese medicine extract, Hatimi-zio-gan, was used as the model of a very hygroscopic drug. Among the several excipients tested, only porous calcium silicate could be used to prepare granules, with a mixing ratio (extract to porous calcium silicate) from 2:1 to 20:1. With other excipients, very large lumps were formed during the granulation process. The best mixing ratio of extract to porous calcium silicate was 6:1. For preparation of the granules, water could be added to the mixed powder within a range of 1- to 4-times the amount of porous calcium silicate. From these results, it was concluded that the ability of porous calcium silicate to hold large amounts of water in its numerous pores may allow for the preparation of granulates with a high content of very hygroscopic drugs. Starch with partial alpha-links, carboxymethyl starch sodium salt and crospovidone were used for selection of the disintegration agent. When crospovidone was used as a disintegration agent, tablets containing about 70% of the Chinese medicine extract disintegrated in less than 7 min, with good dissolution rates. The same process was applied to extracts of Hotyu-ekki-to, Syo-seiryu-to, Boi-ogi-to and Bohu-tusyo-san. The absorption of paeoniflorin, a characteristic monoterpene glucoside contained in Hatimi-zio-gan extract, was evaluated in beagle dogs after oral administration of the Hatimi-zio-gan tablets prepared in this study. The values of C(max) and AUC obtained after administration of the tablets prepared in this study were significantly greater than those obtained for commercial tablets.

  11. Medication development for agitation and aggression in Alzheimer disease: review and discussion of recent randomized clinical trial design.

    PubMed

    Soto, Maria; Andrieu, Sandrine; Nourhashemi, Fati; Ousset, Pierre Jean; Ballard, Clive; Robert, Philippe; Vellas, Bruno; Lyketsos, Constantine G; Rosenberg, Paul B

    2014-09-16

    ABSTRACT Background: The management of disruptive neuropsychiatric symptom (NPS) such as agitation and aggression (A/A) is a major priority in caring for people with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Few effective pharmacological or non-pharmacological options are available. Results of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of drugs for A/A have been disappointing. This may result from the absence of biological efficacy for medications tested in treating A/A. It may also be related to methodological issues such as the choice of outcomes. The aim of this review was to highlight key methodological issues pertaining to RCTs of current and emerging medications for the treatment of A/A in AD. Methods: We searched PubMed/Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ClinicalTrials.gov for RCTs comparing medications with either placebo or other drugs in the treatment of A/A in AD, between January 2008 and December 2013. Results: We identified a total of 18 RCTs; of these, 11 were completed and 7 ongoing. Of the ongoing RCTs, only one is in Phase III. Seven of 10 completed RCTs with reported results did not report greater benefit from drug than placebo. Each of the completed RCTs used a different definition of "clinically significant A/A." There was considerable heterogeneity in study design. The primary endpoints were largely proxy-based but a variety of scales were used. The definition of caregiver and scales used to assess caregiver outcomes were similarly heterogeneous. Placebo response was notable in all trials. Conclusions: This review highlights a great heterogeneity in RCTs design of drugs for A/A in AD and some key methodological issues such as definition of A/A, choice of outcome measures and caregiver participation that could be addressed by an expert consensus to optimize future trials design.

  12. Saline aquifer mapping project in the southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Lester J.; Spechler, Rick M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a study of saline aquifers in the southeastern United States to evaluate the potential use of brackish or saline water from the deeper portions of the Floridan aquifer system and the underlying Coastal Plain aquifer system (Fig. 1). The objective of this study is to improve the overall understanding of the available saline water resources for potential future development. Specific tasks are to (1) develop a digital georeferenced database of borehole geophysical data to enable analysis and characterization of saline aquifers (see locations in Fig. 1), (2) identify and map the regional extent of saline aquifer systems and describe the thickness and character of hydrologic units that compose these systems, and (3) delineate salinity variations at key well sites and along section lines to provide a regional depiction of the freshwater-saltwater interfaces. Electrical resistivity and induction logs, coupled with a variety of different porosity logs (sonic, density, and neutron), are the primary types of borehole geophysical logs being used to estimate the water quality in brackish and saline formations. The results from the geophysical log calculations are being compared to available water-quality data obtained from water wells and from drill-stem water samples collected in test wells. Overall, the saline aquifer mapping project is helping to improve the understanding of saline water resources in the area. These aquifers may be sources of large quantities of water that could be treated by using reverse osmosis or similar technologies, or they could be used for aquifer storage and recovery systems.

  13. Effect of thermal agitation on the switching field distributions of CoPtCr-SiO2 perpendicular recording media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimatsu, T.; Kondo, T.; Mitsuzuka, K.; Watanabe, S.; Aoi, H.; Muraoka, H.; Nakamura, Y.

    2006-04-01

    The effect of thermal agitations on the switching field distribution (SFD) of CoPtCr-SiO2 perpendicular media was investigated. Dc demagnetizing (DCD) magnetization curves and minor dc demagnetizing (M-DCD) magnetization curves were measured at applied field sweep rates of ~10 and ~108 Oe/s. We estimated the SFD from the difference between the DCD and M-DCD curves, and defined them as ΔHr/Hr (at ~10 Oe/s) and ΔHrP/HrP (at ~108 Oe/s). The values of ΔHrP/HrP were found to be 60%-70% of ΔHr/Hr. The difference between ΔHrP/HrP and ΔHr/Hr should be caused by thermal agitation of the magnetization. The influence of the distribution of the thermal agitation on SFD was calculated using the distribution of the grain volumes. It is concluded that the SFD measured at vibrating-sample magnetometer (VSM) time scales is significantly influenced by thermal agitation of the magnetization, and reduction of the grain size distribution is the most effective way to reduce the SFD at VSM time scales.

  14. Music therapy: A nonpharmacological approach to the care of agitation and depressive symptoms for nursing home residents with dementia.

    PubMed

    Ray, Kendra D; Mittelman, Mary S

    2015-10-29

    Depression, agitation, and wandering are common behaviors associated with dementia and frequently observed among nursing home residents. Even with pharmacological treatment, behaviors often persist, hindering quality of life for elders, their family, and paid caregivers. This study examined the use of music therapy for treatment of these symptoms among 132 people with moderate to severe dementia in nursing homes. Participants were evaluated for depressive symptoms, agitation, and wandering to determine their predominate behavior. There were two assessments, two weeks apart, prior to intervention, followed by a two-week intervention, and two follow-up assessments, also two weeks apart. A repeated measures ANOVA determined that after two weeks of music therapy, symptoms of depression and agitation were significantly reduced; there was no change for wandering. Multivariate analyses confirmed a relationship between music therapy and change in neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with dementia. Results suggest widespread use of music therapy in long-term care settings may be effective in reducing symptoms of depression and agitation.

  15. How to Radicalize Graduate Students: Take These Simple Steps to Intimidate, Alienate, and Agitate Your Own Flock of Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffen, Heather

    2011-01-01

    As the recession, budget cuts, endowment losses, and Republican governors gut university funding, campuses across the country have become host to occupations, union actions, and demonstrations. One can take steps to intimidate, alienate, and agitate a flock of graduate students. The author discusses steps that offer simple ways to rile up and…

  16. The effects of nutrient concentration, addition of thickeners, and agitation speed on liquid fermentation of Steinernema feltiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Therefore, this study was aimed at developing a more suitable liquid media for mass production of Steinernema feltiae, by assessing the effects of nutrient concentration, media viscosity, and agitation speed on infective juvenile (IJ) yield. For all the experiments, the base medium contained yeast ...

  17. Communication Capacity Scale and Agitation Distress Scale to measure the severity of delirium in terminally ill cancer patients: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Morita, T; Tsunoda, J; Inoue, S; Chihara, S; Oka, K

    2001-05-01

    Although valid measurement of the severity of terminal delirium is of great importance in palliative care settings, existing instruments have considerable limitations. In order to quantify patients' communication capacity and agitated behaviour, two new operational observer-rating scales, the Communication Capacity Scale (Communication Scale) and Agitation Distress Scale (Agitation Scale), were validated. Thirty terminally ill cancer patients diagnosed with delirium were evaluated simultaneously by two palliative care physicians blinded to each other's coding using the Communication Scale and Agitation Scale. In addition, the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS), Delirium Rating Scale (DRS) and Sedation Scale were rated by one researcher. Both scales achieved high internal consistency and inter-rater reliability with Cronbach's alpha coefficients of 0.91 and 0.96, and Cohen's kappa values on each item of 0.72-1.00. The principal components analysis resulted in the emergence of only one component for each scale. The total score on the Communication Scale was highly associated with that of the MDAS (rho = 0.78), Sedation Scale (rho = 0.86), and cognitive items from the MDAS and DRS (rho = 0.83). The whole score on the Agitation Scale was significantly correlated with that of the DRS (rho = 0.61) and agitation items from the MDAS and DRS (rho = 0.61). In conclusion, the Communication Scale and Agitation Scale have acceptable reliability and validity to quantify patients' communication capacity and agitation symptoms of terminally ill cancer patients with delirium.

  18. 40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Salinity gradients. 230.25 Section 230... Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.25 Salinity gradients. (a) Salinity... fresh or salt water may change existing salinity gradients. For example, partial blocking of...

  19. 40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Salinity gradients. 230.25 Section 230... Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.25 Salinity gradients. (a) Salinity... fresh or salt water may change existing salinity gradients. For example, partial blocking of...

  20. 40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Salinity gradients. 230.25 Section 230... Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.25 Salinity gradients. (a) Salinity... fresh or salt water may change existing salinity gradients. For example, partial blocking of...

  1. 40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Salinity gradients. 230.25 Section 230... Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.25 Salinity gradients. (a) Salinity... fresh or salt water may change existing salinity gradients. For example, partial blocking of...

  2. Could high salinity be used to control bullfrogs in small ponds?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, David L.; Finch, Colton; Blasius, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    We examined survival of bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) eggs and tadpoles at 3 ppt and 6 ppt salinity in the laboratory to determine if low-level salinity could be used to eradicate bullfrogs from small ponds that contain native fishes. Bullfrog eggs and tadpoles <10 days old experienced 100% mortality when held at 6 ppt salinity for 10 days. Bullfrog tadpoles 10–15 days old experienced significantly reduced survival when exposed to salinity of 6 ppt for 10 days. Older bullfrog tadpoles (>9 months old) appeared unaffected by 14 days of 6 ppt salinity. Salinity of 3 ppt did not impact survival of bullfrog tadpole eggs or tadpoles at any of the life stages we tested. Adding salt to ponds in the early spring to increase salinity to 6 ppt may be a cost effective way to eradicate bullfrogs from small ponds without harming native fishes.

  3. Saline as the Sole Contrast Agent for Successful MRI-guided Epidural Injections

    SciTech Connect

    Deli, Martin; Mateiescu, Serban Busch, Martin; Becker, Jan Garmer, Marietta Groenemeyer, Dietrich

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. To assess the performance of sterile saline solution as the sole contrast agent for percutaneous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided epidural injections at 1.5 T. Methods. A retrospective analysis of two different techniques of MRI-guided epidural injections was performed with either gadolinium-enhanced saline solution or sterile saline solution for documentation of the epidural location of the needle tip. T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo (FLASH) images or T2-weighted single-shot turbo spin echo (HASTE) images visualized the test injectants. Methods were compared by technical success rate, image quality, table time, and rate of complications. Results. 105 MRI-guided epidural injections (12 of 105 with gadolinium-enhanced saline solution and 93 of 105 with sterile saline solution) were performed successfully and without complications. Visualization of sterile saline solution and gadolinium-enhanced saline solution was sufficient, good, or excellent in all 105 interventions. For either test injectant, quantitative image analysis demonstrated comparable high contrast-to-noise ratios of test injectants to adjacent body substances with reliable statistical significance levels (p < 0.001). The mean table time was 22 {+-} 9 min in the gadolinium-enhanced saline solution group and 22 {+-} 8 min in the saline solution group (p = 0.75). Conclusion. Sterile saline is suitable as the sole contrast agent for successful and safe percutaneous MRI-guided epidural drug delivery at 1.5 T.

  4. Response of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) to salinity in the early growth stages for agricultural cultivation in saline environments.

    PubMed

    Akinci, Sermin; Yilmaz, Kadir; Akinci, Irfan Ersin

    2004-07-01

    Salinity is a serious environmental problem. Growing of plants like tomato can be solution for coping with soil salinity. For this purpose, response of tomato to salinity has been tested in the early growth stages. Characteristics of germination (percentage and period; length and fresh-dry weight of radicle and hypcotyl) and seedling (length and fresh-dry weight of root, shoot and whole plant; leaf number and area based on Relative Growth Rate); Na+ and K+ content of leaf; K+/Na+ rate of leaf has been studied at the 0, 50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl levels. Thus, it determined that tomato can be indicator for agricultural cultivation at the salinity environments at the early growth stages.

  5. Impact of salinity on the anaerobic metabolism of phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) and glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAO).

    PubMed

    Welles, L; Lopez-Vazquez, C M; Hooijmans, C M; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Brdjanovic, D

    2014-09-01

    The use of saline water as secondary quality water in urban environments for sanitation is a promising alternative towards mitigating fresh water scarcity. However, this alternative will increase the salinity in the wastewater generated that may affect the biological wastewater treatment processes, such as biological phosphorus removal. In addition to the production of saline wastewater by the direct use of saline water in urban environments, saline wastewater is also generated by some industries. Intrusion of saline water into the sewers is another source of salinity entering the wastewater treatment plant. In this study, the short-term effects of salinity on the anaerobic metabolism of phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) and glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAO) were investigated to assess the impact of salinity on enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Hereto, PAO and GAO cultures enriched at a relatively low salinity level (0.02 % W/V) were exposed to salinity concentrations of up to 6 % (as NaCl) in anaerobic batch tests. It was demonstrated that both PAO and GAO are affected by higher salinity levels, with PAO being the more sensitive organisms to the increasing salinity. The maximum acetate uptake rate of PAO decreased by 71 % when the salinity increased from 0 to 1 %, while that of GAO decreased by 41 % for the same salinity increase. Regarding the stoichiometry of PAO, a decrease in the P-release/HAc uptake ratio accompanied with an increase in the glycogen consumption/HAc uptake ratio was observed for PAO when the salinity increased from 0 to 2 % salinity, indicating a metabolic shift from a poly-P-dependent to a glycogen-dependent metabolism. The anaerobic maintenance requirements of PAO and GAO increased as the salinity concentrations risen up to 4 % salinity.

  6. Salinity is Reduced Below the Evaporation Front During Soil Salinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gran, M.; Carrera, J.; Olivella, S.; Massana, J.; Saaltink, M. W.; Ayora, C.; Lloret, A.

    2009-04-01

    Nearly 50% of irrigated lands in arid and semi-arid regimes have salinization problems. Salinization is generally caused by salts carried to the soil surface by capillary rising water and occurs under very dry conditions, when vapor fluxes become the main water flux mechanism. Despite its global importance, actual salinization mechanisms are only poorly understood. Soil salinization is generally studied by means of water and salt balances without entering on small scale processes. This may suffice for explaining large scale behavior but hardly for designing remediation practices. The objective of this work is to study the solute transport under evaporation conditions. We have performed laboratory experiments and modelled them. We have built open sand columns initially saturated with an epsomite (MgSO4•7H2O) solution. Evaporation was driven by an infrared lamp and proceeded until the overall saturation fell down to 0.32. Results imply that water vapor flows not only upwards above the evaporation front, but also downwards beneath this front, where it condensates. Condensation causes the dilution of the solution. That is, concentrations fall below the initial values. The experiments have been modelled with the program Retraso-CodeBright, which couples non isothermal multiphase flow and reactive transport. Reproducing the observations required modifying the standard retention and relative permeability functions to include oven dry conditions. The model reproduces the observed concentration, water content and temperature profiles along the column and confirms the existence of condensation and decrease of salt concentration below the evaporation front. The model also allows us to distinguish the relevance between the advective and diffusive vapor fluxes, showing that the latter is, by far, the largest. The mechanism displays positives feedbacks, as condensation will be most intense in areas of highest salinity, thus diluting saline water that may have infiltrated.

  7. Use of seagrass meadows as an adaptation measure to climate change for reducing port agitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Arcilla, Agustín; Lin, Jue; Pau Sierra, Joan; Gracia, Vicenç; Casas-Prat, Merce; Virgili, Marc

    2014-05-01

    One of the best-known consequences of the greenhouse effect and the resulting global warming is sea-level rise. However, sea level rise is not the only process of concern to coastal communities. The greenhouse effect and the complex interactions in atmospheric processes is expected to produce changes in near-surface wind and pressure patterns, which in turn can affect the pattern of another important coastal driver: the wave field. Changes in wave conditions can affect the wave pattern within harbours as shown by Casas-Prat and Sierra (2012), increasing port agitation and, as a consequence, reducing the safety and comfort of the users, decreasing operation performance or even generating port inactivity. This effect will be enhanced by an increase in mean sea level. To avoid costly structural measure there are "green" options such as sea-grass that can attenuate wave energy (Koftis et al., 2013), since their roots induce sea bottom roughness and their stems and leaves increase the drag coefficient. The combined effect of vegetation is, thus, to create drag forces that dissipate part of the energy from incoming waves. Casas-Prat and Sierra (2013) showed that wave patterns may change in the future in certain areas of the Catalan Coast (northwestern Mediterranean) and as a consequence port agitation could be affected by changes in wave height or direction as well in those areas. The suggested "green" measures can help to prevent potential negative effects on port operations. The adaptive approach, depending on the downscaled climatic projections, would combine vegetation (as for example the existence of a sea-grass meadow in the vicinity of the harbour entrance) with some structural reinforcement if required. In this paper, the wave projections of Casas-Prat and Sierra (2013) are used together with a Boussinesq-type model to study wave propagation in several harbours of the Catalan Coast. This analysis of harbour oscillations is carried out for present conditions and

  8. Validation of dilution of plasma samples with phosphate buffered saline to eliminate the problem of small volumes associated with children infected with HIV-1 for viral load testing using Cobas AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test, version 2.0 (CAP CTM HIV v2.0).

    PubMed

    Mine, Madisa; Nkoane, Tapologo; Sebetso, Gaseene; Sakyi, Bright; Makhaola, Kgomotso; Gaolathe, Tendani

    2013-12-01

    The sample requirement of 1 mL for the Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test, version 2.0 (CAP CTM HIV v2.0) limits its utility in measuring plasma HIV-1 RNA levels for small volume samples from children infected with HIV-1. Viral load monitoring is the standard of care for HIV-1-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in Botswana. The study aimed to validate the dilution of small volume samples with phosphate buffered saline (1× PBS) when quantifying HIV-1 RNA in patient plasma. HIV RNA concentrations were determined in undiluted and diluted pairs of samples comprising panels of quality assessment standards (n=52) as well as patient samples (n=325). There was strong correlation (R(2)) of 0.98 and 0.95 within the dynamic range of the CAP CTM HIV v2.0 test between undiluted and diluted samples from quality assessment standards and patients, respectively. The difference between viral load measurements of diluted and undiluted pairs of quality assessment standards and patient samples using the Altman-Bland test showed that the 95% limits of agreement were between -0.40 Log 10 and 0.49 Log 10. This difference was within the 0.5 Log 10 which is generally considered as normal assay variation of plasma RNA levels. Dilution of samples with 1× PBS produced comparable viral load measurements to undiluted samples.

  9. Effectiveness of XP-endo Finisher, EndoActivator, and File agitation on debris and smear layer removal in curved root canals: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Elnaghy, Amr M; Mandorah, Ayman; Elsaka, Shaymaa E

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of the XP-endo Finisher (FKG Dentaire SA, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland) file on debris and smear layer removal in curved root canals in comparison to different irrigation regimens. Seventy-five freshly extracted human mandibular molar teeth with mesial root curved more than 20° were used in this study. The mesial root canals were mechanically prepared using the BT-Race rotary system (FKG Dentaire) and divided into five groups (n = 15) according to the following irrigation techniques: positive control, non-agitated, File agitation, XP-endo Finisher, and EndoActivator (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialities, Tulsa, OK, USA). Root canals were split longitudinally and evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Five-grade scoring system was used to assess the presence of debris and smear layer at the coronal, middle, and apical regions. The XP-endo Finisher and EndoActivator groups revealed significantly lower debris and smear layer scores than the other groups at the coronal, middle, and apical regions (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between XP-endo Finisher and EndoActivator groups (P > 0.05). The apical region had higher debris and smear layer scores compared with the coronal regions in all groups (P < 0.05), except for the positive control group; there was no significant difference between the three regions of the root canal (P > 0.05). Irrigation of curved root canals using XP-endo Finisher and EndoActivator methods appears to be more effective on debris and smear layer removal than the other tested groups.

  10. Physiological effects of salinity on Delta Smelt, Hypomesus transpacificus.

    PubMed

    Kammerer, Brittany D; Hung, Tien-Chieh; Baxter, Randall D; Teh, Swee J

    2016-02-01

    Abiotic factors like salinity are relevant to survival of pelagic fishes of the San Francisco Bay Estuary. We tested the effects of 4 parts per thousand (ppt) salinity increases on Delta Smelt (DS) in a laboratory experiment simulating salinity increases that might occur around the low-salinity zone (LSZ) (<6 ppt). Adult DS, fed 2% body mass per day, starting at 0.5 ppt [freshwater (FW)], were exposed to weekly step-increases of 4 ppt to a maximum of 10 ppt saltwater (SW) over 19 days, and compared to FW controls. DS (n = 12/treatment per sampling) were sampled at 24, 72, and 96 h (1, 3, and 4 days) post-salinity increase for analyses of hematocrit, plasma osmolality, muscle water content, gill chloride cell (CC) Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) and apoptosis after being weighed and measured (n = 3 tanks per treatment). No apparent increase in length or weight occurred nor did a difference in survival. Following step-increases in SW, hematocrit increased over time. Other fish responses generally showed a pattern; specifically plasma osmolality became elevated at 1 day and diminished over 4 days in SW. Percent muscle water content (%) did not show significant changes. CCs showed increased NKA, cell size and apoptosis over time in SW, indicating that CCs turnover in DS. The cell renewal process takes days, at least over 19 days. In summary, DS are affected by salinities of the LSZ and ≤10 ppt, though they employ physiological strategies to acclimate.

  11. Desertification, salinization, and biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miyazono, S.; Patino, Reynaldo; Taylor, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study determined long-term changes in fish assemblages, river discharge, salinity, and local precipitation, and examined hydrological drivers of biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem, the Trans-Pecos region of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte (USA/Mexico). Historical (1977-1989) and current (2010-2011) fish assemblages were analyzed by rarefaction analysis (species richness), nonmetric multidimensional scaling (composition/variability), multiresponse permutation procedures (composition), and paired t-test (variability). Trends in hydrological conditions (1970s-2010s) were examined by Kendall tau and quantile regression, and associations between streamfiow and specific conductance (salinity) by generalized linear models. Since the 1970s, species richness and variability of fish assemblages decreased in the Rio Grande below the confluence with the Rio Conchos (Mexico), a major tributary, but not above it. There was increased representation of lower-flow/higher-salinity tolerant species, thus making fish communities below the confluence taxonomically and functionally more homogeneous to those above it. Unlike findings elsewhere, this biotic homogenization was due primarily to changes in the relative abundances of native species. While Rio Conchos discharge was > 2-fold higher than Rio Grande discharge above their confluence, Rio Conchos discharge decreased during the study period causing Rio Grande discharge below the confluence to also decrease. Rio Conchos salinity is lower than Rio Grande salinity above their confluence and, as Rio Conchos discharge decreased, it caused Rio Grande salinity below the confluence to increase (reduced dilution). Trends in discharge did not correspond to trends in precipitation except at extreme-high (90th quantile) levels. In conclusion, decreasing discharge from the Rio Conchos has led to decreasing flow and increasing salinity in the Rio Grande below the confluence. This spatially uneven desertification and

  12. Desertification, salinization, and biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Miyazono, Seiji; Patiño, Reynaldo; Taylor, Christopher M

    2015-04-01

    This study determined long-term changes in fish assemblages, river discharge, salinity, and local precipitation, and examined hydrological drivers of biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem, the Trans-Pecos region of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte (USA/Mexico). Historical (1977-1989) and current (2010-2011) fish assemblages were analyzed by rarefaction analysis (species richness), nonmetric multidimensional scaling (composition/variability), multiresponse permutation procedures (composition), and paired t-test (variability). Trends in hydrological conditions (1970s-2010s) were examined by Kendall tau and quantile regression, and associations between streamflow and specific conductance (salinity) by generalized linear models. Since the 1970s, species richness and variability of fish assemblages decreased in the Rio Grande below the confluence with the Rio Conchos (Mexico), a major tributary, but not above it. There was increased representation of lower-flow/higher-salinity tolerant species, thus making fish communities below the confluence taxonomically and functionally more homogeneous to those above it. Unlike findings elsewhere, this biotic homogenization was due primarily to changes in the relative abundances of native species. While Rio Conchos discharge was>2-fold higher than Rio Grande discharge above their confluence, Rio Conchos discharge decreased during the study period causing Rio Grande discharge below the confluence to also decrease. Rio Conchos salinity is lower than Rio Grande salinity above their confluence and, as Rio Conchos discharge decreased, it caused Rio Grande salinity below the confluence to increase (reduced dilution). Trends in discharge did not correspond to trends in precipitation except at extreme-high (90th quantile) levels. In conclusion, decreasing discharge from the Rio Conchos has led to decreasing flow and increasing salinity in the Rio Grande below the confluence. This spatially uneven desertification and

  13. Removal of copper powder from aqueous solution by cementation using an agitated vessel.

    PubMed

    Amin, N K; El-Ashtouky, E-S Z; Abdelwahab, O

    2014-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the removal of copper powder from aqueous solution by cementation on a stationary disc placed inside an agitated vessel. The influence of several parameters on the rate of cementation, such as initial copper sulphate concentration, impeller rotational speed, presence of surfactant (Triton X-100), distance between the disc and the impeller, type of blade turbine and presence of baffles, has been investigated. The rate of cementation was found to increase with increasing impeller rotational speed and initial copper sulphate concentration. On the other hand, the rate decreases with increasing distance between the disc and the impeller. The rate of cementation was inhibited in solutions containing Triton X-100. Performance of a four-blade 90 degree turbine with regard to the rate of copper cementation was superior to the performance of a four-blade 45 degree pitched turbine. The present data can be correlated in terms of mass transfer coefficient of cementation as Sh = 0.905 Sc0.33 Re0.89 (d/l)0.41 (four-blade 90 degree turbine); Sh = 0.815 Sc0.33Re0.79 (d/l)0.47 (four-blade 45 degree pitched turbine), for the conditions 2035 < Sc < 2810 and 35,000 < Re < 179,000.

  14. Critical review and meta-analysis of serial agitated dilutions in experimental toxicology.

    PubMed

    Linde, K; Jonas, W B; Melchart, D; Worku, F; Wagner, H; Eitel, F

    1994-07-01

    1. We conducted an overview and quantitative meta-analysis of all experimental literature on the protective effects of serial agitated dilutions (SADs) of toxin preparations. 2. Articles were systematically collected and evaluated for scientific quality using pre-defined methodological criteria and then independently analysed for validity. 3. We found 105 publications exploring the effects of SAD preparations in toxicological systems. 4. The quality of evidence in these studies was low with only 43% achieving one half of the maximum possible quality score and only 31% reported in a fashion that permitted reevaluation of the data. 5. Very few studies were independently replicated using comparable models. 6. Among the high quality studies, positive effects were reported 50% more often than negative effects. 7. Four of 5 outcomes meeting quality and comparability criteria for meta-analysis showed positive effects from SAD preparations. 8. Average percent protection over controls in these preparations was 19.7 (95%Cl 6.2-33.2). 9. Further research with special attention to methodological detail and independent replication should be done.

  15. Recovery of Copper from Effluents by Cementation on Aluminum in a Multirotating Cylinder-Agitated Vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Aziz, M. H.; El-Ashtoukhy, E.-S. Z.; Bassyouni, M.

    2016-02-01

    Recovery of copper from synthetic waste solution using cementation technique in a new agitated vessel employing multirotating aluminum cylinders impeller was investigated. Parameters studied are cylinder diameter, rotation speed, initial copper ion concentrations, and effect of surfactants. Solution analysis and scanning electron microscopy were employed to investigate the kinetic and mechanism of the process. The rate of recovery was found to be at its maximum value at the operating conditions of 350 rpm rotation speed, 5000 ppm initial CuSO4 concentration, and 1.2 cm cylinder diameter. All data were correlated by the dimensionless equation: {Sh} = 1.16 {Sc}^{0.33} {Re}^{0.63} ( {{d_{{c}} }/L} )^{0.54}, with an average deviation of ±8.5 pct and a standard deviation of 5.88 pct. Presence of nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactant in the solution decreased the rate of recovery by an amount ranging from 2.94 to 38.57 pct depending on the operating conditions. The present geometry gave higher rates of recovery compared to both the single rotating cylinder and rotating disc reactor.

  16. Stabilization of bovine insulin against agitation-induced aggregation using RNA aptamers.

    PubMed

    Malik, Ravinder; Roy, Ipsita

    2013-08-16

    Stabilization of monomeric insulin is a primary requirement for preserving the efficacy of the final formulation. Degraded and/or aggregated protein as well as the presence of any of the conventional excipients can result in immunogenic or anaphylactic reactions, and reduced bioavailability of the protein drug. The aim of this work was to select novel RNA-based stabilizers of bovine insulin which would recognize and bind to the monomeric protein and help retain its bioactivity. RNA aptamers were selected by an in vitro selection method. They were screened for their ability to inhibit insulin fibrillation using agitation as a stress condition. The in vitro activity of insulin was determined by phosphorylation of downstream proteins in the cell. In vivo bioactivity was determined in a diabetic rat model. RNA aptamers, which bound to insulin with very low dissociation constants and high specificity, were selected. These sequences were aligned and consensus regions were found. The RNA sequences had no effect on the signalling cascade initiated by insulin. The bioactivity of insulin, as measured by its ability to lower plasma glucose level in a diabetic rat model, also remained unchanged. RNA aptamers are a novel class of protein stabilizers which have the ability to disrupt protein-protein interactions and hence inhibit protein aggregation. Their non-toxic and non-immunogenic nature makes such formulations safe for use.

  17. Successful child psychotherapy of attention deficit/hyperactive disorder: an agitated depression explanation.

    PubMed

    Seitler, Burton Norman

    2008-09-01

    Science tries to explain phenomena in ways that are demonstrable and replicable to develop logical, coherent, parsimonious, and predictive theoretical systems. Yet hyperactive children are given stimulants to "calm" them down, despite the fact that science would predict stimulants would increase hyperactivity. Bradley (1937, 1950) observed that half of the behavior-problem children to whom he administered a stimulant for one week became subdued. He called this finding paradoxical, speculating that inhibitory centers of the central nervous system were stimulated. While Bradley's assertion of a paradoxical reverse effect in children may be an empirical observation, it is not an explanation. The Attention Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) is inferred to exist from hyperactive behavior, which in turn, is inferred to be neurological in origin, a circular argument. An inevitable consequence of the belief in the hypothetical neurological etiology of ADHD is that children are typically given stimulants. Using the case of a seven-year old child, described as experiencing ADHD, who was treated successfully without medication as an illustration, the author provides an alternative, more parsimonious explanation of the etiology, suggesting that ADHD is related to agitated depression.

  18. Drying process optimization for an API solvate using heat transfer model of an agitated filter dryer.

    PubMed

    Nere, Nandkishor K; Allen, Kimberley C; Marek, James C; Bordawekar, Shailendra V

    2012-10-01

    Drying an early stage active pharmaceutical ingredient candidate required excessively long cycle times in a pilot plant agitated filter dryer. The key to faster drying is to ensure sufficient heat transfer and minimize mass transfer limitations. Designing the right mixing protocol is of utmost importance to achieve efficient heat transfer. To this order, a composite model was developed for the removal of bound solvent that incorporates models for heat transfer and desolvation kinetics. The proposed heat transfer model differs from previously reported models in two respects: it accounts for the effects of a gas gap between the vessel wall and solids on the overall heat transfer coefficient, and headspace pressure on the mean free path length of the inert gas and thereby on the heat transfer between the vessel wall and the first layer of solids. A computational methodology was developed incorporating the effects of mixing and headspace pressure to simulate the drying profile using a modified model framework within the Dynochem software. A dryer operational protocol was designed based on the desolvation kinetics, thermal stability studies of wet and dry cake, and the understanding gained through model simulations, resulting in a multifold reduction in drying time.

  19. Studies on heat transfer to Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids in agitated vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triveni, B.; Vishwanadham, B.; Venkateshwar, S.

    2008-09-01

    Heat transfer studies to Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids are carried out in a stirred vessel fitted with anchor/turbine impeller and a coil for heating/cooling with an objective of determining experimentally the heat transfer coefficient of few industrially important systems namely castor oil and its methyl esters, soap solution, CMC and chalk slurries. The effect of impeller geometry, speed and aeration is investigated. Generalized Reynolds and Prandtl numbers are calculated using an apparent viscosity for non-Newtonian fluids. The data is correlated using a Sieder-Tate type equation. A trend of increase in heat transfer coefficient with RPM in presence and absence of solids has been observed. Relatively high values of Nusselt numbers are obtained for non-Newtonian fluids when aeration is coupled with agitation. The contribution of natural convection to heat transfer has been accounted for by incorporating the Grashof number. The correlations developed based on these studies are applied for design of commercial scale soponification reactor. Power per unit volume resulted in reliable design of a reactor.

  20. Phosphorus recovery from urine with different magnesium resources in an air-agitated reactor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoning; Hu, Zhengyi; Mu, Jing; Zang, Haixing; Liu, Li

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) recovery through struvite formation from urine has gained increasing attention as an approach to alleviate the potential shortage of P. The concentration of magnesium (Mg) is lower than those of ammonium and ortho-phosphate in urine, so the cost of adding Mg is a major economic constraint for P recovery. This study aims at evaluating the potential of seawater and bittern as Mg resources to recover P from urine in an air-agitated reactor. Results indicate that effects of seawater and bittern on P recovery from urine are comparable to that of magnesium chloride, with an average crystal size of around 34 μm under an Mg/P molar ratio of 1.3. The average crystal size of the struvite crystals obtained from high P concentration urine with different Mg resources showed no significant difference, whereas larger crystal size was obtained from low P concentration urine with bittern as Mg resource. Analysis of mainly rod-like crystals produced in the reactor indicates the presence of pure struvite (>98.0% by weight) with small amounts of calcium (<1.39% by weight). Bittern is recommended as a suitable Mg resource for P recovery because of its high Mg content and the convenience it offers in terms of transportation and storage.

  1. Mechanical agitation induces counterintuitive aggregation of pre-dispersed carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ricardo M F; Buzaglo, Matat; Regev, Oren; Furó, István; Marques, Eduardo F

    2017-05-01

    Mechanical agitation is commonly used to fragment and disperse insoluble materials in liquids. However, here we show that when pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes pre-dispersed in water are subject to vortex-shaking for very short periods (typically 10-60s, power density ∼0.002WmL(-1)), re-aggregation counterintuitively occurs. The initial dispersions are produced using surfactants as dispersants and powerful tip sonication (∼1WmL(-1)) followed by centrifugation. Detailed imaging by light and electron microscopies shows that the vortex-induced aggregates consist of loose networks (1-10(2)μm in size) of intertwined tubes and thin bundles. The average aggregate size increases with vortexing time in an apparently logarithmic manner and depends on the dispersant used, initial concentration of nanotubes and size distribution of bundles. The aggregation is, nonetheless, reversible: if the vortex-shaken dispersions are mildly bath-sonicated (∼0.03WmL(-1)), the flocs break down and re-dispersal occurs. Molecular insight for the mechanism behind this surprising phenomenon is put forth.

  2. Effects of salinity on striped bass eggs and larvae from the Savannah River, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winger, P.V.; Lasier, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Operation of a tide gate installed in the Savannah River by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to reduce dredging activities increased salinities upstream in important spawning habitat for striped bass Morone saxatilis. To assess the effects of salinity on survival and growth of striped bass at early life stages, newly fertilized eggs and 48-h-posthatch were exposed to serial dilutions of seawater, with salinities ranging from 0 to 33 permill (g/L) in increments of 3 permill in addition, older larvae (5-d posthatch) were exposed to salinities of 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 permill. Eggs were exposed until 24 h posthatch, 48-h-posthatch larvae were exposed for 10 d, and 5-d-posthatch larvae were exposed for 6 d. Eggs died within 24 h in salinities greater than 18 permill. Both survival and total length of larvae hatched from eggs exposed to salinities of 15 permill or higher were reduced. Percent mortality and mean total lengths of newly hatched larvae followed the same pattern for each of three sets of salinity regimes (i.e., changes in salinities over time) that striped bass eggs might encounter during passage downstream in the Savannah River. Hardening eggs in freshwater did not increase survival or length of hatched larvae over that shown by eggs hardened in saline water. The 5-d-posthatch larvae were less sensitive to salinity than the 48-h-posthatch larvae. Survival of larvae was negatively con-elated with both salinity and exposure time. For 48-h-posthatch larvae, the 10-d LC50 (the salinity lethal to 50% of the test fish within 10 d) was 10 permill. Probabilities of survival for larval striped bass exposed to different salinities for different amounts of time can be estimated from curves generated from models of survival analysis. Salinities judged to be critical to Savannah River striped bass eggs and larvae are those greater than 9 permill.

  3. Serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein: A delicate sentinel elevated in drug-free acutely agitated patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shujuan; Tan, Yunlong; Yao, Shangwu; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Xiong, Jing

    2016-12-30

    Increased levels of high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) have been reported in schizophrenia, but to date, no study is designed to examine serum hsCRP in acutely agitated patients with schizophrenia, an extreme state that requires immediate diagnosis and medical treatment. Serum hsCRP levels were assessed in 32 clinically acutely agitated patients and 42 healthy control subjects matched for demographic properties. Further, serum hsCRP levels in acutely agitated patients were compared with control subjects and with the levels after the patients were treated with anti-psychiatric medications. Meanwhile, the influence of clinical subtypes, family history, and gender, as well as the levels of white blood cell (WBC) counts were also considered. In results, serum hsCRP levels were significantly higher in acutely agitated patients with schizophrenia than in healthy subjects. The elevation of serum hsCRP in patients was not affected by gender, family history (P>0.05), and clinical classification of schizophrenia (P>0.05). However, the elevation of hsCRP was suppressed by the medical treatment for schizophrenia with acute agitation (P<0.05). In addition, WBC counts, another inflammation-related indicator, were also increased significantly in acutely agitated patients compared with healthy subjects, consistent with the elevation of serum hsCRP. In conclusion, hsCRP is an important indicator of immune alterations in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and has potential to be developed into a sensitive marker for the acute agitation in schizophrenia.

  4. Determining Salinity by Simple Means.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This paper describes the construction and use of a simple salinometer. The salinometer is composed, mainly, of a milliammeter and a battery and uses the measurement of current flow to determine the salinity of water. A complete list of materials is given, as are details of construction and operation of the equipment. The use of the salinometer in…

  5. Mycelial bacteria of saline soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvyagintsev, D. G.; Zenova, G. M.; Oborotov, G. V.

    2008-10-01

    The actinomycetal complexes of saline soils comprise the representatives of the Streptomyces and Micromonospora genera, the number of which are hundreds and thousands of CFU/g soil. Complexes of mycelial bacteria in saline soils are poorer in terms of number (by 1-3 orders of magnitude) and taxonomic composition than the complexes of the zonal soil types. A specific feature of the actinomycetal complexes of saline soils is the predominance of halophilic, alkaliphilic, and haloalkaliphilic streptomycetes that well grow at pH 8-9 and concentrations of NaCl close to 5%. Actinomycetes in saline soils grow actively, and the length of their mycelium reaches 140 m in 1 gram of soil. The haloalkaliphilic streptomycetes grow fast and inhibit the formation of spores at pH 9 and high concentrations of salts (Na2SO4 and MgCl2, 5%) as compared to their behavior on a neutral medium with a salt concentration of 0.02%. They are characterized by the maximal radial growth rate of colonies on an alkaline medium with 5% NaCl.

  6. Assessing the impacts of salinity and nutrient stress to Ruppia ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Healthy seagrass beds were once found throughout the shallow areas of Narragansett Bay, R.I. but have disappeared due to infilling, pollution and disease. In Greenwich Bay, a highly developed embayment within Narragansett Bay, Ruppia maritima has colonized an area on the northern shore historically dominated by Zostera marina. Ruppia is extremely salinity tolerant, and may also be more nutrient tolerant than Zostera. To test this hypothesis 6-week microcosm experiments were conducted in the summers of 2014 and 2015. Microcosms were renewed daily to simulate tidal flushing and the water column was dosed with a 15N tracer for the first week of the experiments. In the 2014 microcosm experiment two salinity (20, 30 ppt) and four nutrient (0, 5, 10, 30 µM inorganic N) levels were used to test the species’ relative tolerance. This experiment yielded structurally significant results for Ruppia but no significant differences were detected for Zostera. In 2015 this experiment was performed for a second time with lower salinity (5, 30 ppt) and higher nutrients (0, 30, 100, 300, 1000 µM inorganic N) in order to determine Zostera’s tolerance to nutrient and salinity stress and confirm the previously observed Ruppia results. Both species had significant structural responses to the nutrient and salinity variables. Isotopic analysis run on above-ground tissue indicated that with increasing nutrient levels δ15N in the seagrass shoots increased, suggesting that nutrients

  7. Pulmonary transit of agitated contrast is associated with enhanced pulmonary vascular reserve and right ventricular function during exercise.

    PubMed

    La Gerche, André; MacIsaac, Andrew I; Burns, Andrew T; Mooney, Don J; Inder, Warrick J; Voigt, Jens-Uwe; Heidbüchel, Hein; Prior, David L

    2010-11-01

    Pulmonary transit of agitated contrast (PTAC) occurs to variable extents during exercise. We tested the hypothesis that the onset of PTAC signifies flow through larger-caliber vessels, resulting in improved pulmonary vascular reserve during exercise. Forty athletes and fifteen nonathletes performed maximal exercise with continuous echocardiographic Doppler measures [cardiac output (CO), pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP), and myocardial velocities] and invasive blood pressure (BP). Arterial gases and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) were measured at baseline and peak exercise. Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) was determined as the regression of PASP/CO and was compared according to athletic and PTAC status. At peak exercise, athletes had greater CO (16.0 ± 2.9 vs. 12.4 ± 3.2 l/min, P < 0.001) and higher PASP (60.8 ± 12.6 vs. 47.0 ± 6.5 mmHg, P < 0.001), but PVR was similar to nonathletes (P = 0.71). High PTAC (defined by contrast filling of the left ventricle) occurred in a similar proportion of athletes and nonathletes (18/40 vs. 10/15, P = 0.35) and was associated with higher peak-exercise CO (16.1 ± 3.4 vs. 13.9 ± 2.9 l/min, P = 0.010), lower PASP (52.3 ± 9.8 vs. 62.6 ± 13.7 mmHg, P = 0.003), and 37% lower PVR (P < 0.0001) relative to low PTAC. Right ventricular (RV) myocardial velocities increased more and BNP increased less in high vs. low PTAC subjects. On multivariate analysis, maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)) (P = 0.009) and maximal exercise output (P = 0.049) were greater in high PTAC subjects. An exercise-induced decrease in arterial oxygen saturation (98.0 ± 0.4 vs. 96.7 ± 1.4%, P < 0.0001) was not influenced by PTAC status (P = 0.96). Increased PTAC during exercise is a marker of pulmonary vascular reserve reflected by greater flow, reduced PVR, and enhanced RV function.

  8. The Closing Group: Therapeutic recreation for nursing home residents with dementia and accompanying agitation and/or anxiety.

    PubMed

    Putman, Laraine; Wang, Jen-Ting

    2007-01-01

    Long-term care residents who have a dementia diagnosis could account for as much 50% of a nursing home's population. Often residents with dementia experience a distressing behavioral symptom that affects the resident experiencing the symptom(s), other nursing home residents, visitors, and staff. The Closing Group intervention was developed as a nonpharmacological alternative that aims to reduce agitation and anxiety, increase socialization, decrease restraint use, and decrease antipsychotic drug use for selected residents with a dementia diagnosis. The program was based on an understanding of the contributing factors to agitation and anxiety, the nursing home environment as it relates to behavior, and the offering of resident-driven recreational activities. The purpose of this 2-year study was, with use of multiple measures, to examine the extent to which the Closing Group intervention has met its goals. A sample of 16 long-term care residents was offered attendance at the group. Findings in the area of reducing agitation and anxiety were encouraging to the extent that further study with larger samples is needed.

  9. Hypnotic Depth and the Incidence of Emergence Agitation and Negative Postoperative Behavioral Changes

    PubMed Central

    Faulk, Debra J.; Twite, Mark D.; Zuk, Jeannie; Pan, Zhaoxing; Wallen, Brett; Friesen, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Emergence agitation (EA) and negative postoperative behavioral changes (NPOBC) are common in children, though the etiology remains unclear. We investigated whether longer times under deep hypnosis as measured by Bispectral Index™ (BIS) monitoring would positively correlate with a greater incidence of EA in the post anesthesia care unit (PACU) and a greater occurrence of NPOBC in children after discharge. Methods We enrolled 400 children, ages 1–12 years old, scheduled for dental procedures under general anesthesia. All children were induced with high concentration sevoflurane and BIS monitoring was continuous from induction through recovery in the PACU. A BIS reading <45 was considered deep hypnosis. The presence of EA was assessed in the PACU using the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium Scale (PAED). NPOBC were assessed using the Post-Hospital Behavior Questionnaire (PHBQ), completed by parents 3–5 days post-operatively. Data were analyzed using logistic regression, with a p<0.05 considered statistically significant. Results The incidence of EA was 27% (99/369) and the incidence of NPOBC was 8.8% (28/318). No significant differences in the incidence of EA or NPOBC were seen with respect to length of time under deep hypnosis as measured by a BIS value of less than 45. Conclusion Our data revealed no significant correlation between the length of time under deep hypnosis (BIS<45) and the incidence of EA or NPOBC. Within this population, these behavioral disturbances do not appear to be related to the length of time under a deep hypnotic state as measured by the BIS. PMID:19968807

  10. Flow-induced agitations create a granular fluid: effective viscosity and fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Nichol, Kiri; van Hecke, Martin

    2012-06-01

    We fluidize a granular medium with localized stirring in a split-bottom shear cell. We probe the mechanical response of quiescent regions far from the main flow by observing the vertical motion of cylindrical probes rising, sinking, and floating in the grains. First, we find that the probe motion suggests that the granular material behaves in a liquid-like manner: high-density probes sink and low-density probes float at the depth given by Archimedes' law. Second, we observe that the drag force on moving probes scales linearly with their velocity, which allows us to define an effective viscosity for the system. This effective viscosity is inversely proportional to the rotation rate of the disk which drives the split bottom flow. Moreover, the apparent viscosity depends on radius and mass of the probe: despite the linear dependence of the drag forces on sinking speed of the probe, the granular medium is not simply Newtonian, but exhibits a more complex rheology. The decrease of viscosity with filling height of the cell, combined with the poor correlation between local strain rate and viscosity, suggests that the fluid-like character of the material is set by agitations generated in the stirred region: the relation between applied stress and observed strain rate in one location depends on the strain rate in another location. We probe the nature of the granular fluctuations that we believe mediates these nonlocal interactions by characterizing the small and random up and down motion that the probe experiences. These Gaussian fluctuations exhibit a mix of diffusive and subdiffusive behavior at short times and saturate at a value of roughly 1/10th of a grain diameter longer times, consistent with the picture of a random walker in a potential well. The product of crossover time and effective viscosity is constant, evidencing a direct link between fluctuations and viscosity.

  11. The effect of impeller type on silica sol formation in laboratory scale agitated tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurtono, Tantular; Suprana, Yayang Ade; Latif, Abdul; Dewa, Restu Mulya; Machmudah, Siti; Widiyastuti, Winardi, Sugeng

    2016-02-01

    The multiphase polymerization reaction of the silica sol formation produced from silicic acid and potassium hydroxide solutions in laboratory scale agitated tank was studied. The reactor is equipped with four segmental baffle and top entering impeller. The inside diameter of reactor is 9 cm, the baffle width is 0.9 cm, and the impeller position is 3 cm from tank bottom. The diameter of standard six blades Rushton and three blades marine propeller impellers are 5 cm. The silicic acid solution was made from 0.2 volume fraction of water glass (sodium silicate) solution in which the sodium ion was exchanged by hydrogen ion from cation resin. The reactor initially filled with 286 ml silicic acid solution was operated in semi batch mode and the temperature was kept constant in 60 °C. The 3 ml/minute of 1 M potassium hydroxide solution was added into stirred tank and the solution was stirred. The impeller rotational speed was varied from 100 until 700 rpm. This titration was stopped if the solution in stirred tank had reached the pH of 10-The morphology of the silica particles in the silica sol product was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The size of silica particles in silica sol was measured based on the SEM image. The silica particle obtained in this research was amorphous particle and the shape was roughly cylinder. The flow field generated by different impeller gave significant effect on particle size and shape. The smallest geometric mean of length and diameter of particle (4.92 µm and 2.42 µm, respectively) was generated in reactor with marine propeller at 600 rpm. The reactor with Rushton impeller produced particle which the geometric mean of length and diameter of particle was 4.85 µm and 2.36 µm, respectively, at 150 rpm.

  12. Effect of ketamine combined with butorphanol on emergence agitation of postoperative patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Liang; Liu, Shuncui; Chen, Zhenyi; Lin, Shaoli

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate the effect of ketamine combined with butorphanol on emergence agitation (EA) in postoperative gastric cancer patients. Materials and methods A total of 150 patients with gastric cancer were included and divided into group B (1 mg butorphanol before anesthesia induction, n=50), group K (1 mg/kg ketamine, n=50), and group C (1 mg butorphanol combined with 1 mg/kg ketamine, n=50). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) at the end of operation, just before extubation (T0) and at 0 minute (T1), 5 minutes (T2), and 30 minutes (T3) after extubation were compared. Statistical analysis of recovery time, extubation time, time in postanesthesia care unit, and EA incidence and adverse reactions were performed. Results There were no differences among groups with respect to MAP and HR at T0 and T1 (P>0.05). Compared with patients in group C, significant reduction of MAP and HR were observed in groups K and B at T2 and T3 (P<0.05), while no differences were found between group K and group B (P>0.05). Recovery time, extubation time, time in postanesthesia care unit, and incidence of EA in group C were significantly less than those in groups K and B (P<0.05), but no differences were observed between group K and group B (P>0.05). Total incidence of adverse reactions were significantly increased in group K compared to those in groups C and B (P<0.05). Conclusion Injection of ketamine combined with butorphanol before anesthesia induction was more effective than injection of ketamine or butorphanol separately in the prevention of EA. PMID:27217761

  13. Stennis Space Center Salinity Drifter Project. A Collaborative Project with Hancock High School, Kiln, MS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalcic, Maria; Turowski, Mark; Hall, Callie

    2010-01-01

    Presentation topics include: importance of salinity of coastal waters, habitat switching algorithm, habitat switching module, salinity estimates from Landsat for Sabine Calcasieu Basin, percent of time inundated in 2006, salinity data, prototyping the system, system as packaged for field tests, salinity probe and casing, opening for water flow, cellular antenna used to transmit data, preparing to launch, system is launched in the Pearl River at Stennis Space Center, data are transmitted to Twitter by cell phone modem every 15 minutes, Google spreadsheet I used to import the data from the Twitter feed and to compute salinity (from conductivity) and display charts of salinity and temperature, results are uploaded to NASA's Applied Science and Technology Project Office Webpage.

  14. Salinity tolerance of eggs of Buergeria japonica (Amphibia, Anura) inhabiting coastal areas.

    PubMed

    Haramura, Takashi

    2007-08-01

    Buergeria japonica is one of a few frogs that breed in coastal areas. To understand why this species can breed in coastal areas, I tested the salinity tolerance of eggs of B. japonica collected from a coastal area of Okinawa Island, Japan. All eggs hatched within four days after oviposition. At 0%. salinity (control), over 94% of eggs hatched normally, and even at 1 per thousand salinity over 85% of eggs hatched. Survival rate of eggs was low at 2, 3, and 4 per thousand, and no eggs hatched at 5 per thousand salinity. These results indicate that low salinity, close to pure water, is necessary for successful egg development, even for populations of B. japonica that breed in coastal areas. Future studies are necessary to examine whether females of B. japonica breeding in coastal areas select appropriate oviposition sites where the environmental salinity level is sufficiently low for eggs.

  15. Use of LANDSAT-1 data for the detection and mapping of saline seeps in Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, G. A. (Principal Investigator); Petersen, G. W.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. April, May, and August are the best times to detect saline seeps. Specific times within these months would be dependent upon weather, phenology, and growth conditions. Saline seeps can be efficiently and accurately mapped, within resolution capabilities, from merged May and August LANDSAT 1 data. Seeps were mapped by detecting salt crusts in the spring and indicator plants in the fall. These indicator plants were kochia, inkweed, and foxtail barley. The total hectares of the mapped saline seeps were calculated and tabulated. Saline seeps less than two hectares in size or that have linear configurations less than 200 meters in width were not mapped using the LANDSAT 1 data. Saline seep signatures developed in the Coffee Creek test site were extended to map saline seeps located outside this area.

  16. Salinity tolerance and mycorrhizal responsiveness of native xeroriparian plants in semi-arid western USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beauchamp, Vanessa B.; Walz, C.; Shafroth, P.B.

    2009-01-01

    Restoration of salt-affected soils is a global concern. In the western United States, restoration of salinized land, particularly in river valleys, often involves control of Tamarix, an introduced species with high salinity tolerance. Revegetation of hydrologically disconnected floodplains and terraces after Tamarix removal is often difficult because of limited knowledge regarding the salinity tolerance of candidate native species for revegetation. Additionally, Tamarix appears to be non-mycorrhizal. Extended occupation of Tamarix may deplete arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the soil, further decreasing the success of revegetation efforts. To address these issues, we screened 42 species, races, or ecotypes native to southwestern U.S. for salinity tolerance and mycorrhizal responsiveness. As expected, the taxa tested showed a wide range of responses to salinity and mycorrhizal fungi. This variation also occurred between ecotypes or races of the same species, indicating that seed collected from high-salinity reference systems is likely better adapted to harsh conditions than seed originating from less saline environments. All species tested had a positive or neutral response to mycorrhizal inoculation. We found no clear evidence that mycorrhizae increased salinity tolerance, but some species were so dependent on mycorrhizal fungi that they grew poorly at all salinity levels in pasteurized soil. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Spatial variability of sugarcane yields in relation to soil salinity in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High soil salinity levels have been documented to negatively impact sugarcane yields. Tests were conducted in commercial sugarcane fields in South Louisiana in 2009-2010 to determine if elevated soil salinity levels resulting from salt water intrusion from several recent hurricanes was having a neg...

  18. The Aquarius Salinity Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meissner, Thomas; Wentz, Frank; Hilburn, Kyle; Lagerloef, Gary; Le Vine, David

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this presentation gives an overview over the Aquarius salinity retrieval algorithm. The instrument calibration [2] converts Aquarius radiometer counts into antenna temperatures (TA). The salinity retrieval algorithm converts those TA into brightness temperatures (TB) at a flat ocean surface. As a first step, contributions arising from the intrusion of solar, lunar and galactic radiation are subtracted. The antenna pattern correction (APC) removes the effects of cross-polarization contamination and spillover. The Aquarius radiometer measures the 3rd Stokes parameter in addition to vertical (v) and horizontal (h) polarizations, which allows for an easy removal of ionospheric Faraday rotation. The atmospheric absorption at L-band is almost entirely due to molecular oxygen, which can be calculated based on auxiliary input fields from numerical weather prediction models and then successively removed from the TB. The final step in the TA to TB conversion is the correction for the roughness of the sea surface due to wind, which is addressed in more detail in section 3. The TB of the flat ocean surface can now be matched to a salinity value using a surface emission model that is based on a model for the dielectric constant of sea water [3], [4] and an auxiliary field for the sea surface temperature. In the current processing only v-pol TB are used for this last step.

  19. Influence of apheresis container size on the maintenance of platelet in vitro storage properties after a 30-h interruption of agitation.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Stephen J; Skripchenko, Andrey; Seetharaman, Shalini; Myrup, Andrew; Kurtz, James; Thomas-Montgomery, Dedeene; Awatefe, Helen; Moroff, Gary

    2010-08-01

    We have previously conducted studies investigating maintenance of apheresis platelet in vitro quality measures during storage under simulated shipping conditions in which agitation was interrupted. This study examines the effect of increasing bag surface area on the preservation of in vitro platelet properties during storage with continuous agitation and with a 30 h interruption of agitation. Apheresis platelets were collected in 100% plasma with the Amicus separator to provide two identical platelet products, each with approximately 4-5 x 10(11) platelets. After collection, the volume was divided equally between 1.0 and 1.3 L PL2410 containers. In an initial study, both products were continuously agitated. In a second study, both products were subjected to a single 30-h period of interrupted agitation between Days 2 and 3 of storage by placement in a standard shipping box at room temperature. In each study, units were assayed during storage for standard in vitro platelet quality measures. Platelets stored in the 1.3 L container maintained slightly greater mean pH during 7 day storage with either continuous agitation (n=6) or with a 30-h interruption of agitation (n=12) than those of similarly treated identical platelets stored in the 1.0 L container. Most noteworthy, in experiments with products stored in the 1.0 L container in which there was a large decrease in pH to levels <6.7 or <6.3 on days 5 or 7, respectively, the pH in the matched product stored in the 1.3 L container was substantially greater (0.17+/-06 and 0.37+/-0.09 pH units greater, n=4, respectively). Other measures showed either small differences or comparability of platelet in vitro parameters with storage in the two containers after an interruption of agitation.

  20. Plant responses to heterogeneous salinity: growth of the halophyte Atriplex nummularia is determined by the root-weighted mean salinity of the root zone.

    PubMed

    Bazihizina, Nadia; Barrett-Lennard, Edward G; Colmer, Timothy D

    2012-11-01

    Soil salinity is generally spatially heterogeneous, but our understanding of halophyte physiology under such conditions is limited. The growth and physiology of the dicotyledonous halophyte Atriplex nummularia was evaluated in split-root experiments to test whether growth is determined by: (i) the lowest; (ii) the highest; or (iii) the mean salinity of the root zone. In two experiments, plants were grown with uniform salinities or horizontally heterogeneous salinities (10-450 mM NaCl in the low-salt side and 670 mM in the high-salt side, or 10 mM NaCl in the low-salt side and 500-1500 mM in the high-salt side). The combined data showed that growth and gas exchange parameters responded most closely to the root-weighted mean salinity rather than to the lowest, mean, or highest salinity in the root zone. In contrast, midday shoot water potentials were determined by the lowest salinity in the root zone, consistent with most water being taken from the least negative water potential source. With uniform salinity, maximum shoot growth was at 120-230 mM NaCl; ~90% of maximum growth occurred at 10 mM and 450 mM NaCl. Exposure of part of the roots to 1500 mM NaCl resulted in an enhanced (+40%) root growth on the low-salt side, which lowered root-weighted mean salinity and enabled the maintenance of shoot growth. Atriplex nummularia grew even with extreme salinity in part of the roots, as long as the root-weighted mean salinity of the root zone was within the 10-450 mM range.

  1. Optimization of aeration and agitation rate for lipid and gamma linolenic acid production by Cunninghamella bainieri 2A1 in submerged fermentation using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Saad, Normah; Abdeshahian, Peyman; Kalil, Mohd Sahaid; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan; Hamid, Aidil Abdul

    2014-01-01

    The locally isolated filamentous fungus Cunninghamella bainieri 2A1 was cultivated in a 5 L bioreactor to produce lipid and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA). The optimization was carried out using response surface methodology based on a central composite design. A statistical model, second-order polynomial model, was adjusted to the experimental data to evaluate the effect of key operating variables, including aeration rate and agitation speed on lipid production. Process analysis showed that linear and quadratic effect of agitation intensity significantly influenced lipid production process (P < 0.01). The quadratic model also indicated that the interaction between aeration rate and agitation speed had a highly significant effect on lipid production (P < 0.01). Experimental results showed that a lipid content of 38.71% was produced in optimum conditions using an airflow rate and agitation speed of 0.32 vvm and 599 rpm, respectively. Similar results revealed that 0.058(g/g) gamma-linolenic acid was produced in optimum conditions where 1.0 vvm aeration rate and 441.45 rpm agitation rate were used. The regression model confirmed that aeration and agitation were of prime importance for optimum production of lipid in the bioreactor.

  2. The effect of impeller type on silica sol formation in laboratory scale agitated tank

    SciTech Connect

    Nurtono, Tantular; Suprana, Yayang Ade; Latif, Abdul; Dewa, Restu Mulya; Machmudah, Siti; Widiyastuti, Winardi, Sugeng

    2016-02-08

    The multiphase polymerization reaction of the silica sol formation produced from silicic acid and potassium hydroxide solutions in laboratory scale agitated tank was studied. The reactor is equipped with four segmental baffle and top entering impeller. The inside diameter of reactor is 9 cm, the baffle width is 0.9 cm, and the impeller position is 3 cm from tank bottom. The diameter of standard six blades Rushton and three blades marine propeller impellers are 5 cm. The silicic acid solution was made from 0.2 volume fraction of water glass (sodium silicate) solution in which the sodium ion was exchanged by hydrogen ion from cation resin. The reactor initially filled with 286 ml silicic acid solution was operated in semi batch mode and the temperature was kept constant in 60 °C. The 3 ml/minute of 1 M potassium hydroxide solution was added into stirred tank and the solution was stirred. The impeller rotational speed was varied from 100 until 700 rpm. This titration was stopped if the solution in stirred tank had reached the pH of 10-The morphology of the silica particles in the silica sol product was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The size of silica particles in silica sol was measured based on the SEM image. The silica particle obtained in this research was amorphous particle and the shape was roughly cylinder. The flow field generated by different impeller gave significant effect on particle size and shape. The smallest geometric mean of length and diameter of particle (4.92 µm and 2.42 µm, respectively) was generated in reactor with marine propeller at 600 rpm. The reactor with Rushton impeller produced particle which the geometric mean of length and diameter of particle was 4.85 µm and 2.36 µm, respectively, at 150 rpm.

  3. Effect of aripiprazole lauroxil on agitation and hostility in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Citrome, Leslie; Du, Yangchun; Risinger, Robert; Stankovic, Srdjan; Claxton, Amy; Zummo, Jacqueline; Bose, Anjana; Silverman, Bernard L; Ehrich, Elliot W

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of aripiprazole lauroxil on hostility and aggressive behavior in patients with schizophrenia. Patients aged 18-70 years with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and currently experiencing an acute exacerbation or relapse were randomized to intramuscular (IM) aripiprazole lauroxil 441 mg (n=207), 882 mg (n=208), or placebo (n=207) for 12 weeks. In post-hoc analyses, hostility and aggression were assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) Hostility item (P7) and a specific antihostility effect was assessed by adjusting for positive symptoms of schizophrenia, somnolence, and akathisia. The PANSS excited component score [P4 (Excitement), P7 (Hostility), G4 (Tension), G8 (Uncooperativeness), and G14 (Poor impulse control)], and the Personal and Social Performance scale disturbing and aggressive behavior domain were also assessed. Of the 147 patients who received aripiprazole lauroxil 882 mg and with a baseline PANSS Hostility item P7 more than 1, there was a significant (P<0.05) improvement versus placebo on the PANSS Hostility item P7 score by mixed-model repeated-measures at the end of the study, which remained significant when PANSS-positive symptoms and somnolence or akathisia were included as additional covariates. The proportion with PANSS Hostility item P7 more than 1 at endpoint was significantly (P<0.05) lower with aripiprazole lauroxil versus placebo (53.6, 46.1, and 66.3% for 441, 882 mg, and placebo). A significant (P<0.05) improvement was found with aripiprazole lauroxil versus placebo for change from baseline in the PANSS excited component score. The proportion of patients with aggressive behavior on the Personal and Social Performance scale was significantly (P<0.05) lower for aripiprazole lauroxil: 30.0% for 441 mg versus 44.1% for placebo (P=0.006) and 22.2% for 881 mg (P<0.001 versus placebo). Treatment with aripiprazole lauroxil resulted in decreases in agitation and hostility in patients

  4. Hydrogeologic processes in saline systems: Playas, sabkhas, and saline lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yechieli, Y.; Wood, W.W.

    2002-01-01

    Pans, playas, sabkhas, salinas, saline lakes, and salt flats are hydrologically similar, varying only in their boundary conditions. Thus, in evaluating geochemical processes in these systems, a generic water and solute mass-balance approach can be utilized. A conceptual model of a coastal sabkha near the Arabian Gulf is used as an example to illustrate the various water and solute fluxes. Analysis of this model suggests that upward flux of ground water from underlying formations could be a major source of solutes in the sabkha, but contribute only a small volume of the water. Local rainfall is the main source of water in the modeled sabkha system with a surprisingly large recharge-to-rainfall ratio of more than 50%. The contribution of seawater to the solute budget depends on the ratio of the width of the supratidal zone to the total width and is generally confined to a narrow zone near the shoreline of a typical coastal sabkha. Because of a short residence time of water, steady-state flow is expected within a short time (50,000 years). The solute composition of the brine in a closed saline system depends largely on the original composition of the input water. The high total ion content in the brine limits the efficiency of water-rock interaction and absorption. Because most natural systems are hydrologically open, the chemistry of the brines and the associated evaporite deposits may be significantly different than that predicted for hydrologically closed systems. Seasonal changes in temperature of the unsaturated zone cause precipitation of minerals in saline systems undergoing evaporation. Thus, during the hot dry season months, minerals exhibit retrograde solubility so that gypsum, anhydrite and calcite precipitate. Evaporation near the surface is also a major process that causes mineral precipitation in the upper portion of the unsaturated zone (e.g. halite and carnallite), provided that the relative humidity of the atmosphere is less than the activity of water

  5. Passive Microwave Measurements of Salinity: The Gulf Stream Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Koblinsky, C.; Haken, M.; Howden, S.; Bingham, F.; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Passive microwave sensors at L-band (1.4 GHz) operating from aircraft have demonstrated that salinity can be measured with sufficient accuracy (I psu) to be scientifically meaningful in coastal waters. However, measuring salinity in the open ocean presents unresolved issues largely because of the much greater accuracy (approximately 0.2 psu) required of global maps to be scientifically viable. The development of a satellite microwave instrument to make global measurements of SSS (Sea Surface Salinity) is the focus of a joint JPL/GSFC/NASA ocean research program called Aquarius. In the summer of 1999 a series of measurements called, The Gulf Stream Experiment, were conducted as part of research at the Goddard Space Flight Center to test the potential for passive microwave remote sensing of salinity in the open ocean. The measurements consisted of airborne microwave instruments together with ships and drifters for surface truth. The study area was a 200 km by 100 km rectangle about 250 km east of Delaware Bay between the continental shelf waters and north wall of the Gulf Stream. The primary passive instruments were the ESTAR radiometer (L-band, H-pol) and the SLFMR radiometer (L-band, V-pol). In addition, the instruments on the aircraft included a C-band radiometer (ACMR), an ocean wave scatterometer (ROWS) and an infrared radiometer (for surface temperature). These instruments were mounted on the NASA P-3 Orion aircraft. Sea surface measurements consisted of thermosalinograph data provided by the R/V Cape Henlopen and the MN Oleander, and data from salinity and temperature sensors on three surface drifters deployed from the R/V Cape Henlopen. The primary experiment period was August 26-September 2, 1999. During this period the salinity field within the study area consisted of a gradient on the order of 2-3 psu in the vicinity of the shelf break and a warm core ring with a gradient of 1-2 psu. Detailed maps were made with the airborne sensors on August 28 and 29 and

  6. Implications of salinity pollution hotspots on agricultural production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floerke, Martina; Fink, Julia; Malsy, Marcus; Voelker, Jeanette; Alcamo, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Salinity pollution can have many negative impacts on water resources used for drinking, irrigation, and industrial purposes. Elevated concentrations of salinity in irrigation water can lead to decreased crop production or crop death and, thus, causing an economic problem. Overall, salinity pollution is a global problem but tends to be more severe in arid and semi-arid regions where the dilution capacity of rivers and lakes is lower and the use of irrigation higher. Particularly in these regions agricultural production is exposed to high salinity of irrigation water as insufficient water quality further reduces the available freshwater resources. According to the FAO, irrigated agriculture contributes about 40 percent of the total food production globally, and therefore, high salinity pollution poses a major concern for food production and food security. We use the WaterGAP3 modeling framework to simulate hydrological, water use, and water quality conditions on a global scale for the time period 1990 to 2010. The modeling framework is applied to simulate total dissolved solids (TDS) loadings and in-stream concentrations from different point and diffuse sources to get an insight on potential environmental impacts as well as risks to agricultural food production. The model was tested and calibrated against observed data from GEMStat and literature sources. Although global in scope, the focus of this study is on developing countries, i.e., in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, as these are most threatened by salinity pollution. Furthermore, insufficient water quality for irrigation and therefore restrictions in irrigation water use are examined, indicating limitations to crop production. Our results show that elevated salinity concentrations in surface waters mainly occur in peak irrigation regions as irrigated agriculture is not only the most relevant water use sector contributing to water abstractions, but also the dominant source of salinity pollution. Additionally

  7. Evolutionary history influences the salinity preference of bacterial taxa in wetland soils

    PubMed Central

    Morrissey, Ember M.; Franklin, Rima B.

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is a major driver of bacterial community composition across the globe. Despite growing recognition that different bacterial species are present or active at different salinities, the mechanisms by which salinity structures community composition remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that these patterns reflect ecological coherence in the salinity preferences of phylogenetic groups using a reciprocal transplant experiment of fresh- and saltwater wetland soils. The salinity of both the origin and host environments affected community composition (16S rRNA gene sequences) and activity (CO2 and CH4 production, and extracellular enzyme activity). These changes in community composition and activity rates were strongly correlated, which suggests the effect of environment on function could be mediated, at least in part, by microbial community composition. Based on their distribution across treatments, each phylotype was categorized as having a salinity preference (freshwater, saltwater, or none) and phylogenetic analyses revealed a significant influence of evolutionary history on these groupings. This finding was corroborated by examining the salinity preferences of high-level taxonomic groups. For instance, we found that the majority of α- and γ-proteobacteria in these wetland soils preferred saltwater, while many β-proteobacteria prefer freshwater. Overall, our results indicate the effect of salinity on bacterial community composition results from phylogenetically-clustered salinity preferences. PMID:26483764

  8. Solution-dispersed CuO nanoparticles anode buffer layer: Effect of ultrasonic agitation duration on photovoltaic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabri, Nasehah Syamin; Yap, Chi Chin; Yahaya, Muhammad; Salleh, Muhamad Mat; Jumali, Mohammad Hafizuddin Haji

    2016-11-01

    The performance of inverted type hybrid organic solar cell based on poly(3-hexyltheopene):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) can be improved by adding an anode buffer layer of copper oxide (CuO). CuO that serves as an electron blocking layer which could effectively reduce the charge recombination at the photoactive layer (P3HT:PCBM)/silver (Ag) interfaces. At the same time, Cuo anode buffer layer could accelerate the holes collection from the photoactive layer to the top electrode. In this study we investigated the effects of ultrasonic agitation duration in preparation of solution-dispersed CuO anode buffer layer on the performance of the devices with a configuration of fluorine tin oxide (FTO)/zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays/P3HT:PCBM/ CuO/Ag. Different durations of ultrasonic agitation (0, 5, 15 and 25 min) were used for CuO nanoparticles solution dispersion to obtain the optimum particle size distribution of CuO. It was found that the smallest average particle size of CuO was obtained by applying the ultrasonic agitation for longest duration of 25 min. The highest power conversion efficiency of 1.22% was recorded from the device incorporating with CuO anode buffer layer with the smallest average particle size. It is believed that CuO anode buffer layer with the smallest average particle size had the least agglomerates, thus leading to better film formation and contact surface area.

  9. Changes in QTc Interval in the Citalopram for Agitation in Alzheimer's Disease (CitAD) Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Drye, Lea T.; Spragg, David; Devanand, D. P.; Frangakis, Constantine; Marano, Christopher; Meinert, Curtis L.; Mintzer, Jacobo E.; Munro, Cynthia A.; Pelton, Gregory; Pollock, Bruce G.; Porsteinsson, Anton P.; Rabins, Peter V.; Rosenberg, Paul B.; Schneider, Lon S.; Shade, David M.; Weintraub, Daniel; Yesavage, Jerome; Lyketsos, Constantine G.

    2014-01-01

    Background A Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety communication in August 2011 warned that citalopram was associated with a dose dependent risk of QT prolongation and recommended dose restriction in patients over the age of 60 but did not provide data for this age group. Methods CitAD was a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial for agitation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Participants were assigned to citalopram (target dose of 30 mg/day) or placebo in a 1∶1 ratio. 186 people, 181 of whom were over the age of 60, having probable AD with clinically significant agitation were recruited from September 2009 to January 2013. After the FDA safety communication about citalopram, ECG was added to the required study procedures before enrollment and repeated at week 3 to monitor change in QTc interval. Forty-eight participants were enrolled after enhanced monitoring began. Results Citalopram treatment was associated with a larger increase in QTc interval than placebo (difference in week 3 QTc adjusting for baseline QTc: 18.1 ms [95% CI: 6.1, 30.1]; p = 0.004). More participants in the citalopram group had an increase ≥30 ms from baseline to week 3 (7 in citalopram versus 1 in placebo; Fisher's exact p = 0.046), but only slightly more in the citalopram group met a gender-specific threshold for prolonged QTc (450 ms for males; 470 ms for females) at any point during follow-up (3 in citalopram versus 1 in placebo, Fisher's exact p = 0.611). One of the citalopram participants who developed prolonged QTc also displayed ventricular bigeminy. No participants in either group had a cardiovascular-related death. Conclusion Citalopram at 30 mg/day was associated with improvement in agitation in patients with AD but was also associated with QT prolongation. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00898807 PMID:24914549

  10. Dependence of penicillium chrysogenum growth, morphology, vacuolation, and productivity in fed-batch fermentations on impeller type and agitation intensity

    PubMed

    J sten P; Paul; Nienow; Thomas

    1998-09-20

    The influence of the agitation conditions on the growth, morphology, vacuolation, and productivity of Penicillium chrysogenum has been examined in 6 L fed-batch fermentations. A standard Rushton turbine, a four-bladed paddle, and a six-bladed pitched blade impeller were compared. Power inputs per unit volume of liquid, P/VL, ranged from 0.35 to 7.4 kW/m3. The same fermentation protocol was used in each fermentation, including holding the dissolved oxygen concentration above 40% air saturation by gas blending. The mean projected area (for all dispersed types, including clumps) and the clump roughness were used to characterize the morphology. Consideration of clumps was vital as these were the predominant morphological form. For a given impeller, the batch-phase specific growth rates and the overall biomass concentrations increased with agitation intensity. Higher fragmentation at higher speeds was assumed to have promoted growth through increased formation of new growing tips. The mean projected area increased during the rapid growth phase followed by a sharp decrease to a relatively constant value dependent on the agitation conditions. The higher the speed, the lower the projected area for a given impeller type. The proportion by volume of hyphal vacuoles and empty regions decreased with speed, possibly due to fragmentation in the vacuolated regions. The specific penicillin production rate was generally higher with lower impeller speed for a given impeller type. The highest value of penicillin production as well as its rate was obtained using the Rushton turbine impeller at the lowest speed. At given P/VL, changes in morphology, specific growth rate, and specific penicillin production rate depended on impeller geometry. The morphological data could be correlated with either tip speed or the "energy dissipation/circulation function," but a reasonable correlation of the specific growth rate and specific production rate was only possible with the latter. Copyright

  11. Insights into Kinetics of Agitation-Induced Aggregation of Hen Lysozyme under Heat and Acidic Conditions from Various Spectroscopic Methods

    PubMed Central

    Chaari, Ali; Fahy, Christine; Chevillot-Biraud, Alexandre; Rholam, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Protein misfolding and amyloid formation are an underlying pathological hallmark in a number of prevalent diseases of protein aggregation ranging from Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases to systemic lysozyme amyloidosis. In this context, we have used complementary spectroscopic methods to undertake a systematic study of the self-assembly of hen egg-white lysozyme under agitation during a prolonged heating in acidic pH. The kinetics of lysozyme aggregation, monitored by Thioflavin T fluorescence, dynamic light scattering and the quenching of tryptophan fluorescence by acrylamide, is described by a sigmoid curve typical of a nucleation-dependent polymerization process. Nevertheless, we observe significant differences between the values deduced for the kinetic parameters (lag time and aggregation rate). The fibrillation process of lysozyme, as assessed by the attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, is accompanied by an increase in the β-sheet conformation at the expense of the α-helical conformation but the time-dependent variation of the content of these secondary structures does not evolve as a gradual transition. Moreover, the tryptophan fluorescence-monitored kinetics of lysozyme aggregation is described by three phases in which the temporal decrease of the tryptophan fluorescence quantum yield is of quasilinear nature. Finally, the generated lysozyme fibrils exhibit a typical amyloid morphology with various lengths (observed by atomic force microscopy) and contain exclusively the full-length protein (analyzed by highly performance liquid chromatography). Compared to the data obtained by other groups for the formation of lysozyme fibrils in acidic pH without agitation, this work provides new insights into the structural changes (local, secondary, oligomeric/fibrillar structures) undergone by the lysozyme during the agitation-induced formation of fibrils. PMID:26571264

  12. Effect of an interactive therapeutic robotic animal on engagement, mood states, agitation and psychotropic drug use in people with dementia: a cluster-randomised controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    Moyle, Wendy; Beattie, Elizabeth; Draper, Brian; Shum, David; Thalib, Lukman; Jones, Cindy; O'Dwyer, Siobhan; Mervin, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Apathy, agitated behaviours, loneliness and depression are common consequences of dementia. This trial aims to evaluate the effect of a robotic animal on behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia in people with dementia living in long-term aged care. Methods and analysis A cluster-randomised controlled trial with three treatment groups: PARO (robotic animal), Plush-Toy (non-robotic PARO) or Usual Care (Control). The nursing home sites are Australian Government approved and accredited facilities of 60 or more beds. The sites are located in South-East Queensland, Australia. A sample of 380 adults with a diagnosis of dementia, aged 60 years or older living in one of the participating facilities will be recruited. The intervention consists of three individual 15 min non-facilitated sessions with PARO or Plush-Toy per week, for a period of 10 weeks. The primary outcomes of interest are improvement in agitation, mood states and engagement. Secondary outcomes include sleep duration, step count, change in psychotropic medication use, change in treatment costs, and staff and family perceptions of PARO or Plush-Toy. Video data will be analysed using Noldus XT Pocket Observer; descriptive statistics will be used for participants’ demographics and outcome measures; cluster and individual level analyses to test all hypotheses and Generalised Linear Models for cluster level and Generalised Estimation Equations and/or Multi-level Modeling for individual level data. Ethics and dissemination The study participants or their proxy will provide written informed consent. The Griffith University Human Research Ethics Committee has approved the study (NRS/03/14/HREC). The results of the study will provide evidence of the efficacy of a robotic animal as a psychosocial treatment for the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. Findings will be presented at local and international conference meetings and published in peer-reviewed journals. Trial

  13. Effects of intraoperative dexmedetomidine with intravenous anesthesia on postoperative emergence agitation/delirium in pediatric patients undergoing tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jun-Li; Pei, Yu-Ping; Wei, Jing-Qiu; Zhang, Yue-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Postoperative emergence agitation/delirium (POED) is a common complication in pediatric surgery patients, which increases the risk of developing postoperative airway obstruction and respiratory depression. This study aims to investigate the safety and efficacy of intraoperative infusion of dexmedetomidine (DEX) and its effects on POED in pediatric patients undergoing tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy. Sixty patients scheduled for tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy, aged 2 to 8 years, were randomly allocated into 2 groups (n = 30). Pediatric patients in the group DEX received intravenous (IV) DEX 1 μg/kg over 10 minutes, followed by 0.5 μg/kg/h continuous infusion, and the same volume of 0.9% saline was administrated in the group control. Anesthesia was maintained with target-controlled infusion (TCI) of propofol and remifentanyl. Intraoperative heart rate (HR), noninvasive blood pressure (NIBP), blood oxygen saturation (SPO2), recovery time, and extubation time were recorded. Pain level was evaluated using the objective pain score (OPS), pediatric anesthesia emergence delirium (PAED) scale and Cole 5-point scale (CPS) was used to evaluate POED when patients at 0, 5, 15 minutes, and then at intervals of 15 minutes for 60 minutes after parents arrival at postanesthesia care unit (PACU). The results showed that intraoperative HR was significantly lower in group DEX (P <0.05), mean diastolic and systolic NIBP was not statistically different between groups. Time to wake and time to extubation were lengthened in group DEX as compared with group control (P <0.05). OPS and CPS were lower in group DEX at 15, 30, and 45 minutes time points (P <0.05); however, there were no significantly differences in the PAED score at different time points in the PACU. The present data suggested that intraoperative infusion of dexmedetomidine combined with intravenous anesthetics can provide satisfactory intraoperative conditions for pediatric

  14. Influence of intergrain interactions and thermal agitation on microwave-assisted magnetization switching behavior of granular magnetic film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Satoshi; Kikuchi, Nobuaki; Kitakami, Osamu; Shimatsu, Takehito

    2017-02-01

    Microwave-assisted magnetization switching (MAS) in a granular magnetic film is examined by computer simulation. Contrary to the macrospin calculation and the experiments on single magnetic dots reported so far, in which the switching field linearly decreases with increasing rf frequency and then sharply increases at the critical frequency, the granular film exhibits considerably broad MAS behavior against the rf frequency. This broad MAS behavior is mainly caused by the dispersion of magnetic properties and thermal agitation. On the other hand, intergrain dipolar and exchange interactions enhance the MAS effect in the granular film and suppress the MAS broadening.

  15. Chemical and physical properties of some saline lakes in Alberta and Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Jeff S; Sachs, Julian P

    2008-01-01

    Background The Northern Great Plains of Canada are home to numerous permanent and ephemeral athalassohaline lakes. These lakes display a wide range of ion compositions, salinities, stratification patterns, and ecosystems. Many of these lakes are ecologically and economically significant to the Great Plains Region. A survey of the physical characteristics and chemistry of 19 lakes was carried out to assess their suitability for testing new tools for determining past salinity from the sediment record. Results Data on total dissolved solids (TDS), specific conductivity, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), and pH were measured in June, 2007. A comparison of these data with past measurements indicates that salinity is declining at Little Manitou and Big Quill Lakes in the province of Saskatchewan. However salinity is rising at other lakes in the region, including Redberry and Manito Lakes. Conclusion The wide range of salinities found across a small geographic area makes the Canadian saline lakes region ideal for testing salinity proxies. A nonlinear increase in salinity at Redberry Lake is likely influenced by its morphometry. This acceleration has ecological implications for the migratory bird species found within the Redberry Important Bird Area. PMID:18430240

  16. Enhanced Resolution for Aquarius Salinity Retrieval near Land-Water Boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utku, Cuneyt; Le Vine, David M.

    2014-01-01

    A numerical reconstruction of the brightness temperature is examined as a potential way to improve the retrieval of salinity from Aquarius measurements closer to landwater boundaries. A test case using simulated ocean-land scenes suggest promise for the technique.

  17. Saline-water resources of Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winslow, Allen George; Kister, Lester Ray

    1956-01-01

    Most of the aquifers in Texas contain saline water in some parts, and a few are capable of producing large quantities of saline water. Of the early Paleozoic formations, the Hickory sandstone member of the Riley formation of Cambrian age and the Ellenburger group of Ordovician age are potential sources of small to moderate supplies of saline water in parts of central and west-central Texas.

  18. Estuarine turbidity, flushing, salinity, and circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchard, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of estuarine turbidity, flushing, salinity, and circulation on the ecology of the Chesapeake Bay are discussed. The sources of fresh water, the variations in salinity, and the circulation patterns created by temperature and salinity changes are analyzed. The application of remote sensors for long term observation of water temperatures is described. The sources of sediment and the biological effects resulting from increased sediments and siltation are identified.

  19. Soil Salinity Mapping Using Multitemporal Landsat Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azabdaftari, A.; Sunar, F.

    2016-06-01

    Soil salinity is one of the most important problems affecting many areas of the world. Saline soils present in agricultural areas reduce the annual yields of most crops. This research deals with the soil salinity mapping of Seyhan plate of Adana district in Turkey from the years 2009 to 2010, using remote sensing technology. In the analysis, multitemporal data acquired from LANDSAT 7-ETM+ satellite in four different dates (19 April 2009, 12 October 2009, 21 March 2010, 31 October 2010) are used. As a first step, preprocessing of Landsat images is applied. Several salinity indices such as NDSI (Normalized Difference Salinity Index), BI (Brightness Index) and SI (Salinity Index) are used besides some vegetation indices such as NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), RVI (Ratio Vegetation Index), SAVI (Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index) and EVI (Enhamced Vegetation Index) for the soil salinity mapping of the study area. The field's electrical conductivity (EC) measurements done in 2009 and 2010, are used as a ground truth data for the correlation analysis with the original band values and different index image bands values. In the correlation analysis, two regression models, the simple linear regression (SLR) and multiple linear regression (MLR) are considered. According to the highest correlation obtained, the 21st March, 2010 dataset is chosen for production of the soil salinity map in the area. Finally, the efficiency of the remote sensing technology in the soil salinity mapping is outlined.

  20. The effect of additives and mechanical agitation in surface modification of acrylic fibres by cutinase and esterase.

    PubMed

    Matamá, Teresa; Vaz, Filipe; Gübitz, Georg M; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2006-01-01

    The surface of an acrylic fibre containing about 7% of vinyl acetate was modified using Fusarium solani pisi cutinase and a commercial esterase, Texazym PES. The effect of acrylic solvents and stabilising polyols on cutinase operational stability was studied. The half-life time of cutinase increased by 3.5-fold with the addition of 15% N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA) and by 3-fold with 1M glycerol. The impact of additives and mechanical agitation in the protein adsorption and in the hydrolysis of vinyl acetate from acrylic fabric was investigated. The hydroxyl groups produced on the surface of the fibre were able to react specifically with Remazol Brilliant Blue R (cotton reactive dye) and to increase the colour of the acrylic-treated fabric. The best staining level was obtained with a high level of mechanical agitation and with the addition of 1% DMA. Under these conditions, the raise in the acrylic fabric colour depth was 30% for cutinase and 25% for Texazym. The crystallinity degree, determined by X-ray diffraction, was not significantly changed between control samples and samples treated with cutinase. The results showed that the outcome of the application of these enzymes depends closely on the reaction media conditions.

  1. Comparison of the Effect of Thiopental Sodium with Midazolam-ketamine on Post-tonsillectomy Agitation in Children.

    PubMed

    Toliyat, Maryam; Zangoee, Maliheh; Ahrari, Shahnaz; Zangoee, Reza

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of thiopental sodium with that of midazolam-ketamine on relieving agitation after tonsillectomy in children. In a clinical trial, 50 children aged 5-10 years, candidates for tonsillectomy, were randomly divided into two 25-member groups. In the first group, thiopental sodium 5mg/kg/IV, and in the second group combination of midazolam 0.01 mg/kg/IV and ketamine 1 mg/kg/IV were used to induce anesthesia. The level of sedation was assessed after surgery with the Ramsay scale. There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of heart rate, arterial oxygen pressure (PO2), and duration of anesthesia. The Ramsay sedation score was significantly higher in the thiopental sodium group than in the midazolam-ketamine group (P=0.01). Thiopental sodium can be more effective than the combination of midazolam-ketamine for controlling agitation after tonsillectomy in children.

  2. Soil salinity detection from satellite image analysis: an integrated approach of salinity indices and field data.

    PubMed

    Morshed, Md Manjur; Islam, Md Tazmul; Jamil, Raihan

    2016-02-01

    This paper attempts to detect soil salinity from satellite image analysis using remote sensing and geographic information system. Salinity intrusion is a common problem for the coastal regions of the world. Traditional salinity detection techniques by field survey and sampling are time-consuming and expensive. Remote sensing and geographic information system offer economic and efficient salinity detection, monitoring, and mapping. To predict soil salinity, an integrated approach of salinity indices and field data was used to develop a multiple regression equation. The correlations between different indices and field data of soil salinity were calculated to find out the highly correlated indices. The best regression model was selected considering the high R (2) value, low P value, and low Akaike's Information Criterion. About 20% variation was observed between the field data and predicted EC from the satellite image analysis. The precision of this salinity detection technique depends on the accuracy and uniform distribution of field data.

  3. Saline water in southeastern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hiss, W.L.; Peterson, J.B.; Ramsey, T.R.

    1969-01-01

    Saline waters from formations of several geologic ages are being studied in a seven-county area in southeastern New Mexico and western Texas, where more than 30,000 oil and gas tests have been drilled in the past 40 years. This area of 7,500 sq. miles, which is stratigraphically complex, includes the northern and eastern margins of the Delaware Basin between the Guadalupe and Glass Mountains. Chloride-ion concentrations in water produced from rocks of various ages and depths have been mapped in Lea County, New Mexico, using machine map-plotting techniques and trend analyses. Anomalously low chloride concentrations (1,000-3,000 mg/l) were found along the western margin of the Central Basin platform in the San Andres and Capitan Limestone Formations of Permian age. These low chloride-ion concentrations may be due to preferential circulation of ground water through the more porous and permeable rocks. Data being used in the study were obtained principally from oil companies and from related service companies. The P.B.W.D.S. (Permian Basin Well Data System) scout-record magnetic-tape file was used as a framework in all computer operations. Shallow or non-oil-field water analyses acquired from state, municipal, or federal agencies were added to these data utilizing P.B.W.D.S.-compatible reference numbers and decimal latitude-longitude coordinates. Approximately 20,000 water analyses collected from over 65 sources were coded, recorded on punch cards and stored on magnetic tape for computer operations. Extensive manual and computer error checks for duplication and accuracy were made to eliminate data errors resulting from poorly located or identified samples; non-representative or contaminated samples; mistakes in coding, reproducing or key-punching; laboratory errors; and inconsistent reporting. The original 20,000 analyses considered were reduced to 6,000 representative analyses which are being used in the saline water studies. ?? 1969.

  4. Assessing Salinity in Cotton and Tomato Plants by Using Reflectance Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldshleger, Naftaly

    2016-04-01

    Irrigated lands in semi-arid and arid areas are subjected to salinization processes. An example of this phenomenon is the Jezreel Valley in northern Israel where soil salinity has increased over the years. The increase in soil salinity results in the deterioration of the soil structure and crops damage. In this experiment we quantified the relation between the chemical and spectral features of cotton and tomato plants and their mutual relationship to soil salinity. The experiment was carried out as part of ongoing research aiming to detect and monitor saline soils and vegetation by combining different remote sensing methods. The aim of this study was to use vegetation reflectance measurements to predict foliar Cl and Na concentration and assess salinity in the soil and in vegetation by their reflectance measurements. The model developed for determining concentrations of chlorine and sodium in tomato and cotton produced good results ( R2 = 0.92 for sodium and 0.85 for chlorine in tomato and R2 = 0.84 for sodium and 0.82 for chlorine in cotton). Lately, we extend the method to calculate vegetation salinity, by doing correlation between the reflectance slopes of the tested crops CL and Na from two research areas. The developed model produced a good results for all the data (R2=0.74) Our method can be implemented to assess vegetation salinity ahead of planting, and developed as a generic tool for broader use for agriculture in semi-arid regions. In our opinion these results show the possibility of monitoring for a threshold level of salinity in tomato and cotton leaves so remedial action can be taken in time to prevent crop damage. Our results strongly suggest that future imaging spectroscopy remote sensing measurements collected by airborne and satellite platforms could measure the salinity of soil and vegetation over larger areas. These results can be the first steps for generic a model which includes more vegetation for salinity measurements.

  5. Salinity effects on growth, photosynthetic parameters, and nitrogenase activity in estuarine planktonic cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Moisander, P H; McClinton, E; Paerl, H W

    2002-05-01

    Salinity has been suggested as being a controlling factor for blooms of N2-fixing cyanobacteria in estuaries. We tested the effect of salinity on the growth, N2 fixation, and photosynthetic activities of estuarine and freshwater isolates of heterocystous bloom-forming cyanobacteria. Anabaena aphanizomenoides and Anabaenopsis sp. were isolated from the Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina, and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii from Lakes Dora and Griffin, central Florida. Salinity tolerance of these cyanobacteria was compared with that of two Nodularia strains from the Baltic Sea. We measured growth rates, N2 fixation (nitrogenase activity), and CO2 fixation at salinities between 0 and 20 g L(-1) NaCl. We also examined photosynthesis-irradiance relation-ships in response to salinity. Anabaenopsis maintained similar growth rates in the full range of salinities from 2 to 20 g L(-1) NaCl. Anabaena grew at up to 15 g L-', but the maximum salinity 20 g L(-1) NaCl was inhibitory. The upper limit for salinity tolerance of Cylindrospermopsis was 4 g L(-1) NaCl. Nodularia spp. maintained similar growth rates in the full range of salinities from 0 to 20 g L(-1) . Between 0 and 10 g L(-1), the growth rate of Nodularia spumigena was slower than that of the Neuse Estuary strains. In most strains, the sensitivity of nitrogenase activity and CO2 fixation to salinity appeared similar. Anabaenopsis, Anabaena, and the two Nodularia strains rapidly responded to NaCl by increasing their maximum photosynthetic rates (Pmn). Overall, both Neuse River Estuary and Baltic Sea strains showed an ability to acclimate to salt stress over short-(24 h) and long-term (several days to weeks) exposures. The study suggested that direct effect of salinity (as NaCl in these experiments) on cyanobacterial physiology does not alone explain the low frequency and magnitude of blooms of N2-fixing cyanobacteria in estuaries.

  6. The Effect of Salinity on Egg Development and Viability of Schistocephalus solidus (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidea).

    PubMed

    Simmonds, Natalie E; Barber, Iain

    2016-02-01

    Schistocephalus solidus plerocercoids commonly infect three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus populations in brackish and freshwaters, but infections are typically absent from marine populations. Here we provide an experimental test of the salinity tolerance of S. solidus eggs, to determine the role of salinity in limiting the distribution of infection in coastal zones. We find that S. solidus eggs, derived from the in vitro culture of 3 different plerocercoids, developed normally in salinities of up to 12.5‰, but above this egg viability dropped rapidly, and no egg hatching was observed at salinities above 20‰. Our results are consistent with the distribution of infections in natural stickleback populations and add resolution to previous descriptive observations on salinity tolerance in S. solidus. They also demonstrate that S. solidus presents a novel disease challenge to marine populations of three-spined sticklebacks entering brackish and freshwater environments.

  7. Combined effects of cadmium and salinity on juvenile Takifugu obscurus: cadmium moderates salinity tolerance; salinity decreases the toxicity of cadmium

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Zhu, Xuexia; Huang, Xin; Gu, Lei; Chen, Yafen; Yang, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Obscure puffer Takifugu obscurus, a species of anadromous fish, experiences several salinity changes in its lifetime. Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal that can potentially induce oxidative stress in fish. The present study aimed to detect the combined effects of Cd (0, 5, 10, 20 and 50 mg L−1) and salinity (0, 15 and 30 ppt) on juvenile T. obscurus. Results showed the juveniles could survive well under different salinities; however, with Cd exposure, the survival rates significantly decreased at 0 and 30 ppt. At 15 ppt, tolerance to Cd increased. Cd exposure clearly induced oxidative stress, and the responses among different tissues were qualitatively similar. Salinity acted as a protective factor which could reduce the reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde levels. In addition, salinity could enhance the antioxidant defense system, including superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione. Na+/K+–ATPase activity significantly decreased under Cd exposure in gill, kidney and intestine. These findings indicated that Cd could moderate the adaptability of juvenile T. obscurus to high salinity and low salinity played a protective role upon Cd exposure. Thus, the role of salinity should be considered when evaluating the effect of heavy metals on anadromous and estuarine fishes. PMID:27487764

  8. Aquarius Instrument and Salinity Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, D. M.

    2011-01-01

    Aquarius has been designed to map the surface salinity field of the global ocean from space a parameter important for understanding ocean circulation and its relationship to climate and the global water cycle. Salinity is measured remotely from space by measuring the thermal emission from the ocean surface. This is done at the low frequency end of the microwave spectrum (e.g. 1.4 GHz) where the emission is sufficiently sensitive to changes in salinity to be detected with sophisticated radiometers. The goal is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean by providing maps on a monthly basis with a spatial resolution of 150 km and an accuracy of 0.2 psu. These are challenging requirements that have led to some unique features of the instrument. These include: a) The addition of a co-located scatterometer to help provide a correction for roughness; b) The addition of a polarimetric channel (third Stokes parameter) to the radiometer to help correct for Faraday rotation; c) Asun-synchronous orbit with a 6 pm ascending equatorial crossing to minimize Faraday rotation and with the antennas looking away from the sun toward the nighttime side to minimize contamination by radiation from the sun; and d) An antenna designed to limit side lobes in the direction of rays from the sun. In addition, achieving the accuracy goal of 0.2 psu requires averaging over one month and to do this requires a highly stable radiometer. Aquarius has three separate radiometers that image in pushbroom fashion with the three antenna beams looking across track. The antenna is a 2.5-m diameter, offset parabolic reflector with three feed horns and the three beams are arranged to image with the boresight aligned to look across track, roughly perpendicular to the spacecraft heading and pointing away from the Sun. The three beams point at angles of theta = 25.8 deg., 33.8 deg. and 40.3 deg. with respect to the spacecraft

  9. Toxicity of trace element and salinity mixtures to striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and Daphnia magna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dwyer, F.J.; Burch, S.A.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Hunn, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests with reconstituted water were conducted to investigate the relationship between water hardness, salinity, and a mixture of trace elements found in irrigation drain waters entering Stillwater Wildlife Management Area (SWMA), near Fallon, Nevada. The SWMA has been the site of many fish kills in recent years, and previous toxicity studies indicated that one drain water, Pintail Bay, was acutely toxic to organisms acclimated or cultured in fresh water or salt water. This toxicity could reflect both the ionic composition of this saline water and the presence of trace elements. The lowest water salinity tested with Daphnia magna was near the upper salinity tolerance of these organisms; therefore, we were unable to differentiate between the toxic effects of ion composition and those of trace elements. In toxicity tests conducted with striped bass (Morone saxatilis), we found that the extent to which salinity was lethal to striped bass depended on the ion composition of that salinity. Survival of striped bass increased as hardness increased. In addition, a trace element mixture was toxic to striped bass, even though the concentrations of individual elements were below expected acutely lethal concentrations. Although salinity is an important water quality characteristic, the ionic composition of the water must be considered when one assesses the hazard of irrigation drain waters to aquatic organisms.

  10. Mechanisms of high salinity tolerance in plants.

    PubMed

    Tuteja, Narendra

    2007-01-01

    Among abiotic stresses, high salinity stress is the most severe environmental stress, which impairs crop production on at least 20% of irrigated land worldwide. In response to high salinity stress, various genes get upregulated, the products of which are involved either directly or indirectly in plant protection. Some of the genes encoding osmolytes, ion channels, receptors, components of calcium signaling, and some other regulatory signaling factors or enzymes are able to confer salinity-tolerant phenotypes when transferred to sensitive plants. Overall, the susceptibility or tolerance to high salinity stress in plants is a coordinated action of multiple stress responsive genes, which also cross talk with other components of stress signal transduction pathways. High salinity exerts its negative impact mainly by disrupting the ionic and osmotic equilibrium of the cell. In saline soils, high levels of sodium ions lead to plant growth inhibition and even death; therefore, mechanisms of salinity tolerance involve sequestration of Na(+) and Cl(-) in vacuoles of the cells, blocking of Na(+) entry into the cell, Na(+) exclusion from the transpiration stream, and some other mechanisms that help in salinity tolerance. Understanding these mechanisms of stress tolerance, along with a plethora of genes involved in the stress signaling network, is important to improve high salinity stress tolerance in crops plants. This chapter first describes the adverse effect of salinity stress and general pathway for the plant stress response, followed by roles of various ion pumps, calcium, SOS pathways, ABA, transcription factors, mitogen-activated protein kinases, glycine betaine, proline, reactive oxygen species, and DEAD-box helicases in salinity stress tolerance. The cross-tolerance between stresses is also mentioned.

  11. Irrigation and Soil Salinization in Mediterranean agro-ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Angelo; Viola, Francesco; Valerio Noto, Leonardo; Mau, Yair; Porporato, Amilcare

    2015-04-01

    During the warm and dry growing season of Mediterranean climates, the availability of good quality water for primary production in agriculture tends to be limited. This aspect makes the use of saline and brackish water appealing, given the potential of natural flushing of the soils by deep percolation during the wet and colder dormant season. Thus the cyclic alternation between the two different phases in the cold and warm season gives rise to a delicate equilibrium that can lead to long term secondary salinization if the mean salt input from irrigation overpasses the average annual natural leakage amount. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the long term salt mass balance in the presence of irrigation and possible changes in seasonality. An elevated concentration of salt in the soil may in turn lead to both a decrease of its fertility and to osmotic stress reducing plant productivity. To this purpose, a stochastic soil and water balance salinity model is developed to quantify the balance between salt accumulation phases during the growing season and leaching phases during the wet season. We provide the numerical and the analytical representation of secondary long-term salinization process, highlighting the role of soil depth, plant and climate together with the impact of shifts in the seasonal vs. interannual rainfall fluctuations. An application to a test case in the Southern part of Sicily (ITALY) is also presented, highlighting the strong relationship between salt dynamics, water management and climatic conditions.

  12. Salinity and temperature tolerance of brown-marbled grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sha-Yen; Chen, Chih-Sung; Chen, Jiann-Chu

    2013-04-01

    Grouper have to face varied environmental stressors as a result of drastic changes to water conditions during the storm season. We aimed to test the response of brown-marbled grouper to drastic and gradual changes in temperature and salinity to understand the grouper's basic stress response. The results can improve the culture of grouper. Brown-marbled grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (6.2 ± 0.8 g) were examined for temperature and salinity tolerances at nine different environmental regimes (10, 20, and 33 ‰ combined with 20, 26 and 32 °C), in which the fish were subjected to both gradual and sudden changes in temperature and salinity. The critical thermal maximum (50 % CTMAX) and the upper incipient lethal temperature (UILT) were in the ranges of 35.9-38.3 and 32.7-36.5 °C, respectively. The critical thermal minimum (50 % CTMIN) and the lower incipient lethal temperature (LILT) were in the ranges of 9.8-12.2 and 14.9-22.3 °C, respectively. The critical salinity maximum (50 % CSMAX) and the upper incipient lethal salinity (UILS) were in the ranges of 67.0-75.5 and 54.2-64.8 ‰, respectively. Fish at temperature of 20 °C and a salinity of 33 ‰ tolerated temperatures as low as 10 °C when the temperature was gradually decreased. Fish acclimated at salinities of 10-33 ‰ and a temperature of 32 °C tolerated salinities of as high as 75-79 ‰. All fish survived from accumulating salinity after acute transfer to 20, 10, 5, and 3 ‰. But all fish died while transferred to 0 ‰. Relationships among the UILT, LILT, 50 % CTMAX, 50 % CTMIN, UILS, 50 % CSMAX, salinity, and temperature were examined. The grouper's temperature and salinity tolerance elevated by increasing acclimation temperature and salinity. On the contrary, the grouper's temperature and salinity tolerance degraded by decreasing acclimation temperature and salinity. The tolerance of temperature and salinity on grouper in gradual changes were higher than in drastic changes.

  13. Seagrass Proliferation Precedes Mortality during Hypo-Salinity Events: A Stress-Induced Morphometric Response

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Catherine J.; Villacorta-Rath, Cecilia; van Dijk, Kor-jent; Takahashi, Miwa; Waycott, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Halophytes, such as seagrasses, predominantly form habitats in coastal and estuarine areas. These habitats can be seasonally exposed to hypo-salinity events during watershed runoff exposing them to dramatic salinity shifts and osmotic shock. The manifestation of this osmotic shock on seagrass morphology and phenology was tested in three Indo-Pacific seagrass species, Halophila ovalis, Halodule uninervis and Zostera muelleri, to hypo-salinity ranging from 3 to 36 PSU at 3 PSU increments for 10 weeks. All three species had broad salinity tolerance but demonstrated a moderate hypo-salinity stress response – analogous to a stress induced morphometric response (SIMR). Shoot proliferation occurred at salinities <30 PSU, with the largest increases, up to 400% increase in shoot density, occurring at the sub-lethal salinities <15 PSU, with the specific salinity associated with peak shoot density being variable among species. Resources were not diverted away from leaf growth or shoot development to support the new shoot production. However, at sub-lethal salinities where shoots proliferated, flowering was severely reduced for H. ovalis, the only species to flower during this experiment, demonstrating a diversion of resources away from sexual reproduction to support the investment in new shoots. This SIMR response preceded mortality, which occurred at 3 PSU for H. ovalis and 6 PSU for H. uninervis, while complete mortality was not reached for Z. muelleri. This is the first study to identify a SIMR in seagrasses, being detectable due to the fine resolution of salinity treatments tested. The detection of SIMR demonstrates the need for caution in interpreting in-situ changes in shoot density as shoot proliferation could be interpreted as a healthy or positive plant response to environmental conditions, when in fact it could signal pre-mortality stress. PMID:24705377

  14. Biochemical effects of salinity on oxygen isotope fractionation during cellulose synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, Patricia V; Sternberg, Leonel S L

    2014-05-01

    The current isotope tree ring model assumes that 42% of the sucrose oxygen exchanges with stem water during cellulose synthesis and that the oxygen isotope biochemical fractionation is c. 27‰. However, previous studies have indicated that this model can overestimate the cellulose oxygen isotope ratio of plants under salinity or water stress. Saline stress increases soluble carbohydrates and osmolytes, which can alter exchange and biochemical fractionation during cellulose synthesis. To test the effect of salinity as well as the synthesis of osmolytes on exchange and biochemical fractionation, we grew wild-type and a transgenic mannitol synthesizer Arabidopsis thaliana hydroponically with fresh and saline water. We then measured the oxygen isotope ratios of leaf water, stem water and stem cellulose to determine the effects on exchange and biochemical fractionation. Biochemical fractionation did not change, but oxygen isotope exchange was twice as high for plants grown in saline water relative to freshwater-treated plants (0.64 and 0.3, respectively). Mannitol (osmolyte) synthesis did not affect exchange or biochemical fractionation regardless of salinity. Increases in salinity increased oxygen isotope exchange during cellulose synthesis, which may explain the overestimation of cellulose δ(18) O values under saline conditions.

  15. Phytoremediation of cadmium by the facultative halophyte plant Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla, at different salinities.

    PubMed

    Santos, Márcia S S; Pedro, Carmen A; Gonçalves, Sílvia C; Ferreira, Susana M F

    2015-10-01

    The cadmium phytoremediation capacity of the halophyte plant Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla and the influence of water salinity were assessed in a greenhouse experiment, in order to better understand the bioremediation capacity of this plant. Three concentrations of cadmium (0, 50 and 100 μg l(-1)) and four salinity conditions (0, 5, 10 and 20) were chosen to evaluate the cadmium accumulation, in order to test these plants as a potential phytoremediation tool in brackish environments. The cadmium content in water and plants (underground organs, stems and leaves) was analysed with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. All the plants submitted to salinity 20 and in the three cadmium treatments died. The plants' survival was highest in the lowest salinities, where highest growth and biomasses were also obtained. The plants presented more cadmium content in the rhizomes, followed by stems and even less in leaves. The salt stress of the plants interfered with their cadmium accumulation capacity. The highest cadmium accumulation in the rhizomes occurred at salinity 0, while the salinities 0 and 5 were the most adequate for stems and leaves. The experiment pointed out that B. maritimus represents a good possible intervenient for cadmium bioremediation in freshwater and low salinity brackish water environments, but its use is limited in the habitats of higher salinity.

  16. Functional tradeoffs underpin salinity-driven divergence in microbial community composition.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Chris L; Larsson, John; Yooseph, Shibu; Ininbergs, Karolina; Goll, Johannes; Asplund-Samuelsson, Johannes; McCrow, John P; Celepli, Narin; Allen, Lisa Zeigler; Ekman, Martin; Lucas, Andrew J; Hagström, Åke; Thiagarajan, Mathangi; Brindefalk, Björn; Richter, Alexander R; Andersson, Anders F; Tenney, Aaron; Lundin, Daniel; Tovchigrechko, Andrey; Nylander, Johan A A; Brami, Daniel; Badger, Jonathan H; Allen, Andrew E; Rusch, Douglas B; Hoffman, Jeff; Norrby, Erling; Friedman, Robert; Pinhassi, Jarone; Venter, J Craig; Bergman, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial community composition and functional potential change subtly across gradients in the surface ocean. In contrast, while there are significant phylogenetic divergences between communities from freshwater and marine habitats, the underlying mechanisms to this phylogenetic structuring yet remain unknown. We hypothesized that the functional potential of natural bacterial communities is linked to this striking divide between microbiomes. To test this hypothesis, metagenomic sequencing of microbial communities along a 1,800 km transect in the Baltic Sea area, encompassing a continuous natural salinity gradient from limnic to fully marine conditions, was explored. Multivariate statistical analyses showed that salinity is the main determinant of dramatic changes in microbial community composition, but also of large scale changes in core metabolic functions of bacteria. Strikingly, genetically and metabolically different pathways for key metabolic processes, such as respiration, biosynthesis of quinones and isoprenoids, glycolysis and osmolyte transport, were differentially abundant at high and low salinities. These shifts in functional capacities were observed at multiple taxonomic levels and within dominant bacterial phyla, while bacteria, such as SAR11, were able to adapt to the entire salinity gradient. We propose that the large differences in central metabolism required at high and low salinities dictate the striking divide between freshwater and marine microbiomes, and that the ability to inhabit different salinity regimes evolved early during bacterial phylogenetic differentiation. These findings significantly advance our understanding of microbial distributions and stress the need to incorporate salinity in future climate change models that predict increased levels of precipitation and a reduction in salinity.

  17. Salinity Preference in the Estuarine Teleost Fish Mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus): Halocline Behavior.

    PubMed

    Marshall, W S; Tait, J C; Mercer, E W

    2016-01-01

    Mummichogs prefer seawater (SW) but have wide ability to acclimate to extreme temperatures and salinities. In the field, minnow trapping revealed that mummichogs move progressively into low-salinity warmer water during early spring after ice melt and show significant aversion to colder temperatures and high salinity. First appearance in estuarine shallows occurred above 10°C, and catch increased to 21°C over 4 wk. Three-spine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) also preferred warmer low-salinity locations but preferred slowing streams, whereas mummichogs preferred tidal ponds. In the laboratory, artificial haloclines tested isothermal salinity preference, between 28‰ full-strength SW (below) and 10% SW (3.0‰; above). Mummichogs of both sexes acclimated to 5°C in SW strongly preferred SW. Freshwater (0% SW)-acclimated mummichogs at 21°C also preferred SW, but of sexually mature fish acclimated to 21°C SW, only the males preferred SW; the females showed no significant preference for SW, meaning they freely entered low salinity. SW preference was manifested by a stereotypic passive aversion to the dilute upper layer at the halocline. We conclude that the overall movement of mummichogs into summer breeding grounds of low salinity is driven by maturation of females and their preference for warmer water regardless of salinity.

  18. Combined effects of seawater acidification and salinity changes in Ruditapes philippinarum.

    PubMed

    Velez, Catia; Figueira, Etelvina; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Freitas, Rosa

    2016-07-01

    Due to human activities, predictions for the coming years indicate increasing frequency and intensity of extreme weather events (rainy and drought periods) and pollution levels, leading to salinity shifts and ocean acidification. Therefore, several authors have assessed the effects of seawater salinity shifts and pH decrease on marine bivalves, but most of these studies evaluated the impacts of both factors independently. Since pH and salinity may act together in the environment, and their impacts may differ from their effects when acting alone, there is an urgent need to increase our knowledge when these environmental changes act in combination. Thus, the present study assessed the effects of seawater acidification and salinity changes, both acting alone and in combination, on the physiological (condition index, Na and K concentrations) and biochemical (oxidative stress related biomarkers) performance of Ruditapes philippinarum. For that, specimens of R. philippinarum were exposed for 28days to the combination of different pH levels (7.8 and 7.3) and salinities (14, 28 and 35). The results obtained showed that under control pH (7.8) and low salinity (14) the physiological status and biochemical performance of clams was negatively affected, revealing oxidative stress. However, under the same pH and at salinities 28 and 35 clams were able to maintain/regulate their physiological status and biochemical performance. Moreover, our findings showed that clams under low pH (7.3) and different salinities were able to maintain their physiological status and biochemical performance, suggesting that the low pH tested may mask the negative effects of salinity. Our results further demonstrated that, in general, at each salinity, similar physiological and biochemical responses were found in clams under both tested pH levels. Also, individuals under low pH (salinities 14, 28 and 25) and exposed to pH 7.8 and salinity 28 (control) tend to present a similar response pattern. These

  19. Geological Characterization, Capacity Estimates and Long-Term Fate of CO2 Storage in Deep Saline Aquifers in the Two Elk Energy Park Pilot Test site, Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, R.; Benson, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Energy Park (North America Power Group) is a commercial-scale demonstration project planned as a series of renewable and other electric power generation, carbon capture, sequestration and related facilities, located in the eastern side of the Powder River Basin, northeastern Wyoming. The site is located on top of several deep saline aquifers, depleted oil reservoirs, and coal seams. The Powder River basin was identified by NETL and Big Sky partnership as having high potential for CO2 sequestration. The aims of our current study were to identify and describe all porous sections below the proposed site, to estimate the capacity of each unit, and to conduct simulations to better understand the faith of injected CO2 between those different layers. The storage goal of the project is 3 Mt/year for 50 years of operation. The project is supported by the DOE. Detailed geological characterization of the section between the Madison Formation and the Mowry Shale was based on two wells, located ~10 km from the proposed site. Porous sandstone layers were identified in the Minnelusa, Spearfish, Sundance, Morrison, Lakota, and Dakota formations. Average porosity in all of those units is between 8 to 15%. These formations consist of interbedded sandstone and shale, with some anhydrite and dolomite layers in the Minnelusa Formation. Our interest was to examine the ability of these impermeable layers (shale, anhydrite, and dolomite) to act as local seal to the different porous units. Other shale dominant formations also occur in the section (Opeche, Fuson, Skull, and Mowry formations) and will act as major seals to the whole porous section. The complex stratigraphy and relatively low permeability of the rocks at this site appear to preclude identification of a single unit that can be used for CO2 storage. Instead, the most promising option is to inject CO2 into large thickness of sediments, resulting in the injection of a relatively small amount of CO2 into a number of formations

  20. Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Salinity II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Presented is a science activity in which the student investigates methods of calibration of a simple conductivity meter via a hands-on inquiry technique. Conductivity is mathematically compared to salinity using a point slope formula and graphical techniques. Sample solutions of unknown salinity are provided so that the students can sharpen their…

  1. Propagated fixed-bed mixed-acid fermentation: Part I: Effect of volatile solid loading rate and agitation at high pH.

    PubMed

    Golub, Kristina W; Forrest, Andrea K; Mercy, Kevin L; Holtzapple, Mark T

    2011-11-01

    Countercurrent fermentation is a high performing process design for mixed-acid fermentation. However, there are high operating costs associated with moving solids, which is an integral component of this configuration. This study investigated the effect of volatile solid loading rate (VSLR) and agitation in propagated fixed-bed fermentation, a configuration which may be more commercially viable. To evaluate the role of agitation on fixed-bed configuration performance, continuous mixing was compared with periodic mixing. VSLR was also varied and not found to affect acid yields. However, increased VSLR and liquid retention time did result in higher conversions, productivity, acid concentrations, but lower selectivities. Agitation was demonstrated to be important for this fermentor configuration, the periodically-mixed fermentation had the lowest conversion and yields. Operating at a high pH (∼9) contributed to the high selectivity to acetic acid, which might be industrially desirable but at the cost of lower yield compared to a neutral pH.

  2. Insights into saline intrusion and freshwater resources in coastal karstic aquifers using a lumped Rainfall-Discharge-Salinity model (the Port-Miou brackish spring, SE France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arfib, Bruno; Charlier, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a conceptual model of saline intrusion within coastal karst aquifers by analyzing Rainfall-Discharge-Salinity data and to assess freshwater resources using a lumped modeling approach. In a first step, we analyzed 4 years of data (rainfall, discharge and salinity times series) of the Port-Miou brackish submarine spring in South France (400 km2). A conceptual model of the aquifer was then designed to differentiate a deep brackish reservoir and a shallower fresh one. Salinity variations at the spring are assumed to be controlled mainly by dilution originating from the fresh water in the shallower reservoir. In a second step, a lumped modeling approach was developed based on the conceptual model to simulate discharge as well as salinity over time. We proposed a reservoir-model to take into account slow and fast components in the shallower part of the aquifer and a saline intrusion in the deeper one. This Rainfall-Discharge-Salinity model was calibrated and validated for two periods of 1.5 years at a daily time step and was also tested to reproduce a multi-annual evolution of the available discharge and salinity time series. Good simulation results were obtained to reproduce water and mass budgets as well as discharge and salinity dynamics during several hydrological cycles. The simultaneous modeling of hydrodynamics and quality data showed the robustness of the model in addition to its easy implementation. Our results led us to propose a new type of seawater mixing mechanism for brackish springs: the dilution type, in addition to the well-known Ventury suction and Head balance types. The application of the lumped model on the Port-Miou brackish spring validated the hydrogeological processes deduced from experimental data, given an initial quantification of the freshwater resources available in such complex brackish karstic aquifers.

  3. Response of Stream Biodiversity to Increasing Salinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, C. P.; Vander Laan, J. J.; Olson, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    We used a large data set of macroinvertebrate samples collected from streams in both reference-quality (n = 68) and degraded (n = 401) watersheds in the state of Nevada, USA to assess relationships between stream biodiversity and salinity. We used specific electrical conductance (EC)(μS/cm) as a measure of salinity, and applied a previously developed EC model to estimate natural, baseflow salinity at each stream. We used the difference between observed and predicted salinity (EC-Diff) as a measure of salinization associated with watershed degradation. Observed levels of EC varied between 22 and 994 μS/cm across reference sites and 22 to 3,256 uS/cm across non-reference sites. EC-Diff was as high as 2,743 μS/cm. We used a measure of local biodiversity completeness (ratio of observed to expected number of taxa) to assess ecological response to salinity. This O/E index decreased nearly linearly up to about 25% biodiversity loss, which occurred at EC-Diff of about 300 μS/cm. Too few sites had EC-Diff greater than 300 μS/cm to draw reliable inferences regarding biodiversity response to greater levels of salinization. EC-Diff increased with % agricultural land use, mine density, and % urban land use in the watersheds implying that human activities have been largely responsible for increased salinization in Nevada streams and rivers. Comparison of biological responses to EC and other stressors indicates that increased salinization may be the primary stressor causing biodiversity loss in these streams and that more stringent salinity water quality standards may be needed to protect aquatic life.

  4. Reconstructing Past Ocean Salinity ((delta)18Owater)

    SciTech Connect

    Guilderson, T P; Pak, D K

    2005-11-23

    Temperature and salinity are two of the key properties of ocean water masses. The distribution of these two independent but related characteristics reflects the interplay of incoming solar radiation (insolation) and the uneven distribution of heat loss and gain by the ocean, with that of precipitation, evaporation, and the freezing and melting of ice. Temperature and salinity to a large extent, determine the density of a parcel of water. Small differences in temperature and salinity can increase or decrease the density of a water parcel, which can lead to convection. Once removed from the surface of the ocean where 'local' changes in temperature and salinity can occur, the water parcel retains its distinct relationship between (potential) temperature and salinity. We can take advantage of this 'conservative' behavior where changes only occur as a result of mixing processes, to track the movement of water in the deep ocean (Figure 1). The distribution of density in the ocean is directly related to horizontal pressure gradients and thus (geostrophic) ocean currents. During the Quaternary when we have had systematic growth and decay of large land based ice sheets, salinity has had to change. A quick scaling argument following that of Broecker and Peng [1982] is: the modern ocean has a mean salinity of 34.7 psu and is on average 3500m deep. During glacial maxima sea level was on the order of {approx}120m lower than present. Simply scaling the loss of freshwater (3-4%) requires an average increase in salinity a similar percentage or to {approx}35.9psu. Because much of the deep ocean is of similar temperature, small changes in salinity have a large impact on density, yielding a potentially different distribution of water masses and control of the density driven (thermohaline) ocean circulation. It is partly for this reason that reconstructions of past salinity are of interest to paleoceanographers.

  5. Influence of increasing temperature and salinity on herbicide toxicity in estuarine phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    DeLorenzo, Marie E; Danese, Loren E; Baird, Thomas D

    2013-07-01

    Ecological risk assessments are, in part, based on results of toxicity tests conducted under standard exposure conditions. Global climate change will have a wide range of effects on estuarine habitats, including potentially increasing water temperature and salinity, which may alter the risk assessment of estuarine pollutants. We examined the effects of increasing temperature and salinity on the toxicity of common herbicides (irgarol, diuron, atrazine, and ametryn) to the phytoplankton species Dunaliella tertiolecta. Static 96-h algal bioassays were conducted for each herbicide under four exposure scenarios: standard temperature and salinity (25°C, 20 ppt), standard temperature and elevated salinity (25°C, 40 ppt), elevated temperature and standard salinity (35°C, 20 ppt), and elevated temperature and elevated salinity (35°C, 40 ppt). The endpoints assessed were algal cell density at 96 h, growth rate, chlorophyll a content, lipid content, and starch content. Increasing exposure temperature reduced growth rate and 96-h cell density but increased the cellular chlorophyll and lipid concentrations of the control algae. Exposure condition did not alter starch content of control algae. Herbicides were found to decrease growth rate, 96 h cell density, and cellular chlorophyll and lipid concentrations, while starch concentrations increased with herbicide exposure. Herbicide effects under standard test conditions were then compared with those observed under elevated temperature and salinity. Herbicide effects on growth rate, cell density, and starch content were more pronounced under elevated salinity and temperature conditions. To encompass the natural variability in estuarine temperature and salinity, and to account for future changes in climate, toxicity tests should be conducted under a wider range of environmental conditions.

  6. Increased temperatures combined with lowered salinities differentially impact oyster size class growth and mortality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaPeyre, Megan K.; Rybovich, Molly; Hall, Steven G.; La Peyre, Jerome F.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the timing and interaction of seasonal high temperatures and low salinities as predicted by climate change models could dramatically alter oyster population dynamics. Little is known explicitly about how low salinity and high temperature combinations affect spat (<25mm), seed (25–75mm), andmarket (>75mm) oyster growth and mortality. Using field and laboratory studies, this project quantified the combined effects of extremely low salinities (<5) and high temperatures (>30°C) on growth and survival of spat, seed, andmarket-sized oysters. In 2012 and 2013, hatchery-produced oysters were placed in open and closed cages at three sites in Breton Sound, LA, along a salinity gradient that typically ranged from 5 to 20. Growth and mortality were recorded monthly. Regardless of size class, oysters at the lowest salinity site (annualmean = 4.8) experienced significantly highermortality and lower growth than oysters located in higher salinity sites (annual means = 11.1 and 13.0, respectively); furthermore, all oysters in open cages at the two higher salinity sites experienced higher mortality than in closed cages, likely due to predation. To explicitly examine oyster responses to extreme low salinity and high temperature combinations, a series of laboratory studies were conducted. Oysters were placed in 18 tanks in a fully crossed temperature (25°C, 32°C) by salinity (1, 5, and 15) study with three replicates, and repeated at least twice for each oyster size class. Regardless of temperature, seed and market oysters held in low salinity tanks (salinity 1) experienced 100% mortality within 7 days. In contrast, at salinity 5, temperature significantly affected mortality; oysters in all size classes experienced greater than 50%mortality at 32°C and less than 40%mortality at 25°C. At the highest salinity tested (15), only market-sized oysters held at 32°C experienced significant mortality (>60%). These studies demonstrate that high water temperatures (>30°C) and

  7. Aquatic insects in a multistress environment: cross-tolerance to salinity and desiccation.

    PubMed

    Pallarés, Susana; Botella-Cruz, María; Arribas, Paula; Millán, Andrés; Velasco, Josefa

    2017-04-01

    Exposing organisms to a particular stressor may enhance tolerance to a subsequent stress, when protective mechanisms against the two stressors are shared. Such cross-tolerance is a common adaptive response in dynamic multivariate environments and often indicates potential co-evolution of stress traits. Many aquatic insects in inland saline waters from Mediterranean-climate regions are sequentially challenged with salinity and desiccation stress. Thus, cross-tolerance to these physiologically similar stressors could have been positively selected in insects of these regions. We used adults of the saline water beetles Enochrus jesusarribasi (Hydrophilidae) and Nebrioporus baeticus (Dytiscidae) to test cross-tolerance responses to desiccation and salinity. In independent laboratory experiments, we evaluated the effects of (i) salinity stress on the subsequent resistance to desiccation and (ii) desiccation stress (rapid and slow dehydration) on the subsequent tolerance to salinity. Survival, water loss and haemolymph osmolality were measured. Exposure to stressful salinity improved water control under subsequent desiccation stress in both species, with a clear cross-tolerance (enhanced performance) in N. baeticus In contrast, general negative effects on performance were found under the inverse stress sequence. The rapid and slow dehydration produced different water loss and haemolymph osmolality dynamics that were reflected in different survival patterns. Our finding of cross-tolerance to salinity and desiccation in ecologically similar species from distant lineages, together with parallel responses between salinity and thermal stress previously found in several aquatic taxa, highlights the central role of adaption to salinity and co-occurring stressors in arid inland waters, having important implications for the species' persistence under climate change.

  8. Effect of Mechanical Agitation on Cationic Liposome Transport across an Unstirred Water Layer in Caco-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Kono, Yusuke; Iwasaki, Ayu; Matsuoka, Kenta; Fujita, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    To develop an effective oral delivery system for plasmid DNA (pDNA) using cationic liposomes, it is necessary to clarify the characteristics of uptake and transport of cationic liposome/pDNA complexes into the intestinal epithelium. In particular, evaluation of the involvement of an unstirred water layer (UWL), which is a considerable permeability barrier, in cationic liposome transport is very important. Here, we investigated the effects of a UWL on the transfection efficiency of cationic liposome/pDNA complexes into a Caco-2 cell monolayer. When Caco-2 cells were transfected with cationic liposome/pDNA complexes in shaking cultures to reduce the thickness of the UWL, gene expression was significantly higher in Caco-2 cells compared with static cultures. We also found that this enhancement of gene expression by shaking was not attributable to activation of transcription factors such as activator protein-1 and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB). In addition, the increase in gene expression by mechanical agitation was observed at all charge ratios (1.5, 2.3, 3.1, 4.5) of cationic liposome/pDNA complexes. Transport experiments using Transwells demonstrated that mechanical agitation increased the uptake of cationic liposome/pDNA complexes by Caco-2 cells, whereas transport of the complexes across a Caco-2 cell monolayer did not occurr. Moreover, the augmentation of the gene expression of cationic liposome/pDNA complexes by shaking was observed in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. These results indicate that a UWL greatly affects the uptake and transfection efficiency of cationic liposome/pDNA complexes into an epithelial monolayer in vitro.

  9. Tandem air-agitated liquid-liquid microextraction as an efficient method for determination of acidic drugs in complicated matrices.

    PubMed

    Bazregar, Mohammad; Rajabi, Maryam; Yamini, Yadollah; Asghari, Alireza; Hemmati, Maryam

    2016-04-21

    A rapid and simple microextraction method with a high sample clean-up, termed as tandem air-agitated liquid-liquid microextraction (TAALLME), is described. This method is based upon the tandem implementation of the air-agitated liquid-liquid microextraction (AALLME), and this approach improves the applicability of the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) methods in complicated matrices. With very simple tools, the three non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs diclofenac, ibuprofen, and mefenamic acid were efficiently extracted, with an overall extraction time of 7 min. By performing the first AALLME, these acidic analytes, contained in an aqueous sample solution (donor phase, 8.0 mL), were extracted into the organic solvent (1,2-dichloroethane, 37 μL), and their simple back-extraction into the aqueous acceptor solution (pH, 10.01, 51 μL) was obtained in 2 min by a second implementation of AALLME. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for optimization of the experimental parameters. The pH values 2.94 and 10.01 were obtained for the donor and acceptor phases, respectively, and the volumes 99.5 and 51 μL were obtained for the organic solvent and the acceptor phase, respectively, as the optimal extraction conditions. Under the optimized conditions, tandem AALLME-HPLC-UV provided a good linearity in the range of 0.5-4000 ng mL(-1), limits of detection (0.1-0.3 ng mL(-1)), extraction repeatabilities (relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 7.7%, n = 5), and the enrichment factors (EFs) of 80-104. Finally, the applicability of the proposed method was evaluated by the extraction and determination of the drugs under study in the wastewater and human plasma samples.

  10. Pain, agitation, and behavioural problems in people with dementia admitted to general hospital wards: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Elizabeth L.; White, Nicola; Lord, Kathryn; Leurent, Baptiste; Vickerstaff, Victoria; Scott, Sharon; Jones, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pain is underdetected and undertreated in people with dementia. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of pain in people with dementia admitted to general hospitals and explore the association between pain and behavioural and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD). We conducted a longitudinal cohort study of 230 people, aged above 70, with dementia and unplanned medical admissions to 2 UK hospitals. Participants were assessed at baseline and every 4 days for self-reported pain (yes/no question and FACES scale) and observed pain (Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia scale [PAINAD]) at movement and at rest, for agitation (Cohen–Mansfield Agitating Inventory [CMAI]) and BPSD (Behavioural Pathology in Alzheimer Disease Scale [BEHAVE-AD]). On admission, 27% of participants self-reported pain rising to 39% on at least 1 occasion during admission. Half of them were able to complete the FACES scale, this proportion decreasing with more severe dementia. Using the PAINAD, 19% had pain at rest and 57% had pain on movement on at least 1 occasion (in 16%, this was persistent throughout the admission). In controlled analyses, pain was not associated with CMAI scores but was strongly associated with total BEHAVE-AD scores, both when pain was assessed on movement (β = 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.07-0.32, P = 0.002) and at rest (β = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.14-0.69, P = 0.003). The association was the strongest for aggression and anxiety. Pain was common in people with dementia admitted to the acute hospital and associated with BPSD. Improved pain management may reduce distressing behaviours and improve the quality of hospital care for people with dementia. PMID:25790457

  11. Pain, agitation, and behavioural problems in people with dementia admitted to general hospital wards: a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Elizabeth L; White, Nicola; Lord, Kathryn; Leurent, Baptiste; Vickerstaff, Victoria; Scott, Sharon; Jones, Louise

    2015-04-01

    Pain is underdetected and undertreated in people with dementia. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of pain in people with dementia admitted to general hospitals and explore the association between pain and behavioural and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD). We conducted a longitudinal cohort study of 230 people, aged above 70, with dementia and unplanned medical admissions to 2 UK hospitals. Participants were assessed at baseline and every 4 days for self-reported pain (yes/no question and FACES scale) and observed pain (Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia scale [PAINAD]) at movement and at rest, for agitation (Cohen-Mansfield Agitating Inventory [CMAI]) and BPSD (Behavioural Pathology in Alzheimer Disease Scale [BEHAVE-AD]). On admission, 27% of participants self-reported pain rising to 39% on at least 1 occasion during admission. Half of them were able to complete the FACES scale, this proportion decreasing with more severe dementia. Using the PAINAD, 19% had pain at rest and 57% had pain on movement on at least 1 occasion (in 16%, this was persistent throughout the admission). In controlled analyses, pain was not associated with CMAI scores but was strongly associated with total BEHAVE-AD scores, both when pain was assessed on movement (β = 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.07-0.32, P = 0.002) and at rest (β = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.14-0.69, P = 0.003). The association was the strongest for aggression and anxiety. Pain was common in people with dementia admitted to the acute hospital and associated with BPSD. Improved pain management may reduce distressing behaviours and improve the quality of hospital care for people with dementia.

  12. Collection of High Energy Yielding Strains of Saline Microalgae from the Hawaiian Islands: Final Technical Report, Year 1

    SciTech Connect

    York, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    Microalgae were collected from 48 locations in the Hawaiian Islands in 1985. The sites were an aquaculture tank; a coral reef; bays; a geothermal steam vent; Hawaiian fish ponds; a Hawaiian salt punawai (well); the ocean; river mouths; saline lakes; saline pools; saline ponds; a saline swamp; and the ponds, drainage ditches and sumps of commercial shrimp farms. From 4,800 isolations, 100 of the most productive clones were selected to be maintained by periodic transfer to sterile medium. Five clones were tested for growth rate and production in a full-spectrum-transmitting solarium.

  13. Sea-surface salinity: the missing measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocker, Erich F.; Koblinsky, Chester

    2003-04-01

    Even the youngest child knows that the sea is salty. Yet, routine, global information about the degree of saltiness and the distribution of the salinity is not available. Indeed, the sea surface salinity measurement is a key missing measurement in global change research. Salinity influences circulation and links the ocean to global change and the water-cycle. Space-based remote sensing of important global change ocean parameters such as sea-surface temperature and water-cycle parameters such as precipitation have been available to the research community but a space-based global sensing of salinity has been missing. In July 2002, the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) announced that the Aquarius mission, focused on the global measurement of sea surface salinity, is one of the missions approved under its ESSP-3 program. Aquarius will begin a risk-reduction phase during 2003. Aquarius will carry a multi-beam 1.4 GHz (L-band) radiometer used for retrieving salinity. It also will carry a 1.2 GHz (L-band) scatterometer used for measuring surface roughness. Aquarius is tentatively scheduled for a 2006 launch into an 8-day Sun-synchronous orbit. Aquarius key science data product will be a monthly, global surface salinity map at 100 km resolution with an accuracy of 0.2 practical salinity units. Aquarius will have a 3 year operational period. Among other things, global salinity data will permit estimates of sea surface density, or buoyancy, that drives the ocean's three-dimensional circulation.

  14. [Soil Salinity Estimation Based on Near-Ground Multispectral Imagery in Typical Area of the Yellow River Delta].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong-rui; Zhao, Geng-xing; Gao, Ming-xiu; Wang, Zhuo-ran; Jia, Ji-chao; Li, Ping; An, De-yu

    2016-01-01

    This study chooses the core demonstration area of 'Bohai Barn' project as the study area, which is located in Wudi, Shandong Province. We first collected near-ground and multispectral images and surface soil salinity data using ADC portable multispectral camera and EC110 portable salinometer. Then three vegetation indices, namely NDVI, SAVI and GNDVI, were used to build 18 models respectively with the actual measured soil salinity. These models include linear function, exponential function, logarithmic function, exponentiation function, quadratic function and cubic function, from which the best estimation model for soil salinity estimation was selected and used for inverting and analyzing soil salinity status of the study area. Results indicated that all models mentioned above could effectively estimate soil salinity and models using SAVI as the dependent variable were more effective than the others. Among SAVI models, the linear model (Y = -0.524x + 0.663, n = 70) is the best, under which the test value of F is the highest as 141.347 at significance test level, estimated R2 0.797 with a 93.36% accuracy. Soil salinity of the study area is mainly around 2.5 per thousand - 3.5 per thousand, which gradually increases from southwest to northeast. The study has probed into soil salinity estimation methods based on near-ground and multispectral data, and will provide a quick and effective technical soil salinity estimation approach for coastal saline soil of the study area and the whole Yellow River Delta.

  15. Estimation of the Barrier Layer Thickness in the Indian Ocean Using Aquarius Salinity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-08

    derived from satellite measurements using a multilinear regression model (MRM) within the Indian Ocean. Sea surface salinity ( SSS ) from the recently...surface salinity ( SSS ), sea surface temperature (SST), and sea surface height anomalies (SSHA). Three regions where the BLT variability is most...mechanisms are important for sustaining the BLT variability in each of the selected regions. Sensitivity tests show that SSS is the primary driver of

  16. Rages or Temper Tantrums? The Behavioral Organization, Temporal Characteristics, and Clinical Significance of Angry-Agitated Outbursts in Child Psychiatry Inpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potegal, Michael; Carlson, Gabrielle; Margulies, David; Gutkovitch, Zinoviy; Wall, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    Angry, agitated outbursts (AAOs) are a common precipitant of children's psychiatric hospitalization. In the hospital, AAOs present both management and diagnostic challenges, e.g., while they have recently been described as manic "rages", older studies suggest that they may be exacerbated temper tantrums. Factor analyses of 109 AAOs had by 46…

  17. Impact of aeration and agitation on metabolic heat and protease secretion of Aspergillus tamarii in a real-time biological reaction calorimeter.

    PubMed

    Dhandapani, Balaji; Mahadevan, Surianarayanan; Dhilipkumar, Sathish Sundar; Rajkumar, Suseela; Mandal, Asit Baran

    2012-06-01

    The effects of aeration and agitation on metabolic heat, alkaline protease production and morphology for Aspergillus tamarii MTCC5152 are reported in this manuscript. Measurement of metabolic heat has been attempted by the continuous and dynamic heat balance method in a biological real-time reaction calorimeter. At lower agitation intensities, growth-related processes were dominating. As a result the protease activity and the product heat yields were lower than those for 350 and 450 rpm. Although biomass growth was necessary to obtain maximum protease yield, agitation seemed to play a vital role in the protease production process. Energy dissipation per circulation function of the process is also deduced from power input. At optimal conditions, 350 rpm and 1 vvm, the gassed power required was 0.133 W. Pellet morphology and protease production were studied under different aeration and agitation intensities of A. tamarii. Pellet structure was considerably influenced by DO, a higher DO level resulted in denser pellets (1,018.4 kg/m(3)) leading to higher protease activity. Coupling of hydrodynamics and bio-reaction highlighted the complex relationship between energy dissipation, substrate uptake rate and fungal physiology. This study emphasised the potential of biocalorimetry as a reliable monitoring and robust control tool for aerobic fermentation of A. tamarii, using agricultural by-products.

  18. Anammox Coupled With Nitrification Impacts a Saline, High Ammonia Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, L. A.; Landkamer, L.; Peterson, D. M.; Metzler, D.

    2007-05-01

    High amounts of ammonia (130 to 2200 mg-N/l) in a saline environment (TDS = 10-20 g/l) are present in a groundwater plume adjacent to the Colorado River near Moab, Utah. Ammonia levels sufficient to affect aquatic life have been observed in limited sections of the river adjacent to the site, which has prompted interim treatment efforts. Microcosm studies were performed to assess the potential for microbial transformations of ammonia in the hyporheic zone sediment and the effect of ground/river-water mixing on transformations. Experiments were conducted using sub-riverbed sediment and mixtures of groundwater (290 mg-N/L ammonia) and river water (100%, 50% and 10% plume water) in anaerobic and aerobic environments. Aqueous NH4+, NO2-, NO3-, pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were monitored over 38 days. Interestingly, the ammonia concentration decreased in all microcosms (29% to 100%) with the highest removal occurring in the oxic microcosms. Total nitrogen removal ranged from 27% to 83%. Three lines of evidence suggest that anammox occurred in the anaerobic microcosms: 1) NH4+ concentrations decreased, 2) little change in DOC occurred and 3) DIC decreased. DIC should increase if denitrification were the dominant process. It is possible that small amounts of O2 diffused into the microcosms, driving some nitrification that supplied NO2- for anammox. In the aerobic microcosms, denitrification or anammox occurred in addition to nitrification because nitrate did not accumulate in general. Again, we believe anammox occurred because of DOC and DIC trends. In the aerobic 10% groundwater microcosm, NO3- accumulated once the ammonia concentration became low and the nitrate level stabilized after the ammonia was gone. This also indicated that anammox was the dominant process because denitrification should not stop due to ammonia depletion. The aerobic microcosms were only agitated twice per week, which would allow the sediments to become

  19. Experimentally derived salinity tolerance of hatchling Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) from the Everglades, Florida (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, Kristen M.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Gregoire, Denise R.

    2012-01-01

    In a laboratory setting, we tested the ability of 24 non-native, wild-caught hatchling Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) collected in the Florida Everglades to survive when given water containing salt to drink. After a one-month acclimation period in the laboratory, we grouped snakes into three treatments, giving them access to water that was fresh (salinity of 0, control), brackish (salinity of 10), or full-strength sea water (salinity of 35). Hatchlings survived about one month at the highest marine salinity and about five months at the brackish-water salinity; no control animals perished during the experiment. These results are indicative of a "worst-case scenario", as in the laboratory we denied access to alternate fresh-water sources that may be accessible in the wild (e.g., through rainfall). Therefore, our results may underestimate the potential of hatchling pythons to persist in saline habitats in the wild. Because of the effect of different salinity regimes on survival, predictions of ultimate geographic expansion by non-native Burmese pythons that consider salt water as barriers to dispersal for pythons may warrant re-evaluation, especially under global climate change and associated sea-level-rise scenarios.

  20. Experimentally derived salinity tolerance of hatchling Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) from the Everglades, Florida (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, K.M.; Schofield, P.J.; Gregoire, D.R.

    2012-01-01

    In a laboratory setting, we tested the ability of 24 non-native, wild-caught hatchling Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) collected in the Florida Everglades to survive when given water containing salt to drink. After a one-month acclimation period in the laboratory, we grouped snakes into three treatments, giving them access to water that was fresh (salinity of 0, control), brackish (salinity of 10), or full-strength sea water (salinity of 35). Hatchlings survived about one month at the highest marine salinity and about five months at the brackish-water salinity; no control animals perished during the experiment. These results are indicative of a "worst-case scenario", as in the laboratory we denied access to alternate fresh-water sources that may be accessible in the wild (e.g., through rainfall). Therefore, our results may underestimate the potential of hatchling pythons to persist in saline habitats in the wild. Because of the effect of different salinity regimes on survival, predictions of ultimate geographic expansion by non-native Burmese pythons that consider salt water as barriers to dispersal for pythons may warrant re-evaluation, especially under global climate change and associated sea-level-rise scenarios. ?? 2011.

  1. Increased resistance to a generalist herbivore in a salinity-stressed non-halophytic plant

    PubMed Central

    Renault, Sylvie; Wolfe, Scott; Markham, John; Avila-Sakar, Germán

    2016-01-01

    Plants often grow under the combined stress of several factors. Salinity and herbivory, separately, can severely hinder plant growth and reproduction, but the combined effects of both factors are still not clearly understood. Salinity is known to reduce plant tissue nitrogen content and growth rates. Since herbivores prefer tissues with high N content, and biochemical pathways leading to resistance are commonly elicited by salt-stress, we hypothesized that plants growing in saline conditions would have enhanced resistance against herbivores. The non-halophyte, Brassica juncea, and the generalist herbivore Trichoplusia ni were used to test the prediction that plants subjected to salinity stress would be both more resistant and more tolerant to herbivory than those growing without salt stress. Plants were grown under different NaCl levels, and either exposed to herbivores and followed by removal of half of their leaves, or left intact. Plants were left to grow and reproduce until senescence. Tissue quality was assessed, seeds were counted and biomass of different organs measured. Plants exposed to salinity grew less, had reduced tissue nitrogen, protein and chlorophyll content, although proline levels increased. Specific leaf area, leaf water content, transpiration and root:shoot ratio remained unaffected. Plants growing under saline condition had greater constitutive resistance than unstressed plants. However, induced resistance and tolerance were not affected by salinity. These results support the hypothesis that plants growing under salt-stress are better defended against herbivores, although in B. juncea this may be mostly through resistance, and less through tolerance. PMID:27169610

  2. Surface-water salinity in the Gunnison River Basin, Colorado, water years 1989 through 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaffrath, Keelin R.

    2012-01-01

    Elevated levels of dissolved solids in water (salinity) can result in numerous and costly issues for agricultural, industrial, and municipal water users. The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-320) authorized planning and construction of salinity-control projects in the Colorado River Basin. One of the first projects was the Lower Gunnison Unit, a project to mitigate salinity in the Lower Gunnison and Uncompahgre River Basins. In cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study to quantify changes in salinity in the Gunnison River Basin. Trends in salinity concentration and load during the period water years (WY) 1989 through 2004 (1989-2004) were determined for 15 selected streamflow-gaging stations in the Gunnison River Basin. Additionally, trends in salinity concentration and load during the period WY1989 through 2007 (1989-2007) were determined for 5 of the 15 sites for which sufficient data were available. Trend results also were used to identify regions in the Lower Gunnison River Basin (downstream from the Gunnison Tunnel) where the largest changes in salinity loads occur. Additional sources of salinity, including residential development (urbanization), changes in land cover, and natural sources, were estimated within the context of the trend results. The trend results and salinity loads estimated from trends testing also were compared to USBR and Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) estimates of off-farm and on-farm salinity reduction from salinity-control projects in the basin. Finally, salinity from six additional sites in basins that are not affected by irrigated agriculture or urbanization was monitored from WY 2008 to 2010 to quantify what portion of salinity may be from nonagricultural or natural sources. In the Upper Gunnison area, which refers to Gunnison River Basin above the site located on the Gunnison River below the Gunnison Tunnel, estimated mean annual

  3. Aquarius Observations of Sea Surface Salinity

    NASA Video Gallery

    This visualization shows changes in global sea surface salinity, as measured by NASA’s Aquarius instrument aboard the Aquarius/SAC-D spacecraft, from December 2011 through December 2012. Red repr...

  4. Sea Surface Salinity : Research Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, David; Lagerloef, Gary; Font, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Sea surface salinity (SSS) can be important in regulating sea surface temperature (SST). Two technological breakthrough satellite SSS missions, Aquarius and Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), are currently producing high-quality SSS data. This paper provides an overview of the importance of SSS for weather and climate applications and describes the Aquarius and SMOS missions. The newness of adequately sampled SSS data prompted a first-time at-sea field campaign devoted to improved understanding of SSS variations.

  5. Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-06-11

    A method for treating a nahcolite containing subsurface formation includes removing water from a saline zone in or near the formation. The removed water is heated using a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. The heated water is provided to the nahcolite containing formation. A fluid is produced from the nahcolite containing formation. The fluid includes at least some dissolved nahcolite. At least some of the fluid is provided to the saline zone.

  6. Effect of impeller type and agitation on the performance of pilot scale ASBR and AnSBBR applied to sanitary wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    de Novaes, Luciano Farias; Saratt, Bruna Luckmann; Rodrigues, José Alberto Domingues; Ratusznei, Suzana Maria; de Moraes, Deovaldo; Ribeiro, Rogers; Zaiat, Marcelo; Foresti, Eugenio

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the effect of agitation rate and impeller type in two mechanically stirred sequencing batch reactors: one containing granulated biomass (denominated ASBR) and the other immobilized biomass on polyurethane foam (denominated AnSBBR). Each configuration, with total volume of 1 m(3), treated 0.65 m(3) sanitary wastewater at ambient temperature in 8-h cycles. Three impeller types were assessed for each reactor configuration: flat-blade turbine impeller, 45 degrees -inclined-blade turbine impeller and helix impeller, as well as two agitation rates: 40 and 80 rpm, resulting in a combination of six experimental conditions. In addition, the ASBR was also operated at 20 rpm with a flat-blade turbine impeller and the AnSBBR was operated with a draft tube and helix impeller at 80 and 120 rpm. To quantify how impeller type and agitation rate relate to substrate consumption rate, results obtained during monitoring at the end of the cycle, as well as the time profiles during a cycle were analyzed. Increasing agitation rate from 40 rpm to 80 rpm in the AnSBBR improved substrate consumption rate whereas in the ASBR this increase destabilized the system, likely due to granule rupture caused by the higher agitation. The AnSBBR showed highest solids and substrate removal, highest kinetic constant and highest alkalinity production when using a helix impeller, 80 rpm, and no draft tube. The best condition for the ASBR was achieved with a flat-blade turbine impeller at 20 rpm. The presence of the draft tube in the AnSBBR did not show significant improvement in reactor efficiency. Furthermore, power consumption studies in these pilot scale reactors showed that power transfer required to improve mass transfer might be technically and economically feasible.

  7. [Investigation and canonical correspondence analysis of salinity contents in secondary salinization greenhouse soils in Shanghai suburb].

    PubMed

    Tang, Dong; Mao, Liang; Zhi, Yue-e; Zhang, Jin-Zhong; Zhou, Pei; Chai, Xiao-Tong

    2014-12-01

    The salinity characteristics of greenhouse soils with cropping obstacles in Shanghai suburb were investigated and analyzed. The salinity contents of the salinization greenhouse soils showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing with the increasing cropping duration. The salinized soils mainly included slightly salted, mildly salted and salted soils, which accounted for 17.39%, 56.52% and 13.04%, respectively. Among them, the degree of salinity in greenhouse soil planted with asparagus in Chongming County was the highest. Among the salt ions in greenhouse soils, the cations were mainly Ca2+ and Na+, while the anions were mainly NO3- and SO4(2-). The degree of salinity was mainly influenced by fertilization mode, cropping duration, crop type and management level, which led to the great variation in the salinity contents and salt ions. Canonical correspondence analysis found that the contents of Ca2+, Mg2+ and NO3- in greenhouse soils were greatly affected by cropping duration, and the degree of salinity would be enhanced and attenuated with long-term application of single fertilizer and mixed application of chemical fertilizer and organic manure, respectively. The greenhouse soils in Shanghai suburb could be classified as four patterns influenced by the relationship between salinity ions and samples, and the most soils were influenced by Ca2+, Mg2+, NO3- and Cl-, which required to be primarily controlled.

  8. A less saline Baltic Sea promotes cyanobacterial growth, hampers intracellular microcystin production, and leads to strain-specific differences in allelopathy.

    PubMed

    Brutemark, Andreas; Vandelannoote, Angélique; Engström-Öst, Jonna; Suikkanen, Sanna

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the main factors that explain the distribution of species in the Baltic Sea. Increased precipitation and consequent increase in freshwater inflow is predicted to decrease salinity in some areas of the Baltic Sea. Clearly such changes may have profound effects on the organisms living there. Here we investigate the response of the commonly occurring cyanobacterium Dolichospermum spp. to three salinities, 0, 3 and 6. For the three strains tested we recorded growth, intracellular toxicity (microcystin) and allelopathic properties. We show that Dolichospermum can grow in all the three salinities tested with highest growth rates in the lowest salinity. All strains showed allelopathic potential and it differed significantly between strains and salinities, but was highest in the intermediate salinity and lowest in freshwater. Intracellular toxin concentration was highest in salinity 6. In addition, based on monitoring data from the northern Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland, we show that salinity has decreased, while Dolichospermum spp. biomass has increased between 1979 and 2013. Thus, based on our experimental findings it is evident that salinity plays a large role in Dolichospermum growth, allelopathic properties and toxicity. In combination with our long-term data analyses, we conclude that decreasing salinity is likely to result in a more favourable environment for Dolichospermum spp. in some areas of the Baltic Sea.

  9. Impact of Nutrition and Salinity Changes on Biological Performances of Green and White Sturgeon

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Pedro G.; Kebreab, Ermias; Hung, Silas S. O.; Fadel, James G.; Lee, Seunghyung; Fangue, Nann A.

    2015-01-01

    Green and white sturgeon are species of high conservational and economic interest, particularly in the San Francisco Bay Delta (SFBD) for which significant climate change-derived alterations in salinity and nutritional patterns are forecasted. Although there is paucity of information, it is critical to test the network of biological responses underlying the capacity of animals to tolerate current environmental changes. Through nutrition and salinity challenges, climate change will likely have more physiological effect on young sturgeon stages, which in turn may affect growth performance. In this study, the two species were challenged in a multiple-factor experimental setting, first to levels of feeding rate, and then to salinity levels for different time periods. Data analysis included generalized additive models to select predictors of growth performance (measured by condition factor) among the environmental stressors considered and a suite of physiological variables. Using structural equation modeling, a path diagram is proposed to quantify the main linkages among nutrition status, salinity, osmoregulation variables, and growth performances. Three major trends were anticipated for the growth performance of green and white sturgeon in the juvenile stage in the SFBD: (i) a decrease in prey abundance will be highly detrimental for the growth of both species; (ii) an acute increase in salinity within the limits studied can be tolerated by both species but possibly the energy spent in osmoregulation may affect green sturgeon growth within the time window assessed; (iii) the mechanism of synergistic effects of nutrition and salinity changes will be more complex in green sturgeon, with condition factor responding nonlinearly to interactions of salinity and nutrition status or time of salinity exposure. Green sturgeon merits special scientific attention and conservation effort to offset the effects of feed restriction and salinity as key environmental stressors in the

  10. Impact of nutrition and salinity changes on biological performances of green and white sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Pedro G; Kebreab, Ermias; Hung, Silas S O; Fadel, James G; Lee, Seunghyung; Fangue, Nann A

    2015-01-01

    Green and white sturgeon are species of high conservational and economic interest, particularly in the San Francisco Bay Delta (SFBD) for which significant climate change-derived alterations in salinity and nutritional patterns are forecasted. Although there is paucity of information, it is critical to test the network of biological responses underlying the capacity of animals to tolerate current environmental changes. Through nutrition and salinity challenges, climate change will likely have more physiological effect on young sturgeon stages, which in turn may affect growth performance. In this study, the two species were challenged in a multiple-factor experimental setting, first to levels of feeding rate, and then to salinity levels for different time periods. Data analysis included generalized additive models to select predictors of growth performance (measured by condition factor) among the environmental stressors considered and a suite of physiological variables. Using structural equation modeling, a path diagram is proposed to quantify the main linkages among nutrition status, salinity, osmoregulation variables, and growth performances. Three major trends were anticipated for the growth performance of green and white sturgeon in the juvenile stage in the SFBD: (i) a decrease in prey abundance will be highly detrimental for the growth of both species; (ii) an acute increase in salinity within the limits studied can be tolerated by both species but possibly the energy spent in osmoregulation may affect green sturgeon growth within the time window assessed; (iii) the mechanism of synergistic effects of nutrition and salinity changes will be more complex in green sturgeon, with condition factor responding nonlinearly to interactions of salinity and nutrition status or time of salinity exposure. Green sturgeon merits special scientific attention and conservation effort to offset the effects of feed restriction and salinity as key environmental stressors in the

  11. Salinity and Temperature Tolerance of the Nemertean Worm Carcinonemertes errans, an Egg Predator of the Dungeness Crab.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Paul H; Young, Craig M

    2015-04-01

    Estuaries can be harsh habitats for the marine animals that enter them, but they may also provide these species with sub-saline refuges from their parasites. The nemertean egg predator Carcinonemertes errans is known to occur less frequently and in smaller numbers on its host, the Dungeness crab Metacarcinus magister, when the hosts are found within estuaries. We examined the temperature and salinity tolerances of C. errans to determine if this observed distribution represents a true salinity refuge. We monitored the survival of juvenile and larval worms exposed to ecologically relevant salinities (5-30) and temperatures (8-20 °C) over the course of several days under laboratory conditions. Juvenile worms were unaffected by the experimental temperature levels and exhibited robustness to salinity treatments 25 and 30. However, significant mortality was seen at salinity treatments 20 and below. Larvae were less tolerant than juveniles to lowered salinity and were also somewhat more susceptible to the higher temperatures tested. Given that the Dungeness crab can tolerate forays into mesohaline (salinity 5-18) waters for several days at a time, our findings suggest that salinity gradients play an important role in creating a parasite refuge for this species within the estuaries of the Pacific Northwest.

  12. Effects of Methane-Rich Saline on the Capability of One-Time Exhaustive Exercise in Male SD Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Lei; Sun, Xuejun; Lou, Shujie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explore the effects of methane-rich saline (CH4 saline) on the capability of one-time exhaustive exercise in male SD rats. Methods Thirty rats were equally divided into to three groups at random: control group (C), placebo group (P) and methane saline group (M). Rats in M group underwent intraperitoneal injection of CH4 saline, and the other two groups simultaneously underwent intraperitoneal injection of normal saline. Then, the exercise capability of rats was tested through one-time exhaustive treadmill exercise except C group. Exercise time and body weight were recorded before and after one-time exhaustive exercise. After exhaustive exercise, the blood and gastrocnemius samples were collected from all rats to detect biochemical parameters in different methods. Results It was found that the treadmill running time was significantly longer in rats treated with CH4 saline. At the same time, CH4 saline reduced the elevation of LD and UN in blood caused by one-time exhaustive exercise. The low level of blood glucose induced by exhaustive exercise was also normalized by CH4 saline. Also CH4 saline lowered the level of CK in plasma. Furthermore, this research indicated that CH4 saline markedly increased the volume of T-AOC in plasma and alleviated the peak of TNF-α in both plasma and gastrocnemius. From H&E staining, CH4 saline effectively improved exercise-induced structural damage in gastrocnemius. Conclusions CH4 saline could enhance exercise capacity in male SD rats through increase of glucose aerobic oxidation, improvement of metabolic clearance and decrease of exhaustive exercise-induced gastrocnemius injury. PMID:26942576

  13. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Enhance Salinity Stress Tolerance in Okra through ROS-Scavenging Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Habib, Sheikh Hasna; Kausar, Hossain; Saud, Halimi Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is a major environmental stress that limits crop production worldwide. In this study, we characterized plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and examined their effect on salinity stress tolerance in okra through the induction of ROS-scavenging enzyme activity. PGPR inoculated okra plants exhibited higher germination percentage, growth parameters, and chlorophyll content than control plants. Increased antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, APX, and CAT) and upregulation of ROS pathway genes (CAT, APX, GR, and DHAR) were observed in PGPR inoculated okra plants under salinity stress. With some exceptions, inoculation with Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 had a significant influence on all tested parameters under salt stress, as compared to other treatments. Thus, the ACC deaminase-containing PGPR isolate Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 could be an effective bioresource for enhancing salt tolerance and growth of okra plants under salinity stress.

  14. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Enhance Salinity Stress Tolerance in Okra through ROS-Scavenging Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Sheikh Hasna; Kausar, Hossain; Saud, Halimi Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is a major environmental stress that limits crop production worldwide. In this study, we characterized plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and examined their effect on salinity stress tolerance in okra through the induction of ROS-scavenging enzyme activity. PGPR inoculated okra plants exhibited higher germination percentage, growth parameters, and chlorophyll content than control plants. Increased antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, APX, and CAT) and upregulation of ROS pathway genes (CAT, APX, GR, and DHAR) were observed in PGPR inoculated okra plants under salinity stress. With some exceptions, inoculation with Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 had a significant influence on all tested parameters under salt stress, as compared to other treatments. Thus, the ACC deaminase-containing PGPR isolate Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 could be an effective bioresource for enhancing salt tolerance and growth of okra plants under salinity stress. PMID:26951880

  15. Ultra Stable Microwave Radiometers for Future Sea Surface Salinity Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William J.; Tanner, Alan B.; Pellerano, Fernando A.; Horgan, Kevin A.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Earth Science System Pathfinder (ESSP) mission Aquarius will measure global sea surface salinity with 100-km spatial resolution every 8 days with an average monthly salinity accuracy of 0.2 psu (parts per thousand). This requires an L-band low-noise radiometer with the long-term calibration stability of less than 0.1 K over 8 days. This three-year research program on ultra stable radiometers has addressed the radiometer requirements and configuration necessary to achieve this objective for Aquarius and future ocean salinity missions. The system configuration and component performance have been evaluated with radiometer testbeds at both JPL and GSFC. The research has addressed several areas including component characterization as a function of temperature, a procedure for the measurement and correction for radiometer system non-linearity, noise diode calibration versus temperature, low noise amplifier performance over voltage, and temperature control requirements to achieve the required stability. A breadboard radiometer, utilizing microstrip-based technologies, has been built to demonstrate this long-term stability. This report also presents the results of the radiometer test program, a detailed radiometer noise model, and details of the operational switching sequence optimization that can be used to achieve the low noise and stability requirements. Many of the results of this research have been incorporated into the Aquarius radiometer design and will allow this instrument to achieve its goals.

  16. Dispersant and salinity effects on weathering and acute toxicity of South Louisiana crude oil.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, Adam J; Nyman, J Andrew; Kaller, Michael D; Green, Christopher C

    2013-11-01

    Chemical dispersants are an important technology in the remediation of oil spills in the aquatic environment, facilitating degradation of crude oil and salinity is an important factor in dispersant effectiveness. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of salinity on the degradation chemistry of crude oil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and acute toxicity of the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of the dispersant COREXIT 9500A and chemically dispersed crude oil on a common estuarine fish. Laboratory microcosms were designed at salinities of 4 parts per thousand (ppt), 12 ppt, or 18 ppt and spiked with crude oil, COREXIT 9500A, or a combined exposure to crude oil and COREXIT and allowed to biodegrade for 1 wk, 4 wk, and 16 wk. The WAF was harvested for analytical PAH analysis and acute toxicity testing in juvenile Fundulus grandis. Compared with undispersed oil, COREXIT exponentially increased the PAH concentrations in the WAF for up to 16 wk; hopane-normalized concentrations indicated that biodegradation was slowed for the first 4 wk. Dispersed crude oil and COREXIT were acutely toxic following 1 wk of biodegradation with no correlation between PAH concentrations and crude oil WAF mortality. Both dispersant and dispersant oil mixtures remained toxic for at least 4 wk at the lowest salinity tested, suggesting increased sensitivity or reduced biodegradation of toxic components in low-saline environments. At the lowest salinity, oil dispersed with COREXIT was more toxic than either the COREXIT alone or oil alone, even after 16 wk of biodegradation.

  17. Identifying the Cause of Toxicity of a Saline Mine Water

    PubMed Central

    van Dam, Rick A.; Harford, Andrew J.; Lunn, Simon A.; Gagnon, Marthe M.

    2014-01-01

    Elevated major ions (or salinity) are recognised as being a key contributor to the toxicity of many mine waste waters but the complex interactions between the major ions and large inter-species variability in response to salinity, make it difficult to relate toxicity to causal factors. This study aimed to determine if the toxicity of a typical saline seepage water was solely due to its major ion constituents; and determine which major ions were the leading contributors to the toxicity. Standardised toxicity tests using two tropical freshwater species Chlorella sp. (alga) and Moinodaphnia macleayi (cladoceran) were used to compare the toxicity of 1) mine and synthetic seepage water; 2) key major ions (e.g. Na, Cl, SO4 and HCO3); 3) synthetic seepage water that were modified by excluding key major ions. For Chlorella sp., the toxicity of the seepage water was not solely due to its major ion concentrations because there were differences in effects caused by the mine seepage and synthetic seepage. However, for M. macleayi this hypothesis was supported because similar effects caused by mine seepage and synthetic seepage. Sulfate was identified as a major ion that could predict the toxicity of the synthetic waters, which might be expected as it was the dominant major ion in the seepage water. However, sulfate was not the primary cause of toxicity in the seepage water and electrical conductivity was a better predictor of effects. Ultimately, the results show that specific major ions do not clearly drive the toxicity of saline seepage waters and the effects are probably due to the electrical conductivity of the mine waste waters. PMID:25180579

  18. Identifying the cause of toxicity of a saline mine water.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Rick A; Harford, Andrew J; Lunn, Simon A; Gagnon, Marthe M

    2014-01-01

    Elevated major ions (or salinity) are recognised as being a key contributor to the toxicity of many mine waste waters but the complex interactions between the major ions and large inter-species variability in response to salinity, make it difficult to relate toxicity to causal factors. This study aimed to determine if the toxicity of a typical saline seepage water was solely due to its major ion constituents; and determine which major ions were the leading contributors to the toxicity. Standardised toxicity tests using two tropical freshwater species Chlorella sp. (alga) and Moinodaphnia macleayi (cladoceran) were used to compare the toxicity of 1) mine and synthetic seepage water; 2) key major ions (e.g. Na, Cl, SO4 and HCO3); 3) synthetic seepage water that were modified by excluding key major ions. For Chlorella sp., the toxicity of the seepage water was not solely due to its major ion concentrations because there were differences in effects caused by the mine seepage and synthetic seepage. However, for M. macleayi this hypothesis was supported because similar effects caused by mine seepage and synthetic seepage. Sulfate was identified as a major ion that could predict the toxicity of the synthetic waters, which might be expected as it was the dominant major ion in the seepage water. However, sulfate was not the primary cause of toxicity in the seepage water and electrical conductivity was a better predictor of effects. Ultimately, the results show that specific major ions do not clearly drive the toxicity of saline seepage waters and the effects are probably due to the electrical conductivity of the mine waste waters.

  19. Effects of salinity on growth and survival in five Artemia franciscana (Anostraca: Artemiidae) populations from Mexico Pacific Coast.

    PubMed

    Castro-Mejía, Jorge; Castro-Barrera, Talía; Hernández-Hernández, Luis Héctor; Arredondo-Figueroa, José Luis; Castro-Mejía, Germán; de Lara-Andrade, Ramón

    2011-03-01

    Salinity is an important factor influencing growth and survival of aquatic organisms such as Artemia, a valuable aquaculture species. This study evaluated the effects of salinity on A. franciscana populations from different water bodies in Mexico's Pacific Coast. With this purpose, five autochthonous bisexual Artemia populations were tested to assess their survival and growth values against salinities of 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 g/l, under laboratory conditions (25 +/- 2 degrees C; pH 8-10; constant light and aeration). The organisms were fed with 100 mL of rice bran and 2L of Tetraselmis suecica (500 000 cel/ml). The culture experiments were made in 200L plastic tanks, and survival and growth final values were obtained after 21 culture days. Survival and growth curves were determined by a regression analysis (R2). The significant differences between salinities were determined by ANOVA test (p < 0.05). The best survival and growth rates were found at salinities of 100-120 g/l. When the Mexican Artemia populations were cultivated at 40 g/l of salinity, 100% mortality was observed in the juvenile stage. This study determined that survival and growth values of A. franciscana populations increased with salinity. The five A. franciscana populations presented significant differences in their survival rate under various salinity regimes. The studied populations experienced high mortality at salinities under 60 g/l and over 200 g/l, and especially during the metanauplius stage. The present study confirms that growth rates in Mexican A. franciscana populations from Pacific Coast habitats are not inversely proportional to salinity. These A. franciscana populations should be cultured at 100-120 g/l of salinity to obtain better survival and growth rates. This data is useful to improve culture systems in aquaculture biomass production systems.

  20. The effect of ionic strength on oil adhesion in sandstone – the search for the low salinity mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Hilner, E.; Andersson, M. P.; Hassenkam, T.; Matthiesen, J.; Salino, P. A.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2015-01-01

    Core flood and field tests have demonstrated that decreasing injection water salinity increases oil recovery from sandstone reservoirs. However, the microscopic mechanism behind the effect is still under debate. One hypothesis is that as salinity decreases, expansion of the electrical double layer decreases attraction between organic molecules and pore surfaces. We have developed a method that uses atomic force microscopy (AFM) in chemical force mapping (CFM) mode to explore the relationship between wettability and salinity. We functionalised AFM tips with alkanes and used them to represent tiny nonpolar oil droplets. In repeated measurements, we brought our “oil” close to the surface of sand grains taken from core plugs and we measured the adhesion between the tip and sample. Adhesion was constant in high salinity solutions but below a threshold of 5,000 to 8,000 ppm, adhesion decreased as salinity decreased, rendering the surface less oil wet. The effect was consistent, reproducible and reversible. The threshold for the onset of low salinity response fits remarkably well with observations from core plug experiments and field tests. The results demonstrate that the electric double layer force always contributes at least in part to the low salinity effect, decreasing oil wettability when salinity is low. PMID:25899050

  1. Storage of platelets on flatbed agitators in polyvinyl chloride blood bags plasticized with tri(2-ethylhexyl) trimellitate.

    PubMed

    Champion, A B; Chong, C; Carmen, R A

    1987-01-01

    Data are presented showing that platelets in polyvinyl chloride blood bags plasticized with tri(2-ethylhexyl) trimellitate can be stored on flatbed agitators (shakers) without the pH falling below 6.0. The lowest pH seen after 7 days of storage in 46 units with platelet yields ranging from 3.6 to 13.3 X 10(10) per unit was 6.43. These bags have a O2 transmission rate of 13.3 mumol per hour per bag. Platelet bags with a O2 transmission rate of 7.9 mumol per hour per bag experience a pH fall after 5 days of storage on the shaker in units whose platelet yield on average exceeds 10 X 10(10). Platelets can be stored on first-generation shakers (70 cycles/min, stroke = 1 inch) without an attempt at manual resuspension of the platelet button. The count after 30 minutes on the shaker averaged 89 +/- 15 percent of the expected count, indicating that resuspension was nearly complete after a relatively short period. Red cells, but not platelets, settled out during storage on the shaker.

  2. An efficient approach for phosphorus recovery from wastewater using series-coupled air-agitated crystallization reactors.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hongliang; Lu, Xiwu; Peng, Yonghong; Zou, Haiming; Shi, Jing

    2016-12-01

    Homogeneous nucleation of hydroxyapatite (HAP) crystallization in high levels of supersaturation solution has a negative effect on phosphorus recovery efficiency because of the poor settleability of the generated HAP microcrystalline. In this study, a new high-performance approach for phosphorus recovery from anaerobic supernatant using three series-coupled air-agitated crystallization reactors was developed and characterized. During 30-day operation, the proposed process showed a high recovery efficiency (∼95.82%) and low microcrystalline ratio (∼3.11%). Particle size analysis showed that the microcrystalline size was successively increased (from 5.81 to 26.32 μm) with the sequence of series-coupled reactors, confirming the conjectural mechanism that a multistage-induced crystallization system provided an appropriate condition for the growth, aggregation, and precipitation of crystallized products. Furthermore, the new process showed a broad spectrum of handling ability for different concentrations of phosphorus-containing solution in the range of 5-350 mg L(-1), and the obtained results of phosphorus conversion ratio and recovery efficiency were more than 92% and 80%, respectively. Overall, these results showed that the new process exhibited an excellent ability of efficient phosphorus recovery as well as wide application scope, and might be used as an effective approach for phosphorus removal and recovery from wastewater.

  3. Smoking-Related Correlates of Psychomotor Restlessness and Agitation in a Community Sample of Daily Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jordan A.; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Psychomotor restlessness and agitation (PMA) is a putatively important, yet understudied, psychopathologic correlate of smoking. The scant smoking research on PMA previously conducted has been narrow in scope and conducted among psychiatric patients. To examine the generalizability and relevance of PMA to smoking, this cross-sectional study investigated associations between PMA and a variety of smoking processes in a community sample. Methods Participants in this study were non-treatment-seeking smokers (N = 254, ≥10 cig/day, M age = 44 years) from the community without an active mood disorder. At baseline, they completed a PMA symptom checklist, a composite depressive symptom index, and a battery of smoking questionnaires. Results Linear regression models adjusting for depressive symptoms and demographics indicated that PMA level was positively associated with severity of nicotine withdrawal symptoms during prior quit attempts (β = .18, p < .05), anticipated likelihood of withdrawal in a future quit attempt (β = .19, p < .05), motivation to smoke for negative reinforcement (β = .14, p < .05), and smoking expectancies for negative reinforcement (β = .17, p < .05), negative consequences (β = .22, p < .01), and positive reinforcement (β = .14, p < .05). PMA was not significantly associated with smoking chronicity, frequency, or dependence severity. Conclusion and Scientific Significance Smokers with elevated PMA appear to experience greater smoking-induced affect modulation and nicotine withdrawal than the average smoker, regardless of other depressive symptoms. Given that PMA differentiates a qualitatively unique profile of smoking characteristics, PMA warrants consideration in tobacco addiction research and practice. PMID:25864606

  4. "SPURS" in the North Atlantic Salinity Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Raymond

    2014-05-01

    The North Atlantic Salinity Maximum is the world's saltiest open ocean salinity maximum and was the focus of the recent Salinity Processes Upper-ocean Regional Study (SPURS) program. SPURS was a joint venture between US, French, Irish, and Spanish investigators. Three US and two EU cruises were involved from August, 1012 - October, 2013 as well as surface moorings, glider, drifter and float deployments. Shipboard operations included underway meteorological and oceanic data, hydrographic surveys and turbulence profiling. The goal is to improve our understanding of how the salinity maximum is maintained and how it may be changing. It is formed by an excess of evaporation over precipitation and the wind-driven convergence of the subtropical gyre. Such salty areas are getting saltier with global warming (a record high SSS was observed in SPURS) and it is imperative to determine the relative roles of surface water fluxes and oceanic processes in such trends. The combination of accurate surface flux estimates with new assessments of vertical and horizontal mixing in the ocean will help elucidate the utility of ocean salinity in quantifying the changing global water cycle.

  5. Lessons from crop plants struggling with salinity.

    PubMed

    Cabot, Catalina; Sibole, John V; Barceló, Juan; Poschenrieder, Charlotte

    2014-09-01

    Salinity is a persistent problem, causing important losses in irrigated agriculture. According to global climate change prediction models, salinity is expected to expand in the near future. Although intensive studies have been conducted on the mechanisms by which plants cope with saline conditions, the multi-component nature of salt stress tolerance has rendered most plant breeding efforts to improve the plant's response to salinity unsuccessful. This occurs despite the extensive genetic diversity shown by higher plants for salt tolerance and the similar mechanisms found in salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant genotypes in response to the presence of excess of salts in the growth media. On the other hand, there is an urge to increase crop yield to the maximum to cope with the growing world population demands for food and fuel. Here, we examine some major elements and signaling mechanisms involved in the plant's response to salinity following the pathway of salt-footprints from the soil environment to leaf. Some of the possible contrasting determinants for a better-balanced resource allocation between salt tolerance and plant growth and yield are considered.

  6. Low-Salinity Waterflooding to Improve Oil Recovery - Historical Field Evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Eric P. Robertson

    2007-11-01

    Waterflooding is by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of wa-terfloods. Laboratory water-flood tests and single-well tracer tests have shown that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery, but work designed to test the method on a field scale has not yet been undertaken. Historical waterflood records could unintentionally provide some evidence of improved recovery from waterflooding with lower salinity brine. Nu-merous fields in the Powder River basin of Wyoming have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) obtained from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Three Minnelusa formation fields in the basin were identified as potential candidates for waterflood comparisons based on the salinity of the connate and injection water. Historical pro-duction and injection data for these fields were obtained from the public record. Field waterflood data were manipulated to be displayed in the same format as laboratory coreflood re-sults. Recovery from fields using lower salinity injection wa-ter was greater than that using higher salinity injection wa-ter—matching recovery trends for laboratory and single-well tests.

  7. Biomarker-based salinity reconstruction immediately prior to the Messinian Salinity Crisis (Sorbas Basin, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayser, Jan Peter; Martins, Cesar; Flecker, Rachel; Pancost, Rich D.

    2014-05-01

    The salinity crisis which occurred in the Mediterranean at the end of the Miocene (5.97 to 5.33 Ma) was a time of large-scale environmental change and thick evaporite deposits formed both in the deep basins and on the surrounding margins. Late Miocene successions in the Sorbas Basin, south east Spain preserve sediments that were deposited immediately prior to the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) and during the initial phase of gypsum precipitation (Sierro et al., 2001). Salinity changes are indicated by evaporite formation and fluctuations in faunal assemblages, but these provide threshold measurements only e.g. gypsum forms at a salinity of 130 psu. By analysing the lipid biomarker composition by GC and HPLC-MS after Soxhlet extraction of pre-MSC sediments we aim to reconstruct granular changes in salinity leading up to initial gypsum precipitation. The pre-MSC sediments comprise regular alternations of marine marls and terrigenous clays with interspersed diatomites. This lithological cyclicity is climatically forced by orbitally-driven changes in insolation (Krijgsman et al., 1999) such that specific lithologies are thought to accumulate during precession minima (homogeneous marls) and maxima (laminated marls). By targeting these lithologies for salinity reconstruction we can evaluate the orbital control on quantified environmental change. The reconstruction of the salinity is predominantly based on the ACE proxy introduced by Turich and Freeman (2011). The GDGT-based proxy can show differences over a wide range of salinity, because Archaea can survive over a much larger salinity range than haptophyte algae or other plankton and can therefore also record the salinity signal over a wider range. This makes it suitable for the broad salinity ranges leading up to the MSC e.g. ~35 to 130 psu. Turich et al. (2011) already have published 10 low resolution salinity values for pre-MSC sediments from Torrente Vaccarizzo and Serra Pirciata on Sicily. Our high resolution

  8. Hypertonic saline challenge in an adult epidemiological survey.

    PubMed

    Rabone, S J; Phoon, W O; Anderson, S D; Wan, K C; Seneviratne, M; Gutierrez, L; Brannan, J

    1996-06-01

    Bronchial provocation tests using pharmacological agents such as methacholine or histamine are used in epidemiological studies to identify asthma despite recognition of limitations in specificity, positive predictive value and availability of reagents. Hypertonic saline (4.5%) bronchial challenge (HSBC), although less sensitive than pharmacological challenges, is reportedly highly specific in diagnosing current asthma. Added advantages are that reagents are cheap, stable and recognized by participants. Thus, HSBC may offer benefits over pharmacological tests in epidemiological surveys. This paper reports on the second field survey using the test, a study of 99 adults from the timber industry in Western Australia. The test is described and critically appraised as a practical epidemiological tool for assessing asthma prevalence. At a cutoff point of 20% FEV, fall, HSBC was positive in 8% of subjects, appeared specific for asthma, was safe, well-accepted and easy to use in the field.

  9. Investigation of effects of temperature, salinity, and electrode design on the performance of an electrochemical coliform detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grana, D. C.

    1979-01-01

    The results of two research programs to determine the optimum detector design for measuring fecal coliforms in saline waters for operational systems are presented. One program was concerned with the effects of temperature and salinity on endpoint response time, and the other, the interaction between electrode configurations and the test organisms. Test results show that the endpoint response time is related to salinity and seawater temperature; however, these results can be minimized by the correct choice of growth media. Electrode configurations were developed from stainless steel, Parlodion-coated stainless steel, and platinum that circumvented problems associated with the commercial redox electrodes.

  10. A FLUCTUATING SALINITY REGIME MITIGATES THE NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF REDUCED SALINITY ON THE ESTUARINE MACROALGA, ENTEROMORPHA INTESTINALIS (L.) LINK. (R827637)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    We tested the response of Enteromorpha intestinalis to fluctuating reduced salinity regimes which may occur in coastal estuaries due to both natural and anthropogenic influences. In a fully crossed two factor experiment, we subjected E. intestinalis<...

  11. A FLUCTUATING SALINITY REGIME MITIGATES THE NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF REDUCED SALINITY ON THE ESTUARINE MACROALGA, ENTEROMORPHA INTESTINALIS (L.) LINK. (R825381)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    We tested the response of Enteromorpha intestinalis to fluctuating reduced salinity regimes which may occur in coastal estuaries due to both natural and anthropogenic influences. In a fully crossed two factor experiment, we subjected E. intestinalis<...

  12. Interactive effects of incubation temperature and salinity on the early life stages of pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xiumei; Sakurai, Yasunari; Jin, Xianshi; Wan, Ruijing; Gao, Tianxiang; Yamamoto, Jun

    2016-02-01

    The combined effects of incubation temperature and salinity on the early life stages of Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus were examined under controlled laboratory conditions. Data were collected from two synchronized experiments. Experiment 1 was designed to evaluate the interactive effects of incubation temperature and salinity on the hatchability of fertilized G. macrocephalus eggs. Experiment 2 was set up to evaluate the interactive effects of incubation temperature and salinity on the time from hatching to 50% mortality of the non-fed yolk-sac larvae (M50). The results show that temperature could significantly influence the development and hatchability of the larvae, as well as the hatching characteristics of G. macrocephalus. Viable hatch was significantly influenced by salinity when the upper and lower thermal limits were approached and shows the synergism of low salinity on egg development at low-temperatures and conversely inhibitory effects of low-salinity at high-temperatures. Data on developmental rates as influenced by temperature were presented at each tested salinity level. No influence of salinity was found at the temperature levels tested. Dome-shaped quadratic curves were fitted to the relationship between temperature and the incidence of larval size and yolk storage at hatch for most of the tested salinity levels. The effect of salinity across all temperatures, however, had a much smaller influence on larval size and no effect on yolk storage at hatch. The influence of temperature on larval duration (time from hatching to M50) could be described in all cases by an exponential power function. Evidence on the synergism of low salinity at low-temperatures and conversely inhibitory effects of low-salinity at high-temperatures was also observed. The results were discussed in reference to salinity modified temperature effects on the early life stages of G. macrocephalus. Maximum hatchability and larval size at hatch, and moderate salinity tolerance and

  13. Salinity surveys using an airborne microwave radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, J. F.; Droppleman, J. D.; Evans, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    The Barnes PRT-5 infrared radiometer and L-band channel of the multifrequency microwave radiometer are used to survey the distribution of surface water temperature and salinity. These remote sensors were flown repetitively in November 1971 over the outflow of the Mississippi River into the Gulf of Mexico. Data reduction parameters were determined through the use of flight data obtained over a known water area. With these parameters, the measured infrared and microwave radiances were analyzed in terms of the surface temperature and salinity.

  14. Control of agitation and aeration rates in the production of surfactin in foam overflowing fed-batch culture with industrial fermentation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shulin; Zhao, Shengming; Lu, Zhaoxin; Gao, Yuqi; Lv, Fengxia; Bie, Xiaomei

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens fmb50 produces a high yield of surfactin, a lipopeptide-type biosurfactant that has been widely studied and has potential applications in many fields. A foam overflowing culture has been successfully used in the combined production-enrichment fermentation of surfactin. In this study, the agitation and aeration rates were found to have relationships with foam formation and surfactin enrichment. A maximum surfactin concentration of 4.7g/l of foam was obtained after 21h of culture with an agitation rate of 150rpm and an aeration rate of 1vvm in fed-batch culture. By controlling the foam overflow rate (fout) of a fed-batch culture, surfactin concentration in the foam was continuously maintained above 4g/l.

  15. Effects of cooling rate, saturation temperature, and agitation on the metastable zone width of DL-malic acid-water system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ye; Leng, Yixin; Huang, Chunxiang; Yue, Mingxuan; Tan, Qian

    2015-09-01

    A study of metastable zone width (MSZW) and nucleation parameters for a cooling crystallization of DL-malic acid-water system is described in this paper. Experimental determination of the MSZW was performed using a laser method in order to carry out the estimation of nucleation parameters. Measured MSZWs can be affected by a variety of parameters, such as cooling rate, saturation temperature, agitation rate, and so on. In this work, the MSZWs were found to decrease with an increase of saturation temperature, and levels of agitation, while it increased with an increase of cooling rate. Two classical theoretical approaches, Nyvlt's approach and self-consistent Nyvlt-like approach were used to analyze the experimental data on MSZWs.

  16. Development of a new type of high pressure calorimetric cell, mechanically agitated and equipped with a dynamic pressure control system: Application to the characterization of gas hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Plantier, F. Missima, D.; Torré, J.-P.; Marlin, L.

    2013-12-15

    A novel prototype of calorimetric cell has been developed allowing experiments under pressure with an in situ agitation system and a dynamic control of the pressure inside the cell. The use of such a system opens a wide range of potential practical applications for determining properties of complex fluids in both pressurized and agitated conditions. The technical details of this prototype and its calibration procedure are described, and an application devoted to the determination of phase equilibrium and phase change enthalpy of gas hydrates is presented. Our results, obtained with a good precision and reproducibility, were found in fairly good agreement with those found in literature, illustrate the various interests to use this novel apparatus.

  17. Influence of high salinities on the degradation of diesel fuel by bacterial consortia.

    PubMed

    Riis, Volker; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Babel, Wolfgang

    2003-11-01

    Microbial communities from three Argentinean saline soils were extracted and tested for their ability to degrade diesel fuel in liquid culture at salinities between 0% and 25%. In each case, the degradation process was continuously monitored by measuring oxygen consumption. Two communities (CR1 and CR2) showed nearly equal degrees of degradation across a salinity range of 0%-10% (the former degrading about 63% of the diesel fuel and the latter about 70% after 53 and 80 d, respectively). Furthermore, the degree of degradation was not significantly lower in the presence of 17.5% salt (58% and 65% degraded, respectively). A third community (El Zorro) showed a maximum turnover at 5% salt (79% diesel fuel degraded) and significant degradation (66%) at a salinity of 10%. However, the degree of degradation by this community clearly dropped at 0% and 15% salt. None of the communities were able to degrade diesel fuel in the presence of 25% salt, but the living cell counts showed that components of the microbial population survived the long-term exposure. The surviving portion is obviously sufficient to allow substantial restoration of the original community, as verified by the BIOLOG method. Isolates of the CR1 community were identified as members of the genera Cellulomonas, Bacillus, Dietzia, and Halomonas. In light of our investigations, the bioremediation of contaminated saline soils should be quite possible if the salinity of the soil water is lower than 15% or if it is reduced below this limit by the addition of water.

  18. Pea DNA helicase 45 overexpression in tobacco confers high salinity tolerance without affecting yield.

    PubMed

    Sanan-Mishra, Neeti; Pham, Xuan Hoi; Sopory, Sudhir K; Tuteja, Narendra

    2005-01-11

    Salt tolerance is an important trait that is required to overcome salinity-induced reduction in plant productivity. We have reported previously the isolation of a pea DNA helicase 45 (PDH45) that exhibits striking homology with the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF-4A. Here, we report that PDH45 mRNA is induced in pea seedlings in response to high salt, and its overexpression driven by a constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus-(35)S promoter in tobacco plants confers salinity tolerance, thus suggesting a previously undescribed pathway for manipulating stress tolerance in crop plants. The T(0) transgenic plants showed high levels of PDH45 protein in normal and stress conditions, as compared with WT plants. The T(0) transgenics also showed tolerance to high salinity as tested by a leaf disk senescence assay. The T(1) transgenics were able to grow to maturity and set normal viable seeds under continuous salinity stress without any reduction in plant yield in terms of seed weight. Measurement of Na(+) ions in different parts of the plant showed higher accumulation in the old leaves and negligible accumulation in seeds of T(1) transgenic lines as compared with the WT plants. The possible mechanism of salinity tolerance is discussed. Overexpression of PDH45 provides a possible example of the exploitation of DNA/RNA unwinding pathways for engineering salinity tolerance without affecting yield in crop plants.

  19. Hydrogen-rich saline promotes motor functional recovery following peripheral nerve autografting in rats

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, YONG-GUANG; SHENG, QING-SONG; WANG, ZHI-JUN; LV, LI; ZHAO, WEI; CHEN, JIAN-MEI; XU, HAO

    2015-01-01

    Despite the application of nerve grafts and considerable microsurgical innovations, the functional recovery across a long peripheral nerve gap is generally partial and unsatisfactory. Thus, additional strategies are required to improve nerve regeneration across long nerve gaps. Hydrogen possesses antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties, which could be neuroprotective in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury; however, such a possibility has not been experimentally tested in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of hydrogen-rich saline in promoting nerve regeneration after 10-mm sciatic nerve autografting in rats. The rats were randomly divided into two groups and intraperitoneally administered a daily regimen of 5 ml/kg hydrogen-rich or normal saline. Axonal regeneration and functional recovery were assessed through a combination of behavioral analyses, electrophysiological evaluations, Fluoro-Gold™ retrograde tracings and histomorphological observations. The data showed that rats receiving hydrogen-rich saline achieved better axonal regeneration and functional recovery than those receiving normal saline. These findings indicated that hydrogen-rich saline promotes nerve regeneration across long gaps, suggesting that hydrogen-rich saline could be used as a neuroprotective agent for peripheral nerve injury therapy. PMID:26622383

  20. Hydrogen-Rich Saline Attenuates Cardiac and Hepatic Injury in Doxorubicin Rat Model by Inhibiting Inflammation and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) remains the most effective anticancer agent which is widely used in several adult and pediatric cancers, but its application is limited for its cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Hydrogen, as a selective antioxidant, is a promising potential therapeutic option for many diseases. In this study, we found that intraperitoneal injection of hydrogen-rich saline (H2 saline) ameliorated the mortality, cardiac dysfunction, and histopathological changes caused by DOX in rats. Meanwhile, serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), albumin (ALB), tissue reactive oxygen species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were also attenuated after H2 saline treatment. What is more, we further demonstrated that H2 saline treatment could inhibit cardiac and hepatic inflammation and apoptosis relative proteins expressions by western blotting test. In conclusion, our results revealed a protective effect of H2 saline on DOX-induced cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in rats by inhibiting inflammation and apoptosis. PMID:28104928

  1. Effect of Salinity on Rhizobium Growth and Survival †

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, P. W.; El Swaify, S. A.; Bohlool, B. B.

    1982-01-01

    This study examines the effect of salinity on the growth and survival of Rhizobium spp. in culture media and soil. Eleven isolates from saline and nonsaline environments were compared. The growth (mean doubling time) of all strains and species tested decreased when the electrical conductivity of the culture medium (yeast extract-mannitol) was raised from 1.2 mS cm−1 to 6.7 mS cm−1 (15% seawater equivalent) or to 13.1 mS cm−1 (28% seawater equivalent). Three of eleven strains failed to grow at 13.1 mS cm−1. Although growth was affected by salinity, four strains selected from the growth rate study could survive in extremely high concentrations of salt. Two strains with growth rates sensitive to salt and two strains with growth rates relatively unaffected by salt were inoculated into solutions with electrical conductivities of up to 43.0 mS cm−1 (92% seawater equivalent). Not only did all four strains survive the initial osmotic shock (at 5 h after inoculation), but it was not until 27 days after inoculation that the sensitive strains exhibited a significant reduction in viable numbers. The salt-tolerant strains survived for more than 65 days with no reduction in viable counts. The interaction between soil moisture tension and soil salinity in relation to Rhizobium survival in gamma-irradiated soil was also examined. Six treatment combinations were used, ranging from −0.1 bars and 0.2 mS cm−1 to −15 bars and 12 mS cm−1. Sensitive strains declined from 107 to 105 organisms per g of soil after 84 days of incubation at −15 bars and 12 mS cm−1. Tolerant strains survived for the same period with no loss in viable numbers. The results of these experiments indicate that many strains of Rhizobium can grow and survive at salt concentrations which are inhibitory to most agricultural legumes. The emphasis of research concerning the effects of salinity on symbiotic nitrogen fixation should, therefore, be directed to aspects of the symbiosis other than the

  2. Spatial assessment of soil salinity in the Harran Plain using multiple kriging techniques.

    PubMed

    Bilgili, Ali V

    2013-01-01

    The Harran Plain is located in the southeastern part of Turkey and has recently been developed for irrigation agriculture. It already faces soil salinity problems causing major yield losses. Management of the problem is hindered by the lack of information on the extent and geography of the salinization problem. A survey was carried out to delineate the spatial distribution of salt-affected areas by randomly selecting 140 locations that were sampled at two depths (0 to 30 and 30 to 60 cm) and analyzed for soil salinity variables: soil electrical conductivity (EC), soluble cations (Ca(2+,) Mg(2+), Na(+), and K(+)), soluble anions (SO (4) (2-) , Cl(-)), exchangeable Na(+) (me 100 g(-1)) and exchangeable sodium percentage. Terrain attributes (slope, topographical wetness index) were extracted from the digital elevation model of the study area. Variogram analyses after log transformation and ordinary kriging (OK) were applied to map spatial patterns of soil salinity variables. Multivariate geostatistical methods-regression kriging (RK) and kriging with external drift (KED)-were used using elevation and soil electrical conductivity data as covariates. Performances of the three estimation methods (OK, RK, and KED) were compared using independent validation samples randomly selected from the main dataset. Soils were categorized into salinity classes using disjunctive kriging (DK) and ArcGIS, and classification accuracy was tested using the kappa statistic. Results showed that soil salinity variables all have skewed distribution and are poorly correlated with terrain indices but have strong correlations among each other. Up to 65 % improvement was obtained in the estimations of soil salinity variables using hybrid methods over OK with the best estimations obtained with RK using EC(0-30) as covariate. DK-ArcGIS successfully classified soil samples into different salinity groups with overall accuracy of 75 % and kappa of 0.55 (p < 0.001).

  3. Water beetle tolerance to salinity and anionic composition and its relationship to habitat occupancy.

    PubMed

    Céspedes, V; Pallarés, S; Arribas, P; Millán, A; Velasco, J

    2013-10-01

    Water salinity and ionic composition are among the main environmental variables that constrain the fundamental niches of aquatic species, and accordingly, physiological tolerance to these factors constitutes a crucial part of the evolution, ecology, and biogeography of these organisms. The present study experimentally estimated the fundamental saline and anionic niches of adults of two pairs of congeneric saline beetle species that differ in habitat preference (lotic and lentic) in order to test the habitat constraint hypothesis. Osmotic and anionic realised niches were also estimated based on the field occurrences of adult beetle species using Outlying Mean Index analysis and their relationship with experimental tolerances. In the laboratory, all of the studied species showed a threshold response to increased salinity, displaying high survival times when exposed to low and intermediate conductivity levels. These results suggest that these species are not strictly halophilic, but that they are able to regulate both hyperosmotically and hypoosmotically. Anionic water composition had a significant effect on salinity tolerance at conductivity levels near their upper tolerance limits, with decreased species survival at elevated sulphate concentrations. Species occupying lentic habitats demonstrated higher salinity tolerance than their lotic congeners in agreement with the habitat constraint hypothesis. As expected, realised salinity niches were narrower than fundamental niches and corresponded to conditions near the upper tolerance limits of the species. These species are uncommon on freshwater-low conductivity habitats despite the fact that these conditions might be physiologically suitable for the adult life stage. Other factors, such as biotic interactions, could prevent their establishment at low salinities. Differences in the realised anionic niches of congeneric species could be partially explained by the varying habitat availability in the study area. Combining

  4. Mathematical modeling of mixer pump performance for agitation of radioactive slurries in one-million-gallon underground storage tanks at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, J.A.; Eyler, L.L.; Dodge, R.E.

    1993-04-01

    The objective of this work is to analyze the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP) feed preparation tank mixing pump agitation design. This was accomplished by (1) reviewing mixing pump characteristics, (2) performing computer modeling of jet mixing and particulate material transport, (3) evaluating the propensity of the tank and mixing pump design to maintain particulate material in the tank in a uniformly mixed state, and (4) identifying important design parameters required to ensure optimum homogeneity and solids content during batch transfers.

  5. A Comparison of the E-BEHAVE-AD, NBRS and NPI in Quantifying Clinical Improvement in the Treatment of Agitation and Psychosis Associated with Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Zahinoor; Emeremni, Chetachi A; Houck, Patricia R.; Mazumdar, Sati; Rosen, Jules; Rajji, Tarek K.; Pollock, Bruce G.; Mulsant, Benoit H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to compare the Empirical Behavioral Rating Scale (E-BEHAVE AD), Neurobehavioral Rating Scale (NBRS), and Neuropsychiatric Interview (NPI) in detecting behavioral disturbance and psychotic symptoms in dementia and characterizing changes in response to treatment. Design 87 subjects in the randomized controlled trial “Continuation Pharmacotherapy for Agitation of Dementia” (CPAD) were included in this analysis. We compared the detection and changes over 12 weeks of both agitation and psychosis using these 3 instruments. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to compare the performance of the three instruments in detecting global improvement. Results The instruments were equally likely to detect agitation. The NBRS was most likely to detect psychosis. While the NPI best detected improvement in agitation, the instruments were equal for detecting improvement in psychosis. In the ROC analysis for overall clinical improvement in response to treatment, there were no differences in the areas under the correlated curves for the three instruments but they demonstrated different sensitivity and specificity at different cut-off points for target symptom reduction. The E-BEHAVE-AD performed best at a cutpoint of 30% target symptom reduction and the NBRS and NPI both performed best at 50%. Conclusion The E-BEHAVE-AD, NBRS, and NPI were more similar than different in characterizing symptoms but differed in detecting response to treatment. Differences in sensitivity and specificity may lead clinicians to prefer a specific instrument, depending on their goal and the expected magnitude of response to any specific intervention. PMID:23290205

  6. Pharmacological profile of essential oils derived from Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis with anti-agitation properties: focus on ligand-gated channels.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liping; Abuhamdah, Sawsan; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R; Dixon, Christine L; Elliot, Mark S J; Ballard, Clive; Holmes, Clive; Burns, Alistair; Perry, Elaine K; Francis, Paul T; Lees, George; Chazot, Paul L

    2008-11-01

    Both Melissa officinalis (Mo) and Lavandula angustifolia (La) essential oils have putative anti-agitation properties in humans, indicating common components with a depressant action in the central nervous system. A dual radioligand binding and electrophysiological study, focusing on a range of ligand-gated ion channels, was performed with a chemically validated essential oil derived from La, which has shown clinical benefit in treating agitation. La inhibited [35S] TBPS binding to the rat forebrain gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptor channel (apparent IC50 = 0.040 +/- 0.001 mg mL(-1)), but had no effect on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) or nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. A 50:50 mixture of Mo and La essential oils inhibited [3H] flunitrazepam binding, whereas the individual oils had no significant effect. Electrophysiological analyses with rat cortical primary cultures demonstrated that La reversibly inhibited GABA-induced currents in a concentration-dependent manner (0.01-1 mg mL(-1)), whereas no inhibition of NMDA- or AMPA-induced currents was noted. La elicited a significant dose-dependent reduction in both inhibitory and excitatory transmission, with a net depressant effect on neurotransmission (in contrast to the classic GABA(A) antagonist picrotoxin which evoked profound epileptiform burst firing in these cells). These properties are similar to those recently reported for Mo. The anti-agitation effects in patients and the depressant effects of La we report in neural membranes in-vitro are unlikely to reflect a sedative interaction with any of the ionotropic receptors examined here. These data suggest that components common to the two oils are worthy of focus to identify the actives underlying the neuronal depressant and anti-agitation activities reported.

  7. Analysis of bacterial diversity in two oil blocks from two low-permeability reservoirs with high salinities

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Meng; Sun, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Zhong-Zhi; Wang, Jun-Ming; Qiu, Long-Wei; Sun, Hua-Yang; Song, Zhao-Zheng; Zhang, Bei-Yu; Gao, De-Li; Zhang, Guang-Qing; Wu, Wei-Min

    2016-01-01

    The community diversities of two oil reservoirs with low permeability of 1.81 × 10−3 and 2.29 × 10−3 μm2 in Changqing, China, were investigated using a high throughput sequencing technique to analyze the influence of biostimulation with a nutrient activator on the bacterial communities. These two blocks differed significantly in salinity (average 17,500 vs 40,900 mg/L). A core simulation test was used to evaluate the effectiveness of indigenous microbial-enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). The results indicated that in the two high salinity oil reservoirs, one reservoir having relatively lower salinity level and a narrow salinity range had higher bacterial and phylogenetic diversity. The addition of the nutrient activator increased the diversity of the bacterial community structure and the diversity differences between the two blocks. The results of the core simulation test showed that the bacterial community in the reservoir with a salinity level of 17,500 mg/L did not show significant higher MEOR efficiency compared with the reservoir with 40,900 mg/L i.e. MEOR efficiency of 8.12% vs 6.56% (test p = 0.291 > 0.05). Therefore, salinity levels affected the bacterial diversities in the two low permeability oil blocks remarkably. But the influence of salinity for the MEOR recovery was slightly. PMID:26786765

  8. Analysis of bacterial diversity in two oil blocks from two low-permeability reservoirs with high salinities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Meng; Sun, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Zhong-Zhi; Wang, Jun-Ming; Qiu, Long-Wei; Sun, Hua-Yang; Song, Zhao-Zheng; Zhang, Bei-Yu; Gao, De-Li; Zhang, Guang-Qing; Wu, Wei-Min

    2016-01-01

    The community diversities of two oil reservoirs with low permeability of 1.81 × 10‑3 and 2.29 × 10‑3 μm2 in Changqing, China, were investigated using a high throughput sequencing technique to analyze the influence of biostimulation with a nutrient activator on the bacterial communities. These two blocks differed significantly in salinity (average 17,500 vs 40,900 mg/L). A core simulation test was used to evaluate the effectiveness of indigenous microbial-enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). The results indicated that in the two high salinity oil reservoirs, one reservoir having relatively lower salinity level and a narrow salinity range had higher bacterial and phylogenetic diversity. The addition of the nutrient activator increased the diversity of the bacterial community structure and the diversity differences between the two blocks. The results of the core simulation test showed that the bacterial community in the reservoir with a salinity level of 17,500 mg/L did not show significant higher MEOR efficiency compared with the reservoir with 40,900 mg/L i.e. MEOR efficiency of 8.12% vs 6.56% (test p = 0.291 > 0.05). Therefore, salinity levels affected the bacterial diversities in the two low permeability oil blocks remarkably. But the influence of salinity for the MEOR recovery was slightly.

  9. Analysis of bacterial diversity in two oil blocks from two low-permeability reservoirs with high salinities.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Meng; Sun, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Zhong-Zhi; Wang, Jun-Ming; Qiu, Long-Wei; Sun, Hua-Yang; Song, Zhao-Zheng; Zhang, Bei-Yu; Gao, De-Li; Zhang, Guang-Qing; Wu, Wei-Min

    2016-01-20

    The community diversities of two oil reservoirs with low permeability of 1.81 × 10(-3) and 2.29 × 10(-3) μm(2) in Changqing, China, were investigated using a high throughput sequencing technique to analyze the influence of biostimulation with a nutrient activator on the bacterial communities. These two blocks differed significantly in salinity (average 17,500 vs 40,900 mg/L). A core simulation test was used to evaluate the effectiveness of indigenous microbial-enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). The results indicated that in the two high salinity oil reservoirs, one reservoir having relatively lower salinity level and a narrow salinity range had higher bacterial and phylogenetic diversity. The addition of the nutrient activator increased the diversity of the bacterial community structure and the diversity differences between the two blocks. The results of the core simulation test showed that the bacterial community in the reservoir with a salinity level of 17,500 mg/L did not show significant higher MEOR efficiency compared with the reservoir with 40,900 mg/L i.e. MEOR efficiency of 8.12% vs 6.56% (test p = 0.291 > 0.05). Therefore, salinity levels affected the bacterial diversities in the two low permeability oil blocks remarkably. But the influence of salinity for the MEOR recovery was slightly.

  10. Penetration Depth of Sodium Hypochlorite in Dentinal Tubules after Conventional Irrigation, Passive Ultrasonic Agitation and Nd:YAG Laser Activated Irrigation

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbanzadeh, Abdollah; Aminsobhani, Mohsen; Sohrabi, Khosro; Chiniforush, Nasim; Ghafari, Sarvenaz; Shamshiri, Ahmad Reza; Noroozi, Niusha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The penetration depth of irrigating solutions in dentinal tubules is limited; consequently, bacteria can remain inside dentinal tubules after the cleaning and shaping of the root canal system. Therefore, new irrigation systems are required to increase the penetration depth of irrigating solutions in dentinal tubules. Methods: A comparative study regarding the penetration depth of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution in dentinal tubules using four methods, (1) conventional irrigation (CI), (2) smear layer removal plus conventional irrigation (gold standard), (3) passive ultrasonic agitation (PUA) and (4) Nd:YAG laser activated irrigation (LAI), took place on 144 extracted mandibular teeth with a single root canal. After decoronation with a diamond disc and working length determination, the apical foramen was sealed with wax. The canals were prepared up to #35 Mtwo rotary file and 5.25% NaOCl was used for irrigation during preparation. To study the penetration depth of NaOCl, smear layer was eliminated in all samples. Dentinal tubules were stained with crystal violet and after longitudinal sectioning of teeth, the two halves were reassembled and root canal preparation was performed up to #40 Mtwo rotary file. Then the samples were distributed into four experimental groups. Depth of the bleached zone was evaluated by stereomicroscope (20X). Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: The highest and lowest average for NaOCl penetration depth in all three coronal, middle and apical sections belonged to CI + smear layer removal and CI. A statistically significant difference was seen when comparing the penetration depth of CI + smear layer removal group to CI and PUA groups in coronal and middle third, in which the average NaOCl penetration depth of the gold standard group was higher (P < 0.05). A statistically significant difference was seen between CI + smear layer removal group and the other three groups including CI, PUA and LAI in apical third

  11. Comparison of air-agitated liquid-liquid microextraction and ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons determination in hookah water.

    PubMed

    Rajabi, Maryam; Bazregar, Mohammad; Daneshfar, Ali; Asghari, Alireza

    2015-07-01

    In this work, two disperser-free microextraction methods, namely, air-agitated liquid-liquid microextraction and ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction are compared for the determination of a number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous samples, followed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The effects of various experimental parameters upon the extraction efficiencies of both methods are investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the enrichment factors and limits of detection were found to be in the ranges of 327-773 and 0.015-0.05 ng/mL for air-agitated liquid-liquid microextraction and 406-670 and 0.015-0.05 ng/mL for ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction, respectively. The linear dynamic ranges and extraction recoveries were obtained to be in the range of 0.05-120 ng/mL (R(2) ≥ 0.995) and 33-77% for air-agitated liquid-liquid microextraction and 0.05-110 ng/mL (R(2) ≥ 0.994) and 41-67% for ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction, respectively. To investigate this common view among some people that smoking hookah is healthy due to the passage of smoke through the hookah water, samples of both the hookah water and hookah smoke were analyzed.

  12. Effect of period, water temperature and agitation on loss of water-soluble carbohydrates and protein from grass hay: implications for equine feeding management.

    PubMed

    Longland, A C; Barfoot, C; Harris, P A

    2014-01-18

    The effects of different water-soaking treatments on removal of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), WSC constituents and protein from four UK hays were determined. Hays were soaked in water for up to 16 hours at mean temperatures of 8°C, 16°C, in hot tap water (initially 49°C) or agitated and rinsed in clean water at 16°C. Initial hay WSC contents ranged from 154 to 216 g/kg dry matter. Losses of WSC from hays after 16 hours soaking at 8°C, 16°C, 16°C plus agitation and 49°C averaged 28, 46, 49 and 44 per cent, respectively. Corresponding percentage losses of fructan were 16, 37, 39 and 33. Percentage losses of sucrose averaged 55 (8°C), 86 (16°C), 91 (16°C+agitation) and 82 (initial temperature 49°C), those of glucose were 60, 85, 75 and 75, and of fructose were 41, 52, 54 and 46. Hay crude protein contents were not significantly changed by any of the soaking treatments. Soaking at 8°C generally resulted in reduced losses of WSC compared to when soaked at the higher temperatures. Thus, in cold weather using warmer water to soak hays may effect greater WSC loss, although very prolonged soaking at warm temperatures might encourage the proliferation of unwanted micro-organisms in the soak liquor.

  13. Assessing Soil Salinity with the use of WorldView-2 Hyperspectral Images in Timpaki, Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexakis, Dimitrios D.; Daliakopoulos, Ioannis N.; Panagea, Ioanna S.; Tsanis, Ioannis K.

    2016-04-01

    Salinization is one of the major soil degradation threats occurring worldwide, with its effects being observed in numerous vital ecological and non-ecological soil functions. Traditionally, soil salinity is assessed by laboratory determination of the soil electrical conductivity (ECe), rendering large scale studies labor and cost intensive. This study evaluates the feasibility of surface soil salinity estimation, monitoring, and mapping based on images acquired by the WorldView-2 and Landsat 8 multispectral sensors after calibration with a limited number of soil samples. A range of satellite image processing techniques are applied, starting with geometric, radiometric and atmospheric preprocessing corrections. More than 10 spectral salinity indices (algebric equations between visible and infrared band) including three newly introduced salinity indices, as well as vegetation indices (NDVI, SAVI, etc.) are implemented to detect surface salt deposition and vegetation health. Spectral unmixing is used to monitor salinity employing sophisticated classification approaches. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is applied to a WorldView-2 images in order to determine the initial axes used for the orthogonal transformation, followed by a subsequent 3D rotation of the PCA axes. The linear coefficients of the transformation are retrieved and adjusted to detect salinity in all the range of WorldView-2 image. Furthermore, Landsat 8 images are used to establish and compare the diachronic vegetation regime and plant health in both brackish irrigation and salinity-free olive groves areas. The proposed methods are tested in the RECARE FP7 Project Case Study of Timpaki, a coastal semi-arid region in south-central Crete. Long term agricultural over-exploitation in the area and little irrigation alternatives have led to seawater intrusion and in turn to soil salinization. EO products are calibrated using soil samples collected from bare soil plots at 0-5 cm depth and representing a

  14. 46 CFR Appendix III to Part 150 - Testing Procedures for Determining Exceptions to the Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Step 1 Objective—To determine if the test chemicals react violently and present a safety hazard in... reaction occurs, continue the test for at least 30 minutes to check for a delayed reaction. Stop agitation... temperature recorder and add the two chemicals of the combination, one at a time, to the empty test...

  15. 46 CFR Appendix III to Part 150 - Testing Procedures for Determining Exceptions to the Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Step 1 Objective—To determine if the test chemicals react violently and present a safety hazard in... reaction occurs, continue the test for at least 30 minutes to check for a delayed reaction. Stop agitation... temperature recorder and add the two chemicals of the combination, one at a time, to the empty test...

  16. Physiological Responses of Salinity-Stressed Vibrio sp. and the Effect on the Biofilm Formation on a Nanofiltration Membrane.

    PubMed

    Kim, Lan Hee; Chong, Tzyy Haur

    2017-02-07

    This study evaluated the effects of salinity on the physiological characteristics of Vibrio sp. B2 and biofilm formation on nanofiltration (NF) membrane coupons used in the high recovery seawater desalination process. The test conditions were at 0.6, 1.2, and 2.4 M sodium chloride (NaCl), equivalent to salinity of seawater, brine at 50% and 75% water recovery, respectively. High salinity inhibited the cell growth rate but increased the viability and bacterial membrane integrity. In addition, protein and eDNA concentrations of salinity-stressed bacteria were increased at 1.2 and 2.4 M NaCl. In particular, protein concentration was linearly correlated with the NaCl concentration. Similarly, less biofilm formation on the NF membrane coupon (without permeation flux) was observed by the salinity-stressed bacteria; however, the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) was significantly increased as compared to control, and protein was an influential factor for biofilm formation. This study shows that salinity-stressed bacteria have a high potential to cause biofouling on membrane surface as the bacteria still maintain the cell activity and overproduce EPS. The potential of biofilm formation by the salinity-stressed bacteria has not been reported. Therefore, the findings are important to understand the mechanisms of membrane biofouling in a high salinity environment.

  17. Analysis of central opioid receptor subtype antagonism of hypotonic and hypertonic saline intake in water-deprived rats.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, R J; Glass, M J; Koch, J E

    1995-01-01

    Intake of either hypotonic or hypertonic saline solutions is modulated in part by the endogenous opioid system. Morphine and selective mu and delta opioid agonists increase saline intake, while general opioid antagonists reduce saline intake in rats. The present study evaluated whether intracerebroventricular administration of general (naltrexone) and selective mu (beta-funaltrexamine, 5-20 micrograms), mu, (naloxonazine, 50 micrograms), kappa (nor-binaltorphamine, 5-20 micrograms), delta (naltrindole, 20 micrograms), or delta 1 (DALCE, 40 micrograms) opioid receptor subtype antagonists altered water intake and either hypotonic (0.6%) or hypertonic (1.7%) saline intake in water-deprived (24 h) rats over a 3-h time course in a two-bottle choice test. Whereas peripheral naltrexone (0.5-2.5 mg/kg) significantly reduced water intake and hypertonic saline intake, central naltrexone (1-50 micrograms) significantly reduced water intake and hypotonic saline intake. Water intake was significantly reduced following mu and kappa receptor antagonism, but not following mu 1, delta, or delta 1 receptor antagonism. In contrast, neither hypotonic nor hypertonic saline intake was significantly altered by any selective antagonist. These data are discussed in terms of opioid receptor subtype control over saline intake relative to the animal's hydrational state and the roles of palatability and/or salt appetite.

  18. Responses of neotropical mangrove seedlings grown in monoculture and mixed culture under treatments of hydroperiod and salinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cardona-Olarte, P.; Twilley, R.R.; Krauss, K.W.; Rivera-Monroy, V.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the combined effects of salinity and hydroperiod on seedlings of Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa grown under experimental conditions of monoculture and mixed culture by using a simulated tidal system. The objective was to test hypotheses relative to species interactions to either tidal or permanent flooding at salinities of 10 or 40 g/l. Four-month-old seedlings were experimentally manipulated under these environmental conditions in two types of species interactions: (1) seedlings of the same species were grown separately in containers from September 2000 to August 2001 to evaluate intraspecific response and (2) seedlings of each species were mixed in containers to evaluate interspecific, competitive responses from August 2002 to April 2003. Overall, L. racemosa was strongly sensitive to treatment combinations while R. mangle showed little effect. Most plant responses of L. racemosa were affected by both salinity and hydroperiod, with hydroperiod inducing more effects than salinity. Compared to R. mangle, L. racemosa in all treatment combinations had higher relative growth rate, leaf area ratio, specific leaf area, stem elongation, total length of branches, net primary production, and stem height. Rhizophora mangle had higher biomass allocation to roots. Species growth differentiation was more pronounced at low salinity, with few species differences at high salinity under permanent flooding. These results suggest that under low to mild stress by hydroperiod and salinity, L. racemosa exhibits responses that favor its competitive dominance over R. mangle. This advantage, however, is strongly reduced as stress from salinity and hydroperiod increase. ?? Springer 2006.

  19. Salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea limits the reproduction and population expansion of the newly invaded comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Cornelia; Møller, Lene Friis; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The recent invasion of the comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi into northern European waters is of major public and scientific concern. One of the key features making M. leidyi a successful invader is its high fecundity combined with fast growth rates. However, little is known about physiological limitations to its reproduction and consequent possible abiotic restrictions to its dispersal. To evaluate the invasion potential of M. leidyi into the brackish Baltic Sea we studied in situ egg production rates in different regions and at different salinities in the laboratory, representing the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. During October 2009 M. leidyi actively reproduced over large areas of the Baltic Sea. Egg production rates scaled with animal size but decreased significantly with decreasing salinity, both in the field (7-29) and in laboratory experiments (6-33). Temperature and zooplankton, i.e. food abundance, could not explain the observed differences. Reproduction rates at conditions representing the Kattegat, south western and central Baltic Sea, respectively, were 2.8 fold higher at the highest salinities (33 and 25) than at intermediate salinities (10 and 15) and 21 times higher compared from intermediate to the lowest salinity tested (6). Higher salinity areas such as the Kattegat, and to a lower extent the south western Baltic, seem to act as source regions for the M. leidyi population in the central Baltic Sea where a self-sustaining population, due to the low salinity, cannot be maintained.

  20. Salinity and temperature effects on chronic toxicity of 2,4-dinitrophenol and 4-nitrophenol to sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus)

    SciTech Connect

    Linton, T.K. ); Mayer, F.L. . Environmental Protection Agency); Simon, T.L. . Environmental Protection Agency); Malone, J.A. . Environmental Protection Agency); Marking, L.L. . Fish and Wildlife Service)

    1994-01-01

    Toxicity tests were conducted to determine the effects of nine combinations of salinity and temperature on the toxicity of 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) and 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) to sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus). The highest tested concentration having no observed effect (NOEC) on mortality and growth was derived weekly. The NOECs at test termination indicated that the survival and growth of fish exposed to 2,4-dinitrophenol were not significantly affected by salinity, temperature, or the salinity temperature interaction. However, 28-d NOECs of fish surviving from 4-nitrophenol exposures were significantly affected by temperature, but the highest value exceeded the lowest by only a factor of two. The overall data suggest that variations of salinity and temperature do not change the NOEC; only the exposure time required to attain the same NOEC is altered.

  1. Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Salinity I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Presented is a unit designed for curriculum infusion and which relies on the hands-on discovery method as an instructive device. The student is introduced to the theory of a functioning salt water conductivity meter. The student explores the resistance of salt water as salinity increases and he treats the data which he has gathered,…

  2. Metagenomes from the Saline Desert of Kutch

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, A. S.; Joshi, M. N.; Bhargava, P.; Ayachit, G. N.; Shaikh, I. M.; Saiyed, Z. M.; Saxena, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    We provide the first report on the metagenomic approach for unveiling the microbial diversity in the saline desert of Kutch. High-throughput metagenomic sequencing of environmental DNA isolated from soil collected from seven locations in Kutch was performed on an Ion Torrent platform. PMID:24831151

  3. Evaluation of lettuce genotypes for salinity tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lettuce is one of the most commonly used salad vegetables and considered to be a relatively salt sensitive crop. Salinity is a major constraint to crop production in all important lettuce districts of the U.S., and the water quality problem is exacerbated by the climate change. In order to identify ...

  4. Salinity Tolerance Turfgrass: History and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Md. Kamal; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor

    2013-01-01

    Land and water resources are becoming scarce and are insufficient to sustain the burgeoning population. Salinity is one of the most important abiotic stresses affecting agricultural productions across the world. Cultivation of salt-tolerant turfgrass species may be promising option under such conditions where poor quality water can also be used for these crops. Coastal lands in developing countries can be used to grow such crops, and seawater can be used for irrigation of purposes. These plants can be grown using land and water unsuitable for conventional crops and can provide food, fuel, fodder, fibber, resin, essential oils, and pharmaceutical products and can be used for landscape reintegration. There are a number of potential turfgrass species that may be appropriate at various salinity levels of seawater. The goal of this review is to create greater awareness of salt-tolerant turfgrasses, their current and potential uses, and their potential use in developing countries. The future for irrigating turf may rely on the use of moderate- to high-salinity water and, in order to ensure that the turf system is sustainable, will rely on the use of salt-tolerant grasses and an improved knowledge of the effects of salinity on turfgrasses. PMID:24222734

  5. Salinity-mediated cyanogenesis in white clover (Trifolium repens) affects trophic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ballhorn, Daniel J.; Elias, Jacob D.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Increasing soil salinity poses a major plant stress in agro-ecosystems worldwide. Surprisingly little is known about the quantitative effect of elevated salinity on secondary metabolism in many agricultural crops. Such salt-mediated changes in defence-associated compounds may significantly alter the quality of food and forage plants as well as their resistance against pests. In the present study, the effects of soil salinity on cyanogenesis in white clover (Trifolium repens), a forage crop of international importance, are analysed. Methods Experimental clonal plants were exposed to five levels of soil salinity, and cyanogenic potential (HCNp, total amount of accumulated cyanide in a given plant tissue), β-glucosidase activity, soluble protein concentration and biomass production were quantified. The attractiveness of plant material grown under the different salt treatments was tested using cafeteria-style feeding trials with a generalist (grey garden slug, Deroceras reticulatum) and a specialist (clover leaf weevil, Hypera punctata) herbivore. Key Results Salt treatment resulted in an upregulation of HCNp, whereas β-glucosidase activity and soluble protein concentration showed no significant variation among treatments. Leaf area consumption of both herbivore species was negatively correlated with HCNp, indicating bottom-up effects of salinity-mediated changes in HCNp on plant consumers. Conclusions The results suggest that soil salinity leads to an upregulation of cyanogenesis in white clover, which results in enhanced resistance against two different natural herbivores. The potential implications for such salinity-mediated changes in plant defence for livestock grazing remain to be tested. PMID:25006176

  6. Two parthenogenetic populations of Chara canescens differ in their capacity to acclimate to irradiance and salinity.

    PubMed

    Schaible, Ralf; Gerloff-Elias, Antje; Colchero, Fernando; Schubert, Hendrik

    2012-02-01

    The parthenogens of Chara canescens (Charophyceae) occupy broader geographical and ecological ranges than their sexual counterparts. Two possible hypotheses explain the ubiquity of parthenogens: the occurrence of one or several parthenogens with wide niches, or of many parthenogens that are restricted to narrow ecological niches. For the purposes of this study, C. canescens individuals from two neighbouring populations of the Baltic Sea (Bodstedter Bodden = BB; Salzhaff = SH), which differed significantly in water transparency and salinity, were investigated for significant differences in physiological capacity. Individuals of both habitats acclimated quickly to daily changes in irradiances in the field, but the photosynthetic efficiency of PS II showed a significant decrease with increasing daily irradiance in the habitat BB, which has lower levels of salinity and water transparency. In addition to the field study, individuals were reared under different levels of environmental factors in the laboratory: four irradiances (70-600 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) and five salinity levels (0-24 psu). The individuals of both habitats grew almost equally well at intermediate salinity levels. Growth under the artificial light supply was highest at levels corresponding to the in situ conditions for each population. Total chlorophyll was highest at intermediate salinities (BB), or hardly changed with salinity (SH). The physiological capacity for individuals from SH clearly depends upon changing growth irradiance, whereas the capacity for individuals from BB was relatively independent of salinity and irradiance. These findings indicate that both parthenogenetic C. canescens populations are locally adapted to light. However, to test adaptive potential of the parthenogens, more than two populations should be tested in future.

  7. Author and Agitator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mark, Jan

    1978-01-01

    Many schools now bring professional writers in to work with or talk to children, often with impressive results. But what do the writers themselves make of these visits? Here a children's books author pens a wry portrait of a typical classroom encounter. (Editor/RK)

  8. Counselors, Not Political Agitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drapela, Victor J.

    1974-01-01

    This article centers around the relationship of counselors to the social order and political system of this country. The author questions the basic premise that social alienation is a natural outcome of the American system. A response by Harold J. Adams follows. (Author)

  9. Benzodiazepines: Sedation and Agitation.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Dental anxiety is common and frequently poses a barrier to necessary dental treatment. The increasing availability of conscious sedation in dental practice has made treatment much more accessible for anxious patients. At present, benzodiazepines are the most commonly used drugs in sedation practice and provide a pleasant experience for most, but not all, patients. An understanding of the mechanism of action of benzodiazepines should inform our practice and deepen our understanding of why and how sedation may fail. CPD/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: As an increasing number of dentists provide sedation for their patients an update on benzodiazepines is timely.

  10. Biodiversity patterns of soil ciliates along salinity gradients.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng; Xu, Kuidong

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated ciliate diversity in saline soils with a salinity range from 6.5 to 65 psu by the morphological method of the Ludox-quantitative protargol stain (QPS) and the molecular techniques of ciliate-specific clone library and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. No active ciliates could be detected with the Ludox-QPS method, while high molecular diversity of ciliates was found. The highest ciliate molecular diversity was obtained from the soil at salinity of 8.9 psu, moderate diversity was found at salinity of 6.5 psu, and the diversity sharply decreased at salinity of 50.5 psu. By contrast, the number of ciliate classes clearly decreased with increasing soil salinity: six, five, four and two classes from sites with salinity of 6.5 psu, 8.9 psu, 29.5 psu and 50.5 psu, respectively. Ciliate diversity pattern is different from that of bacteria, whose diversity is also high in extremely saline environments. Meanwhile, the composition of ciliate community was significantly different along salinity gradient. Colpodea and Oligohymenophorea were diverse in soils at salinity less than 29.5 psu, while absent in soils with salinity above 50.5 psu. BIOENV analysis indicated soil salinity and water content were the main factors regulating the distribution of ciliates in saline soils.

  11. Climate change and soil salinity: The case of coastal Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Susmita; Hossain, Md Moqbul; Huq, Mainul; Wheeler, David

    2015-12-01

    This paper estimates location-specific soil salinity in coastal Bangladesh for 2050. The analysis was conducted in two stages: First, changes in soil salinity for the period 2001-2009 were assessed using information recorded at 41 soil monitoring stations by the Soil Research Development Institute. Using these data, a spatial econometric model was estimated linking soil salinity with the salinity of nearby rivers, land elevation, temperature, and rainfall. Second, future soil salinity for 69 coastal sub-districts was projected from climate-induced changes in river salinity and projections of rainfall and temperature based on time trends for 20 Bangladesh Meteorological Department weather stations in the coastal region. The findings indicate that climate change poses a major soil salinization risk in coastal Bangladesh. Across 41 monitoring stations, the annual median projected change in soil salinity is 39 % by 2050. Above the median, 25 % of all stations have projected changes of 51 % or higher.

  12. Local adaptation and oceanographic connectivity patterns explain genetic differentiation of a marine diatom across the North Sea-Baltic Sea salinity gradient.

    PubMed

    Sjöqvist, C; Godhe, A; Jonsson, P R; Sundqvist, L; Kremp, A

    2015-06-01

    Drivers of population genetic structure are still poorly understood in marine micro-organisms. We exploited the North Sea-Baltic Sea transition for investigating the seascape genetics of a marine diatom, Skeletonema marinoi. Eight polymorphic microsatellite loci were analysed in 354 individuals from ten locations to analyse population structure of the species along a 1500-km-long salinity gradient ranging from 3 to 30 psu. To test for salinity adaptation, salinity reaction norms were determined for sets of strains originating from three different salinity regimes of the gradient. Modelled oceanographic connectivity was compared to directional relative migration by correlation analyses to examine oceanographic drivers. Population genetic analyses showed distinct genetic divergence of a low-salinity Baltic Sea population and a high-salinity North Sea population, coinciding with the most evident physical dispersal barrier in the area, the Danish Straits. Baltic Sea populations displayed reduced genetic diversity compared to North Sea populations. Growth optima of low salinity isolates were significantly lower than those of strains from higher native salinities, indicating local salinity adaptation. Although the North Sea-Baltic Sea transition was identified as a barrier to gene flow, migration between Baltic Sea and North Sea populations occurred. However, the presence of differentiated neutral markers on each side of the transition zone suggests that migrants are maladapted. It is concluded that local salinity adaptation, supported by oceanographic connectivity patterns creating an asymmetric migration pattern between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, determines genetic differentiation patterns in the transition zone.

  13. Ocean acidification alters temperature and salinity preferences in larval fish.

    PubMed

    Pistevos, Jennifer C A; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Rossi, Tullio; Connell, Sean D

    2017-02-01

    Ocean acidification alters the way in which animals perceive and respond to their world by affecting a variety of senses such as audition, olfaction, vision and pH sensing. Marine species rely on other senses as well, but we know little of how these might be affected by ocean acidification. We tested whether ocean acidification can alter the preference for physicochemical cues used for dispersal between ocean and estuarine environments. We experimentally assessed the behavioural response of a larval fish (Lates calcarifer) to elevated temperature and reduced salinity, including estuarine water of multiple cues for detecting settlement habitat. Larval fish raised under elevated CO2 concentrations were attracted by warmer water, but temperature had no effect on fish raised in contemporary CO2 concentrations. In contrast, contemporary larvae were deterred by lower salinity water, where CO2-treated fish showed no such response. Natural estuarine water-of higher temperature, lower salinity, and containing estuarine olfactory cues-was only preferred by fish treated under forecasted high CO2 conditions. We show for the first time that attraction by larval fish towards physicochemical cues can be altered by ocean acidification. Such alterations to perception and evaluation of environmental cues during the critical process of dispersal can potentially have implications for ensuing recruitment and population replenishment. Our study not only shows that freshwater species that spend part of their life cycle in the ocean might also be affected by ocean acidification, but that behavioural responses towards key physicochemical cues can also be negated through elevated CO2 from human emissions.

  14. Using euhalophytes to understand salt tolerance and to develop saline agriculture: Suaeda salsa as a promising model

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jie; Wang, Baoshan

    2015-01-01

    Background As important components in saline agriculture, halophytes can help to provide food for a growing world population. In addition to being potential crops in their own right, halophytes are also potential sources of salt-resistance genes that might help plant breeders and molecular biologists increase the salt tolerance of conventional crop plants. One especially promising halophyte is Suaeda salsa, a euhalophytic herb that occurs both on inland saline soils and in the intertidal zone. The species produces dimorphic seeds: black seeds are sensitive to salinity and remain dormant in light under high salt concentrations, while brown seeds can germinate under high salinity (e.g. 600 mm NaCl) regardless of light. Consequently, the species is useful for studying the mechanisms by which dimorphic seeds are adapted to saline environments. S. salsa has succulent leaves and is highly salt tolerant (e.g. its optimal NaCl concentration for growth is 200 mm). A series of S. salsa genes related to salt tolerance have been cloned and their functions tested: these include SsNHX1, SsHKT1, SsAPX, SsCAT1, SsP5CS and SsBADH. The species is economically important because its fresh branches have high value as a vegetable, and its seed oil is edible and rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Because it can remove salts and heavy metals from saline soils, S. salsa can also be used in the restoration of salinized or contaminated saline land. Scope Because of its economic and ecological value in saline agriculture, S. salsa is one of the most important halophytes in China. In this review, the value of S. salsa as a source of food, medicine and forage is discussed. Its uses in the restoration of salinized or contaminated land and as a source of salt-resistance genes are also considered. PMID:25288631

  15. The effect of salinity on the growth rate of the macroalgae Enteromorpha intestinalis (Chlorophyta) in the Mondego estuary (west Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Irene; Oliveira, José Miguel; Flindt, Morgens R.; Marques, João Carlos

    1999-07-01

    The excessive growth of opportunistic macroalgae in estuaries and other coastal areas, characterised by enormous values of vegetal biomass in the form of dense mats, is a common and widespread picture nowadays. In such conditions, macroalgae completely dominate the nutrient dynamics in the ecosystem and function as high quality food for the microbial, meio- and macrofaunal communities. Due to their important role in the nutrient pathways of the ecosystems, it becomes essential to obtain new information on variables and processes that regulate the bloom formation of these primary producers. The Mondego estuary (west Portugal) is a eutrophic estuary, where usually macroalgae of the genera Enteromorpha seasonally bloom. Nevertheless, in years with high precipitation characterised by a significant increase of the freshwater runoff to the system, no Enteromorpha blooms are observed. Possible explanations for this are related to the reduction of light in the water column, high water speed, high sediment turbulence and low salinity values. Thus, because the decrease in salinity seemed an important feature during such periods, a set of experiments were conducted, to evaluate to what extent the growth of Enteromorpha intestinalis (the most abundant species in the Mondego estuary) is affected by fluctuations in salinity and, particularly, by low salinity values. In the laboratory, the growth rate of E. intestinalis was tested against a range of salinity, from 0 to 32 psu. E. intestinalis showed the lowest growth rates at extreme low salinity values (≤ 3 psu) and for salinity ≤ 1 psu, the algae died. Growth rates at salinity lower than 5 psu and higher than 25 psu were also low, when compared with growth between salinity of 15 and 20 psu, where E. intestinalis showed the highest growth rates. These results agree with the field observations and suggest that, in the Mondego estuary, salinity is an important external parameter to control the growth of E. intestinalis, which

  16. Salinity dependence of recruitment success of the sea star Asterias rubens in the brackish western Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casties, Isabel; Clemmesen, Catriona; Melzner, Frank; Thomsen, Jörn

    2015-06-01

    Salinity strongly influences development and distribution of the sea star Asterias rubens. In Kiel Fjord, located in the western Baltic Sea, A. rubens is the only echinoderm species and one of the main benthic predators controlling blue mussel ( Mytilus edulis) abundance. However, Kiel Fjord with an average salinity of about 15 is located close to the eastern distribution boundary of A. rubens in the Baltic Sea. In this study, we combined field and laboratory investigations to test whether the salinity of Kiel Fjord is high enough to enable successful development of A. rubens. Sea star eggs were fertilized in vitro, and development was monitored in the laboratory at four salinities (9, 12, 15 and 18) for 10 weeks. At a salinity of 9, development ceased prior to the blastula stage. At a salinity of 12, no larvae reached metamorphosis. At higher salinities, larvae developed normally and metamorphosed into juvenile sea stars. Abundances of A. rubens larvae and settled juveniles were also observed in Kiel Fjord and correlated to salinity values measured from March until June during 6 years (2005-2010). Results revealed high A. rubens settlement rates only in 2009, the year when salinity was the highest and least variable during the period of spawning and larval development. It appears that only years with high and stable salinities permit recruitment of A. rubens in Kiel Fjord. Projected desalination of the Baltic Sea could shift the distribution of A. rubens in the western Baltic Sea north-westwards and may lead to local extinction of a keystone species of the benthic ecosystem.

  17. Experimental assessment of the effects of sublethal salinities on growth performance and stress in cultured tra catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus).

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuc Trong Hong; Do, Huong Thi Thanh; Mather, Peter B; Hurwood, David A

    2014-12-01

    The effects of a range of different sublethal salinities were assessed on physiological processes and growth performance in the freshwater 'tra' catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) juveniles over an 8-week experiment. Fish were distributed randomly among 6 salinity treatments [2, 6, 10, 14 and 18 g/L of salinity and a control (0 g/L)] with a subsequent 13-day period of acclimation. Low salinity conditions from 2 to 10 g/L provided optimal conditions with high survival and good growth performance, while 0 g/L and salinities >14 g/L gave poorer survival rates (p < 0.05). Salinity levels from freshwater to 10 g/L did not have any negative effects on fish weight gain, daily weight gain, or specific growth rate. Food conversion ratio, however, was lowest in the control treatment (p < 0.05) and highest at the maximum salinities tested (18 g/L treatment). Cortisol levels were elevated in the 14 and 18 g/L treatments after 6 h and reached a peak after 24-h exposure, and this also led to increases in plasma glucose concentration. After 14 days, surviving fish in all treatments appeared to have acclimated to their respective conditions with cortisol levels remaining under 5 ng/mL with glucose concentrations stable. Tra catfish do not appear to be efficient osmoregulators when salinity levels exceed 10 g/L, and at raised salinity levels, growth performance is compromised. In general, results of this study confirm that providing culture environments in the Mekong River Basin do not exceed 10 g/L salinity and that cultured tra catfish can continue to perform well.

  18. Suicidality and symptoms of anxiety, irritability, and agitation in patients experiencing manic episodes with depressive symptoms: a naturalistic study

    PubMed Central

    Eberhard, Jonas; Weiller, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Patients with a bipolar I disorder (BD-I) manic episode meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5), criteria for “with mixed features” have a high incidence of suicide attempts and of anxiety, irritability, and agitation (AIA) symptoms. The aim of this analysis was to explore the relationship between suicidality and AIA symptoms in patients with BD-I experiencing mania with depressive symptoms, using data from a previous naturalistic study. Patients and methods Psychiatrists completed an online questionnaire about their adult patients who had a current BD-I manic episode. Questions covered the DSM-5 “with mixed features” specifier, the severity of AIA symptoms, the frequency and controllability of suicidal ideation, and the number of suicide attempts. Results Of 1,035 patients with BD-I mania who were included in the analyses, 348 (33.6%) met the criteria for the DSM-5 “with mixed features” specifier (three or more depressive symptoms). These patients were further stratified according to the severity of their AIA symptoms: “mild AIA” (zero or one AIA symptom above a severity threshold; 105 patients) or “severe AIA” (all three AIA symptoms above a severity threshold; 167 patients). A greater incidence of suicidal ideation was observed in the severe AIA group (71.9%) than in the mild AIA group (47.6%). Twice as many patients had easily controlled suicidal ideation than difficult-to-control suicidal ideation in both subgroups. The mean number of suicide attempts was higher in the severe AIA group than in the mild AIA group, during the current episode (0.84 vs 0.34 attempts, respectively; P<0.05) and over the patient’s lifetime (1.56 vs 1.04 attempts, respectively). Conclusion The high risk of suicide among BD-I mania patients with depressive symptoms is further increased when they experience severe AIA symptoms. Recognizing AIA symptoms in BD-I mania could provide a means of identifying

  19. 78 FR 23784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974...

  20. 75 FR 25877 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control ] Act of 1974...

  1. 75 FR 66389 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  2. 76 FR 61382 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. ] SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  3. 77 FR 23508 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  4. 78 FR 70574 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ....20350010.REG0000, RR04084000] Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  5. 75 FR 27360 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  6. 77 FR 61784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  7. Sea Surface Salinity: The Next Remote Sensing Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagerloef, Gary S. E.; Swift, Calvin T.; LeVine, David M.

    1995-01-01

    A brief history of salinity remote sensing is presented. The role of sea surface salinity (SSS) in the far north Atlantic and the influence of salinity variations on upper ocean dynamics in the tropics are described. An assessment of the present state of the technology of the SSS satellite remote sensing is given.

  8. Short-term low-salinity tolerance by the longhorn sculpin, Myoxocephalus octodecimspinosus.

    PubMed

    Hyndman, Kelly A; Evans, David H

    2009-01-01

    The bottom-dwelling, longhorn sculpin, Myoxocephalus octodecimspinosus, is traditionally viewed as a stenohaline marine fish, but fishermen have described finding this sculpin in estuaries during high tide. Little is known about the salinity tolerance of the longhorn sculpin; thus, the purposes of these experiments were to explore the effects of low environmental salinity on ion transporter expression and distribution in the longhorn sculpin gill. Longhorn sculpin were acclimated to either 100% seawater (SW, sham), 20% SW, or 10% SW for 24 or 72 hr. Plasma osmolality, sodium, potassium, and chloride concentrations were not different between the 20 and 100% treatments; however, they were 20-25% lower with exposure to 10% SW at 24 and 72 hr. In the teleost gill, regulation of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase (NKA), Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC1), and the chloride channel, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) are necessary for ion homeostasis. We immunolocalized these proteins to the mitochondrion-rich cell of the gill and determined that acclimation to low salinity does not affect their localization. Also, there was not a downregulation of gill NKA, NKCC1, and CFTR mRNA or protein during acclimation to low salinities. Collectively, these results suggest that down to 20% SW longhorn sculpin are capable of completely regulating ion levels over a 72-hr period, whereas 10% SW exposure results in a significant loss of ions and no change in ion transporter density or localization in the gill. We conclude that longhorn sculpin can tolerate low-salinity environments for days but, because they cannot regulate ion transporter density, they are unable to tolerate low salinity for longer periods or enter freshwater (FW). The genus Myoxocephalus has three FW species, making this group an excellent model to test evolutionary and physiological mechanisms that allow teleosts to invade new low salinities successfully.

  9. Effects of salinity on flowering, morphology, biomass accumulation and leaf metabolites in an edible halophyte

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Yvonne; Myrzabayeva, Malika; Alikulov, Zerekbay; Omarov, Rustem; Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; Sagi, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    The fresh water shortage in agriculture is an increasing problem worldwide, therefore the possibility of cultivating crops under saline conditions is of high importance. Crithmum maritimum, a halophytic plant naturally found on the rocky coastlines of the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, has a long history of human consumption and was recently suggested as a cash crop for biosaline agriculture. In the present study, we compared the responses of different genotypes originating from France, Portugal and Israel to moderate saline irrigation (up to 100 mM NaCl). The genotypes varied greatly in the onset of flowering, their leaf appearance, growth habits and leaf metabolite content. Both Atlantic genotypes (from France and Portugal) flowered earlier than those from the Mediterranean, but the number of inflorescences decreased with salinity. Irrigation with 50 and 100 mM NaCl led to a reduction in biomass production in both the Israeli and the Portuguese genotypes, while the French genotype was found to produce maximum leaf yield at 50 mM NaCl. With increasing salinity, salt was accumulated by the plants, as indicated by increasing electrical conductivities of the leaf extracts. Concomitantly, antioxidant compounds (such as ascorbic acid), total polyphenols and ureides responded to salinity in a genotype-dependent manner; either they increased, decreased or were unaffected. Notably, the total fatty acid concentration increased with salinity in both Mediterranean genotypes, reaching 2.7 and 2.4 % total fatty acids (on a dry weight basis) at 100 mM NaCl. Moreover, the proportion assigned to omega-3 fatty acids in these genotypes was higher than in their Atlantic counterparts at the highest salinity tested. Our results highlight the variations existing among C. maritimum genotypes from different origins regarding salt-induced changes in plant growth, flowering behaviour and leaf metabolites with nutritional value. Thus, genotypic characteristics should be taken

  10. Endophytic fungal pre-treatments of seeds alleviates salinity stress effects in soybean plants.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Khan, Abdul Latif; Lee, In-Jung

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, four endophytic fungi (GM-1, GM-2, GM-3, and GM-4) were tested for their ability to improve soybean plant growth under salinity stress conditions. The seed germination and plant growth were higher in seeds pretreated with endophytic fungal cultures than their controls. The positive influence of fungi on plant growth was supported by gibberellins analysis of culture filtrate (CF), which showed wide diversity and various concentrations of GAs. Specifically, GA4, GA7, GA8, GA9, GA12, and GA20 were found in fungal CFs. Under salinity stress conditions, GM-1 significantly enhanced the length and fresh weight of soybean plants relative to other fungal treatments. GM-1 effectively mitigated the adverse effects of salinity by limiting lipid peroxidation and accumulating protein content. GM-2, GM-3, and GM-4 also counteracted the salinity induced oxidative stress in soybean plants through reduction of lipid peroxidation and enhancement of protein content, maintaining the length and fresh weight of shoots. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase were inhibited in salinity exposed plants, while GM-1 significantly enhanced these antioxidant enzyme activities in plants under salt stress. GM-1 treatment also showed lower levels of abscisic acid and elevated levels of salicylic acid in plants under salinity stress. Hence, GM-1 was identified as Fusarium verticillioides (teleomorph Gibberella moniliformis) isolate RK01 based on its DNA sequence homology. These results suggest that endophytic fungal (F. verticillioides) pre-treatment of soybean seeds would be an effective method to promote soybean plant growth under salinity stress conditions.

  11. Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides) responses to fertilization and salinity under irrigation conditions.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Menahem; Plaut, Zvi; Dudai, Nativ; Ben-Hur, Meni

    2009-10-01

    Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides) has not been widely introduced in arid and semi-arid regions where irrigation, fertilization, and salinity are important factors in plant growth. The main objective of this study was to determine the response of vetiver to fertilization (fertigation) and salinity and their interactions under irrigated conditions. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in 10-L pots. Combined effects of three nutrients concentrations and three salinity levels of electrical conductivity (EC) 1, 3 and 6 dS/m in the irrigation water on growth and transpiration of vetiver plants and the content of different elements in their foliage were studied. Similar contents of approximately 3.7 g/kg Na, approximately 5.77 g/kg Ca and approximately 2.55 g/kg Mg were found in the foliage of all the plants irrigated with the different fertilizer and salinity levels. Concentrations of 59 mg/L N and 36.1mg/L K in the irrigation water were sufficient for vetiver plants needs at the different salinity levels tested. The salinity threshold (the maximum EC in the soil solution that does not cause a significant yield reduction) for vetiver was between 3 and 6 dS/m. A concentration of 15.2mg/L P in the irrigation water was the optimum value for vetiver growth in the three salinity levels, resulting in an average content of 5.95 g/kg P in plant foliage. It is suggested that vetiver is sensitive to excess P (>8.66 g/kg). Increasing EC in the irrigation water to 6 dS/m decreased plant foliage biomass mainly due to an increase in the osmotic potential of the irrigation water and high Cl(-) concentration in the foliage.

  12. Reduced salinity increases susceptibility of zooxanthellate jellyfish to herbicide toxicity during a simulated rainfall event.

    PubMed

    Klein, Shannon G; Pitt, Kylie A; Carroll, Anthony R

    2016-02-01

    Accurately predicting how marine biota are likely to respond to changing ocean conditions requires accurate simulation of interacting stressors, exposure regimes and recovery periods. Jellyfish populations have increased in some parts of the world and, despite few direct empirical tests, are hypothesised to be increasing because they are robust to a range of environmental stressors. Here, we investigated the effects of contaminated runoff on a zooxanthellate jellyfish by exposing juvenile Cassiopea sp. medusae to a photosystem II (PSII) herbicide, atrazine and reduced salinity conditions that occur following rainfall. Four levels of atrazine (0ngL(-1), 10ngL(-1), 2μgL(-1), 20μgL(-1)) and three levels of salinity (35 ppt, 25 ppt, 17 ppt) were varied, mimicking the timeline of light, moderate and heavy rainfall events. Normal conditions were then slowly re-established over four days to mimic the recovery of the ecosystem post-rain and the experiment continued for a further 7 days to observe potential recovery of the medusae. Pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) chlorophyll fluorescence, growth and bell contraction rates of medusae were measured. Medusae exposed to the combination of high atrazine and lowest salinity died. After 3 days of exposure, bell contraction rates were reduced by 88% and medusae were 16% smaller in the lowest salinity treatments. By Day 5 of the experiment, all medusae that survived the initial pulse event began to recover quickly. Although atrazine decreased YII under normal salinity conditions, YII was further reduced when medusae were exposed to both low salinity and atrazine simultaneously. Atrazine breakdown products were more concentrated in jellyfish tissues than atrazine at the end of the experiment, suggesting that although bioaccumulation occurred, atrazine was metabolised. Our results suggest that reduced salinity may increase the susceptibility of medusae to herbicide exposure during heavy rainfall events.

  13. Effect of salinity on methylation of mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, J.E.; Bartha, R.

    1980-09-01

    Monomethyl and dimethylmercury are potent neurotoxins subject to biomagnification in food webs. This fact was tragically demonstrated by the Minamata and Niigata poisoning incidents in Japan in which 168 persons who ate seafood from mercury polluted waters were poisoned, 52 fatally. Shortly after these two incidents, work conducted in freshwater environments demonstrated the microbial conversion of inorganic and phenylmercury compounds to mono- and di-methylmercury. Consideration of some fragmentary evidence from the literature, however, indicates that the rate and the significance of microbial methylation of mercury in freshwater and saltwater environments may not be the same. A demonstrated relationship between mercury methylation rates and water salinity would greatly influence our thinking about mercury pollution effects in marine versus freshwater environments. Since we were unable to locate published reports on this subject, we are investigating the influence of salinity on the rate of mercury methylation in an estuarine sediment.

  14. Contaminated soils salinity, a threat for phytoextraction?

    PubMed

    Sirguey, Catherine; Ouvrard, Stéphanie

    2013-04-01

    Phytoremediation, given the right choice of plant, may be theoretically applicable to multi-contamination. Laboratory and some field trials have proven successful, but this ideal technique is in all cases dependent on plant growth ability on (generally) low-fertility soil or media. While contaminant concentration has often been proposed as an explanation for plant growth limitation, other factors, commonly occurring in industrial soils, such as salinity, should be considered. The present work highlights the fact that besides contaminants (trace elements and PAH), soil salinity may strongly affect germination and growth of the hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens. Elevated concentrations of nitrate proved highly toxic for seed germination. At the growth stage the salt effect (sulfate) seemed less significant and the limited biomass production observed could be attributed mostly to organic contamination.

  15. Ion implantation for corrosion inhibition of aluminum alloys in saline media

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.M. ); Gonzales, A. ); Quintana, J. ); Lee, I.-S.; Buchanan, R.A. ); Burns, F.C.; Culbertson, R.J.; Levy, M. . Materials Technology Lab.); Treglio, J.R. (ISM

    1990-01-01

    The effects of ion implantation treatments on corrosion of 2014 and 1100 aluminum in saline media were investigated. Implanted ions were N, Si, Ti and Cr. Techniques included salt spray testing, electrochemical studies, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and profilometry. It was concluded that ion implantation of Cr is of potential practical benefit for corrosion inhibition of 2014 Al in salt environments. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Multi-saline sample distillation apparatus for hydrogen isotope analyses : design and accuracy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hassan, Afifa Afifi

    1981-01-01

    A distillation apparatus for saline water samples was designed and tested. Six samples may be distilled simultaneously. The temperature was maintained at 400 C to ensure complete dehydration of the precipitating salts. Consequently, the error in the measured ratio of stable hydrogen isotopes resulting from incomplete dehydration of hydrated salts during distillation was eliminated. (USGS)

  17. Microwave Radiometric Measurement of Sea Surface Salinity.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    potential problems of polution and urban water sup- plies. Although salinity can be measured from a surface vessel, economic consider- ations advocate...Washington, DC 20350 Commander Naval Sea System Commandaa ComAinder ATTN: Mr. C. Smith, NAVSEA 63R* Nval Air Development Center "’-’. "Washington, DC...20362 ATTN: Mr. R. Bollard, Code 2062% .’* Warminster, PA 18974 • .’.Commander CNaval Sea System CommandCoimCander Headquarters Naval Air Systems

  18. Environmental isotope hydrology of salinized experimental catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, J. V.; Arad, A.; Johnston, C. D.

    1987-10-01

    Deuterium, oxygen-18, tritium and chloride concentrations were used in three salinized experimental catchments to gain insight into the mechanism of solute concentration and flow processes in the saturated and unsaturated zones. The three experimental catchments were studied because of their location in different rainfall regions, their status with respect to clearing of native vegetation and with respect to secondary salinization. Two uncleared catchments have average annual rainfalls of approximately 820 and 1220 mm, respectively. The third cleared catchment has an annual rainfall of 650-750 mm. This catchment was in an advanced state of secondary salinization and displayed large areas of saline groundwater discharge with halite encrustation at the ground surface. The stable isotope compositions of the solution phase in solute bulge profiles in the unsaturated zone showed a close agreement with the amount-weighted mean isotopic composition of rainfall and only surficial evidence of isotopic enrichment due to evaporation. Evaporation from the soil surface plays a minor role as a mechanism of solute concentration in the unsaturated zone. The dominant process of solute concentration in the unsaturated zone was ion exclusion during uptake of water by tree roots which was evidently a solute but not isotope fractionating process. Tritium analyses of unsaturated zone water and grondwater indicated movement of recent recharge to 7-10 m depth at the low rainfall site but over the full depth of the 15 m unsaturated zone at the higher rainfall site. The variability in δ18O and δ2H values of groundwaters was used in association with chloride concentrations to provide information on mixing characteristics of groundwaters within the catchments.

  19. Groundwater Exploration in Freshwater/Saline Layered Aquifers - Southern Bangladesh.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKelvey, P. A.; Rahman, M.

    2001-05-01

    drilling techniques. In most cases, a hand drilled borehole could be drilled to 300 m within ten days, in the unconsolidated sands and clays. A hand operated downhole geophysical unit was then used to run a resistivity log to locate freshwater sands. Where thick freshwater units were identified, the main production rig was mobilised to construct high capacity wells. In total, 33 production wells have been installed in the nine towns over Southern Bangladesh. Pumping tests were undertaken to establish well and aquifer properties. These data have been used to establish strict operating rules for the wellfields to minimise the risks of saline intrusion.

  20. Incorporation of salinity in Water Availability Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurbs, Ralph A.; Lee, Chihun

    2011-10-01

    SummaryNatural salt pollution from geologic formations in the upper watersheds of several large river basins in the Southwestern United States severely constrains the use of otherwise available major water supply sources. The Water Rights Analysis Package modeling system has been routinely applied in Texas since the late 1990s in regional and statewide planning studies and administration of the state's water rights permit system, but without consideration of water quality. The modeling system was recently expanded to incorporate salinity considerations in assessments of river/reservoir system capabilities for supplying water for environmental, municipal, agricultural, and industrial needs. Salinity loads and concentrations are tracked through systems of river reaches and reservoirs to develop concentration frequency statistics that augment flow frequency and water supply reliability metrics at pertinent locations for alternative water management strategies. Flexible generalized capabilities are developed for using limited observed salinity data to model highly variable concentrations imposed upon complex river regulation infrastructure and institutional water allocation/management practices.